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Confidential information not to be made public without permission from the UC Regents.

USER NOTES





COOLING AIRFLOW DESIGN TOOL FOR DISPLACEMENT
VENTILATION (DV)


Version 1.0 (Beta)
September 24, 2009


Copyright ©2009 Version 1.0. The Regents of the University of California (Regents). All Rights Reserved.
Permission to use this software and its documentation for educational, research, and not-for-profit purposes, without fee
and without a signed licensing agreement, is hereby granted to Center of the Built Environment (CBE) Industry Partners in
good standing as of October 1, 2009, provided that the above copyright notice, this paragraph and the following two
paragraphs appear in all copies and/or modifications. This software and its documentation may not be distributed to non-
CBE Industry Partners without prior written approval of the Office of Technology Licensing, UC Berkeley. For
information on commercial use of this software, contact The Office of Technology Licensing, UC Berkeley, 2150
Shattuck Avenue, Suite 510, Berkeley, CA 94720-1620, (510) 643-7201, for commercial licensing opportunities.
Created by Stefano Schiavon and Fred Bauman, Center of the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley.
IN NO EVENT SHALL REGENTS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF
THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF REGENTS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
REGENTS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE
SOFTWARE AND ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, IF ANY, PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS PROVIDED
"AS IS". REGENTS HAS NO OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES,
ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.


Contact information for questions, comments, and problem reporting:
Stefano Schiavon
stefanoschiavon@berkeley.edu
Fred Bauman
fbauman@berkeley.edu

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 2 | P a g e

ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT
These user notes describe how to use a spreadsheet-based (Excel 2007) version of the ASHRAE
method (Chen and Glicksman 2003) for calculating the amount of design cooling airflow required
for a displacement ventilation (DV) system that is providing all sensible cooling for a conditioned
space. The design tool has been developed by CBE and is available on the CBE Partner website:
http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/partners/downloads.php

BACKGROUND
Displacement ventilation is a method of room air distribution that can provide improved indoor air
quality (ventilation performance) in the occupied zone of a building compared to the dilution
ventilation provided by overhead mixing systems. In the classic definition of a DV system, which is
applied only for cooling purposes, air is supplied at very low velocity through supply devices
located near floor level (the most common are low side wall diffusers), and is returned near ceiling
level. Although possible, it is not necessary to install a raised floor to operate a DV system.
The primary difference between DV and underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems is in the
manner in which the air is delivered into the space. The classic DV system delivers air at very low
velocities while UFAD systems employ higher velocity diffusers with correspondingly greater
mixing. Furthermore, since most UFAD systems are configured with adjustable floor diffusers near
occupants, local air supply conditions are generally under the control of the occupants, allowing
perceived comfort conditions to be optimized. DV systems do not provide an opportunity for
individual occupant control.
Recently, due to increased interest and application in North America, CBE has received more
requests for design and operating guidance related to DV systems. One of the most frequently
asked questions is how to calculate design airflow rates for DV systems. The ASHRAE (Chen and
Glicksman 2003) and the REHVA (Skistad et al. 2002) methods are the most commonly used
procedures for this purpose. We have focused only on the ASHRAE method because the REHVA
method was develop for typical European heat loads, usually lower than U.S. heat loads, and for
building layouts that are somewhat different from the ones most commonly found in the U.S.

LOADING THE SOLVER (OR RUNNING)
The spreadsheet uses the Excel 2007 Solver and the Visual Basic (VBA) Editor macros to calculate
the outputs of the displacement ventilation methods. Therefore, the Solver should be installed as an
add-in (add-in: A supplemental program that adds custom commands or custom features to
Microsoft Office.) in Excel and in VBA, and the macros should be enabled.

Loading the Solver add-in in Excel 2007
The Solver Add-in is a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 add-in program that is available when you
install Microsoft Office or Excel. To use it in Excel, however, you need to load it first.
1. Click the Microsoft Office Button, and then click Excel Options.
2. Click Add-Ins, and then in the Manage box, select Excel Add-ins.
3. Click Go.
4. In the Add-Ins available box, select the Solver Add-in check box, and then click OK. Tip: if
Solver Add-in is not listed in the Add-Ins available box, click Browse to locate the add-in.
If you get prompted that the Solver Add-in is not currently installed on your computer, click
Yes to install it.
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 3 | P a g e

5. After you load the Solver Add-in, the Solver command is available in the Analysis group on
the Data tab.
Loading the Solver in VBA
To use the spreadsheet you need to establish a reference between the Solver add-in and the Visual
Basic Editor. To activate the Visual Basic Editor choose “Developer-Code-Visual Basic” or press
“Alt+F11” in Excel. To establish a reference, click References on the Tools menu, and then select
the Solver.xlam check box under Available References. If Solver.xlam does not appear under
Available References, click Browse and open Solver.xlam in the \office12\library\Solver subfolder.

OVERVIEW OF THE DV DESIGN TOOL SPREADSHEET
The design tool is composed of three worksheets named “IP”, “SI” and “Data Library” as indicated
in the bottom-left corner of Figure 1. The user may choose either the “IP” (Inch-Pound units) or
“SI” (International System units) worksheet. The “Data Library” worksheet is hidden, under default
conditions. In the “Data library” there are the constant values used in the design procedure. This
worksheet should be modified only by expert users. In the following, only the “IP” worksheet will
be described because the “SI” worksheet is similar to the “IP” worksheet, only the units used are
different.

In the worksheet the user inputs are entered only in cells with a white background and the outputs
(calculated values) are displayed in cells with a dark gray background (see Figure 1). The data input
and output are organized into three sections, named “Common Data”, “Displacement Ventilation”,
and “Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)”. In the “Common Data” section, the majority of the
required inputs, such as heat loads and room/zone dimensions are entered. Key design inputs are
entered at the top of both the “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead Air Distribution” sections.
The “Design Temperature” refers to the setpoint temperature. In the case of the stratified conditions
produced by a displacement ventilation system, the user has three choices for defining the setpoint
temperature using the “Design Control Strategy” input cell. As defined in the list below, the
“Design Temperature” can be set equal to the average temperature of the occupied zone for seated
or standing occupants, or simply set to the temperature at a height of 43 in. (1.1 m) using the
“ASHRAE” label from the drop-down menu. The “Design Temperature” is shown in the graph
“Predicted Room Air Temperature Distribution”. Note that in addition to “Design Temperature,” the
“Overhead Air Distribution” section also permits the user to enter a “Supply Air Temperature.”
This option is not available for displacement ventilation because the ASHRAE method calculates
the supply air temperature based on the user design inputs. In the “Displacement Ventilation”
section there are all the detailed outputs of the ASHRAE design method plus some indexes that we
think can be useful in the design process. In the “Overhead Air Distribution” section there are the
inputs and outputs for sizing a traditional overhead ventilation system. This section was inserted to
allow users to compare the temperature profiles and the design airflow rates for the two ventilation
strategies. On the right-hand side of the page, there are two graphs presenting the most important
results. The top graph compares the air temperature profiles for the overhead and displacement
ventilation systems, and the second one compares the design airflow rates.

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 4 | P a g e


Figure 1 Displacement ventilation design tool (IP units).

A detailed description of the inputs and outputs are listed below.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DESCRIPTIONS
Table 1 lists and describes the user input data in the order of appearance in the worksheet. The
output data are listed and described in Table 2.

Table 1 Input data, symbol, units and description.
  Sym.  I.P.  S.I. Description
Common Data 
Heat Load ‐ People 
and Equipment 
Q
oe
  W/ft
2
  W/m
2
 
Heat load from occupants, desk lamps, and equipment, 
per unit of floor area that has to be removed from the 
room/zone. 
Heat Load ‐ Lighting  Q
l
  W/ft
2
  W/m
2
  Heat load from overhead lighting, per unit of floor area 
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 5 | P a g e

that has to be removed from the room/zone. 
Heat Load ‐ External   Q
ex
  W/ft
2
  W/m
2
 
Heat load from heat conduction through the room 
envelope and transmitted solar radiation, per unit of floor 
area that has to be removed from the room/zone. 
Width  ft  m Room (or zone) width.
Depth    ft  m  Room (or zone) depth. 
Height  h  ft  m  Room (or zone) height. 
Outdoor Airflow 
Rate in the 
Breathing Zone 
V
bz
  cfm  m³/s 
Design outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of 
the occupied space or spaces in a zone. V
bz
 should be 
determined in accordance with Equation 6‐1 of ASHRAE 
62.1‐2004. 
Displacement Ventilation
Design 
Temperature 
T
d
  °F  °C 
Room (or zone) design air temperature. In an overhead 
system this is the thermostat temperature setpoint. For 
displacement ventilation there are three possible 
definitions, as described in the “Design Control Strategy” 
input (below). The “Design Temperature” is displayed in 
the graph “Predicted Room Air Temperature 
Distribution”. 
Design Control 
Strategy 
     
Using the drop‐down menu, the user may choose among 
the following three definitions for “Design Temperature”: 
“Seated”, “Standing”, and “ASHRAE”.  
1) “Seated” –The average temperature in the 
occupied zone between head height (43 in. [1.1 
m]) and ankle height (4 in. [0.1 m]) for a seated 
person, T
oz,seat
, is set equal to T
d
;  
2) “Standing” – The average temperature in the 
occupied zone between head height (67 in. [1.7 
m]) and ankle height (4 in. [0.1 m]) for a standing 
person, T
oz,stand
 is set equal to T
d
; and  
3) “ASHRAE” – The temperature at head height (43 
in. [1.1 m]) – Seated, T
h,seat
, is set equal to T
d

This last option is the assumption of the ASHRAE 
method.  
Zone Air 
Distribution 
Effectiveness 
E
z
  ‐  ‐ 
Measure of how effectively the zone air distribution uses 
its supply air to maintain acceptable air quality in the 
breathing zone. E
z
 is determined from Table 6‐2 of 
ASHRAE 62.1‐2004. 
Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed) 
Design 
Temperature 
T
d
  °F  °C 
Room (or zone) design air temperature. It is the 
thermostat (typically at 4 ft [1.2 m] height) temperature 
setpoint, and is also equal to the return temperature in a 
mixing overhead air distribution system. 
Supply Air 
Temperature 
T
s
  °F  °C 
Air temperature at the overhead diffuser. It is equal to 
the air temperature leaving the cooling coil at the air 
handling unit when the duct heat gains are equal to zero.  

Table 2 Output data, symbol, units and description.
  Sym.  I.P.  S.I. Description
Common Data 
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 6 | P a g e

Heat Load ‐ People 
and Equipment 
Q
oe
  Btu/h  W 
Total heat load from occupants, desk lamps, and 
equipment. 
Heat Load ‐ Lighting  Q
l
  Btu/h  W  Total heat load from overhead lighting. 
Heat Load ‐ 
External  
Q
ex
  Btu/h  W 
Total heat load from heat conduction through the room 
envelope and transmitted solar radiation. 
Heat Load ‐ Total  Q
t
  W/ft²  W/m²  Total design cooling load per unit of floor area.  
Heat Load ‐ Total  Q
t
  Btu/h  W 
Total design cooling load. It is equal to the sum of Q
oe
, Q
l

and Q
ex

Floor Area  A  ft²  m²  Floor area of the room (or zone).
Volume    ft³  m³  Volume of the room (or zone).
Displacement Ventilation
Airflow Rate for 
Thermal Comfort 
V
h
  cfm m³/s 
Airflow rate required to achieve the desired design air 
temperature. 
Ventilation 
Effectiveness 
(based on ASHRAE 
method) 
η  - ‐ 
Ventilation effectiveness is equivalent to the Zone Air 
Distribution Effectiveness. It is calculated with Equation 
7.4 of the ASHRAE Design Guidelines for Displacement 
Ventilation (Chen and Glicksman 2003). In this worksheet 
it is not used. To calculate the airflow rate for indoor air 
quality,V
f
, the Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness is used 
instead of the Ventilation Effectiveness because we 
believe it is a more conservative value. 
Airflow Rate for 
Indoor Air Quality 
V
f
  cfm m³/s 
Flow rate required to maintain acceptable indoor air 
quality. 
Airflow Rate  V  cfm m³/s  Design airflow rate. V is the maximum between V
h
 and V
f.
 
Airflow Rate, per 
unit of floor area 
V  cfm/ft
2
m³/h  Airflow rate divided by the floor area. 
Airflow Rate, ACH  V  1/h 1/h  Airflow rate expressed in air changes per hour. 
Dimensionless 
Temperature near 
the Floor 
θ
f
  - ‐  It is defined by Equation 2 in this manuscript.  
Supply Air 
Temperature 
T
s
  °F  °C  Air temperature at the supply air diffuser. 
Return Air 
Temperature 
T
r
  °F  °C 
Temperature of the air removed from a space to be then 
recirculated or exhausted. 
Temperature near 
the Floor 
T
f
  °F  °C 
Air temperature close to the floor. It is evaluated at ankle 
level (4 in. [0.1 m]). 
Temperature at 
Head (43 in. [1.1 
m]) ‐ Seating 
T
h,seat
  °F  °C 
Air temperature at head level (43 in. [1.1 m]) for a seated 
person. This temperature is calculated assuming a linear 
temperature distribution between the temperature at 43 
in. (1.1 m) and the Return Air Temperature at the ceiling. 
The ASHRAE method does not calculate this temperature 
and states that the temperature profile from head height 
of a seated person (43 in.) to the exhaust is not linear.  
Temperature at 
Head (67 in. [1.7 
m]) ‐ Standing 
T
h,stand
  °F  °C 
Air temperature at head level (67 in. [1.7 m]) for a 
standing person. This temperature is calculated assuming 
a linear temperature distribution between the 
temperature at 43 in. (1.1 m) and the Return Air 
Temperature at the ceiling. The ASHRAE method does not 
calculate this temperature and states that the 
temperature profile from head height of a seated person 
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 7 | P a g e

(43 in.) to the exhaust is not linear. 
Average 
Temperature in the 
Occupied Zone ‐ 
Seated 
T
oz,seat
  °F  °C 
Average air temperature between head (43 in. [1.1 m]) 
and ankle (4 in. [0.1 m]) heights of a seated occupant. We 
believe that this temperature is closer to the one 
perceived by people sitting in a thermally stratified 
environment than the room design air temperature 
measured at a single height of 43 in. (1.1 m). 
Average 
Temperature in the 
Occupied Zone ‐ 
Standing 
T
oz,stand
  °F  °C 
Average air temperature between head (67 in. [1.1 m]) 
and ankle (4 in. [0.1 m]) heights of a standing occupant. 
We believe that this temperature is closer to the one 
perceived by people standing in a thermally stratified 
environment than the room design air temperature 
measured at a single height of 43 in. (1.1 m). 
Temperature 
Difference ‐ Head 
and Ankle ‐ Seated 
Δt
ha,seat
  °F  °C 
Air temperature difference between the head (43 in. [1.1 
m]) and the ankle (4 in. [0.1 m]) of a seated occupant. 
According to ASHRAE 55‐2004 the maximum allowed 
temperature difference between head and ankle is 5.4°F 
(3°C). 
Temperature 
Difference ‐ Head 
and Ankle ‐ 
Standing 
Δt
ha, 
stand
 
°F  °C 
Air temperature difference between the head (67 in. [1.7 
m]) and the ankle (4 in. [0.1 m]) of a standing occupant. 
According to ASHRAE 55‐2004 the maximum allowed 
temperature difference between head and ankle is 5.4°F 
(3°C). 
Calculated 
Temperature 
Setpoint at the 
Thermostat (4 ft 
[1.2 m]) 
T
spt

 
°F  °C 
Air temperature at thermostat height (4 ft [1.2 m]). This 
is the temperature that should be set at the thermostat 
in order to get the design air temperature. Please refer to 
Table 1‐ Design Control Strategy to understand where the 
design air temperature is calculated in a thermally 
stratified environment. T
spt
 temperature is calculated 
assuming a linear temperature distribution between the 
temperature at 43 in. (1.1 m) and the Return Air 
Temperature. The ASHRAE method does not calculate 
this temperature and states that the temperature profile 
from head height of a seated person (43 in.) to the 
exhaust is not linear. 
Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed) 
Airflow Rate for 
Thermal Comfort 
V
h
  cfm  m³/s 
Flow rate required to achieve the desired design air 
temperature. 
Airflow Rate for 
Indoor Air Quality 
V
f
  cfm  m³/s 
Flow rate required to maintaining acceptable indoor air 
quality. 
Airflow Rate  V  cfm  m³/s  Design airflow rate. V is the maximum between V
h
 and V
f.
Airflow Rate, per 
unit of floor area 
V  cfm/ft
2
  m³/h  Airflow rate divided by the floor area. 
Airflow Rate, ACH  V  1/h  1/h  Airflow rate expressed in air changes per hour. 
Return Air 
Temperature 
T
r
  °F  °C 
Temperature of the air removed from a space to be then 
recirculated or exhausted. 
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 8 | P a g e


In the worksheet there is also the possibility to copy in an independent sheet the results of a
simulation. To activate click the button “COPY” on the line “To copy the displayed results to a new
worksheet, click the button.” (See Figure 4).

EXAMPLE
To demonstrate how to use the DV design tool, an example for an office building where people are
primarily seated is presented. IP units are used. The design characteristics are:
• Heat loads: Q
oe
=1.8 W/ft²; Q
l
=1.2 W/ft²; Q
ex
=3 W/ft²
• Room geometry: 40 ft x 25 ft; Room height: 10 ft
• According the ASHRAE 62.1-2004 the outdoor air flow rate in the Breathing Zone is
110 cfm.
• Zone air distribution effectiveness for displacement ventilation is 1.2 (see ASHRAE
62.1-2004 Table 6-2).
• Design temperature, T
d
, for displacement and overhead is equal to 75°F.
• The Design Control Strategy for the displacement ventilation is “Seated”. This was
chosen because the majority of the occupants stay seated while working.
• Supply Air Temperature, T
s
, for the Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed) is set to 57°F.

The inputs are shown in Figure 2 and the outputs are shown in Figure 3. The temperature profiles
and airflow rates are compared in Figure 4.


Figure 2 Screenshot of the input data in the “Common Data”, “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead
Air Distribution (Mixed)” sections.

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 9 | P a g e


Figure 3 Screenshot of the output data in the “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead Air Distribution
(Mixed)” sections.
Note that in this example, the temperature at head height for a seated person, T
h,seat
= 76.8°F, is much
higher than the design temperature, T
d
= 75°F. Also, to control this space with a thermostat at 4 ft
(1.2 m) height, the setpoint should be increased to 77.4°F. Setting the thermostat to 75°F would
result in an Average Temperature in the Occupied Zone – Seated, T
oz,seat
equal to 72.6°F.

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 10 | P a g e


Figure 4 Graphical comparison of the temperature profiles (top) and design air flow rates for displacement
and overhead ventilation systems.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ASHRAE METHOD
In the following section, we present a short description of the displacement ventilation design
method, including a discussion of some of the key assumptions.

The ASHRAE method assumes a linear stratified temperature distribution between heights of 4–43
in. (0.1–1.1 m), representing ankle and head levels for a seated occupant. It is based on the idea that
only part of the heat generated in the room affects the temperature in the occupied zone. Therefore,
only part of the heat load generated by sources should be taken into consideration in the calculation
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 11 | P a g e

of the airflow rate, V
h
. A dimensionless temperature is used to predict the temperature stratification
in the zone. The dimensionless temperature at a height in the room is generally defined by the
following equation:
  0 =
I - I
s
I
¡
-I
s
  (1)  
where T, T
s
, and T
r
, are, respectively, the point, supply and return air temperatures. For modeling
purposes, it is assumed that the temperatures at all points at the same room height are equal. The
ASHRAE method uses the dimensionless temperature at the floor, θ
f
, as defined in equation (2).
  0
]
=
I
]
- I
s
I
¡
- I
s
  (2)  
where T
f
is the air temperature measured close to the floor, usually at ankle height (4 in. [0.1 m]),
and away from the local influence of any supply diffuser. T
f
is representative of the bottom point of
the vertical temperature profile. In order to estimate the vertical temperature profile in the occupied
zone, the method first establishes the value for the temperature near the floor, θ
f
. θ
f
is defined by
equation (2) and calculated in the design process by equation (3) developed by Mundt (1996):
 
0
]
=
1
6uIpc
p
A
[
1
o
¡
+
1
o
c
¸ + 1
 
(3)  
Where:
A= Floor area [ft
2
]
V= Airflow rate [cfm]
c
p
= Specific heat of air. Assumed to be 0.24 Btu/(lb°F) at standard conditions
α
c
= Convective heat transfer coefficient. Assumed to be equal to 1 Btu/(h ft
2
°F)
α
r
= Radiant heat transfer coefficient. Assumed to be equal to 1 Btu/(h ft
2
°F)
ρ= Air density. Assumed to be equal to 0.075 lb/ft
3
(Air temperature = 70°F)
Equation (2) can be simplified into equation (3) using the above assumptions.
 
0
]
=
A
2.16I + A
 
(4)  

The design procedure is as follows:

1) Select a room design air temperature at 43 in. (1.1 m) above the floor (T
h
). Chen and
Glicksman decided to set the temperature at head height for a seated person equal to the design
temperature. This implies that the air temperature measured by the thermostat (4 ft) will be
slightly higher. Therefore the setpoint at the thermostat should be fixed to a higher value. In
the spreadsheet we added the Average temperature in the Occupied Zone for a Seated, T
oz,seat
,
and Standing, T
oz,stand
, occupant. We believe that this temperature is closer to the one perceived
by a seated (or standing) person in a thermally stratified environment than a single room
design air temperature measured at 43 in. (1.1 m), Therefore we recommend the use of the
average occupied zone temperature (seated or standing) as the design (control) temperature in
the room using the “Design Control Strategy” cell (see below).
2) Calculate summer design cooling load, Q
t
. Itemize the cooling load in three parts, Q
t
= Q
oe
+
Q
l
+ Q
ex
where:
• Q
oe
[Btu/h] is the heat gain from occupants, desk lamps, and equipment.
• Q
l
[Btu/h] is the heat gain from overhead lighting.
• Q
ex
[Btu/h] is the heat gain from heat conduction through the room envelope and
transmitted solar radiation. This heat load is primarily associated with warm exterior wall
and window temperatures. Direct sunshine on the floor increases the floor surface
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 12 | P a g e

temperature, thus generating increased mixing in the room and possibly disrupting the
temperature stratification. The ASHRAE method is based on a validated CFD model.
CFD tools cannot properly simulate direct solar radiation, hence, the ASHRAE method is
not able to properly take into account the problems related to direct solar radiation.
3) Determine the flow rate required for summer cooling, V
h
, according to the following equation
1
:

  I
h
=
u.29Sµ
oc
+ u.1S2µ
I
+u.18Sµ
cx
6u∆I
hu,scut
pc
p
  (5)  

Where ΔT
ha,seat
is the temperature difference between the head and ankle levels of a seated
occupant. At this step it is set equal to 3.6°F (2°C). Note that by fixing the stratification at this
value, the ASHRAE method is correspondingly setting the vertical temperature difference
between head and ankle heights for standing occupants (67–4 in. [1.7–0.1 m]) to be very close
to 5.4°F (3°C), the maximum acceptable limit specified by ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. The
three numbers, 0.295, 0.132, and 0.185, are weighting factors, defining the fractions of the heat
gains entering the space below the head level of a seated occupant.
4) Determine the required flow rate for indoor air quality, V
f
, according to the following equation:
  I
]
=
I
bz
E
z
  (6)  
Where V
bz
is the outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of an occupied space, and E
z

is the zone air distribution effectiveness. These values are determined from ASHRAE
Standard 62.1-2004. Recently, an ASHRAE research project (RP-1373) has been completed,
in which new values of zone air distribution effectiveness have been calculated. For more
details, refer to Jiang et al. (2009).
5) A ventilation system has to guarantee simultaneously thermal comfort and indoor air quality.
Therefore, the design airflow rate, V, is the larger between V
h
and V
f
.
6) Calculate θ
f
using equation (3).
7) Calculate the supply air temperature, T
s
, with the following formula:
  I
s
= I
h
-
u.29Sµ
oc
+ u.1S2µ
I
+ u.18Sµ
cx
6uIpc
p
-
0
]
µ
t
6uIpc
p
  (7)  
8) The return air temperature, T
r
, can be calculated from:
  I
¡
= I
s
+
µ
t
Ipc
p
  (8)  

The weighting factors are defined as a result of a calibrated CFD program that simulated several
typical U.S. building configurations. The weighting factors bear the uncertainty of being the average
of the results of many different conditions. The ASHRAE design method is valid within the
following ranges of boundary conditions:
• Room height [ft], h: 8 ≤h ≤ 18 (2.4m ≤h ≤ 5.5m)
• Air change rate [ach], n: 2 ≤ n≤ 15
• Total heat load over floor area [Btu/(h ft
2
)], Q
t
/A: 6.6 ≤ Q
t
/A ≤ 38 (20 W/m
2
≤h ≤120
W/m
2
)
• Ratio between heat loads of the occupied zone and total heat load, Q
oe
/Q
t
: 0.08 ≤ Q
oe
/Q
t

0.68

1
In the Chen and Glicksman (2003) design guidelines there are errors in equations 7.1a and 7.8. In equation
7.1a the resulting ventilation rate is given in air changes per second and not air changes per hour. Equation 7.8
is valid for the SI unit system but not for I-P unit system. For the I-P system the calculated value should be
divided by 60.
Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 13 | P a g e

• Ratio between overhead lighting and total heat load, Q
l
/Q
t
: 0 ≤ Q
l
/Q
t
≤ 0.43
• Ratio between heat load coming from heat conduction through the room envelope plus
transmitted solar radiation and total heat load, Q
ex
/Q
t
: 0 ≤ Q
ex
/Q
t
≤ 0.92

DESIGN CONTROL STRATEGY
In a thermally stratified environment, an occupant is exposed to several air temperatures, lower in
the lower parts of the body and higher in its upper parts. There is not one height where a single
temperature measurement can be made to describe the entire stratified environment.

The ASHRAE method fixes the Temperature at Head (43 in. [1.1 m]) – Seated, T
h,seat
, equal to the
design temperature. This implies that a seated occupant will be exposed to a lower temperature than
the one desired by the designer. The risk of cool thermal discomfort may increase.

In the design spreadsheet there is the possibility to apply a different design control strategy from
that assumed by the ASHRAE method. This is done by setting the average temperature in the
occupied zone for a seated or a standing person equal to the design temperature. To enable the
calculation of the average temperature for a standing person and the thermostat setpoint temperature
(4 ft [1.2 m] height), we estimated the vertical temperature profile between the 43-in. height and the
ceiling. The ASHRAE method does not calculate this profile and states that it is not linear. We used
a linear approximation for the profile and believe that it is reasonable and helps to reduce the above
mentioned thermal discomfort risk.

In the “Displacement Ventilation” section, the user may choose among the following three design
control strategies: “Seated”, “Standing”, and “ASHRAE”.

FINAL REMARKS
Displacement ventilation should not be used for heating because the buoyancy and low supply air
velocity will drive the hot supply air to the ceiling level where the air will be extracted generating a
short circuit. If heating is necessary in winter, an independent heating system (radiant panels,
convectors, radiators or fan coil units at floor level, etc.) is necessary. According to Chen and
Glicksman (1999) displacement ventilation may preserve a comfortable environment if the cooling
load does not exceed 11.2 W/ft
2
(40 Btu/(h ft
2
)).

The ASHRAE design method does not take into account the possibility of using radiant systems for
removing part of the cooling load, therefore the method should not be applied with this system. A
cooled ceiling will decrease the room temperature stratification and a cooled floor may increase the
risk of cool discomfort at the ankle level.

Field measurements in offices with displacement ventilation have demonstrated that drafts at ankle
level are the most frequent occupant complaint (Melikov et al. 2005). Therefore, the prediction of
temperature profile in the room and the choice of air diffuser type, size and location should be
carefully performed. Nielsen et al. (1998) showed that in order to reduce the temperature gradient in
the occupied zone, it is necessary to increase the entrainment of room air. This can be done by using
higher efficiency air diffusers. The ASHRAE method does not take into account the influence of
diffuser type.


Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 14 | P a g e

REFERENCE
• Chen, Q. and Glicksman, L. (2003) “System Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for
Displacement Ventilation” Atlanta: ASHRAE.
• Jiang, Z., Chen, Q., and Lee, K. (2009) “Air Distribution Effectiveness with Stratified Air
Distribution Systems.” Final Report, ASHRAE Research Project – 1373. Available from ASHRAE.
• Melikov, A.K., Pitchurov, G., Naydenov, K. and Langkilde, G. (2005) “Field study of occupants’
thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation” Indoor Air 15 (3): 205-214.
• Mundt, E. (1996) “The performance of displacement ventilation system” Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute
of Technology, Sweden.
• Nielsen, P.V., Hoff, L., Pedersen, L.G. (1998) “Displacement ventilation by different type of
diffusers”. Proc. of the 9th AIVC conference. ISBN 0946075 409, Warwick, Poland.
• Skistad, H., Mundt, E., Nielsen, P.V., Hagstrom, K., Railo, J. (2002) “Displacement
ventilation in non-industrial premises” Guidebook n. 1, REHVA - Federation of European
Heating and Air-Conditioning Associations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) at the University of
California, Berkeley. The Center's work is supported by CBE's Industry Partners, a consortium of
corporations and organizations committed to improving the design and operation of commercial
buildings. Current CBE Partners include: Armstrong World Industries, Arup, California Energy
Commission, Charles M. Salter, Associates, Coherent Structures, Cohos Evamy, DPR Construction,
EHDD Architecture, Engineered Interiors Group, Environmental Systems Design, Glumac,
Haworth, HOK, KlingStubbins, Larson Binkley, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Price
Industries, Rumsey Engineers, CPP, Mahlum Architects, Mithun, Perkins + Will, Skidmore Owings
and Merrill, Southern California Edison, Steelcase, Syska Hennessy Group, Tate Access Floors,
Taylor Engineering, CTG Energetics, Guttmann & Blaevoet, Southland Industries, Swinerton
Builders, Uponor, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. General Services Administration (GSA),
Webcor Builders, WSP Flack + Kurtz, and Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects.

usually lower than U.cbe. Click the Microsoft Office Button. which is applied only for cooling purposes. Click Add-Ins.ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT These user notes describe how to use a spreadsheet-based (Excel 2007) version of the ASHRAE method (Chen and Glicksman 2003) for calculating the amount of design cooling airflow required for a displacement ventilation (DV) system that is providing all sensible cooling for a conditioned space.S. allowing perceived comfort conditions to be optimized. In the classic definition of a DV system. Loading the Solver add-in in Excel 2007 The Solver Add-in is a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 add-in program that is available when you install Microsoft Office or Excel. Tip: if Solver Add-in is not listed in the Add-Ins available box.php BACKGROUND Displacement ventilation is a method of room air distribution that can provide improved indoor air quality (ventilation performance) in the occupied zone of a building compared to the dilution ventilation provided by overhead mixing systems. Click Go. Therefore. however. select Excel Add-ins.S. 2002) methods are the most commonly used procedures for this purpose. and the macros should be enabled. local air supply conditions are generally under the control of the occupants. it is not necessary to install a raised floor to operate a DV system.) in Excel and in VBA. and then click Excel Options. Furthermore. you need to load it first. air is supplied at very low velocity through supply devices located near floor level (the most common are low side wall diffusers). The ASHRAE (Chen and Glicksman 2003) and the REHVA (Skistad et al. select the Solver Add-in check box. due to increased interest and application in North America. The primary difference between DV and underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems is in the manner in which the air is delivered into the space. and then click OK. DV systems do not provide an opportunity for individual occupant control. click Browse to locate the add-in. 3. The design tool has been developed by CBE and is available on the CBE Partner website: http://www. since most UFAD systems are configured with adjustable floor diffusers near occupants. If you get prompted that the Solver Add-in is not currently installed on your computer. Although possible. and for building layouts that are somewhat different from the ones most commonly found in the U. To use it in Excel. Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 2|Page . 1. the Solver should be installed as an add-in (add-in: A supplemental program that adds custom commands or custom features to Microsoft Office. Recently. In the Add-Ins available box. LOADING THE SOLVER (OR RUNNING) The spreadsheet uses the Excel 2007 Solver and the Visual Basic (VBA) Editor macros to calculate the outputs of the displacement ventilation methods. click Yes to install it. and then in the Manage box. heat loads. and is returned near ceiling level. 2. The classic DV system delivers air at very low velocities while UFAD systems employ higher velocity diffusers with correspondingly greater mixing. One of the most frequently asked questions is how to calculate design airflow rates for DV systems.edu/partners/downloads. 4. CBE has received more requests for design and operating guidance related to DV systems. We have focused only on the ASHRAE method because the REHVA method was develop for typical European heat loads.berkeley.

This worksheet should be modified only by expert users. Note that in addition to “Design Temperature. The “Design Temperature” refers to the setpoint temperature.1 m) using the “ASHRAE” label from the drop-down menu. (1. the majority of the required inputs. only the “IP” worksheet will be described because the “SI” worksheet is similar to the “IP” worksheet. As defined in the list below. “Displacement Ventilation”. OVERVIEW OF THE DV DESIGN TOOL SPREADSHEET The design tool is composed of three worksheets named “IP”. To establish a reference. To activate the Visual Basic Editor choose “Developer-Code-Visual Basic” or press “Alt+F11” in Excel. the Solver command is available in the Analysis group on the Data tab. the user has three choices for defining the setpoint temperature using the “Design Control Strategy” input cell.” the “Overhead Air Distribution” section also permits the user to enter a “Supply Air Temperature. In the “Displacement Ventilation” section there are all the detailed outputs of the ASHRAE design method plus some indexes that we think can be useful in the design process.xlam does not appear under Available References. In the worksheet the user inputs are entered only in cells with a white background and the outputs (calculated values) are displayed in cells with a dark gray background (see Figure 1). After you load the Solver Add-in. named “Common Data”. only the units used are different. The “Data Library” worksheet is hidden. Key design inputs are entered at the top of both the “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead Air Distribution” sections. or simply set to the temperature at a height of 43 in. such as heat loads and room/zone dimensions are entered. The user may choose either the “IP” (Inch-Pound units) or “SI” (International System units) worksheet. and then select the Solver. under default conditions. Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 3|Page . In the “Overhead Air Distribution” section there are the inputs and outputs for sizing a traditional overhead ventilation system. The “Design Temperature” is shown in the graph “Predicted Room Air Temperature Distribution”. the “Design Temperature” can be set equal to the average temperature of the occupied zone for seated or standing occupants. This section was inserted to allow users to compare the temperature profiles and the design airflow rates for the two ventilation strategies. In the “Data library” there are the constant values used in the design procedure. If Solver. In the following. there are two graphs presenting the most important results. “SI” and “Data Library” as indicated in the bottom-left corner of Figure 1.” This option is not available for displacement ventilation because the ASHRAE method calculates the supply air temperature based on the user design inputs. click Browse and open Solver. Loading the Solver in VBA To use the spreadsheet you need to establish a reference between the Solver add-in and the Visual Basic Editor. click References on the Tools menu.xlam in the \office12\library\Solver subfolder. In the “Common Data” section. and the second one compares the design airflow rates. The data input and output are organized into three sections. On the right-hand side of the page. and “Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)”.xlam check box under Available References.5. The top graph compares the air temperature profiles for the overhead and displacement ventilation systems. In the case of the stratified conditions produced by a displacement ventilation system.

  S. symbol. units and description. per unit of floor area  Qoe  Ql  W/ft2  W/ft2  W/m2  W/m2  Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 4|Page . Table 1 Input data.P.Figure 1 Displacement ventilation design tool (IP units). Description Heat load from occupants. The output data are listed and described in Table 2.  Heat load from overhead lighting. INPUT AND OUTPUT DESCRIPTIONS Table 1 lists and describes the user input data in the order of appearance in the worksheet.  I. desk lamps.I. and equipment.  per unit of floor area that has to be removed from the  room/zone.   Common Data  Heat Load ‐ People  and Equipment  Heat Load ‐ Lighting  Sym. A detailed description of the inputs and outputs are listed below.

1‐2004. [0. per unit of floor  area that has to be removed from the room/zone. Toz. and is also equal to the return temperature in a  mixing overhead air distribution system. The “Design Temperature” is displayed in  the graph “Predicted Room Air Temperature  Distribution”. Description Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 5|Page .  Design outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of  the occupied space or spaces in a zone. and   3) “ASHRAE” – The temperature at head height (43  in. as described in the “Design Control Strategy”  input (below). is set equal to Td.  Using the drop‐down menu.1‐2004.P. and “ASHRAE”. [0.  I.2 m] height) temperature  setpoint. [1.  Room (or zone) design air temperature. Ez is determined from Table 6‐2 of  ASHRAE 62. the user may choose among  the following three definitions for “Design Temperature”:  “Seated”. [1.seat. units and description.   Displacement Ventilation Design  Temperature  Td  °F  °C  Design Control  Strategy        Zone Air  Distribution  Effectiveness  Ez  ‐  ‐  Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)  Design  Temperature  Supply Air  Temperature  Td  °F  °C  Ts  °F  °C  Table 2 Output data. [1. Room (or zone) depth.1 m]) for a seated  person.1 m]) for a standing  person. “Standing”. symbol. Toz.stand is set equal to Td. For  displacement ventilation there are three possible  definitions. In an overhead  system this is the thermostat temperature setpoint.  This last option is the assumption of the ASHRAE  method. is set equal to Td.I. Th.Heat Load ‐ External   Qex  Width  Depth  Height  Outdoor Airflow  Rate in the  Breathing Zone  W/ft2  ft  ft  ft  cfm  W/m2  m m  m  m³/s    h  Vbz  that has to be removed from the room/zone.seat.  Air temperature at the overhead diffuser.  Heat load from heat conduction through the room  envelope and transmitted solar radiation.1  m]) and ankle height (4 in.   1) “Seated” –The average temperature in the  occupied zone between head height (43 in.  Room (or zone) design air temperature.7  m]) and ankle height (4 in. It is equal to  the air temperature leaving the cooling coil at the air  handling unit when the duct heat gains are equal to zero. It is the  thermostat (typically at 4 ft [1. Vbz should be  determined in accordance with Equation 6‐1 of ASHRAE  62.  Room (or zone) width.   2) “Standing” – The average temperature in the  occupied zone between head height (67 in.  S.  Room (or zone) height.   Measure of how effectively the zone air distribution uses  its supply air to maintain acceptable air quality in the  breathing zone.   Common Data  Sym.1 m]) – Seated.

 [1.   Total design cooling load. It is equal to the sum of Qoe.) to the exhaust is not linear.  Total design cooling load per unit of floor area.Vf.1 m) and the Return Air Temperature at the ceiling. and  equipment.Heat Load ‐ People  and Equipment  Heat Load ‐ Lighting  Heat Load ‐  External   Heat Load ‐ Total  Heat Load ‐ Total  Qoe  Ql  Qex  Qt  Qt  Btu/h  Btu/h  Btu/h  W/ft²  Btu/h  ft²  ft³  W  W  W  W/m²  W  m²  m³  Floor Area  A  Volume    Displacement Ventilation Airflow Rate for  Thermal Comfort  Vh  Total heat load from occupants.  Floor area of the room (or zone). Ql. It is calculated with Equation  7. per  unit of floor area  Airflow Rate.7  m]) ‐ Standing  Th. This temperature is calculated assuming a linear  temperature distribution between the temperature at 43  in. the Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness is used  instead of the Ventilation Effectiveness because we  believe it is a more conservative value.   Air temperature at the supply air diffuser. desk lamps.1 m]). [0. To calculate the airflow rate for indoor air  quality. V is the maximum between Vh and Vf. [1. (1.1 m) and the Return Air  Temperature at the ceiling. [1. Airflow rate required to achieve the desired design air  temperature.7 m]) for a  standing person.  Airflow rate divided by the floor area.4 of the ASHRAE Design Guidelines for Displacement  Ventilation (Chen and Glicksman 2003).  and Qex.  The ASHRAE method does not calculate this temperature  and states that the temperature profile from head height  of a seated person (43 in.  Temperature of the air removed from a space to be then  recirculated or exhausted. In this worksheet  it is not used.  Total heat load from overhead lighting.  Design airflow rate.1  m]) ‐ Seating  Th.  Flow rate required to maintain acceptable indoor air  quality. [1. Volume of the room (or zone). The ASHRAE method does not  calculate this temperature and states that the  temperature profile from head height of a seated person  cfm m³/s  Ventilation  Effectiveness  (based on ASHRAE  method)  η  - ‐  Airflow Rate for  Indoor Air Quality  Airflow Rate  Airflow Rate. This temperature is calculated assuming  a linear temperature distribution between the  temperature at 43 in.1 m]) for a seated  person.   Air temperature at head level (67 in. (1.seat  °F  °C  Temperature at  Head (67 in.stand  °F  °C  Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 6|Page .  It is defined by Equation 2 in this manuscript.  Total heat load from heat conduction through the room  envelope and transmitted solar radiation.  Air temperature at head level (43 in.  Air temperature close to the floor.  Ventilation effectiveness is equivalent to the Zone Air  Distribution Effectiveness. It is evaluated at ankle  level (4 in.  Airflow rate expressed in air changes per hour. ACH  Dimensionless  Temperature near  the Floor  Supply Air  Temperature  Return Air  Temperature  Temperature near  the Floor  Vf  V  V  V  θf  Ts  Tr  Tf  cfm cfm cfm/ft 1/h °F  °F  °F  2 m³/s  m³/s  m³/h  1/h  ‐  °C  °C  °C  Temperature at  Head (43 in.

 We  believe that this temperature is closer to the one  perceived by people sitting in a thermally stratified  environment than the room design air temperature  measured at a single height of 43 in.4°F  (3°C). (1.1 m).2 m]). [1.  According to ASHRAE 55‐2004 the maximum allowed  temperature difference between head and ankle is 5.4°F  (3°C).  Average air temperature between head (67 in. [1. [1. V is the maximum between Vh and Vf.  We believe that this temperature is closer to the one  perceived by people standing in a thermally stratified  environment than the room design air temperature  measured at a single height of 43 in. (1.  Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)  Airflow Rate for  cfm  Vh  Thermal Comfort  Airflow Rate for  cfm  Vf  Indoor Air Quality  Airflow Rate  Airflow Rate.) to the  exhaust is not linear. Tspt temperature is calculated  assuming a linear temperature distribution between the  temperature at 43 in. This  is the temperature that should be set at the thermostat  in order to get the design air temperature.  Average air temperature between head (43 in.1 m). (1.  stand  °F  °C  Calculated  Temperature  Setpoint at the  Thermostat (4 ft  [1.stand  °F  °C  Temperature  Difference ‐ Head  and Ankle ‐ Seated  Temperature  Difference ‐ Head  and Ankle ‐  Standing  Δtha.1 m]) heights of a standing occupant.  Temperature of the air removed from a space to be then  recirculated or exhausted. [0.seat  °F  °C  Δtha.) to the exhaust is not linear.1  m]) and the ankle (4 in. per  unit of floor area  Airflow Rate.  Air temperature difference between the head (43 in.  Design airflow rate. ACH  Return Air  Temperature  V  V  V  Tr  cfm  m³/s  m³/s  m³/s  cfm/ft2  m³/h  1/h  °F  1/h  °C  Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 7|Page .2 m])  Tspt   °F  °C  (43 in.  Flow rate required to achieve the desired design air  temperature.1 m) and the Return Air  Temperature.  According to ASHRAE 55‐2004 the maximum allowed  temperature difference between head and ankle is 5.  Air temperature at thermostat height (4 ft [1.1 m])  and ankle (4 in.1 m]) heights of a seated occupant. Please refer to  Table 1‐ Design Control Strategy to understand where the  design air temperature is calculated in a thermally  stratified environment.seat  °F  °C  Average  Temperature in the  Occupied Zone ‐  Standing  Toz.  Air temperature difference between the head (67 in. [0.Average  Temperature in the  Occupied Zone ‐  Seated  Toz. The ASHRAE method does not calculate  this temperature and states that the temperature profile  from head height of a seated person (43 in.  Flow rate required to maintaining acceptable indoor air  quality. [0.7  m]) and the ankle (4 in.1 m])  and ankle (4 in. [1.  Airflow rate expressed in air changes per hour. Airflow rate divided by the floor area. [0.1 m]) of a standing occupant.1 m]) of a seated occupant.

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 8|Page . To activate click the button “COPY” on the line “To copy the displayed results to a new worksheet. EXAMPLE To demonstrate how to use the DV design tool. for displacement and overhead is equal to 75°F. “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)” sections. Td.2 (see ASHRAE 62. IP units are used.In the worksheet there is also the possibility to copy in an independent sheet the results of a simulation. • Zone air distribution effectiveness for displacement ventilation is 1. Qex=3 W/ft² • Room geometry: 40 ft x 25 ft.1-2004 the outdoor air flow rate in the Breathing Zone is 110 cfm. Figure 2 Screenshot of the input data in the “Common Data”. The design characteristics are: • Heat loads: Qoe=1. The temperature profiles and airflow rates are compared in Figure 4.2 W/ft². Ts. • Supply Air Temperature. for the Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed) is set to 57°F. • Design temperature. • The Design Control Strategy for the displacement ventilation is “Seated”. The inputs are shown in Figure 2 and the outputs are shown in Figure 3.8 W/ft². Room height: 10 ft • According the ASHRAE 62. This was chosen because the majority of the occupants stay seated while working.1-2004 Table 6-2). Ql=1.” (See Figure 4). click the button. an example for an office building where people are primarily seated is presented.

Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 9|Page .8°F.Figure 3 Screenshot of the output data in the “Displacement Ventilation” and “Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)” sections. Toz. the setpoint should be increased to 77. Th.2 m) height. is much higher than the design temperature. Note that in this example.seat equal to 72. to control this space with a thermostat at 4 ft (1. Also.4°F.6°F. the temperature at head height for a seated person. Td= 75°F.seat= 76. Setting the thermostat to 75°F would result in an Average Temperature in the Occupied Zone – Seated.

Therefore. only part of the heat load generated by sources should be taken into consideration in the calculation Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 10 | P a g e . we present a short description of the displacement ventilation design method.1 m).1–1. representing ankle and head levels for a seated occupant. DESCRIPTION OF THE ASHRAE METHOD In the following section. The ASHRAE method assumes a linear stratified temperature distribution between heights of 4–43 in. including a discussion of some of the key assumptions. (0. It is based on the idea that only part of the heat generated in the room affects the temperature in the occupied zone.Figure 4 Graphical comparison of the temperature profiles (top) and design air flow rates for displacement and overhead ventilation systems.

Therefore we recommend the use of the average occupied zone temperature (seated or standing) as the design (control) temperature in the room using the “Design Control Strategy” cell (see below).1 m]). are. A dimensionless temperature is used to predict the temperature stratification in the zone. In the spreadsheet we added the Average temperature in the Occupied Zone for a Seated. and Standing. the method first establishes the value for the temperature near the floor. it is assumed that the temperatures at all points at the same room height are equal. In order to estimate the vertical temperature profile in the occupied zone. Ts. θf is defined by equation (2) and calculated in the design process by equation (3) developed by Mundt (1996): 1   60   (3)   1 1 1 Where: A= Floor area [ft2] V= Airflow rate [cfm] cp= Specific heat of air.seat. The ASHRAE method uses the dimensionless temperature at the floor. (1. Toz.16   (4)   . 2) Calculate summer design cooling load. usually at ankle height (4 in. Chen and Glicksman decided to set the temperature at head height for a seated person equal to the design temperature. Itemize the cooling load in three parts. and equipment.   The design procedure is as follows: 1) Select a room design air temperature at 43 in. The dimensionless temperature at a height in the room is generally defined by the following equation:     (1)   where T. • Qex [Btu/h] is the heat gain from heat conduction through the room envelope and transmitted solar radiation. θf. Assumed to be 0. Assumed to be equal to 1 Btu/(h ft2°F) ρ= Air density. Assumed to be equal to 1 Btu/(h ft2°F) αr= Radiant heat transfer coefficient. Qt. θf . • Ql [Btu/h] is the heat gain from overhead lighting. We believe that this temperature is closer to the one perceived by a seated (or standing) person in a thermally stratified environment than a single room design air temperature measured at 43 in. [0. occupant. respectively. desk lamps. Direct sunshine on the floor increases the floor surface Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 11 | P a g e 2.     (2)   where Tf is the air temperature measured close to the floor. supply and return air temperatures.stand. as defined in equation (2). (1. Toz. the point.of the airflow rate. For modeling purposes. Tf is representative of the bottom point of the vertical temperature profile. Vh. This implies that the air temperature measured by the thermostat (4 ft) will be slightly higher. This heat load is primarily associated with warm exterior wall and window temperatures. and Tr.075 lb/ft3 (Air temperature = 70°F) Equation (2) can be simplified into equation (3) using the above assumptions. Therefore the setpoint at the thermostat should be fixed to a higher value.1 m).24 Btu/(lb°F) at standard conditions αc= Convective heat transfer coefficient. and away from the local influence of any supply diffuser. Assumed to be equal to 0.1 m) above the floor (Th). Qt= Qoe+ Ql+ Qex where: • Qoe [Btu/h] is the heat gain from occupants.

V.1a and 7. the design airflow rate.8 is valid for the SI unit system but not for I-P unit system.185   (7)   60 60 The return air temperature. Note that by fixing the stratification at this value. Therefore. in which new values of zone air distribution effectiveness have been calculated. h: 8 ≤h ≤ 18 (2. Qt/A: 6. hence.4m ≤h ≤ 5. CFD tools cannot properly simulate direct solar radiation. Calculate the supply air temperature. 0. Qoe/Qt: 0. In equation 7. Ts.295 0. (2009). At this step it is set equal to 3.1-2004. and 0.temperature. A ventilation system has to guarantee simultaneously thermal comfort and indoor air quality. and Ez is the zone air distribution effectiveness. according to the following equation1:   0. The ASHRAE method is based on a validated CFD model.68 In the Chen and Glicksman (2003) design guidelines there are errors in equations 7. These values are determined from ASHRAE Standard 62.6 ≤ Qt/A ≤ 38 (20 W/m2 ≤h ≤120 W/m2) • Ratio between heat loads of the occupied zone and total heat load. the maximum acceptable limit specified by ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. Vf.185   (5)   Where ΔTha.185.8. Tr. 4) Determine the required flow rate for indoor air quality. the ASHRAE method is correspondingly setting the vertical temperature difference between head and ankle heights for standing occupants (67–4 in.132 60∆ . is the larger between Vh and Vf. the ASHRAE method is not able to properly take into account the problems related to direct solar radiation. n: 2 ≤ n≤ 15 • Total heat load over floor area [Btu/(h ft2)]. building configurations.132 0.132. defining the fractions of the heat gains entering the space below the head level of a seated occupant.1a the resulting ventilation rate is given in air changes per second and not air changes per hour. For more details. The ASHRAE design method is valid within the following ranges of boundary conditions: • Room height [ft]. 0. Recently. [1.295 0. can be calculated from:   (8)   5) 6) 7)   8)   The weighting factors are defined as a result of a calibrated CFD program that simulated several typical U. an ASHRAE research project (RP-1373) has been completed.7–0. The weighting factors bear the uncertainty of being the average of the results of many different conditions. according to the following equation:     (6)   Where Vbz is the outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of an occupied space.seat is the temperature difference between the head and ankle levels of a seated occupant. Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 12 | P a g e 1 . Calculate θf using equation (3). are weighting factors. with the following formula: 0.4°F (3°C).295. refer to Jiang et al.5m) • Air change rate [ach]. Equation 7. The three numbers. Vh.6°F (2°C).08 ≤ Qoe/Qt ≤ 0.S. 3) Determine the flow rate required for summer cooling. thus generating increased mixing in the room and possibly disrupting the temperature stratification. For the I-P system the calculated value should be divided by 60. 0.1 m]) to be very close to 5.

“Standing”. size and location should be carefully performed. Ql/Qt: 0 ≤ Ql/Qt ≤ 0. therefore the method should not be applied with this system. equal to the design temperature. an occupant is exposed to several air temperatures. The risk of cool thermal discomfort may increase. the prediction of temperature profile in the room and the choice of air diffuser type. A cooled ceiling will decrease the room temperature stratification and a cooled floor may increase the risk of cool discomfort at the ankle level. lower in the lower parts of the body and higher in its upper parts. To enable the calculation of the average temperature for a standing person and the thermostat setpoint temperature (4 ft [1. Therefore. The ASHRAE method does not calculate this profile and states that it is not linear. height and the ceiling.2 m] height). This can be done by using higher efficiency air diffusers. Qex/Qt: 0 ≤ Qex/Qt ≤ 0. Field measurements in offices with displacement ventilation have demonstrated that drafts at ankle level are the most frequent occupant complaint (Melikov et al. 2005). Nielsen et al. The ASHRAE design method does not take into account the possibility of using radiant systems for removing part of the cooling load.) is necessary. we estimated the vertical temperature profile between the 43-in. The ASHRAE method does not take into account the influence of diffuser type.43 Ratio between heat load coming from heat conduction through the room envelope plus transmitted solar radiation and total heat load.seat. This is done by setting the average temperature in the occupied zone for a seated or a standing person equal to the design temperature. [1. This implies that a seated occupant will be exposed to a lower temperature than the one desired by the designer. etc. According to Chen and Glicksman (1999) displacement ventilation may preserve a comfortable environment if the cooling load does not exceed 11. Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 13 | P a g e . (1998) showed that in order to reduce the temperature gradient in the occupied zone.92 DESIGN CONTROL STRATEGY In a thermally stratified environment.2 W/ft2 (40 Btu/(h ft2)). In the “Displacement Ventilation” section.• • • Ratio between overhead lighting and total heat load. an independent heating system (radiant panels. Th. We used a linear approximation for the profile and believe that it is reasonable and helps to reduce the above mentioned thermal discomfort risk. convectors. The ASHRAE method fixes the Temperature at Head (43 in. it is necessary to increase the entrainment of room air. and “ASHRAE”. There is not one height where a single temperature measurement can be made to describe the entire stratified environment. radiators or fan coil units at floor level. If heating is necessary in winter.1 m]) – Seated. FINAL REMARKS Displacement ventilation should not be used for heating because the buoyancy and low supply air velocity will drive the hot supply air to the ceiling level where the air will be extracted generating a short circuit. the user may choose among the following three design control strategies: “Seated”. In the design spreadsheet there is the possibility to apply a different design control strategy from that assumed by the ASHRAE method.

G. Haworth.. and Glicksman. Mahlum Architects. REHVA . Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Chen. E. ASHRAE Research Project – 1373. P. Berkeley. Charles M. Skistad. Cohos Evamy. (2009) “Air Distribution Effectiveness with Stratified Air Distribution Systems. U. (1998) “Displacement ventilation by different type of diffusers”. J. Southland Industries. Syska Hennessy Group. Current CBE Partners include: Armstrong World Industries. Rumsey Engineers. G. and Lee. Pedersen. Southern California Edison. Perkins + Will. Glumac. Z. Skidmore Owings and Merrill.. Hoff.REFERENCE • • • • • • Chen. Salter. a consortium of corporations and organizations committed to improving the design and operation of commercial buildings. Mithun. K. Railo.. (2002) “Displacement ventilation in non-industrial premises” Guidebook n. Hagstrom.” Final Report. Steelcase. DPR Construction. Environmental Systems Design. Proc. Warwick. K. Swinerton Builders.S. A. H.V. Nielsen. Cooling Airflow Design Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 14 | P a g e .. CTG Energetics. L. Coherent Structures. Melikov. Price Industries. L. Larson Binkley. EHDD Architecture. Taylor Engineering. E.Federation of European Heating and Air-Conditioning Associations. Jiang. Pitchurov. HOK. P.. Poland. Nielsen. Available from ASHRAE. Associates. K. (1996) “The performance of displacement ventilation system” Ph. Webcor Builders.V.D. L... Q.. Sweden. thesis. Mundt. U. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) at the University of California. Engineered Interiors Group. ISBN 0946075 409.K. (2005) “Field study of occupants’ thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation” Indoor Air 15 (3): 205-214.G. Uponor. (2003) “System Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” Atlanta: ASHRAE. and Langkilde.. Tate Access Floors. WSP Flack + Kurtz. Guttmann & Blaevoet. of the 9th AIVC conference.S. CPP. The Center's work is supported by CBE's Industry Partners. Royal Institute of Technology. Naydenov. 1. California Energy Commission. Arup. and Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects. Mundt. General Services Administration (GSA). Q. KlingStubbins..

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