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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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Representations and characters of groups

28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

viii

Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

we introduce several examples. ( gh)k g(hk). so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. k in G. written gh. Groups A group consists of a set G. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. h. (3) for all g in G. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. In addition. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. eg ge g. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. 1 . such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. h of G to form another element of G. most of which you should Â Â know already.

for two symmetries f and g. Usually we write 1. is a group of order n. a. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. 1. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. is written g 2 .2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. then Cn f1. a2 . If the number of elements in G is ®nite. The set of nth roots of unity in C. r1 . then do g'). . then we call G a ®nite group. for the identity element of G. gg. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . The product of an element g with itself. similarly 3 g g 2 g. under addition. and is written D2 n. a nÀ1 g. (2) The set Z of all integers. . is a group. and an 1. and that every g in G has just one inverse. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . . and is written |G|. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. g0 1. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. . This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. the product fg means `®rst do f. rather than e. Also. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. and so on. Let A be a corner of the polygon. Write b for the re¯ection in the . (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. X X X . If a e2ðia n .

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. . 2. which we denote by In or just I. most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. the set of all permutations of {1. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. For example. is a group. a. and the n re¯ections are b. While Cn and Z are abelian. under matrix multiplication. . X X X . under the product operation of composition. which leaves the polygon ®xed). The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. F). This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. The identity of GL(n. The order of Sn is n!. forms a group. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. a2 b.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. . . (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). a2 . X X X . n}. and is denoted by GL(n. Then the n rotations are 1. A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. . F) is of course the identity matrix. and is written Sn . ab. It is an in®nite group. Check that an 1. b: an 1. A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). b2 1. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. and write a for the rotation r1 . Subgroups Let G be a group. D2 n is generated by a and b.

the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. (3) Let G be a group and let a. where ik . C). then k gl is ®nite. and (2) if h. and again in Example 1. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. and write H ha. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. the subgroup of G generated by S. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. We illustrate the construction in the next example. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. 1. such as general linear or symmetric groups. X X X . b P G. (4) Let G GL(2.2 Examples (1) For every group G.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. g 2 . g.5 below. If gn 1 for some n > 1. we can similarly de®ne hSi. Then H is a subgroup of G. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. and let i 0 0 1 A . then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. h gi f1. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. B X 0 Ài À1 0 .1 are cyclic. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. jk P Z for 1 < k < n. In this case.

Let G and H be groups. or they all have an odd number of transpositions. h9 P H. . and consider G 3 H f( g. . 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. G 3 H is a group. we call g an even or an odd permutation. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. and is written Q8. called the direct product of G and H. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. 2. Bl. g9 P G and all h. . h)( g9. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. in fact j Hj 8. Hence H has at most eight elements. hh9) for all g. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. . BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. A2 B2 . Check that A4 I. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . h9) ( gg9. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. A2 B2 . B: A4 I. accordingly. j. and using the ®rst two relations. With this product operation. . we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. called the alternating group of degree n. the subgroup of G generated by A and B.

g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite.6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. we mean that h gW. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. X X X . Gr are groups. Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. . and is written as WÀ1 . |Gr |. . . . An invertible function is also called a bijection. . . the image of g under a function W is written as gW. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. If G and H are groups. g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. g 2 P GX . . In this book. for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. . .3 Example The group C2 3 . then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . if G1 . g9 ) ( g 1 g9 . ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. h P H. 3 Gr is also ®nite. We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. 1. then G1 3 . X X X . those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . By an expression W: g 3 h. . g r )( g9 . where g P G and h P H. X X X . of order |G1 | . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. not as W g. g1 W g2 W for g1 . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. X X X .

Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. 0 < s < 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. 0 < t < n À 1. also. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. 1. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. Let H be any group. j with 0 < i < n À 1. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i. (at bu )W. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism.4 in action. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W . We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1.4 Example Let G D2 n ka. Moreover. y (2 5)(3 4)X . b: an b2 1. 0 < j < 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. 1. 0 < u < 1. y À1 xy x À1 . 0 < j < 1.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. and so W is a homomorphism. so H G. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5). and we write G H. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G.5 Example Let G S5 and let x. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1.

Using the above relations. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). we have . Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. H kx. the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. and so j Hxi j j Hj.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. and so on. we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. For all i. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . a group of order 10. For x in G. it is an isomorphism. Since W is invertible. . and let Hx1 . we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. Now recall that D10 ha. . yl of G.4. yl D10. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. Suppose now that G is ®nite. . b: a5 b2 1. 0 < j < 1g.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. . Thus.

7 Examples (1) For every group G. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn .Groups and homomorphisms 1. b: a4 b2 1. since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. a . we have An v Sn . we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. and is written as jG: Hj. called the factor group of G by N. a2 }. then j Hj divides |G|. namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. (2) For n > 1. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. h P G. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . 1. (3) Let G D8 ka. we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. Nb. and so Sn aAn C2 . 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. Na. ka2 l {1.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite.

We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. ( g P G) . For example.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G.) Thus. the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. Also. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. is simple. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. with p a prime number. and Im W is a subgroup of H. 1. and in a sense. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. the cyclic group Cp . Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . G is `built' out of these two smaller groups.

is a subgroup of H. The kernel. 2. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. An the alternating group of degree n. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. . Im W. . Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. Sn the symmetric group of degree n. . . with G simple. is a normal subgroup of G. b: a4 1. . . The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). Summary of Chapter 1 1.Groups and homomorphisms 1. Suppose that G and H are groups. A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . 11 is a homomorphism. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. illustrating Theorem 1. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. D2 n ka.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. the direct product of the groups G1 .7(2) that Sn /An C2 . Exercises for Chapter 1 1. Ker W. and the image. We know from Example 1. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. then G is cyclic of prime order. We have Ker W An . GL(n. Q8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. . 2. Gr . b: an b2 1. W: g 3 À1. a2 b2 . G1 3 . Im W C2 . if g is an odd permutation. and for n > 2. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. g2 in G. if g is an even permutation.10. 3 Gr . The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W.

Y i of GL(2. Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . 0 < s < 1). 5. (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. and let K be the subgroup kx. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. y (3 4). 0 < s < 1). and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|.Y . 6. d: c4 1. and H Q8 hc. d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. (b) Let X. Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. is a homomorphism. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . and that G is not contained in An . (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. yl of S4 . show that x is a power of y. are homomorphisms. y are elements of G with the same order. Let G D8 ha. . C). de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . c2 d 2 . Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. b: a4 b2 1.

B has order 4. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. under the usual multiplication. is a group. Prove that H v G. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. Bl has order 16. 9. Find elements A and B of GL(2. .Groups and homomorphisms 13 7.) 10. C) such that A has order 8. (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. 8.2(4).

we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. we explain in detail how the results work. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. v of V to form an element u v of V. A vector space over F is a set V. For reference purposes. An exception occurs in the last section. (b) for all u. (4) 1v v. and those of F are called scalars.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv). where we deal with projections. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. 14 . ì in F. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. The elements of V are called vectors. in case you have not come across projections before. v in V and all ë. namely group theory and linear algebra. these rules must satisfy: (2. here. together with a rule for adding any two elements u.) Moreover. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). so we omit the proofs.

. v n . X X X . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. . . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . . . . . v n are linearly independent. . x2 . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. xn ) (ëx1 . . as above. . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent.Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. x9 ) (x1 x9 . (2) More generally. . . for each positive integer n. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. We say that v1 . x2 . xn ) where x1 . . xn x9 ). . X X X . . The vectors v1 . . . ë n in F. . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. . If V {0} then dim V 0. The vectors v1 . y y9). y) (x9. . not all of which are zero. otherwise. . . . . . . v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. y) where x and y are real numbers. . . . . y9) (x x9. . . . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. ë n in F. . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . v1 . X X X . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . X X X . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. we consider row vectors (x1 . .2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . Throughout this book. X X X . . xn belong to F. xn ) (x9 . ë(x. and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . X X X . . . . y) (ëx. . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V.

. v n of a vector space V. . (0. 0. v n form a basis of V. . 0. that is. X X X . X X X . . . Then (1. 2. (2) Let u1 . We de®ne sp (u1 . 0. . so dim V n. ë n . . v n in V such that v1 . . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. . . (1. . Another basis is (1. ë r P FgX By (2.16 Representations and characters of groups 2. . 1) is a basis of V. then there exist v k1 . with ë1 . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. 1. . . 0). 1. . 1. 0. ë n in F. the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. . X X X . . (0.5). . . . 0). . . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. .4) If v1 . 0. . 0). 0. ur be vectors in V. .6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. . and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . . X X X . there are many bases of V. .5) (1) 0 P U. X X X . . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . X X X . (2. (2) if u. . 0. ur ) is a subspace of V. ur . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . . . X X X . 0). sp (u1 . . X X X . (1. 1)X Given a basis v1 . sp (u1 .3 Example Let V F n. ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . . . . Indeed. . 1. ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . . . X X X . . . . . . (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. 0. . X X X . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. ur . Except in the case where V {0}. v P U then u v P U.

ws is a basis of V. . and for 1 < i < n. unless U is {0} or V. If the sum is direct. . . . . . . (2. v n is a basis of V. only if U V. Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. then the sum U1 . . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i.4)). and let W sp (v k1 . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. . . . . . We say that the sum U1 . Ur is a subspace of V.9) Suppose that V U W. . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. .4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. . . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . .4). . (3) U W {0}. . . Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . . .3 and 2. . . Then dim U < dim V Also. ur . . . . v n of V (see (2.7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V .5). . . . . U1 .Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. (2. ws is a basis of W. (2) u1 . . Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. that u1 . . . . v n ). . . . . . v k be a basis of U. ur is a basis of U and that w1. v k to a basis v1 .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . . dim U dim V if and . . . . w1. . . . Extend v1. Ur are subspaces of a vector space V.

we put U 9 f(0. . X X X . . abusing notation slightly. . ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . X X X . ur ) (ëu1 . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. Ur be vector spaces over F.10) Suppose that U. v P V . Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. X X X . . ur ) (u9 . W. X X X . Ua. . If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. u9 ) (u1 u9 . Ur. X X X . let (u1 . V is a vector space over F. . (2. U1. . and. 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . . X X X . X X X . Let U1. then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. . for 1 < i < r. and for all ë P F and v P V X . . X X X . W1. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . ëur )X With these de®nitions. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). ui . and let V f(u1 . If. . ur u9 ). we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. . . .

. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. and Ker W f0g. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. then W is a linear transformation. . . v n is a basis of V. . and Ker W V . .5). there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. given any basis v1 . . Im W V X . Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. . . wn in W. . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. . . . it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. then for ë1 . . then W is a linear transformation. Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. .Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. v n of V and any n vectors w1. Furthermore. . W is determined by its action on a basis.

then W is a linear transformation. y. (2) Ker W {0}. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. z P R. for all v P V. we have Ker W sp ((7. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2.1). It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. . (3) Im W V. We de®ne the functions W ö. By applying (2. Invertible linear transformations Again. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. z)W (x 2 y z. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. We write W2 for WW. Im W R2 .2). v(Wö) (vW)ö. v(ëW) ë(vW). Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V. À3. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. À1)). If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. Then W ö.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. By also taking (2.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. let V and W be vector spaces over F.12).7) into account. y. À y 3z) for all x. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. (2. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö.

2. v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2. for all ë P F. 1 < j < n) such that for all i. then [W]B In for all bases B of V. . 3W and W2 are given by (x. Suppose that v1 . Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. If W is an endomorphism of V. x À 2 y). (x. and let W. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. y)(W ö) (2x À y. À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. y)W (x y. y) 3 (x y. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). (x. 2x À 10 y). 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. . y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. (x. x À 2 y) of V.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B .Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. 3x À 6 y). and is denoted by [W]B . y)(3W) (3x 3 y. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. Wö. If B is the basis (1. (x. y)W2 (2x À y. . and let W be an endomorphism of V. v n is a basis of V and call it B . then so is W À ë1 V . y)ö (x À 2 y. .16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. Àx 2 y). (0. and W ö. 0).

1) of V. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 .20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. and for ë P F. and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . (1. Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. AB 3 . Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . 0). their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. then we describe A as a matrix over F. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F.22 Representations and characters of groups 1 .19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. As you know. j.

it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . if it exists. and let V F n. [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. 2. (2. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. . is unique. y) (x 3 y.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. . Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. The following remark is easily justi®ed. Then for all v in V.17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . for all scalars ë.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. xn ) with each xi in F. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. Write det A for the determinant of A. given a basis of V. Such a matrix B. . y)W (x. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . the vector space of row vectors (x1 . where 1 À1 (x. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. the matrix product vA also lies in V. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. .20): given a basis B of V. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. and follows from (2.

23 De®nition Let v1 . . . 0). x À 2 y) of V.23) and the result (2. (0. . The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. 1) of V. (1. 0). and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. as in Example 2. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. 2. Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T .18(2). y) 3 (x y. 2. then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. . . . and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. v n be a basis B of the vector space V.24) below. and let v9 .25 Example Suppose that V R2. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. Then for 1 < i < n. v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . (2. 1) and B 9 the basis (1. The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible. . . Let B be the basis (1. .

27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. if B is a basis of V. x)X This time. 2.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. (1. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. y)W (À y. 0). Then W has an eigenvalue. Therefore. i). y)W (À y. then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. and let W be an endomorphism of V. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. i) of V. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. Ài). The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . V is a vector space over R. Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. x)X If B is the basis (1. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. we deduce the following result. 1) of V. Ài) and (1. and W has no eigenvalues in R. (2. (0.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C.26). For an n 3 n matrix A over F.

and since uð u for all u in U. w9 in W. . Also. w P W. the eigenvalues are ë1 . We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. it follows that ð is a function on V. We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u. u9 in U and w.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. Let v and v9 belong to V. ë n . De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . ð is an endomorphism of V.26 Representations and characters of groups 2. . we have Im U. . in addition.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. that aii ë i for 1 < i < n. Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. . then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. . Clearly Im ð # U. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. For this diagonal matrix A. Im ð U . Further. for ë in F.

We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. Finally. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. and (2. Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð.31 Example The endomorphism (x.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). 2. and so ð2 ð. 27 j 2. As v P Im ð. y) 3 (2x 2 y.29. as in Proposition 2. 2. and so Ker ð W. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W . it follows that v vð 0. j . we have v uð for some u P V. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð.

Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. where F C or R. x n ) with each xi in F. V U1 È . there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. then Im ð f(2x. .33 Example If ð: (x. Also. 2. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. . Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. Àx): x P Rg. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð.31. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. For example. . V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. F F F . and dimF n n. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4. 7. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. 5. y) 3 (2x 2 y. . ur (ui P Ui ). Ker ð f(x. . All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. Exercises for Chapter 2 1. and an endomorphism W of V. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . v in V and all ë in F. 3. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V.

w1. (2) Ker W {0}. Suppose that U1. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. (3) Im W V. . . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. . Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. . . . ws is a basis of V. (a) Let U1. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. but V T U1 È U2 È U3. W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. .Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. and that V U1 È . . 3. 5. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. 9. . Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. but V T Im ö È Ker ö. ws is a basis of W. . . Show that V U È W. . 4. . Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. Suppose that u1 . where U fv P V : vW vg. È Ur. ur is a basis of U and w1. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. . . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. . Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. . . . . 8. . with V U1 U2 U3. . Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. ur . 6. .

F).3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. F). Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. We set out this idea in more detail. F).1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. The degree of r is the integer n. we have 1r I n . a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. for some n. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. 30 . F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. and consider the kernel of a representation. and give some examples of representations. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. 3. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. To be precise.

De®ne r: G 3 GL (n.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. b: a4 b2 1. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. . as usual. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. The degree of r is 2. h P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1.Group representations 31 3. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A . so r is a representation of G. F) by gr I n for all g P G. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3.

we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. we have (see Exercise 3.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . In other words. and so ó is. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. 3.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. b: a4 b2 1. h P G. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. a representation. ó and ô of G over F. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B.2(1). T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. Thus ar A for all g P GX . we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. then r is equivalent to ô.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 3. F) be representations of G over F. F) be a representation. indeed. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m.

T BT . 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . If 2 À3 . . T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. where A 1 1 . a 3 A is a representation of G. Hence r: 1 3 I. (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I.Group representations and br B. T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . . and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent.

is called the trivial representation of G.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. However. and when gr In for all g in G. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. 3. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In . Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. as is shown by the following de®nition. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G. that is. 3. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. 3.8.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. In agreement with De®nition 1. F). there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. . these are when the degree of r is 1. To put the de®nition another way.

In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. F). that is. A representation is faithful if it is injective. Conversely. 2. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. r is faithful. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. Summary of Chapter 3 1. . j 3. and so |Ker r| 1.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. for some n. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. if G Im r. (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In .2(1) is faithful.10. Therefore. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. if Ker r {1} then G Im r. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8.

Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. is a representation of G over C. B 0 1 0 . (2) if r is equivalent to ó. Suppose that G D2 n ka. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. r2 : ar 3 Br .36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. B . Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. 1 0 1 0 . Let G D12 ka. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. 4). C. C) (k 1.C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . given by . Which of these representations are faithful? 3. and F R or C. B. 2. De®ne the matrices A. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. then ó is equivalent to r. then r is equivalent to ô. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Suppose that r. b: a6 b2 1. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. ó and ô are representations of G over F. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . Let G be the cyclic group of order m. and ó is equivalent to ô. C) (1 < j < 3). r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 5. 4. 3. Suppose that A P GL (n. F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). b: an b2 1. say G ka: am 1l. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. C).

7.Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . 8. Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. 37 is a representation of G. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). 0 < s < 1). Let r be a representation of the group G. Does it follow that gh hg? . Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6.

ë n ) with ë i P F. we have v(1r) v for all v P V. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. First. . . . For all v P V and g P G. 38 . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). Write V F n . h P G. . of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. F) is a representation of G. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. Finally. the matrix product v( gr). and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)).4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. since 1r is the identity matrix. Next. the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr).

ë1 ).2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group.2(1). ë2 ) P F 2 then. and let r: G 3 GL (2. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. v(a3 r) (ë2 . v P V. g P G) is de®ned. for example. (u v) g ug v g. v(br) (ë1 . v1 v. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. Àë2 ). b: a4 b2 1. Note that conditions (1). Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). v( gh) (v g)h. (v P V ) . (ëv) g ë(v g). we now de®ne an FG-module.1 Example Let G D8 ka. v(ar) (Àë2 . F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ë P F and g. satisfying the following conditions for all u. v P V. ë P F and g P G.FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). Thus 1 0 0 1 X . the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. 4. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. 39 4.

40 Representations and characters of groups 4. let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . v P F n. 0. 0). 1. (0. The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. then gr [ g]B for all g P G. relative to the basis B . 0. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). v(1r) v. X X X . X X X . g P GX Moreover. X X X .4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. 4. (0. 0). Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. ( g P G) . F) is a representation of G over F. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. we have v( gr) P F n . and let B be a basis of V. (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore.3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. 0. there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. 0. and V F n. 0. ë P F and g. h P G. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). if we let B be the basis (1. For each g P G. 1) of F n. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . X X X .

g P G)X For instance. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. (2) Let G Q8 ka. it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. v2 a Àv1 . 1)X 0 (1. 1) of V. and hence is a representation of G over F. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. In Example .FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B .2(1). [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. By Theorem 4. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. then we have v1 a v2 . Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). so 0 1 1 0 ar .4(1) again). so [1]B is the identity matrix. br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . 0). F) (where n dim V ). v2 is the basis (1.4(1). b: a4 b2 1. b: a4 1. (0. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. Now v1 v for all v P V.4.5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. v2 . g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . (0. V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . 0)a (1. Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. 4. a2 b2 .

and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. . 4. v1 b v2 . .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . For instance. v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. . The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module.4(1) we must this time take F C. gr generate G. without using a representation. . To illustrate Theorem 4. . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. . . that is. v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . Shortly.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . To do this. . v2 a. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. the vectors v1 a. . F F F . v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V.42 Representations and characters of groups 1. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . v n is a basis of V and g1 . v2 a Àiv2 . v2 such that v1 a iv1 . in Example 4.5(1). . we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. . .

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

c P S6 by a (1 2 3). â)a (â. ab ba. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. de®ne (á. cl. â)1 (á. â) P V. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. 3. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . ç is r irreducible? 5. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. â) and (á. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible.5 are irreducible? 4. and let G ka. 2. De®ne the permutations a. For (á. Let G C13 . and let V F 2. á). c (2 3)(4 5). br . (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. b. b. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. b (4 5 6). 2 . Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1.

Group algebras are therefore of great interest. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. and ë P F. . the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. known as the regular representation of G. which will be explored in greater detail later on. and let F be R or C. In a sense. The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . . g n as a basis. . . then 53 . In particular. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. . and we call this vector space FG. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. . .6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. After de®ning the group algebra of G. group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. g n . .

FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. .1. with basis g1 . .54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. . FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. ì h P F. . g n is called the natural basis of FG.hPG where all ë g . 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el.) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . 6. . then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6. we write e for the identity element of G. . (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. . g n . The basis g1 . .2 Example If G C3 and u. in this example.

Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG.kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. ì h P F). r1 1r r. r(s t) rs rt. Then (rs)t g. ì g . (r s)t rt st.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties.h. (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës).h. gPG gPG gPG (ë g .hPG 55 (ë g . s. r(st) (rs)t. í g P F). t í g g. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. We write this element simply as 1. s ì g g. r0 0r 0. j .3 De®nition The vector space FG.kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. is called the group algebra of G over F. (2) Let r ë g g. 6. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G).Group algebras 6. for all r. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication.

v( gh) (v g)h. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. The elements of FG have the form . any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. we have vg P V. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. ë P F and g.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. g P G). (3). respectively. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|.4. (ëv) g ë(v g). The vector space FG. and the result follows. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F. so g 1. by parts (1). The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. Therefore V is an FG-module.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. Then 1 g 1. 6. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. Let V FG. is called the regular FG-module. h P G. v P V.4 is called an algebra. 6.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. where n |G|. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. j 6. For all u. (2). (u v) g ug v g. v1 v.

and that v P V and r P FG. a 3 d 0 0 1 e. 6. a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . This is done in the following natural way. v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F).8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. Now. a2 of FG.Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . a. ì P F) .9. as described in Example 4. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e.

s P FG with r ë g g.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. given by De®nition 6.h g. (u v)r ur vr.3. We shall give a proof of part (2). 6. and let r. v0 0r 0.h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4).58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. then for all v P V and r P FG. v1 v. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. v(r s) vr vs. all ë P F and all r. Then the following properties hold for all u. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward.4. (6) j (vr)sX .10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. v P V. assuming the other parts. (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër). the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. v(rs) (vr)s. and we leave them to you. Let v P V. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. (5).

Show that for every ®nite group G. (b) Let z b a2 b. and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. Let G C2 . The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. For r and s in CG. say G { g1 . prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. . . where B is the basis g1 . . 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. . yx and x 2 . with |G| . The vector space FG. 3. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. What is the matrix [W]B . The regular FG-module is faithful. . . with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. . there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. 3. 1. If V is an FG-module. (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. and v0 0 for all v P V . r P FG such that vr 0. g n }. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. Suppose that G D8 ka. Show that zg gz for all g in G. . Assume that G is a ®nite group. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . g P G) is the regular FG-module. (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. . gn of CG? 5. 2. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. but neither v nor r is 0. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. b: a4 b2 1.

and let ù e2ðia3 . Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. Suppose that G D6 ka. is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module. de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .60 Representations and characters of groups 6. . b ù2 ab ùa2 b). b: a3 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.

1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. the `structure-preserving' functions are. we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. respectively.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. 61 . if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. g P GX In other words. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . and we introduce these in this chapter. FG-homomorphisms 7. submodule of W. 7. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism.

and Ker W V. (2) Let ë P F. Let V sp (v1 .3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. i1 i1 Im W W X . v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. so that w vW for some v P V. For all g P G. . and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V. Now let w P Im W. Then W is a linear transformation. . Here. and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. Im W {0}. Provided ë T 0. we have Ker W {0}. j 7. Then W is an FG-homomorphism.8). . @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 .10). and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. Let v P Ker W and g P G. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. then W is an FGhomomorphism. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. so vg P Ker W. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. since W is a linear transformation. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . . Im W V.

. If there is such an FG-isomorphism.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. . . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. as required. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W).5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). v n W is a basis of W). We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. . 7. ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 . then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism.2. so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. . Isomorphic FG-modules 7. Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. . . . For w P W and g P G. In the next result. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. we check that if V W then W V. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. . and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation.

there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. though. then v1 W. . suppose that r and ó are equivalent. v n be a basis B 1 of V. . . By (7. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. In the next result. it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W.7). . Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Then by Theorem 4. . .7). . Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. suppose that v1 . Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. . Then by Theorem 4. ö is equivalent to both r and ó. Conversely. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent.12(2). . . we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . 7. . Let g P G. Conversely. . .12(1). For the moment.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . This completes the proof of (7. . . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. v n W is a basis B 2 of W.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. . Hence r and ó are equivalent. . we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. Let g P G. and let v1 .

d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. In Example 3.7). a cyclic group of order 3. by (7. v3 of V. 7. v2 a v3 . a. a2 is a basis of W. call it B 9.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. where 0 1 1 0 ar . Then 1. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. with basis v1 .9 Example Let G D8 ka.11. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 .8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. and let W denote the regular FG-module.7). b: a4 b2 1. v3 such that v1 a v2 . [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. j 7. v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . Indeed. v2 .FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . v2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic.

and w1. if we write B for the basis v1 .66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . w n is a basis B of V. . . and suppose that V U È W. Then by (2. v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. where U and W are FG-submodules of V. w2 of W. (Compare Example 3. . . and. Let V be an FG-module. the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic.5(1)). w2 a Àiw2 . a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui.) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. . Let u1 . . . . . and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. . then we can amalgamate B 1 . . È Ur. in a similar way. .4(1). . w2 b w1 Thus. B r to . w2 for which w1 a iw1 . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . . and B i is a basis of Ui. To verify this directly. . v1 b v1 . v2 for which v1 a v2 .9). 2. since r and ó are equivalent. w1 b w2 . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. u m be a basis B 1 of U. w1. . v2 a Àv1 . and for g P G. . . . then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. u m . u1 . w n be a basis B 2 of W. v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. . if V U1 È . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. .6. .

11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . u r (u j P U j for all j). and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. and for g P G. . . vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i .12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. . and is also a projection of V . ur for unique vectors ui P Ui.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. 7. v u1 . and g P G.30). For v P V we have . i so ð2 ð i . j . and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. 7. since for v P V with v u1 . .

as required. X X X . V and W be FG-modules. g P G. . But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. so W Ui T {0}. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. . then W is an FG-homomorphism. Summary of Chapter 7 1. . we remark that if V1 . F F F . and Ui is irreducible. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. as claimed. v r ) g (v1 g. so assume that Ui P Y. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 .68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. V r are FG-modules. . . . . therefore W Ui Ui. j Finally. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. . Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. and so Ui # W. Then W Ui is not a direct sum. . Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. . Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. choose a subset Y {W1. Ws } of {U1. 3. . Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. X X X . . If Ui P Y this is clear. To this end. . Let U. 2.

De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Assume that V is an FG-module. (b) Prove that W2 2W.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. 3. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. 5.

v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. we illustrate it with some examples. let F be R or C.10). and let V be an FG-module. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. in fact. v2 À 2v3 ).) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. 8.2(2) below. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . where as usual F R or C. namely Maschke's Theorem. for instance sp (v2 . (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. v2 . Maschke's Theorem 8. since ug u for all g P G. v3 ) and sp (v1 .2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. If U is an FG-submodule of V. But there is.

and let W0 sp (v m1 . . de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. where. for 0 < j < p À 1. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG .Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). extend it to a basis v1 . . let p be a prime number. . But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. For example. . . 1. By Proposition 2. . let G C p ka: a p 1l. v n of V. v2 ). To this end. Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u.1 We are given U.29. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. For v P V and x P G. X X X . U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. . . and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. v m of U. The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 .) For v P V. . as can easily be seen. . . . we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. v n ). We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. v1 a j v1 . F). p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2.

so W sp (v1 À v2 . we prove that W2 W. v3 ) be the permutation module. so does h xg. (8. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. as in Example 8. First note that for u P U. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem.4) we have (vW)W vW. Using this. with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism.4) shows that Im W U. First. let W0 sp (v1 . Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7.32. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1. v2 ). Moreover. so by (8.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G.) . v2 . g P G.3(3). We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. Consequently W2 W.2. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . Next. Then vW P U. and V U È W by Proposition 2. v2 3 0. j 8. and so (ug)ö ug. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . 2.2(1). 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. we have ug P U. Let W Ker W. as claimed.

k . if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. To put this another way. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. where X g is k 3 k with 0 .4)). v2 À v3 as a basis B 9.Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . n. Yg. then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. . v1 À v2 . g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g .4)). Z g . then for all g P G. v2 of V. v1 . This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 .

we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. we have. dim V.) 8. V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . (By an irreducible FG-submodule. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. By Maschke's Theorem. The result is true if dim V 1. since V is irreducible in this case. If V is irreducible then the result holds. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r . 8. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Since dim U . Then by (2. . where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. by induction. The proof goes by induction on dim V.10). then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. so suppose that V is reducible.74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. U U1 È X X X È Ur . W W 1 È X X X È W s . dim V and dim W .

by Proposition 7. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. by Exercise 3. Theorem 8. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. If G C2 3 C2 .2.11. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. where F R or C and G is a ®nite group.7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. . v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module. where v1 x v2 . Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. v2 . Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. in order to understand FG-modules.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . Thus. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. 1. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . 2. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules.

(This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. v] for all u. ) on V as follows (see (14. ] on V by [u. v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ .2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . Find a group G. . vg] [u.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. .) 6. 5. 6. .1. Suppose that there are elements g. vx) (u. g P G.5(2) and Exercises 5. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . 5. . . with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 .2(2). v] (ux. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W. ì j P C. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. ] is a complex inner product. 4. which satis®es [ug. Show that V is not completely reducible. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). C) be a representation of G.4.6 in the light of this result. v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . De®ne a complex inner product ( .) 5. (You may care to revisit Example 5. Prove that r is irreducible. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules.3. v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V.

Prove that for every ®nite simple group G. . (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem.) 7.

2. Then Im W T {0}.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. we have Im W W. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). (2) By (2. Thus W is invertible.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. and W is irreducible. or vW 0 for all v P V. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. G denotes a ®nite group. Throughout. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V .26). Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules.2. Also by Proposition 7. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism. Though simple in both statement and proof. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. and hence is a CG-isomorphism. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. then either W is a CGisomorphism. Ker W {0}. Schur's Lemma 9.

g P G. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C.Schur's Lemma of V. for all g P G . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Then V is irreducible. for all v P V X 79 j 9.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. as required. By Maschke's Theorem. 9. Hence V is irreducible. W ë1 V . there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . Proof Suppose that V is reducible.11). and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n . C) be a representation of G.4(1). w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. Since V is irreducible. g P G. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . which is a contradiction. Proof As in Theorem 4.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C.

2). (2) Let G D10 ka. . Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). j 9. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.1 and Proposition 9. b: a5 b2 1. C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let r: G 3 GL (2.80 Representations and characters of groups that is.2. and let ù e2ðia5 .3. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. by Corollary 9. Corollary 9. C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.3 implies that r is reducible.

The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. n r are positive integers.5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. 9. We shall not prove it here. . Pick x P G. 3 C n r . X X X . jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. As V is irreducible. Let G C n1 3 . By Schur's Lemma 9.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Since G is abelian.6. . Thus we have proved 9. Write g i (1. By Theorem 9. g r i. v gx vxg for all g P G. we deduce that dim V 1. let c i be a generator for C n i . Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. . . C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . B. 1) Then G h g1 . but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. say ë x 1 V . X X X . and for 1 < i < r. X X X . and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism.1(2). . and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. ci .6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.

V4 . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). 9. Then n 1 by Proposition 9. the values ë1 . and put ù e2ðia n . v1 g 2 v2 . 3. i r . . ë r i determine r. As g i has order n i . V2 . ë i is an n i th root of unity. . and no two of them are equivalent.7) for all i1 . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). . . . where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. 2. There are |G| of these representations. 3 C n r .XXX. 9. there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). that is.82 Representations and characters of groups over C. since for g P G. . v2 g 2 Àv2 . We have proved the following theorem. so for 1 < i < r. v3 g 2 v3 .9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . . . and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. The representations rë1 . g2 l are V1 . .5. Also. . . . i r . v4 g 1 Àv4 . . we have g g11 . v4 g 2 Àv4 X . V3 . .ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. v3 g 1 Àv3 . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them.ë r X Conversely. g irr for some integers i1 . we have ë in i 1. There are n1 n2 . the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. n r such representations. v2 g 1 v2 . where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 .XXX. write r rë1 . . . .

by Proposition 9. For arbitrary groups G. j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. 9. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. and let V be a non-zero C H-module. Put ù e2ðia n . let u i be a vector spanning Ui.5). As V is also a C H-module.7. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. By Theorem 8. 9. is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . written Z(CG). . If g has order n. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. . If g P G.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. For abelian groups G. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in .5. V U1 È X X X È Ur . Each Ui has dimension 1. Then for each i. Proof Let H k gl. The centre of the group algebra CG. the result follows from (9. then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. .10).12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. u r of V. it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. .

write z h. 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). then {1}. which we now de®ne. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. Indeed. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). Then for all g P G. we have vrz vzr. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). b: a3 b2 1. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then h P Z(CG)X To see this. so the elements 1. hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. By Schur's Lemma 9. if G D6 ka. g À1 zg g À1 hg h z. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. and the result follows. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). 9. and let z P Z(CG). Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. if H is any normal subgroup of G. For example.1(2). 9. kal and G are normal subgroups of G.

15 De®nition The centre of G. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. Indeed. For example.6. which. written Z(G). Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. In particular. then Z(G) is cyclic.Schur's Lemma 9.9(2)). 9. then G Z(G). j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}.17 Example If G is an abelian group. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module.16 is false. and hence by Proposition 9. they .16.7). 9. there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. and so by Proposition 9. since in Exercise 25. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. and is a subset of Z(CG).14. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). is cyclic (see Exercise 1.

C3 and C2 3 C2 . y P G. as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. j Summary of Chapter 9 1. . Hence G is abelian. and there are precisely |G| of them. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. v n is a basis of CG. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. Then v1 . 3. Proof By Theorem 8. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. Also.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism.7. Then G is abelian. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal.6).5. 9. Then dim Vi 1 for all i. we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . . . as required. call it B . For all x. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. and hence they commute. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. . . the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . 2. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. we deduce that x and y commute. let v i be a vector spanning V i . For 1 < i < n.

(b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. Suppose that G D8 ka. Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó . Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module.6). (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. (Compare Proposition 9. 3. Let G C4 3 C4 . Let G D6 ka. . Write ù e2ðia3 . Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . 3 C n r . irreducible. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. ó of G.Schur's Lemma 87 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar . . then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. b: a4 b2 1. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 .) . where À5 6 X À4 5 5. (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG).14. b: a3 b2 1.

88 Representations and characters of groups 7. Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). (c) C2 3 D8 . (b) D8 . . (d) C3 3 D8.

10. in theory. Ur. Consider CG as the regular CG-module. unless G is a small group. By Theorem 8. Also.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. As a consequence.8). we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. . Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. . We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. . However. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 .7. . to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules.2. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U .

Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. and ð i T 0. However.11). . us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). u P U. as the following example shows. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . we have u u1 . then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. Proof For u P U. As U and Ui are irreducible. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. so w vW for some v P V. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. Now let w P Im W. such that v g v for all v P V and g P G. . v2 . .90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. 10. where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. 10. then U Ui for some i. Thus U Im W. as required. Schur's Lemma 9.2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. Then V U1 È U2 . Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. with basis v1 .1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . hence Ker W {0}. . 10. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. we have ð i T 0. since W is a CG-homomorphism. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. Write v k u with k P Ker W. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. Therefore U Ui.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. .

By Proposition 10. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. .5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 10. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. 10.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. j Theorem 10. We now come to the main result of the chapter. since W is irreducible.1.6). s P CG. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and the result is proved. and Im W W by (10.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. W is a CG-homomorphism. We record this fact in the following corollary. since for r. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Moreover. so is U.2 we have U Ui for some i. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible. it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. then W Ui. (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module.

every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. 1. 2.5. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 .8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. v1 . and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. As in (1) above. (2) Let G D6 ka. v2 b w1 . Next. 1. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. We now do this for a couple of examples. w1 b v2 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. v1 b w2 . 2. v1 . 1.92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. 1. Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . It is easy to check that v0 . v2 is a basis of CG. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . 2. De®ne v0 . to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). 10. w0 b v0 . however.9(1). w2 b v1 X . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 .5. and write ù e2ðia3 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. By Theorem 10. b: a3 b2 1. note that v0 b w 0 . w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . v i a ù i v i for i 0. U1 or U2.

every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). U2 and U3. Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . Now v0. By the argument in Example 5. sp (v0 . There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module.b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. Let G be a ®nite group. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. w0 ) is reducible. r2 : a 3 (1). the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . sp (v1 . w2 ) and sp (v2 . sp(v0 . w0 ).) . w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. w2 3 v2 ).5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. b 3 (À1). However. Correspondingly. w1. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. w1 ) are irreducible. w2 is a basis of CG.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. Let G C4 . the other 1-dimensional Ui. v1 . 2.8(1). and U1 is not isomorphic to U2.5(2). w0. namely U1. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. We conclude from Theorem 10. b 3 (1). and hence are CG-submodules of CG. v2 .

8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. Thus V has basis v1 . Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. b2 a2 . Let G D8 ka. but is them. isomorphic CG-modules. such that u2 a Àu2 .5(2). and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). 5. u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. b: a4 b2 1. of CG such that u1 a u1 . 6. Use the method of Example 10. b: a4 1. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. v1 b v2 . and u3 b Àu3 X 4. v2 and v1 a iv1 . Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. . u2 b u2 . and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. u3 a Àu3 . Let G Q8 ka. v2 a Àiv2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. sp (u1 ) say. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.

W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. W ). With these de®nitions.5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. ëW P HomCG (V . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui.1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . W ) and ë P C. Then W ö. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. ö P HomCG (V . it is easily checked that HomCG (V. W ) is a vector space over C. Our proof of Theorem 11. 95 . we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . We write HomCG (V . As in Chapter 10.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. W ) as follows: for W. In Theorem 10.9).11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G.

W 1 . (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . Since XW T {0}. Now suppose that V W. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. W1 )) dim (HomCG (V. W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . 11. Schur's Lemma 9. V2 and W .4 Proposition Let V . Then & 1. The key step is the following proposition. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . W )) 0. . W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . if V W . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. W ) T f0g. 11. so by Schur's Lemma 9. If ö P HomCG (V . by Maschke's Theorem.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. W2 )). there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW. j For the next result.96 Representations and characters of groups 11. and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. dim (HomCG (V . W )).4. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V.1(2). a 1-dimensional space. W ) in general.2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules.1(1) implies that XW X. Then V and W have a common composition factor.1(1). W ). W ). W ) fëW: ë P Cg. Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. W 2 be CG-modules. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. and so HomCG (V . Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . V1 . and suppose that HomCG (V .

Hence h is surjective. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . W ). W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . and (1) follows. Given ö i P HomCG (V. W ))X transformation. j . that is. for all w1 P W 1 . (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . Hence f is surjective.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. W ) for i 1. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . We show that f is invertible. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 .1). W ) HomCG (V1 . so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. w2 P W 2 . Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . W2 ) (see Exercise 7. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . W 1 È W 2 ). By Proposition 7.11. W1 ) È HomCG (V. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . 2. W1 È W2 ). W2 ). W ) (i 1. 2). W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. Therefore W 0. W1 ) and HomCG (V. Wi ) (i 1. W ) and has image (ö1 . If W P HomCG (V . then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. ö2 ). W ) È HomCG (V2 . 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . If W P Ker f. ö2 ) under h. 2). Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. and (2) follows.

. 1 < j < s). W )).2. V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui . W. .5). and dim (HomCG (W . W )) dim (HomCG (W . V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. Let W be any irreducible CG-module. W ) and HomCG (W .98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. W )) in general. . Wj (1 < i < r. W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. Proof By (11. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. W1 È .4. È Vr . . Vi. U i ))X . These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. 11. . and using Proposition 11. (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . W1 È . Wj )). .6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us . By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. dim (HomCG (V . Wj )). W)).5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. we have (11.

de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. for all r P CG we have .8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 .5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms.6.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. . When combined with Corollary 11. 0. . U) since for all r. it will give the main result of this chapter. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. if U i W . (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 . we saw in Example 10. Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. . dim (HomCG (Ui . Ui )) The result follows. & 99 1. U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . For 1 < i < d. . we have dim (HomCG (CG. CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. W )) dim (HomCG (W . Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U.2. ud of U. with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. . U ). Thus by Corollary 11. s P CG. 11. Choose a basis u1 . . 11. then dim (HomCG (CG. U ).6. .7 Example For G D6. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C. .

j 11. U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. .8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . which forces ë i 0 for all i. . Proof By Proposition 11. If U is any irreducible CG-module. we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d . . . U )). ë d ö d . Now assume that Therefore ö1 .100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . dim U dim (HomCG (CG. U ). . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. where U1. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. . HomCG (CG. and .9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur .8. Hence ö1 . j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. . . . U ).10 Example Recall again from Example 10. . which therefore has dimension d.6. 11. then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. and by Corollary 11. ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1.

X X X . U3 occurs twice.9. For 1 < i < k. This illustrates Theorem 11. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. X X X . U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. and no two of V1 .12 Theorem Let V1 . È Ur. dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules.12. . V k are isomorphic.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. for each i. the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di . Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. By Theorem 11. and let d1. . the result follows.11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 .9: U1 occurs once. dim U2 1. U2 occurs once. X X X . . (By Corollary 10. k i1 d 2 8X i . By Theorem 11. . 11. Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È . .) 11. dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. .More on the group algebra 101 U3.7. write d i dim V i . dim U1 1.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. 11.

Let CG U1 È . 4. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . . is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. 1. . U )) dim U . . Find a basis for HomCG (CG.5). 1. dim (HomCG (CG. Summary of Chapter 11 1. If V1 . Hence the possibilities for d1. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. (Hint: use Exercise 5. . 1 1. . and let U be any irreducible CG-module. Let G be a ®nite group.3. Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. 1. . and so di 1 for some i. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 2.12. . ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. 1. CG). and this fact. If G is a group of order 12. 1. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10. then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. 1. 1.4). dk are 1. 3. combined with Theorem 11. W j ))X 2. X X X . 1. È Ur. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i.) 3. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. 1.

show that HomCG (V.More on the group algebra 103 4. W be arbitrary CG-modules. Let V1 . Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . 5. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C.10. 6. CG).8(2). as in Example 10. Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . X X X . d i dim (HomCG (V . U) has dimension 1. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. Assume that for 1 < i < k. . and let V. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. as de®ned in 4. If U is the trivial CGmodule. W )) i1 d i ei . U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3.

After de®ning conjugacy classes. Throughout the chapter. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. Conjugacy classes 12. 12. y P G. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg.1 De®nition Let x. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. Then there exist g. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 . y P G. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty.2 Proposition If x. G is a ®nite group. symmetric and alternating groups.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. and pick z P x G y G.

j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). fb. 12. . we have aG fa. aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. a2 gX Also. 12. . So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. ab. a2 . fa. a. . a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g.5 Examples (1) For every group G. where the conjugacy classes x1 .3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. .Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. The elements of G are 1. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. a2 b. and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. .3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. b: a3 b2 1.4 De®nition G G If G x1 . . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. so bG fb. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and bÀ1 ab a2 . ab. ab. . . x G . . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. . a2 bgX . where k hgÀ1 . a2 g. then we call x1 . Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. (2) Let G D6 ka. b. x G are l l distinct. Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). and so xG yG . 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G.

and so x G {x}. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. 12. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. r . Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1.8 Theorem Let x P G.1). m. and x and y have the same order. and for 0 . Let x have order m. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G.6 Proposition Let x. If x is conjugate to y in G. that is. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. 12.) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . written CG (x). The centralizer of x in G. b P G. 12. y P G.7 De®nition Let x P G. |x G | divides |G|. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. so y also has order m. Proof Observe that for a. . g P G. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne.

jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. Hence f is a bijection. Let G D2 n. as de®ned in 9. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G).8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). b: an b2 1. . i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. . xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. . and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|.15. the dihedral group of order 2n.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X . Then jx G j. Thus G ha. 12. where Z(G) is the centre of G. We have now proved all parts of the following result. h P G. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this.

aÀ1 }. . . no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. Thus CG (b) f1. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. . ab. ab. {a. Using Theorem 12. aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for.8. {a m }. and so |(ai ) G | > 2. aÀ1 }. . . |bG | n. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12.12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. X X X . . As in case (1). a nÀ1 b}. (ai ) G {ai . aÀi } # (ai ) G . b}. . . a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. . and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi . {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. and CG (ai ) hai. {a( nÀ1)a2 .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. . As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . . {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. {a mÀ1 . bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. and hence CG (am ) G. . CG (b) contains {1. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. . For every integer j. ai T aÀi . aÀi gX Next. aÀ m1 }.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. That is.8. (ai ) G fai . so {ai . a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. a j baÀ j a2 j b. {b. As n is odd. {a. (2) n even Write n 2m. aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. bG fb.

13. For ir P A. . y of the same cycle-shape. Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . ks ) the cycle-shape of x.14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . ik ) in Sn . and so by (12. . By Proposition 12. . 12. Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . . > ks . .14). . ik g). and let g P Sn . a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . . Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . Proof Write A {i1 . . . ik g). 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. ck s 3 c9 s .13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . with k1 > k2 > . . . a product of disjoint cycles.Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . for 1 < i < n and i P A. ik }. . . ik ) g (i1 g i2 g . say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). as required. . . Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. . given any two permutations x. On the other hand. y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). exists g P Sn sending j . . there a1 3 a9 . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. for g P Sn we have (12. . .

Thus for G S4 . (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4).4): 1. 4}.) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). (1 3)(2 4). 2. 2) and there are six 4-cycles. (1 2).15 Theorem For x P Sn . (1 3).110 Representations and characters of groups 12. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. 12. and so on. with representatives (see De®nition 12. (1 2 3). Similarly. we simply count the number of 2-cycles. 3. 3-cycles.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). ÀÁ which is 4 6. (2 3)} {(1 2 3). The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X . the conjugacy class representatives g. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2)(3 4). there are three elements of cycle-shape (2. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 .

Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. 1. (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. x A n might not be equal to x S n . with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). Thus x Sn # x An . The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . then x Sn x An . and so x Sn x An .17 Proposition Let x P An with n . so again y P x An . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. If h is even then y P x An . The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. is of course contained in x S n . however. Let y P x S n . so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. x À1 }. the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep. 12. and what happens when equality fails. consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . while x S3 {x. here x A3 fxg.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X . g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . we have seen in Theorem 12. For an easy example where equality does not hold. and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh).

2) and (3). (2. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |.) Hence by Proposition 12. (1 4)(2 3)gX However. 2) and (5). Hence by Proposition 12.8.17.17. the . Proposition 12. as we wished to show. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). an even permutation.112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4). The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. j 12. together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. so g is 1. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2). (Check this by using the argument in (1) above. The elements of A4 are the identity. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5).18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size.13. (1 3)(2 4).

Using Proposition 12. 12. we have gÀ1 hg P H. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . g P G.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. and so hG # H. Thus H v G. 6. (1 2)(3 4). Conversely. 1 3. As we saw in Example 12.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1. then h P H.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . j 12. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). 3. and 1 P H. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. Therefore H hG . hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Let H v S4 . g P G A g À1 hg P H.17(2). Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. 8. (1 2 3). Then by Proposition 12.16(3).19. Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. if H v G then for all h P H. 6. so gÀ1 Hg # H.

S4 . . We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. In the case where j Hj 1 3. There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. . meaning `four-group'). For 1 < i < l. 12. . A4 and V4 f1. (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G.22 Proposition The class sums C1 . (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). C l form a basis of Z(CG). Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). . de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . Recall from De®nition 9. in the last case H S4 . hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . .21 De®nition Let C1 .12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. . (1 3)(2 4). . . (1 2)(3 4). . 12. . C l of CG are called class sums. and in the third case H A4 . . . we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. . yÀ1 gyr of an element g. . we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. .114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. so 1 r Ci For all h P G.

C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. For h P G. Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. . since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). observe that C1 . then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . and so C i P Z(CG). a a3 . . It remains to show that C1 . a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1.23 Examples (1) From Example 12. . ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci .16(1). 12.12). (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). . . . That is. (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. j and so h C i h C i . . the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . C l span Z(CG). b a2 b. . That is. This completes the proof. . 2. For an element x of a group G. ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). That is to say. the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. a2 . we have rh hr. . . Next. so h rh r. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. .3. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G.

. Let G Sn . It is a subgroup of G. Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G).10 to show that Z(G) T {1}. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. 2. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. 7. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . (a) Use the Class Equation 12.20. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn .) 6. (Hint: use the method of Example 12. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. 3. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. Show that A5 is a simple group. 4. Let p be a prime number. 5. Suppose that G is a group of order pn .) 4.8.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. If G is a group and x P G. and let n be a positive integer. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. 3. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15. (c) Now let n 6. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size.

Moreover. C). For example. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. basic problems. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. These facts are surprising. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. written tr A.1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. and call this number ÷( g). the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is. 117 . whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. then the trace of A. The trace of a matrix 13.

2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji. that is.118 Representations and characters of groups 13. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover. the trace function is not multiplicative. since if B and B 9 are bases of V. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. unlike the determinant function. aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii . Characters 13. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T .

and so V and W have the same character.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. and so by Proposition 13. Further. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G.7). That is. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. and let B be a basis of V. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G.2. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. Let V be a CG-module. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. 13. Then by (7. . ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. where ÷ is the character of V. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . we write ÷( g) and not g÷. then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G.24)). namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13.2.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character.

13. We record these matrices. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4. The following table records g.6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.2(1)).1. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. v2 . Let ÷ be the character of this representation. together with the character ÷ of V. thus B is the basis v1 . where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. v3 . br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 . g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . then they are isomorphic.10).) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 . b: a4 b2 1. Let B be the natural basis of V.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. and let r: G 3 GL(2.

5(2). By Theorem 9. U2. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. ÷2 and ÷3 . Nevertheless. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . (4) Let G D6 ka. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . the characters given take few distinct values. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. ÷3 . Moreover. r3 given in Example 10.Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. .8(2). it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 .8. ÷2 . r2 . b: a3 b2 1. U3. In Example 10. Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3.8(2). every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G.

Then for all v P V X .8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. they are all linear characters. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. and in 13. of course. irreducible characters.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. 1 and 2. 13. in particular. namely the trivial character. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. In fact. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters.8(1)) is a linear character. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. they are. in 13.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. 13.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. Observe that Theorem 9. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g).4).6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. We denote it by 1 G . then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. called the trivial character of G.

and so ÷(1) dim V. Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In .5(2). ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . . ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). a sum of mth roots of unity.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. . that is. ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. the n 3 n identity matrix. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . since for all real W. ùÀ1 . (2) By Proposition 9. Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. ÷( g) is j real. Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . and so ÷( g) ÷( g). When the element g of G has order 2. Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. which is the complex conjugate of eiW . and let B be a basis of V. Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n .Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): .

we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. so that ÷( g) r À s. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. Conversely. and let ÷ be the character of r.11. C) be a representation of G. If gr ëIn with ë P C. ÷( g) P Z. and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}. Suppose r of them are 1. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). and suppose that g has order m. and ÷( g) në. Then each ù i is 1 or À1. where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. By Proposition 9. (1) For g P G. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX .124 Representations and characters of groups 13. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13.9. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. Proof (1) Let g P G. and s are À1. then ë is an mth root of unity. 13.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. Then ÷( g) is an integer. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1). j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n.

j. b: a3 b2 1.11(2). j Motivated by Theorem 13. .11(2). Conversely. ÷2 . the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. 13. we deduce from (13. . (To see this. 13. and so g P Ker r.) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. and so gr ù1 In . Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In .13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. zn are all equal. if r is a representation of G with character ÷. then Ker r Ker ÷. Then by (1). suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1).14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 .12) that ù i ù j for all i. whence ë 1. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. . is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13.Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . Part (2) follows.6(4). ÷3 . . In particular. and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1). with the following values: . (2) If g P Ker r then gr In . . This completes the proof of (1). . zn . . Ker ÷ v G. written Ker ÷. Therefore gr In . we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j. then the kernel of ÷. we have gr ëIn for some ë P C.

(2) Let G D8 ka. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1).126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. For a character ÷ of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). In particular. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. C) is a representation with character ÷. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. then a2 r ÀI. .11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. then (13X16) (AB) A B. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. Theorem 13. If ÷ is irreducible. 13. b: a4 b2 1. so ÷ is a faithful character.15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. Then ÷ is a character of G. then so is ÷. C). We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one.

It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . 13. Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . It follows from (13. We write the regular character as ÷reg . j The regular character 13.11). Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. . the ij-entry of AB. .17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. . First we need a preliminary result.19 Theorem Let V1 .16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. j ( g P G) 13.18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. . k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. the character of the representation r is ÷. In Theorem 13. and for i 1.10). . . X X X . . Ur. C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. . Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G).Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11.19. Proof This is immediate from (7.

.19 and Proposition 13. By Proposition 13. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. Then for 1 < i < n. . ÷2 . By Example 13. the ii-entry is zero for all i. we have gi g gj for some j with j T i. . gn be the elements of G. in particular.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . gn of CG.9(1). and let B be the basis g1 . 13. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. then ÷reg (1) jGj. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 . j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . . . .18. and are given in the next result.6(4). .21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. . where for each i there are di factors V i . It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13. CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ).20 for the group G D6 .20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G.9. Now let g P G with g T 1.

v n . 13. . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. with representatives 1.Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. .23 Example Let G S4 .10). illustrating Proposition 13. (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. . . . Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . G has ®ve conjugacy classes. . . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4.20. (1 2). . . . (1 2)(3 4). Let B denote the basis v1 . and is 1 if ig i.16(3). and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . . Then by Example 12. n}. and we now describe this.19. and it takes the value |G| on 1. Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. where for all g P G. . (1 2 3). v n . by Theorem 13. The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G.

A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. By Example 12.8(3)). a subgroup of S4 . so U is a CG-submodule of V. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. . 2. there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W. By Maschke's Theorem 8. (1 2 3). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. . so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13.130 Representations and characters of groups 13. (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. (1 2)(3 4). Characters are constant on conjugacy classes.18(1). and let u v1 X X X v n .24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . Indeed.1. Then ð 1 G í. Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. .25 Example Let G A4 . and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. Proof Let v1 . and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. . .

The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these.11. 5. b: a6 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G.Characters 3. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and all g P G. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. 131 4. 7. and let r1 . Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). . For all characters ÷ of G. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . Exercises for Chapter 13 1. 2. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. 5. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. 6. If G is a subgroup of Sn . Let G D12 ka. ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. 4. br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . 3.

or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G.10. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. (Compare Corollary 13. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. 9. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. where k is an odd integer.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. . By considering the regular representation of G. Let r be a representation of the group G over C. 8. Hint: use Exercise 7.) 10. Let g be a group of order 2k.

and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. ö are functions from G to C.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. That is. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. if W. and we describe this ®rst. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. and ë P C.) 14. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. using characters. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Also. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 .

W(a) i. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. W2 i for all ë1 . The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . Wi for all W. ö in the vector space. ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. With every ordered pair of vectors W. 0 if W T 0. ö. (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . there is associated a complex number kW. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. öl hö. Wl . Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors.2) (a) kW. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . Wl is always real. 14. (c) kW. W2 . öl ë1 kW1 . ö. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. as in this example. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. W1 i ë2 hö. öl ë2 kW2 . This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. ö. De®ne 1 hW.134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. W2 . öl for all ë1 .

1) 1(1 i). 14. 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. 14. . 1 À 1 . ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). (À1)) 2. with representatives g1 . 1 1 .1. by Proposition 13. 3 hö. øi hø. gl . øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . 1 (1) h÷. 3 3 hè. 1 i . 2 i .2) hold. 1 1 . i (À1) . Therefore 1 h÷. Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. . l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C.4 Example As in Example 14. øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. . èi 1(2 . .9(3). öi 1(1 . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. öi 1(2 . so k .Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14.5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes.

6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. g 3 (1 2 3).8. an integer. with representatives g 1 1. ÷l h÷. øi is.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . it follows that h÷.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G. i i by Corollary 12. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. we also have 1 h÷. øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø.18(1)). (We shall prove later that h÷. g 2 (1 2)(3 4). in fact. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. øi is real. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù . øi. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes.3 and Theorem 12. Hence h÷. øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14.

therefore. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Ur. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. . ÷l 1. There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. that is. 0 ù 2 . ù2 ù . and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ).Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). we have 1 . . and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. ÷i 1 and h÷.4). and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. øi 0. øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. ù 0. 4 1 . øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷.5. . 12 4 3 3 4 . we have h÷. For example. We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . 4 0 . Using part (2) of Proposition 14.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. 0 ù . Among other results. ù hø. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module.7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . . say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . ù2 ù2 . .

w1 e2 w2 e1 0.3. w2 P W 2 . take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . In particular. w2 e1 0. w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. we have w1 e1 w1 . and this completes the proof. Similarly w2 w1 0. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 . We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways.8. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. by Proposition 11.9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . we have e2 e1 . Next. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. j 14. Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. w1 e2 0.7.10. 14. j .138 Representations and characters of groups 14. Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 .7. we evaluate e1 .

By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj . Then h÷. we deduce from Proposition 14. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . we see that for all x P G. Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. e1 P CG.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .3 of the multiplication in CG. By Proposition 13.7.20. Hence.Inner products of characters 139 First. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W. in view of Proposition 14. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have.10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x.8.

140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. this yields h÷. Let m dim U. The character of W is m÷. each of which has character ÷. Hence k÷.9 that e2 e1 . øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. and obtain hm÷. W and X have no common composition factor. We now apply Corollary 14. we know from Corollary 14.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Next. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. ÷l ÷(1). Then CG Y È Z. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . l. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. Then CG W È X X Moreover.11 to the character of W. Then h÷. and h÷. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. . In particular. with characters ÷ and ø. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. ÷i 1. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . ÷i 1. respectively. as required. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. 14.

12 Let G be a ®nite group. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. where n dim V. ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. In particular. . there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. . . ÷ k are all distinct. j. we have . By Theorem 8. where for each i. øi d i for 1 < i < k. m÷ nøi m2 h÷.7.13). ø(1) n. The character of Y is m÷ nø. øi mn(h÷. and let V1 . and ÷(1) m.12. dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). ÷i hø. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. and hø. øl 0. .11). and hence k÷. . so there are non-negative integers d1. X X X . ÷i n2 hø. ÷ i i h÷ i . øi 1. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. . øl kø. j Applications of Theorem 14.Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. øi hø. øi hø. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). k÷. then by Theorem 14. V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11.11. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. By Corollary 14. Now let V be a CG-module.5(1). ÷i)X Now h÷. this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷l. . we have (14X13) h÷ i . m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. . Therefore h÷. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i .

6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 . ÷3 l 1.1 1. dk . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. By Example 13. øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. ÷1 i 3.18 Example Recall from Example 13.5(2).7. by Proposition 14. .6(2).17 Theorem Let ÷1 . d i hø. ÷ i i hø. ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative. . we know that ø(1) 3. and d2X i 14. .) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. hø. (1 2).142 Representations and characters of groups 14. Moreover. If ø is any character of G. . . . kø. ø(1 2) 1.1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly. ÷2 . . ÷3 . taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. . Thus by Theorem 14.17. ÷2 l 0 and kø. (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 . .

It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. ÷l T 0. 14. V Vi for some i. .14). øl 1.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø. . It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory. Conversely. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. Proof If V is irreducible then kø. and by (14. 14. We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. .Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. øl 1. assume that kø. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 .16).12. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. dk ÷ k is non-zero. respectively.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules.17. Thus. Then by (14. 1 hø. Proof In Proposition 13. øl 1 by Theorem 14. and so V is irreducible. 14. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø. with characters ÷ and ø.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G.12. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14.

. ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ).14) that there are non-negative integers ci .144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. Again let V1 .16). ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . ÷ i i. Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. ÷ k . 2. . it follows that ci di for all i. r2 . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. ar1 . r3 . j 14. r3 and r4 . 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. suppose that ÷ ø.12. r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . . ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø.22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. r2 . and let r1 . d i hø.21. but there are no other equivalences among r1 . . 3. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. By (14. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. and hence V W. ci h÷. . The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. X X X . We know by (14.

respectively. Vj )) ä ij X Hence. . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . .13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . øiX Proof We know from (14.Inner products of characters 145 14. for any i. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. .2. Then dim (HomCG (V . W )) k i1 ci d i X . 14. . . ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. . . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. . Then ÷1 . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. ÷ k are linearly independent. using (11. .5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . By Proposition 11. j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11.23 Theorem Let ÷1 . . W )) h÷. using (14. .

øi The result follows.13) implies that h÷. and V is any CG-module.25 Proposition With the above notation. v1 e2 0. e2 P W 2 . j 14. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14.146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. 14. v2 e1 0. We can write V V1 È V2 .8. Let V be any CG-module. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 .26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2.7: CG W 1 È W 2 . v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. and we now describe a process for doing this.

Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. Proposition 14. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui.10. we see that .25 shows that Ve1 V1. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui.9. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.27) (1) Choose a basis v1 . The procedure is as follows: (14. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. . .26.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. .7. the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. . Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. and by Proposition 14. Then Proposition 14. by Theorem 11. v n of V. 14. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g).

e5 1(1 À a2 ). v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. .148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. Ve3 0.5). (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. . Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ). ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. v2 . v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . For 1 < i < 5. . . let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. v2 À v4 )X . with basis v1 . Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . . . . For example. with basis v1 . Ve2 0. v3 . let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example. Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ).

ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. ÷4 and ÷5 . The inner product of two functions W. . øl 1. . and ø is any character. Every CG-module is determined by its character. . ÷ j i ä ij for all i. . . ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. ø is irreducible if and only if kø.Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). that is. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. . h÷ i . e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. Also. Summary of Chapter 14 1. . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. j. . 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . respectively. The irreducible characters ÷1 . 4. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. Note that the procedure described in (14. i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. 3. If ÷1 . ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. .9.

br2 . show that h÷reg . Suppose that r and ó are representations of G.150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. 3. and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. Let G S4 . øi and hø. br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . r2 . ÷i. Prove that ÷ is reducible. gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. b: a4 1. Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. b2 a2 . h÷. If ÷ is a character of G. ÷i ÷(1)X . Let G Q8 ka. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. and let r1 . 5. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . non-trivial character of G. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. br1 . øi. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 .

øl 1.Inner products of characters 6. . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. . .) 151 7.4 relevant. 2. If ð is the permutation character of Sn . Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. ÷( g) is an even integer. prove that hð. 3 or 4? 8. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? . 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. Let ÷1 .

3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. Class functions 15. 152 . Throughout. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. then (15X2) dim C lX 15. G is as usual a ®nite group. and to some consequences of this theorem. the characters of G are class functions on G. By Proposition 13. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is.5(2). Thus. Together with the material from Chapter 14.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group.

they span a subspace of C of dimension k. dim C l. f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . Now let z P Z(CG). we consider the regular CG-module. we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. . . . By Theorem 14. f k . if ø is a class function. and in particular. we deduce that l < k. ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. By (15. . which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i .2) implies that k < l.22. Proof Since ÷1 . . so (15. In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. ÷ k are linearly independent. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. X X X . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. we know from Theorem 8.The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . then ø where ë i kø.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i . Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. By Proposition 9. . where for each i. Since CG contains the identity element 1.2). . X X X .7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k .23. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. If V1 . W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. the centre of CG. . ÷1 . .14. j (1 < i < k)X 15. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. . X X X . . This completes the proof that k l. Indeed.

÷6 given as follows: . As in previous examples. . this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. 15.5 Proposition Suppose that g. . . g6 (where g1 1). We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. . Conversely. The last part follows. In particular. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector.154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15.5. Hence ÷1 . .4.5(2). ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. by Proposition 13. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.7 Example We shall see in Section 18. . ÷ k span C. Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. .9(3)).4 has the following useful consequence. . 15. whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. Then by Corollary 15. h P G. j Corollary 15. . Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. using (14.13). . . and six irreducible characters ÷1 . . Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . and so g is conjugate to h.3. and so they form a basis of C. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. j 15. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13.

and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 .The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . In fact. . ÷4 and ÷6 . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . . the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example.

We know from Corollary 15. 4 11 . i 3. 4 hö. 4 11 . 1 À3 . (À1) hö. (À1) (À3) . (Ài) hö. 1 À3 . we calculate these inner products: 11 . Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1. ÷1 i and similarly kö. . 1 3 . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 5 . ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . ÷6 l 0. 1 (À1 2i) . ÷5 l 2 and kö. 1 3 . kö. 1 (À1 2i) . 1 5 .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . ÷4 l 1. 1 3 . 1 1. (À1) 2. 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14.5(2). (À1) 5 . l.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k .

Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. If ø is a class function. The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. . . . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . Let ø1 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷2 and ÷3 . ÷2 . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. .

2. Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷6 as in that example. . Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. . . Is ø a character of G? 4. . . with conjugacy class representatives g1 . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. . Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . Let G be a group of order 12. ÷6 .7. . (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. . prove that G has 4.) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . .

4). X X X . The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. Note that in the character table.21. X X X . many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. The motivation for this is Theorem 14. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Character tables 16. and g1 1. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. by conjugacy class representatives). the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. Thus.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. the identity element of G. the trivial character. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G . the numbering is arbitrary. j with 1 < i < k. 159 . This matrix is called the character table of G. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . in practice. Beyond this.

b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. b: a3 b2 1. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10. a. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G.3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.23).4. For example.2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. We take 1. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. The conjugacy classes .6(4). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka. j 16.8. b: a4 b2 1. and hence also the rows of the character table.160 Representations and characters of groups 16.

Then the following relations hold for any r. and these are given by part (2) of our next result.12). k}. and representatives are 1. (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . among the irreducible characters ÷1 . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14.5(2)). . . ÷ k of G. ab. 16. . These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. a. by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14. a2 . . Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . h÷ r . . ÷ s i ä rs . s P {1. . . and let g 1 . . . . b. Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. X X X .13).

(1) Let G D6. j and the column orthogonality relations follow. so ë i hø s .5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 . . They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations.162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved.4. and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . We copy the character table of G from Example 16.3(1). say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . by Theorem 12. ÷ k . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. . ÷ j i ä ij . ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s . For 1 < s < k. and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . 16. Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j .8. . .

Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. 0 0X 163 In each case. 1 1 . (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. 1 1 . (À1) 2 . 1 . Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . and is the number at the top of the column (that is. r 1. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. so they are positive integers.12). 1 1 . taking the products of the numbers which appear. 1 (À1) . 1 . (À1) 3. By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. r 2. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. we obtain the complete character table as . 1 1 . 1 1 . (À1) 0. We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. we read down columns r and s of the character table. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. 1 2 . Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column.

1 ù . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. 1 ù . 0 3. d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0. For example. .19 and Proposition 13. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . where d i ÷ i (1). although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. if g T 1. since Theorem 13. ù 0 . ù2 0 . if g 1. 1 1 . k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. 1 (À1) .20 give V k ` jGj. ù2 ù2 . 1 1 .164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . ù ù2 . Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. we get V ` jGj. (À1) 4. 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . if g T 1. if g 1.

we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. so M t M I. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. by the row orthogonality relations. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . More importantly. as we shall now show.Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. . jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. Indeed. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations.5(2). Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs . we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. On the other hand. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. so M M t I. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16.

2. . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. . . . 3. Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . . . . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. 2. . . . . . . . we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . s. The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. and four linear characters ÷1 . s.166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . ÷2 as follows: . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. . with representatives g1 . . 1. g5 . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. . with representatives g1 . k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. gk . . g4 . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r.

X X X . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. g k and character table C. Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6.) 4. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. . (a) Find æ. (b) Find another column of the character table. Let ÷1 . k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . .10. Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. . . 5.Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2. and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 . then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. Find the complete character table of G.

17.1 Proposition Assume that N v G. in a way which we shall describe. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. in particular. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. In fact. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character.) The linear characters. Thus. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. and let ~ be a character of GaN .17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. in turn. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G.7.e. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. and N T {1}. The linear characters of G (i. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. by a process which is known as lifting. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. In the opposite direction. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN .

Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. j 17. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. Moreover. Thus r is a representation of G.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1). and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). ÷(1) ~(N). then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. The function r: G 3 GL (n. Also. If g 1 . C) is a representation of G with character ÷. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. C). We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷.3 Theorem Assume that N v G. then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. ÷ 17. By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G.

It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. 17. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. let U be a subspace of C n .20).3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN .3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. then Theorem 17. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. bi and a3 b2 N . We know from Example 16. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . To see this. U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel. If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). (1 4)(2 3)g. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible.170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . so that N v G (see Example 12. so GaN D6 .4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1.

once the character table of G is known. we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. X X X . as our next two propositions will demonstrate.5. 17. Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. Also Ker ÷ v G. Of course. so g 1 by Proposition 15. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. ~2 . since ~1 . ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. ÷2 . ~3 are ÷1 . then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷. ~2 . which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . . ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}.13). ÷3 . ÷2 . Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group.

and so g P N. j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. ÷ is non-trivial. we have ÷( g) ÷(1). We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. By the ÷ ÷ above observation. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. and some nonidentity element g of G. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. . Then g P Ker ÷. Then by Proposition 17. and so G is not simple. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}.5. Ker r T G. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. since the . s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. . If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). . ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. Conversely. . so Ker ÷ T {1}. suppose that G is not simple. If r is a representation of G with character ÷. and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷.11(2). As Ker ÷ T G. hence Ker ÷ T G. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i .

h] is always an even permutation. . Thus G9 h[ g. j Next. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 . We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. h P G. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. One step is provided by the following proposition. so G9 < A3 .8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g.7 De®nition For a group G. Therefore. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. h]. (2) Let G S3 . 17. h P GiX 17. h] (1 2 3). ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. which is de®ned in the following way. h] 1 for all g. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. then G9 < Ker ÷. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. Clearly [ g. so G9 {1}. h P G.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. for all g. As a preliminary step. h]: g. 17. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g.

x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . Therefore. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx).10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. h P G. and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . j It follows from Proposition 17. x P G. We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . 17. Theorem 9. h] and their inverses. Since GaG9 is abelian. . . (1) G9 v G. ~ m . we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. . . h. all of degree 1. In particular. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. . (2) Let g. . Given the derived subgroup G9. h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx. and by Theorem 17. x P G. In particular. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. Since we have proved that G9 v G. . Proof Let m jGaG9j. b. h]x P G9 for all g. GaG9 is abelian. Proof (1) Note that for all a. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. But x À1 [ g.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. . (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. and so divides |G|.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9.

then [ g. h] (1 2 3). G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. .11. We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17. An (1 2)g C2 .12 Example Let G S n . and A n consists of permutations. Therefore A n < G9. as the next result shows. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old.9. As S n aA n C2 . . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. ÷2 . [h. S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 .15.10(2). a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9.13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. 17. ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. Therefore. h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). If g (1 2). 2). Since Sn aS9 fAn . . . 2). so G9 {1} A n . But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. In view of Proposition 17. k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. by Theorem 12. From the last example. We have now proved that G9 A n . the characters ÷1 . if g P An . each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. j 17. If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. We shall show that G9 An .Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. we know that S9 An . where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. @ ÷2 ( g) 1. if g P An X a À1. . so we assume that n > 4. which are given by ÷1 1 Sn .8(2).

Summary of Chapter 17 1. C) be a representation with character ÷. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. Now for all g P G. .14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. if ÷ is irreducible. Moreover.20. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. which is ë( g)÷( g). Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. ÷ ÷ 2. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). 3. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. then so is ÷ë. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. Therefore 1 h÷ë. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. Then the product ÷ë.

a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). bl. g6 (where g1 1). The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. b2 a2 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. . Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. (c) Find the character table of G. bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. and hence cannot be simple. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. (c) Complete the character table of G. 3. b: a4 1. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. . What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. . a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4 or 12 linear characters. Let G Q8 ka. (b) Find G9.3(3)). (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. 2. .Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. and has irreducible characters ÷. 4. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Check that a7 b3 1.14 to complete the character table of G. with representatives g1 . and construct all the linear characters of G. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 .

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n. 8. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n.) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 .b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. You are given that the group T4 n ha. The group V8 n ha. Let n be an odd positive integer. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n.5. the group U6 n ha. b: a2 n 1. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 . then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 .178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. (It is known as a dicyclic group. b: a2 n b3 1. as in Proposition 17. (a) Let ù e2ðia3 .b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. 7. . 6. b: a2 n b4 1. an b2 . then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 .b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. For n > 1.

24 4 8 4 179 .1 The group S4 In Example 17.4. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . ÷2 . 18. including the groups S4 and A4 .14. We shall now use Proposition 17. to complete the character table of S4 . the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 . The values of ÷2 . By Proposition 17. and all dihedral groups. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 .18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups.14. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. which deals with the product of a character with a linear character.24. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1.

and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. Since G has four irreducible characters. so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . (1 2)(3 4).18(1)). and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13. Then |G| 12. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes.2 The group A4 Let G A4 . there must be exactly three linear characters of G. íi 9 1 1. and G has four conjugacy classes. as shown.14. the alternating group of degree 4. Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. with representatives 1. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. (1 2 3).11. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. we have now found the complete character table of S4 .24. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 .

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. For each integer j with 1 < j .3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. with n > 3. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. Write å e2ðia n . together with the character ÷4 í. . The lifts of ÷1 . na2. G9(1 2 3). (1 2)(3 4). and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . na2. s P Z). ~3 to G. de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj . give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. G9(1 3 2)g C3. (1 3)(2 4). so that G ha. b: an b2 1.Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1. ~2 . C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r.

either by the proof of Example 5.11. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 . X X X . ø2 . one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . in view of 2 Theorem 17.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). far . At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i .5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. na2.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . na2 and 1 < j . there are two more to be found. Since kal v G and Gahai C2. na2. then å i T å j and å i T å À j . fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. Case 1: n odd By (12. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. (Incidentally. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). and so r i and r j are not equivalent.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g.4. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . Let ø j be the character of r j .

ha2 ia. ÷3 . X X X . ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. far . ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order .Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. as supplied by (12. ø2 . and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even.12). and we shall construct the character table of G. n 2m. ha2 ib. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. they are easy to calculate. ÷2 . fam g. say n 2m. å e2ðia n ).4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. fas b: s eveng. are f1g. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i.

184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). a4 } v G. a2 . but we shall not prove this result here. CG (b) f1. aÀ1 } {a2 . a3 . ÷3 . a3 bgX These. 0 < s < 1 as given above. b. ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . aÀ2 } {b. bl. and let G ka. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. a3 b2 . Since a has order 6 and b P kal. Observe that ka2 l {1. namely ar . a the group G has at least 12 elements. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. ha2 ia. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. D12 or G. a2 b. ÷2 . CG (a3 ) G. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). a subgroup of S12 . and so |G| 12. we have Gaha2 i C4 . ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. and similar facts. and Gaha2 i fha2 i. ÷4 of G given below: . The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a4 b} {ab. a3 b. ha2 ib.

2á5 À 2â5 0. â1 are positive integers. so they are positive integers.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . 2á6 2â6 0. also a3 is an element of order 2. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . ÷6 . The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. 2. ÷6 . By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. Theorem 16. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . we may take á2 2 and â2 À2. For this.4(2). 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. 2á4 À 2â4 0. the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . so we can solve them for á r and â r . â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2.10. respectively. we have 4 á2 â2 12. 2á5 2â5 0. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . 4 2á4 2â4 0. Observe that á1 . For r .

á5 0.1: the group S4 . Section 18. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation.3: the dihedral groups.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. 3. â3 1. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12. This is typical of more advanced calculations. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. á4 À1.6. â5 0. á6 0. (In fact. â4 À1. 2. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1. 1. Section 18. . as follows.2: the group A4 . Section 18. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations.

as in Exercise 17. (Hint: use Proposition 17. b: a2n b4 1. Write down explicitly the character table of D12.1(3). Find the character table of G. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . as in Exercise 17. with n odd. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters.6. Let G U6 n ka. and show that all its entries are integers. Let G V8 n ha. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. 2. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. Let G T 4n ha. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. an b2 . bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. b: a2 n 1.) 4. . (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. as in Exercise 17. b: a2n b3 1. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.) 3. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. Find the character table of G.8. as in Example 1.5.7. Find the character table of G. 5. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square.6.

Potentially. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. At the end of the chapter. and so on. and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. v m and w1 . called the tensor product of V and W. . . ÷ 4 . If ÷ is not linear. we introduce a symbol v i wj. . X X X . wn . then. The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. ÷ 2 . . The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. j with 1 < i < m. .19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. increase. to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. For each i. respectively. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). then the degrees of ÷. we apply tensor products in a different way. given those of G and H. 1 < j < n. . and more generally ÷ 3 . which has character ÷ø. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . . and indeed. so we consider the character ÷ 2 .

because this is not the case. (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). . j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). ë(v w) ë i. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. w P W and ë P C. ì j P C). 19. . it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. .Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . . xa P V and y1. For instance.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. . 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . . i j i. j i. we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. j i. then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. . . yb P W. j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example.

. v m and w1 . fn is a basis of W. .1. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . . the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. 19. Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. . ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. . . . j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. X X X . We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. . . Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . . wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . it follows that the also a basis of V W. Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. l Now the elements V W . The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . and hence span V W. and we leave it as an exercise. 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. respectively.2 Proposition If e1 . . . w n. em is a basis of V and f1 .

j.3. 19. Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i. For example. j i. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. w P W and all g P G. 19. 19.4 Proposition For all v P V. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. For all i. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g. given in De®nition 19. j m 2 i. . more generally. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij .3 De®nition Let g P G. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way.

(ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). .192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. Hence. . . where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. if ö is the character of V W then . and V W is a CG-module. and 2 i. ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. . . (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. em of V and a basis f1 .6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. 1 < j < n. By Proposition 9.11 we can choose a basis e1 .2. fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. . . j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i. h P G. and by Proposition 19. . (v i wj )1 v i wj .6 are ful®lled. ì j . 19. respectively. and g. j We now calculate the character of V W. Then ÷( g) ë i . Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W .

the product of ÷ with itself.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. We reproduce it here. j 19.1. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. 19.Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). j i j 193 as required.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 . and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 .7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . An inductive proof using Corollary 19.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G. for every nonnegative integer n. where ÷ 2 ÷÷. More generally. . we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . When ÷ is a faithful character (that is. as can be seen from Theorem 19.10 below. i. Ker {1}).

. x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. . and so on. It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. so Ä 0. we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. On the other hand. j complex numbers. (19. x2 from the second row.10. . x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. j . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. . and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. . xr are indeterminates. . We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. . Suppose that x1 . Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 .9) If á1 . to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. . and so on. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. . the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. .

. Let ÷ ÷4 . and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. á r . We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . . let âi ø( g). øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. Then for all j > 0. we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. ÷ 1 . 19.10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. so Theorem 19. and refer to Example 19.9).11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. and for 1 < i < r. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . so that G1 Ker ÷. G1 {1}. Now let ø be an irreducible character of G.20). by Theorem 10. (2) Let G S4 .9). as we wished to prove. We must show that h÷ j . . øi. X X X . ÷ rÀ1 . But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1.Tensor products 195 To obtain (19.5. and b T 0 since â1 T 0.10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. . . de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1). we know this already. As ÷ is faithful. . Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 .8. h÷ j . and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. j 19. hence bA T 0. . For 1 < i < r. gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. . â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. and thus h÷ j .

they are eigenspaces of T). ÷5 of G.6. By Proposition 19. it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. j i. . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. in this case. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. as we shall see. j Check that for all v. v n be a basis of V. V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg. it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. . j and extending linearly ± that is. w P V. ÷ 3 (indeed. ÷ 1 .12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg.10. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . . . ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. ÷ 2 . Also. 19. Let v1 . .10.196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. Since T is linear. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. just ÷ 2 . and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. illustrating Theorem 19. the square of ÷. . . . This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters.

1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. . . We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. v n be a basis of V. w P V. for x P S(V V). . The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. j i.Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. 19. Therefore. (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). y P A(V V) and g P G. j 197 i. . for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. . 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i. j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg. so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V).13 Proposition Let v1 . Further. so x 0. A(V V ). j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. Hence. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i .

Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . By Proposition 19. and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). By Proposition 19.13(2). en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). i i.198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A . ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 .12.14 Proposition For g P G. j i i. .12. dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. and hence from Proposition 19. . we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).11 we can choose a basis e1 . 19. . Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ). j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. and the result follows. j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). . and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9.

G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). given by Proposition 19. We have . conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. form ÷ S and ÷ A .8. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A .16(4). given one or two irreducible characters to start with. 19.14.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . ÷2 . the symmetric group of degree 5. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 .Tensor products 199 19. By Example 12. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group.13. The character table of G is given in Example 19. Let ÷ ÷4 .15 Example Let G S4 . (a) Linear characters By Example 17. appear below. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. then form ø S and ø A and repeat. The values of ÷.

Next.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G .14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus. By Proposition 19. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. and 1. .24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. if g is an even permutation. Proposition 17. by Theorem 14.20. Write ÷ ÷3 . À1.14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G.

÷3 i À 1. Let G S6 . ÷ S i 3. 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . of order 720. Using . which we call ÷5 . we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. The character table of S5 is as shown. 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . Let ÷6 ø.Tensor products h÷ A . We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . 10 4 1 2 1 1. we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. Next. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. For ease of printing. Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. ÷1 i Therefore. Finally. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. ÷ A i 36 4 1 1. where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5.

÷3 i 1. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.2. h÷ S .202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 .3) (4.2) (3. if g is even. where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17.24. by Proposition 13.3) (4.3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. it has 11 irreducible characters.2) (5) (2. h÷ S . À1. ÷ A i 1.2.2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3. if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G. ÷3 i 1. and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . the derived subgroup is An . The values of ÷. 1.2) (3. ÷1 i 1. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2).2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3.13). ÷ S i 3X h÷ A . ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2. (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G . h÷ S .2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. .2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes. Let ÷ ÷3 .

Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. of degree 9. Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4).2) (3. so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. ÷10 and ÷11 . so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X .10).2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. It will be shown later (Corollary 22. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. respectively. where ÷7 is another irreducible character. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 .2. Further. Also. . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible. . in the ordering which we have adopted.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. . as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . From Corollary 13. but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13. Ingeniously.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. . ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 .Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible.3) (4. Finally.

we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . Moreover. . ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. d. f 0.204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. b. e. we aim to evaluate the integers a. 0 is d e 1. d À e 0. . 10. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. c. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s). and is not equal to any of ÷1 . 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. . without loss of generality. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. whence a À b 0. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. . 0 and b . d 2 e 2 f 2 2. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. 11. a b 5X . That is. ÷8 . we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. Therefore.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9.

2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. Having done these calculations. given the character tables of G and H. Let V be a CG-module. and let W be a . v m . . we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible).2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2.Tensor products Finally. with basis v1 . .2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3.2. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. .3) (4. Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2. .2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column.

. that is. l. h P H)X 19. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. j i. y P H. . we ®nd that (v w)( g. and all g P G. for ë ij P C. h P H. . h)(x. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. where (÷ 3 ø)( g. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. for all v P V.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. . w P W. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. y À1 hy)X . ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . wn. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19.6. Next. . note that for all g. the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. respectively. . G and H. h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. . . y)À1 ( g.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . By the proof of Proposition 19. with basis w1. h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. j As in Proposition 19. . j. h) v g wh.5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. we have (x. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. . and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. For all i. . ÷ k i G hø j . y) (x À1 gx. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. x P G and h. . de®ne (v i wj )( g. k. h÷ i 3 ø j . ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H.4.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module.

hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. . À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 .Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. 1). hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. if g1 . À1). In particular. À1). G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. . . We reproduce it here. 1) (1. ((1 2). h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. j 19. Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. . ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . By Theorem 15. the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. Consequently.3. 1) ((1 2 3). ((1 2 3). and by Theorem 19. hj ) (1 < i < a. ((1 2 3). h) and ( g9. 1) ((1 2). À1) ((1 2). 1). . À1). Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . alongside the character table of C2 .3(1). hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. .18.19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. 1). then the elements ( g i . . À1) ((1 2 3). . (1. ((1 2).

Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G.2. öi h÷.) 4. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. h÷ø. ÷öiX 2. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).10. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. 2. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. ø and ö be characters of the group G. Show that h÷ø. If ÷ is a character of G.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. Let ÷. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. h P H. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . if ÷ T øX 3. 1 G i 0. øöi hø. Prove that & 1. In Example 20. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. Summary of Chapter 19 1. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. 3.5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). if ÷ ø. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19.

g5 . . ®nd the character table of G. Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g2 . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . further. . and show that both are irreducible. g4 . 6. Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. g2 . g2 . . . g7 . respectively. g2 . g5 .13. By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . g1 . . g2 . g4 .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . g2 . . . ö S and ö A . ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. ÷ A . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . . . g2 . Moreover. 5.

If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. and call it the restriction of V to H. As in Example 4. and Clifford's Theorem 20. 20. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 .1 Example Let G D8 ka. Then C H is a subset of CG. h P H if they hold for all g. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . b: a4 b2 1. v2 for which v1 a v2 . and illustrate its use. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. for example. h P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.5(1). we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. v2 a Àv1 . then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H).2 certainly hold for all g. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. if f: G 3 C is any function. which occurs.8 gives important information in this case. then V is also a C H-module. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. If V is a CG-module. More generally. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. v1 b v1 . when G S n and H A n . Here. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H.

then dim V dim (V 5 H). a2 . v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. By 18. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . 4} ®xing 5. Example 20. 20.1 illustrates this fact. b. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 . then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. v2 a2 Àv2 .2. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . for if U is a CG-submodule of V. 3. However. 2. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 . a2 b} of G.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. On the other hand.

then 1 hW1 . ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . ÷7 . jGj gPG . de®ned similarly. and k . W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g). ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . Thus. 20. . we introduce the following notation. The character table of G is given in Example 19.16. ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. ÷3 5 H.3 De®nitions The inner product k . l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C.212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C.16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . For each i with 1 < i < 7. . we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . From Example 19. . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . .

4. In the light of Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . then 1 hö1 .20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1. The best . then by Theorem 14. øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H.19 and Proposition 13. i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H. øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 .17. . . d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. . 20. Unfortunately. øi H T 0 for some i. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero.Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Recall from Theorem 13. Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. . . ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. Suppose that we know the character table of G. ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. . . . X X X .

since ÷ is irreducible. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. 1 h÷. where the non-negative integers d 1 .6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. F F F .17. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. as the following result shows. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Proof By Theorem 14. X X X . since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. we have equality in (20. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. For example. 20. ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. and let ø1 . . Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover.

so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). Moreover. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. so dim U dim Ug. and the proof of the proposition is complete. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. (2) As a C H-module. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. since V is irreducible.12. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . as claimed.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. whence W {0} or Ug. (3) If g1 . Therefore. g2 . Ug is a subspace of V.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. since U is irreducible. è is a C H-isomorphism. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. Further. Therefore. WgÀ1 {0} or U. j . and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. Proof (1) Clearly. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Suppose that h P H.

Then it follows from Proposition 20. but you might like to look at Corollary 22. say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. Examples where this happens are G Sn . .216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. On the other hand. Let e h÷ 5 H. .14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. Therefore. jG: Hj 2). Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. each having character ø1 .7(3). Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. parts (1) and (2). ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. 20. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. . ø1 i.7(2). and (2) if ø1 . and Xi T X j if i T j. by Proposition 20. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules.7. . then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is.

÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. In the latter case.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. 2 where i1 d i < 2. Also. or G D2 n ha. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17.13) below. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. the character tables of G and H are closely related. .8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r .9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. j with i T j. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. .10).14).5. We describe this relationship in (20. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. ø i and ø j have the same degree. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. Proof If ø1 . 20. . and that ÷ is . and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. b: a n b2 1. d r are non-negative integers. and we shall supply these next. X X X . then by Proposition 20. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In fact. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. Since d 1 . 20.9. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i.16). or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i. . Since GaH C2 . For practical purposes. by Clifford's Theorem 20. H hai. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G.

Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility.9. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë. if g P HX a . since jG: Hj 2. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2).5. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3).6) is strict. (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. a j According to Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. 20. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. Proof We use Proposition 20. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.

Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. . so kö. Proof In view of Proposition 20. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. then hö 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. 20. öl G 1. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible.11). Therefore k÷ ÷ë. a Therefore. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. ö 5 Hl H 1. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. Finally. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H. and hence ö ÷. ÷l G T 0.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. (20. 20.10.10. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. 1 1 hö. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G. G.

. . ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H.18(2). respectively.13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. a so by (20. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. 20. Also. Observe that ÷1 . The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. Fortunately. The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G. 20. In case (2) of (20. and hence ø1 . . ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H. ÷1 5 H.13).9. . . and the irreducible characters ÷1 .13)(3). ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20.10. 20. . Call them ø1 . then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H. . extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H.220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. .4). ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). so by (20.12).16.13)(2).14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . ø2 and ø3 .13)(1).

â 1(1 À 2 p 5). . we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. á3 â3 À1. 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0. By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5).Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . Since ø4 T ø5 . We get á2 â2 0. The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). Hence by Proposition 13. we may take p p á4 1(1 5). all the numbers in the character table are real. á3 â3 À2. á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5).9(4). á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12.13.

4. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. . 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. to ®nd the character table of A6 . Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. if ø1 .222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. 2. X X X . The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. If ÷ is a character of G. 1. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . ÷ 5 Hi H 1. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G.1).3 and 12.) 3. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. In particular. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. (a) Show that H D8. 2. 4. Exercises for Chapter 20 1. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. given in Example 19. Prove that h÷ 5 H. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H.17.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. Indeed. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. (1 3)l of G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H.

15. 15. . 14. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 35. 14. 14. 20.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 6. 21. 6. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 21. 1. 14. 35X Also.

As H is smaller than G. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . 21. since for all s P C H. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. Before describing the process of induction. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. (us)W rus (uW)s. If r P CG.

Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru. v P V.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. v P V ) is a function. and rv 0 if v P V. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}.1. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG.2. Let r 1ö. Consequently U V {0}. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. v P V. moreover. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. For u P U. 21. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7.11). v P V. Conversely. j . j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. and so W is of the required form. Therefore by Corollary 21. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U.1. and so x 0. the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition. Then the sum U V is a direct sum. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. 21. so uv3 u (u P U .

5 Example Let G D6 ka. X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG. we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. Let ù e2ðia3 . g P GgX Clearly. g P G. W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. 21. U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . That is. W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . W 1 4 G U3 . b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 .4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. and let H kal. W 2 4 G U4 X . U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG).8(1)). b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . Remember that H is a subgroup of G. X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . Clearly. so C H is a subset of CG. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b).8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . b: a3 b2 1. W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . 21. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). b ab a2 b).226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG. where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b).

b P V 4 GX . g P G). there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. ö is a CG-homomorphism. Moreover.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. 21. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. and hence ra P V 4 G. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules.1.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. g P G). Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. we have sra a. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. By Proposition 21. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. 21. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. W 0 4 G is reducible. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. for all a P U 4 G. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. v P V. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G.

Then for all u P U. rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. 21. Now U U1 È V. It is trivial for m 1. 21.9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. v P V.3. V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G). g P G). we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G).3. v P V and all g P G. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. Then (by Theorems 8. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21.7 and 10. using (2. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. U U1 È X X X È Um . and hence. this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. a direct sum of C H-submodules U i .228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. where V U2 È X X X È U m .8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m.5). U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction.10). j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). as required.7.

That is. By (21. 21. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG). and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'. If U is a C H-module. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H.6 and Corollary 21. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module. U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G.4. k P K)X Therefore.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. Then . De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21.10). k P K.

14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. . .17. and ø1 .9. We showed in that example that if ÷1 .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. ø j i H for appropriate i. ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. 21. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. We record these coef®cients in a . ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. and is called the character induced from ø.2. as in Example 20.13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. . . j.16).2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 . . . ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . .

÷4 0 . V 5 H) have equal dimensions. is also equal to h÷ i . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷7 X Similarly. 21. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. it is true that h÷. ø4 X Remarkably. and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . For example. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 . it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. we need the following preliminary result. øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. To be precise. which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ÷2 1 . . ø1 0 . ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. V ) and HomC H (U . and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . ø j 4 Gi G . ÷1 1 . ø3 1 . ÷3 1 . In fact. ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H.15 Proposition Assume that H < G. ÷5 0 .Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. ø j i H . ø2 0 . ÷6 0 .

16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . V 5 H). note that if r1. Then by Corollary 21. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. Moreover. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V 5 H). By Theorem 14. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V ). Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. Then hø 4 G. g P G. V ) to HomC H (U . V 5 H). Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. ö W. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. ÷i G hø.24. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. Finally. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. we have hø 4 G. V 5 H))X . j 21. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. and hø.1. ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . as required. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. Let ö P HomC H (U . that is. V ). Then by Proposition 21. V ) to HomC H (U . V 5 H). then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. V )). De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible.2. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U.

namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible. ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . .Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21.15. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . ÷i G hø. 21. For the general case. . Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. let ÷1 . ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G. de®ne the j . Then for some integers di . ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. . . . and for convenience of notation. since by Corollary 15.4. hø. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. then hø 4 G. and ø is a character of H. f i G hø.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. . . we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. .

Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. and so by Corollary 15.234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H. if g P HX a 21.4. ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G. Then h f . ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . ÷i G hø 4 G. Then 1 h f .19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. it is suf®cient to show that h f . If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Therefore f is a class function.

f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . For x P G.Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H. h f .19 is more useful. 21.20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G.19. ÷i G hø 4 G. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G. j 21. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. so the proof is complete.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. Therefore a h f .23 below). ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. then h÷.3). a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. Alternatively. ÷i G hø. j For practical purposes.

. . 1. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. . 21. . x m . (2) If some element of x G lies in H. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X .4. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 .18. f G i G hø.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. we have: (21. xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21.236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷.22) Suppose that x P G. x Proof By Proposition 21. xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. .21 and Corollary 21. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . . then there are elements x1 .22)). then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G. To put this another way. x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. and suppose that x P G. f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. then f G 5 H 0. X X X .23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. . with representatives x1 .

and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. fa (1 2 3 4).22)(2). By (12.24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. fb (1 3). G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . . f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. And if some element of x G lies in H. bl. We have G H f1 5 H f1 . a2 b (2 4)g. where a (1 2 3 4). since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21. G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . b (1 3)X Then H D8. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. a3 (1 4 3 2)g. then f G 5 H 0. fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g.12). f x1 i H X X X hø. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). 21.

we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. .2) De®ne permutations a.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. Referring to Example 16. we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. Exercise 17. ÷5 of H D8. . 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 .25 Example (cf.23.3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . . Then according to Proposition 21. b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). 21. .

Hence jC G (a)j 7. Let ç e2ðia7 . ÷2 . Check that a7 b3 1. a3 . Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. G has order 21. fai b: 0 < i < 6g. a4 g. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. 0 < j < 2. a5 . bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. Since hai < C G (a). For 1 < k < 6. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. a. bl of S7 . First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. Let H kal. a2 . fa3 .Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai.23 for calculating ø k 4 G. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . and similarly jC G (b)j 3. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . Using this. 21. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. Since kal v G and Gahai C3. Also. fa. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. a jC G (a)j . 7 divides jC G (a)j. a6 g. and since b P C G (a). We aim to ®nd the character table of G.

(ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. . (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 .240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 . Hence by Proposition 21. (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. since ø1 . . ø6 are linearly independent. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . a4 are conjugate in H.23. ÷5 i G 1. b: a7 b3 1. and the character table of G is as shown. We now calculate that h÷4 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. . a2 . Character table of ha. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . . (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters.

g 4. Let G D8 ka. 241 1. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. as given in .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). If U is a C H-module of C H. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H. . (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . If no element of g G lies in H. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). 3. b: a4 b2 1. For each C H-module U. 2. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. . (a) If ÷1 . then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . . If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. bl. . Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. ÷i G hø. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. ÷ 5 Hi H .

work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . Suppose that H is a subgroup of G.5. where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). b (2 3 5)(4 7 6). .25). Show that the integers d 1 .242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. Let H be a subgroup of G. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. . Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. Let G S7 and let H ka. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18.25. and let ÷1 . as in Example 21. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . and let ÷ be a character of G. 3. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. bl.) .) 5. X X X . 6. . d k . ø2 . ø3 of C3 . let ø be a character of H.1. then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4.

Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H. .Induced modules and characters 243 7. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.

And we prove some useful congruence properties. Equivalently.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. for the same matrix A. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. Algebraic integers 22. all of whose entries are integers. for example. for ë to be an algebraic integer.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. using algebraic integers. Thus. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter.

. ù nÀ1 . since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. such that uA ëu. then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu.7).2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. . then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . 22. . Then uA (ù. 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. ù. (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. To see this. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. and non-zero row vectors u and v. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. X X X . then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. ù2 . all of whose entries are integers. 22. X X X . .3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. ù nÀ1 ). p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. Proof There exist square matrices A and B. ù2 . since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). In fact. and let u be the row vector (1. where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. .

then ë is an integer. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. Proof By Proposition 13. and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). . y P C n. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. 1 < j < n). Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . j Theorem 22. 1 < j < n) has integer entries. Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m. respectively. Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices.9. extending linearly (that is.3. by Example 22. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer. 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. . De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m. .2(4). ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). . . The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. j 22.4 that for all vectors x P C m .246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. 22. f n be a basis of C n . so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. X X X .

Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m.5. and hence also by p. which is enough to establish the proposition. note that we have. then C x P CGX xPC 22. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. If ÷( g) is a rational number. as a special case of Proposition 22. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. (Example 22. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. Recall from De®nition 12. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. Let p be a prime number which divides s. then ÷( g) is an integer. Write ë ras.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. In passing. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s.5. 22. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). we establish two preliminary lemmas.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. with character ÷. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. Then .4 and Proposition 22.

8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG. where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). . . xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U .8. this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1). we have gi r n j1 aij g j .22).14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. the result follows. gn be the elements of G. j 22. where each á g is an integer. that is. . Then ë is an algebraic integer. then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. where ë P C. . Proof Let g1 . As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. we know by Proposition 9. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu. Then for 1 < i < n.

Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22. . (In fact. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. Hence by Theorem 22. Proof Let g1 . and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG. then ë is an algebraic integer.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ). k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) .Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . .4.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l.2(4). by Corollaries 22. 22.10 and 22.8. by Lemma 22. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. by Lemma 22. then ÷(1) divides |G|.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. . aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . . gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.7. Then uC ëu for all u P U. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. j 22.3. where ù is an nth root of unity. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. j 22. both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. Then for all i.

either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2.11. j 22.11. Proposition 22.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. Let r: G 3 GL(2. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number.4(1). 2. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. p. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX . the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). we have Ker r f1g. by the row orthogonality relations. X X X . Hence. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. Hence G9 T 1. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. or they are 1. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13.5. Therefore by Theorem 17.) 22. ÷(1) divides |G|. and so r is injective.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. observe that G is non-abelian. First. by Proposition 9. Theorem 22. G has no non-trivial linear characters.11. and hence satis®es p < n. (Note that ÷(1) . (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. where p is prime. Theorem 16. 1. By Theorem 17. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. using Proposition 9.18. and so G9 G as G is simple. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.) Hence. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. By Theorem 22. In particular. That is.7(a)).

6). ÷(1) . by Theorem 22. G is not simple unless G has prime order. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. Since G is non-abelian. This time.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 . Theorems 11. Since det (xr) 1. that is. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. so we assume that G is non-abelian.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. so p divides |G| by . and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. xr has order 2. and jN j is coprime to p. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G. In particular. 22. this means that xg gx for all g P G. while jG: N j is a power of p. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr.11. As r is injective. as G is simple. and by Proposition 9.11.12 and 17. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N.8). 1. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. As r is injective. by our hypothesis. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement.

øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. Before proving Theorem 22. If a and b are positive integers. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. for example. we have Z(G) G. Let ø be an irreducible character of H.17). since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. 22. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. This result implies. On the other hand. then we denote their highest common factor by (a. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. if N G then G is again abelian. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G.16.17). for integers d and n. b). Also.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity.11. that for all n. Theorem 22. Clifford's Theorem 20. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p. so ø(1) is a power of p. so it remains to prove that N v G. Finally. assume that G is simple. But an abelian simple group has prime order. so either N {1} or N G. Therefore.16 is evidently a useful result. Next. a similar argument shows that g P N. so G is abelian. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. Then h÷ 5 H. then . Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). by Proposition 20. G has prime order.7). we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. by Exercise 1. Then g P H. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. because G is simple.4.1.

d . Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i. Also.11.Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. 1. n) 1. then by our induction hypothesis. ( j. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. 22.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. dj n.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. 1< j< nad. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . (i.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. (i.nad)1 j as required. if ù 1 then the result is immediate. 1 ( j.n)1 253 is an integer.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity. ( j. and if in addition d . By Proposition 9.n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. It is trivial for n 1. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1.

15. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma. Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. . j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number.6. and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. .15. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. .16. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22.16. For example. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. Before going into the character theory.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. g is an element of G of order pr for some r. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. . and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. n) 1. and hence s÷( g) P Z. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. The result now follows from Theorem 22.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. n) 1. . 22. . ù m are nth roots of unity. ù im . . . . For 1 < i < n. (i. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12.

Then there exist integers a. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). g x9 y9 y9x9.Algebraic integers 255 22. Then xy yx g aubp g. We must show that x x9 and y y9. Now suppose that x9. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. p) 1. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. where u. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p.18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. j v v v v v . then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. that is. hence also with gau x. Moreover. and so x x9 and y y9. y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. xy g x9 y9. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). v P Z and (u. Then there exist x. Proof Let the order of g be upv . Finally. Therefore z 1. as required. Similarly. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . so x9 commutes with g. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. (2) the order of x is a power of p. so is coprime to p. x p g aup 1.

. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . b with au bpv 1.18. v P Z and (u.18 has x g3 . 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. with ai P Z. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. p) 1. (22. æ. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. the expression g xy in Lemma 22. For example. this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. . . De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ.19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . .256 Representations and characters of groups 22. where u.part of g is gbp . we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. 22. a principal ideal of Z[æ]. By de®nition. and choose integers a. v Then the p9. if p 2 and g has order 6. æ2 .21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. that is. then the p9-part of g is g .20) Let the order of g be upv . We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. æ nÀ1 . y gÀ2 .18 the p9-part of g.

Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). which establishes that P Z pZ. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. if r n P P for some positive integer n. b with j am bp 1. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. then either r P P or s P P. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. j We deduce from Proposition 22. which is false. Repeating this argument. there exist a P Z[æ]. we also have pZ P Z. but this implies that 1 P P. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. j . For the last statement of the proposition. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. Since p P P. since P T Z[æ]. Thus pjm. we conclude that r P P. Since n r rr nÀ1 . a Since r P P. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. as required. If p B m then there are integers a. j 22.22 Proposition If r. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. In particular.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. 22. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. assume that r n P P. and the proof is complete.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ. then r P P. it follows that s P P. As P is a maximal. We must show that s P P. Proof Let m P P Z. that is.

r . Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. As in the previous section. The orders of g and of y divide n |G|. pv . p) 1. Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n . and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup . Moreover. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . Then y g bp (see (22. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. where u. since ù p ù bp . the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. b with au bpv 1. Then v ù ù aubp .24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9.11). v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 .258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. v P Z and v (u. Choose integers a. Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). we have @ 0. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv .20)). let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. 22.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . Application of Proposition 22.part of g. If ÷ is any character of G. so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. if p 2. if p T 2. and hence lie in Z[æ]. By the Binomial Theorem. where á P Z[æ]. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p .

If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.24±22. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. j 22. .27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. .25). there are mth roots of unity ù1 . Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ).26 Corollary Let p be a prime number. j Notice that Corollary 13. d v v which. the p9-part of g is 1. Theorem 22. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. . . by (22.24 and Proposition 22. . We shall use the congruence results 22. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.26. For the moment.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9.11.27 in which g has order 2. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9.part of g. j 22. lies in P.10 is the special case of Corollary 22. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number.

24 for this a value. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z. 2. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 . then the p9-part of g is 1.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5). and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. p p Then ( 5)2 P P. 3X However. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|.11). . 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 . we have â 5 P P. 2.22. Character values are algebraic integers. Summary of Chapter 22 1. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. p p where á (1 5)a2. That is. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9.24. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. We illustrate Theorem 22.28 Example Recall from Example 20. as can be seen by inspecting the table. so 5 P P by Proposition 22. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1. â (1 À 5)a2.

(a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. 3. 10 or 16. 4. Use Theorems 11. q. 4. then b÷(1) is an integer.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 .Algebraic integers 261 3. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. Deduce that G is abelian. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. 2. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. for all characters ÷. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.12. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7.11 and 22. 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). (b) Show that |G9| p. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. then g 1. . 17. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. Let p be a prime number. 5. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Let G be a group of order 15. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . jGj where á is an algebraic integer. then ÷( g) is an integer. b P C. Prove that h÷.

(a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. . 7. and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 . . (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. ÷( g) is 0. g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. g2 . . g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. . (b) Use Corollary 22. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 .262 Representations and characters of groups 6.26 and the column orthogonality relations. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. ®nd the character table of G.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. . 1 or À1. g. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . Moreover.

This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. However. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. Nevertheless. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. which we shall explore in this chapter. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . Let r be a representation of G. However. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. characters of CG-modules are real-valued. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. Often. then of course the character of r is real-valued. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. and if g is real.

4). For every conjugacy class g G of G.5. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16.2. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. On the other hand.2. 23. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. and the trivial character of G is real. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. X is invertible. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows.264 Representations and characters of groups real. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. the result is proved. since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real.15). . and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. Thus for example. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation. by Proposition 13.

We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. G has an element g of order 2. then by Exercise 1. Therefore by Theorem 23.3(3)).1). and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. . b: a4 1. . v i g is a linear combination of v1 .2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes. {1} and g G. . b2 a2 . the only real character of G is the trivial character.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. . then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. 23. . Then ÷ can be realized over R. b: a4 b2 1. v n of V. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n.1).1. and there is a basis v1 . If G has even order. (2) Let G Q8 ka.1. . and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. C) with character ÷. v n with real coef®cients.8. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . . br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries.Real representations 265 23. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. . since À1 0 0 1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Proof If G has odd order. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16.

4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. and hence also in C. .) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules.3(2) tells us that the converse is false.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. v n . v1 b Àv1 . Notice that a character ÷ of G can be . C). where F is R or C. (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 . and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . . 23. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23. . the matrix gr has its entries in R. Example 23. Simply take a basis v1 . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this.2.18(3) below. .2. In fact. with basis v1 . . with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. R) is a representation then for each g P G. ÷ cannot be realized over R. v n of the RG-module.266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. if we de®ne v1 x v2 . . v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. where C3 kx: x 3 1l. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. . v2 a Àv1 . The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n.3(1)). RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. v2 . This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. .

. iv1 . is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. . X X X . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. . Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. X X X . v n . iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . v n . and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that. There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G.6. h P G. We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). we see that (23. and let g P G.5) makes VR into an RGmodule. y jk P R. and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). . then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. If ÷ is the character of V. evaluated at g.Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷.

v4 . j 23. b: a4 b2 1. For part (2).268 Representations and characters of groups 23. and so ÷ can be realized over R.7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . dim VR 2 dim V. VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. with character ÷. v4 iv2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v3 . Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. Then VR has basis v1 . where v3 iv1 . then ÷ can be realized over R. we obtain the representation r. and with 2 respect to this basis. Proof We have already proved part (1). (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. iv1 . x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. namely U. in particular. Then by part (1). v2 such that v1 a iv1 . v2 . br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. . (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. v1 b v2 . v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 .6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. With respect to this basis. v2 a Àiv2 . Thus there is an RG-module.

23. Let V be a vector space over F. v1 . v2 P V and ë1 . 0 for all non-zero v P V X . Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . u1 . v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. we already know this from Example 23. ë2 P F. v) ë1 â(u1 .8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. v2 ). In fact. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. u) for all u. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. v. v) . v) and y 3 â(u. for all u. v) â(v. v. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u. then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. v) of F. v) for all u.6(2). v) ë2 â(u2 .Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. u2 . v1 ) ë2 â(u.3(1). v). v) Àâ(v.6. vg) â(u. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. the functions x 3 â(x. (Thus for ®xed u. where F is R or C. v) of vectors in V an element â(u. v P V X If V is an FG-module. â(u. u) for all u.

If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . . then gx runs through G as x runs through G. . v gx) â(u. v) . If g P G. 0 for all non-zero v P V. v n be a basis of V. v P V )X Again. v) Now let â(u. wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . â is a symmetric bilinear form on V.270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . . Then V is a reducible RG-module. ì j P R. Moreover. Now let w P W and g P G. w) 0X Thus wg P W. j 23.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. . wg) â(ug À1 . v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. . vx) (u. and â(v. 0 and â(v. and that there exist u. j 23. so W is an RG-submodule of V. so â(u. v) . Proof Let v1 . w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. for non-zero v P V. For all u P U. vg) ã(ugx. v P V with â(u. W fw P V : â(u. de®ne ã(u. we have ugÀ1 P U. For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . u) . and hence â(ug. v) n j1 ì2 . 0X j xPG ã(ux. ã(v. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. 0.10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V.

Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. w) 0 for all v P V g. n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). v2 ) . . . v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v. 23. v1 ) x. . for all i. v1 ) . j if i T j. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. .7).9. Moreover. 0. 0X Let â(v1 . so is ã.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. 1 ã(v2 . v i ) 1 â(v1 . v n of V such that â1 (v i . v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . then W is non-zero. w) . we have ã(v. and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. 0. v) (u. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. . v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. v) À â(u. v2 ) . there is a basis v1 . v) â1 (u. v j ) â(v i . We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. â(v2 . x so W T V. v1 ) 0X Therefore.11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷.

by Proposition 23. De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. . Let u1 . (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. and for all w1 . we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. . Conversely. . there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. v) the real part of â(uW. v n of V.10. v P V with â(u. iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. vW) (u.6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . . v) â(v. De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. there exists w P V with â(w. v). It now follows from Proposition 23. Let â(w.12). . using the properties (23. u n be a basis of U. . u) â(v. all ë P R and all g P G. w2 . ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . u) T 0. . Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . (ëv)W ë(vW). As explained earlier. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. w) T 0. X X X . v) 2â(u. . Then v1 . v P VR . . that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . Since â(u v. By Theorem 23. v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. u n . iv1 . . and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . . v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . Then â(v1 . X X X . and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. u v) â(u. There exist u. v n . This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem.272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). . V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U).8. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w.

relating it to the internal structure of the group G. for irreducible characters ÷. 1 G i 1. 23. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. 1 or À1. b 0. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. if ÷ is not real. called the indicator of ÷. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Hence if h÷ 2 . we have @ 0. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. b b X À1. and the proof of the theorem is complete. if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. and V has character ÷. . then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . 2 h÷ . if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . Thus (1) implies (2). ì k P C). 1 G i 1.Real representations 273 (where ë j . b ` é÷ 1. which is always 0.

1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A . and the result follows. since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. ÷iX Therefore.274 23.15 Example Let G S3 . 23. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. W (é÷)÷. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.14 Theorem For all x P G.4.

(1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. four elements of G square to be 1. there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. (1 3) and (2 3). g P G)X In this way.8. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C. 23. namely 1. . (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. no elements square to be (1 2). Using this. By Proposition 8. squares to be (1 2 3). and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . (1 2). (1 3 2).14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. in accordance with Theorem 23. and one element. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. C becomes a trivial CG-module.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C.14.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19.

1.8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. v) (u v)W (u. v j g) â(v i . v j ) (1 < i. and for u. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i .276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. For g P G. v P V and g P G. so that v i v j (1 < i < n. Conversely. we have â(ug. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. and therefore é÷ T 0. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. . it follows by Proposition 8. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. v) (u v v u)W (u. X X X . De®ne â(u. and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . . Let v1 . v n be a basis of V. v n be a basis of V. Let v1 . the symmetric part of V V. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . Conversely. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. j < n) and extending linearly. . by Proposition 10. which is the character of the CG-module S(V V). Since â is symmetric. W is well-de®ned. . If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. Thus. As in (1). v j ) (1 < i < n.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. these can be determined in the following ways. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. (17) (Proposition 17. then ø 5 H is a character of H. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . Proposition 21. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy .6).14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G. if the order of g is a power of p. with values given by Proposition 21. then ø 4 G is a character of G. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). For example. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. then so is the product ÷ø. Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. where for all g P G.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23.14) If ÷ is a character of G.23. indeed.13.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. then so is ÷.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular.5). we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17.

Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. As a ®nal remark. it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. which can be deduced from the character table. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. . D8 and Q8 . the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. with the same character table. however.

this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. r .1. In particular. We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. is a ®eld. but not at all obvious. that is. but for a good 288 . 1. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. generated by 1. that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. with addition and multiplication modulo p. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. that is. Throughout the chapter. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. p will denote a prime number. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. p À 1g. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. It is also true. X X X .1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. Z p is an abelian group under addition. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition.

4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. B .1 we have 25.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. 11 and 13.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. qX Frobenius groups of order pq. 25.1). 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. 0 < j < q À 1. Bi. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. 5. These pq elements are dis- . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Then 1 u À1 B AB Au . we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. but not modulo 7.3 of the book by J. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . B. Now let q| p À 1. where q| p 2 1 25. such that u q 1 mod p. we refer you to Theorem 45. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. 0 1 0 u and let F hA. r .Characters of groups of order pq 289 account.

then G is generated by a and b. B. Passman listed in the Bibliography. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. p . p It is not hard to show that.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. The groups F p. bÀ1 ab au i. (Alternatively.3). Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). Now H v G. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. Moreover the relations (25.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. q. it follows that b has order q. S. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers.5) determine all products in F. since they have prime order.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. so we have the presentation F hA. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. as we shall only be dealing with F p.q . It follows from Exercise 22. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ .q ha.q . We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. Then either G is abelian. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). B: Ap Bq I. BÀ1 AB Au iX 25. 25. F p. up to isomorphism. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. where p and q are prime numbers with p .290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. Further. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. so jFj pq.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. b: a p b q 1. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. then we write F p.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic.

isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). b: ap bq 1. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. . this size is at most q. v r for S in ZÃ . j 25. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.3 . X X X . already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. We have now established that a p b q 1. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p.25 we dealt with F7. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u. Write r ( p À 1)aq. Therefore the order of u is q.q . and has the form stated in the proposition. and G would be abelian. and since kal < CG (av i ). (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. and choose coset representatives v1 . p 25. We now construct the character table of F p. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. Thus let G Fp. Thus p jSj q.q in general. and u has order q modulo p.q ha. in fact.8 Example By Proposition 25.q are f1g. The character table of F p.9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. and in Example 21. Hence (av i ) G has size q.7. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime. bÀ1 ab au .3.q We have.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2.

j By Proposition 25. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . G has precisely q linear characters. Let å e2ðia p .23. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . G has q r conjugacy classes. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. First. we have |CG (bn )| q. øv j s ihai hö j . so we seek q r irreducible characters. øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). . observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. as Gahai is abelian. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. for all s P S. let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. using Proposition 21. and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. hö j 5 hai.9. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p.11. For v P ZÃ . On the other hand. and kbl has index p in G.16. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m.

ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p . ö r are distinct. . Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . bÀ1 ab au i . q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. . 25. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. pÀ1 ha. we deduce that kö j .23. . the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . Then the group F p. Of these. sPS for 1 < j < r. ö j l G 1. X X X . ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. ö r 5 kal are distinct. We summarize in the following theorem. and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . b: a p bq 1. . This proves that ö j is irreducible. . ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal.10 in some examples.q ha. We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters. so we have the complete character table of G. 25.11 Example Let G F p. where v1 S. . . ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. . and hence ö1 5 kal. bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. Taking degrees. b: a p b pÀ1 1. 1 < j < r).

Character table of F5. You may like . the character table of F13.13 Example We consider the case p 13. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5). â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 . b: a13 b4 1.25 we found the character table of F7.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2. Then G has p À 1 linear characters. Here F13.4 is as shown opposite. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown.3. In Example 21.4 . bl.12 Example Let a. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25. and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 . q 4.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25.4 ha. then G F5. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka.10. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1. bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 .

2. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. If G has order pq. with p prime and q| p À 1. Character table of F13. 3.5 of order 55. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . p 0 x under matrix multiplication. Let p and q be positive integers.q are described in Theorem 25.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1.q ha. Let p be a prime number. y P Z p . b: ap bq 1. and de®ne . Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. q.10. 2. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Then p Fp. then either G is abelian or G F p. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. Exercises for Chapter 25 1.10. is a group of order p( p À 1). Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .q.

b. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . as in Exercise 5. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4.4. c: a3 b3 c2 1. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. 5. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 .296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha.16. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 .6. bÀ1 ab au i. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 .q in 25.q ha. 22 . By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. but E has no faithful irreducible representation.) 7. with p T 2. Note that ka. where u is an element of order q modulo p. b: ap bq 1. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. Suppose that p is a prime number. obtain the character table of E. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)).) 4. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). (Thus. b: ap bq 1. G2 ha. b: ap bq 1. X X X . cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. 6. Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. bÀ1 ab au i. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. ab ba. Q f12 .

Characters of groups of order pq 1. b: a9 b6 1. 6. 3. 3. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 3. 3. 3. 1. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 1. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 2. 1. 1. 3. 1. 2. 1. 1. 2. 3. 3. 3. 6. 1. 1. 1. 6. 297 . 3. 1. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 3. 6X 8. 3. 3. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1.

with references. 26. then G is abelian. have an abelian subgroup of index p. Proof (1) Since H v G. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. Therefore 298 . (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. all of which have size a power of p. In particular. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. p will be a prime number. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. and before explaining the method. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. Z(G) T {1}. indeed.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. At the end of the chapter we point out.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9.15).

Then by Exercise 12. Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26. j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups.1(2). k2 P K.8. 26. and so Z( H) > p2 . j and some k1 . As K < Z( H) and. generated by gK. by Lemma 26. k2 P Z(G). Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). Moreover. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic.1(2). Therefore G is abelian. Then by Theorem 12. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 . x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. Ha Z( H) is not of order p.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. Let x1 . Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . so suppose that 2 < n < 4.1(1). x2 P G. Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . Since k1 . recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. Let H CG (x).7). we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. we deduce that Z( H) H. and H is an abelian subgroup of index p.7. (3) By (1). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . Proof The result is immediate if n 1. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p. Then x1 g i k 1 . 26. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX . j Hj jGjajx G j p3 .

for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 .12.3. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. we have G9 < Ker ÷. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. By Theorem 17. and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. by Theorem 11.11. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. and therefore K < H. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G). again by Theorem 11. In the latter case.1(1). we have {1} T G9 v G. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G.12. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). each of degree p. Let Ö denote the set of linear .2. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. or (2) ø 4 G. Proof Let |G| pn . the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . we have KH H.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. h P H}).3. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. 26.

ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp . and the proof is complete. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. bZ such that Ga Z haZ. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. 1 hø 4 G. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. j We now use Theorem 26. Choose aZ.8. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G. Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H. As we saw in (Ã ).4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. By Proposition 21. since K < Z(G). Write Z Z(G). bZi. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 .23.1. By Lemma 26. Then .6.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . Therefore by (26.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic.5).16. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 .

Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. t < p À 1. s. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . t. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . ÷ u. v < p À 1).v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . s. and therefore g ar z t for some t. For 1 < u < p À 1.v is the linear character ÷ u. s. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G.302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u.v öu where for all r. Since ar P Z.8. as above. Write å e2ðia p .v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. @ ut if r s 0.v which appears in the statement of the theorem. 0 < v < p À 1). choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. s. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r.v (0 < u. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . so ar Z gZ. t with 0 < r. Proof By Theorem 9. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. and (1 < u < p À 1). 26. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. zl. på . Let H ka. where ø u.

In fact. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut .6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21.23. they are D8 and Q8. ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. And if p is odd. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26.4 (with K Z(G)). up to isomorphism. they are . We ®nd that 1 hö u . 12 ( p À 1) . and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G.v (0 < u. there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. If p 2.

Z( H2 ) kzl. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. b2 a4 .5. az za. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26.8. C8 3 C2 . b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. G2 ha. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. Hence GaK D8 . and H 2 ha. z: a p b p z p 1. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. By Theorem 9. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l.8. The elements a. b: a8 b2 1.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. G3 ha. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . it is possible to see.3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. b: a8 b2 1. b. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . C4 3 C4 . and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 . that all the nine groups G1 .7). We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. bz zb. b: a8 1. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26.6. using Exercise 26. . . bÀ1 ab a3 iX . C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that.1(2). b: a p b p 1. according to these three possibilities for GaK. bÀ1 ab a p1 i. . 26. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. up to isomorphism. .6.

bÀ1 ab az. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. b2 z 2 1. az za. of order 2). . z 2 1. G5 ha. The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . . b2 z. a6 a2 . bz zbiX . G6 ha. b2 z 2 1.4. bÀ1 ab azi. a3 C5 a3 . as before.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. C1 G1 . G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. and these are given in the following table. Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . C7 . z: a4 1. a7 a. G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. alternatively. z: a4 1. . a5 a5 . . but not in G3 . where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. b. b. K G9 Z(G). Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . z: a4 z. a6 C4 a. These are G4 ha. bÀ1 ab azi. G2 .4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. b. we obtain the character tables of G1 .6).

. of order 2). z: a4 z 2 1. b. G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. G8 ha. . a3 z b. C10 of all three groups G4 . bz zbi D8 3 C2 . for G5 .306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. G5 . az za. G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. a3 bz a. az za. b. . G6 X (C) Finally. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . bz zbiX . bÀ1 ab az 2 . G9 ha. The character tables of G4 . abz C10 a3 b. since a4 z in G4 . a2 bz C9 ab. there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). z: a2 b2 z 4 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 .4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . z: a4 b2 z 2 1. z is redundant). az za. These are G7 ha. a2 b2 . b. bz In each case. . bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . az a3 . K kzl.

G8 . a3 az. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. a2 bz ab.4. the groups. a3 b abz. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . abz 2 abz. az 3 b. G8 . are as follows: . G8 and G9 . a3 z z z 3 a. abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 .9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. and the character tables of G7 . bz 3 ab. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . for G9 . for G9 X 26. Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. with references for their character tables. a3 bz b. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9.8 and Section 18.3. given by Theorem 26. az 2 az. are as follows. bz 2 bz. a2 b bz. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less.

3 Theorem 25. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.8: groups of order 16.5 Exercise 18.6 Exercise 18.4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. 3. . Theorem 26. . as follows.10 Theorem 25.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 .3 Section 26. Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. Show that for some integer m > 2.2 Exercise 18. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5. 2. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 .3 Theorem 19.3 D12 3 C2 .1 Section 18.10 Theorem 19. .2 Exercise 18. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.1 Exercise 27. A4 3 C2 .18 Section 18. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .5 Theorem 26.18 Theorem 19.4 Exercise 18. n > 2). 1. . D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.6: groups of order p3 .8 Theorem 19. Section 26. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .3 Exercise 18. with an abelian subgroup H of index p.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter.18 Exercise 25. Q8 3 C3 .4 F7. Theorem 26. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. . Exercises for Chapter 26 1.

D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g. b2 a8 . . (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . and use Theorem 26. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. C. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . G3 . Write Z ÀI. ®nd the character table of G. b. B. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. G4 and G9 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. 0g e 0 and let G kA. and deduce that G9 h Zi.7)). Let G1 . 4. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 .6 to write down the character table of H. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. Dl. or otherwise. g 2 P h Zi. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. G6 . bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. 5. (b) Show that for all g in G. . and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32.3. 3. az za. C. B. Find the conjugacy classes of H. (Hint: use Corollary 9.4.) (d) Show that |G| 32. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. bz zb.Characters of some p-groups 2. . G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. b: a16 1. Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. . Let A. G2 .

8. Prove that a2 commutes with b. . bZ: a4 P Z. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi. . (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. 7.) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . . Prove that no two of the groups G1 . and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . G9 are isomorphic. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . . . and hence that a2 P Z. .) 6. . (a) Prove that if G is any group. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. . (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. a2 b2 mod Z. then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes.

The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. d P Z p . p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. with addition and multiplication modulo p. and we begin with a description of this family. d 311 . b. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. of order 60. b are arbitrary. p À 1. we count the matrices a b (a. In fact the group A5 . . . Denote by SL (2. A5 and A6 . and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. b. and d is determined by a). . d which make ad À bc 1 (since a. .27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. Then SL (2. b. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. c. c. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. p). p) is a group under matrix multiplication. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. except that a T 0. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table.

PSL (2. and we shall construct the character table of this group. together with the order of gi . p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2.26). 5) A5 . 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. 7) has order 168. J. p). and that for p > 5. the group PSL (2. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. By Exercise 27. and is written as PSL (2. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group.312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16.1. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. p) has order 6. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. The simple group G PSL (2. 3) A4 . the centre of SL (2.1 Lemma The group PSL (2. p) is Z fI. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 .4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. so assume that p is an odd prime. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. The factor group SL (2. p)| p( p2 À 1). we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. p) SL (2. the order of CG ( gi ). Therefore jSL (2. d may be chosen arbitrarily. and then b is determined). using information about subgroups. we have jPSL(2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). Thus PSL (2. 7) 27. . In the exercises.19 of the book by J. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . c is any non-zero element of Z p . p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2.

MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . the only elements with the same order are g5 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. . . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. Among g1 . . CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. . d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . for example. . a c b . . . g6 . Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. 5. 6. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . we verify that gi has the stated order. . Consider. X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . g4 . Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. .

Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. . except possibly g5 and g6 . d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0.8). (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 . . . . Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. so no two of these six elements are conjugate. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. it also has six irreducible characters. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . where ÷1 is the . Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . j The character table of G PSL (2. Let ÷1 . gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. (2) For some character ÷ of G.1. ÷( g5 ) is non-real. for 1 < i < 4. g6 are conjugate.16.19). .2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. . so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. 27. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. then ÷( gi ) is an integer. . a T 0. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. j Notice that using Lemma 27.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 .1. which is impossible for a P Z7 . .6. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12.

part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. Theorem 16.26 and 22. g3 . and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. Let di ÷ i (1). Now for all characters ÷ of G. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . . Æ1. we have by Corollary 22. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0.27. The entries in the column of g4 are integers. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2. by Corollary 27. for which the character values are known to be integers. 0. . . By .Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G). Æ1. 0 in some order.e.27 for the elements g2 . . The entries must therefore be 1. ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. 0. 0 in some order.4(2). Æ1. we see that. Æ1. Æ1. Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). and the entries in column g2 are 1. Æ1. Æ1. Æ2. the degrees ÷ i (1)). 0 in some order.2.) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. Æ1. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. ÷6 . g4 . 0. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1.

d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. In the same way. so as d 2 < 168. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. and hence d6 6.27. we have d2 7 and d3 8. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. The only solutions to this equation with d2. d 6 0 mod 2. d 4 1 mod 2. 8 in some order. d 6 divides 168. Theorem 22. d 4 divides jGj 168. Since d 2 1 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. Next. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . d3 equal to 7. we have d 4 0 mod 3.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. we have d6 T 12. d 6 0 mod 3. d5 3.

for j 5.2. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0. For this character ÷. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. Thus the column for g5 is . By Corollary 27. 3.) Also. the equation 1 h÷2 . (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. g4 . Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. 6. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . g3 . but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer.

5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2. . we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. 7). ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. as shown. We give you the character tables of all of these. Character table of PSL (2. we obtain p t À1.

b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}). 3. 7). We constructed the character table of PSL (2. 2. PSL (2. b. c. SL (2. p) SL (2. 8) PSL (2. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. 3. 7) A6 PSL (2. Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2.13 This chapter Exercise 20. d jSL (2. 7). 7) that this group is simple. 3). p)afÆIg. of order 21. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. the simple group of order 168. . and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. jPSL (2. Find the character table of SL (2.2 Exercise 28.3 Exercise 27. 4. given the conjugacy classes of G. ad À bc 1 . p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). p)j p( p2 À 1).6 & 1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. p)) fÆIg. p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. Prove that Z(SL (2. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . as in Lemma 27. 2. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G.1. d P Z p .

5. obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6.320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. 7). 7. (c). (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. 8 and 6. (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . 7). Let G SL (2. (d) From (a). Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. (b). with entries in the ®eld Z7 . The character table of SL (2.14).

. ÷9 . By considering the values of ø A on g1 . (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. ÷8 . gÀ1 . g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). . . 6. 11). ÷10 . and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G.Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. gÀ1 . . ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. . 8. (c) Let ÷7 . g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4.14). and congruences modulo 3.7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. 4. g6 . 6. The character table of PSL (2. g7 . and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. Find the character table of G. show that the degrees of ÷7 . (g) Complete the character table of G. prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. . (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . gÀ1 . respec5 6 7 8 tively. g8 . . 11). Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . 6. Let G PSL (2. ÷11 are 4. . g2 . .

C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. the distributive law holds. this is a daunting task. b. (F. with identity element 1. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use.28 Character table of GL(2. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . with identity element 0. as do the irreducible characters. However. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. Consequently. B. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. . ) is an abelian group. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. then (F Ã . At ®rst sight. R. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. Finally. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. Recall that a ®eld (F. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. In the last chapter and its exercises. 3) is an abelian group. First. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. For example. Secondly. c P F.

namely Theorem 28. (2) If r P F then r r q . t P F q . 3) is cyclic. 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . so s t P S. and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. It is now easy to check that (S. (28. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . The group (FÃ . it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. Hereafter. and hence S F q . Proof (1) Suppose that s. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. so S is a ®eld. we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F.5. and write q pn .Character table of GL(2. q) (28. (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. r 1q P S. in short. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . r 1q P S. . We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. ) and (Snf0g. Moreq over. You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter.2 with the ®eld F q . We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) . 3) are abelian groups. 28. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. ps 0. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . Then (s t) q s q t q s t. so r r q . We introduce the following useful notation. t P S.

The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. Next. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. of which three are easy to describe. Let G GL(2. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . Therefore. They size 1. c9g. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. b). giving us q 2 À 1 choices. and once (a. The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. cg fa9. we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. q). and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. q). (c. and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. giving us q 2 À q choices. q). b) can be any non-zero row vector. q) The general linear group GL(2. First. Here. b) has been chosen.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2.

t 0 1 1 0 d t.2. Now. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. if s T t. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. Thus. so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. the matrices d s.Character table of GL(2. v r P G.8. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . Finally. by Theorem 12. Thus. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. t d s. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. t (s. let s 0 d s. t P FÃ . t g if and only if b c 0. so.s X On the other hand. t P G (s. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. then we have that gd s. Now.

t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. b) T (0. described as follows. jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. If these conditions hold. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . 28. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s.326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). q).4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. r q P F q. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. Therefore. tg of distinct elements of FÃ . The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. 0) and r. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. r q g. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. j . q). t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. Class rep.

we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. sI ëi øi ø i. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. each of degree q. q) as in Proposition 28.Character table of GL(2. Thus. each of degree q À 1. t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. ø i. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. there are q À 1 characters ø i . j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s. we present a proposition which will be useful later. there are q À 1 characters ë i . 327 28. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . each of degree q 1.4. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. j we have 0 < i . each of degree 1. (d) For ÷ i.3). . Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. q) are given by ë i .6 Proposition Let K hvå i. Thus. 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. ø i . j . q) The characters of GL(2.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. ÷ i as follows. Then jKj q 2 À 1. (c) For ø i. Thus.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. j < q À 2. j . we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. Hence.

5. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . whose values appear in Theorem 28.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . the irreducible characters ë i .8 Proposition For all integers i. 28. in turn. so vå has order q 2 À 1. 28. t si t j s j t i vr 0 . are as follows.4. ø i. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28.5. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. as described in Proposition 28. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable.7 are all the linear characters of G. j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s. sI ø i. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . and they are given in Theorem 28. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq .5. j We shall construct. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. ø i . Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . j there is a character ø i. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28. i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I.

ë i i.i . j ( g) jC G ( g)j .i . j is a character of B.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. where g9 d t. 28. j ( g) ø i.i ë i ø i . We use Proposition 21. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. j ( g) ë i. ø i. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i. ø i.8 gives us ø i. we calculate hø i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i.i . To this end. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 .i which appears in Proposition 28.Character table of GL(2. j are as stated in the proposition. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q.i i and hø i. j ( g9) ø i. j ëi. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài .9 Proposition For each integer i. j ( g) 0X j Hence. j 4 G. as follows. g sI : g us : g d s.23 to calculate ø i. t : g vr : ø i. We have hø i.5. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. De®ne ë i. the values of ø i. We let ø i.

Then ø i : d s. The remaining terms in hø i.i . ø i. Using the values of ø i.i .i i are calculated in a similar fashion. Subtract ë i from ø i.i i 2 imply that ø i. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). j .i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1. we obtain hø i.i . j which appears in Proposition 28. Next. t : s.8. ø i.8 is irreducible. j < q À 2. note that fd s.i . B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. and if ó : d s. Proof We shall show that hø i.1 3 s i . (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. hø i. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . q To evaluate C.i (sI)ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations. (1) ø i. j 28. j i 1. ë i i 1 and hø i. Then the character ø i. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i. j i A B C.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i .5. tg of distinct elements of FÃ .i (sI) (q 1)2 . j . ø i. ø i. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2.330 Representations and characters of groups sI.

11 Corollary The characters ø i. we see that ø i. j is irreducible. hó . j differs from ø i9. j 28.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. We must prove that ø i.Character table of GL(2. Therefore. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . Therefore. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. j T ø i9. j9 ë j9.12 Proposition For each integer i. j ë j. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. j) T (i9. hø i.i T ë i9. In either case. j9 < q À 2. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. j9). j characters of G. j9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. and (i. for 0 < i .8. j i 1. t 0 vr r i r iq . ó i 2X That is. Thus.i9 . j ë j. j T ø i9. We have s b ë i. 28. ø i. and ø i. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j9 . j . Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. ø i. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group.

we shall the use the following lemma.6.6. Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. as in Proposition 28. respectively. t (s T t). Thus. by Proposition 28. á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . ö i has the values stated in the proposition. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . by Proposition 28.13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . Then. . In order to calculate ö i . j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i .6. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. Now. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. Also.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i. 28.

For G1. Recall the characters ø i. t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. Now.Character table of GL(2. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq . q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. since r q r for r P FÃ. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0. and for G2.14 Proposition For each integer i. j . Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28.12.i À ö i X . Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters.Ài ø i À ø0. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. 28. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 .8.9 and 28.

q) to ®nd the . as in Proposition 28. Suppose that g P K. with integer coef®cients. If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i . ÷ i T ÷ j . iq mod(q 2 À 1). t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. h÷ i . Therefore. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i. so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q .13. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. 0. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) . We work out h÷ i . iq mod(q 2 À 1). j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. and h÷ i . it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G.5. q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq .334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. and the number of them is q 2 À 1.Ài ø i ø0. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. assume that (q 1) T j i. Proof Let K hvå i. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. Since j T i. j 28.6. sI ø0. as we wished to show.Ài øi ø0. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters.

q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. q). A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. Then. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. J. q) PSL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. q) for all positive integers n.2. We do not go fully into this. A. q) when q is a power of 2. q). you are asked to consider the easiest case. in 1955. q) has the following properties. t (s T t). q). (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. Green determined the character table of GL(n. Since SL(2. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. Although the character table of GL(2. q). and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. q) 335 character table of SL(2. though. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . q) was found. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted.Character table of GL(2. q) was ®rst given in 1907. Among the characters of SL(2. namely that where q is a power of 2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. q). (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. since the answers are quite complicated. In Exercise 28.

q) Z 3 SL(2. 2. Suppose that q is a power of 2.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. Use Theorem 28.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . q) from that of GL(2. Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2. Exercises for Chapter 28 1.2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. 8). q). 3). q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. q) is simple. 3. Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. Prove that q GL(2. . Use your solution to Exercise 28.

337 . and develop some useful results.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . F F F . j < n. if Ù f1. then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. ng. ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. jg of elements of f1. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). If Ù is a set. F F F . denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. 2. ng. Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. In particular. i. (1 2)ö sends f1. 3g 3 f2. jg( gö) fig. (So for example. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . 3g. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi.e. 29.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. F F F .12 below). particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. a subgroup of Sn for some n.

De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. b P F q . For example. there exists g P G such that á g â. G is transitive if. g P G. â P Ù. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . Write orb(G. q). in other words. given any á. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. Adopting this notation. â P Ù. say. b)i 3 h(a. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. generated by x. ö is an action of G. With this notation.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. as de®ned in Chapter 28. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. To simplify notation. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. 29. b) with a. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). h P G. Ù) 1.

6g and f7. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . and hence jÄj jù G j. f5. and in Example (4). so ù G fù g : g P Gg. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. so Gù is a subgroup. 4g.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. Clearly ã is also surjective. q) such that vA w. 8g. simply observe that. Moreover. 3. Observe that for x. 8g. Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. For ù P Ù.1(2. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. hence gh P Gù . y P G. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. 29. F F F . 4). given two right cosets Hx. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. This is clear in Example (2). 2. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. that is. namely f1. Also gÀ1 P Gù . Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. and Gù contains the identity. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. In other words. and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. 3. as required. Hy P Ù.

g) : ù P Ù. By Proposition 29. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. though elementary. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. 29. ù g ùg. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication. Then 1 hð. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. F F F . is rather famous. As in Chapter 13. hence . The next result.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. and for each i. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . for each g. g P G. called the permutation module. and let ð be the permutation character. pick ù i P Ä i .3. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. First. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. then for g P G. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. We calculate jÖj in two different ways.

then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. for each ù. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . ù2 ) g (ù1 g. ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. Now let G be a group. . the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . 29. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively.6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. 29. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively.4.6 in a number of situations.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. g P G. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. and the conclusion follows. ð2 i orb(G. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. 1 G i 1.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. Then hð1 . In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 .

Then Ä f(ù.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. Ù) orb(G. and hence certainly r(G. then ð 1 G ÷. and hð. Ù) 2. written r(G.8. with á1 T á2 . 29. ði 2 by Proposition 29. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. Proof We have hð. 29. with permutation character ð. Ù). g P G. Then r(G. 29. The result follows. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . for any ordered pairs (á1 . Ù) hð.5. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. j . using Theorem 14.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù.6. G is 2-transitive if. ù2 P Ù. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. á2 ) and (â1 . ù2 g) for all ù1 . namely (ù1 .9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. â1 T â2 .17. Ù) > 2.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. with permutation character ð. 1. In other words. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29. Thus r(G. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. 29. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj .

fk. fk.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. Ä2 f(fi. 2g. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. F F F . Then v1 . Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . q) given in Example 29. Also An is 2-transitive. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. for each partition ë. let (hv1 i. ng. f2.1. F F F . (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. jg fk. where Ä is as above. lg) : jfi. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 .1(3).15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. f3. jg. To see this. 3g). lgj 1g. hv2 i 3 hw2 i. v2 and w1.16. lg) : jfi. By Theorem 15.3. as claimed. for example. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. 2g. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. giving an element of GL(2. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter). and so ð 1 G ÷ ø. w2 are both bases of V. A key aim is therefore to construct.17). In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. 4g) to (f1. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. 19. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù.1(2). ði r(G. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. an irreducible character ÷ ë . and we call such a sequence a partition of n.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . lgj 0gX Thus hð.Permutations and characters 343 29. This action is not 2-transitive. since. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. Ä1 and Ä2 . jg fk. Ù) 3. Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. with n > 4. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. and Ä1 f(fi. jg. 19.5. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. provided n > 4.

ik g P I k and any g P G. Let G Sn and I f1. on the character theory of Sn . F F F . k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F .12 Proposition If l < k < na2. let Ag fi1 g. ÷ ( nÀ k.10. J s f(A. The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. 2.1) . giving the conclusion. and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. ÷ ( nÀ1. k) X In particular. if you want to see this. F F F J l . F F F . but we do not do this. J 1 . j 29. k). ÷ ( nÀ k. Just as in Example 29. Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. ÷ ( nÀ m. m) such that for all k < m. For an integer k < na2. and much more. hð k . ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. James listed in the Bibliography. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 . ÷ ( nÀ2. by induction on k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ ( nÀ1. The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 .2) .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . Proof By Proposition 29. Then . ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k .1) .1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 . we refer you to the book by G. a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. in a natural way. This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. then hð k . Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29. B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G. Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k. ng. ð l i l 1. k) . ð l i orb(G. where for 0 < s < l.13 below). de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. F F F .6. I k 3 I l ) l 1.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k.13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even. F F F . I k 3 I l ).

2) . 2. j 29. k) . 1 G i. k.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. k) . . Now by Proposition 29. The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. 3. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G. hð k . An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù).Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . ði. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. ð kÀ1 i k. ÷ (5. F F F .17. ÷3 . If G is 2-transitive then r(G. The number of orbits is equal to hð. as required. we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1.1) . ÷ (4. 4. and the corresponding character of G is ð. and r(G. ÷ ( nÀ k1. ÷7 . ÷ (3.13. ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷.12. the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ ( nÀ1.3) . k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. ð1 i 2.i) for all i . Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. For example. Summary of Chapter 29 1. the degree is n n ( nÀ k. kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. hð k . hð k . k) . The rank r(G.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k.2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. 1 G i 1. where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. F F F . Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. Ù) hð. hð k . k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. respectively.1) . The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) .14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k.

1(2). Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2.5). and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷.) . which is transitive. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. 3.18. Let G be a ®nite group. For i 1. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. g. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. h P G. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã.) 4. 2. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . Let q V Ã V À f0g. 5.5. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . and let H 1 . g P G. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. Let G be a ®nite group. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. Let G GL(2. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29.1(4). H 2 be subgroups of G. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. and ®nd the kernel of ö. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. Prove that if G is abelian. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. then jÙj q 1.1(3)). Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0.

(i.1.1) . j) g (ig. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. jg) for g P Sn ). ng and i T j. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1. and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2.1) ? .1) . Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2.2) ÷.1) ÷ ( nÀ2.17.Permutations and characters 347 6. Let n be a positive integer.13.1. F F F . where ÷ is an irreducible character.1. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely. prove that ð( nÀ2. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29. j) with i. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i.1) .1. j P f1. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1.

seeing whether or not the group is simple. .1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group.19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. as we shall demonstrate.22 that the class sums C1 . Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . 348 . . Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. and so on ± require little calculation. . C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). . Recall from Proposition 12. . the dihedral group of order 8. The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. These constants carry information about the multiplication in G.30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. . . . 30. known as the class algebra constants. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G.

C l . j. the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i.4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. . From their very de®nition.Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. . C l is a basis of Z(CG). 30. . Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. k. As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. .2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. . you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. b P Cj and ab g. b P Cj and ab gX Also. b) with a P Ci . . .1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). The result follows. 30. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . since C1 . and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . b) with a P Ci . This number is a non-negative integer. Then for all i. . we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G.

Theorem 16.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m . Then by Lemma 22.5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Let G S4 . the character table of G is as shown: .7. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. By Section 18. Multiply both sides of equation (30. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.1. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. these results can readily be proved directly.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 .4(2).

24 a235 X (1 1) 4.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha. S4 does not possess elements a. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 . We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. we have x 4 1. (3) Finally. In fact. by (30. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. Writing x ab. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence. We supply a . and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. so ka. S4 is generated by a and b. bl D8.3).4. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. (2) By Theorem 30.

4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2. 7) is as follows. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 .6 ± in the meantime. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious.7 Example We use Theorem 30. and it is quite tricky to construct directly. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. 7) Class rep. Character table of PSL (2. 30.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 .

yl of G. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . by (30. being a normal subgroup of S4 . an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . so H is isomorphic to S4 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . S4 aKer ö H. y has order 3 and xy has order 4. we know that S4 ha.20). By Theorem 1. namely xy. is {1}.3). all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. a dihedral group of order 8. A4 or S4 (see Example 12.6. By Theorem 30. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). . 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 . G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. given a ®nite group C. Since H has an element of order 4. C2 or {1}. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. Then G has order 168 or 360. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. Now Ker ö. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. From Example 30. Let H be the subgroup kx. V4 .19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. 30. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2.4. S3 .10. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography).

354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360.e. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. where a. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. We shall not prove this. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. 30. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). contrary to assumption. À1 subgroups. a basic result in ®nite group theory. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. if P Q are Sylow p. hence is an odd permutation.1). The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. If u is an involution in G.2(4)). one can show that PSL(2. we require a couple of preliminary results. g P G (see Example 29. then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q.8. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. 30. but refer you to Theorems 18.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. b are positive integers and p T j b. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2. Hence fixÙ (u) Æ.3 and 18.4 of the book by J. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. This means that in its action on Ù. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x.

By Lemma 26. hø.9(3).0 Finally. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. the centre of D. This contradiction completes the proof. øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above. if H is a subgroup of a group G. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H.1(1) we have Z(P) T 1.19 and Corollary 21. In particular. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H. The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. and hence Z(P) hti. ÷i n÷ . Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. so t P D. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. Therefore P < . we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. and as t commutes with all elements of D.20 hold for generalized characters ø. and each n÷ P Z. and hence Z(D) hti. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. Proof of Theorem 30. By Theorem 30. we have t P Z(D). there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. Certainly t commutes with itself.12)).

Next. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. èi Now for 1 T c P C. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D. bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . and 0 elsewhere. Then t a2 . Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. 1 G i h1 C À ë. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i. The rest is character theory. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). (In particular. è(1) 0. 1 C i 1.12) that . giving (30. As t a2 is the only such involution. Since t c or c2. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. Since è vanishes on D À C. a generalized character of D. èi hè. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. Write D ha. and so it follows from (30. In other words.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. aÀ1 . whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c).) Hence hè. and so P D. Now hè 4 G. Proposition 21. è 4 Gi 3X To see this.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. èi 3. hè 4 G. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. we must have g À1 tg t. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. èi 3. Then è takes the value 2 on a. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G.10. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. the value 4 on t. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . We summarise what we have proved so far: (30.12). and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D).11).356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D.3(3). By Lemma 30. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G.20). And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0.

13) and (30. ãi h1 C À ë. Note that by Corollary 13. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. and hence x P D by (30. 357 where á.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly.11). We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 .4 yields the following.13) we have .14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. (30. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand. by Frobenius Reciprocity. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. where á. â are irreducible characters of G. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. If c xy with x. For g P G. then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30. By (30. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. y P t G .Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â. First. Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷. ã 5 Ci. Hence Theorem 30. Therefore h1 C À ë. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4. hè 4 G.10.3). from (30. â are irreducible. similarly y P D.13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â. (30. we have now proved the following. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30. á(t) and â(t) are integers.

It follows that r 3 and d 9. Finally. and hcf (d À 1.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1. Then (30. giving jGj 360. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. suppose that e 2. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . d) 1.8. .4(2). Moreover. we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . Given groups G and H. giving d 6 and jGj 168. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. Suppose now that e 1.8. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . d 1) is 1 or 2. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. from which it follows that e 1 or 2. j Summary of Chapter 30 1. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. Then (30. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above. and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. we deduce that d 2 23 .

given at the end of Chapter 27. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. then G A5 . Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. (ab)7 1l. Use the character table of PSL (2. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. Using Sylow's Theorem. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2.6. to prove that PSL (2. b has order 3 and ab has order 7.Applications to group theory 359 3. b: a2 b2 1. Does PSL (2. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. â (1 À 5. Does PSL (2. 7). Exercises for Chapter 30 1.13). 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha.) For the next three exercises. and that G has the character table shown. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. The character table of PSL (2. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . Suppose that G is a group. 2. together with lots of ingenious character theory.

360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. 6. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168. Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4.9. 7. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . 8. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 . p). show that G A6 . (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2.6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. 360 respectively. Prove that PSL(2.) t such that . (d) Using Exercise 23. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 .

For example. b. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. then no group of order pa q b is simple. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. until H. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. Let á be an algebraic number. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. Indeed. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. Bender found one in 1972. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . which we now describe.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful.2) which is concerned with character values. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á.

and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. . For an elementary proof of this. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . .9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. We prove that ÷( g) 0. . Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9. see Pollard and Diamond. . (31. and let g P G. ù9 are roots of unity. Alternatively. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9.2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. By (31. ù d | < |ù1 | . . and if 0 . Proof Let ÷(1) d. and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . where á9 is a conjugate of á. Section 3. Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . Chapter V. ù d . Moreover. j÷( g)a÷(1)j .362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. . We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer.1). . . If á is an algebraic integer.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. where each ù i is a root of unity. |ù d | d. By Proposition 13. Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1). . 31. 1. .1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

364

Representations and characters of groups

that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

t â2 ) (1.) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . t â2 ) (1. at each atom the three coordinate axes . that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. with corresponding eigenvectors (1.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . 1) á2 sin ( q . we assign three coordinate axes.5). At the equilibrium position of each atom. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. â2 . Thus. á2 . 1) Mode 1: p Here. It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. so it is the general solution. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. for the moment. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. entries which are determined by Assume. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. For the matrix given in (32. They are as follows. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration.5). 1) and (1. x1 Àx2 sin ( q . the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . â1 . À1).

and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors.6). we look for normal modes of the system. A has real eigenvalues. from physical considerations. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. To solve the equation of motion (32. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u. for the general case. 32.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A.8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32.6). Now. Therefore we have the following proposition. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 32. which we de®ne next. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. It can be shown. 32. In particular. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric.

10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. R3 n is an RG-module. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. which is nonsense.6) (as (32. ù or 0) in a normal mode.7. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. j Proposition 32. negates v2 and v3. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. By construction. Then g ®xes v1 . Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors.6). Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. and we shall describe a method for doing this. However. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. interchanges v4 and v7. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. and . Thus. by Proposition 32. with eigenvector u. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. and for 1 < i < 9. 32.

Àx8 . j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. and let g P G. x7 . vA ëv for some ë P R. x5 . Àx2 . x3 . Therefore. In effect. x2 . and hence . since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. x8 . Àx3 . x4 .11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . The equations of motion are x xA. For all vectors v in the basis. (xg)A (xA) g. and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. Àx9 . with eigenvalue Àù2 .7). Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. x9 ) g (x1 . Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. x6 . 32. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. and let v be a corresponding eigenvector.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . by de®nition. v g is an eigenvector of A. The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. Àx5 . x4 . For all g in G. it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. x7 .

so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ .) 32. By Proposition 11.3. by Proposition 32. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. Therefore. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice.8. 32. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. problems like this are uncommon. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷.) j .13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. (Although Proposition 11.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. and the normal modes of the molecule. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ .27)).376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed.11. this function is zero. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n .

14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. where â is an arbitrary constant. to obtain R3n .) Since V÷ is A-invariant. then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. to make further progress. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. then see Remark 32. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. If V÷ i is reducible. so it must equal V÷ . 32. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma.13).19 below. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. (5) Consider. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . with eigenvalue ë. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. This programme can often be successfully completed. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. or by some other method.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. with eigenvalue Àù2 . (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. in turn. say. (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. Then R3 n is an RG-module.7. or Exercise 32.14). It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A.

We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. Since (x1 .16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). x2 ) g (x2 . 1). For simplicity. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). .4. we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. À1).4. u2 (1. generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . ù2 are the frequencies. 32. À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1. . â2 are constants and ù1 . The displacement vectors (x1 .17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. where u1 (1. 1). so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i. x1 ). where â1 . as shown. This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. x2 ) form an RG-module R2 .378 Representations and characters of groups 32. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. . Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. . x6 ) in R6 .

Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. v2 . For example. if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. As a matter of notation. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18.1).3. then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. x1 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. These include the rotation and translation modes. ÷2 . x6 . then (x1 . x3 . And from the action of b given above. which occur for every molecule. x4 . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. v2 . we see that ÷(b) 0. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. x5 . ÷(a) 0. Thus. if v1 . x6 )b (x2 . ÷3 and ÷3 . To do this. v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. x4 . x5 . . It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . x2 .

v2 and v3. and is called the translation submodule. 1)). À1. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . Indeed. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). so the character must be ÷3 . À1. v3 ) has dimension 2. Since v1 v2 v3 0. and so ÷ R ÷2 . ÷ R (b) À1. the subspace sp (v1 . The mode is given by (t â)v. 1. pictorially. v2 . 1. À1. 0. . 0. À1. The modes are of the form (t â)v. it does not contain the rotation submodule. 1. where v (1. the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. then ÷ R (1) 1. 0. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . À1.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. 1. 0). À1). these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. ÷ R (a) 1. À1. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 . v2 (1.27)). 1. We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . 0. À1). sp (v) R6 å2 . 1. v3 (0.

18(3)) below). and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. u3 . where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. and are called vibratory modes. Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. u3 among themselves.11). Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Finally. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. R6 has dimension 3. every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . and we summarize our ®ndings below. with character ÷vib . u2 . u2 . it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 . The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. moreover. so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero.

u1 À u3 pictorially.) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion.18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . In order to .382 (32. 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 .

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. x2 . PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). Q9.) Similarly. From the diagram. x4 . 2 k In the same way. X X X . For a general displacement (x1 . so that we may ignore second order terms. the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 . denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. R9. Let m be the mass of each atom. we now calculate the equations of motion. . x5 . x3 . x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. x6 ). 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore.

where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . x6 .2. .20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. . The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32. 32.17. Label the corners of . The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32.18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . In our next example. .14).19 Remark In Example 32.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32. . the situation is more complicated. 32.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A.

v24 . v31 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. respectively. w3. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . jX Thus. We now introduce a new idea.jg for all i. (2 3 4). v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. w2. v42 . The action of G on V is easy to describe. v23 . v41 . thus. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. 23. let v21 . in all. v14 . and so on. v23 . and identify G with S4 . G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. 4. 3. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . 14. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. v32 . for example. by taking four unit vectors w1. giving twelve vectors v ij . Let v12 . v21 . w2. v43 . 13. for g in G. 2. as shown below. v13 . 24. Then V R12. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. w4. similarly. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. v34 . v13 . (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. we have v ij g v ig. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules.

The group G acts on W as follows. p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ). We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . . the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. 3. w4 0. ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . 387. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. 5. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3).27)). ÷3 . for g in G. and so on.1. 4) to R15 . we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only.386 Representations and characters of groups For example. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ). . j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. .

p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .

388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. for example. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. (Compare. we have pi g Æ p j for some j. we have q i g Æq j for some j. q2 . p2 . Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . Let W3 sp (q1 .17. Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. p3 . its character is ÷3 .) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ). p4 ). . Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). the dimension of W3 is 2. q3 ). The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule.) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. so dim W5 3. then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. Since q1 q2 q3 0. if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. Therefore.

all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A. r2. De®ne the vectors r1. We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ). r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. by Corollary 32. r3. W 5 and W3 which we have found so far.14. r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ).) .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ).

Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. Next. s1 s2 s3 s4 0. . so r1. s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). 1 < i < 4). r2.24). s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. r3. s3 . r3. s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. r2. r4 among themselves. de®ne the vectors s1 . we have ri g rig. s2 . s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ).

We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. the space W does not enter our calculations. and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. w2 . and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. The sum of W 4 . To see why. w4 span W. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. 9 (32. In this case. and the character of W is ÷4 . r2 À 2s2 . . The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. r3. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . (2) The vectors r1. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. Since dim (V È W )÷4 9.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . r2. and no central atom. 1 < i < 4). in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . in fact.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . we have wi g wig ( g P G. w1 w2 w3 w4 0. look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. w3 . so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. W 4 and W is direct. r3 À 2s3 . Now recall that w1 . s2 . s3 .19).

s2 . The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. s1 .5). we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. But for all h P H. s1 . namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . w2 ) is A-invariant. Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . s3 . w3 )X Therefore. w2 is again B. have been calculated. . the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . r1 (1 2) r2 . where U 3 sp (r3 . r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). w1 )X Once the equations of motion. s1 (1 2) s2 . r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. w1 (see Exercise 32. A similar remark applies to U3. Better still. s2 . w1 is easy to ®nd. r1 h r1. One eigenvector of A acting on r1. w1 (1 2) w2 . and the matrix of A acting on r2. the space U 2 . s1 . and since A commutes with the action of G. and so dim U1 3. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . and hence the matrix A. 1 H i H 3.392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. By means of representation theory.

The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . (b) Let C (det B)B. and let e1 (1. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . then tr B 1 2 cos ö. If u is an eigenvector of A. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. 1. and is called a normal mode. 0). 2. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . 0). and Àb is a rotation otherwise. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. 4. The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. e2 (0. 3. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). Exercises for Chapter 32 1. e3 (0. . 0. with eigenvalue Àù2 . 5. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. If V÷ i is irreducible. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. Deduce that det B Æ1. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 1). then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. 0. 2. e2 .

. w1 .20. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . w3 as described in Example 32. 3. r3. and verify that A is symmetric. b b X 0.) 4. if g is not a rotationX 3.20.20. w2 . (See the paragraph before Proposition 32.7.17. r4 given in Example 32. What property of r1. r3. v43 . r2. v13 . if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. r2. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. 2. X X X . Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö). r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3.

3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . x31 . x24 . Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. p1 . and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . p3 . x32 . show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). x23 . j . 34. (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. x14 . q1 . 24. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x21 . and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. Also. 23. show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. 14. Also. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. i. Finally. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. Finally. 03. p2 . q2 . Verify that the vectors v ij . x34 .

and use Exercise 23. eigenvectors of A. (b) Calculate the equations of motion. 6) is an eigenvector of B. s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . . we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible.) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . . . .396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . . (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. . We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix.20. . (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. where the vectors r1. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. x xA. are eigenvectors of A. 7.20. indeed.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. then Au Av . . X X X . In this exercise. . . let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . s1 .8. 6. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. sp (uW1 . w1 are as in Example 32.15(5). uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. (See 32. Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . À2. uW m . . For 1 < i < m. È Um. Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 . (f) Verify that p (1.

3. and D2 m hc. (a) Using the method of Example 1. so ì is an isomorphism. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. c2 }. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. If G were in®nite. 0 < j < 1. so G An v G.4. we may choose h P G with h P An . The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . d: cm d 2 1. 0 < k < 1. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. so kgl G. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . where m is odd. Ker ö {1. 2. a2 } and Ker ø {1. b: a2 m b2 1.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. G An f g P G: g is even}. 5. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. and G T {1} since G is simple. and so G is cyclic of prime order. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Let D4 m ha. since G is abelian. either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. Since G An T G. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. Let x (c( m1)a2 . 1). Check that x 2 m y 2 1. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. À1) and y (d. and if Ker W G then H f1g. 4. hence G is ®nite.4. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. Check using the method of Example 1. First. (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. For all odd g in G. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. Therefore g p 1. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms.

where H { g P G: gn 1}. These relations show that every element of the group kA. so dj j. Partition G into subsets f g. and so x is a power of y. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. 0 < k < 1. with 0 < j < 7. Finally. k. by Lagrange's Theorem). (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. Now kxl and k yl have order n. h P G then gh T 0. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). so gh P G. also H has order n. g À1 g has size 1. 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. by part (b). De®ne matrices A. A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. yl. Since r . À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. then x. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. k. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. . kA. also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. If g. y P H. ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . If g P G and g n 1. 8. Bl has order 16. If g. 1) and x m (1. Hence. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. we have r 0. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . h. which is a cyclic group of order n. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. g À1 g ( g P G). so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. are all distinct. B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . hence g P kad l. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. Moreover. Choose k as small as possible such that k . it contains x 2 (c. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. 9. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. First observe that there exists i . and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. 7. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. 0 and a k P H. Since Im W kx. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. Thus G is a group under multiplication. thus H is cyclic. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. 0 such that ai P H. Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. 6. r with 0 < r . We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q.

w P W and ë P F. . . Hence H v G. v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. ur . w s . w1. . . hence they form a basis of V. . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. 5. . (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. ì j in F. w1. (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). ì s ws for some ë i . . it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . . and so gÀ1 Hg H again. 3. ws is a basis of V. gH are a the two left cosets. . the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. 4. . If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . so Ker W {0}. . This shows that V U È W. Conversely. Therefore Hg gH. . If u. Let u. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. First suppose that V U È W. As W is surjective and injective. . ur . Then V U W. Therefore u1 . . . similarly ì i 0 for all i. . . ur are linearly independent. V U È W. ur . . so W is surjective. ws span V. If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. Since such expressions are unique. F F F . . . so by Exercise 3. hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. ë r ur ì1 w1 . ì j P F. u2 P U and w1. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. By (2. . . Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct.Chapter 2 399 10. It is easy to see that V U W. ur . F F F . ws are linearly independent. while H. . Thus W is injective. If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . Ker W {0}. Thus U W {0}. Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. .12)). ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . suppose that u1 . Therefore u1 . . . this forces ë i 0 for all i. since u1 . so Im W V (by (2. we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. . Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. And if g P H then H. . . u r . . and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. v 0. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. . . Since W is a linear transformation. . Chapter 2 1. . j.12). w s .7)). w1. Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. . and so u v. . . Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). . F F F . . Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. . 2. W is invertible. . so u À v P Ker W {0}. w1 . since u is a linear combination of u1 . Let v P U W. Assume ®rst that V U È W. we have u1 . Since V U È W. (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. . w1. ws are linearly independent. w2 P W. . .

. Let V R2. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. . Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. dim (U2 È . 1)). . . 1 2 3 1 Similarly.10)). 2. First. . 0). Then u1 . then clearly W2 W. È Ur ) (see (2. so v 0. and so r is a representation. . Assume that ui . U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. . Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. Therefore V U È W. 2 2 2 À vW) P W. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. Similarly. so V T Im ö È Ker ö. y) 3 ( y. . Conversely. ur . assume that Am I. . Therefore for all integers i. . dim Ur.400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. . By Exercise 4. . w1. . . U3 sp ((1. so W is a projection. 1)). Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. 0)). . so dim V dim U1 . 9. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. so V Im W È Ker W. Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . dim Ur. 6. 1)). . The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. È Ur ) dim U2 . Thus V U W. if [W]B has the given form. 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. 0)). De®ne W. . . 7. Similarly. . 0)). If v P U W then v vW Àv. j. suppose that r is a representation of G. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . . 0) and ö: (x. ur for Im W and a basis w1. Hence by Exercise 1. if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. Ker W sp ((0. . 8. Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. . by Exercise 3. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. ws for Ker W. . Take a basis u1 . . but r1 is not. say B. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. More generally. so u1 u9 . Let v P V. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. by induction on r. m À 1 and i . U2 sp ((0. and U1 sp ((1. . È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . if V U1 È . Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. each r j is a representation. so 1(v vW) P U. Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. by Exercise 4. . of V. (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely.32. ws is a basis. . u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . y) 3 (x.

But r2 and r3 are not faithful. (1) For all g P G. so r1 is faithful.10.Chapter 3 3. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. F) is abelian. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. T ÀB. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. T B.4). so r is equivalent to ô. 6. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. T B. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this.2(1). we have S 6 T 2 I. T D. so ó is equivalent to r. hence r is equivalent to r. By Theorem 1. 5. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). then a2 r j T I. 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. b: a4 b2 1. (3) S ÀA. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. GaKer r Im r. (2) S A3 . IÀ1 (gr)I gr. 0 < s < 1) are all different. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. But Im r < GL (1. 8. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. 7. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. Similarly r4 is faithful. 4. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. And if j T 3. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. . (4) S C. (To ®nd T. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. Compare Example 3. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. F) and GL (1. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G.) If j T 2. then a3 r j T I.

we have v g P V . and (vg)h v. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. Let V R4. a a Then v(gh) Àv. so V is an FG-module. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3.2. v in V and ë in F. since either vg v vh (if g. By Theorem 4.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. assume that gh P An . We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. since one of g. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. and (vg)h Àv. For all u. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. h P Sn . If we put . g P Q8. v1 v. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. B2 A2 . Assume ®rst that gh P An . Then v(gh) v.2. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. h is in An and the other is not. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. (ëv) g ë(v g). 3. Let v P V and g. Next. h P An ). Let g P Sn .4(1).

À1) belongs to U. Therefore ó is reducible. ` 1. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. â)a (á À â.Chapter 5 then for all i. Let G D12 and let r1 . It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. Then (á. since ó is equivalent to r. and let (á. To solve the exercise. â) P U with (á. À1)) and V. n. 1. . 1). and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. á â) P U. where vg v(gr1 ) for . 0. sp ((1. 3. and (á. â) À (á. 0. k . 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. 1. 0). row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. â À á) P U. â) T (0. j X k1 Hence PA B. 4. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. â) (á. 0. 1) or (1. 0. 2. v4 (0. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. 0. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. First consider the FG-module V F 2. we deduce that (1. .5. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. sp ((1. Then ó is equivalent to ô. . 1)). v2 (0. then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q. the proof is similar to that for the rows. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . . 0. â)a (á â. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. Chapter 5 1. pij X 0. v3 (0. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. 0). 0). 0).

0 < k < 1)X that |ka. g P G. 1)a À(1. bl| 9 and ka. by the solution to Exercise 1. Then (1. 5. bl with g1 r g2 r. 0 < j < 2. (b) Let å 0 ç A . we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. Therefore r is never faithful. bl T G. either (1. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. (a) It is easy to check the given relations.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. Hence sp ((1. À1) lies in U. 1)b. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. since r1 and r4 are equivalent. c}. (See Example 5. let u be (1. 0 0 . 1) (1. jGj Therefore jGj 18. 1) or (1. if å ç 1 then sp ((1. However. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. Since (1. if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. Then U is an FH-module. (c) For every element g of ka. g P G. 1) and (1. On the other hand. g P G. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. so r is reducible.4). Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. it is clear Hence. by an argument similar to that for r1. then U is a CHsubmodule. it follows that dim U > 2. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. where H is the subgroup {1. accordingly. AB BA. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X .5(2) for an alternative argument. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. À1)a are linearly independent. and also (1. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . r3 is irreducible. Hence. b}. Finally.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. 1) or (1. 1)a are linearly independent. Using the relations. by Lagrange's Theorem. Hence either (1. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. so there exist distinct g1 . 1) or (1. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. also r4 is irreducible. where H is the subgroup {1. À1) and (1. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. À1) lies in U. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. 9. 4. g2 P ka. By the solution to Exercise 1. bl. À1) (so that u P U).

hence 0r v0 0. g ë g g with ë g P C. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. . and u u u. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. so do gh and hg. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Relative to the basis 1. j. Use the argument of either Example 5. For all u1 . . It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. . Let x P G. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. (Note that v i W ai . then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. Hence ch hc c. (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). v1 b v2 and v2 b v1. and take r 1 a. j and so gz zg for all g P G. a. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). Let C2 3 C2 ka. b: a2 b2 1. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). No: let G ka: a2 1l. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . u2 P U. Chapter 7 1.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. . If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. so rz 2. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. 4. g. The reason is that for all i. Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism.3 to prove that W is irreducible. 5. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g.) 3. and bz 1 a2 zb. (a) As g runs through G. Check that v1 a ùv1 . ab bal. If r 1 À g. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. b. ë P F and g P G. then u 0. Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. v2 a ù2 v2 . s 1 À a. Then . (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. 6. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r.

(Find eigenvectors for x. V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). 4. For all v P V0 . 6. restricted to V0 . . . Let G {1. Then by Maschke's Theorem. In the notation of Exercise 3. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . Let g P G. (vö)g (vg)ö vö. Hence W2 2W. and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). Let G be any group. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . a. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 .406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. where ù e2ðia3 . (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . . noting that V W V0 . so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. since all diagonal matrices . (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. h P G. 5. 1 x. Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . . If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. and so V0 ö W 0 . b. v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. Chapter 8 1.) 2. Suppose r is reducible. No: let v1 . v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. ab ba). 4. hence W is surjective. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). g P G. this makes V into a CGmodule. Hence the function ö. For all w P W 0 . Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. v2 . De®ne vg v for all v P V.

. hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. 1). . È Ur. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). Also [ug. (1. De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. if u T 0 then (ux. . we must therefore have K {1}. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. . U sp ((1. 1). Therefore r is irreducible. r4 : 3 . so [u.6). r3 . . (x. . 0. Then for all u P U. . h P G. ] the axioms of a complex inner product. . For example. v gx) (ux. 1r2 (1). y). Irreducible representations r1 . so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. Let v P U c and g P G.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. y)}. r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). r2 . (x. Since G a is simple. 6. where x 2 y 2 1. r2 . Chapter 9 1. (3) Let W U c. [u. where U1. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . . bi r2 (ù i ). Let C2 ka: a2 1l. ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . vx) [u. 7. 5. Irreducible representations r1 . Then V U È W. Then there exist i P {1. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). also K T G since g P K. ux) . u] . v g] (ugx. v g] [ug À1 . Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. . This is a contradiction. This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. Let CG U1 È . Irreducible representations r1 . 0 for all x P G. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ .

3). Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. so is not cyclic. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . 3.5(2)). Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . (a) r: (x i . For 1 < j < r. 0 1 1 0 . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br. (x i . If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b. Let z gPG g. then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. y): x 4 y 4 1l. Therefore Proposition 9. Hence r gives a representation. 1) and g2 (1. (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 .14. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. y j )r3 (À1) i . (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . (x i . (x i . we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. 4. (x. Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. r. Then xz z zx for all x P G. and let å j e2ðia n j . y j )r2 (À1) j . 7. g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 .16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. y j ) 3 (À1) i . Hence z P Z(CG). (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . (b) If g1 (x 2 . g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x.3). 3 C n r of degree r. 5. X X X . 1). n1 2. similarly for ó. . y 2 ) then g1 . . a) 3 . let gj generate Cn j . 6. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . and the result follows from Proposition 9. n2 3. then M ëI for some ë P C. (1. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Check that A4 B2 I. Yes: if r 2.

since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. w0 ) U0 È U1 . Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). Let U4 sp (v1 . U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. sp (v2 . Theorem 10.4) and faithful. sp (v2 . U5 sp (v3 . namely U0 . and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 .4). so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . Let V sp ( gPG g). u2 . w2 ) and sp (v3 .8(2). w1 ). w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. w3 ). For 0 < j < 3. w2 ) U2 È U3 . As in Example 5. w3 3 v3. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. We have sp (v0 .b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. Let G kx: x 4 1l.5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). as in Example 10. Thus U V. 409 1. Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. Then ug u for all g P G. 2. where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 .5(2) (or see Exercise 8. Moreover U4 U5. namely V. U2 . let wj bv j. U3 and U4 . v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4. w3 ).Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. Then. w0 ). the subspaces sp (v0 . v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). so U sp (u) of for some u. u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. U1 . u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). sp (v1 . b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. while u0 gPG g. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG.

410 Representations and characters of groups 5. 1. u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. È Ys. Let V X1 È . . . by Corollary 11.3. Therefore. For each g P G. V is irreducible.6. CG). Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . Since G is non-abelian. and so on).4. de®ne ö1 . v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. either by the method of Example 5.13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s.1). U)) 1. Then sp (u1 . .3) that 18 2 cannot occur. ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. v n be the natural basis of V. ö2 by uö1 u. Then W1 . de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). This. U3 ). Thus U1 Im öë . . W)) i1 d i e i . dim (HomCG (V. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. By Exercise 5. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . Let v1 . Chapter 11 1.8(2).2. v2 3 u2 . . since the sum U1 U2 is direct. D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. .12. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. . the dimensions are 1. 3. Let v1 . w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. b) such that X a Y b . and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . 18 2. 2. Then ö1 . For ë P C. È Xr and W Y1 È . by the proof of Proposition 11.8. Hence. Also.18). . W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . rW2 w2 r (r P CG).5(2) or by Exercise 8. V i )) d i . Compare Example 11. b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V . Then sp (v1 .4. It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. moreover. . uö2 bu (u P U3 ).6. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. dim (HomCG (V. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. 6. .5)(3) and Proposition 11. not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. 6. 2. in turn. u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b.8). Hence by Corollary 11. 17. Then by (11. by Theorem 11. 4. dim (HomCG (V. where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. equals k i1 jf(a. . 5. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form.

(c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. j. then four choices for j. and 1 P H. m distinct. 12. ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). j. 3 15. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. 12. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. a2 . so zx xz and z P CG (x). then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. We have Q8 ka. a2 bg. There are ®ve choices for i. 20. fab. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. therefore A5 is simple. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). k. j. h P CG (x). Assume that g.18(2). 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. x A6 T x S6 . a a3 . b2 a2 . with i. n k. Hence by Proposition 12. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). Then gx xg and hx xh. fa. j. The class equation gives . This gives 5 .8. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. 15. l distinct. n 3. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). l (unordered). (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . g A6 g S6 . k. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. By Example 12. b a2 b. and three permutations for each choice. so 1 P CG (x). 4 . (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12.17. in agreement with Theorem n 12. 2 40 elements in all. 6. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k).8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). There are ®ve choices for i. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. Now the required result follows from Theorem 12.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. fa2 g. thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). b: a4 1. fb. k (unordered). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. l. Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. namely (i j k) and (i k j). 2. a3 bg. 5.8). a3 g. 2) from the remaining numbers. so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 . For elements g of other cycle-shapes. ab a3 bX 7. namely (i j)(k l ). Also 1x x1. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!.

Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. Let r be a representation with character ÷. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. Conversely. in addition. for all g in G. Thus. .8 and (12. .412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. 2. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). . and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). a4 b ab. a2 .9). we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2. a4 À1 2 b. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. h PG. by Proposition 9. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . a4 }. and so ä is a linear character of G. a2 b. 5. The irreducible characters ÷1 . p2 divides a |Z(G)|. |G| > p3 . Let r be a representation with character ÷. so ÷(1) 1. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|.14. The required result now follows from Theorem 13. 6. (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. 3. so ë m 1. Moreover. so Z(G) T f1g. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. a3 b. by Proposition 9. If. . and Im ä is a subgroup of the . then by the class equation. This is a contradiction. if gr ëI for some ë P C. If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). 4. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12.10. If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. Chapter 13 1. a3 } and Ker r2 {1.11(1). and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. 7.14. a5 À1 0 a2 . (a) For all g. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . Then zr ëI for some ë P C.

and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. 1 3 . We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. (0 1 ). Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. .5(2). 24 4 8 4 3.19. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. by Exercise 1.8. a3 b 0 0 À2 . 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . 9. Also À1 P Im ä.3 1.20 (but ÷ is not).Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. If s is odd then ä( g) À1.10)). a3 0 0 0 b. . so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. 2. so Im ä has even order. øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. Let r be the regular representation of G.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. which is abelian. 8. 3). Order the natural basis g1 . Using Proposition 14. hence is cyclic. . . 3 (À1) . As x T 1. By Exercise 1. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. G has an element x of order 2. 10 Chapter 14 1. øi 0 0. a2 b 0 0 0 ab. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷.20). 10. 2. by Theorem 13. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian.7. Thus ä(x) À1. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. 24 4 8 4 3 . And if s is even then Às s mod 4. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1. ÷i 0 2. we obtain 3 . so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13.

1) 3. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). 8. We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 .24. If |G| 12 . 2 or 3. Theorem 14. k 7. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . (À2) . By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷.2. 3. 4. ÷1 l T 0. by Theorem 14. then either exactly four of the di are 1. If kø. ÷1 i 1(19 . (À2) . 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G. We have h÷reg . Hence. 1 2 . (À1)(À1) 2 . or exactly one of the di is 2. As ÷ T ÷1 . øl a where a 1. 6 h÷. Then 1 h÷. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . the rest are 0. 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. we have k÷. Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. the regular character of C2 . Hence k÷reg . ÷3 i 1(19 . 2 0 2 .21. if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1. 1 3 .4 and Theorem 14. øi i1 d 2 . and this gives the required matrix T. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . This follows at once from Exercise 11. ÷l ÷(1). by Proposition 13. 5. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. øl 4. Chapter 15 1X h÷. r1 and r2 are equivalent.21. ø is not a character of G. 4. (À1) .414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. ÷2 i 1(19 . ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . 1 3 . No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . 6. 2. Recall that hø. (a) For all groups G. The representations r and ó have the same character. 1) 2. Hence if kø. hence r and ó are equivalent.

6 or 12 conjugacy classes. Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. ÷4 (1) are 1. G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes. (x. if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. (1. Chapter 16 1. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. (x. . The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. gives the values on g4 . so |Z(G)| < 4. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. Exercise 9. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. i1 Because g4 has order 2. Corollary 13. Let C2 3 C2 {(1.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. 1). so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. The last row of the character table is (cf. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. Therefore. y): x 2 y 2 1}. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. If G is abelian (e. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x.g.1) (1.10. Example 16. y).2 and part (a) that G has 4. Finally. together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. 1).12)). similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10.9)). similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1).18(1)).

since æ is non-real. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. fa2 g. 2. Therefore det C Ædet C. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). every element of G has the form am bn with . a2 bg and fab. (a) Using the relations. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. (b) G9 f1. G9b. a3 g. fb. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. a3 bg. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. Let g P G. 5. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g.9(3)).9(3)). and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. G9abg C2 3 C2 . the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1.416 4.) Chapter 17 1.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 .1. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. if det C det C then det C is real. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. By the column orthogonality relations. Use Proposition 12. this is a different column of the character table of G. G9a. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. 6. fa. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13.

and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. 4.18). 4 or 12 linear characters. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. a5 . we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. fa. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . In the character table below. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. G9 kal. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. a4 g. ÷3 ÷ 2 . ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 . we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15.11. we have ÷1 1 G . fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. 0 < n < 2. ÷5 ö. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . a2 .14. Therefore jGj 21.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6.2 to see that there are 3. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. ÷6 ö÷. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. 3. hence jGj < 21. ÷2 ÷. Applying the column orthogonality relations. fa3 . (c) First. If there are 12. a6 g. so G is certainly not simple. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G.6). (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g.8).

abi Ker ÷4 . hai Ker ÷2 . by Exercise 8.4). 8. ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . ha2 . with r 1. f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. . for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. (b) The given representations. 22 4 . (For further details on the representations of degree 1. for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. bi Ker ÷3 .4. Moreover.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. see the solution to Exercise 18.11). Example 1. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. . are irreducible (by Exercise 8.4). 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. . Also G9 kbl. 22 2n . .b3 . 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. we get n À 1 irreducible representations. 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. (b) The given representations. Moreover G9 ka2 l. no two of which are equivalent. 2. . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations.12. Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . 12 6n. so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. ha2 .4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). these representations are irreducible and inequivalent.3. . Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations.) 7. For å e2ði ra2 n . so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . since they have distinct characters. by Theorem 11. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. n À 1. so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 .

so we get four representations of degree 1. 12 8nX Chapter 18 1.Chapter 18 419 Finally. (Compare Example 14. using Section 18. Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. Hence. b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n .3. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1. the character table of D12 is as shown. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . The character table of D8 is as shown. 22 (n À 1) . Then ù ùÀ1 1. We have now found all the irreducible representations.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. G9 ka2 . take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square.3. where we took b to be a different re¯ection.) 2.3(3) or Section 18. 22 4 . Let ù e2ðia6 .28(2). Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 .

far . T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. a2 r1 b. ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 . fa2 r g. If n is odd.6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . fan g. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1).4. 4. then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . abl Ker ÷4 . ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . a2 r b2 g. ka2 . then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. .7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). fa2 r b. kal Ker ÷2 . a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. as shown.420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . Exercise 17. bl Ker ÷3 . ka2 . for 0 < r < n À 1. 3. aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). fa2 r1 . The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. The 3n conjugacy classes of G are.

fb2 g. we get four linear characters ÷1 . Observe that U6 D6. 422. aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). k 1 or 3g. 5. .8. and faj bk : j odd. and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. faj bk : j even. fa2s . . For example. n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. as shown below. fa2 r1 . aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). fa2s b2 . . U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 . the character table of V24 is given at the top of p.Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . . ÷4 . Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . aÀ2s g. The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17.

Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. ö A ø4 X .422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. öl T 0. By Proposition 15. 4. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. Therefore k÷ n . ÷öl. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 .14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . Since ÷ is not faithful. there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. øl. by Exercise 1. V (n factors).13). Then wg w for all w P V . . øl 0. 2. Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . ö S ø1 ø3 . Using Proposition 19. k÷ø. k÷ø. 1 G l k÷.15 and (14.5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). öl kø. 3. Let n be an integer with n > 0. The result now follows from Proposition 13. . Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷.

hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. the character table is complete.1(3). Taking D6 ka. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . hj ) |CG ( gi . Exercise 27. a) (a. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . 1) (1.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . 5.Chapter 20 423 5. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. b) (b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ÷3 ÷2 . a) (b. b) (a.14. these are irreducible by Propositions 13. as in Example 1. Character table of G (cf. 4. 1) (a. b: a3 b2 1. these characters are irreducible. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. ÷ i l 1 for i 2. a) (1. below. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: .15 and 17. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . 1) (b. Since k÷ i .

ø r be the irreducible characters of H. k÷11 5 A6 . Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 .3). .3(3) or Section 18. For examples with d 1 or 2. 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . ÷ 5 Hl H . ø5 in our character table below.1. . . Write d k÷ 5 H. â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3.17. 3. . ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. Arguing as in Example 20.2). and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. Also. 5. .6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. or using (20. . . . Let ÷1 .14. ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . ÷11 5 A6 l 2. the inequality (20. . these give the characters ø1 . take G A4 . . H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . . Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2. The inequality k÷ 5 H.424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. . We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 . take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. Since each ø i has degree 1. For an example with d 3.13). Either by direct calculation. ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. as in Example 19.5. . . ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. . 7. . Let ø1 . . . ÷2 5 H ø4 .

14. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . 6. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . (a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . 14. ø 4 Gi 1. 15. (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . 35X Chapter 21 1. 10. 21. 2. Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. See (20. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G.13). Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 .Chapter 21 425 5. We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. 10.

We have hø9 4 G. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 5. the values are as follows.) . dk ÷ k (1). hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. . say ø 4 G ÷. Also. since ø is irreducible.11. . Ugm . ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. . we deduce from Theorem 14. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). (Compare Proposition 20. The sum Ug1 . 4.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. ÷ i 5 Hi H . Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. say ÷ 5 H ø ö. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. 3) 12 0 6.23. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.1 (also twice). We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . and on all other elements the values are zero. Hence. 3). where d i hø 4 G. Then U(CG) Ug1 . öi G hø(÷ 5 H). By applying the result of Exercise 6. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. . dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G.9. ÷ i i G hø. 7. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0.426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). we deduce. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. . ÷i G T 0 D hø9. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U . as in the proof of Proposition 20. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. (7) and (3. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). . ö 5 Hi H hø. Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. øl H 1. together with the result of Exercise 19.

Then ö a1 G b÷reg .) 4.12). say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. (b) We have h1 G . (a) By hypothesis. öl are integers.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. then ø9 ø. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. öi h÷reg . see Chapter 25. 17. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17.18).11). 17. 3.12. öl and k÷reg .11 and 22. 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G.11). Hence kö À a1 G . ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q.18. Use Theorems 11. ÷l 0. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. This time. ÷l kb÷reg .) Chapter 22 1. . each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b. where r divides pq. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. moreover. (For more information on groups of order pq. then r divides 16. øl H 1. both k1 G . But kö À a1 G . and r . (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s. and r s 7 or 10 or 16. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9.11 and 22. there exist a. hence ÷1 5 H ø. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj.12.11 again. Theorems 11. (a) Since G is non-abelian. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. (Compare Proposition 20. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. 12 s . 2. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2.11. ÷l P Z and k1 G . ÷l P Z. then kö. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1). and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent.12. ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. We have hø9 4 G.

the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). and hence á À÷(1)a2. by Lagrange's Theorem. . (a) By Theorem 22. This contradicts Proposition 22. (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. 1). 4. say i 2. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . (4. (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. 6 in some order. and hence also b. By Corollary 22. 4.1 and Corollary 23. 1). we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5. Thus ÷ 1 G . ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. 1. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. . By the column orthogonality relations. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. is an integer. by part (a). 5. then k÷. (6. Therefore. (b) For all g P G. The stated result follows.5. since 1 h÷. a. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G.27. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. (c) By Corollary 22. 3. if g2 1 then g 1. À1). and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. . Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á.27. Let ÷1 . Therefore.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj.) 6. 120. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . . But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. by part (b).16. hence is odd). Æ1 for all i. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1.2. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). with ÷1 1 G . Each such subset has size 2. 1 G l 0.

4. an (1) First. (2) Next. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. 1. 0. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. 1. The character table of G is as shown. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. 0. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. 7. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . 0. 0. 1. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. À2 in order from the top. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. j. 1. respectively. Æ2 in some order. À1. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. À1. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. 1.

Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). m 2n 1 for some integer n. Chapter 23 1. . a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). . summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. . where m is the number of the integers n1 . by Lagrange's Theorem. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. Then g g2( n1) P CG (x). nr which are even. Since A has integer entries.14). . 3. However.13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G . . . Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. . which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. The result follows. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. It now follows from the De®nition 23. . Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. all of whose entries are integers. it follows that x 1. 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. 4. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. g irr where for each j. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. . and n 2 elements if n is even. . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19.8. 2. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd.430 Representations and characters of groups 7. The number of such elements is also 2 m . . Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. Let m be the order of g. The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . These numbers coincide with ÷(1). so g2 P CG (x). Assume that x P G and x is real. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. As p(ë) 0. Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. Since jGj is odd.

X X X . (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i.Chapter 23 431 5. we may construct a basis f 1 . Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. å n v2 ) â(v1 . v j g À1 )X For example. . Choose a basis f1 . . j P {1. f j ). 2} then â(v i g. and de®ne the basis e1 . . . as n ÷(1) the result is proved. we have At ÀA. As â is G-invariant. . Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A.e. there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. we get éø j À1 or 1. . en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . . f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. Since é÷ À1. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i . . Hence â is G-invariant. (a) First. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. so é÷ Æ1. 6. Since â is skew-symmetric. nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. v j ). v1 ) å n â(v1 . . respectively. the subspace {u P V: â(u. It follows that n is even. Hence an is the only element of order 2. according to whether n is odd or even. (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1).6. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . v1 bÀ1 ). Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. respectively. v j ) â(v i . â(v1 b. Write Q (q ij ). so det A T 0. according to whether n is odd or even. . according to whether j is odd or even. b ij â( f i . v1 ) â(v2 . hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . f 9) ä ij for all i. .16. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. Also A is invertible by (Ã ).3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. so det A (À1) n det A. . The result now follows from Theorem 23. respectively. The result now follows from Exercise 4. v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 . v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. v2 of V. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. 7. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. j. v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process.

(c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. i. Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 .432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . Further. 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. so ë P R. . v n . as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9. inverse of is . and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. 2. (b) Let v1 . 10. ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3.11. we have G9 1.e. â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . For the last part. . Chapter 25 1. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. Then V9 is a CG-module. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. 9. . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. with ÷1 1 G ). ej ) 0 if i T j. . since QPAPt Qt I n . r g is a permutation. Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. . G is abelian. Hence G C2 . Call it G. c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . But v1 W ëv1 P V. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). v n be a basis of the RG-module V. De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). if G is simple then since G9 v G. Let c1 . and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. For closure. ej ) ä ij . ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. . Hx. .1. identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . 8. so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . .

Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. and it follows from Corollary 15.6(c). |CG (a)| p.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. Also. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. are (À1 Æ p)a2. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . bÀ m abm au av . 4. If p 1 mod 4. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. Let b9 bm. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. Then G1 ha. aG {au : m P Z}. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. so by Exercise 1. Also. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. . If p À1 mod 4. so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. Also. This time. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. Hence bm has order q. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). m is coprime to q. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. b9: ap b9q 1.9.

ö1 (a) m1 å u . All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . . Also. say ÷1 and ÷2 . The characters ÷4 . a6 g. fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. 3.18). The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. 8. (c) D6 3 F13. . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. b2 l. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. . Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. fa r b4 : 3 B rg. . fa3 . Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. ÷6 of G.10). fa r : 3 B rg. . A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . . Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . Z(E) {1}.3 (see Theorem 19. . H 2 bi D6 . as shown. Let H2 ka3 . u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. E9 H. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. 6g. fa r b2 : 3 B rg.10. Let H ka. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. u 2 . there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). so E has exactly two linear characters. fa r b4 : r 0. it follows that {u. Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. 6g. (b) C2 3 F13. 3. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. fa r b2 : r 0. bl. Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2.18). and for all i with 1 < i < 6. (a) F13. 7. Then for all h P H. .3 (see Theorem 19. The result now follows from part (c). 5.434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 .3 (see Theorem 25. .

hz. by Theorem 17X11. But ø(1) 1. by Corollary 21. and r sp2 pn . Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. and (ø 4 G)(1) p. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. b: a9 b6 1. Then r pm for some m.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. hz 2 }. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22. bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. since H is abelian. For all other elements h of H. m is at least 2. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.20. Hence ÷(1) < p.11. the conjugacy class hH {h. {1}. Then k÷ 5 H. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . Therefore h÷. 2.

this shows that jGj 32. CD ÀDC. so jGj < 32. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. 5. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. t. We obtain representations as follows: . and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. AD DA. BC CB. s.4 is {1. Hence by Corollary 9. BD ÀDB. also G is a 2-group. since g4 1 for all g P G. {a8 }. B. j. 3. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. a8 }. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. b: a16 1.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. u) with r. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. 4. we obtain the characters ÷1 . by Theorem 11. These are as follows: for each (r. Since Gah Zi is abelian. Hence Z P G. k. s. AC ÀCA. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A.10). {ar b: r odd}. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). 3. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. Here. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. jGj > 12 42 17. 1g. Combined with part (b). l. and GaK D16 . (a) Check that AB ÀBA. (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. Since G9 h Zi. .3. 5. {ar b: r even}. 1}. u P {0. . m P f0. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. b2 a8 .3. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. these are all the irreducible representations of G.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. . the given representation is irreducible. {ar . it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. . 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1.12. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. t.

and g P CG ( g). z. z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. so the representations are faithful.b3 .b3 . . 6. . i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e.1(2). If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 . a2 z} C2 3 C2 . so G5 T G8 . Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. b 3 d À1 0 0 e. 2. 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. . by Proposition 9.2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 .b3 3 .16. 7. . Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . so give representations. a2 . G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . 4 and 8 in G1 . Hence a .z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 . .b3 .b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 .1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G. It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements. except possibly G5 and G8 . . . . G9 are isomorphic. 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . À1 0 2 3 0 1 . Assume that j Z(G)j p2 . z 3 d 0 1 0 e. (a) By Lemma 26. Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26.

(c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. 2. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . or G9 Z(G) Z(G). and . so r sp2 p4 . Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. either G9 Z(G) G9. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . with a4 P Z. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p.1(1). Since a2 commutes with a. as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. bZi. then by Exercise 7. By parts (a) and (b). a2 Z b2 Z. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. Therefore. Part (b) follows. p). and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b. G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes.12). and 1 1 z A c Àb. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. Chapter 27 1. b and all elements in Z. p))X 1 z A c 0. we have a2 1. so a Æ1. and assume that Ga Z haZ. bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. we have a2 P Z.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. and since z P SL (2. Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. (a) Let Z Z(G). 8.

without loss of generality. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 .2). Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. 1). g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. 1) and (1. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. which is given below. that ÷5 is real. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. where á is real.1. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. ÷7 on the elements g1 . The values of ÷5 . g2 . Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. so by Theorem 23. Assume. The characters ÷1 . a subgroup of S4 of order 12. by Corollary 22. á Æ1. namely the spans of the vectors (0. ÷3 . 7. (1. . Also á T 0.Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. 1). they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. Exercise 13. Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. Since á is real. 0). Hence GafÆIg Im ö. ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. 6. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. Now note that for j 5. ÷2 . (2. Finally. one of ÷5 .27. therefore GafÆIg A4 .5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . ÷6 .

where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z.25. h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . (a) For the character table of T. . h5 . 1 G l 1. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. . ë : Gl 1.2 and Example 21. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. Also. kë : G. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. 4. . h3 Z. . write ö ë : G. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . Apply Proposition 17.6. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. . 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G. h2 Z. so ë : G is irreducible.

7). öl k÷ S . ÷3 . are equal to 4. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. ø A has the following values on g1 . ÷6 in the character table shown below. 0. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). Æ1. so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 .16. g2 . we obtain the characters ÷1 . since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). and none is a constituent of æ. (f ) By Proposition 19. ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. . Æ1. 0. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. apply part (c). 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . ÷11 . The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). ÷11 (1). (e) Theorem 22. 168. Now 1 G . and ÷11 (1) 8. . The values of ø are as shown above. The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. Exercise 14. the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8. (c) Use Exercise 13.27 again.14. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. two of ÷7 . respectively. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1).5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . (d) The characters 1 G . We calculate that kæ. . . in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27.14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S .Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. . in some order. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. 5. and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. j1 (Alternatively.) Also. ö. ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. Further. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. have degrees 2divisible by 6.27. . . or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. æl 4. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. ÷l 1. and 12 6 . gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. 1 G l k÷ S . 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . (b) By lifting. By Corollary 22. Next. ÷ j (1) is even. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . ÷2 and ÷6 . by Corollary 22. .1. ÷8 (1). Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6.

This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . For all ÷. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . of order 55. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . Similarly. ®nally. Then ÷8 ÷7 . 6. we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . ÷4 . Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. ø(g4 ) 0. ÷5 and ÷6 . ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). Let x ø(g8 ). 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . (g) For i T 6. Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2.bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. thereby completing the character table of G. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . ø(g5 ) 0. Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. using this fact and part (c).442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. by & ' a b Ã. and therefore. The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 .

without loss j5 of generality. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6. we j1 can complete column 4. ÷5 (1). 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. 5. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). hence. and ÷5 (g2 ). j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. æ0 4 Gi 2. Character table of PSL (2. 8. Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. . note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . ÷2 . We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. ÷6 . ÷3 . 3 for all irreducible ÷. We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. ÷4 .16. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. 5. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. 2. j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6. 10. respectively. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0.27. by Theorem 22. â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. namely ÷1 . ÷6 (1). ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . ÷7 . The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. We have hæ0 4 G. 3 and 5 of the character table. without loss of generality. We have now completed columns 1. ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). Next. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. ÷8 (1) are 10.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. ÷7 (1). By Corollary 22.

Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. We take g 1 .s À1 . We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. q).1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1.444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. since r r q and q is even. Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X . a b Suppose that P GL(2. . 3) is then as follows. q). q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. q) have representatives as follows. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. indexed by unordered pairs fs. q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. q) Z 3 SL(2. It now follows easily that GL(2. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 .

1 ç2 g. fç2 . 3.s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. f1 ç. g8 . The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. By restricting characters from GL(2. q) is simple. g 7 . Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. Then 64 . g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . g 5 below. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. 8). The subscripts for ø0. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. x 2 ç2 x 1. x 2 çx 1. we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . I ë0 ø0 ø0. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. indexed by unordered pairs fr. 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. X X X . 8) SL(2. Note ®rst that PSL(2. b. q) is as follows. and therefore SL(2.3).i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. 1 ç ç2 g. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. as follows. q) to SL(2. 8). g4 .

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

269 symmetric. 9. 419 D2n ( n odd). 160 D8. 440 SL(2. 362 algebraic number.3). 111. 150 trivial. 253 irreducible. 443 Q8 . 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 160 C4 . 355 induced. 262 S6 . 354. 122. 298 of group algebra. 240. 112. 230. 182 D2n ( n even). 15 natural. 125 linear. 9. 234. 337 algebra. 412 C2 3 C2 . 433 Fp. 186 T4 n. 174 permutation. 445 PSL(2.q). 312. 176. 343 abelian group. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 116. 359 A6 . 327 PSL(2. 160 C3 . 183 D6 3 D6. 5. 236 integer-valued. 423 E. 318 PSL(2. 119 regular. 442 SL(2. 82.q . 180 S5 . 244. 181 A5 . 220. 263 realized over R. 88 centralizer. 2 Cn . 107. 106 centre of group. 181. 116. 114. 83. 360 A7 . 205 SL(2. 136. 112. 420 455 . 56 algebraic integer. 128. 130. 291 GL(2. 82 D6.Index A4 . 5. 221. 6 bilinear form. 434 F7. 129 product. 2 basis. of order 18. 10. 111 antisymmetric part. 45. 223 An . 359 A6 . 159 A4 . 417 F11. 122. 265 reducible. 222. 85. 82 action. 153 change of basis. 81. 416 S4 . 118 degree. 54 bijection. 127. 119 kernel of.7). 359. 201.7). 415 Cn . 340 Burnside's Theorem. 247 faithful. 364 C. 24 character. 55. 11. 2. 195 generalized. 196.11).3. 172. 424 C2 . 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 361 alternating group. 192 real. 308 A5 . 3. 116. 273 associative. 207. 161 D10. 363. 11. 125.8).q). 122 character table.5 . 269 skew-symmetric. 445 T12. 11.

307 order 27. 61 ideal. 9 indicator function. 249 derived subgroup. 195 faithful module. 107 class function. 2. 435 order . 311 symmetric. 273 induced character. 18 eigenvalue. 81. 82 alternating. 178 dihedral. homogeneous component. 291 p-group. 2. 24 eigenvector. 107. 63 Frobenius group. 324. 10. 12. 301 order pq. 420 dihedral group. 206 order 16. 181 degree. 302. 353 irreducible character. 234. 3. 363. 91 irreducible representation. 5 rotation. 6 surjective. 6 injective. 74 composition. 318. 82.F). 228 inner product. 122. 2. 305. 96 congruences. 56. 368 simple. 44. 50. 364 soluble. 111 cyclic. 88 D2n. 365 special linear. 5. 116. 9 HomCG (V W). 306. 281. 304 orthogonal. 90 common. 361 constituent. 79. 236 induced module. 104 conjugate. 9 faithful character. 6 GL(n. 175. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 152 class sum. 12. 82. 53 factor group. 2. 88 dicyclic. 256 maximal. 206 direct sum. 187. 55 H < G. 213 coset. 17. 109. 257 proper. 250. 20. 343 general linear group. 9 ®nite. 11. 3 GL(2. 254 symmetry. 230. 367 projective special linear. 50. 61 FG-isomorphism. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 8 cycle-shape. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 3 order. 49 FG-homomorphism. 421 V24 . 66 external. 143. 2 general linear. 11. 74. 46 even permutation. 107. 85 faithful representation. 278. 376 homomorphism. 125. 308 order p3 . 6 invertible. 96 . 8 cycle notation. 311. 6. 134 involution. 20 equivalent. 5. 257 index of subgroup. 32. 10. 2 order p3 . 1 abelian. 300 class algebra constants. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 4. 101 completely reducible. 95. 312 quaternion. 173 diagonalization. 15 Fp. 6 bijective. 3 F n.q . 91. 9. 24 endomorphism. 181 dimension. 3 group. 15 direct product. 104. 3 H v G. 12. 30. 277. 32.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 12. 7. 12. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 2. 178. 63 U6n. 381 external direct sum. 349 class equation. 4. 290 FG. 422 V8 n . 18 F R or C. 216 complete set. see module . 107. 421 direct product. 368 group algebra. 109 cyclic group. 3. 34 FG-module. 259 conjugacy class. 119 irreducible module. 353. 277 function. 181 factor. 2 composition factor. 226.q). 79 isomorphism.

50. 3. 320. 416 quaternion group. 319. 311. 312 457 Q8 . 311 SL(2. 416 R. 343. 62 reducible. 44. 379 rotation submodule. 5 odd. 30. 250. 278. 3. 116. 50 reducible representation. 128. 45. 76 matrix. 85 irreducible. 62. 27. 9. 9. 21 change of basis. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 361 module. 177. 5. 298 p9-part. 2 order of g. 217 submodule. 284 product of characters. 372. 336. 34 irreducible. 56. 79. 269 odd permutation. 223 Sn . 46 faithful.q). 176. 311 stabilizer. 56 regular representation. 354. 177. 340 permutation character. 4 derived. 380. 74 faithful. 269 special linear group. 113. 3. 360 PSL(2. 4 cyclic. 34 representatives. 312. 19. 54 modes of vibration. 161 PSL(2. 129. 180. 215. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 9 lift. 263 real conjugacy class. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 5 orbit. 45. 32. 3 rank. 105 restriction. 263 reducible character. 171. 201. 113. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 173. 368 rotation mode. 45. 263 real element. 119 reducible module. 262 S6 . 111. 258 permutation. 124. 384 minimal polynomial. 34. p). 50 regular character. 56 representation. 445 Schur's Lemma. 171. 39 completely reducible. 24 diagonal. 169 linear character. 79 kernel of. 23 permutation. 373 p-complement.3). 216. 5. 174 linear transformation. 110. 10. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 216. 249 equivalent. 312 p-group. 116. 116. 321. 338 order of G. 10. 124 reducible. 344 SL(2. 354. p). 205 S7 . 363. 56 trivial. 394 S4 . 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 4 normal. 44. 367 orthogonality relations. 21 invertible. 173 generated. 67 projective special linear group. 318. 15 linearly independent. 254. 49 irreducible. 78 simple group. 319. 365 symmetric bilinear form.11). 192 . 442 SL(2. 50 regular.7). 50 regular. 56 trivial. 440 SL(2. 359 PSL(2. 3 primitive root. 19 real character. 5 even. 30 degree. 127. 275 S5 . 5 permutation module. 193 presentation. 113. 34. 3. 359. 278. projection. 50. 109. 150 regular module. 45 powers of characters. 215. 85 permutation. 210 rotation group. 18 linearly dependent. 340 permutation matrix. 70.7). 122. 318. 278. 175. 116. 45 methane. 256. 4 orthogonal group.Index kernel. 339 subgroup. 26 identity. 251 subgroup.

194 vibratory modes. 117 transitive. 420 tensor product module. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 374 Z. 188 trace. 187. 254 symmetric part. 178. 229 translation mode. 381 water. 3. 379 translation submodule. 187.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 394 transposition. 190 tensor product space. 43 representation. 2 symmetric group. 281. 34 U6n. 178. 421 V8n. 380. 5 . 175. 116. 196. 341 transitivity of induction. 369. 338. 109. 187. 178. 368 T4 n. 273 symmetry group. 122 module.

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