Manual para Aves Ponedoras

Cambridge, MA Lexington, MA Hadley, MA Bethesda, MD Washington, DC Chicago, IL Cairo, Egipto Johannesburg, Sudáfrica

Apoyo a la Generación de Ingresos Locales (AGIL) Guatemala-CAP
Contrato #
520-C-00-00-00035-00

Junio 2003

Elaborado para: Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional/ Guatemala 1a Calle 7-66 Zona 9 Guatemala 010009

Elaborado por Christopher Reynolds Abt Associates Inc. Suite 600 4800 Montgomery Lane Bethesda, MD 20814-5341

Manual para Proyectos de Aves Ponedoras

AGIL
Apoyo a la generación de ingresos locales

Julio 2,003

Tabla de Contenido
I. La Potencial de la Empresa • Resumen de Proyecto • Proyecto de Aves Ponedoras- Modelo Pachay • Ejemplo de Estudio Mercadeo II. Infraestructura • Galera para 1,500 Gallinas Ponedoras (Tipo 1): Planos de Obra Civil Presupuesto • Galera para 1,500 Gallinas Ponedoras (Tipo 2): Planos de Obra Civil Presupuesto III. Análisis Económica • Resumen de Proyección para Cuatro Años: Iniciando con 500 Aves y Llegando a 1,500 • Proyección para Cuatro Años: Inicia con 500 Aves con Proyección a 1,500 Aves • Flujo y Egreso para 500 Gallinas • Cálculo de Tasa Interna de Retorno y Valor Actual Neto IV. Anexos

Modelo Pachay Ejemplo de Estudio Mercadeo . La Potencial de la Empresa Resumen: Gallinas Ponedoras Proyecto de Aves Ponedoras.I.

puede llegar a producir 300 huevos aptos para la venta durante su período productivo. En el modelo COKADI. pero su tamaño puede ser de mediano a grande.500 gallinas. este método no es rentable ya que comen más de lo que la ciudad o cerca de producen. Las paredes son terminadas con mesh o mallas de alambre y cortinas elaborados con sacos de fertilizante son utilizadas para protegerlas de clima inclemente. Estas gallinas típicamente pasan por un período lento. para Nociones sobre las gallinas ponedoras: determinar su potencial. Primero. cada gallina puede llegar a producir 28 huevos en un mes y la cantidad por grupo oscila entre 80 y 90. los huevos pueden ser pequeños (perlitas) o de doble yema. Posteriormente. la cual es una especie muy productiva. Una gallina típica de esta clase. Los pisos Proyecto AGIL proyectos COKADI y AGIL. es bastante baja. Sin proyectos en áreas cercanas a embargo. Los polluelos son difíciles de cuidar. se requerían 500 gallinas como mínimo y cada una de las mujeres miembro debía trabajar 24 horas por turno (los turnos fueron establecidos en base al número de mujeres en el grupo) y los beneficios al final de cada ciclo eran destinados a proyectos comunales. Al principio del ciclo productor. necesitan locales especiales y supervisión veterinaria continua. proveer materiales para las mismas y la contratación de maestros de obra locales. Las gallinas del tipo “Lowman Brown” son gallinas más productivas. las materiales esenciales para la construcción básica es de 10 por 15 metros con un costo de 218 Quetzales por metro cuadrado. Naturalmente. huevos. La mayoría de gallinas son vendidas para el consumo después distribuidoras grandes de que han cumplido 80 semanas. No se recomienda iniciar estos Las gallinas comienzan a poner huevos a partir de la decimoctava o decimonovena semana y continúan poniendo por 90 o 100 semanas.Proyecto de Gallinas Ponedoras El modelo mejorado de AGIL se basa en los ya existentes modelos COKADI. Las estructuras son construidas en Empezar de Compra de Tamaño Normal Alto de Empezar de módulos de 3 por 10. donde la producción baja pero vuelve a subir nuevamente pasado este período. grande y extra grande. las gallinas fueron compradas a partir de la vigésima o vigésima primera semana. En los Los mayores aportes consisten en supervisor construcciones. Después de las 23 semanas los tamaños comienzan a estandarizarse. con 6 Poner Huevos Gallinas de Huevos Producción Vender para Carne columnas de bloque. Estas gallinas han sido vacunadas por lo que la mortalidad de las mismas. pueden ser 1 18-19 20-21 23 26-28 80 100 encontrados en otras poblaciones cercanas. Los tamaños estándard son: pee wee. La variedad utilizada es conocida como “Lowman Brown”. . incluyendo poblaciones cercanas. La mayoría de los proyectos AGIL (y COKADI) han sido establecidos atrevas de grupos de mujeres ya existentes. mediano. y en muchos casos. El grupo provee labor básica local. un examen de mercadeo debe ser llevado a cabo en el área (aldea) y en sus alrededores. La mayoría de Ciclo de Producción de Gallinas Ponedoras materiales que deben ser Época de Producción Óptima comprado fuera de la Semana comunidad. se base en grupos de 20 a 25 mujeres con 1. debe determinarse si existe una organización (formal o informal) en el área. de 3 a 6 capas (dependiendo del clima) de cemento y techo de zinc. los proyectos fueron utilizados como medios de desarrollo comunitario en vez de proyectos de carácter meramente económico. El modelo básico y económicamente viable. Durante la etapa alta de su producción.

Historial de Costos. un sistema simple de riego puede ser instalado utilizando tanques de 100-150 galones. 95 por quintal.50 o más cada uno. este proyecto produce alrededor de Q. Si el agua es escasa en la población. Diario Ventas de Huevos Ganancia Proyecto AGIL . los cuales pueden ser vendidos por Q. una pequeña estructura de 1 por 1 se construye con el fin de ser utilizada como un pequeño “hospital”.00 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Semana Costo de Alimentos.5 quintales mensuales de alimento por cada una de ellas.00 Q700. 0. Estas gallinas consumirán un promedio de 3. 200. Durante un periodo de 50 semanas las ventas netas podrían alcanzar Q. Los bebedores y comederos necesitan ser comprados.500 gallinas habrán puesto 400.00 Q300.000 huevos. con un costo de Q.00 Q200. 325 diario. cáscara de café u otro material local similar. Así mismo. Producción de Huevos 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Semana Producción Diaria de Huevos Aproximadamente en 50 semanas. Ventas y Ganancias del Proyecto de Gallinas Ponedoras Q800.00 Q500. Deduciendo solamente el costo del alimento de la venta de los huevos sin tomar en cuenta ningún otro gasto.00 Q0.son cubiertos con 8 a 10 centímetros de aserrín. 1.000.00 Q100.00 Valor en Quetzales Cantidad de Huevos Q600. siendo la mitad de ellos de un tamaño mediano.00 Q400.

Se procede a la identificar un terreno para la ubicación de la galera o gallinero.500. de las cuales 23 iniciaron con un programa de 500 gallinas ponedoras. 2. lleva la siguiente secuencia. el cual alcanza promedios esperados de producción hasta las 22 o 23 semanas. la organización debe presentar una solicitud en la cual manifiesta su interes en la ejecución del programa y su compromiso de asumir la responsabilidad de participar en los diferentes procesos de capacitación y de dar adecuado seguimiento y mantenimiento al programa. Se considera que después de la tercera Proyecto AGIL 3. El programa de granjas comunales. piso y madera) El grupo comunitario recibirá una dotación de 500 gallinas de 18 semanas. Al grupo se han integrado 6 nuevas socias. 6. (se utilizarán planos típicos tipo Pachay. Para el manejo de los gallineros. . con medidas de 10 x 15 metros). deberá desinfectarse utilizando una mezcla de cal y agua (encalado de paredes. (El programa actualizado contempla una sola compra de 1. quienes están trabajando en cada turno acompañadas de una galerista con experiencia. (proyecto actualizado 1.oo). actualmente manejan un total de 2000 gallinas ponedoras. El grupo de mujeres de Pachay las Lomas esta conformado actualmente por un grupo de 29 mujeres. por lo que cada miembro del gr upo tiene que realizar su turno cada 15 días. de lideres del grupo comunitario quie nes deberán adquirir el compromiso de trasladar conocimientos y experiencias a los demás miembros del grupo. las mujeres trabajan en turnos diarios individuales.500 gallinas) que están en el periodo de inicio de postura.. Para formalizar el proceso. 8. lo cual se esta aprovechando para la transferencia de experiencias. Después de seis meses cancelaron un primer crédito y posteriomente iniciaron con dos fases de 500 gallinas cada uno y finalmente con una fase de 1000 gallinas.500. Se inicia con el proceso de construcción de la galera o gallinero.APOYO A LA GENERACIÓN DE INGRESOS LOCALES (AGIL) PROYECTO DE AVES PONEDORAS MODELO PACHAY El modelo se basa en las experiencias adquiridas en la ejecución del proyecto de gallinas ponedoras por parte de la Asociación AMIDI. por lo cual ha sido necesario incrementar a dos galeristas cada turno. se asume que este gallinero puede dar albergue hasta 1500 gallinas (especificaciones:10 gallinas por metro cuadrado en clima frió y 8 gallinas por metro cuadrado en clima cálido) Se inicia el proceso de capacitación. 1. 5. ubicada en la Aldea Pachay la s Lomas. Al estar construida la galera o gallinero. 7.00) Las siguientes dos siguientes dotaciones serán entregadas en calidad de crédito con un interes del 18%. como capital semilla. 37. 11. el cual es un aporte del grupo interesado.. A raíz del incremento en el número de aves se ha incrementado el trabajo.500 gallinas con un costo de Q. Se redacta y suscribe una carta convenio entre el programa y la organización interesada. Estas gallinas son compradas con fondos proporcionados por el programa (Q. 4. Realización de reuniones con grupos potenciales para establecer el grado de avance en la organización y ratificar el deseo de iniciar con este tipo de trabajo organizado.

00 incluyendo transporte. con un costo de Q. Posteriormente. 87.. Se estima necesario cubrir dos días de visitas mensuales que equivalen a Q. quintales diarios. después de este periodo se venden como descarte. la mayoría de mujeres que realizan trabajos en la granja.30 10. especialmente las participantes en el proyecto. El grupo recibe Q. Costo de compra de cada gallina. Q. 23. 10. Periodo productivo de las gallinas: De semana 18 a semana a semana 70. DATOS. se estima un costo mensual de Q.oo cada saco. con un nivel del 90%. 13. De la semana 18 a la semana 23. la compra de concentrado deberá hacerse cada quince días con los fondos obtenidos en la venta de huevos.00) por cada 500 gallinas.50 11. 1000 aves por persona. como complemento del capital semilla para la compra de alimento para las aves para un periodo de cuatro semanas.oo (100. 5. los cuales pueden venderse en Q. El costo actual es de Q. 6.00). 800. Q. promedio 1. Proyecto AGIL . Se estima que el gasto para el pago de un contador puede estar en Q. o se reparten entre los miembros. 80. 20. 0. Contador. 2.00. 3..500. 1. costales y gallinas de descarte. 9. Venta de gallinaza. 0. Los sacos vacíos del concentrado pueden venderse a mayoristas en Q. 14. 2) Cuando las que atienden las galeras son mujeres.90 la unidad. la productividad optima. la producción inicia de un 5%. La producción de gallinaza en un lote de 500 aves es de 80 sacos de 70 libras. 20. Consumo diario por 500 gallinas. después de esa semana la producción comienza a decrecer hasta un 67%. 15. 5. 7. 35 y Q. 12. 4.oo.dotación el grupo estará en capacidad de hacer compras al contado para reponer las aves descartadas. La organización debe mantener y cubrir los costos del proyecto con la venta de la producción de huevos la cual se da de la siguiente manera: Desde la semana 23 a la semana 30 la producción de huevos se estima en un promedio 90%. La mano de obra o salarios se calcula de la siguiente manera: 1) Cuando se paga un galerista hombre. el salario mensual puede estar entre Q. Precio de venta promedio de cada huevo. medicina y vacunas.00. 97. Q. con huevos pequeños (piwi). pueden variar dependiendo el manejo y problemas de enfermedades.25. En otros casos los sacos son utilizados para el manejo y empaque de gallinaza. 15.0. Durante la semana 18 a 23 pueden consumir 1 quintal diario.oo y Q. El periodo de alta productividad se establece entre la Semana 23 a la semana 36.oo.00. Después de la semana 36. 250. 9. Lo anterior se justifica por un lado en la variación de la fuerza corporal entre hombres y mujeres para el manejo de sacos de concentrado. Individualmente se venden a Q. este puede manejar hasta 3000 aves. deben combinarlo con el cuido de sus hijos.00.00. Los gastos de vitaminas.. Costo de venta de cada gallina o valor de descarte o desecho Q. 8. 3. 600. la producción comienza a decrecer dos puntos por mes hasta la semana 70). de manera ascendente hasta alcanzar en la semana 23.00 cada uno. entre Q. (Costo actual Q. de productividad. Costo del concentrado por Quintal.00 mas flete Q. por otro lado. traslado de huevos etc. mensuales. Gastos de capacitación y asistencia. 0. 25.200. la capacidad se reduce a Q. 1.00. Costo promedio de 1 huevo.

Se generan ingresos adicionales en la venta de huevos.500 aves. Curva de Postura Porcentaje de Postura Indices de Rentabilidad por Año Porcentaje % 0.00. • Se ha elaborado un cuadro de costos de un lote de 500 aves.20 1 2 Años 3 4 1 0.60 0. 5.000 - Incremento de Activos 1 2 Años 3 4 BENEFICIOS DEL PROYECTO. 25.000. Se genera abono orgánico para uso en la agricultura familiar. ASPECTOS FINANCIEROS.000.000 1 2 Años 3 4 Quetzales 150. Proyecto AGIL . 4. 6. 2.16. El costo de la construcción de una galera de 10 por 20 metros. 1. El proyecto en general genera excedentes que podrán ser utilizados para el desarrollo de otros proyectos de beneficio económico familiar. el valor de la venta debe liquidarse cada quince días. Con el manejo de 500 aves los flujos son bajos y no llegaría a ser un proyecto rentable y plenamente sostenible.000 50. Se generan fuentes de trabajo. con capacidad para 1. Primero reciben cierta cantidad de huevos al costo establecido por la organización. La venta de los huevos la hacen las asociadas. 20.00.75 0. se estima en Q.oo por cada turno de trabajo. En costos actualizados se estima una galera de 10 por 15 metros con un costo de Q. cuando las asociadas venden a precios superiores de los que deben liquidar en la organización.40 0.000 10. el cual refleja los flujos que pueden generarse en un periodo de 16 meses. 17. 23.000 100.5 0. Se fomenta el espíritu empresarial comunitario ayuda al fortalecer la capacidad de gestión de la organización. ya que a cada galerista se le paga Q. 3.000 20.25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Meses Utilidades o Excedentes Quetzales 30. Es un proyecto auto sostenible.

utilidades o excedentes por año. el proyecto deja de ser recomendable para 4 años. rentabilidad anual.000. administración y mercadeo. Resumen de aportes. lo que muestra ciertas ventajas.00). lo cual debe ser analizado por cada organización en el futuro. los cuales indican que con un capital de Q.23 c/u .500. Proyecto AGIL . Estados financieros proyectados a cuatro años.00 1.500. Se establece que se tendrán utilidades acumuladas por Q. a partir del quinto año. En la medida que estos costos se han incrementado. El proyecto es recomendable para un plazo de 4 años. 4. sobre la inversión inicial. CONCLUSIÓN. Se analizo la posibilidad de incrementar la granja a 3000 aves en 4 años. en el mes 6. comparado con un costo de oportunidad del 12%.00 37. hoy Q. Graficas (Curva de postura. Se elaboro un cuadro que muestra los flujos por cuatro años. 1. TIR Y B/C. 3. 124. lo que da una rentabilidad media del 41%. si se excluyen los costos de construcción de bodega y capital semilla (Q. en un periodo normal de 16 meses. compra de aves y alimento para cuatro semanas y manteniendo el apoyo en asistencia técnica y capacitación en las áreas técnico pecuarias. sin dejar por un lado que será conveniente mantener los niveles de asistencia técnica y capacitación en áreas técnico pecuarias y administración.000.oo.00 9. 15. 2.00 71.000. Cuadro de análisis de costos por lote de 500 aves.00 11. podemos concluir en lo siguiente. Cuadro de análisis de VAN. y se establece que alcanzara este nivel de eficiencia. 25 c/u 3 Concentrado para un mes Total 500 Aves 23.000. hoy: 25. Cuadro de flujo y proceso del incremento de 500 a 1500 aves en para un periodo de cuatro años. Balance General. 23.500 3.000.900. No Concepto 1 Construcción de bodega Antes: 23.oo.200. El proyecto es recomendable para ser ejecutado por grupos comunitarios organizados con un aporte inicial para la construcción de un gallinero.• • • Se ha analizado la posibilidad de iniciar con 500 aves incrementando 500 aves mas. Estado de resultados y análisis de rentabilidad. sin embargo se necesita buscar mayor financiamiento para la construcción nuevos gallineros y para el incremento de aves.00 CUADROS ADJUNTOS. En general el proyecto se considera recomendable para este tipo de organizaciones. 68.000. 5.000. en el cuarto año se llegara a un capital de Q.200. Valor Actual Neto VAN y Beneficio Costo. y luego 500 aves mas en el mes 18.oo mas Q. Al analizar los indicadores financieros : Tasa interna de retorno TIR.00 38. 77.500 Aves 25.500.000 2 Compra de aves (Antes Q. aumento de activos).

Ejemplo de Estudio Mercadeo .

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500 Aves Flujo y Egreso para 500 Gallinas Cálculo de Tasa Interna de Retorno y Valor Actual Neto . Análisis Económica Resumen de Proyección para Cuatro Años: Iniciando con 500 Aves y Llegando a 1.III.500 Proyección para Cuatro Años: Inicia con 500 Aves con Proyección a 1.

Resume de Proyección para Cuatro Años: Iniciando con 500 Aves y Llegando a 1.500 .

000.00 32.PROYECTO DE GALLINAS PONEDORAS PROYECCION PARA 4 AÑOS INICIANDO CON 500 AVES Y LLEGANDO A 1500.00 68. Remanentes en venta de huevos Utilizacion de ganancias acumuladas para servicios a asociadas.00 101.00 7.00 34. (Base hoja de costos por lote y hoja de proyeccion1500 aves de este mismo libro) GENERACION DE INGRESOS LOCALES Pago de galeristas.00 38. Integración de Inversión Inicial Aporte Agil Construccion de gallinero Compra de aves Credito para concentrado 4 sem.00 9.00 36.00 9.500.64 .200.00 9.000.500. Aporte Comunitario Materiales construccion de galera Total inversion Parcial 23.00 14.00 3.400.800.00 32.300.00 193.900.00 Año 1 38.00 113.000.400.600.00 34.300.000.00 28.00 Total 38.00 33.00 18.000.00 19.800.00 19.00 47.200.00 14.00 38.00 Total 690.00 81.000.00 12.000.00 24.300.00 163.900.00 0.00 9.200.00 57.00 34.00 166.41 0.00 81.300.32 0.200.500.00 11.700.700.500.400.00 124.00 32.000.000.400.52 1.00 81.400.00 34.00 52.00 124.00 57.900.700.200.00 77.000.00 34.00 24.200.00 Año 2 Año 3 Año 4 (PROYECTADO) Expresado en Quetzales 194.000.00 124.00 14.00 9.00 68.00 32.00 99.00 5.00 124.200.40 0.00 Optimo 1 galeritas por 1500 aves.000.000 Año 1 Año 2 Año 3 Año 4 (PROYECTADO) Expresado en Quetzales 14.00 99. Balance General ACTIVOS Efectivo Aves Gallinero Total Activo PASIVO Y CAPITAL PASIVO Cuentas por pagar aves CAPITAL Capital donado Donacion inicial Agil Capital propio Aporte asociados construccion gallinero Utilidad del periodo Utilidades capitalizadas Total pasivo y capital Estado de Ingresos y Gastos Ingresos Menos costos y gastos de produccion Excedente bruto Menos gastos de administracion Excedente neto por año Rentabilidad anual sobre inversion inicial 47.000.000.900.600.000.000.00 34.600.900.200.00 200.00 28.500.00 9.00 9.00 77.000.600.300.500.00 9.200.000.000.00 18.200.00 577.000.300.000.800.000.300.500.000.00 36.00 9.00 38.00 - 38.900.000.200.00 20.700.00 32. se estima galerista por cada 500 aves.200.00 165.900.00 Acumulado 2.900.000.400.

500 Aves .Proyección para Cuatro Años: Inicia con 500 Aves con Proyección a 1.

18 11.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 3.674.500.68 1.68 5.00 4.223.58 9.50 12.247.00 15.00 9.PROYECTO DE GALLINAS PONEDORAS PROYECCION PARA CUATRO AÑOS INICIA CON 500 AVES CON PROYECCION A 1500 AVES (Los cambios de color indican incremento o renovación de aves) Forma de Pago de Lote de Aves Meses Numero Aves en la Granja Aporte de capital semilla Ingresos: Lotes 1.861.000.50 6.75 1.197.5.000. 5 y 8 Ingresos lotes: 3.00 11.30 6.104.247.000.00 5.05 1.247.88 6.00 4.55 600.00 4.748.10 (5.43) 197.98 352.533. 3.03 4.301.576.00 4.878.287.6 y 9.00 987. y 8.00 4.4.087.546.499.60 45.80 600.00 4.00 4.197.00 10.00) 577.443.00 4.50 4.491.111.50 4. 1.50 15.00 9.63 1.246.50 6.000.00 4.20 1.50 10.00 4.887.10 300.53 AGIL Apoyo a la generación de ingresos locales Credito 2 500 3 500 4 500 5 500 6 1000 7 1000 8 1000 5.55 10.75 2.166. 4 y 7.683.00 4.50 1.50 6.571.50 6.38 9 1000 5.000.689.00 1. y 7.00 4.199.199. Total Ingresos Compra aves.38 9.088.50 7.23 Proyecto AGIL .6 y 9 Total Costos Calculo incremental estimano Total Costos y Gastos Diferencia entre costos y gastos Acumulaciones Contado 1 500 15.80 10 1000 5.00 16. 6 y 9.50 11.50 6.00 4.863.533.821.866.533.000.50 2.197.120. lotes: 1.497.50 6.746.80 1.621.247.00 987.00 300.00 11.50 4.901.247. 4.60 3.746.056.197.10 5.50 300.55 154.087.5 y 8.141. Costos lotes:2.261. Costos lotes: 3.079.50 4.00 300.325.969.60 600.00 4.074.497.247.50 300. y 7 Costos lotes.676.00 1.15 6. Ingresos lotes: 2.00 4.199.00 13.199.50 4.50 11.112.30 1.615.112.197.75 600.00 4.197. Compra aves lotes: 2.65 4.199.00 4.064. Compra aves lotes.112.087.50 (410.748.00 3.199.923.499.278.00 300.00 12.85 3.

5.500.10 23.211.75 2. y 8.291. 6 y 9.306.712.087.88 4.863. Costos lotes:2.30 81.18 7.28 4.05 600.746.90 800.90 4.994.15 4.10 4.300. Costos lotes: 3.83 6.197.247.141.120.00 4.35 800.80 4.25 4.4.215.03 14.000.039.100.00 14.524.6 y 9 Total costos Calculo incremental estimano Total costos y gastos Diferencia entre costos y gastos Acumulaciones 11 1000 5.30 19 1500 6.43 13.776.90) 2.63 5.867.08 20 1500 6.125.50 14.197.20 (11.00 13.104.30 600.247.60 12. 3.039.969.00 4. Ingresos lotes: 2.130.716.20 800.35 2.210.50 4.95 13 1500 4.013.75 1.532.00 4.50 15. 5 y 8 Ingresos lotes: 3.053.438.511.50 4.022.70 5.90 3.969.05 (377.98 3.00 3.327.05 15.700.023.247.00 15.199.93 5.768.088.10 4.00 4.398.95 4.00 4.120.048.05 4.000.68 12.205.111.63 5.580.00 24.079.949.50 10.00 4.533.004.70 4.65 10.00 4.00 18 1500 4.35 600.15 600.971.013.889.489.00 4.60 11.141.637.6 y 9.88 16.023.30 16.Contado Meses Numero aves en la granja Aporte de capital semilla Ingresos: Lotes 1.00 4.75 3.157.199.219.00 12.885.50 4.15 (3.50 4.000.50 14.388.000.20) 2.30 6.398.533.78 5.004.00 14.676.054.00 13.63 4.68 11. 4.204. y 7 Costos lotes. Total ingresos Compra aves.50 4.50 6.95 3. 4 y 7.75 600.30 3. Compra aves lotes: 2.15 14 1500 4.676.746.60 2.891.580.407.08 12 1500 5.319.00 16.35 1.197.247.75 12.295. Compra aves lotes.65 800.03 1.082.087.43 4.60 800.199.60 2.10 4.048.310.267.910.112.10 3.00 11.00 14.325.079.00 13.83 9.00 8.088.25 4.210.130.45 8.80 4. 1.5 y 8.18 Cotado 15 1500 16 1500 9.771.405.064.78 5.357.50 21.15 6.08 5.104.571.50 16.50 6.93 6.45 4. lotes: 1.00 15.68 2.060.05 12.15 4.199.295.60) 2.50 17 1500 1.863.00 5.470.540.85 Proyecto AGIL . y 7.168.70 5.282.

6 y 9.05 11.240.700.863.219.414.00 30.247.692.45 4.863.064.160.676.746.088.247.079. Compra aves lotes.770.880.60 4.63 15.204.676.73 4.15 4.75 3.571.111.210.15 6.75 4.087.330.55 3. 5 y 8 Ingresos lotes: 3.25 23.70 5.087.50 4.88 6.48 4.50 6.752.80 2.398.210.199.73 22 1500 6.571.65 800.088.080.80 12.00 11.75 800.50 4.25 800. 4.111.746.422.88 4.091.15 12.091.023.30 4.079.70 800.80 11.35 (11.127.398.310.95 29 1500 4.Meses Numero aves en la granja Aporte de capital semilla Ingresos: Lotes 1.580.10 12.00 13.75 4.969.073.05 1.70 10.10 4.476.50 12.00 12. Costos lotes:2. Ingresos lotes: 2.340.18) 9.500.93 4.15 (11.214.00 3.126.00 12. 1.141.30 4.25 4.30 6.30 10.580.83 4.120.373.104.389.50 16.064.898.104.291.78 5.50 26 1500 5.08 21.78 16.173.039.10 4.140.15 21.267.58 Proyecto AGIL .265.03 1. Costos lotes: 3.00 4.112.20) 19.023. Compra aves lotes: 2.814.127.00 13.00 3.806.533.532.219.93 5.190.5.80 4.500.50 2.00 5.10 2.08 5.6 y 9 Total costos Calculo incremental estimano Total costos y gastos Diferencia entre costos y gastos Acumulaciones 21 1500 6.210. 3.80 800.189.50 4.295. y 7.311. 6 y 9.10 11.18 23 1500 5.048.00 24.48 20.00 23.75 23.00 13.00 11.00 24.112.00 13.111.45 24 1500 5.00 13.50 14.05 4.30 6. y 7 Costos lotes.712.013. Total ingresos Compra aves.130.969.748.93 15.28 27 1500 5.013.197.580.75 800.039.4.68 9.70 16.35 800.199.048.15 25 1500 5.280.199.50 9.50 4.065.03 20.00 12.004. 4 y 7.60 4.50 4.646.295.55 800.05 800.50 4.120. lotes: 1.70 4.00 13.383.197.90 10.25 28 1500 5.68 1.141.110. y 8.247.50 5.15 30 1500 4.700.60 14.291.141.00 4.75 17.197.25 10.00 4.75 3.65 2.15 800.533.03 4.10 20.5 y 8.90 4.063.50 13.197.93 4.

398.500.95 27.18 30.00 4.00 4.004.93 15.700.100.70 10.082.45 40 1500 5.28 32 1500 9.197.65 1.98 4.50 15.5.90 4. 3.247.023.15 4.571.35 (11.064.949.00 24.267.863.296.00 12.08 5.971.580.55 1.340.199.60 800.65 1.88 6.00 11.18 4.340.414.10 4.00 13.637.78 5.70 1.319.33 4.50 4.50 9.30 35 1500 6. Compra aves lotes.746.048.Meses Numero aves en la granja Aporte de capital semilla Ingresos: Lotes 1.30 16.008.00 13.38 4.762.50 2.30 800.03 4.63 5.00 24.68 1.357.130.580.073.05 4.247.881.533.60 12.373.087.373.50 13.00 13.08 36 1500 6.4.75 4.300.211. Costos lotes:2.199.10 12.676.03 43.50 4.079. Costos lotes: 3.067.00 4.00 13.65 800.03 14.00 3.700.00 13.35 800.30 2.341.20 800.120.141.247. 4.286.885.405.60) 25.08 33 1500 1.398.00 4.282.000. y 7.60 11.533.197.05 12.33 4.60 37.90 4.000.50 5.50 4.83 33.43 37 1500 6.112.93 6.10 23.50 10.6 y 9 Total costos Calculo incremental estimano Total costos y gastos Diferencia entre costos y gastos Acumulaciones 31 1500 4.088.18) 31.35 1.210.414.262.58 Proyecto AGIL .141.50 6.68 12.80 4.125.306.00 4.00 4.35 1.815. y 8.295.120.205.955.08 5. 1.247.111.55 3.130.15 21.104.023.111.35 4.25 23.15 4.80 12.98 26.88 16.088.511. 6 y 9.039.863. lotes: 1.60 2.571. Compra aves lotes: 2. Total ingresos Compra aves.30 10.18 39 1500 5.6 y 9. Ingresos lotes: 2.112.50 4.50 4.00 34 1500 4.5 y 8.013.039.00 13.75 12.20 (11.65 10.70 5.00 5. 5 y 8 Ingresos lotes: 3.383.311.692.969.010.00 11.407.199.55 2.50 4.63 5. 4 y 7.78 16.325.048.267.80 33.10 11.157.210.50 4.881.004.054.43 36.000.746.197.500.98 3.969.496.15 6.90 3. y 7 Costos lotes.926.00 4.197.380.000.053.064.30 4.00 5.087.90 800.199.314.25 4.50 21.73 38 1500 6.104.311.

98 47.43 2.80 1.291.088.112.00 12.011.079.00 52.05 34.291.80 4.712. Ingresos lotes: 2.197.398.700.30 6.95 45 1500 4.000.000.863.50 12.267.000.50 21.199.00 12.08 21.68 9.75 4.000.15 12. Compra aves lotes: 2.00 147.120.28 48 1500 9.63 5.25 44 1500 5.381.532.533.45 4. 6 y 9.219.023.969.389.78 197. Costos lotes: 3.00 13.580.10 2.000.735.30 1.75 2.25 9. y 7 Costos lotes. 3.197. y 8.50 6.30 4.5.854.50 4.291. Total ingresos Compra aves.310.4.08 Totales 15.280.30 4.267.738.000.15 46 1500 4.013. 4.112.70 4.853.75 45.05 36.00 4.265.05 57.000.280.85 4.50 6.700.927.004.50 4.707.60 4.00 35.00 13.707.111.50 42 1500 5.88 232.00 23.00 11.240.03 1.43 57.064.172.85 Proyecto AGIL .048.65 1.000.33 4.571.310.00 260.190.500.48 42.00 189.222.75 1.735.50 16.50 15.357.000.78 5.111.63 15.357.75 1.013.219.079.00 13. lotes: 1.676.05 1.6 y 9.Meses Numero aves en la granja Aporte de capital semilla Ingresos: Lotes 1.15 (11.80 2. 1.746. 4 y 7.039.295.064.389.000.5 y 8.50 47 1500 4.130.00 4.500.00 3.15 4.676.30 6.28 43 1500 5.88 4.00 12.211.247.25 705.00 647. Costos lotes:2.70 16.20) 41.93 5.15 1.197.05 11.244.80 4.000.291.247.949.676.90 34.90 10.00 12.30 2.199.25 4.10 42.295.50 14.25 4.004.104.60 4.761.247.75 2.15 6.05 1. y 7.90 4.130.960.00 171.75 40.00 13.927.516.048.299.708.00 24.65 9. 5 y 8 Ingresos lotes: 3.25 1.000.814.265.141.681.50 10.70 5.698.548.00 13.442.022.00 611.50 4.60 4.10 4.571.087.398.80 4.210.6 y 9 Total costos Calculo incremental estimano Total costos y gastos Diferencia entre costos y gastos Acumulaciones 41 1500 5.199.00 11.08 5. Compra aves lotes.15 6.

Flujo y Egreso para 500 Gallinas .

45 0.9 13500 0 37.00 38.8 12000 16 36.00 15.4 0.675 7 0.00 1 500 0.75 11250 20 36 12 0.4 6.000.25 13 0 80 Sacos 2 0.125 80 80 0.075 Total 183.92 13800 0 37.700.5 3 0.925 13 0.3 0.5 6 0.45 0.45 0.3 10 0.92 13800 0 37.78 11700 18 36.88 13200 11 36.00 11.00 37.00 72.45 0.525 8 0.7 15 0.45 0.45 0.65 9750 24 35.5 4 0.625 16 0.45 0.7 10500 23 35.00 9.375 9 0.00 AGIL Apoyo a la generación de ingresos locales Apoyo para Galera Compra de Gallinas Concentrado 4 Semanas Total Aporte Inicial DATOS DEL PROGRAMA MESES Numero de aves Porcentaje de postura Produccion total mensual Descartes total mensual Consumo alimento mensual Flete x por qq concentrado Precio de c/costal Precio por ave comprada Precio x por ave descartada Precio x saco de gallinaza Precio x por qq de concentrado Salario diario galerista Precio x huevo para la venta Credito para Construccion galera Credito otorgado Amortizaciones Intereses sobre saldos Vitaminas y medicamentos 23.500.4 6000 0 33 5.00 3.00 20.5 5 0.00 0.15 11 0.72 10800 21 35.9 13500 0 37.00 87.00 23.300 485 559.000.4 0. Proyecto AGIL .000.45 0.85 12750 13 36.45 0.500.62 9300 25 35.Apoyo a La Generación de Ingresos Locales (AGIL) Proyecto de Granja Comunal de Gallinas Ponedoras Hoja de Flujo de Ingresos y Egresos para 500 Gallinas Antes Hoy 25.00 1.83 12450 15 36.00 20.4 0.6 9000 299 15.500.200.775 14 0.65 80 Mensuales por cada 500 aves.45 0.

625 15546 4497.7 1206.975 -17.5 4074 300 300 4420.125 7275 1600 101766.5 178.1 300 300 300 4379.5 4404.68 5969.5 6075 37.375 182.5 300 1748.25 871.08 15000 77332.3 5571.9 3099.5 4499 4497.68 3164.5 6210 37.25 179.775 4295.5 187.125 600 80 48.1 4088.6 4064.875 600 80 62.5 0 6247.5 0 6247.1 3145.3 15133.525 195 5602.3 4048.875 5676.5 183.25 4323.73 3177.25 4039.4 12954.3 Proyecto AGIL .775 345 3900 35.15 5398.1 4388.875 600 80 52. Gastos financieros Amortizacion credito Depreciacion Gallinas Total Gastos Indirectos Total Costos y Gastos Diferencias Acumulaciones 15246 4197.6 1296.625 600 80 54 178.5 14876.75 4079.5 75.625 375 3600 15.6 10450.5 8975.13 4364.5 600 80 60 180.5 600 80 66 600 80 63.875 2795.05 181.625 9600 1280 916.5 3132 3125.7 4130.85 1050.5 0 4087.375 225 5400 36.5 3262.1 4104.MESES PRODUCTOS Y COSTOS Ingresos y Productos Capital semilla Venta de Huevos Venta de costales Venta de Gallinas descarte Venta de gallinaza Total ingreso Costos Construccion de galera Compra de gallinas Compra de concentrado Flete concentrado Salario Galerista Vitaminas y medicamentos Gastos de venta .5 36 300 4860 35.75 181.7 360 3720 35.625 600 80 67.1 4023.3 4348.1 300 300 300 4304 300 2411.2 22231 4800 79536 22230.15 270 5062.5 187.425 180 600 80 56.075 4485 1600 6112.45 -173.2 1615 1721.475 3112.03 5863.5 0 20 0.9 7288.6 300 300 300 4339.5 3105.53 178.3 240 5265 36.75 600 80 46.375 600 80 45 11500 48643.75 1565 1475.675 165 5737.5 6141.2 4004 2111.5 600 80 69 3262.625 187.5 3190.625 9700.5 36.9 74736 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 200 100 0 3200 1600 0 300 987 987 300 -410 577 300 4499 1748.25 3158.005 600 80 30 Sub-total Egresos Gastos Indirectos Gastos de administracion Inprevistos 5% s/cd.925 315 4200 35.5 187.7 11747.925 4580.5 4199 4199 4197.825 256.5 5210.8 4313.2 14004.625 0 11500 2871 165 3262.5 4120.75 600 80 58.6 5689 7410.005 por unidad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Total 15000 1500 33 0 16533 4050 37.5 2325.5 0 5940 36.5 559.5 600 80 69 3262.5 6210 37.375 1311.5 36.5 600 80 67.8 4013.38 15116 14942.

Cálculo de Tasa Interna de Retorno y Valor Actual Neto .

300.00 0.57 13.500.00) 12.00 175.805.00 12.014.02 1.600.400.600.300.00 647.294.00 200.881.775.00 8. el valor del gallinero) Año Productos 116.66 12.300.76 9.77 145.951.950.951.950.103.64 0.089.894.900.66 12.00 193.15 VAN Tir B/C 3.00 182.014.00 0.787.00 175.300.700.48 0.00 194.700.500.787.000.000.71178025 138.23 528.600.900.00 175.00 146.63551808 127.00 2.00 1.00 1 2 3 4 12 15 Flujos Actualización Ingresos Costos Flujos Actualización Flujos Netos Netos 12% Actualización Actualización Actualización 15% Actualizados (29.63551808 127.00) 1.27 111.24 37.48 0.78 57.089.400.76 9.24 5.00 0.00 194.506.29 9.63 15.71178025 138.300.63 15.239.15 VAN Tir B/C 3.881.294.00 679.80 24.00 0.700.400.00 537.300.Proyecto de Gallinas Ponedoras.00 705.951.900.506.151.229.951.08 12.00) 1.500.92 Proyecto AGIL .00 537.57 18.00 2.103.400.300.11 0.00 2.00 193.57 13.00 (29.400.75 1.23 496.99 40.600.27 111.00 13.00 0.400.00 182.80 24.00 Costos 114.34 Análisis Financiero a Cuatro Años (Se ha incrementado a los costos del año 1.00 12 15 Flujos Actualización Ingresos Costos Flujos Actualización Flujos Netos Netos 12% Actualización Actualización Actualización 15% Actualizados 2.900.19 124.78 25.900.00 (29.11 0.77 145.79719388 154.00 200.00 Costos 146.57 18.08 13.151.229.0 116.239.805.00 40.0 116.00 0.00 175.00 114.19 124.00 1.775.500.02 12.900.900.08 13.300.79719388 154.64 0.300. Tipo Pachay Calculo de Tasa Interna de Retorno y Valor Actual Neto Análisis a Cuatro Años (No se incluye en los costos el capital semilla y valor del gallinero) Año 1 2 3 4 Productos 116.24 20.24 52.700.300.900.99 8.29 9.00 705.894.600.400.

00) 1.78 10.00 aportados por el proyecto en año 1 ) 12 Año Productos 101900.00) 1.00 679.00 (44.300.506.19 124775.229.0 101.700.76) 6.600.00 886500.48 0.0 101900.80 24.50 9148.75 10440.805. incrementado el costo del gallinero y descontando en los ingresos los Q.600.00 193900.01 12.00 4.048.00) 1.23 528.85) VAN Tir B/C 3.103.29 9.000.63551808 127294.77 145089.00 522.71178025 138014.239.64 0.11 0.600.11 0.00 0.00 (44.294.00 175.00 196100.775.391.71178025 138.99 1.57 13908.048.089.48 0.151.500.00 200300.00) 1.00 182000.00) 12.00 175.00 146.00 1 2 3 4 5 Flujos Actualización Ingresos Costos Flujos Actualización Flujos Netos Netos 12% Actualización Actualización Actualización 15% Actualizados (44.00 0.00 (447.00 182.00 Proyecto AGIL .00 0.63 15.76 9300.66 12229.63551808 127.600.19 124.300.00 0.600.41 100831.80 24400.79719388 154.00 (6.Análisis Financiero a Cuatro Años (Se ha incrementado el costo del gallinero) (Se ha descontado en los ingresos el aporte del capital semilla) Año Productos 101900.00 15 Costos 146500.76 9300.900.57 18600.79719388 154894.97) Proyección a 5 Años (Análisis financiero.57 13.00 633375.00 175900.00 18400.00 193900.00 0.56742686 111272.76) (9.27 111787.950.00 1 2 3 4 12 15 Flujos Actualización Ingresos Costos Flujos Actualización Flujos Netos Netos 12% Actualización Actualización Actualización 15% Actualizados (44.00 177700.00 (1.75 4391.014.89 (13.894.00 690400.99 12.00 194300.700.57 18.58) VAN Tir B/C 3.00 857400.00 (44.00 146500.900.00 0. 15.500.00 200300.77 145.08 13.64 0.66 12.000.27 111.00 0.787.00 Costos 146.89 14.29 9805.99 (6.00 194300.118.600.64 628983.00 175300.08 13239.65 0.400.09 0.05 29100.600.00 1.00) 12300.63 15506.

Anexos .

B. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill. water intake. showing changes in the level of egg production and in egg weight. Jacqueline P. Typical egg production curve. Ben Mather. % of 1st year production 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Y e a r s o f la y Figure 2. poultry extension specialist. Butcher. professor. depending on the breed and season. extension poultry veterinarian.D. G.R. This document is Fact Sheet PS35. Flock production rises sharply and reaches a peak of about 90%. There are many factors that can adversely affect egg production. is given in Figure 1. H. poultry extension coordinator. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. Egg production begins when the birds reach about 18-22 weeks of age. parasite infestation. Mather2 The laying cycle of a chicken flock usually covers a span of about 12 months. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named. 2. Miles. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ufl. Wilson. University of Florida.FACT SHEET PS-35 Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks1 J. Richard D. and numerous management and environmental factors. sex. Figure 1. 32611. Wilson.P. Production then gradually declines to about 65% after 12 months of lay. and F. Dean . 6-8 weeks later. disease. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Jacob. Dairy and Poultry Sciences Department. professor. contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. D. Decline in egg production with age of the hen. and Gary Butcher. Gainesville. Miles. R. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. and F. one of a series of the Dairy and Poultry Sciences Department. handicap. Cooperative Extension Service. Henry R. or national origin. over time. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. Dairy and Poultry Sciences Department.ifas. A typical production curve for a laying flock. age. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Egg production can be affected by such factors as feed consumption (quality and quantity). University of Florida. For information on obtaining other extension publications. color.edu. intensity and duration of light received. 1. and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition. educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research. Jacob. First published April 1998.

the longer the particle will be retained in the upper digestive tract. Calcium can be supplied in the diet as either ground limestone or oyster shell. Feeding whole grains. dolomitic limestone is offered to the feed industry. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) released from the true stomach (proventriculus) is important in digestion. Birds on the ground or on litter floors recycle calcium and phosphorus through consumption of feces. after two or three years many hens significantly decline in productivity (see Figure 2). usually in the form of sodium chloride. a specialized bone capable of rapid calcium turnover. Many times these imbalances can cause other problems like oviductal prolapse. Particle size affects calcium availability. and do not have caged-layer fatigue. with practically all of the increase being used for the production of eggshells. hens are unable to stand. This type of salt is usually blue. The condition is known as caged-layer fatigue. However. but when the first eggs are produced. Calcium The egg shell is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. Feeding a salt-deficient diet will lead to increased feather pecking and a decline in egg production. Usually the larger the particle size. Chlorine also plays a role in maintaining osmotic balance in body fluids. In severe cases. Most animal feeds will contain added salt. See Table 1. Improper Nutrition Laying chickens require a completely balanced diet to sustain maximum egg production over time. blood pH. Instead. Sodium is an essential nutrient. April 1998 Salt Animals have an innate desire to consume salt. and this complexes with calcium or competes with calcium for absorption sites in the intestines.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 2 Noninfectious Causes Aging Hens Chickens can live for many years and continue to lay eggs for many of these years. This is why it is so important to supply laying hens with a constant supply of nutritionally balanced layer food. Omission Of Feed Ingredients osmotic relationships. Prolapse usually causes permanent damage to the hen and is fatal in many cases. and this can also be used without any problems for poultry. playing a major role in maintaining body fluid volume. Dolomitic limestone contains at least 10% magnesium. Birds deficient in chlorine are more nervous. Iodine is rarely added as a separate ingredient. Inadequate nutrition can cause hens to stop laying. the need is increased at least four times. Prolapse may occur when the bird is too fat and/or an egg is too large and the bird’s reproductive tract is expelled with the egg. iodized salt is routinely used. bones become brittle. and this may be important for the continuity of shell formation. Chlorine is also an essential nutrient. especially in the dark period when birds do not ordinarily eat. Cobalt iodized salt is often used in diets for swine and ruminants. This varies greatly from bird to bird. A continuously low intake of salt can cause a loss of appetite. The pullet’s requirement for calcium is relatively low during the growing period. Good layers will lay for about 50 to 60 weeks and then have a rest period called a molt. and interfere with reproductive performance. dolomitic limestone (which is used in the steel industry) should never be used in poultry diets. This means that the larger particles of the calcium source are released more slowly. The consequence of feeding dolomitic limestone is induced calcium deficiency. scratch feeds and table scraps will cause the birds diet to become imbalanced and inadequate. Periodically. Inadequate calcium consumption will result in decreased egg production and lower egg shell quality. showing increased sensitivity to sudden noise. Hens store calcium in medullary bone. Inadequate levels of energy. As calcium stores are depleted. However. Poorer layers and older hens will molt more often and lay less consistently. and proper . Sodium deficiencies adversely affect utilization of dietary protein and energy. protein or calcium can cause a drop in egg production.

the level of supplemental salt (NaCl) in the diet must be reduced. Apparent calcium and/or vitamin D3 deficiencies can occur when mycotoxin contaminated feeds are given to April 1998 . Phosphorus Protein Dietary requirements for protein are actually requirements for the amino acids that constitute the protein. When such ingredients are used. an essential fatty acid. poultry can tolerate up to 100 times their requirement.e. whey and sunflower meal contain high levels of sodium. is unlikely. therefore. impairment of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A. For short-periods of time. Both are constituents of bone. and helps to regulate the acidbase balance of the body. The nutritional role of phosphorus is closely related to that of calcium. and some fat is necessary for absorption of vitamins. Vitamin D3 Excess vitamin D3 leads to increased calcium absorption resulting in hypercalcemia which may reduce egg production. laying eggs. In most animals.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 3 Young birds should not be fed a high calcium layer diet because the calcium/phosphorus ratio will be unbalanced. meat meal. there is an increase in protein. induced calcium deficiency quickly results and egg production decreases. Most animal species appear to be able to tolerate 10 times their vitamin D3 requirement for long periods of time. these amino acids must be supplied in the diet. The ratio of dietary calcium to phosphorus affects the absorption of both these elements. therefore. In birds. an excess of either one impedes absorption and can reduce egg production. Poultry cannot synthesize some of these. type. Birds require a sensitive balance between necessary and toxic levels of salt. Vitamin D3 Vitamin D is required for normal calcium absorption and utilization. vitamin D must be supplied in the form of D3. vitamin and mineral requirements per day due to deposition in the egg. or cannot synthesize them rapidly enough to meet the metabolic requirement. depending on the particular mycotoxin. Excess dietary salt intake readily causes wet droppings and wet litter. such as fish meal. When pullets begin laying. etc.. D2 and D3. Several feed ingredients. both are equally potent. and K) is the most serious consequence of a dietary deficiency of fat. growing. Mycotoxins Molds can produce mycotoxins which adversely affect egg production and general health. corn gluten meal. breed. shell quality and/or hatchability. poor egg production and hatchability will occur. A deficiency of linoleic acid will adversely affect egg production. They can interfere with the absorption or metabolism of certain nutrients. E. See Table 1.). An excess of vitamin D3 in the diet. If inadequate levels of vitamin D are fed. resulting in increased morbidity or mortality. Amino acid requirements vary considerably according to the productive state (i. Therefore. D3 is substantially more active than D2. and strain. Fat Dietary fat is a source of energy and of linoleic acid. age. and all are physiologically essential. If dietary protein is too low or the amino acid requirements are not met. and excessive amounts are highly toxic and reduce egg production. Toxicoses Salt Although the salt requirement of birds is relatively low. In fact. D. however. adequate levels are essential. Dietary fats also serve as “carriers” of fat-soluble vitamins. is active in fat metabolism. Methionine is the amino acid most often deficient in laying rations. In poultry diets. In addition to its function in bone. phosphorus plays a primary role in carbohydrate metabolism. There are 22 amino acids in body proteins. Feed grade vitamin D comes in two forms.

Out of water Water is often taken for granted. The mold infects corn both in the field and in storage. The amount of decline will be related to the time without feed. The major mycotoxin of concern with corn is aflatoxin. The yolk membranes are weakened. growth. and a decline in hatchability. antibiotics. The amount of water needed depends on environmental temperature and relative humidity. Anticoccidials Anticoccidials (to prevent coccidiosis) are commonly used in diets for replacement pullets. a decline in egg production will probably occur. Other mycotoxins sometimes associated with corn and other grains are zearalenone (F-2 toxin). herbicides. In addition. and citrinin. Monensin. Other toxins Numerous plants are toxic to varying degrees if plant parts or seeds are consumed by the bird. vomitoxin. Other potential causes of problems include pesticides. meat birds and young breeding stock that are reared on litter floors. and a lack of water for several hours will probably cause a decline in egg production. Management Mistakes Botulism Botulism is an acute intoxication caused by consumption of a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Be sure that all the birds have access to an adequate supply of a complete feed which meets all their nutritional requirements.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 4 laying hens. mottling of egg yolks (see Fact Sheet PS-24. Hens are more sensitive to a lack of water than a lack of feed. Feed stored on the farm longer than two weeks may become moldy. Ponds and other stagnant water sources are often areas of decaying materials that may contain this toxin. represents about 70% of total body weight. coffeeweed. and other chemicals. spoiled feed or other decaying organic materials. ochratoxin. disinfectants. Monensin Monensin has been the most successful of the anticoccidials. especially in hot weather. Aflatoxin fluoresces under ultraviolet light. fertilizers. and rate of egg production. hatchability. It commonly occurs when birds consume decomposing carcasses. Even low levels of nicarbazin can cause some loss in shell color. nightshade. Nicarbazin fed to brown-egg layers April 1998 . turns their eggshells white within 48 hours. “Egg Quality”). chick peas. and yet it is probably the most essential nutrient. diet composition. Anticoccidials are not given to commercial laying hens. T-2 toxin. Out of feed If hens are out of feed for several hours. so its presence can be detected by examining grain under “black light”. cotton seeds. produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. but water intake varies greatly. in general. Nicarbazin Nicarbazin is an anticoccidial drug that reduces reproductive performance when it’s inadvertently added to layer or breeder diets at normal anticoccidial levels. and other ionophore anticoccidials. and. Water is by far the single constituent of the body. vitamin potency decreases with prolonged storage. In addition. More than 300 mycotoxins have been identified. resulting in mottling of the yolk. and many ornamentals. including oils and antifreeze. vetches. some have hormonal effects which can cause a decline in egg production. although this is completely reversible when the product is withdrawn from the feed. Examples of these plants include crotalaria. drugs. Access to water is very important. Production. have an adverse effect on egg production when used in conjunction with low protein diets. and livability may be reduced. It has been generally assumed that birds drink approximately twice as much water as the amount of feed consumed on a weight basis. If feed becomes wet it should be discarded.

causing a general unthriftiness and unkempt appearance in the bird. (“Common Continuous External Parasites of Poultry”). Lice Several species of chewing lice may be found on chickens. There are many species of roundworms. Hens exposed to only natural light would be expected to resume egg production in the Spring. Nematodes Nematodes. Shade. it anchors itself to the inner wall of the bird’s intestines. egg size. are elongated. in some cases. cylindrical. egg production. Northern fowl mite The northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is the most common of the poultry mites. Although tapeworms do not produce extensive lesions or damage to the intestines. feathers. or scabs on the skin. As lice crawl over the bird. Endoparasites An endoparasite is a parasite that lives and feeds inside the host animal. for information on identification and control of lice. ventilation. Refer to publication PS-18. letting its April 1998 . for identification and control of nematodes. reduced egg production. for information on identification and control of Northern fowl mites. and mortality in severe infestations. When production ceases. Refer to publication PS-10. Egg production in infested flocks may drop as much as 10%. (“Common Continuous External Parasites of Poultry”).17 to 12 inches in length. Tapeworms Tapeworms (cestodes) are white or yellowish ribbon-like segmented flat worms. Instead. Heavy infestations of endoparasites can cause unthriftiness. causing severe irritation and. Northern fowl mites are blood suckers and are irritating to poultry. Refer to publication PS-10. The adult female flea attaches to the skin around the face and head. their mouth parts and sharp claws scratch the skin. Feed consumption. Refer to the publication PS-10. or even cessation. although some heavy infestations have caused egg production to fall as much as 20%. Infected birds may also be more susceptible to various diseases and stresses. in egg production unless supplemental light is provided. the birds may also undergo a feather molt. (“Nematode Parasites of Poultry”). The decreasing daylength during the Fall and shorter daylengths in the Winter would be expected to cause a severe decline. poor growth. Fleas Stick-tight fleas are sometimes a severe problem in home flocks and may be difficult to prevent or eradicate. High house temperatures High environmental temperatures pose severe problems for all types of poultry. The constant irritation causes the bird to become nervous and behave abnormally. poor feed efficiency. egg production. Ectoparasites An ectoparasite is a parasitic organism that feeds on the exterior of the body of the host. or roundworms. Chicken lice feed on dry scales. They vary in size from 0. blindness. The intensity of light should be sufficient to allow a person to read newsprint at bird level. and ability to withstand and overcome diseases. for information on identification and control of sticktight fleas. unsegmented endoparasites. Anemia occurs in heavily parasitized birds. and a plentiful supply of cool water help reduce the adverse effects of heat stress.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 5 Inadequate daylength Hens need about 14 hours of daylength to maintain egg production. and hatchability are all adversely affected under conditions of severe heat stress. each tending to infect a specific area of the gastrointestinal tract. they are nutritional competitors. reducing feed efficiency. especially those in small flocks or on range. (“Common Continuous External Parasites of Poultry”). A cestode does not digest its own food.

diarrhea and a drop in egg production in layers. but can be destroyed by many common disinfectants. Individual strains of cocci attack birds differently. high mortality. especially during the first week of life. Avian influenza viruses are classified based on severity of disease. Newcastle disease Newcastle disease is caused by a virus. Coccidiosis outbreaks vary from very mild to severe infections. general droopiness. absorbing nutrients before they can be utilized by the host. and a dramatic decline in egg production. coccidia are almost universally found wherever chickens are raised. may never be good layers. Antibiotics can be given for 3 to 5 days to prevent secondary bacterial infections. Chickens that have had infectious bronchitis. A variety of commercially available anthelmintics will effectively and safely eliminate both nematodes and cestodes from poultry. although broad spectrum antibiotics for 3 to 5 days may aid in controlling secondary bacterial infections. Coccidiosis Coccidiosis is a protozoan disease characterized by enteritis and diarrhea in poultry. coughing) and a marked decrease in egg production. All ages of chickens are susceptible to infectious bronchitis. a marked drop in feed consumption. digestive and/or nervous systems of many species of birds. live vaccines are currently available. but the hens do not come back into full production for 5 to 6 weeks.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 6 segmented body dangle in the flow of digested material. Newcastle disease is characterized by a sudden onset and rapid spread through the flock. For more information on fowl pox. Infection with the fowl pox virus will cause the chickens to have poor growth. It is common to add a coccidiostate in the feed of broilers. In adult laying hens clinical signs can include depression. but they are only effective if they contain the right serotypes of virus for a given area. It is transmitted by direct contact with an infected chicken or by mosquitos. ranging from apathogenic to highly pathogenic. and velogenic (markedly virulent). Avian influenza Avian influenza is a viral disease affecting the respiratory. refer to publication VM66. The overall symptoms may be one or more of the following: bloody droppings. decreased water consumption. Infectious bronchitis vaccine is often combined with Newcastle vaccine in the same vial. resulting in diverse symptoms. Infectious bronchitis occurs only in chickens (Infectious bronchitis is different from Quail bronchitis which affects Bobwhite Quail). emaciation. Diseases Fowl Pox Fowl pox is a viral disease of chickens characterized by scab-like lesions on the skin of the unfeathered body parts and/or on diphtheritic (wet) membranes lining the mouth or air passages. mesogenic (moderately virulent). poor feed conversion and a precipitous fall in egg production. The viruses vary in pathogenicity and are classified as lentogenic (mildly virulent). sneezing. Unlike the organisms which cause many other poultry diseases. Table 2. The disease is caused by a virus which is moderately resistant. In laying hens it is characterized by respiratory signs (gasping. The mildly pathogenic form April 1998 . There is no treatment for Newcastle disease. Production may drop to zero. Vaccines can be used for prevention. See Table 2. Egg quality is also adversely affected. Infectious bronchitis Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease. loss of appetite. There is no effective treatment for infectious bronchitis. Newcastle disease runs its course in 10 to 14 days. “Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks”. Low egg quality and shell irregularities (soft-shelled or misshapened) may persist long after an outbreak. Fowl pox may affect any age bird. In addition. Chickens and turkeys can be immunized against Newcastle disease by vaccination.

discharge from eyes and nose). It is characterized by incoordination and tremors. For more information on avian influenza refer to publication PS-38. The course of the disease is 10 to 14 days. rales. Mortality is usually low but there may be many unthrifty birds. There is no specific treatment for avian influenza. The poultry litter or manure should be composted before application to cultivated lands. Birds slaughtered 7 days after infection often have no significant increase in condemnations. sudden unexpected deaths occur in the flock. With an acute outbreak. snicks. There is no effective treatment. FDA withdrawal periods for respective medications used must be strictly observed to avoid residual chemicals in the eggs and meat. white watery or green mucoid diarrhea. and egg production is decreased. Prolonged use of sulfa drugs is toxic and causes a decrease in production in laying hens. rales. Fowl cholera is an infectious bacterial disease of poultry. but recovered birds continue to shed the avian influenza virus in feces for 3 or 4 weeks. In breeding flocks. Cheesy pus may accumulate in the sinuses under the eyes. Mortality can range from low to near 100%. chickens develop abscessed wattles and swelling of joints and foot pads. The level of mortality is usually low. In affected hens. Sulfa drugs cause residues in meat and eggs. “Avian Influenza in Poultry”. airsacculitis.. and dehydration with respiratory distress. PPLO infection.g. decreases in egg production and hatchability are noted. Eggs from layers are safe to eat. Sick birds show anorexia. but the shell should be wash and sanitized. and diarrhea. management. Laying hens may be found dead on the nest. a corresponding decrease in hatchability is also noted. relapses often occur when treatment is discontinued. Antibiotics can be used. As fowl cholera becomes chronic. coughing). Dark red/white spots (cyanosis/ischemia) develop on the legs and combs of chicks. depression. Tylosine and tetracyclines have been used extensively for treatment. Live and inactivated vaccines also are commonly used to reduce the adverse effects of the disease. Chicks that recover may later develop cataracts after sexual maturity. changes in housing. The highly pathogenic form of avian influenza produces facial swelling. good production records often reveal a slight drop in egg production (5 to 20%) lasting no more than two weeks. nutrition. sneezing. Laying hens seldom show clinical signs when infection is going through the flock. Recovery is rather spontaneous. Flocks can be treated with a sulfa drug. and elevated mortality levels. Most antibiotics are given in feed or water. or weather. However. respiratory signs (sneezing. Injectable antibiotics may be more effective if the disease is advanced and if the flock is small enough to be treated individually. Sulfa drugs are not FDA approved for use in pullets older than 14 weeks or for commercial laying hens. Avian encephalomyelitis Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection (chronic respiratory disease. e. but require higher levels and longer medication to stop the outbreak. Quarantine is continued until the flock is depopulated. especially of the head and neck in chicks. The decrease in egg production is related to the severity of the disease and can be severe. Many broad spectrum antibiotics have been used for treatment and will suppress losses. All replacement breeder and layer pullets should be immunized. Feed consumption and egg production decline in laying hens. Infected flocks will be quarantined by the State. However.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 7 produces listlessness. preferably in water. The organism may be present in a flock and cause no disease until triggered by stress. cyanosis. MG) is characterized by respiratory distress (coughing. discharge from eyes and nose. cyanosis. April 1998 . Fowl cholera Avian encephalomyelitis (epidemic tremors) is a viral disease usually affecting young poultry.

9. or erythromycin (Gallimycin) can be used as alternative treatments. 4) Hens which are able to run free hiding the eggs instead of laying in nests. If Albon fails or is not available. 3) Excessive egg breakage. starting at 5 weeks of age (i. There is a drop in feed and water consumption as well as egg production. It is given subcutaneously (under the skin) on the back of the neck. 15. If a drop in egg production occurs. and/or consult with your County Extension Agent or a veterinarian. 2) Egg-eating by hens in the flock. A vaccine for infectious coryza is available. live and/or inactivated vaccines are recommended. Chicks are usually vaccinated four times. Vaccinate again at 10 months of age and twice yearly thereafter. FL 32060 tel: 904/362-1216 2) Kissimmee Diagnostic Lab PO Box 460 Kissimmee. investigate the cause by answering questions that follow also refer to Tables 1 and 2. Sulfadimethoxine (Albon) is the preferred treatment for infectious coryza. and 19 weeks with at least 4 weeks between injections). a thick sticky discharge with a characteristic offensive odor from the nostrils. Do not start vaccinating for fowl cholera until it becomes a problem on the farm and a diagnosis is confirmed. 1) How old are the birds? 2) How much feed are the birds consuming daily? 3) Has the level of feed consumption changed lately? 4) Has there been a change in the type of feed used? 5) Is the feed moldy? 6) How much light do the birds receive daily? Has it changed? 7) What is the light source? 8) What is the condition of the poultry houses? 9) Are the birds getting enough clean water? 10) What is the condition of the birds? 11) How active are the birds? 12) What is shell quality like? 13) What is interior egg quality like? 14) Are there any signs of disease? 15) Are the birds crowded? 16) Are there any signs of parasites? 17) Do the birds have access to different plants? 18) Have any pesticides or herbicides been used in the area? State Diagnostic Laboratories: 1) Live Oak Diagnostic Lab PO Box Drawer O 912 Nobels Ferry Rd Live Oak. They include: 1) Predators and snakes consuming the eggs. sulfamethazine. sick and recently dead birds to a state diagnostic lab. Summary There are numerous factors which may adversely affect egg production in backyard chicken flocks. Common clinical signs nclude swelling and puffiness around the face and wattles.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 8 Where fowl cholera is endemic. sulfamerazine. at 5.e. The sulfa drugs are not FDA approved for pullets older than 14 weeks or for commercial laying hens.. FL 32641 tel: 407/846-5200 Other Problems To Consider There are a variety of other problems which can cause an apparent drop in egg production. Infectious coryza Coryza is a respiratory disease of chickens. labored breathing. and rales. April 1998 .

reduced feed intake Fleas embedded in the fleshy parts of the chickens’s head around the eyes. lowered feed intake Lower feed intake. Non-infectious causes of reduced egg production. increased mortality (in severe infestations) General unthriftiness. thin shells. increased mortality (peckouts). poor feed efficiency. reduced feed intake. thin shell Weakness. increased shell-less eggs Increased nervousness. hearty appetite but weight loss April 1998 . increased shell-less eggs Increased shell-less eggs. feathers in digestive tract Birds down in cages. CAUSES OF DECLINE OMISSION OF INGREDIENTS SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Salt Calcium Vitamin D3 Protein Fat TOXICOSES Nervous flock. finding mites on birds (usually around the cloaca) Nervousness.Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 9 Table 1. limp neck. increased incidence of shell-less eggs Increased mortality from calcium depletion. poor albumen quality. weight loss. soft bones. decreased feed consumption Blue combs. dry and unkempt feathers. ulceration and irritation of skin around the eyes Nematodes (roundworms) Cestodes (tapeworms) Unthriftiness. loss of pigment of brown eggs. reduced feed consumption. drop in egg size Salt Phosphorus Vitamin D3 Mycotoxins Botulism ANTICOCCIDIALS Increased mortality due to urolithiasis. neck feathers easy to pull out. increased pecking. mouth lesions. increased water consumption. fatty livers. soft bones Nervousness. lowered hatch. of fertile eggs Reduced feed consumption. panting Northern fowl mite Lice Stick-tight fleas ENDOPARASITES Nervousness. feather eating Low body weight gains. biliary hyperplasia in liver tissue. birds gathered around waterers Unusual pattern of egg production Reduced egg size. birds lack coordination Out of feed Out of water Inadequate daylength High ambient temperature ECTOPARASITES Nervous flock. prostration Nicarbazin Monensin MANAGEMENT MISTAKES Shell-less eggs.

decrease in feed consumption and egg production .Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks Page 10 Table 2.sudden unexpected deaths .reduction in feed consumption .decreased shell quality .egg production drops markedly (by as much as 50%).bloody droppings .seldom show clinical signs .listlessness . sneezing.coughing.increased mortality Mildly pathogenic form: . Typical diagnostic signs associated with common diseases and conditions which can cause a drop in egg production.cyanosis of head .swollen wattles .labored breathing .higher mortality in some cases .watery egg white .twisted neck Infectious bronchitis Newcastle disease Avian influenza Highly pathogenic form: .coughing.swelling and puffiness around the face and wattles .soft-shelled or misshapen eggs .poor pigmentation of brown-shelled eggs Mild form: . transient drop in egg production . sneezing. nasal and ocular discharge .decrease in feed and water consumption Mycoplasma gallisepticum Fowl cholera Infectious coryza April 1998 .white water or green mucoid diarrhea . snicks. foul-smelling nasal discharge . and rales .characteristic gross lesions in the intestinal tract .slight. rales.facial swelling .scab-like lesions on the unfeathered body parts (especially face and comb) .nasal and ocular discharge .respiratory distress Avian encephalomyelitis .reduction in feed and water consumption .respiratory distress .thick. DISEASE Fowl pox Coccidiosis SIGNS . coughing .diarrhea Acute form: .dark red/white spots on legs and combs .sneezing.dramatic drop in egg production . .

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