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2NO2 (g) <-> N2O4 (g) (Brown Color) <-> (Colorless) Rate – only changed by Temperature, Pressure (ONLY FOR GASES) , concentration Keq does NOT describe the rate in anyway. High concentration of Reactants -> high forward rate -> increases product concentration -> high reverse rate -> beginning. Keq Ratio of [P] to [R] at equilibrium, THIS IS CONSTANT. (But can be changed by temperature) aA + bB <-> cC + dD [C]c [D]d ---------[A]a [B]b [P] ---[R] if Keq is > 1… more product if Keq is < 1… more reactants if Keq = 1 at Equilibrium Equilibrium does not necessarily mean that the amount of reactants and products are equal, it only means that the forward and reverse reactions are at the same RATE. Reaction Quotient – Q Once calculated, compare to Keq to see if at EQ If Q < Keq proceed Right If Q > Keq proceed Left Le Chatelier’s Principle – if a system is changed, the system changes away to get back at EQ. CONCENTRATION ONLY FOR AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND GASES Shift to what is removed Shift away to what is added.
PRESSURE If pressure INCREASE… shift to side with FEWER GAS molecules If pressure DECREASE… shift to side with MORE GAS molecules TEMPURATURE Endothermic: INCREASE – RIGHT DECREASE – LEFT Exothermic: INCREASE – LEFT DECREASE – RIGHT .