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Word Studies in the New Testament - Marvin R Vincent

Word Studies in the New Testament - Marvin R Vincent

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^he i'T-ies ""Jll T.ibrar/


3 1924 092 322 522

Cornell University Library


original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the














The worda that I have spofeen tmto you

are spirit,

and are life." John vi„




















New-Testament commentaries are so numerous, and, many new essay requires some explanation. The present work is an attempt in a field which, so far as I am
of them, so good, that a


is not covered by any one book, though it has been careand ably worked by many scholars. Taking a position

midway between the
and grammar,


commentary and the lexicon

aims to put the reader of the English Bible

nearer to the stand-point of the Greek scholar, by opening to

him the ment in

native force of the separate words of the



their lexical sense, their etymology, their history, their


and the

peculiarities of their usage


different evan-





student of the Greek Testament

will, therefore,

find himself here on familiar,
will understand that the

and often on rudimental, ground,
book has not been prepared with
It has in view,

any design or expectation of instructing him.



those readers whose ignorance of Greek debars
original words, and to


from the quickening contact of the


unknown the very

existence of those tracks

which the Greek
rendered supertranslation.

scholar threads with unconscious ease and in clear light.


scholar will maintain that such a task


by even the most idiomatic and accurate
conscientious and competent translator

The most



inherent in the very nature of a translation.


thing must exhale in the transfer from one language to an-




something which


characteristic in

proportion to



Eeading an author in a translation

like hearing

through a telephone.

The words may reach

the ear distinctly,

but the quality of the most familiar voice
tion, as in

is lost.

In translaorder to

exchange of money, transfer often necessitates breakdestruction of the original symbol, in

ing up



contents in the symbols of another tongue.

A par-

ticular coin of

one country


have no exact representative in

a coin of another country out with small change.

and the difference must be made

A single

Greek word often requires

two or three words for
or paraphrase.

reproduction in English, and even

then the partial equivalent must be

made good by comment
of every


are, besides, certain features

language, and particularly of every dead language, which defy

by any process

— embodiments

of a subtle play of per-

ception or of thought which has vanished, like the characteristic expression

from a dead

and which, though




some hint

of itself to an English mind, eludes the grasp of an

English formula.
Difficulties like these can

be met only by the study of indiis

vidual words.



compelled to deal mainly with

the contents of sentences and periods


make the forms


thought subordinate to the substance.



reproduce the idiomatic structure of

would be a monstrosity.
familiarly in

If the thought is to circulate freely








upon Anglo-Saxon minds, it must assume the Anglo-Saxon It must modify or abandon its native habits. It candress.
not be continually thrusting into notice

native antecedents,

and the forms of the
ized throughout.


which evolved


must be natural-

Hence the


compelled to have



view his own audience


expound the message

rather than to flatter the nationality of the messenger.


cannot stop to show his reader

how each


word of

the original sentence

life of

throbbing with a

own, and

aglow with the fascination of a personal history.
the work of the commentator



and not of the commentator


explains the meaning and the relation of verses and chap-

but of one


deals with

words in



tells their

individual stories.

is a

For a language is not made to order and out of hand. It growth out of a people's life and its words are not arbi;

trary symbols fixed by decree or


vote, but are struck out, as

needed, by incidents and



are the formulas in

which new needs and


impressions of external facts spon-

taneously voice themselves, and into which social customs run.

Hence language becomes more picturesque
its earlier



recede toward


Primitive speech


largely figurative



words are



the language becomes the expres-

more conventional and artificial life, and of a deeper and more complex thought, new words are coined representing
sion of a

something more subjective and subtle
they become pressed into the


and the old words, as
stretched to cover

new service and

a wider range of meaning, lose their original sharpness of outline.


pass into conventional symbols in the multiform

uses of daily speech

they become commonplace factors of a

commonplace present, and remain historic only to lexicographers and philologists. None the less, these words forever carry hidden in their bosom their original pictures and the mark of the blow which struck each into life and they will show them to him who lovingly questions them concerning

their birth

and their

in a peculiar

These remarks apply


to the



guage, which was the outgrowth of a national character at once

and which was poetic and passionate, logical and shaped by an eventful and romantic history and by a rich and powerful literature. The words of a language which traverses

the period from


to Aristotle,

from Marathon

to Leuc-



which told the

stories of

Herodotus, carried the mingled

and logic of Demosthenes, voiced the tremendous passion

of Oedipus, and formulated the dialectic of Plato and the rea-

soning of Aristotle, must enfold rare treasures


and the more




into its later development under the contact of

Oriental thought, which fused

in the alembic of Alexandria,

ran the

new combination

into the

mould of the Septuagint, and

added the

element necessary to constitute

the bearer of

the Gospel message.

The highest testimony

to the resources

of this wonderful tongue ness to the touch of the

furnished in

its its

exquisite sensitive-

the expression of the

new faith, and new truth. Its

ready adaptation to

contact with the fresh,

quickening ideas of the Gospel seemed to evoke from
tain deep-lying quality, overlaid

a cer-

then by the baser moral

conceptions of Paganism, but springing up in prompt response
to the



Christian thought and sentiment.


even the words which lent themselves so readily to the new

and higher message of Christianity could not abjure their
lineage or their history.


less sacred

They bore the marks of the older burdens they had carried. In the histories of
redeemer of

choicest words, Christianity asserts itself as a





of New-Testament words lifted out of

ignoble associations and uses, and mitred as ministers of sacred
truth, is a long



and there are few more

fascinating lines

to which Archbishop Trench long ago directed English readers in his " Study of

study than


Words" and his "New-Testament Synonyms." The biblical student may therefore profitably combine two
distinct lines of study

the one directed at the truth of script-

ure in mass, the other at the


or vehicle of the truth in


thorough comprehension of scripture takes in the
than the woof.

warp no


Labor expended upon etymolo-

gies, synonynis,

and the secrets of particles and tenses, upon

the wide range of pictures and hints and histories underly-


ing the separate words and phrases of the




not thrown away, and issues in a larger result than the

mere accumulation of curious lore. Even as nature fills in the space between the foreground and the background of her landscapes with


form and




shadow, so the rich details of New-Testament words, once apprehended, impart a depth of tone and a just relation and perspective to the salient masses of doctrine, narrative, and prophecy.

How much


habitually lost to

the English student

through the use of one and the same term in rendering two

words which the writer selected with a

clear recognition of a

between them.


often a picture or a bit of his-



hidden away

in a word, of

which a translation gives and

can give no hint.

How many

distinctive characteristics of a

writer are lost in a translation.


often, especially in the

version of 1611, the marvellous play of the Greek tenses, and

the nicely-calculated force of that potent
article, are utterly overlooked.


instrument, the


the reader steps securely

over the carefully-fitted pavement laid for him by modern

he does not even guess


the rare and beautiful

things lying beneath almost every separate block.


the reader

these treasures?

who knows no Greek be put in possession Not of all; yet certainly of a goodly share



has seemed to


that the following results might

be reached



word has a


he may learn


and may

be shown through what stages the word has attained its present meaning, and how its variations have successively grown
out of each other. Illustrations are furnished by such words as " humility," " meekness," " blessed."

He may

be shown, in

part, at least, the peculiar



which a thought comes

to a

Greek mind


or, in other words,

may form some

acquaintance with Greek idioms.

Thus, to

take some very simple instances, he can easily see how,




he thinks of
thinks of

his food as set hefore

him on

the table, the


as set heside him,

and writes accordingly



his idea of sitting


to the table


to the

clining ; or he can understand how,
the next


Liike says, "

Greek as rewe came


the idea of the next or second day comes to
so that


in the

form of an adjective qualifying we,

himself and his companions as second-day men.

he thinks of Sometimes,

when two languages develop
classical usage, the classical

a difference of idiom in their

idiom of the one reappears in the

vulgar dialect of the other.


spirit of

numerous Greek

words or phrases, even in the I^ew Testament, could be
been banished from

produced most faithfully by English expressions which have
polite diction.


can be shown the picture or the figure hidden away
See, for example, the note

in a word.


comjpel, Matt. v. 41.

He may

learn something of

Greek synonyms.

He may

be shown

how two different Greek words, rendered by the same English word, represent different sides or phases of the

and why each word


used in





the word " net " occurs in both Matt.

18 and Matt.

but the Greek word


different in each verse,

xiii. 47 and either word

would have been inappropriate

in the place of the other.

He may

be shown

how two

English words, having appar-

ently no connection with each other, are often expressed


the same Greek word

and he

the connecting idea.


be put in possession of does not suspect that " bosom," in
xxvii. 39, are one any connection between



vi. 38,

and "creek" or "bay," in Acts
or that there

and the same word

the " winding up " of Ananias' body (Acts
assertion that the time


and Paul's

short" (1 Cor.



He may




understand the reasons for


changes of rendering from an older version, which, on their






can be taught something of the characteristic usage of



words and phrases by different


and may learn

to de-

even through the English version, certain differences of
(See the Introductions to the different books.)



can be shown the simpler distinctions between the



and the force of the Greek



and how the

observance of these distinctions adds to the vigor and liveliness
of the translation.


valuable matter of this kind


contained in


and in some popular commentaries considerable promigiven to



notably in the two admirable works of Dr.

Morison on Matthew and Mark.




scattered over a





principally confined to commentaries pre-

pared for the
in lexicons


student; while very




and etymological

and in special essays
have collected

distributed through voluminous periodicals.

amount of this material from various and reliable sources, and have applied it to the treatment of the words as they occur, verse by verse, divesting it of technicalities, and trying to throw it into a form suited to the students of
sifted a large

the English Bible.

had these

so prominently in view at the beginning that I

seriously contemplated the entire omission of Greek words. On further thought, however, I decided that my plan might,

without detriment to the original purpose, be stretched so as
to include beginners in the study of the

certain college-bred readers


have saved a

Greek Testament, and little Greek out

of the wreck of their classical studies.

such I have inserted the original words wherever

For the convenience of it seemed ex-

pedient; but always in parentheses and with the translation


The English


any value which the book

may may have

therefore be assured that


will not

be im-

paired by the presence of the unfamiliar characters.



but to pass them over, and to confine his attention to the English text.

deed.Xil It is evident that PREFACE. my purpose relieves me of the duty of the tlie exegesis of passages. and not impossible that I may have occasionally transgressed. wellnigh lost. let it suffice to say that I have freely used is whatever I have found serviceable." which still maintains a high and honfield to orable rank among commentaries after the lapse of nearly a century and a half. his He must always stand pre-eminent for insight. he so often throws open by a single turn the secret chambers of a word . New-Testament The indebtedness of all workers in this John Albert Bengel it is uot easy to overstate. but for critical results the student must follow later and surer guides. in ordinary commentaries. than for any large amount of help in the present work. in. not My plan has compelled me to avoid lengthy . however. was the pioneer in this method of treating scripture. therefore. and many of his critical conclusions. a compilation. The temptation it is to overstep this limit has been constantly present. My own obligations to him are very great for the impulse to this line of study which I received in translating the " Gnomon " more than twenty-five years ago more for that. the special study of words student by detaching it I think. must be either modified or rejected. For his own labors have contributed to the great extension of his special line of study since the appearance of the " Gno- mon " in 1742. His work retains its value for the preacher. be enhanced for the from the jungle of exegetical matter in it is which. A title few words should be said respecting a name which the stu- of this book will at once suggest to dents — I mean Bengel. The entire basis of ISTew-Testament philology and textual criticism has been shifted and widened. as with a master-key. His well-known " Gnomon. save in those cases where consideration is word under the point on which the meaning of the entire passage turns. But the pleasure and the value of will. The book. keen and deep spiritual and for that marvellously terse and pithy diction with which. As to materials.

YINCENT. scarcely necessary and often uncouth renderings which frequently occur are given merely in order to throw sentences or phrases as nearly as possible into their Greek form. 1886. ing in which the two agree. R. In order to avoid encumbering the pages list with a multitude of references. to say that the very literal It perhaps. which. I have appended a sources on which I have . and commonly adopting any is. comparing with read- Tischendorf's eighth edition. and are not suggested for adoption as versions. and to confine myself mostly to the statement of results. of the drawn and the names of other authors not mentioned there will be found appended to quotations. a magnificent geode. is cited first according to the authorized ver- My task has been a labor of love. It will be a great joy to me if. on being broken. was discovered. though pursued amid the distractions it numerous and varied duties of a city pastorate.PREFACE. October 30. disclosed a mass of crystals arranged in the form of a cross. Each word or passage commented upon sion. I hope to complete in due time by an additional volume conago. and to lay bare their hidden jewels. New York. I may help a Bible-student here and there to a clearer vision of that cross which is the centre and the glory of the Gospel. MARYIN Covenant Paksonagb. Xiii discussions and processes. some years of our Western States. I have followed it principally the text of Westcott and Hort. by this attempt to break the shell of these words of life. . I have not attempted textual criticism. in one taining the writings of It is said that there John and Paul.

1888. together with sundry typo- Greek text. . etc. December 10. A few changes have also been made For many in accordance with the suggestions of my reviewers. of Columbia College. New York. In this second edition a number of errors in the Scripture references have been corrected. Henry Drisler. such as misplaced accents. but who voluntarily. furnished me with a list of the errors noted by him in his perusal of the volume.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. and graphical mistakes in the omitted breathings. most kindly. whose invaluable aid it would never have occurred to me to ask in such a matter of literary drudgery. pf the corrections in the Greek text I am under great obligations to my old friend Dr.

Bengel: Testamenti. New York. : Bosworth. : Bagster. A. : Commentary on the Epistle of Jude. London. . John 2 vols. Abbot. Tu- bingen. Werner. 1883. 1853. Gallus. Vincent. London. 1862. London. 1871. Edited by Trench. Autenrieth. W. Bohn." in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Isaac Sermons. : 1879. Edited by Steudel. Becker. : T. W. Barrow. Joseph. T. Gospels. Metcalfe. edition. G6org Homeric Dictionary. 1860. : : Charicles. Translated by E. Letters from Eome to Friends in England. Augustine Sermon on the Mount. Translated by C. 1855. Arnold. Greek and English. Philadelphia. : Roman Provincial Administration. 1861. London. : Testamenti. Burgon. Henry Greek Testament. Auslegung 2 vols. London. 1854. London. Bengel: Gnomon Novi Gnomon Novi Testamenti. 1869. G. 1855.LIST OF AUTHORS AND EDITIONS. Edwin A. Becker. A. New 3 vols. with the Versions of Wycliffe and Tyndale. 2d edition. 3d edition. Lewis and M. in fortlaufen- den Anmerkungen von Bengel : C. London. 1880. Ne'rt Apocrypha. E. Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Butler. 1874. London. London. 5 vols. Angus. 9th edition. Joseph Sermons. : : 1849. : London. F. W. Gnomon Novi W. and Waring. Joseph York. 1857-61. Article "Gospels. Alford. Stuttgart.

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Farrar. Farrar. Edinburgh. Farrar. Fuerst. Aldis: The Bible Word-Book. George : History of Greece. London. Greek Syntax. 1869. 1881. to the Old Testar ment. Frederic : New Testament. Commentary on First Corinthians. Frederic W. 1879. Farrar. don. 1st Expositor. Findlay. and New York. Alfred the The Temple . Epistles of Paul. 1876. London. Frederic W. and 2d J. New York. 1885. Edinburgh. Julius : Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon S. : : The Life and "Work of St. 2 vols. 1879. London. Godet. Tombs. 2 vols. : The Life of Christ. Charles Commentary on the 2 vols. 1872. New York. 1883. Luke. 1876. W. Paul. Eadie. xvii Library. Farrar. Alfred of Christ. London. 1885. P. 2 vols.. London. Andover. 1876. Louis Temples. : Di Cesnola. Englishman's Greek Concordance to the York. St. 8 vols. 1874. Frederic W. Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days London. James 1851. London. : Commentary on the Gospel of 3d edition. Edersheim. Frederic W. London. London. 1875-84. Ford. Grote. : : 1878. 20 vols." Franz: Commentary on Job. London. AUTHORS AND EDITIONS. : Boston. Alexander G. Language and Languages. The English Bible. John : Eastwood. New Classical Atlas. 1874. 1871. and Wright. . Cyprus . Lon2 Edersheim. : series.LIST OP Delitzsch. "Clark's Theological 2 vols. Ellicott. 2 vols. W. 1862. : Edersheim. of St. J. Translated by : Davidson. its Ancient Cities. Alfred vols. 1878. 1859. F. The Gospel Luke Elustrated. Thomas C. 4th edition. London. New York. : Edwards. its Ministry and Services at Time of Jesus Christ. : Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. The Messages of the Books.

1877-85. 1870. J. don. 2d edition. : Grimm. New York. : Grimm. Oxford. 1883. 2d edition. 4 vols. Cunningham : The Life and Words of Christ. Thayer. : 2 vols. Gloag. Herodotus. C. 1838. Lon- Jameson. edi- Leipzig. 1858. Edward vols. Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. Willibald tion. Deutsches Worterbuch. Translated by George Eawhnson. 1871. 1854-73. History of our Lord. Geikie. : Boston. William K.. the Epistle of James. Howson. John Edward : Kritisch Exegetisches Handbuch den 1 Brief des Petrus. The Metaphors of St. Gloag. W. 2d 8 London. 1859. Gibbon. und den 2 Brief des Petrus. Hobart. 4th edition. 1858. Commentary on New 2 vols. 1880. in one. H. and enlarged by Joseph H. 1882. Jameson. L. : The Medical Language G. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Edinburgh. 2d edition. revised. J. 1883. 3 vols. Horatio B. don. Edinburgh. : Sacred and Legendary Art. J. den Brief des Judas. Mrs. L. John Edward Kritisch Exegetisches Handbuch 2 vols. : Huther. don. Decline and Fall of the Eoman Empire. Willibald : Grimm. 1879. 1863. E. The Same. : Gottingen. : The Parables of Jesus. 6 vols. Luke. Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti. Paton J. 1858. York. Paton J. : Goebel Siegfried Gladstone. Translated. 2 vols. : Real Encyklopadie fiir tantische Theologie und Kirche. . : Hackett. LonProtes- Herzog. 1887. L. and Plitt. Wilhelm and Jacob Leipzig. PauL New York. of St. Acts of the Apostles. 16 vols. : New York. Mrs. Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age. London. 1858. 1865. C.XVUl LIST OF : AUTHORS AiO) EDITIONS. Gottingen. iiber den Brief des Jakobus. Loniiber Huther. Leipzig.

London. B. Thomas The Life and Epistles of St. : Commentary on Jude.-HI. Henry P. of xix William Edward Oxford. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians. : A Grammar the Greek Language. London. Lardner.. Lightfoot. in Speaker's : Commentary. J. 1852-62. Lange. in Speaker's Comvols. 1855. Charles A. 5 vols. The Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Greek-EngUsh Lexicon. J. Lightfoot. Kypke. Robert : 7th edition. I.LIST OP Jelf. New York. 1875. : St. . Newton Deutsch-Englisches Worterbuch. B. George David bros. 1883. and Homiletical Commentary. Liddon. : Observationes Sacrae in Nov. the Empire. Paul's Epistle to London. Doctrinal. 2 vols. New Latin Diction- Oxford and New York. don. B. : Oxford. P. Critical. 1875. mentary. Lucas. Henry G. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and Phile- mon. the Galatians.. : Lewis. B. J. 1755. Foed. 1867. AUTHORS : AifD EDITIONS. : St. J. : Lumby. B. New 1866. The Dialogues of Plato. edition. and Scott. 1851. 1868. in one. New York. The Jewish War. Li- 2 vols. J. : St. History of the 7 vols. 1873. 2 New ary. London. Rawson York. London. : On : a Fresh Revision of the New Testament. Ivory : 1879. Bre- mep. Translated by Traill. New York. J. and Short. Charles : : Works. History of Rome. 2 vols. Christ. Josephus 1868. London. 1815. 2d edition. Paul. translated into EnglisL 2d 5 vols. Liddell. Charlton T. J. Lumby. York. Jowett. Romans under 2d edition of Vols. London. Rawson Commentary on Second Peter. : Henry G. Liddell. York. Lon- Lightfoot. New Lewin. : Breslau. 1869. Lightfoot. Nathaniel Merivale. 1875.

H. H. L. Porter. 1885. B. Revision of 1885. H. 1873. LonBos- don. Parker. 1884. 1885. and Other Studies on Oxford. Edward: vised Harmony of the Gospels in Greek. Heinricli W. John. Robinson. Greek Testament. Clough. Northcote. Mark. James Cyclopaedia of Biblical. Practical Morison. : Meyer. J. in series " The London. Translated by Dickson. London. the Life after Death. 2d ed. 10 vols. 2 vols. Re- by M. Palgrave. New York. A. London. ton. B. The Spirits in Prison. by C. Luke of New York. : Boston. and Strong. Phrynichus : Eclogae Nominum et Verborum Atticorum. J. 1882. CaUista. 1868. Mansel. London. 5 vols. Theodor History 4 vols. 1867. William Gifford Central and Eastern Arabia. Old Testament. 1859. John the Baptist. Mommsen. : Handbook St. Theological. Mark. 1859. Lobeck. 1820. Paul. James Commentary on the Gospel ac- cording to St.. London. and Brownlow. Edited by J. . 1874. J. : St.XX Acts. E. Plutarch: Lives. Newman. S. 1875. H. Translated by A. Edited Leipzig. : Primitive Fortifications of : Rome. Reynolds. Lightfoot. H. London. LIST OF AUTHORS AND EDITIONS. H : Commentaries on Matthew. London. Boston. 1881. for Syria and Palestine. James A A Practical Commentary on the Gospel ac- cording to St. Riddle. Rome. : McClintock. Heathen World and Plumptre. Henry R. J." Paul in Asia Minor. : : R : London. 1869. Matthew. New edition. Robinson. Edward tament. 1884. Boston. Cambridge. 1867-81. Henry L. E. Roma Sotterranea. Revisers' Text of the New : York. : Plumptre. and Ecclesiastical Literature. The Gnostic Heresies of the First and Second Centuries. : Morison. : Greek and English Lexicon of the New Tes- New York. "W.

vols. Edin- burgh. 3 vols. : Commentary on First and Second Peter. Eudolph J. The Voyage and Shipwreck 3d edi- London. M. John Eobert : Modern Painters. 1882-83. J. New York. New York. J. : Commentary on the Gospel Vols. 1877. Eiddle. 1881. George History of Ancient Egypt... 1879. : Smith. Septuagint. 1883. William Dictionary of Greek and vols. of Luke. 1866. : History of the Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece. Schaff. Etymological and Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language. William : Annals of the Artists of Spain. : Schmidt. Commentary on the Gospel : New M. : Smith. 1842. and Schaff. The Words of the Lord Jesus. and Schaff. 2 vols. of St. 1855. York. 1862. XL New York. 1882. B. Edinburgh. 4 Leipzig. 187^-86. H. New : Schaff. : New York. Oxford. York. Skeat. Lon- don. Paul. Synonymik der Griechischen Spraehe. F. 5 vols. 1879. New York. 3 vols. Walter W. : Euskin. 3 London and Boston. 1879. : Eawlinson. 3 vols. Schaff. er's New York. A. D. in Speak- Commentary. : Stormonth. Philip Encyclopaedia of Eeligious Knowledge. Commentary on the Epistle of James. Philip. 1871.. B. and Mythology. H. London. 1848. : Eawlinson. 3 vols. Salmond. : : Etymological Dictionary of the English Lan- guage. St. and Eiddle. Stier. I. M. London. Philip of Mark. B. : xxl Eiddle. According Bagster. 1882. Stirling. Philip History of the Christian Church. James tion. of Matthew. to the Vatican edition. John. S. Eoman Biography 1849. Philip Commentary on the Gospel 2d edition. 8 vols. New York. Lon- don and Scott. New York. .LIST OF AUTHORS AND EDITIONS. George Ancient Monarchies.

York. Past and Present. 1863. AUTHORS AND EDITIONS. 1883. : Proverbs and their Lessons. New York. : On the Authorized Version of the New Testament. Oxford and London. 1854. Theologische Studien und Kritiken. 1864-76. 1874. : Smith. Eichard C. Scrivener. Trench. 1862. 1855. Frederick H. Tholuck. Eichard C. : Thomson. Synonyms New Testament. 3 vols. Smith. New : : Trench. New York. Stanley. The Land and the Book.XXii LIST OF . edition. Epistles of St. New . Eichard C. edition. Eichard C. 2d 2d American American edition. Cambridge and London. : Trench. New : : Concordance to the Revised Version of the York. York. London. 5th London. 13th edition. Notes on the Parables of our Lord. Stanley. Roman Antiquities. edition. William M. Thorns. : Select Glossary of English Words. The Land and the Book. Studies in the Gospels. London. Words. Eichard C. William Dictionary of Greek and Edited by Anthon. Trench. : The Sermon on the Mount. Eichard C. Trench. Trench. 5th edition. New : York. On the Study of New York. 1867. 1886. of the : A Plain Introduction to the Criticism New Testament. Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age. John A. London. Edinburgh. Arthur P. Boston. New : Trench. 1870. 1876. Paul to the Corinthians. . English. Sinai : and Palestine. 8th London. 3 vols. Arthur P. William M. 1856. Arthur P. : 2d edition. 1876. Notes on the Miracles of our Lord. 1862. A. : Trench. William 2 vols. Eichard C. New York. The 4th edition. 1873. Eichard C. Arthur P. New Testament. : Stanley. Stanley. 1880-86. London. Dictionary of Greek and Eoman Geography. of the Trench. Thomson. Eichard C. 1879. The Jewish Church. 1861. 1874. New York. York. 1874.

: Wilkinson.LIST OP AUTHOES AND EDITIONS. 1877. J. Constantine edition. : Modem : Egypt and Thebes. Testament. Wilkinson. Westcott. New York. Novum Testamentum 8th Leipzig. Lon- Zeschwitz. An Account : of the Printed Text of the Greek New pels. London. and Hort. Gardner 1837-41. P. Westcott. : XXiii Graece. 1881. : The New Testa- ment 1883. B. G. Gardner don. S. Fenton A. edition. Profangracitat vmd Biblischer Sprach- Leipzig. 7 vols. Tischendorf. 1878. London. English Winer. 8th W. The Ancient Egyptians. American edition. Brooke Foss 5th edition. 1859. : Tregelles. Edinburgh. 1854. Brooke Foss. 1875. : Edited by Grammar of New Testament Greek. London. F. in the Original Greek. London. . Moulton. 2 vols. John. Gerhard von geist. Litroduction to the Study of the Gos- Westcott. Brooke Foss: The Epistles of St. 1843.

Apoc. Rev. Following. = Lit. Cit. V. Wye. Sqq. O. Sept.ABBREVIATIONS. A. Ree. Tex. Septuagint Version of the Old Testament. Equivalent to. Explanation. Vulg. Tyndale's Version of the New Testament. Received Text. Synop. New Testament. T. Cited. Eevised Version of the New Testament. Vulgate or Latin Translation of the of the in New Testament. Tynd. Synoptists. Authorized Version. Expn. New Testament" refers to Greek . Rev. Apocalypse. Literally. Revised Version of the Old Testament. Wycliffe's Version The phrase "only here words only.

. I am not aware that . attempting to tear her from her asylum. Jameson (" Sacred and Legendary Art") says: "Few churches are dedicated to St.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW. and that he overcame two magicians who had afflicted the people with diseases. and because it was a galling token of subjection to a foreign power. Mrs. and that a heathen king. He had been a publican or tax-collector under the Roman government an office despised by the Jews because of the extortions which commonly attended it. It is further related that he raised the son of the king of Egypt from the dead. Tradition records of him that he lived the life of an ascetic. The only facts which the gospels record about him are his call and his farewell feast. healed his daughter Iphigenia of leprosy. and his palace destroyed by fire. There is a legend that after the dispersion of the apostles he travelled into Egypt and Ethiopia preaching the Gospel that he was entertained in the capital of Ethiopia in the house of the eunuch whom Philip baptized. and placed her at the head of a community of virgins dedicated to the service of God . a brother of James the Little. When called by Christ. on herbs and water. Matthew. INTRODUCTION. possibly a brother of Thomas Didymus. He was a son of Alphaeus. According to the Greek legend he died in peace but according to the tradition of the Western Church he suffered mar. tyrdom. Matthew forsook at once his office and his old name of Levi. . was smitten with leprosy. CoNCEKNiiiG Matthew personally we know very little.

he holds a book or a pen as significant of his Matthew ish former vocation. and that it must have exercised an immense influence on the thoughts and feelings of the apostles and evangelists. un. he is so seldom represented alone.d. also declare that In that case the translahis work was translated into Greek.2 INTRODUCTION. tion was most probably made by Matthew himself. by the Jewish Christians the other that he wrote it in Greek. is toward the theory of a Gi-eek original. or profession. the dialect spoken in Palestine . or he supports the book. " Messages of the Books "). or in less it he is portrayed as an evangelist. Evidently it was written before the destruction of Jerusalem " Had that event preceded the writing of the sy(a. who thus manifested his providence in human history. or he holds the inkhorn. Matthew's gospel is the first in order. trade. nothing is more certain than that it must have been directlj' mentioned. There are two views as to the language in his gospel which in was originally composed : one that he wrote it Hebrew or Syro-Chaldaic. The drift of modern scholarship. According to the testimony of the earliest Christian fathers. The former theory is supported by the unanimous testimony of the early church and the fathers who assert this. could possibly have failed to appeal to the tremendous sanction which had been given to all their views by God himself. and showed all things by the quiet . In his character of apostle. pointing up to heaven or dictating. noptic gospels and the epistles of St. probably in Palestine. devotional pictures. When . Matthew's object was to exhibit the Gospel as the fulfilment . is he the patron saint of any country. St. No writer dealing with the topics and arguments and prophecies with which they are constantly occupied." wrote. his proper attribute and attendant. Great uncertainty prevails as to the time of composition. light of inevitable circumstances " (Farrar. 70). Paul. however. and the angel. and evidently for JewChristians. except where he figures as one of the series of evangelists or apostles. though the internal evidence favors the priority of Mark. be that of tax-gatherer or exciseman and this is perhaps the reason that. or under his supervision. Matthew frequently holds a purse or money-bag. stands by.

and Ruth the Moabitess. the discourse of his different characters. 16 as i. 40 attached to the xxiii. 3. The sense of Jewish nationality appears in the record of Christ's present . Also in the tracing of the genealogy of our Lord no further . 1-16). INTRODUCTION. in not to go into the way of the Gentiles nor into the villages of the Samaritans (x. iv. . 23). 19 xii. a more comprehensive character appears .. 18 ment : . world. in the threat of and in the value moral and religious element of the law (xxii. 15. by the Gentile magi in kingdom to all the world (xxiv. 6. 1-14) . It being his task to show how fulfilled in Christ. His citations are of two classes those which he quotes himself as fulfilled in the events of Christ's life. his allusions are the law and the prophets were frequent to the Old Testa- He has upward of sixty references to the scriptures. 28) in the use of the word " Jews. On the other hand. . 23 ii. 28). 43). of the law and the prophecies . 23). . 15. . To Matthew Jesus is alike the Messiah of the Jew and the Saviour of the taking away the kingdom from Israel (xxi. Old Testament. . 3 past with the to connect the show that Jesus was the Messiah of the Jews. and the apostolic commission to go in the commendation of the faith of to all nations (xxviii. 4. . to words about the " the lost sheep of the house of Israel " (xv." as if he were outside the circle of Jewish nationality in the parables of the laborers in the vineyard (xx. and that in the Old Testament the New was prefigured. of the marriage of the king's son (xxii. and in the adoration of the infant Jesus . . such and those which are a part of iv. command back than to Abraham in the emphasis laid on the works of the law (v. . the prophecy of the preaching of the Gospel of the . xv. . 5) in the prophecy that the apostles shall sit as judges in "the regeneration" (xix. The genealogy of Jesus contains the Gentile names of Eahab the Canaanite. 19) a Gentile above that of Israel (viii. Hence his gospel has a more decidedly Jewish flavor than any other of the synoptics. 10-12 compare the story of the Syrophcenician woman. 37) and in the prophecy which makes the end of Israel contemporaneous with the " consummation of the age " (xxiv. 24) . 22 x. 3 . 33. such as iii. 14). while in the New Testament the Old was revealed.

while representXV. 28. but Gospels. among dogs and swine. 39. 10 . lawlessness. and the wavering or retrogresit is ' distracted about the future. and. few are chosen " (xxii. which has been rightly styled " the Gospel of universality and tolerance. and the goats as well as the sheep. and amid a race of backsliders.4 7. break one of the least shall be called least in the . 9. and the guest without the wedding garment. and those who even cast out devils in the name of the Lord.' Where Luke speaks exultantly of joy in heaven over one repentant sinner. 44). who are unworthy of the pearls of truth among the tares sown by the enemy among fishermen ." iniquity is dvofiia.' The condition . is peculiar the record of the saying that " Whosoever shall commandments. he represents it. not only as the fulfilment of the Mosaic law. but in contrast with it. alleged that day is the evil thereof. 32. more than the rest of the evangelists. and the foolish virgins. and yet are rejected by him because they work lawlessness. the distinction between the called (kXtjtoI) and the chosen {i/cKsKToi) is the more remarkable. He alone records the saying. primarily as the violation of law . He new law as gentler than the same time. " Matthew. also. 19). and teach men so. back again many of the fish caught in the net of the Gospel. has not ventured to use kXtjtoi in Matthew's disparaging signification (Art. To him. Yet. as Professor Abbot has acutely remarked. seems to move in evil days. which occurs nowhere in Encyclop. kingdom of heaven " (v. 8. as more stringent (see ing the gospel is old. who have suflScient for the of the Jews. To continue the quotation from Professor Abbot. Britannica). and the multitude of those that go thereby. and Luke. as is illustrated in the Sermon on the Mount. in more negative and sober phrases. at the v. their increasing hostility to the Christians. Matthew. 34. because Paul uses the two words almost indifferently. 14). INTRODUCTION. and therefore his word for else in the " Many are called." The retribuSin appeals to him tive element is more prominent in it. exhibits the law of Christ. His of a sterner type than Luke's. " Gospels. although he too has the parable of the unworthy guests. The broad way is ever in his mind. 4. declares that it is not the will of the Father that one of the little ones should perish and as a reason for not being to cast ' .

but * typical of the character of the whole of the First Gospel. Idle "Words (xii. the Draw-net . Seven incidents connected with the Passion and the Eesurrection the Bargain and Suicide of Judas . .s- the Flight into Egypt. . 25-30) .) . Humility and Forgiveness (xviii. one(xvi. .) tion of the Jews (xxi. sion of 5 many Jewish sified shortly converts when the hostility became intenbefore and during the siege of Jerusalem this — may well explain one side of Matthew's gospel and the other side (the condemnation of lawlessness ') might find an explanation in a reference to Hellenizing Jews. 37) the Prophecy to Peter : . Two miracles The Cure of Two Blind Men. the Story of the Sanhedrim. Hence Matthew's is pre-eminently the didactic Gospel. quarter of the whole being occupied with the actual words and discourses of the Lord. 17-19) . the Invitations to the "Weary (xi. 43) the Discourse about Last Things (xxv. Ten great passages of our Lord's discourses Parts of Sermon on the Mount (v. the Dream of Pilate's "Wife the Eesurrection of the Departed Saints the "Watch at the Sepulchre . Eejecthe Great Denunciation (xxiii. : . and the retrogression of great masses of the nation. 31-46) the Great Commission and Promise (xxviii. wished to cast aside morality as well. and the Coin in the Fish's Mouth. and the Keturn to Nazareth. the Hid Treasure . . the M3. the introduction into the Lord's Prayer of the words Deliver us from the •' evil. : The Yisit of the Magi . These include ten parables The Tares .' will seem not only appropriate. ' Corinthians) considered that the restraint. the Revelation to Babes . INTRODUCTION.-vii. the Unmerciful Servant . 15-35) . the Yineyard .' and the predic- tion that by reason of the multiplying of lawlessness the love of many shall wax cold. ." As related to the other synoptical gospels.. the : Pearl the Laborers in Sons the Marriage of the King's Son the Ten Yirgins. . . and the Earthquake on the Kesurrection Morning. in casting aside every vestige of nationality. who (like some of the . Yiewed in the light of the approaching fall of Jerusalem. and the Talents. 36. new law set them free from all and who. 18-20). Matthew's contains fourteen entire sections which are peculiar to him alone. the Two : Four events of the infancy sacre of the Infants .

The Holy City (Jerusalem). money-changers j Kopdcnov.a fi. broadly. 2 being a false reading. in in Luke. 5.o'i. narrative. m. and work.ov6(p3-aXp. A number of words condemned by the grammarians as unclassical or as slang are employed by Mark. The phrase. Father ^Vl Heamen. In order that it might he fulfilled which was spoken only. That which was spoken (to pTjS-iv). in Matthew 6.three times 9. in Matthew only. is painted simply. 4. 8. teen times in Matthew. and is not found in the other evangelists. having one eye paif>l<i. His diction and construction are the most Hebi'aistic of the synoptists. x. The end of the world. business-like traits which had been fostei-ed by his employment as a publican. only twice in Mark.). eiglit times in Matthew. character. thirteen times. 14 is a false reading. uses that which was spoken {to prj^iv) when quoting scripture In other quotations he has It is written {yeypaTTTai). 6. and not elsewhere in this form. six times. like the other evangelists. such a. who use Kingdom of God.. 3. but without minute detail. and boldly. or Heavenly Father This occurs fif(o iraTrjp 6 iv ovpavolv: 6 irarrip 6 ovpdvio<. To swear in {ofivveiv iv. The pictmatter. ure of our Lord's : . never uses the singular jpatfir} (properly a passage of scripture). 10. life. Kingdom.6 INTRODUCTION. three at least in a needls. and a few of these (eSi'tKo?). xi. which occurs thirtytwo times. Saviour. as Teacher. i.' He also uses some Latinisms. Son of David. This is Matthew's characteristic formula. himself. His narrative is more sober and less graphic than either Mark's or Luke's. such as abounds in Mark. sixteen. in may be found in Matthew. though less so than those of John's gospel. Heathen Matthew only. The following Hebrew peculiarities are to be noted 1. for Mark xiii. seven times in Matthew.e. and Messianic King. twelve times It was spoken {eppr)Bnr{). He . three in Mark. Matthew is less characteristic in style than in arrangement and The orderly. Not elsewhere used of scriptMatthew always ure. appear in his methodical arrangement and grouping of his subject. or consummation of the age irj avvreKeia tov al&vo<i). twenty. and not at all in Luke. common with . iy). 7. And behold {kuI Idov). (im or oTTta? irXrjpcoSfj to pr}9^ev). three in Luke. 2. in Matthew and Apoc. of Heaven {^aaiXeia toov ovpavwv).aid . : KoWv/SicrTal.

a tomb. etc. jprmtorium . ten. with the single exception of the incident of his call and feast. A . 6 Xeyop. saying (ix. 7 tribute. the other evangelists using /ivrifta fivrjfxeLov. it is found but six a dream. New Testament. in order that they may appear (vi. come or go {iTpoakpxoiiaL. iropivw) after the oriental manner. of all adapted to reach the very people to whom it was addressed. He when frequently uses the words the tempter . The very lack of individuality in his style corresponds with the fact that. is who is called. {ek to opofia). scourge also KovaT(t^ZCa. in. 19) the disciples of John came. xviii. . It has been suggested that traces of his old employment appear in the use of the word tribute-money. 3) ing (viii. xxi.). X. 2 . while in Mark times. the latter being used also by Matthew. 3. 4 . ^'P^^J^^^oo:. and in Luke. is used by him ova alone in the . Two instances occur of a play upon words a<^av(^ovai cfiavScri. names or surnames 16 (ii. name eVt. The former of these verbs {irpoaep. 5) a scribe came and said (viii. guard. 26 xi. a centurion came beseech. then. The writer is utterly merged in his narrative. The word ouap. xxvi. There are about a hundred and twenty words which are used by him alone in the ISew Testament. expand his narrative as. xxviii. 42 ." . partisix cle of transition is rare. even as asking a question. . 41). 20 . : KUKoii'. a favorite expression in announcing . 23 . He adds of the people to scribes xxvii. and always in the phrase /car in a dream. peculiar to to him alone. 19). and in the record of the miracle of the coin in the fish's mouth . 1). li). His favorite 5 . he does not appear in his gospel. to (ii. or is also peculiar to him. mTRODUCTION. where the other evangelists have (x.. instead oipenny. He writes. xxvi. Mark: to •n-paiTcoptov. 3. or elders into the iv. they make their real faces disappear. KaKm<. or upon 41. to came he said (iv. which occurs ninety times. X°t''"-i) occiars fifty-one times. It occui's six times... (i. he will evilly destroy those evil husbandmen (xxi. The Jew who serves rather to emphasize his obreceived the Messiah he portrayed could never lose his disgust for the office and class which he gospel written by a publican would seem least represented. 47 . 14). . Mark and fourteen in Luke 1 iii. 16) in . Td<po<i. viii. but the name "Matthew the publican" scurity. 20. K7]va-o<.evo'.

the consummate flower of the ancient law. . Whether or not the perception of this fact may have combined engendered by his to produce this reticence. the Saviour of mankind. and the perfect hfe and unrivalled teaching of the Son of David. certain it is that the evangelist himself is completely hidden behind the bold. broad masses in which are depicted the Messiah of Jewish hope.nSTTRODUCTIOISr. with the humility contemplation of his Lord.

xiv. the good tid/mgs of the his own peculiar style. 27). styled himself Matthew. 152). not Matthew's nor Luke's and is substantially one and the same in all the evanThe words " according to. M atth e w (^lar^alov). Later it news itself— the joyful tidings of Messiah's kingdom. ix. . in the New Testament itself it is never employed in the sense of a written book. The Gospel is God's. " Let this rewa/rd eiayyekiovhe given In Attic Greek a sacrifice Jhr good tidings. news " (Od.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW. 9 by a change of . This is not the same as the phrase Gospel of Matthew. . 14 Luke v. Though the word came naturally to be used as the title of books containing the history of the good tidings. The names Matthew and Levi denote Mark ii. kingdom. The all lists of the apostles. me for my good meant (in the plural) comes to mean the good According to (/eara). but Matthew is The Jews marked decisive changes in name (compare Simon and Peter Saul . SUPERSCRIPTION. gwen say to Thus Homer makes Ulysses it Eumffius. a contracted form of the and Paul) so that it is ." therefore. imply gelists' writings. The Gospel (eiayjeKiov). but always means the word preached. . as delivered or represented Tyy Matthew. name Levi is wanting in named in all these lists.. evident that Levi. Signifies originally apresent m return Jbr joyful news. after his call to the apostolate. a generic element in the Gospel which Matthew has set forth in The meaning is. their life the same person (Matt.

to anoint). 25. . Hence the word " Christ " was repre- . 13) they apostles (Mark iii. To us " Christ " has become a proper name. was a common title of the king (1 Sam. xvi. Hence Andrew says to Simon. is called by Matthew more correctly anticipated . ix. where he whereas Mark and Luke. 9. 14. 14 Luke vi. . Properly an adjective. 16). Luke v. 15 Acts i. not a noun. 5 2 Sam. cv. 15). ix. and is therefore written without the definite article but. . 1. name reproduced This nauie is Greek Theodore God . i." the Lord's Anointed. . God. Christ (John i. the article is habitually used. 32) at their inauguration. xvi." After the resurrection. Ps. Cyrus is also called. presses the evangelist's own faith in Jesus as the Messiah. xlv. in narrating his call. 1). 26). since the identity of Jesus with the promised Messiah is still in question with the people. xii. CHAPTER Yer. 38 xix. 27 x. 18 of the rightly call him Matthew. and to priests (Exod. . L Hebrew in the Mattathias. " "We have 2 Dan. Christ (Xptcrro?). . the king and spiritual ruler from David's race." because called to the throne to deliver the Jews out 16). so completely displaced the old one that Matthew himself in ch. found the Messiah. ii. which is. we find the word beginning to be used as a proper name. It is a translation of the Hebrew Messiah. . 15 . 28). it [Ch. a lS>pov. . because it occurs in the heading of the chapter. . Anointing was applied to kings (1 Sam. ix. a gift). being interpreted. of captivity (Isa. I. in the body of the gospel narratives. meaning gift of (^eo?. In this passage it omits the article. 1). " The Lord's anointed " Lev. 16 x. 29 xl. 41 compare Acts iv. 22. and ex. Prophets are called "Messiahs. xxix. . and the name should therefore be translated " the Christ. with or without the article. 3. . to prophets (1 Kings xix.10 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and meaning anointed (%/3(^ft)." or anointed ones (1 Chron. when the recognition of Jesus as Messiah has become general. 27) while in their lists style him Levi (Mark ii. promised under that name in the Old Testament (Ps.

dignity. v. Jas.) the dignity of sons Through Christ so that the same viii. He himself anointed the eyes of the blind man (John ix. " God. tality anointing attaches to our Lord in Anointing was an act of hospi- and a sign of festivity and cheerfulness. (For TeKvov. but is never applied to Christ. sons of God. in his name. 7) are applied to Jesus. 8. 16. Jesus was anointed by the woman when a guest in the liouse of Simon the Pharisee. our Lord. The word rexvov {child} is often used interchangeably with uto9 {son). hath anointed thee above thy fellows. 35. if descent. 14). . 9). 1. Kom. is 29. Col. 56). ix. . iv. The Son {ym). " She hath anointed my body aforehand for the burying " (Mark xiv. 6.) bestowed on believers. 8 M'ith the oil of gladness . . and rebuked his host for omitting this mark of respect toward liini (Luke vii. H seiitative of who united in himself the offices of king. 13. 13). In the Epistle to the Hebrews (i. (See Eom. viii. Of her who brake the alabaster upon his head at Bethany. 15. and freedom. Gal. 2 compare Luke iv. the words of the Messianic psalm (xlv. "the Great Physician." Anointing was practised upon the sick (Mark vi.] MATTHEW. 26. and is. even thy God. . " anointed with oil many that were sick. 34. It is interesting to see how other and minor particulars. see.Ch. prophet. word is appropriate 14. 7. 6. v'm fixes the thought on the person It himself rather than on the dependence upon his parents. Jesus. also. mainly to bring out the fact that the son was worthy of his Hence the word marks the filial relation as carrying parent. Jesus said. I. to Christians. 18) as anointed by God to bind up the broken-hearted. 26. 1. Luke xxiii. or. 13 Luke x. Anointing' was practised upon the dead.) While in commonly implied the passive or dependent tskvov there is relation of the children to the parents. 6. suggests individuality rather than descent. 11) and the twelve. i. 18. with it privilege. and healed them " (Mark vi. 46). and priest. iii. see on 1 John iii. and to give the inournfnl the oil of joy for mourning. (See John i." is described by Isaiah (Ixi. therefore. iii. the only appropriate term to express Christ's sonship.

he was her natural heir. In this genealogy.. Both words are thus emphasized the David from whom Christ. These two words. and the woman's property became virtually that of her betrothed. Espoused Qivrjarev'^elcrr]^: Eev. ^ovXeff^ai. where the generations are : divided symmetrically into three sets of fourteen. as if actually married. even in that case." The same emphatic or demonto the commencement . xxii. regular divorce. and evidently intended to express different phases of thought. Tyn.. maryed). . mmt have descended the king with whom the Messiah's genealogy entered upon the kingly dignity. in so many cases by the same words. " the Ba. the evangelist seems to connect the last of each set with a critical epoch in the history of Israel the first reaching from the origin of the race : of the monarchy (" David the king ") commencement of the monarchy to the the third and last. — missible ^iXeiv. strative use of the article occurs 16). open the question of their distinctive meanings in the New Testament. unless he had expressly renounced it but. from the captivity to captivity in Babylon the coming of "tA« Christ. would be of the expression requires entirely inappro- . . if he were the Messiah. betrothed. 12 6. 23. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. marking his peculiar relation to Jesus as the husband of Mary the Joseph. when the For greater force instance. and where the rendering. describing the working of Joseph's mind. Not willing was minded (i^ovXij'^rf). The narrative implies a distinction between betrothal and marriage. [Ch. 24). the king "). the husband of Mary. furnishes no clue to the distinction. From the moment of her betrothal a woman was treated The union could be dissolved only by Breach of faithfulness was regarded as adultery.vid. the second. and was punishable with death (Dent. The original words are often used synonymously in cases where no distinction is emphasized but their use in other cases reveals a An interchange is inadradical and recognized difference. from the with the name of Joseph (ver. : 18. where they frequently occur {^eXco much oftener than ^ov\ofj. (pTj ^iXmv) 19. X David the king {tov JavelS rbv ^aa-i\ea..ai).

but whose power to do so depends on your consent. That is to say. sometimes a little stronger. « Olynth. vncUnation. " I would not {ovk e^ekov) receive the ransom for the maid {i. Thus. lic Joseph. and expresses a ^purpose or determination or decree. whether one desires to do a thing himself or wants some one else to do it. 0e\eiv indicates the impulse of the will . Then the question arose What should he do ? On this he thought. I.. It is in your power to determine whether or not yon will listen to those who desire to advise you. See. though the words are often interchanged... The student is referred to the article fioixeabai in Schmidt's Synonymik der Griechischen Sprache.] MATTHEW. vii." ii. 1). be thou cleansed. the execution of which is. "Eachael would not (ijSeXe) be comforted .Ch. its tendency. Again " If the gods will it {BeXaai) and you wish it : {^ov\ij(T^e)" (Demosth. power under the (assumed) circumstances — full dlscussioft of the olasBieal usage would require an essay." i. BovXea^ai expresses wish. " obstinately and positively refused. needs careful re- . So Demosthenes " It is fitting that you should ie : willing (iSeXeiv) to listen to those who wish (fiovXofiivwv) to advise " (" Olynth. the will urging/ on to action.. ^i\a. QiKetvie. /3oi/Xeo-^at. 112). running into the sense of pm. " D. viii. or disposition. also. resohed {'^eXav) to spare her this exposure. the art. at 13 priate Matt. 18. to desire. in Grimm's critical * A Clayis Nov.." i. BovXeaSai can always be rendered by SiXew. BovXea-Sai is to ha/oe a mind. ii.pose. 20).* In the New Testament. Test. iii. however.e. vol. 602. I refused to receive). denotes the active resolution. Matt. p. in the power of him who wills. but SeXeiv cannot always be expressed by fiovXea'Aai. 3. The distinction. the same distinction is recognized. vision. Thus. is classical writers throughout ' and in the New Testament. therefore. 16. Agamemnon says. or is believed to be. having the right and to make Mary a pubexample. the stronger word. which substantially maintained wiU. "7 is Bom. GeKeiv. because I greatly desire (fiovXofiai) to have her at home " (Homer. as observed above.." or at by the abundantly illustrated in Homer. His classification of meanings.

Mark vi. ix. 9). Luke i. so ver. Acts xviii. John 5. " Whosoever a desire or wish on God's part. Tit. Acts xix. I will that thou that thou affirm " . having thought {€v^vixr]^evTo<. which are cited under this head (as by Grimm) may fairly be interpreted as implying something stronger than a wish notably Mark xiv. . and determining to do so. of Christ in Gethsemane. however. xiv.ai. 39. 30. " lie was disposed to pass " {^ovXo/jievov). 19 . . L and. '' give me" (^eXw). " ^¥ill ye that I release " (. : 14 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. It was given to is the purpose of the life. etc. Others of the disciples had decided to leave Christ said to the twelve. of your father your will is set to do. (h) decree or determination of the will. 2. etc. is determined to do God's will. 48. xii. 17. two words are Some instances of the interchanged use of the the following: Mark xv. 24. "Pilate willing" {^iXtov). AVhen he would have put liim to death " {$i\(ov). 21. 6. viii. will be great. xviii. 17. 18 . 44. John xvii. 62. 21 . Very many of the passages. If any man sets his that your determination ? John viii. 22)." . 20. 15. " Whom will ye that I release " (. " The centurion willing . 38). 18 . " I will " {^ov\oiJ. Of God iv. compare Luke xxiii. 24 v. Of Christ (Matt. Acts xxiv. The name of the infant John was referred to Zacharias' decision. (Matt. " lie W02dd have passed hy them " (r/^eXe) "Paul would have entered" {0ovXo/xevov). A ^oish or desire. . 15. 16. XV. 21 Festus. Acts xviii. " Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem ? John vi. 43. New Testament 3eX(o occurs in the following senses A . xii. xxvii.. The lusts will. 36.8ouXe<rSe) Matt.). having the power xxi. 67. 27. 8. In the 1. his dency). [Ch. (c) to gratify the Jews. the Jews to decide what prisoner should be=released.). John vii. John xvii. (a) 1 Cor. " Will ye also go away ? " Is Jesus. iii. who has the right to decide. "Pilate willing" (/SouXo/iew?) . Surely Christ does more than desire that those whom the Father has given him shall be with him. . he was minded {e^ovXrjSr}) to mind molined (tenput her away secretly. 43. Mark vi. says to Paul. xxvii. . It Matt.JeXere) . 25. xxvii. 7 Rom. 3 Of men (Acts xxv. Acts " (fiouXo/iei/os) Matt. Our Lord would hardly have used what thou wilt in so feeble a sense as that of Mark x." expresses more than the desire for greatness.

. Samaritan villages if he so wills. Luke xx.. 17)." vii. defame her).. Thus committing the office of a father to The naming of the unborn Messiah would accord with popular notions. . " They crucify the Son of God afresh. 30 xxv. which imparts to the desire or inclination a decretory force. The word occurs in Coloss. 17 John xxi. a. 21). 27 xix. " Whether Apollo will (/SoOXerat) ward off the plague " " Apollo ^uilled (/SouXero) victory to the Tro{" II. display. Indinaiion or disposition (Acts xviii. 2 Cor. 1 Cor. element of free choice or self-determ.nd put him to an open shame. 67). Thus. 21 Matt. 15. . 8 John xii. Stronger. we might expect ^eXetv but in this use of ^ov\ofiai there is an implied emphasis on the . but only with reference to the gods. publish her Tyn. . (See note there. ii.. 18 . 28 xvii. xi. 12 Mark x." the same call. .: Ch. iv. 15 Luke 54.) Bov\o/Mai occurs in the following senses 1.. with the idea of purpose (1 Tim. . . A word {n-apaBeiyfiaTi^co) appears in Heb. 20 Matt. if not all of these cases. 35. 46 Matt. A i. ." i. also. i. 38 3." compound of sion. . xii.) In the sense of wish or desi/re may fairly be cited 2 Cor. Gal. 7 1 Cor. . 20 xxiii. 43). In the divine will it is inherent. xvi. 2. . 21 . I] MATTHEW. 11 Heb. . to expose Mary to public shame (Wye. 22 Matt. 4 . . 12 Matt. (See. xii. It is for Jesus to command . 18 . therefore. iii. iv. 15). xxvii. John xv. in whom to wish is to will. To make a public example {Beiyfiaria-ai). vi. 38 Luke viii. to exhibit. vii. Here. liking (Mark xii. .ination. vi. The Eabbis had a saying concerning the six 21. . In most. 9 James . . xiii. 6. 25 xix. vi. Shalt Joseph. The word is kindred to heiicvviJLi. 12. fire upon the . . 22 xxviii. ix. This element is in the human will by gift and consent. point out. . of the victo- rious Saviour displaying the vanquished powers of evil as a general displays his trophies or captives in a triumphal proces" He made a show of them openly. At this point the Homeric usage may be compared in its occasional employment of ^ovXofiai to express determination. jans" ("II.

I whose names were given before their birth " Isaac. which was altered by Moses into Jehoshua {Jehovah{pur) Salvation) (Num." Jesus (Itjo-ow). ing him. 11-16). . xii. Its original and full form is Jekoshua. Thus in this priestly Jeshua we have a type of our " Great High-Priest. redeem and restore this erring people and in token thereof he commands that the accused priest be clad in clean robes and crowned with the priestly mitre. days. who with Zerubbabel took so active a part in the re-establishment of the civil and religious polity of the Jews on their return from Babylon. therefore. compare God. and who appears in the vision of Zechariah (ch. and of the Jewish history Joshua. 42). the son of Nun. clad in filthy garments. 14). but as the representative of sinning and suffering Israel. the high-priest. xiii. v. The meaning of the name. Satan The Lord rebukes him. The Ezra priestly office of Jesus is foreshadowed in the high-priest Jeshua. was originally {saving). the son of Nun. in the military aspect of As God's revelation to his saving work (Apoc. the successor of — Jeshua. and Jeshua stands not only for himself. which had been borne by two illustrious individuals in former periods Moses. Under Joshua the enemies of Israel were conquered. . 13. Ishmael. whom Moses. the successor of Moses. named Hoshea . blessed be His name. : [Ch. Josiah. 47 ii. • we enter into rest. under accusation of Satan. and the So Jesus leads his people established in the Promised Land. iii. 2). becoming by contraction Joshua or Jeshua. Solomon. is a type of Christ in his office of captain and deliverer of his people. xix. 16). touched with the feeling of our infirmities. 11 John iv. and the name of the Messiah.16 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Moses was in the character of a law-giver. Joshua. bring quickly in our may the Holy One. Joshua.. his revelation to Joshua was in that of the Lord of Hosts (Josh. finds expression in the title Saviour. He is the leader Followof the faith which overcomes the world (Heb. 2) in court before . people in the fight with sin and temptation. applied to our Lord (Luke i. The Greek form of a Hebrew name. ii. and declares that he will is defeated.

Kev. He will rebuke the malice and cast down the power of Satan.'' humbling himself and becoming " obedient even unto death " (Philip. forbearing love. Amen" (Apoc. was Joshua (compare Kom. the sinful. and his patient." but " empties himself. The great truth which he has to teach is the love of Jehovah to Israel as expressed in the relation of hushand. to be priests unto his God and Father to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. ii. His royal robes are left behind. and which is generated — . He counts not " equality with — God a thing to be grasped at. " unto him that loveth us.) and means saving. that we might become in the righteousness of priest God him " (2 Cor. as manifested in his dealing with an unfaithful and dissolute wife. v. and the demon-ridden. in Kev. He pleads for sinful man before God's throne. L] MATTHEW. His kingdom shall be a kingdom of priests. 6. It is no mere fancy which sees a suggestion and a foreshadowing of the prophetic work of Jesus in the economy of salvation. 25. and furious passions cowardly braggarts and deniers like Peter. 6.). He assumes the stained garments of our humanity. He is at once and victim. He will behold him " as lightning fall from heaven " (Luke x. He who " knew no sin " is " made to be sin on our behalf. . He will redeem him. trying conclusions with him upon the victims of his malice the sick. and made us to be a kingdom. Kev. by his own sad domestic experience. 7. He foreshadows Jesus in his pointed warnings against sin. placing his hope in God's personal coming as the refuge and strength of humanity in the purification of human life by its contact with the divine.). " confronting Satan in the wilderness . which we in a third name closely akin to the former. an idea which pervades his prophecy. and the song of his redeemed church shall be.Ch. in a peculiar sense. persecutors like Saul of Tarsus. charred brands— and make them witnesses of his grace and preachers of his love and power. 21). rebellious wills. i. Soshea. his repeated offers of diving mercy. ix. the prophet of grace and salvation." taking the "form of a servant. and loosed us from our sins by his own blood. the original name of know in our English Bible as Hosea. 18). He will raise and save and purify men of weak natures. whose soul he 2 . 5. IT in all points tempted and tried like as we are . He is.

which is God." 631. " Devise a device. ^ thou shalt call." ix. some virgin or other. as they shall come to the practical knowledge that God will indeed dwell with men upon the earth. infrom the Old Testament. Emphatic and . The faithfulness of the prophetic teacher thus blends in Hosea. The virgin (?. [Ca i. and with nothing in us to love. to miss a mark. 501 . Sophocles.* In this word. comment is furnished by Isa. with the compassion and sympathy and sacrifice of the priest.' who throws his spear and fails to strike his adversary.. the writers In quotations the prophet habitually use the preposition hia {through) to denote the instrum. To protect and save. living prophecy of the long as he tenderness of God toward sinners a picture of God's love for us when alien from him. thereas a warrior fore.. So here the prophecy in ver. * See Homer. He (avT09). immanuel (Hebrew. but it shall come to naught speak a word.apTdva>. . " Oedipus Tyranuus. So he was one continnal. Through stead of ly. while they re- serve viro (by) to express the primary agency of God himself. : A . but was communicated to men through his prophet. and quotes the prophecy men shall call in a form suited to its larger and final fulfilment his name Immanuel. Note the demonstrative force 23. it is The original of Isaiah 14) has she shall call . viii. " For it is He that shall save his people. 21. Not. They In Yev. but it shall not standj for shall call (leaXea-ova-iv.entality through which God works or speaks. so rightly in Eev. (8to).)- I. . as in our Lord. Godis with us). succeeded in rescuing from sin and death (Hosea lived. Akin to a/j.-iii.issing the 1/rue end and scape of our lives.) (vii. of the article. phases. So the Eev. pointing to a particular person." Their sins (dfiapTiwv). 23 was spoken hy the Lord. rightly.IS WOED STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. but Matthew generalizes the singular into the plural. " Iliad. or as a traveller who misses his way. 22. 10. sin one of a large gi-oup which represent sin under different is conceived as a failing and m. irap^evo<s).

6). and through David himself. and anointed king by Samuel (com35). and was the ancestress of David (i. astrology. probably from The birthplace of him who calls himself the Bread vi. 20) by his helpful and saving presence with his people in their sorrow." Matt. A among the Persians and Medes. How( ever this may be. to all who had devoted themselves to those sciences. 5. without disIon (Dan. port of his message ia the names of shalal-hash-'baz {speed-prey). Wycliffe renders hmgs. tinction of country. I am with you alway.] MATTHEW. They were said to be kings. The or his sleep [rod . ciari. under the form magihas come to be naturalized in many of the languages of Europe. of Life (John human ancestry through Ruth. or Magi {fid'foi). House of Bread. and Immanuel God is with us). Many absurd traditions and guesses respecting these visitors to our Lord's cradle liave found their way into popular the practice of magic and jugglery . "Arose from his sleep. and identified with the history of his who wa§ liere married to Boaz. its fertility.Oh. nite article the sleep in which he had the So Eev. a promise of God's presence and succor. and their struggle with death. iiirvov). The force of the defivision. n. and . Bethlehem. xxviii. Hebrew. a . is God. 48). priestly caste Wise men.. frequently accompanied with itself principally medicine. their conflict with sin. a reminder of God's mercy to Israel in captivity. however. city of Da/oid). who was born there. pare Luke ii."" 19 with US Some suppose that Isaiah embodied the pur- his children: Maherwarning of the coming of the fierce Assyrians Shear-Jashub {a remnant shall return). and. the promise of the name is fulfilled in Jesus (compare " Lo. which occupied with the secrets of nature. ii. and Daniel became president of such an order in BabyThe word became transferred. it belief and into Christian art." CHAPTER 1. 11. which were. II. 24.

2. The word involves the whole office of the shepherd guiding. and in part the dignity. ing that the first temple. IL they were said to be representatives of the three families of Shem. who are not mentioned. Ham. Besides the high-priest in actual oflBce. The east {avaroXri). Balthasar. STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. while the second temple. there might be others who had been his predecessors. Luke i. All the chief priests.'^v. said to have been discovered in the twelfth century by Bishop Reinald of Cologne. guarding. 78. since the elders. "light did sprirtg wp" {aviTeiKev). Shall be shepherd of (Troifiavel). irom troi/j. rightly. but to an extraordinary convocation of all the high-priests and learned men.. iv. a shepherd. "The Lord — . instead of shall rule. folding. 16. or damn. It may possibly have included the heads of the twenty-four courses of priests. which stood four hundred and twenty The referyears. and their three skulls. which stood about four hundred and 4. and who continued to bear the name. To distinguish it from Bethlehem in the territory of Zebulon. Hence appropriate and often applied to the guides and guardians of others. as well as feeding. So Eev. The kindred verb occurs in Matt. the word is translated dayspring. had more than three hundred high-priests. the risim^. had only eighteen high-priests from first to last. Homer calls kings " the shepherds of the people. and therefore one of them is pictured as an Ethiopian ." To David the people said. belonged to this . priest to A ten years. ence here is not to a meeting of the Sanhedrim. and Melchior. their names are given as Caspar. and Japhet. Land of Judah. [Ch. or when it rose. We should expect only owe chief be mentioned but the oflElce had become a lucrative rabbi is quoted as sayone. In mentators prefer to render at its rising. . are exhibited in a priceless casket in the great cathedral of that city.20 three in WORD number . 6. and frequently changed hands. Some comLiterally.

xxxiv. . 11-31).. Ps. which is in the midst of the throne. Eev. Ixxviii. 11). Better learned aG(yurately.''^ . and leadeth them out. the star appeared (tw -xp^vov rov ^aivo/ihov sta/r. He goeth before them. . to receive an answer. xlviii. So the Eev. 1 Isa." : . 3. (g Sam. 12. 4 " He calleth his own sheep by name. . gj Thou shalt feed (as a shepherd) my people Israel 2 . 16. Sh&pherd of Souls (1 Pet. 25). he is In Apoc. he ascertavned to the last point . and the sheep follow him. V. iro^fiaive. but with a sceptre of iron. not with the pastoral crook. " Search out ca/refully " {uKpi|8ffl?). The idea is. for diUgenily. . The verb What time the cunepofs). compare Ps. Inquired diligently (^Kp^/Saxrei'). . 15 . is formed from aKpo<s. 11 Ezek. Rev. rule is . God is often called a shepherd (Gen. originally means one who goes before. 17. The verb means to who asks or consults : hence. tvme of the appearvng Herod asks. shall ie their shepherd (Apoc. or leads the way.). shepherd (compare xix. 8. tend). 20 Ixxx. 4) .arujMvTe<i). " How long does the star '^ mahe itself visible since its rising in the East f rather than At what time did it appear f " Being warned {yjpi]p. Pet.. TO-72). calls him the said to thee. as here. II. therefore. xxiii. 20). since the word nyov/ievo'. " And answer taken in sleep. Compare ver. xl. V. Peter. In this verse the word governor is in harmony with the idea of shepherding. give a response to one . Finally. and suggests Christ's words about the good shepherd in John x." . ii.] MATTHEW. Jesus will perpetuate this name and oflSce in heaven among his redeemed ones. for "the Lanib. ii. 27. and in the Epistle to the styled the great Shepherd of the sheep. at the point or end. The word therefore implies that the wise men had sought counsel of God and so Wycliffe. vii. Jesus calls himself the good shepherd (John x. 15) but Christ will shepherd his enemies. who is bidden by Jesus to shepherd hie sheep (John xxi. denoting the exactness of the information rather than the diligence of the search for it. 1 Ixxvii. in the passive. literally to and the Chief Shepherd (1 Hebrews (xiii. Oh. Lit.

In Isa. " In those days. xxii. 11. liii. but always points back to a preceding date in this case to the date of the settlement of the family at Nazareth. of an upstart sprout-town. a Hazarene. 8 Ixix. is In those days. future then for Israel. The very name of A term of contempt (compare John In Hebrew it meant sprout or sAoot. III. indefinite. CHAPTER 1. The prophets. 1). represented by the oak. nized and honored son of the royal house of David. a stock remaineth " (Isa. 3. several prophetic statements. some time during the nearly thirty years since that settlement John.e. . . He was not a lofty branch on the summit of a stately tree not a recog. The is indi- 23. the fate of Assyria is described imder the figure of the felling of a cedarThe figure of the tree is continued at the opening of forest. Male children. Isa. xi. The phrase . and so Eev.. 46. vii. now fallen. The cedar throws out no ch. so the Messiah. the Compare German GoUhold. as indicating not any one prediction in particular. concerning the Jewish state. 9). 19 . but a summary of the import of . such as Ps. 52). 2. and Nazareth suggested insignificance. The fact that Jesus grew up at Nazareth was sufficient reason for his being despised. vi. but an insignificant sprout from the roots of Jesse . There is a " There shall come forth a shoot from the stock of Jesse. The name is prophetically given to the Messiah (Isa. and a twig from his roots shall bear fruit. the second David. 13 compare Job xiv. 34. A Nazarene. x. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. but the oak is a tree " in which. 4. Note the plural. shall arise out of great humiliation. as cated by the masculine form of the article. 6.22 16." As David sprang from the humble family of Jesse. meaning God has dealt graoiomly. [Ch. after the felling. i. IIL children {tov9 TratSa?)." i. 33. Hebrew. xi. fresh suckers.

primarily. 10). Wilderness {ttj ipi]/j. These latter ideas. Repentance. with . which may be denoted by after and diferent / so that Merdthe whole compound means to think differently after. and the verb percevve. Paul distinguishes between sorrow (Xvirr)) and repentance {fMerd" Godly voia). {irapaylverai. to tion fMerd. thekingdom of the heavens An expression peculiar to Matthew. ." Preaching {KTjpvaawv). vii. It is a kingdom The kingdom of heaven." 2. an after-thought. III. Repent (/ieravoetTe). The more usual one is the kingdom of Ood. .Ch. ") says. grade on grade. in clefts and basins. sorrow worketh repentance" (2 Cor. has been rightly defined as " Such a vii-tuous alteration of the mind and purpose as begets a like virtuous usage.] MATTHEW. you observe a patch of corn. ii.^).. The verb is used in called the historical ^esent.. giving vividness to the narrative. In tliis com- pound the preposition combines the two meanings of time and change. A word compounded of the preposivokto. Lit. have been imported into the word by scriptural lie in it etymologically nor by primary usage. then. (jj ^offCKeia twv olpavmv). 23 Came what is Rev. Hepworth Dixon (" The Holy Land man. cometh." Sorrow is not. a clump of olives. after. as is popularly conceived. See on 2 Pet. and puts the one as the outcome of the other. Even in the wilderness nature is not so stern as Here and there. the primary nor the prominent notion of the woi'd. as Carlyle (" French Revolution ") : " But now also the National Deputies from all ends of France are in Paris with " In those days appears John the Baptist.). 5. Not suggesting absolute barrenness but unappropriated territory affording free range for shepherds and " their flocks." their commissions. a change of mind which issues in regret and in change of conduct. different from the former thought then. a single palm. voia [repentance) is therefore. and on the liillsides. and to think. however. and do not change in the life and practice. as the result of perceiving or observing.

Pointing. 18 Jas. denot ing what to happen at once and . v. John's personality is thrown into shadow behind human teacher of the highest moral aim. Is laid {jcu-raC).) 9. These stones. See on Mark vii. Voice. 10-15. . its NEW TESTAMENT. " Our Lord's Divinity "). cast. 1. ' to shroud his his own insignificant person beneath the majesty of message " (Liddon. An imdvoidual confession possi. but is lying. king. its [Ch. as " She layeth her hands Is to the spindle " (Prov. Not. All its senses are only different sides of the same of heaven because end. It is the combination of all rights of Christian citizenship in this world. is applied. so that participation therein rests only on faith in Jesus Christ. The words imply : An open confession. its laws. They were baptized while in the act of confessing. Such a teacher would represent himself as a mere voice. 16). IIL and and privileges all destiny of In the teaching of Christ and in the apostolic are heavenly.' crying aloud in the moral wilderness around him. as he spoke. 3. 4. That confession was connected with baptism. and eternal blessedness in the next. without any national limitation. — great idea —the subjection of What would be all things to God in Christ. is graphic. hewn down and is The present tense certainly. xxxi. writings tlie kingdom of the Messiah is the actual consummation of the prophetic idea of the rule of God. 6. entrusted with a great spiritual misthe duty of a merely " and lesson for the benefit of mankind ? The example of John Baptist is an answer to this inquiry. Were baptized {i^aTrri^ovro). and anxious. 19). 10. Confessing their sins {i^ofioXoyovftevot ra? dfiapTia<.24 WORD STUDIES IN THE its origin. Christ. and on the moral renewal which is conditioned by the same. 2. avr&v). sion St. not a private one to John (e'f. bly a specific one. beyond aught else. compare Acts xix. to the pebbles on the beach of the Jordan. (See Luke iii. the character its subjects. institutions.

14. is in his hand.. according to the tests of his kingdom and Gospel. properly a circular space.* Throughly cleanse tion Bid {through). is Used also of t?ie disk of the sun or moon. in it the agent's mind. was. the prepo- sition {hid) intensifies the verb.. or of a halo. 16. receiving the worthy into his kingdom and consigning the unworthy to destruction (compare Matt. and Romans. » 25 bear. properly. among the Jews... Fan. Greeks. He to sbremuous protest against Jesus' baptism by him. John puts himthe position of the meanest of servants. Kev. it overlooks the force of the imperfect tense. which a transcript of the Greek word. to bring and take them away. Compare to unloose. which expresses past action. self in To well as to fasten or to take them off. Hence : Eev. V. was moved Again. is farmer beginning to the other. The picture is of a farmer at his threshing-floor. as 11. The whole metaphor represents the Messiah as separating at the evil from the good. As in so many instances. in. . Ch. but had was for himdervng him. 30 39^3. misses the meaning of the verb. referring * Floor. and Tynd. 12. Forbad The A. Hisyan. that is. 48-50).) obsolete form of thoroughly. has corn-floor). that is his winnowmg-shovel or forJc. interpret. 22 " Jn a dove (wo-ei Trepurrepav). xiii. floor (Wye. 7. the business of slaves of the lowest rank. As not. Throuffhh/ {retained by the force of the preposiIn that preposition lies the picture of the {SiaKoSapiel). as some descent — In the form of a dove. cleansing as one side of the floor. either in progress or in process of conception. and with it he throws up the mingled wheat and chaff against the wind in order to separate the grain. the area of hard-beaten earth on which the sheaves are spread and the grain trodden out by animals. following "Wye. Mark i. would home hindered him. to m mind prevent him John did not forbid Jesus.] MATTHEW. and represents strong feeling on John's part. {Sieiemkvev). and merely to the manner of the swiftly and gently as a dove (compare Luke iii. and working through he goes. S\<i>ya. To lea/r the sandals of their masters.

walls of the Cathedral of Monreale. sents him with the double-headed dove perched upon his The symbol is explained by Elisha's prayer that a shoulder." " Thus the comparison is not between the Spirit and the dove. and the supposed proximity of the Spirit to the lower waters without touching them. i. and says that the passage treats of the supposed distance between the upper and the lower waters. therefore." He goes on to say that the dove was not the symbol of the Holy Spirit. 16. the Holy Spirit was presented under the symbol of a dove. repreprophet Elisha.: 26 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. but of Israel. " just as a dove broodeth over her young without touching them. the double-headed dove is the peculiar attribute of the window in Lincoln College." Dr. The dove was an ancient innocence. well as Spirit. HI- symbol a bodily form. but between the closeness with which a dove broods over her young without touching them. of purity and sacrifice by the It was the only bird allowed to be offered in In Christian art it is the symbol of the Holy Levitical law. nmong the Jews. near Palermo. 2.ic illustration of the descent of the Holv . From a very early date the dove brooding over the waters was the type of the opening words of Genesis. " If. Edersheim (" Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah ") vigorously contradicts this. leaning forward from the circle of From beneath him issues the heaven with extended arms. as a dove"). And mad'st it pregnant. where the Spirit of God is said to brood over the face of the waters. and a passage is cited from the Talmud . represents a waste of New waters." In art. which was only three fingerThis is proved by Gen. An odd fresco on the choir. dove is descending upon the waters. " The Spirit of God moved on the face of the waters like a dove. adopted by onr Lord in Matt. It has been asserted that. breadths. r<M>im. divine ray along which the So Milton "Thou from the first and with mighty wings outspread Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast abyss Wast present. and that in his Old Testament manifestations as in those of the Testament. [Ch. x. A double portion of Elijah's spirit might rest upon him. and Christ above. Oxford.

retains devil for both words. where it renders as A. ." it CHAPTER 1. iii.Ch. Lit. The Devil. Y. loaves. These stones were perhaps those " silicious accretions.. another word. It is Theword means calumniator. blance may have been present to Christ's mind in his words at Matt. would lie in the acknowledgment of Jesus as the ideal typical Israelite. is always with the article and never plural. iii. of God. The Devil {tov Bui^6\ov). and its more common neuter form 8ai/u. ." which assume little loaves of bread. The Son phatic. unfortunately. Satan. ii." Bread (ajOTot). both of which should be translated demon. 9. may have added force to the temptation. gods.. This should be distinguished from 3 {false accusers). and against the protest of the American revisers. in 1 Tim. and which were represented in legend as the petrified fruits of the cities of the plain. By its position in the sentence Son is em- " If thou standest to God in the relation of Son." and the " Virgin the exact shape of Mary's peas " and the black and white stones found along the shores of the Lake of Galilee have been transformed into traces of the tears of Jacob in search of Joseph. The very appearance of these stones. and were apostles. 18. and Tit. also wrongly rendered devil in the A.).loaves or cakes. 70) . 27 Spirit with the visible appearance of a dove must be sought for. vii. By a similar fancy certain crystallizations on Mount Carmel and near Bethlehem are called " Elijah's melons. cast out by Christ and his Eev.] MATTHEW. V. The Acts xvii. In such cases never with the article. 11 {slanderers) and in 2 Tim. the representative of his people. 3.6vi. IV. sometimes applied to men. . as to Judas (John vi.ov. So Wye. the god of this world (o Sid^oXo<. slanderer. meaning the unclean spirhaifxcov. except in its which possessed men. like the bread for which the faint body hunThis resemgered. lY.

The word may be used in the familiar English sense of the wing of a building. the northern and southern. which is the popular meaning of pinnacle.elists use of our Lord's taking his chosen apostles to the X7ii. and that though he had the When addressing man. a diminutive of pinna or penna (a wing). Nothing in the word compels us to infer that Christ was placed on the top of a tower or spire. consisting of a nave and two aisles. 28). li is written. running across the entire space from the eastern to the western wall. In answer to Satan he says." a magnificent colonnade. The holy city. that " while the valley of itself was very deep. Mount of Transfiguration (Matt. 6. Pinnacle. The perfect tense. which is also a diminutive {a little wing or winglet).). and stands written. of which the southern was the higher and grander that being the direction in which the chief enlargement of the temple area made by Herod was practicable. It is WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. scripture. Luke ix. / say unto you. 1 . That enlargement. and its bottom could scarcely be seen when one looked down from above." npon his ministry are an assertion of Jesus after his entrance fulness the authority of scripture. the side of). was effected by building up walls of solid masonry from the valley below. implies It is Talceth {vapaXafi^dvei. from the Latin pvnnacuhim. "It has The first recorded words of been written. [Ch. 2 . The preposition irapd {with. Josephus further says. is a literal translation of irrepvyiov. was erected the " royal portico. . Mark ix. insomuch that. At the extremity of the southern side of the area. the additional vastly high elevation of the portico was placed on that height. but said. according to Josephus. Herod's temple had two wings. Matthew alone calls Jerusalem by this name. Pinnacle of the temple (to Trrepvytov roviepov).28 4. hy taketh along with himself. our Lord seldom quoted of the Spirit. or conditcteth. if any . written {yeypaTTToi). the same word which all three evano. IV. in accordance with the general intent of his gospel to connect the old economy with the new.

sacred place) signifies the whole compass of the sacred inclosure.Ch." Archbishop Trench aptly remarks. courts. — "When we read. as on a litter or platform. 21." . which means the temple itself the " Holy Place " and the " Holy of . he quotes. also rendered temple. Again {m-aXiv). In Matt. altar of incense stood. as if he had said. where it joined Solomon's Porch. va6<:. and other subordinate buildings and should be carefully distinguished from the other word. 7. 51. the holy place in which the Holies. " the promise which you quote must be explained by another passage of scripture.) is more and gives a different picture from the A." This. courts. 9). meaning on the other hcmd^ with reference to Satan's it is written (ver. he would be giddy. 29 one looked down from the summit of the roof. while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth. it is the veil of the vao'i which is rent the veil separating the holy place from the holy of holies. the court of the Gentiles. correct. Emphatic.. combining the two altitudes in one stretch of vision. So it is from the lepop. of Christ teaching in the temple (Iepov) we must refer it to one of the temple-porches.. on this occasion. 6) . On their hands (so Eev. xxvii. that Christ expels the money-changers and cattle-merchants.in comparison with the northern wing.] MATTHEW. In their hands (eVt). as a well-known locality. lit." in the foreIepov In John ii. for instance. IV. with its porticos. There lies in it ' ' . " In that It is written again of Christ. The people were " without. was so emphatically the wing of the temple as to explain the use of the article here. In the account of Zacharias entering into the temple of the Lord to burn incense (Luke i. quite independent of that particular scripture which. lies a great lesson. at the southeastern angle. V. 6. the tenyple of his hody. and from which the view into the Kedron valley beneath was to the depth of four hundred and iifty feet. would be obviously inappropriate. The word temple {iepov. or of the use to which he turns it. the word is vao^. in : lifted on their hands. The scene of the temptation may have been (for the whole matter is mainly one of conjecture) the roof of this portico.

So. [Ch.30 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The small lake of Gennesaonly thirteen miles long and six wide in its broadest part. not truth to them . belongs to Death as the realm of his government. 16. 23 ix. ret. to surrender a city or a person. .. completes. This land..^ must be of continual application for indeed what very often are heresies but one-sided. but 12. to gi/ve. proclaim (see on New Testament for the proclamation of the Gospel but confined to the pri- mary announ£ement of the message and facts of salvation. iv. 35 xi. which should have kept them in their due place. Death is personified. often with the accompanying notion of treachery. exaggerated truths. The verb means. The Rev. 1). rightly renders. and explains itself. duty of a herald 2 Pet. without the balance of the counter-truth. error. ' on It is written agaim. was delvuered . which 18. as it balances. and Thus the . delusion. 5). truths rent away indeed from the body and complex of the truth. first. the secret of our safety and defence against all distorted use of Only as we enter into the isolated passages in holy scripture.. unity of scripture. and con- expressed by htlda-Keiv {to Both words are used in Matt. hence to cry The standing expression in the ." Was cast into prison {irapeho^). excess or defect retort. therefore. co-ordinated with other truths or subordinated and so. any more. or hand over to another. To preach ii. IV. : dwelt. is . teach). and not including continuous instruction in the cmitents nections of the message. 17. are we warned against error this side or the other. article The people which sat (6 Ka!^/j. {Knjpvara-eiv). The with the participle (lit. The sea {r-qv ^aXacraav). Originally. the people. . whose inhabitants are spiritually dead. {icrjpv^) . tlie one sitting) signifying something characteristic or habitual the people v)hose cha/racteristic it was to sit in darkness.evo<.) Wye. . to discharge the out. uj>. because all such checks are wanting. This thought is emphasized by repetition in a stronger form sitting in the region and shadow of Death.

In ver. 47. being cast over the shoulder. but representing a different Greek word (hUivov) which is the genfor all kinds of nets. as appears in Wmdermere. also. A net (d/i^t/SXijo-rpoi')." 421) calls a whirlwind ^eiav vocrov {a divine visitation). Lunatic. danand even violent (compare the Latin noceo. the d/ra/wnet. eral Still name 21. Froma/i^i. SickThe kindred ness.''^ here prepari/ng the nets for the next fishing. effeminacy or cowardice. gerous. Y.. used by classical Greek writers to denote a garment which encompasses the wearer. to "j)m# to rights. in Holland we have the Zuyder Zee. whether for taking fish or fowl. The description of the ailments to which our Lord's applied 23. xiii. 10).ecGBB&'nlj repairing It • the word means to adjitst. In ver. around. ChrasTnere. suits the other word. mere. as the Konigsee. adjective. fj. Disease is. Disease. IV. and thus easily runs into our invidious moral sense of softness. spreads into a circle The word is sometimes {dfj.a\aK6<. another word occurs at Matt. as Haarlemmer Meer . to . fidkaKiav.Ch. by the same kind of popular usage by which lakes are called See . ISot iD. Homer always represents i/otro? as the akin). to hurt. Torments. a-cvyqvr). and into the physical which the root is visitation of an . Hence the casting-net. 31 is called the sea. rightly transposes sickness and disease for wcro? sickness) carries the notion of something severe. 20." i. throw. therefore.] MATTHEW. power was gains in vividness by study of the words in detail. angry deity. The Latin mare {the sea) likewise becomes meer in Holland. may mean 23. Mending (/caTaprt^oi/Ta?). the (A. See farther on that passage.. So Sophocles (" Antigone. as a couch or newly -ploughed furrow. and jSaXXo). means soft. Sickness. German So. Hence used of the plague which Apollo sent upon the Greeks (" Iliad. etc. Taken. namely. however. Eev. and in England. the word net again occurs. the more correct rendering as expressing something stronger than sickness or debility. and is used of a lake. to which. 24.^l). the Swiss and Trauensee.

24 we have. 45)." or (fiaaavoii). hjMen literally held-together or compressed . rendered by Rev. these a words invariably express simply torment or pain. or moon-strucJc. " All sick people that were taken with divers gripings.). " They offered to him all men having evil. [Ch. for although suffering as a test truth. V. has followed Wye. the Rev. Note the word torments Bda-avo<.. and lam in a strait (Philip i. Then fol(Luke xii." used writer as idea of a mere vehicles of expression test witliout by the any sense of the picturesque or metaphorical element at their core. and Tyn. The word is used of the multitude thronging Compare. Then the idea of suffering which means is emphasized in the word taken (crvvexo/ievov<. is diseases and upon the victims of epilepsy. leaving merely the idea of steering or torture.32 WOBD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. epileptic. on which pure gold. also. is . siokness. Hence. .. and metaphors are continually falling into the rank of words. and the kuI following having the force of and jpartioularly. all an improvement on taTc^n. " Most words. diseases. Wycliffe renders. naturally. when rubbed. then a test or leaves a peculiar trial mark. in which the A. 23). "how am I straitened Christ (Luke viii. kukw exovTat). touchstone. idea of of In ver.. wavTa'. with reference to the real or supposed influence of the changes of the moon (a-eXrivia^ofiivovs. and so all kinds : all that were sick (lit. " and Tyndale. 50) low the specific forms of suffering." Lunatic. a general expression for ailments the who had themselves in evil case. taken with divers sorrows and torments . the list headed again by the inclusive word v6(toi<. noticeable in the use of this This is word and its derivatives throughis out the familiar New Testament New Testament . first. originally meant the " Lydian stone.). tov<." says Professor Campbell (" On the Language of Sophocles") "have been originally metaphors. a test y by torture. Hence the word emphasizes sense of weakness. Thus the peculiarly gradually passes entirely out of 0daavo<. debility rather than of violent suffering or danger. IV.

of Beatitudes " The Sinai of the New Testament. and that rendering might properly be given it in every instance. 3. not because of their holiness.. Blessed (jjMicdpioi). both in the A. and Eev. V." Eev. following Tyndale." that particular mountain in the place where Jesus saw the multitudes. it is important to understand its history. Its root is supposed to be a word meaning great. Delitzsch calls the Mount {to opo<s). Gladstone (" " the chief note of deity with restraints of Homer and the Homeric Age ") Homer is emancipation from the moral law. which is interesting because it is one of those numerous words which exhibit the influence of Christian association and usage in enlarging and dignifying their meaning. Mr. recognizes the force of and renders " the mountain. 2. general. It scarcely varies from this meaning in its frequent applications to the . v. at least fifty-five times in the New ness was not essentially moral.. Though the Homeric gods have not yet ceased to be the vindicators of morality upon earth. The mountain itself cannot be identified. r. A mountain the definite article. When more he was set (/co^to-wTo?). either for or among . literally.Ch. As this word and its cognates occur Testament. when he After the manner of the rabbis. Taught (iBiSaa-Kev). The Kev. since the popular Greek ideal of divine blessedThe gods were hlessed because " In of their power and dignity. 33 CHAPTER 1. and its earlier meaning appears to be limited to outward prosperity so that it is used at times as synonymous with 7'ich. The imperfect signifies iegan to teach. had sete).] MATTHEW." says Grecian gods. It is commonly rendered Messed. they have personally ceased to observe its rules. he seated himself ere he began to teach. when he had sat down (compare "Wye.

first of all. the word was not altoThe Greeks recognized a gether without a moral background. consisting either in wealth. where the main motive is the judgment which waits upon even unwitting violations of natural ties. But in all of them. this prosperity is external. witli quickest speed Thither again to turn From whence we came. . and virtue and its consequent .: : 34 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Thus Sophocles (" (Edipus Tyrannus ") " From hence the lesson learn ye To reckon no man happy till ye witness The closing day until he pass the border Which severs life from death. virtue depends primarily upon knowledge so that to be happy is. there is indicated the the thought of even despair of earthly happiness underlying Hence the word was used the cheerful and mercurial Greek. Still. ward correctness as the essence of happiness. With the philosophers a moral element comes definitely into the word. prosperity which waited on the observance of the laws of natural morality. but by infeerally characterized by superior rior morality. even in its pagan use. V. and an avenging Fate which pursued and punished This conception appears often in the works of the tragedians for instance. sin was the outcome of ignorance. blessed." In its peculiar application to the dead. Only the dead could be called truly as synonymous with dead. in the " OEdipus Tyrannus " of Sophocles." Nevertheless. in conduct they are genthemselves. unscathed by sorrow. Being born. from Socrates onward. to know. The conception rises from outward propriety to in. or power. As virtue depended on knowledge." . force and intellect. [Ch. Never to taste of life : Happiest in order next. And again (" CEdipus at Colonus ") " Happiest beyond compare. or exemption from calamity. It is thus apparent that the Greek philosophy had no conception of sin in the Bible sense. As compared with men. their violation.

v. and of holiness as the final and effectual cure for every woe. and be- conception. it introduces the truth of the Fatherhood of God and the corollary of the family of believers. The pagan word alone the task of representing this higher for happiness {evBaifiovia. and from it. 35 happiuess were therefore the prerogative of the few and the learned. In the Old Testament the idea involves more of outward prosperity than in the New Testament. Thus the word passed up into the higher region of Christian thought. and was stamped with the gospel signet. and its personal told of the Stoic's self-sufficiency. The biblical use of the spiritual. For knowledge as the basis of virtue. good or evil.. which we attach to demon. was therefore represented both in the Old and in the New Testament by this word /jbaKapw. intrusted to it word lifted it into the region of the from the merely intellectual. give place to the pure heart's vision of God.] MATTHEW. Behind it the clear cognition of sin as the fountain-head of all lies misery. it substitutes faith and love. Where hinted at the Stoic's . under of a good genius or daemon) nowhere occurs in Testament nor in the Scriptures. and laden with all the rich significance of gospel blessedness. as its principal element. as distinguished sides. it becomes the express symbol of a happiness identified with pure character. had acquired among the Jews the bad sense Happiness. the Gospel pushes these out with an ideal of a world-wide sympathy and of a happiness realized The vague outlines of an abstract good vanish in ministry. yet it almost universally occurs in connections which the jprotection the New emphasize. having fallen into disrepute because the word daemon^ which originally meant a deity. a sense of God's approval founded in righteousness which rests ultimately on love to God. loose and contradictory of its fundamental positions. learned virtuous. It now takes on a group of ideas strange to the best pagan morality. While the pagan word carries the isolation of the virtuous and the contraction of human sympathy.Ch. or better. ilessedness. tells it Where it of the Christian's poverty of spirit and meekness. Shaking itself from all thoughts of outward good. and therefore of happiFor the aristocracy of the ness. communion with the Father it now in heaven.

22). 3). recognized by both classical and ecclesiastical writers. 10 viii. but only by the free mercy of God. KkaUiv. one who " earns a scanty . Hence it is applied to Lazarus (Luke xvi. 9). and expects its crown in heaven. and' neither of these occurs more than once (Luke 2 Cor. occurring thirty-four times. pagan word the abiding rest imparts patience and courage amid the bitterness and struggle of life no menace of the destiny of evil imposes self-repression . which glories in tribulation. . which not only endures but conquers the world. No vision of flavor of immortality is absent. calls the widow who bestowed her two mites both irevixpciv and Trrm^^. Thus distinguished. 2. Two of them. 9. V.) . vi. weep omdMy Signifying grief maniHence it is often joined with (Mark xvi. 2 the current word iorj)oor. Trevrj'i and "TreviXpo'i. instance (xxi. it now throbs with a holy sensitiveness. it is very graphic and appropriate here.36 ' WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The Christian word hlessed is full of a check on human lusts. and strangling of emotion. the latter being merely a poetic form of the other. and rendered beggo/r. ix. Three words expressing povertj/ are found in the New Testament. which abjectly solicits and lives by alms. The word used in this verse is therefore xxi. and covering every gradation of want so that it is evident that the New Testament writers did not recognize any nice distinctions Luke. 9). 10 James iv. the light of heaven. too deep for concealment. [Ch." cringe. While o Trei'ij? is one of narrow means. . there is a distinction. or and therefore conveys the idea of utter destitution. (See on 2 Cor. 20. pittance. 4. It sternly throws away from itself every hint of the Stoic's asserted right of suicide as a refuge from ills. are kindred terms. Nevertheless. as denoting the utter spirituMl destitution. and emphasizes something which thrives on trial and persecution. (n-Ev^oOi'Te?). human The poor {oi tttcoxoI). . and which cannot be relieved by one's own efforts. They to that mourn fested. and with a monition to rejoice with them From the that rejoice. and to weep with them that weep. tttcbjijo? is allied to the verb Trrcocra-eiv. to crouch. for of meaning which called for the use of other terms. the consciousness of which precedes the entrance into the kingdom of God.

and Herodotus uses it as opposed to anger. "While. Jcindness. . Pindar's king is condescendingly kind. wind. v. The meekness of the Christian springs from a sense of the inferiority of the creature to the Creator. Aristotle defines it as the mean ietween stubiorn a/nger and that negativeness of oharacter which is incapable of even righteous indignation : according to which it is tantamount to equanim. It was used of a horse gentle. sound. but also of the conciliatory demeanor of a demagogue seeking popularity and power. gentle. They express outward conduct merely. As toward God. It was applied to inanimate things. See on John xiv. 16. mildmsss. therefore. The Christian nueehness is based on hutnility. Pindar applies it to a king. gentleness. meekness accepts his dealings without . Another word which. They contemplate relations to m. To the pagan the word often implied condescension. the Christian quality carries the flavor of self abasement. ai-e manifestations toward spiritual relation to men The in the equanimity but these emphasized as outgrowths of a mildness or Jcindness of Plato was best — or Pindar imply no sense of inferiority in those . The equanimity. Plato opposes it to fierceness or cruelty. are founded in self-control or in natural disposition. represented by the classical word. and made the symbol of a higher good. on the contrary.en only. pagan quality is redolent of self-assertion. 37 Shall be comforted.Ch. who exhibit them sometimes the contrary. sickness. and uses it of humanity to the condemned . though never used in a bad sense. 1. 2. These pre-Christian meanings of the word exhibit two general characteristics. which is not a natural quality but an outgrowth of a renewed nature. As a human attribute. the and especially of the sinful creature to the holy God. to the Christian it implies submission. in its manifestation. Christianity has lifted to a higher plane. Plato's demagogue is kindly from self-interest and as a means to tyranny. God. describes an inward quality. The Christian word. mild or hind to the citizens. 5. The Chris- tian quality. as light. The meek (otVpaew). reveals all that heathen virtue —mildness. therefore.ity. and that as related primarily to God.] MATTHEW. Its primary meaning is mild.

mitted ministers of a chastening demanded by the infirmity and while. hecome insipid. as God's peraccepts . Have lost his savour {fiapav^). 17). stupid or {jMoypo's) means to dull. . of animals in a stall. sluggish . which thus shows itself allied to love. it As toward or resistance as absolutely good and wise.. xiv. insipid. It is manifestly appropriate here as expressing the co-nvplete satisfaction of spiritual hunger and thirst. Hence inal. As ascribed by our Lord to himself. applied to the silly . Shall be filled {')(ppra(T^(TovTai). The merciful. its literal {ol elprjvoTroioi). In Apoc. 29.. Our pungency Lord refers here to the familiar fact of salt losing its cites and becoming Book ") Dr. . renders " Blessed be mild men. considering himself. also useless. see on Matt. not as Wye. having : A . under this sense of his own sinfulness. 9. Wye. Should be held to meaning. but seek to bring men into harmony with each other. fiat. murmur man. it is of the birds with the flesh of God's enemies. lest 1-5).38 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 50. Tynd. The ideas of forgiveness he also be tempted (see Gal. and provocation. The verb here used means to play the fool. [Ch. of salt. Wycliffe's rendering. The founders and j>romoters of peace are meant who not only Tceep the peace. 20 Mark viii. The peacemakers 13. 21." very strong and 6. applied to the taste. insult. graphic word. Thompson ("The Land and the the following case " merchant of Sidon. vi. peace-mafers ." forgiving and restoring the erring in a spirit of meekness. and restoration nowhere attach They belong exclusively to Christian to the classical word. is strictly true to the orig- 7. meekness. See on Luke i. 8 Luke ix. V. . xi. opposition. the maintainers ofpeace. peaceable men. xix. The kindred noun mind. fulfilled. renders. originally applied to the feeding and fattening A used of the filling Also of the multitudes fed with the loaves and fishes (Matt. corruption of sin the meek bears patiently " the contradiction of sinners against himself.

caught this correct sense: So shine yov/r light before men. but in the description of this article (Exod. in fact. back to the illustration just used. Key. ix. So Wycliffe has apparently mentioned. Sixty-five houses were rented and filled with salt. I saw large quantities of it literally thrown into the road to he trodden under foot of men and beasts. to loosen down. we read. 2. 31. {KaraXva-ai). " and his seven lamps thereon. where drawn from the sanctuary. v." Often misconceived. to cheat the government out of some small percentage of duty. we have a " candlestick " with a bowl on the top of it. seven lamps ihereoi " and in Zecli. brought over a great quantity from the marshes of Cyprus enough. It was good for nothing.'' even as that lamp just 16. iv. A bushel (t6v /moScov).' " — ' 15. and commonly but house hence the article. Eev. " So. Also a part one in the four times every case. "t/ie bushel. means. let your light shine. dissolve Wye." since the definite article is designed to indicate a familiar object the grain-measure which is found in every house." etc. the imagery the top thereof.. it points see. of the furniture of every house. JAi. but a lamp-stand. in not a candlestick. In Heb. candlestick (TrjvXvxyiav). rightly. To destroy undo. 39 farmed o£ the government the revenue from the importation of salt. "Thou .] . 17. The word. Standing at the beginning of the sentence. 2.. " Let your light shine in such a way that men may ing were.. which occurs in the Gospels and eight times elsewhere. as if the meanshine (ovtoo?). : A the golden " candlestick " of the tabernacle is called Xvxvia. and seven pipes (for the oil) to the lamps which are upon shalt make the is . and the salt next the ground was in a few years entirely spoiled.— Cn. Such houses have merely earthen floors. the siand. This he had transferred to the mountains. . to supply the whole province for many years. 39). MATTHEW. xxv.

After became the common refuse-place of the city. 10). side of the Gospels only at James iii. but for the place of departed spirits. if all men in the world were gathered to abolish the least letter in the law. The word Gehenna. J'ot is [Ca V. adding that. occurs outoffire. desecrated this it " that no man by Ahaz. without reference to their moral condition. It should be carefully distinguished from Hades (aSjy?). the smallest let- alphabet. the idolaMolech. which is never used for the place of punishment. irremovable . JAt. carcasses of animals. is made in the Eev. So Milton ter pass through the fire to "The pleasant valley of Hinnom.. Wye. inclined to satisfy by paying or compromising. Ee v. the world would be destroyed. Jot. From its depth and narrowness. narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem. tittle {ISiTa. 40 WORD STUDIES Hebrew IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. (l'o-^4 ewowj/). rendered hell. into which the bodies of criminals. a 22. it became the symbol of the place of the future pimishment of the wicked. where. ter in the for jod. the type of hell. V. or Yalley of Hinnom. The guilt of changing those little hooks which distinguish between certain Hebrew letters is declared to be so great that. It is the Greek representative of the Hebrew Ge-Hinnom.. This distinction. they would not succeed. 18." As fire was the characteristic of the place. Be thou consenting . and its fire and ascending smoke. if such a thing were done. and all sorts of filth were cast. the hell deep. 25. Josiah formally might make his son or his daugh- Molech " (2 Kings xxiii. more accurately. after the introduction of the worship of the fire-gods trous Jews sacrificed their children to it. Topliet thence And black Gehenna called. it was caUed the Gehenna of fire. He\\-^\re {t7iv jeevvav rod TTvpoi). ignored by the A. Tittle is the little bend or point which serves to distinguish certain Hebrew letters of similar Jewish tradition mentions the letter j?W as being appearance... Kepaia). 6. Agree with to.le well-minded towards.

The former. throws the whole injunction into a picture which is entirely lost . all in the hands of that . the shirtunder-garment or tunic." How the eye might do this may be seen in the previous verse. by restoring the picture in the word. 1 Cor." thee. and Wye." 301. It furnishes an interesting instance of the expansion of a word from a limited and special meaning into a more general one and also of the influence of the Gospel in lifting words into higher and purer associations. it originally signified a rower. a stumhUng-hlock. as distinguished from a soldier." from a-KuvSaXov The words scandal and slanden are both derived . like This word 41. 372. 40. v. and therefore was forbidden by the Levitical law to be retained in pledge over night (Exod. Offend. . the latter. cloke (xtrava. a later bait is placed. (o-zcavSaXi'^et). the mantle. Hence. the stick in a trap on which the and which springs up and shuts the trap at the : touch of an animal. 2 Acts xxvi. " If your eye or j'our hand serve as Christ's meaning here is an obstacle or trap to ensnare or make you fall in your moral walk. restores its true meaning. last. takes care not to see. Denoting a subordinate official. jprovoTcvng. This word for a galley-slime comes at Luke and Paul. which served as a covering for the night. or ampler over-garment. iv. as a herald or an orderly. The word offend carries to the English reader the sense of giving offence. Hence the Kev. 1). " Choephori. 16 29. form of a-KavSd\.. and in this sense applied to Mark as the "minister" or attendant of Paul and Barnabas (Acts xiii. Bengel observes: "He who. a snare. 41 Officer {vTT'npirr)). in a War-galley. generally. Shall compel thee to go {ayyapeva-ei). 27). xxii. The kindred noun is aKcivhdkov. To yield up this without resistance therefore implies a higher degree of concession. " If thy right eye slander Compare JEschylus. offices. causeth to stumble.7]$pov. when his eye proves a stumbling-block. 5). does in reality blind himself. Formed with the verb epeaaa.] MATTHEW. Ifidnov). to stand for the noblest of of a minister of the Lord Jesus (Luke i. 26.. Coat. to row. renders. Ch.

reserved for you and awaitvag you hy the side of your Father. and that is the sense in our Lord's quotation liere. proximity. as including the whole brotherhood of man. 1. and again (Plato. and about to pass and messengers are kept in order where horses A man An oflBcial and carry a letter to the next station. indicatmeans the one near {so the Eng. im^essment make 42. and does not know whether he is a man or an animal. Eev. and as founded in love for man. [Ch. 43. Neighbor {top TrXrjo-lov). so that the .). a post-station. rightly. VI to the English reader. " Republic.. Borrow {Savia-aa-^ai. '' Theaetetus. might be an enemy. hy the side of. The Old Testament expands the meaning to cover national or tribal fellowship. There seems to be no any such custom on the part of almsgivers.42 WORD STQDIBS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.). the reward 2. Of your Father . seizes him. 29 sqq. perhaps to the great deti'iment of liis business. and forces him to go back is travelling. Sound a trumpet trace of (o-aXTrt'o-T??). as its man. CHAPTER YL (irapa). which officials were empowered to of any available persons or beasts on the great lines of road where the royal mails were carried by relays of riders. 3Y3) shows how two adjoining states might come to want each a piece of = neighbor's {rSsv irXTja-iov) land. neighbor Thus a neighbor ing a mere outward nearness. Another word to which the Gospel has imparted a broader and deeper sense. to borrow at interest. implies the source of but the preposition means with. so that the true sense is. everywhere. rushes out." 174) he says that a philosopher is wholly unacquainted with his next-door neighbor.. Literally it nigh-hor). Socrates (Plato. The Christian sense is expounded by Jesus in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke x. Properly." ii. V.. The word is of Persian origin. so that there would arise war between them. The A. to forward royal missives as quickly as possible. and denotes the into service. with.

. as the worshippers of Baal 26 . the aorist. 34) and the Komanists with their pater- nosters and aves. So.) Have their reward {airexovvtv). . to then to hahble or xviii. Temptation {Trevpaa-fiov). 30). It is a It mistake to define this trial of word * as only solicitation to evil. Sin is pictured as a debt. Y. 12. In contrast with the prayer. rightly gives the force of the past tense. iattalogein: properly. renders they hawe received. to send away. The Eev. to (/3aTTaXo7J?o-77T6).. 28. so that there is nothing more to receive. repeat the same formula many times. . See on Luke xii. denoting completed action at an indefinite past forgave. or dismAss. 2. VI. Accordingly the word represents sin both as a wrong and as requiring satisfaction. The preposition aTro indi- Eev. Closet {rafiielov). 7. (compare Luke xi. (See on Luke xxi.* 13.Ch. we home forgiven." Tholnck (" Sermon on the Mount ") qnotes the prayer of ApoUonius of Tyana. cates receipt in full.. Lit." Forgive (a^riKafiev). and the sinner as a debtor (compare Matt. 4). tense means any kind.] MATTHEW. and so. and Eev. — trumpet-shaped chests to receive the contributions of worshippers. strictly. A word formed stammer . xviii. Use vain repetitions prate. 43 expression must be taken as a figurative one for making a disIt is just possible that the figure may have been suggested by the "trumpets" of the temple treasury thirteen play. and of Diana of Ephesus (1 Kings Acts xix. since Christ assumes that he who prays for the remission of his own debts has already forgiven those indebted to him. we are justified in rendering it by a perfect and so Rev. 6. They have received their meed. rightly. " O ye gods. A. " Forgive us our debts. So Wye. 3. is The time. give me the things which are owing to me. Debts (o^eiX'^fiaTo). but where any effect of the action expressed by the aorist remains. in imitation of the sound.

still The Lord here {d//. " every one There is no difficulty in supposing that that is indebted to us. V. as of throwing one's self upon an enemy and this is the prevailing sense in biblical Greek." Christ.).44 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 7) " Eeamine yourselves " (2 Cor. imply palliation cir excuse. xxvi. and another . . neither tempteth he any man " (James i. 25 X. (Acts xvi. xiii. 13 . tlierefore. We cannot 14. 5). 6. and occurs therefore. and hence is found associated with expressions which indicate the consequences and the remedy of sin (Eom. 19 Ezek. 25 . 18 xxix. generally of all situations sin. though he also says. 13 2 Chron. 17. in connection with the mention of forgiveness (Eom. . of going beside a mark. i. indicating reckless and wilful sin (see 1 Chron. " God did tempt Abraham " " This he said to jyrove (Sept. involving guilt. 15. missing. should represent them by aspects of wrong-doing on Matt. V. 6) Paul and Timothy assayed to go to Bithynia Here. contemplating sins in general. 5). Co]. 16. does not. . . [Ch. xviii. occurring only here and at Luke xxiv. 13). it carries the thought of sin as affecting the sinner. occasion for " for God cannot be tempted with evil. 13. different terms expressive of different (see . to yall or throw one^s self beside. In classical Greek the verb is often used of intentional falling. It ii. 16. iv. Gen. 1 without reference to its moral quality. (transgression). v. 1. ii. This word is derived from TrapaTriTrrco. It is a conscious violation of right. and circumstances which furnish an pray God not to tempt us to sin. . Observe the force of the present tense as indicating action in progress : Whenever ye may he fasting. 25 . Trespasses {jrapairTmfiaTa). 21). . xxii. Eph. Thus it has a sense somewhat akin to aiMaprta. iv.) uses an- appears in Luke's version of the prayer. Yl Thus. xiv. 26).apTia<. Unlike 'rrapdfiaa-K which contemplates merely the objective violation of law. Of a sad countenance in the [aKv^panrol). An uncommon word New Testament. other word for sins. Ye fast {vTjaTevTjTe). 1). 17 Eph. . ii. him " (John vi. .

. In classical Greek it also signifies sullenness and affected gravity. but unto God as fasting. Disfigure disfigure. pain. Do ' of the Indies. Thomas and Gondoforus is told by Mrs. {dijjavi^ova-iv). distributed all the treasures Thomas. VI. Luther renders. The beautiful legend of St. suddenly arose and sat upright. hath sent his provost. "Avoid. for workmen well versed in the science of architecture. and he com. and St.) not unto men. Meantime the brother of the king died. 45 Trench ("Studies in the Gospels") explains it by the older sense of the English dreary. and he meditated for him a horrible death. our Lord appeared to him and said. The outward signs of humiliation which often accompanied fasting.. so as to appear (cf)avfj<. and the rather anoint thy head and wash thy face. Lay not up treasures So {(ir) S^a-avpl^ere).v {tkey Ofypear) which is untranslatable into English they conceal : mask their true visage that they may aj>pear unto men. now I will send thee to him. not treasure : Wye. Thomas was at Caesarea. or displeasure. such as being unwashed and unshaven and unanointed. that St. Thomas should be seized and cast into prison. Gondoforus.' And Thomas went.Ch. shall build for two years palace. Abanes. to Lit. The king not treasures. and the king resolved to erect for him a most magnificent tomb but the dead man. Jameson (" Sacred and Legendary Art") " When St.] MATTHEW. meanwhile instead of building a among the poor and sick and when the king returned he was full of wrath. and Gondoforus commanded him to build for him a magnificent palace. after that he had been dead four days. Look not sov/r. "the squalor of the unwashed face and of the unkempt hair and beard. Behold. The idea is rather conceal than may or There is a play upon this word and (j>ava)at. and manded . as expressing the downcast look of settled grief. . allusion is to the : 19." Wycliffe's rendering is peculiar They put their faces out of kindly terms. to seek who him a palace finer than that of the Emperor of Home. treasure you treasures. and gave him much gold and silver for the purThe king went into a distant country and was absent for pose." says Christ.

5. and without a variety of complicated folds. neatly folded once. 16. as opposed to evil or diseased. the ' hath built for thy brother. Knowest thou not that those who would possess heavenly things have little ' . The picture underlying this adjective that of a piece of cloth or other material. but they cannot follow thee thither. and the angels a wondrous palace of gold and silver and preand they said. Tlie man whom thou wouldst torture is a serbehold.' Rust to eat. 22. artplain. consume.' And when the king heard these words. 24. Break through might {Siopva-a-ova-iv). is Single {cnfKov<i). cious stones architect. That which eats." 46 WORD STUDIES ' IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. from the Latin rodo. Compare corrode. \M. used above of the hypocrites conceali/ng their faces. or clay. VL said to the king. which were prepai'ed from the beginning of the world for those who would purchase the possession through faith and charity. semel. flica/re." Also Ezek. pure. dig through. (ySpcocrt?).. care for the things of this earth ? There are in heaven rich palaces without number. once . The same word {d<f)avL^ei. . Hence the idea of simplicity or singleness (compare simplicity from the Latin simplex . This is the palace that Thomas. he ran to the prison. as a thief easily penetrate the wall of a common oriental house of mud The Greek name for a burglar is Toi'xcopvxo'. So. "In the dark they dig through houses. O king. to gnaw. [Ch. in a moral sense. may prepare the way for thee to such a palace. Thy riches. Thimes delve out. a wall-digger. The rust consumes. which Rev. less. . and delivered the apostle and Thomas said to him. Possibly with reference to the double-mindedness and indecision condemned in ver.). vant of God showed to me . to fold).. and therefore causes to disap^pear. So Wye. Here sound.. Doth corrupt is destroyeth. I have been in Paradise. from the verb ^i^pwa-Koa. King Gondof orus. Wye. xii. Compare Job xxiv.

The blind seek for a guide we wander about without a guide. Modern Painters other {erepov). man who is too dim-sighted to discern the road from the ditch. " Now. " who- ever suiiteth thee on thy right cheek. . ap'(MJW^. happens to us all no one understands that he is avaricious or covetous. indicates holding to the one master as against the other. (Euskin. and may empha- Take no thought . Here the word the idea of two masters of distinct or opposite character and interests. to divide This care. however. against Mammon. The preposition di'Tt. v. Seneca. Hold to (dv^e^erat). at which we laugh in her. may feel which but if the ditch appears manifestly to him to be the is which road. i. the word is placed in a group has been abandoned. {(pcoreivov).. on the negative side of blindness" . VI. it is really true that she is unconscious of her blindness.] MATTHEW. which was formerly derived from /iept?. and the road to be the ditch. It may include the ideas of worry and cmxiety. turn to him the other {ttjv dWrjv) i. "). care. the disciples began to speak with other {eTepai<. in one of his letters. incredible as the story seems. what shall become of him ? False seeing is unseeing. distracting the heart from the true object of life." Bengel "As if it were all 23. who had suddenly become blind. and consequently begs her attendant to go elsewhere because the house is dark. At Pengives tecost. tells of an idiot slave in his house.. is fiepip-va.. 47 says. Full of light eye.e. like God and Mammon. and which carries the common notion of ea/rnest thoughtfulness. 39).) tongues different from their native tongues. The rather than numerical distinction {aXKoi^). But you may be sure that this. apart / and was explained accordingly as a dividing fiepi^eo. In thee —darkness. Ch. .e. " 24. the other one of the two (Matt. Implying distinction in quality For example. He who is for God must be 25." " Seeing falsely is worse than blindness. The cognate noun {jiij fiepcfivare). A ..

and therefore Rev. In all these the In other cases sense of worry would be entirely out of place. Rev. is Considerest A stronger word. . and provident care. 20). VIL but not necessarily. Y. 14). This phase of the word is forcibly brought out in 1 Peter. what already there. nay. an alderman of London. ii." which chokes the good seed (Matt. See." : Somers' " Tracts" Queen Elizabeth's reign) : "Queen Cath- erine Parr died rather of thought. V. since thought was then used as equivalent to cmxiety or solicitude. Take thought." with a fatherly. v. that idea is prominent." (" The word has On a : ' ' CHAPTER 3.: 48 size these. rightly translates he not a/nxious. 32). on the ground that it encouraged. should have the "Who will care for your state ? " (Phil." It is uneasiness and worry about the future which our Lord condemns here. Casting[all your ca/re (jiepifjivav. where the A. xii. (/caraj/oe??). VII. Beholdest (/3\67r6i9). " oareth for " That the members the things of the Lord " (1 Cor. "the care of this world. for example. Fresh Revision of the New Testament ") says " I have heard of a political economist alleging this passage as an objection to the moral teaching of the sermon on the mount. for He careth {avrw fii\ei) for you. in this passage. Staring &i from without. && one who does not see clearly. commanded. xiii. as. 22 compare Luke viii. (in " Hawis. vii. appreihendest from withm. was a truthful rendering when the A. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 25). Of Martha " Thou art careful " (Luke x. . So Shakspeare (" Hamlet ") . ' ' The native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of fhovghV And Eacon (Henry was put in YII..) trouble. omxiety) upon Him. [Ch. same care one for another " (1 Cor. 41). ignores the distinction between the two kinds of care. and died with thought and anguish. was made. a reckless neglect of the future. Y." Bishop Lightfoot entirely lost this meaning. tender.

The figure of a splin- oriental one. through. 49 Mote A. The picture is that of a priest throw6. with the explanation. VII. but correcHence thou shalt see clearly. our Lord's saying er's eye. The reference is to the meat offered in sacrifice. requiring clear sight. suggests dust j whereas the figure splinter. See thy brother get rid of it. "Wye. a delicate operation. prolittle poses to remove the ter to represent splinter from his brother's eye. Pearls before swine (jiapyapira<i efiirpoaS-ev t&v xoi-paav). is The word mote. The preposition Std. passage of the it is same material with the beam. Another picture of a rich man wantonly throwing handfuls of Swine in Palestine were at best but small pearls to swine." Ch. To That which is holy (to a^iov). The Lord's words assume that the object of scrutiny is not only nor mainly detection. V. however. A log. (Kap^oi). not only the fault itself. 1 MATTHEW. In explaining the well to remember that the obstruction to sight is same material beam in his eye. not the mote. {SoKov). 3. then Pull out the beam starest at thy brother's little failing. indicating a great fault. The man with a great therefore can see nothing accurately. but to cast tion. The holy thing. Joist. thou shalt see clearly. and one which is literally. something painful or annoying is a common Tholuck (" Sermon on the Mount ") quotes from the Arabic several passages in point. : " How seest thou the splinter in thy broth? and seest not the cross-beam in thine eye Beam 5. as of somecommonly recognized as sacred. Compare the simple verb With the beam in thine eye thou /SXeTret? (heholdest). ver. thing ing a piece of flesh from the altar of burnt-offering to one of the numerous dogs which infest the streets of Eastern cities. 4 . cast out {eK^aXelv). (8ta/3Xe-\|ret9). but how to help clearly giving the sense of thoroughness. rafter . of the that of a minute chip or festu. . out the mote. who in both cases. and Kev. renders a little mote.

A with its dangers and temptations. which is not much crowded." 50 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Rev. 13. " Surely we have prophesied. for Iread reads loaf." Leadeth {airas^ovaa). scattered. The wild boar haunts the Jordan valley to this day. . would resemble the pease or maize on which the swine feed.?). iv. discovering the cheat. called by jewellers seed-pearls. Lit. On the resemblance of certain stones to cakes of bread. [Ch.. They would rush upon them when would trample upon them and turn their tusks upon the man who scattered them. narrow. Lit. perhaps. Have we not {oi) That form of the negative is used which expects an affirmative answer. hreak . but very few travel This is the way which leadeth into true culture. from the broad road. or. a little door. its fruits. Bread. Eev. a writer contemporary with Socrates. remarkable parallel to this passage occurs in the " Pinax " or " Tablet of Cebes. Strait gate (a-Ten?)? ttuXt. a stone {aprov. the hog being an unclean lanimal. human life. not. The passage is as and a way before it ? follows symbolically repre" Seest thou .. and. The Rev. and well chosen to express the peculiar character of the wound made by the boar's tusk. In this. Note that the gate is not at the end. 16. Small pearls. is sented as on a tablet. The word graphically pictures the quick. Turn (aTpa<f>ivTe^). Character is by 22. Ye shall know {eiri^vaxrecr^e). which is not a cut.. It therefore pictures both the self-conceit and the self-deception of these persons. see on Matt. which is better. VIL half-tamed. 9. properly omits again. leadeth away. but at the beginning of the road. ^ Rend {prj^aaiv). 3. but a long tear or rip. the door. Xi^ov). sharp turn of the boar. The compound verb satisfactorily tested in- dicates/w^^ knowledge." etc. from death. then.

therefore. x. and therefore here of amasement." From e«." 27. 32 Rom. and ttXijo-o-co. more strongly brought out by laid a Luke tion (vi. as is usual throughout the country here. The house had In order to lay the just been built. xiv. Robinson of Nazareth suggests the source of this image. 24 sqq. (John i. " it is not necessary I to end with consolation. of Herod's promise to Salome in the presence of his guests (Matt." remarks Bengel." remarks Bengel. j)ublic declaration as Judge of the world. etc. out of. but contrasts one carefully chooses and prepares This is his foundation with one who who builds at hap-hazard. The conclusion of the Sermon " Thus.:: Ch. The picture it is not of two men deliberately selecting foundations. We have a similar expression. of John's public declaration that he was not the Christ 9) . . 20) .] MATTHEW. 28. Here. Kitto (" Pictorial Bible ") says "At this very day the mode of building in Christ's own town Dr. 25 pictures the sudden coming of the storm which sweeps away the house on the sand " Descended the rain. astounded. x. and was not yet finished. to strike. was entertained in the house of a Greek Arab." He was teaohmg. 48): "Who digged and went deep. of Christ's open. . The word. and came the floods. Often to drive one out of his senses by They were a sudden shock. 51 23. though not so strong " I was struck with this or that remarkable thing. "There is great authority in this saying. and founda- upon the rock " (Rev. He taught (flv BiBda-Kav). Profess {6/i6\oyria-a)). foundations he had dug down to the solid rock.). G reat was on the Mount. to the depth of thirty feet. I will liken him." The abrupt style of ver. VII. which is used elsewhere of open confession of Christ before men (Matt. union of the verb and participle emphasizes the idea of duration or Jiahit more thau the simple tense. and then built up arches. 7). This 29. and blew : the winds. for every sermon the fal of it. Were astonished (i^e'TrXrjo-a-ovTo).

The outer very forcible.. recline.62 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Christ had authority over disease.nfeuer. 12.. The centurion uses another and stronger word. Was healed {la^\ is Note that the stronger word of the centurion (ver. Jesus Still. ever. The word. Thepict- that of a banquet.. V. used here. Matt." as well as thou. so Christ had only to say to disease " Go " and it would obey him. V. VIII. As the centurion had only to say to a soldier " Go " and he went. authority. iv. the thick darkness of night. with his own. The picture is of an illuminated banquetis ing chamber. but very important. uses both words in one verse (ix. {la^aerai). The Greek order of words is "They shall be cast forth into the darkness. originally So A. he heals. The centurion also was in authority over soldiers. (darkness). means to attend. \!\\. . Jews as well as Romans reclined at table on couches. shall he healed 7. howand to treat medically. 24. The centurion compares the Lord's position myself ). Sick of a fever (irvpeaaova-av). Derived from Our word fever comes through the Gei-ma. fire. VIII. ! ! I also 11. "I also am a man under (Tynd. Tormented (^affavi^o/ievo^). outside of which 13. CHAPTER 6. observe the distinction. and Rev. Trvp. Hea\ (Sepafreva-eo). V. Where Christ tends. Shall sit iire is down (ar/aKXt^croi'Tat). 15. Also {Kal). See on torments. healed {Iolto) all who had need of treatment (Sepairelas:). who as a physician is precise in the use of medical terms. the outer (to i^mrepov).. Omitted in A. 8) 14. See on Luke himself does not always Luke 9. Luke. [Ch. 11).

a perma/nent dwelling-place. but puts lodging-places in the margin. . which would afford the demoniac. . a tent. Tempest (a-eia-fib^). Wye. Luke JVests is too limited. Dr. 20. and therefore insists on translating "took away.. . : low six hundred and eighty feet below the sea . The Rev. Lit. N ests ix. with burrows in ex- planation. Only here and in the parallel. — 28. derived from aKrjvrj. In classical Greek 24. and often when the sky is perfectly clear. has ditches. Used of an earth- The narrative indicates a sudden storm. 53 17. has the more general meaning of shelter or habitation. retains nests. This translation is correct. if that meaning had been that Christ took away infirmities." but " he bore. The tombs (jivrj/ieimv). Holes ((^tuXeou?). To understand the causes of these sudden and violent tempests we must remember that the lake quake.Ch. This passage is the corner-stone of the faith-cure theory. converging to the head of this lake and that these act like great funnels to draw down the cold winds from the mountains. Chambers excavated a shelter to in the mountain. Bare {i^da-Taa-ev)." lies . The word does not mean " he took away. The word. it is used of an encampment. The nest is not to the bird what the hole is to the fox. but they come down suddenly. Thom" Such winds are not only son (" Land and Book ") says violent. which claims that the atonement of Christ includes provision for iodily no less than for spiritual healing. and he could have used no word more inadequate to express his meaning.] MATTHEW.. spreading backward to the wilds of the Hauran. {/caToiTKrjvaKrei^). 58. shaking. since the bird frequents the nest only during incubation. that the mountainous plateau of the Jaulan rises to a considerable height." Matthew may be presumed to have understood the sense of the passage he was citing from Isaiah. and upward to snowy Ilermon that the water-courses have worn or washed out profound ravines and wild gorges. VIII.." as a burden laid upon him.

Trench (" Notes on the Miracles") cites the following incident from Warburton ("The Crescent and the Cross"): " On descending from these heights I found myself in a cemetery whose sculptured turbans showed me that the neighboring village was Moslem. between the base of which and the water was a narrow margin of ground. VIII Chandler ("Travels in Asia Minor") describes tombs with two square rooms. the friends performed funeral rites. . Thomson (" Land and Book ") says " Farther south the plain be: comes so broad that the herd might have recovered and recoiled from the lake." Fierce (^aXcTrot). A steep place {tov Kprjfivov). . while in the upper. and almost forced him backward over the cliff." The article localizes the steep as in the vicinity of the pasture. but a steep. The silence of night was now broken by fierce yells and bowlings. Not an overhanging precipice. difficult. Dr. Hence hard manage 32. Much better the steep (Eev. to Originally. hard. in which there was not room for the swine to recover from their headlong rush. Dr. and bounding along with rapid strides. LCh. Thomson (" Land and Book ") thus describes the rock-cut tombs in the region between Tyre and Sidon " They are nearly all of the same form. seized my horse's bridle.). and poured libations through a hole in the floor.54 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT." : A mentioned by ancient physicians as a characteristic of madmen. The moment he perceived me he left his canine comrades. intractable. having a small chamber in front. the lower containing the ashes. with niches on three sides propensity to take up the abode in the tombs is for the dead. and a door leading from that into the tomb. which I discovered proceeded from a naked maniac who was fighting with some wild dogs for a bone. The Levitical uncleanness of the tombs would insure the wretches the solitude which they sought. almost per- pendicular declivity. which is about six feet square.

lotlde originally carried Rev. Rqy. Bottles (oo-/coi)?). road of eastern commerce from Datnascus to the harbors of the West. which the publicans had erected at the approaches to bridges. "Wye. as in modern custom. 55 CHAPTER 9. renders rude. of leather. piety peculiar to life Jesus thus pictures the combination of the old forms of John and his disciples with the new religious emanating from himself. or in the harbors.] MATTHEW. though our the true meaning. a loot. sitting on: the elevated platform or bench which was the principal feature of the toll-oflfice.. the pro-consul of Syria. Receipt of custom (reXmi/tov). is an excellent word. literally. 17. lota means a leather lottle.Ch. and of ordering the to be taken down. and 'yvatTTO). which would stretch and tear loose from the old fabric and make a worse rent than before. being put for the whole This customs-office was at Capernaum. wine. being a bottle In Spanish. word hutt. and tear loose from the old piece. iolhooth. they break under the fermentation of the inward. or toll-cabin. the landestablishment. and a In Spain wine is still brought to market in pig-skins. Therefore Eev.. Cicero. is.' Sitting at. which would shrink when wet. rightly. goat-skins are commonly used. In the East. to cont'd or comb wool . IX. hence to dress or full cloth. which though obsolete. IX. place of toll. From a. in his oration on 'tlie Consular Provinces.bazaars. toll-booth. or at the termination of roads. of i-elieving the Syrians small buildings and Jews of some of their legitimate taxes. with the rough side When old. . for the convenience of their slaves and collectors. as the patching of an old garment with a piece of unfulled cloth. not. 16. renders more correctly undressed cloth. wine-shvns. ing-place for the many ships whicli traversed the lake or coasted from town to town and this not only for those who had business in Capernaum. accuses Gabinius. Wye. New (wyvd^ov). but for those who would thei-e strike the great .

writers use of speech. The word is also used of deafness (Matt. The literal force Jusi now died. Note the verb with the participle. . then eleven times with a double knot double knot to consist of eight threads. 36. XV. Mark vii... senseless earth xi. rend. . dition.. dered heve fleeced. xi. The fringe worn on Kev. Is WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Also to a hlunted dart (" Iliad. means dull or hlunted. IX of the aorist tense even now dead {apri. it might be ren677).hettev.^'' the word used in Acts xvii. tumult. Hem (KpaairiSov). The Hebrew characters representing these numbers formed the words Jehovah One. and mental perception. earth the dull. and Rev. Wye. hearing. It is not the . one of . It . is the perfect participle passive of to throw or lying. The word oast. So Wye.. Edersheim (" Life and Times of Jesus ") says that. the meaning in each case being determined by the context. p7'ostrated. Dumb . 20. or mangle. 32 Luke vii. according to tradition. they were travailed. 38. 6 : 32. lastly. the border of the outer garment. were distressed. and menus throivn doian." it 390). 22). thirteen times. each of the white fringes was them wound round the others knot then eight times with a first seven times. is more graphic. Repreis It senting the loud screaming and wailing by the women." xxiv. V. {kw^ov). . iorder. ¥dL\nteA {rjaav iaKvKfievoC). as Kev. So A.. 25). denoting their habitual conThe word orginally means to ftay.. [Oh. with a double and. sight. fiute- players. Making a noise {^opvlBovfievov). Dr. In the New Testament. ereXevTrja-ev). ^schylus uses it of the tearing of dead bodies by fish (" Persae. Scattered {ippififjievoi). The classical ^eY. " Set the city in an ujproar. Eev. according to the command in Num. 23. Thus Homer applies it to the 5 (" IHad." As appropriate to the figure of sheep. More correctly. hired or volunteering as mourners. only of hearing and speech. pIttto). 56 18.. Minstrels (avXT^ra?).

a sect which stood for the recovery of Jewish freedom and the maintenance of Erom the Hebrew 7cam. 5. away. zealdistinctive Jewish institutions. by which this sect was de. 22). compare the Chaldee handn. 57 dispersion one from another. They have cast themselves down for very wear- iness. CHAPTER 1. 4. 13 Acts i. force So A. 15 Acts i. the same apostle is called Zelote-s.s). Also. as already chosen. to send sent forth. Rev. but their j?ros^a^o?i in themselves that is meant. . Send is forth {iK^dXri). and in a very general sense to denote any one sent (2 Cor. Both terms indicate his connection with the Galilaean Zealot party. In Luke vi. viii. one that is sent. used here for the {disdjples. An apostle is one 16 and Rev. Apostles the {airoa-ToXav). though he nowhere Mark iii. authority. But the them out. From airoo-TeXka. The or his. The word is once used of Christ (Heb. . 18. 25). X. iii.. 13. Compare Luke vi. John xvii. 13. referring to relates their choos- them ing.a/3t(BT7. 1). word has nothing to do with Canaan. The article distinguishes him from others of the name of Judas (compare John xiv. X. ver.. Apos- tles is official term. Compare discijples. The See disciples (tow /ia^ras). ous . as from urgent necessity. Cremer (" Biblico-Theological Lexicon ") suggests that it was the rare occurrence of the word in profane Greek that made it all the more appropriate as the distinctive appellation of the twelve. 23 PhHip. They were Christ gave them time. Cananaean. 2. 2. ii. merely lea/rners fMa^ral) until xiii. 38. Luke vi. Y. .J MATTHEW.nd. Judas Iscariot (d'Io-A. I home sent. Compare John . word stronger thrust out. first i.Ch. The Canaanite (o Kavavaioi). 14 . and Eev. The noted.

16 In the four catalogues of the apostles (here . meaning the man which is given m of Judah toward Simon.58 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 25) as one of the uttermost cities the coast of Edom southward. Brass (xaX/cw). then the next day but if he remain of the Lord himself. Simon Peter always stands first. . however. and compare Mark vi. Peter the is the leader of the first four. : . ofKerioth. he is a false prophet.d.d. 7. "first throughout. Here Luke vi. he parteth. thi-ee days. Bengel observes that Jesus says lost oftener than led astray. and James. The lost sheep {Tairpo^aTaTacnroXcoXoTa). there be need. and is designed to give them practical instruction in the Chris- tian life. but The two. 14.. [Ch. Copper would be as unnecessary as gold. by Bryennios. 10. Metropolitan of !Nicomedia. 14 Acts i. but if is a false prophet. . and by some scholars is placed as early as 100 a. of the third." Notice that Matthew names them " and inpairs. Iscariot is usually explained as a native town. A decending climax. Mark iii.'" expressly . let again. according to the teachings of the twelve apostles and In the eleventh chapter we read as follows " And every apostle who cometh to you. But when the apostle dehim take nothing except bread enough till he lodge he ask money. {pd^hov. etc. is Staves (^aySSou?). Properly eo^er. The Greek order throws the emphasis on lost. Ver. let him be received as the Lord but he shall not remain except for one day if. But the proper reading staff. X. . is assigned to the date of 120 a. t/ie lost ones." And again . etc. the sheep. The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. It is addressed to Gentile Christians." a tract discovered in 1873 in the library of the monastery of the Most Holy Sepulchre at Constantinople. compound.) The workman " is worthy. with reference to his Joshua (XV. Philip of second. Compare xviii. There abide. 11. sent them forth two arrangement of the different lists varies. 6. 12. son of Alphaeus. 13) . 9.

just as in All contact with the similar case mentioned in Matt. it must at once be More than that. defiled and defiling everything to which it adhered. but as entirely responsible for their uncleanness. 6. 17. It country was unclean. were not only to leave the . Eev. xviii. and by was re- garded like a grave. xiii. for they are your high-priests. it did not and could not mingle with that of the land. See Acts xviii. The / is Cognate to the emphatic: "It is / that send yon forth. ' — " Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ act indicated that the apostles ").. if by mischance any heathen dust had burnt. take the first.' but remained to the end what it had been unclean. . ver.en. The symbolic and their Lord regarded them not only as unclean. it "The defiled very dust of a heathen contact. {apostle). word a-!r6(TToXo<. as ye are going forth 14.] MATTHEW. If thou makest a baking of bread. Shake off {iKTivd^are). is woi-thy like the workman. of Every first-fruit. or like the putrescence of death. he also his support. been brought into Palestine. In like manner. of the products of wine-press and threshing-floor. " but it was to be considered and treated as if it were heathen. I send you forth (iycb am-oareXKa>).house or city which should refuse to receive them. thou shalt take and give to the prophets. take the first of it and give to the prophets and of money and clothing. 14). .) " Likewise a true teacher. The Greek indi- cates distinctly the simultaneousness of the entrance the salutation as ye are entering." The apostles. as ye enter. take the first of and give according to the commandment. such must be avoided. : 59' (cli. when thou openest a jar of wine or oil. as may seem right to thee." . When more ye : come into {ela-epxofj^voi). therefore. and So of the departure. according to the commandment. If a spot of heathen dust had touched an offering. 16. and eveiy possession. it . then. and give ." 12. all trace of it shaken off " (Edersheim. {i^epxa/j^epoi. X. of oxen and sheep.

unmixed." sc. Eev. [Ch. (The phrase reappears in German. Of men {rmv avBpw'jrmv). Lit. They were to imitate the serpent's wariness. "In that selfsame hour. "the men. xvi. Dr. but not his wiliness. {<}>p6vi." already al- 19. Many feel most strongly their to others. Compare Rom. guileless. (/x^ fiepbiJuvrja-riTe). Edersheim's explanation. the fact that ye are my apostles (compare "/send you") demands that ye be guileless''^ (Dr. Lit. Take no thought See on vi. this Pie then conceives a play between word and Beelzibbul. with regard to their own So A. wary. and Kev.. Hence of wine without water. Morison on 19 • Philip. Used alloy. 17. Be not anxious. " The presence of the wolves demands that ye he wary . ^ Harmless (aKepaioi). Beelzebub (/3eeX?e/3oi)\. mutdulUrated.. safety. In that 25. BeelzebuT). See Goethe. : Very precise. X. and of metal without So Luther. xxi. seems far-fetched. hour {iv eKelvt) t^ &pa). " The Lord of the temple was to them the chief of idolatrous worship the representative of God. Y.. "Faust.). himself " the Master of the house." spiritual power when the hour comes to impart 25. . where the Devil is sometimes called Herr vom Homs. Beelsebul. Master of the dwelling. 15." and the Jews apply to him the corresponding title of the Devil. but specifically the temple . Matthew). an first expression having reference to the claims of Jesus on his purification of the temple. in Rabbinic language. not any ordinary dwelling. means. luded to under the term wolves. that of the and says : .fioi). though ingenious.. meaning Lord of idolatrous sacrifice. Denoting prudence Wye.60 WORD Wise STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. There is a coarse Jesus calls witticism in the application of the word to Christ. Heb." Bengel remarks it " Even though not before. without falsity. ii. He says that szebuhl. so that Beelzebul would be Master of the Tenyple.

might his household expect at their hands ? " (" Life and Times of Jesus "). how much more safe was the life of a son of man. are offered for sale. confess me. where he was miraculously fed ." Observe that this of Christ is one whose faith rests in him. A Kabbinic legend relates how a certain Rabbi had been for thirteen years hiding from his persecutors when he observed in a cave.] MATTHEW. trussed on long wooden skewers. '• I in them and thou in me. according purification were used in the ceremonial of from leprosy (Lev. X. 27. Edersheim thinks that Jesus may have had reference to the two sparrows which." It shall be as if I spoke fesses. sparrows and larks. then. xiv. Sparrows (a-TpovS-ia). Shall not fall. IT. At the present day. in the markets of Jerusalem and Jaffa. and thus takes mere formal or verbal acknowledgment. that when the bird-catcher laid his snare. 61 worst of demons. abiding in him. The word is a diminutive. long strings of little birds." The idea is that of confessing Christ out of a state of oneness with him.' Ch. Beelzehul was Beelzihhul. " Abide in me. he came forth. proclaim. 49-54)." Arguing that if even a sparrow cannot be caught without heaven's bidding. with the confessed. Confess me A significant expression. {6fio\ojija-ei iv ifiol). " Not every one that saitk unto me. and carries with it a touch of tenderness. little 29. and being in me. Lit. Preach iv. See on Matt. tification of the confessor confession out of the category of ! ' ! gives great force to the corresponding clause.^ What. that they may be . to the Kabbins." It implies iden32.. peculiar but very " Confess in me.. sparrows. the bird escaped or was caught. according as a voice from heaven proclaimed " Mercy " or " Destruction. Better Eev. {Krjpv^are). in which Christ places himself in a similar relation with those whom he con" I will confess in him. Lord Lord The true confessor shall enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Thus in Homer. 23). Lit. and though sometimes used in So A. to throw or cast. By this word if he the expectancy of the eagerly looking up for peace as something represented them as Dr. depart — part. Y. The newly-married wife shall be set at variance with her mother-in-law. "Wye. [Ch. Compare (dear bride)." What is it that is ! 35. but the meaning of which was revealed in the light of later . of " Iliad. same way. addresses Penelope (certainly not a bride) as 130." iii. which the disciples understood not at the first. it carries a notion of comparative youth.. lo a sword is flung into the midst. so that Jesus uses the phrase anticipatively. His cross {tov aravpbv ainov). classical Greek of any married woman. This was one of those sayings described in John xii. (w/a^t.. but the The word means hride." iv. Euryclea. Wycliffe's rendering is peculiar And the son's wife against the wif^s or husbamd^s where Iris addresses Helen in the and bitter character of the division : mother. To send (JSaXeiv). 743.!'). as gives the picture thus: "All are on tiptoe of expectation. about to happen ? Is it the reign of peace that is just about to be inaugurated and consummated ? Is there henceforth to be only unity and amity ? As they muse and debate. " Odyssey.. and that the world may know that thou hast " (John sent me.. vv/jLipa (piXrj course as a term of affection or petting. and Rev. The radical brought into households by the Gospel is shown by the fact of its affecting domestic relations in their very freshness. This was no Jewish proverb. and hast loved them as thou hast loved me xvii.. the aged nurse. Morison to be flung down upon the earth from heaven. 16. 34. in view of the death which he himself was to die. 38. to Set at variance (Bixao-ai)- Lit. disciples is dramatically pictured.62 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Daughter-in-law full force is lost in this rendering. X perfected into one. jpart asunder. crucifixion not being a Jewish piinishment .

Similarly. Their cities {avrSiv). Thou. Emphatic. 3. that we must all die. more to the point. Euripides " : Who knows if life be not death. and considers in what way he can best spend his appointed term" (" Gorgias. The towns of those Compare iv. Findeth {evpmv). he who lost (aTroXkawi). Still ! : . —the Galilaeans. and therefore he is not fond of life he leaves all that with God. He by his disciples. found. 63 events. The preposition Sta has a distributive force giving to each his appropriate charge. sent correct reading is hid. All are not alike. Art thou "the Coming One?"— current phrase for the Messiah.a Ch. Plato seems to have foreshadowed this wonderful thought. and death life ? " GRAF TEE XL 1. Commanding : {hiarcuTcrav). and that he who is truly a man ought not to care about living a certain time he knows. " O my friend I want you to see that the noble and the good may possibly be something different from saving and being saved. There are different crosses for different disciples. XL] MATTHEW. But the So Rev. verb runs : " Every cross hath it is its inscription " The English prothe name of — him for whom shaped. Our Lord looked back in thought to each man's past. The word is really a past participle. and forward to its appropriate consummation in the future." 512). The figure itself was borrowed from the practice which compelled criminals to bear their own cross to the place of execution. as women say. 2. 39. . His cross: his own. 23. hy. to whom he came Two of his disciples (8vo).

men of violence. toiehold. and struggling of the multitude for the prom. XL The lame walk. Tynd. 29. [Ch. vv. like Secopeiv. Kev. This was proved by the multitudes who followed Christ and thronged the doors where he was. 7. Those who use molent efforts. It often used in the classics of plundering. See on ch.. since it deand characteristically violent scribes a class of habitually men . Lit. suits the first question. carry off. were departing Jesus' words with the act of departure. continuous contemplation of an object which remains before the spectator. whereas the violence in exceptional impulse. striving. 14. ^eaaB-ai. is too strong. overpowered. this case is the result of a special and The passage recalls the old Greek proverb quoted by Plato against the Sophists. ised king. find none occasion of stumbling. Meyer renders. 'Rev. Suffereth violence {^id^erai).. shall not ie slandered. Christ thus graphically portrays the intense excitement which followed John's ministry the eager waiting. 15). So Tynd.. Another verb is used in Christ's repetition of the question. John's thus giving the simultaneousness of disciples. Compare John i.. more literal and better. 6. v. The word tahe hy force means is literally to snatch away. make violence pull it unto them. As they departed : (tovtcov Be iropevofj. and would have tahen him hy force (the same word) and made him a king (John vi. who had corrupted the .. 8. that believers.. 12. The violent take it by force {^laa-Tol dpTrd^ovcnv avrrjv). drag it to themselves. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. is forced.. The halt go. Kev. expresses the calm. The more earnest expression . To see {^edcracrBaC) .64 5. shall Be offended (a-KavBaXia-STJ). taken ht/ storm. Compare Wye. or while they. 9 IBeiv in the ordinary sense of seeing. Christ speaks of They seize upon the kingdom and make it their The Eev. as these went their way . They own.evmv).

however. And conquered. But again they were thwarted. So the little pipers changed their game and proposed a funeral. and from that living hope That overoometh the divine volition Not in the guise that man o'ercometh man. (the kingdom of heaven) sufEereth violence From fervent love. Children (TratStbt?). and ye did not mourn. 16.. If ye will {elMXere). It is plain that you are in why. : Ch. Eev. . "We piped So the disappointed children complained unto you and ye did not dance we wailed. In a perverse mood.. They began to imitate the loud wailing of eastern mourners... for their companions refused to chime in with the mournful cry and to beat their breasts. but stood still and looked discontented. First they acted a marriage procession some of them piping as on instruments of music. but meant simply harter ov price. to assemhle. If ye are wilUng or disposed. renders cheepynge. conquers by benignity. 65 : Athenian youth by promising the easy attainment of wisdom Good things are hard. don't you mourn ? bad humor. Donald Fraser gives the picture simply and vividly " He pictured a group of little children playing at make-believe marriages and funerals. Diminutive. and the children of wisdom. Dante has seized the idea " Regnvm coelorum. The Eev. : ' . Nothing pleases you. But conquers it because it will be conquered. Wye. and determined not to be pleased " (" Metaphors in The issue is between the Jews {this generation) the Gospels "). XL] MATTHEW. 9. 94^99. . while the rest were expected to leap and dance. v. xx. these last did not respond.' compare cheapside.. ' Market-places (070/304?). little children. . in view of John's imprisonment. . 'Fvova ar^eLpw. 14.. More correctly. : ." Farad. 5 The primary concep- . If you don't want to dance. the place for buying and selling / for the word cheap had originally no reference to small price. For there would naturally be an unwill- ingness to receive the statement about John's high place.

20. idea of a place of trade comes in afterward. as in oriental funeral lamentations. exhibiting these works under different and from different points of view. As an exhibition of God's glory {evZo^ov). 15. In reply to something which is not stated. 5. I recognize the justice and wisdom of . Answered. since trade plants itself where people habitually gather.66 tioii WORD STUDIES in the ' IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. [Ch. assemblies. Compare Matt.t<. 6. Hence the Eoman Forum was devoted. itself. : 1. Luke xiii.) . . Acts of the wonders shown by Moses in Egypt. Mourn {iKo-^aa^e). 6. nevertheChorazin and Bethsaida did not repent therefore a woe lies against them. be 36. 38. less. As a portent or prodigy (repa?) as 2. viii. 22. of confessing sins.. 26. I thank Lit. so here : a mighty work. 25. and naturally.. especially of bank- The the word. may vii.. Luke v. But {nT\r)v). The supernatural works of Christ and his apostles are denoted by six different words in the New aspects Testament. beat or strike (the breast). XL Greek word has nothing to do with buying and sellA^opd \a an assembly. Better Eev. regarded {ari^elov). As a wonderful thing {Savf^d. a miracle . xxi.) . howbeit. pointing to something beyond a As mark a sign of the power or grace of the doer or of his connection with the supernatural world. xii. 17 glorious things. The ing. 5. streets. In these public places the chil- Compare Zech. Mighty works {BwdfieK. cnov). sidered in detail as thej occur. iii. As a power {Bvva/j. 4. As a st/range thing (TrapdSo^ov). dren would be found playing. then the place of assembly. (i^o/ioXoyovfiai).and judicial ers. Matt. not only to populaj. These will be conGenerally. lY. 3. / confess. or as Wye. nevertheless they shall be more excusable than you who have seen the mighty works which were not done among them. idea of trade gradually becomes the dominant one in In Eastern cities the markets are held in bazaars and rather than in squares. but to commercial purposes. So Matt. Lit.

refresh. that they old. Prudent Eev. ject into a whole. as recorded by St.. but the distinction is not always recognized by the writer. the second a passive participle. Labor and are heavy-laden {/coTritovTe^ koI '7re(f>opn(7fi€- The first an active. as here. understanding. Give rest {ava-rravam).. Compare xxviii.. Eev. as in this case. and denoting that peculiarity of mind which brings the simple features of an ob{a-wermv). Yoke {^vyov).] MATTHEW. 11.. in the margin here. More lit. Knoweth knowledge.' were delivered. insight. as here {a-oi. 29. Wise (crotjiav) and understanding are often joined. ex- hibiting the active and passive sides of human misery. 33. The compound j)art. Very instructive for the understanding of the figure is hearts of Christ's Jewish hearers. the Evangelist of the Jews. vot). 28. gWes j)raise Ijpraise. 18. xiv. From the verb a-wiTjfii. One of the most common figurative expressions of the time was that of the yoke for submission to an occupation or obligation. yet with such contrast of spirit. ease .Cu. to iringr together. understanding {aweaecos:). it 67 thy doings. The general distinction is between productive and reflective wisdom. XI. Tynd. and clothed with authority. " These words. familiar . wary. Compare on Mark xii. But with the dative. Matthew. where the Son was sent forth by the Father." (iTriyivcoa-Kei). to thee). Are delivered {-n-apeSo^). The radical conception is that of relief. must have sunk the deeper into the came in their own form of speech. 27. Tynd. Wye. and with an accusative of the object. . Others behold only in indicating full " through a glass. Originally to maJce to cease. Wye. darkly. with an undercurrent of aoknowledgment . as of a single act at a given time. and at Rom. to confess only in later Greek. means to praise. Hence coraprehension.

3). Meek Lowly {wpaxi^). IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. is it shall [Ch. 13-21. Plato. " Life and Times of Jesus. creed. 37-41.odesty. of meanness of condition. The section Deut. See on Matt. The word for the Christian virtue of humilera. Ethics. and thinks that he has no need of a guide or ruler. was said to precede xi. was not used before the Christian and . or honor. however. of the kingdom of heaven. this is not its it is universal usage. absence of assumption. followed by the sliema {Hewr. . by coming to the Saviour. the classical conception is only m. v. xv. In the classics (raTretvo?). vi. Israel) or with a benediction. and insolence." and . " Jewish Social Life "). At best. and deems himself so. Aristotle above). for instance. so that we might take upon ourselves the yoke : . even in classical Greek. who has a soul hot with folly. and then that of the commandments. 5." 716). says.' and provideth food for himself " The public worship of the ancient synagogue commenced this paraphrase of Cant. : . he. -4^9. and only after that the yoke of the commandments. composed of 13-21 Num. vi. 4-9 xi. Still. used commonly in a bad and degrading sense. The Saviour's words must have had a special and they significance to those who remembered this lesson would now understand how. and follows it in all humility and order but he who is lifted up with pride. It is occasionally employed in a way which foreshadows its higher sense. or beauty. The word has a history. three passages of scripture Deut. they would first take on them the yoke of the kingdom of heaven. finding this yoke easy and the burden light " (Edersheim. XX their neck for be upon them bearing the yoke of thy statutes and field like the yoke on the neck of the ox that plougheth in the and his master.68 WORD STUDIES i. I say. is left deserted of God " (" Laws. 10 ' : How beautiful . and cringing abjectness and baseness of character. is wise " (" Mch. but is able himself to be the guide of others. " To that law (of God) he would be happy who holds fast. lowness of rank. or money. and youth. It is an element of wisdom and in no way opposed to self-righteousness (see . ity {raTrewo^poa-vvq). And Aristotle says " He who is worthy of small things." iv.

In his human nature he must be the pattern of all humility. and it is only as a man human life was on the fulness of his Father's love he evermore. And thus the grace of humility belongs to the highest angel before the throne. and is with a sense of sinfulness. New Testament recognize the that Christ thus claims to be lowly. Compare . 3. which would be untrue. associated learn with rest. . ii. Learn of me. "We are little because sinful. This virtue is 69 based linked upon a correct estimate of our actual littleness. It is asked how." p. of all creaturely dependence .] is distinctly MATTHEW. Compare Luke xviii. the development of Christian experiyoke and the burden in ence. The rest of Christ is It is found under the It is given in pardon and reconciliation.' and you shall find Ye shall find {evp^a-ere). ignoble classical sense of the word. But this is contrary to the Greek conception of justice or righteousness.' says Christ. as more and more the " strain passes over " from self to " No other teacher." It is noteworthy that neither the Septuagint.' says the philosopher. restlessness. involving for such the acknowledgment. but receiving all things of God. even to the Lord of Glory himself. nor the. / will gi/ve you and ye twoiold—gimen and found. in this view of the case.. but to his fellow-man. not of sinfulness. an outgrowth of the Gospel. Eev. Ch. ' ' ' ' and you shall find rest ' " (Drummond. of having nothing. as man. his a constant living . since the world began. has ever Christ. 145). took the place which beseemed the creature in the presence of its Creator " (" Synonyms. yea. " thatybr the sinner humility involves the confession of sin. Learn of me. of absolute dependence. " Natural Law in the Spiritual World ").). True greatness is holiness. being as he is a creature." says Archbishop Trench. The Christian virtue regards man not only with reference to God. the Apocrypha. 14. XI. the word can be applied to himself by the sinless Lord ? " The answer is. in- asmuch as it involves the confession of his true condition while yet for the unf alien creature the grace itself as truly exists. In lowliness of mind each counting other ietter than himsdf (Philip. but of creatureliness. which was simply " his own to each one. shaUJmd.

a convenient. grinding. From aireipas. instead of letter. if she throws them up in her hand. . Corn {(TTTopipbajv). a satisfactory rendering. as synonymous." 424) applies the word to " Good nurture and education {rpo^ <^ap koI iraieducation. . to sow. it is sifting out fruit if she bi'uises the ears.. if Times of Jesus ").). like spring or winter. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. plucking the ears. . mel- CHAPTER 1.y. a particular point of time. which was sifting. sermcedble. Tit. meanings combine in the word. and these Seuo-i? xpri<^^h) implant good {aya3a'. (Rev. The word means originally. ii. or a particular season. XII Not Christ's yoke is not easy in the ordinary sense of that word. Christ's yoke is " Christ's yoke is like feathers %oholesome. " Life and . 22 . 39. ii. which was reaping.. Rev. but helps to motion " (Jeremy Taylor). : . it is Y (Rev. is rendered hindness in t6t7??.70 30. "On any ordinary day this would have been lawful but on the Sabbath it involved. 4 where the true reading. it is winnowing ' " (Edersheira. Rom. good (x/377C7t6?). season. At Luke v. ness. a/ppropriate time absolutely.) constitutions good {xpv^TO'l) constitutions improve more and more " thus The three evidently using . XII. The Talmud says 'In case a woman rolls wheat to remove the husks. it is regarded . to a bird not loads. Eph. 1).). good. according to the Rabbinic statutes. WORD STUDIES Easy (x/jijo-to?). Time . Plato (" Republic. or fanning. viz. kindly. and rubbing them in their hands (Luke vi. 2 Cor. Gal. . serviceable. iii. . What is not lawful. The word implies &^ar- ticular time as related to some event. XP'^aoccurring only in Paul's writings.p??crT69 and aya3-6<. Properly. 6 . corn-fields. The kindred noun. [Ch. is lowed with age. it is grinding . (Kaipm). v. as threshing . though it is impossible to find an English word which combines them all. at least two sins. 2. 01 vi.. it is considered as sifting if she rubs the heads of wheat. as Rev. and goodused of old wine. she cleans off the side-adherencies. 4 .

into English. Below there. The indefiniteness of the neuter gives a more solenm and impressive sense. it Or that doth indurate... the emblem of humility . greater (jiet^av)." Compare the beautiful passage in Dante. The quotation stops at the he shall not quench (Isa. and to prepare him for the ascent of the purgatorial mount by girding him with a rush. who is of those of Paradise. 19." He shall not burn dimly. end of the third verse in the prophecy but the succeeding verse is beautifully suggestive as describing the Servant of Jefigures in reed. Compare. hesitating character like to I would know if. The Hebrew is. xlii. where Cato directs Virgil to wash away the stains of the nether world from Dante's face. life. where the billow beats Doth rushes bear upon its washy ooze. humble. literally.] MATTHEW. and the " light of the world. 41. etc. so that the right rendering something greater The reference is. 71 6.ly hurning wich . 10. and see thou gird this one about With a smooth rush. in margin). Is it lawful ? {el e^ea-Tiv). Flax. 3). . is but not to be broken. it. ture of our frail humanity. yonder. One The correct reading is makes the adjective neuter. 42. to the question 13. then. also. Stretch forth thy hand. of course. self (compare vv.ore (so Kev. can there have Because yieldeth not unto the shocks. XII. John ii. partaking of the naboth a lamp and a reed. 20. in margin). round about its base. where Christ speaks of his own body as a temple. The arm was not withered. a dim. neither He himself. No other plant that putteth forth the leaf. This little island. and that thou wash his face. " Go. For 'twere not fitting that the eye o'eroast By any mist should go before the first Angel. to Christ him(Rev. is used in the same way). So that thou cleanse away all stain therefrom. hovah by the same ones a wick and a shall his spirit which lie pictures his suffering " be crushed. It gives : The et can hardly be rendered an indeterminate.— Ch. m. where the neuter TfKelov.

he is casting himself ont. 15). can I despoil Satan without first having conquered him ? {(j-Kevri).. x. 29. Christ not citing a gen- eral illustration. it. i.. used in the simple sense 16). [Ca XO. — The word originally means a vessel. lowered the gear. there "he was divided. mostly in the Goods New — the holy." Purg. 31. ver. He is divided {eiiepia^. Also the baggage of an army. to a/rrvoe at (2 Cor. of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. collectively : chattels. Kev. tov ar/Cov). 31 . Kev. The Spirit These words define more clearly the hlasphemy against the Spirit. 16 . . rightly gives the is force of the strong man. and so Testament. Here in the sense house-gear. is iii. 28. The verb . Compare Luke xvii. Acts xxvii. 32.. of the gear or tackling of the ship." If must have been a previous division. me as the other pleased O marvellous 1 for even as he culled The humble plant. 17. 26. Eev.72 WOED STUDIES There he hegirt IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 133-137. 35. the (toO lo-xvpov). John xix. The Holy Spirit (toO 7rvevfiaTo<. such it sprang up again Suddenly there where he uprooted it. But the translation is feeThe word means to throw or fling out.. " come upon. Is come unto you (e^^ao-ev e'^' u/ta?). and sometimes to anticipate (1 Thess. See Mark xi. Philip. as if under pressure of the abundance within. of house-gear. How but is pointing to a specific enemy Satan. Bringeth forth {iK^dWei). But also the entire equipment of a house. 94-105. Here with a suggestion of the latter sense. The good or evil " Out things come forth out of the treasure of the heart (34).'''' It which is also conveyed by the has come upon you before you ex- pected 29." The issues ble. Lit. Of a strong man article.. 14 iv. . of the heart are thrown out.

See on ver. Ixii. Compare James iv. Wye. . work. Ivii. . 27. Mark xiv. on which the New Testament. shall rise wp. 40. heach. .. 73 36. Shall rise up (avaa-rija-ovTai). that over which the sea The word for shore.13.. XIII. . Not the apostles only. An idle word is a nonworking word. : "Where Michael wrought Vengeance upon the proud adultery. pression. but is morally useless and unprofitable. . 41. stand up. 11. (a\s) rushes [ah-aei). A good rendering. Shore (alyiahJbv). 3 sqq..). The whale {toO k-^tov. Compare Job xvi.] MATTHEW. . 20 sqq. 5 Ezek. A very strong and graphic exfounded upon the familiar Hebrew representation of the relation of God's people to him under the figure of marriage. Xin. Ixxiii. an inoperative word. 9... It has no legitimate work. 39. and intercourse with Gentiles were described as adultery and so here. sea breaks [dyvvfii). 4 Apoc. who The Anglo-Saxon renders lea/rnvng knights. of moral unfaithfulness to God. 42. dxri]. A greater {jrXuov).Ch. Disciples {p. brink. Adulterous (jioixaKh). 57. 2T Isa. and epyov." Inf. Similarly Compare Matthew xi. . vii. ii. CHAPTER 2. A general term for a sea-monRev. no business. but all followed him in the character of learners. Idle {apyov). 11 xxiv. no office.a^Ta<i). ster. not. ver. 6. something more. Sept. Thus Dante See Ps. 49. There is no reference to rising from the dead. xxiii. Come forward as witnesses. is never used in the Eev. Lit. The word is compounded of a. Hence idolatry .

and irpo^rj/jua. Ixxvii. used with a wide range in scripture. which an example is set up by way ii. a pattern or eosample . is thrown beside another. 7. Of a word or discourse which is enigm." oracular or proverbial charreferring to the words " If etc. 18 . also.. says. way wayside saying (Trench). or a path hy See Luke iv. acter. in front. is to throw. WORD STUDIES Parables IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Prov. 36). ii. and ^aXXco. . and therefore they need an intei-preter of the relation bethe mysteries of the kingdom of ceal . where we have 7rapal3o\r)v. . and {irapa^o'kal'i). ii. and the same idea is conveyed by the German £eispiel. (Sept. parable. discourse or narration. for ^TOwrS {irapoiixla) has the It is Trapd. 4 Hab. 4. 6. heside. and in which familiar facts of the earthly life are used figuratively to expound truths of the higher life. which are not discerned by them (1 Cor. a problem. enigma. xlviii. It occurs along with the words aiviyfj^a. Sir John Cheke renders iiwo?-d. ySaXXo). XHL From irapa. 3. dark saying/ and alvCyfiara. vi. something put forth or proposed {irpo. xlix. xxiii. 28. See Micah . Matt. Either a trite. Ixxviii. 74 3. form of teaching in which one thing Hence its radical idea is comparison. heside. (Sept. and the guest who assumes the highest place at Compare. 39. also of the saj-ings of Balaam (Num. 15). having an Thus Peter (Matt.. A parable a the old high German is The word 1. i. Mark 2. [Ch. spel. 11). 23 1 Sam. xiii. in of comparison. the blind lead the blind. parable/ (TKOTeivov Xoyov. The unspiritual do not link these facts of the natural life with those of the supernatural. 11-17). enigmas. 13.: . " declare unto us ihispar- abUr (Luke Compare Lake V. but always involves the idea of comparison Of Irief sayings. 2. 3. 14). xiii. heside. at the root The word as. ol/j.atieal or obscure until the meaning is developed by application or comparison. Of a song or poem. to throw). In this sense Christ uses parables symbolically to expound God as utterances which confrom one class what they reveal to another (Matt. Used xxiv. 32 7. 15). 6.o% a same idea or road.)4. xv. xxiv. hei. xxiv. So of the patched garment the feast (Luke xiv. Of a proverb.) See Ps. the side of the high road (Godet).

and therefore man or mankind to God. but stands in actual coherence and hai-mony with it. in pictorial figure. Xni.] MATTHEW. ISTor does the fable always deal with the impossible. The great forces in both kingdoms are germinal. a law common and to the kingdom of God. since there are fables in which an referring to the relation of animal. as of business and agriculture. a truth belonging to the sphere of religion. the Rich Fool. Similarly. so that the one does not merely resemble the other superficially. Spiritual fruitfulness requires an honest and good heart. 5. The term parable. It is " A narrative thus defined by Goebel (" Parables of Jesus "). From him that hath not shall be taken away." That is a law of morals and religion. One must have in order to make. common to the natural Such symbols assume the existence of a law and spiritual worlds under which the symbol and the thing symbolized alike woi-k . " To him that hath shall be given. The in the religious character of the ISTew Testament parable as contrasted with the secular character of the fable. not professing to describe an event which actually took place. Christ formulates such a law in connection with the parables of the Talents and the Sower. as the moving within the sphere of physical or human life. is A parable also or a learning . and all cases of a similar kind.Ch. an example or type / furnishing a model Good Samaritan. does nothing contrary to distinction lies its nature. fables where the actors are human. enwrapped in small seeds which unfold from within by an inherent power of growth. as employed in ordinary Christian phraseology. the Pharisee and the Publican. Fruit requires not only seed but soil. but expressly imagined for the purpose of representing. . 75 tween the two. is limited to those utterances of Christ which are marked by a complete figurative history or narrative. Interest requires capital. for instance." lafoT'm the JSTew Testament parables I'esemble \:he fable. however. The element of comparison enters here as between the particular incident imagined or recounted. The distinction between them does not turn on the respective iise of There are rational and irrational beings speaking and acting. the law of is growth as set forth in the parable to nature of the Mustard Seed.

the sower. there was twofold sowing. typical. for which reason it chooses animals by preference. (Goebel. the fable teaches lessons of worldly policy or natural morality and " The parable is predominantly symbolic ." and the two being thus blended instead of being kept distinct and parallel. as rep- resenting a class. the same Hebrew word representing both. To sow {tov aveipeiv). trees. but as typical figures never symbolic in the sense in which the parable mostly is.) where Christ at once identifies himself with the figure: "I am the true vine. unlike the parable. Generic. lies far from it. the fable. [Ch. KeV. . so that. The parable differs from the allegory in that there is in the latter "an .) proverb is carried into detail. See. and both being enigmatical. and being necessarily figurative. because the higher invisible world. for the most part." Thus the allegory. Hence the parable can never work with fantastic figures like speaking animals. utility. not as symbolic. Parable and proverb are often used interchangeably in the New Testament the fundamental conception being. " Notes on the Parables." Introd. XHI. since the parable expands only one particular case of a proverb. not . (See Trench. as the seed was either cast by the hand or by means of cattle.. 3." etc. interpenetration of the thing signified and the thing signifying the qualities and properties of the first being at- tributed to the last. a sack with holes was filled with corn and laid on the back of the animal. as we have seen. A sower (6 aireiprnv). In the latter case. carries its own interpretation with it. the allegory Vine and the Branches (John xv. of which the parable sees and exhibits the symbol in the visible world of nature and man. the same in both. . and therefore presents its teaching only in the form of example. condensed).. They differ rather in extent than in essence the parable being a proverb expanded and of the . for example. which the though the range of the proverb is wider. "According to Jewish authorities. 76 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. While the parable exhibits the relations of man to God.

says: "A slight recess in the hillside. The seed. upon the plain. every feature of the great parable. There was the trodden pathway running through the midst of it. XIII. disclosed at once. v.. and which. ' ' there through the cornfields. as elsewhere through the grassy slopes. There were the large bushes of thorn the nabTc. like the fruit-trees of the more inland parts. in the very midst of the waving wheat " (" Sinai and Palestine "). ready to spring (" Parables ") cites a striking parallel Trench from Ovid. with no fence or hedge to prevent the seed from falling here and there on either side of it or upon it itself hard with the constant tramp of horse and mule and human feet. ^ 77 it moved onward." . fell. " . There was the good rich soil which distinguishes the whole of that plain and its neighborhood from the bare hills elsewhere descending into the lake. 486. — — 5. By the wayside. but up. the seed was thickly scattered " (Edersheim. There was the rocky ground of the hillside protruding here and . a hard. produces one vast mass of corn. There was the undulating cornfield descending to the water's edge. covered with a thin layer of 7. l^ot ground covered with loose stones. as 4. Sprang up. " Life and Times of Jesus "). but soil. now furious showers. not among standamong those beneath the surface. .] MATTHEW. ing thorns. therefore. : de- scribing the obstacles to the growth of the grain " Now the too ardent sun. Dean Stanley. roots.Ch. in detail and with a conjunction which I remember nowhere else iij Palestine. Stony places. that kind of which tradition says that the crown of thorns was woven springing up. where there is no interruption. approaching the plain close 'of Gennesareth. Snatch the strown seeds and grass with stubborn And thorn and darnel plague the ripening grain. With baleful stars and bitter winds combine The crop to ravage while the greedy fowl . rocky surface..

to shuts up the eyes. to close or shut. . Are dull of hearing {toI<." etc. " In grain it is so fruitful as to yield commonly two-hundredfold and when the production is the greatest. Paul (Philip. others of secret politicoscenic doctrines . " In the Shadow of the Pyrenees. mah ffapeox} IjKovaav).. 12. XIU. A Compare Gen. (iKa/iiMva-av). lAt. again.)^w^). Is is (ava-TrXripovTai). dred-fold. Lit. representations of In this latter sense the term was used in the Middle Ages of miracle-plays rude dramas representing scenes from scripture and from the apocryphal gospels. The . close.. 12) says.. by rendering I have learned the secret : the verb being fjuveco (from the same root as fivartjpva) to initiate into the mysteries. Herodotus (i. but one which is withdrawn from knowledge or manifestation. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Is fulfilled : progress 15. down. [Ch. classical been revelations of religious secrets religious . and the precise Some suppose them to have character of which is unknown. which could be known only by revelation. Mentioned as something extraordinary. and which cannot be known without special manifestation of it. Rather of something in leing fulfilled or in process offulfilment." 11. Our idiom KUTa. They enfatted. heard heavily with their ea/rs. They have closed as in fj. Such plays mythical legends.") (See Vincent. Wye. From fivco. others. applied to certain religious celebrations to which persons were admitted by formal initiation. /Mva. even three-hunhundred-fold. But Eev. In Greek.va-T'^pia above. — are still enacted among the Basque mountaineers. 93) says of Babylonia. waxed gross (e7ra. gives more correctly the force of instructed. iv. xxvi. A mystery does not denote an unknowable thing. Hence appropriate to the things of the kingdom of heaven. Mysteries (jivcrTripui).78 8. was made fat. 14. " I am instructed (fiefivrj/Mai) both to be full and to be hungry.

just as the birds do not wait for the sower to be out of the way. Rev. . on the second cornice of Purgatory. xiii. 70-72. lasteth but a little t/ime. When any one heareth. 10 described as a judgment of God. " While any one is Tiea/riMg. The Hebrew. 19. a/nd. as exhibiting action in progress. to Eev. but are at work while he is sowing. Cheyne (" Isaiah ") cites the case of a son of the Great Mogul.: Ch. with their eyes sewed up " For their lids an iron wire transpierces. endwreth.. with the 21. all And Be converted their evil {iiriarpk^^cocnv). The rendering would be made even more graphic by preserving the continuous force of the present tense. besmear. temporary : thus bringing out the quality of the hearer. who had his eyes sealed up three years by his father as a punishment. to or turn / with the idea of their turning/rom toward God. xliv.. is Greek shuts them down. For (Se). for the following clause does not give a reason for the temporariness. 10. better. XIII. but adds something to the description of the hearer. Lit.. . JETe received seed (o a-Trapek). sews them up. and the simultaneousness of Satan's work with that of the gospel instructor.. Rev." Purg.. identifying the seed of the figure signified. Lit. Compare Isa. changing as they change. Dante pictures the envious. a-rpetfxo. a creature of circumstances. 79 in Isa. towa/rd. is ternporal. . He which ter. vi. 18 in both of which the closing of the eyes is xxix. as to a sparhawk wild Is done. He is Wye. and much betthat was sown. with explanation. J MATTHEW. is man Dureth for a while {Trp6(7Kaip6<s ia-nv ). This insensibility is described as a punishment. the evil one is coming and snatching a/may. Sealing up the eyes was an oriental punishment.. eiri. turn again. Rev. because it will not quiet stay..

XHI Tribulation 9\i/3co. from which is 'irp6jS\r)fjba. the translation of Trpo^aXKai. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. derived. means originally to belch. he before them.). he receiveth it / Put he forth {irape^Kev). Understandetii (o-wte??). while the or offer. Hence. Homer uses (" Iliad. Matthew. See on xi. Kev. Jceepeth it. Tribubeing de- rived from tribulum. to disgorge. and appears French I levain. See on Luke ix. 35. Ixxviii..r}).. . indi- cates also. as in fermentation. Leaven is {^6/j. [Cn. 265). ke understandeth the word Luke. and so were pressed and crushed to death (" Synonyms of the New Testament "). to boil or seethe. But this would be rather a problem. 25. by which those who wilfully refused to plead had heavy weights placed on their breasts. he 24. " sowed 33.80 WORD STUDIES (S^XiyJremi). the threshing-roller of the Komans.B From leaven few. to lation is perhaps as accurate a rendering as is possible.. 16.. in illustration of '^Xi-\jn<. The verb. {iTrecnreipev). Wye. 23. Eev. to raise. the provision of the old English law. will utter {ipev^ofiai). Mark." i. The English in the from the Latin levare. word here used means rather to set hefore Often used of meals. In both the idea oi pressure is dominant. a. 40).^' sowing over what was previously sown. There seems to lie in the word a sense oifull. to serve up. pressure. set 25. though 3-\iyfrii does not convey the idea of separation (as of corn from husk) which is implied in tribulatio. as of a prophet. press or squeeze. German Sauerteig. Trench cites. Sowed The preposition eTrt. The three evangelists give three characteristics of the good hearer. better. From the foundation {airo Kara^oXfj-. impassioned utterance. sour dough. 2) that there was a hidden meaning in . it of the sea surging against the shore Pindar of the eruption of Aetna (" Pyth." xvii. prudent. in which the sound corresponds to the sense (ereuxomai). upon.. « It is assumed bv the Psalmist (Ps.

Xin. From the fact of its making a great sweep. {iKXdfj. xii. the ends of which are carried out and drawn together. the mode in which they practise this netting 47. The only occurNew Testament.. and preflgnrative element ran through the whole. in every single instance. The righteous A 43. typical. and veils the true glory of righteous character. Hab. in the parabolic teaching of our Lord. Compare Dan. 15-17. and that were hidden indeed in the depths of the divine mind from before the foundation of the world. . to surround and take with a drag-net. long dramj-net. And lience the evangelist wisely sees.-\lrov(Tiv).] MATTHEW. 149) says " The Persians netted Samos. 3. i. {acvyrjvr)). The culmination was divinely intended. 81 God's ancient dealings with his people. iv. xix. one long Old Testament parable. 384-389) of the slain suitors in the halls of Ulysses. netted the inhabitants. : shall shvne forth as the sun from behind a cloud. where the Chaldaean conquests are described under this figure. The mixture of evil with good in the world obscures the good." Compare " Those who spread nets on the face of the waters Isa. The compound verb with designedly used to express a dissipating of darkness which has hidden a bursting into light. the barbarians. awYrjvevai. and lience the expression that it might he fulfilled " (Morison on Matthew). and then march through the island from end to end. 8 shall languish. " Whenever they became masters of an island. Things long Tc&pt secret. 31)." And again (vi. Shine forth is €«... Compare the graphic passage in Homer (" Odyssey. Thus Herodotus (iii. Through the transcription of the word into the Latin sagena comes seine. were involved in these dealings." Also. Net rence of the word in the A : is the following Men join hands. a real culmination of the older parabolic teaching of the Psalmist." xxii. forth. The history of the dealings is.Ch. See on Matt. so as to form a line across from the north coast to the south. archetypical. and hunt out the inhabitants. the Greeks formed a verb from it. IS'ow. 18. : : Gathered of every kind.

Bringeth forth 35. Tetrarch. hearing. Rev. wko hath been made a discvple The kingdom of heaven is personified. (dKor/v). The he is disciples of Christ are disciples of that kingdom of which the representative. Many as fishes on the shelving beach. (eV <f>vXaK^ aTreSero). At the other end of this ridge Herod built a great wall. Indicating his zeal in communicating instruction and the fulness out of which he speaks.. while panting to return the salt sea.. cliff at or aside " vines. Archelaus had obtained two-fourths of his father's dominions. 52. the end of a narrow ridge. Better as Eev. flingethforth. CHAPTER A XIV. XIV. ruler of a fourth part. Perched on ah isolated (utto). Sat down. kingdofn. with towers two hundred feet high at the . 48. The fame 3. — (e'/c/SaXXet)." : 83 WORD STUDIES " He saw that all IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Which {paTK). had and dust. See on xii. almost on a line with Bethlehem. Lit. and Antipas (this Herod) and Philip each one-fourth. "put him away This prison was the fortress of Machaerus on the east side of the Dead Sea. etc.. fallen in blood [Ch. Put him in prison Lit. The pronoun marks the householder as belonging to a class and exhibiting the characteristic of the class a householder one of those who bring forth. Drawn from the hoary deep by those who tend The To nets with myriad meshes. report. they lie till the hot sun life Takes their from them. above the gorge which divided the Mountains of Abarim from the range of Pisgah.. lAt. Implying deliberation in the assortment.. Poured abroad Upon the sand. encompassed with deep rawas the citadel. Which Instructed to tlie instructed unto the kingdom of heaven.. etc. 1. is fiaBr/revS^el'.

to the highest and strongest part of the defences— the eastern keep or the citadel. self-denying John the Baptist " (Edersheim. earnest. are still standing. and snowy jars Swell with the wine. been the prison of that son of the free wilderness. colonnades.. manded a wide and grand prospect. Ch. v. . and a deep. cisterns. baths. The custom of celebrating birthdays by festivities was not approved by the strict Jews but it is claimed that the Herodian princes adopted the custom. depth. " Life and Times of Jesus "). well of great There are scarcely any remains of it left. Persius. while the broad tunny-tail Sprawled o'er the red dish swims. we notice how small this keep is exactly one hundred yards in diameter. 6. " We return through what we regard as the ruins of the magnijScent castle-palace of Herod. one of them deep down. In the detached citadel. the course of the Jordan.] MATTHEW." and pictures a banquet on that occasion. Though some explain it as the anniversary of Herod's accession. with the vaulting of the : A roof still complete. cemented cistern. As we clamber over them to examine the interior. and on the steaming panes The ranged lamps. and of most terrible interest to us two dungeons. XIV. and Jerusalem. The Roman satirist. probably in one of the underground dungeons. its sides scarcely broken in. ' with small holes still visible in the masonry where staples of As we look down into its wood and iron had once been fixed ! — — ' hot darkness. with . the humble. arsenals— every provision. "But when Comes Herod's day. alludes to a festival known as " Herod's Day. The foundations of the walls all around. a magnificent palace. the bold herald of the coming kingdom. remains of which may still be seen. in short. we shudder in realizing that this terrible keep had. 180-183. was the prison of John. one hundred and fifty yards up. on the steep slope. for nigh ten months. corners for luxury and for defence against siege. pour The unctuous cloud." Sat. 83 and within this inclosure. to the height of a yard or two above the ground. Birthday {^evealoK).. including the The windows comDead Sea. festooned with violets.

and a cAar^er something Zoa^c?. spot. Diminutive. where the right heing put forviard. He promised (miJ. before Herod so. a Wye. 9). The circumstances seem to point to Machaerus itself as the scene his respect for of the banquet progress. dish. they pushed Alexander forward ovX of the crowd. [Ch.. in the midst. so that the deed could be quickly done. The correct rendering slightly relieves Salome of the charge of wanton cruelty. as should have had time to reflect and relent the more she knew John (compare was sorry. 7. dreio out.. in their retention of this thoroughly obsolete is A charge originally a 5wrc?en/ dish. V. Here (aiSe). mowith warned in explanation. nestid. XIV. and could claim her reward. girl.84 Before WORD {ev STUDIES IN THE fieaip.. 33.. 9.j)latter.) Lit. and not as A.oXo'yqaev. the maid. ver. She demanded it on the . Tiie oatli's sal<e (8ta the apostrophe in the wrong place. little Luther gives mdgdlein. V. . 11. and throws it wholly upon Herodias. in a charger (eVt nrlvaKi). confessed. Both wrong. To tiie damsel (toS Kopacriai). Being before instructed {irpo^i^aa^elaa). dancer. The Revisers cannot be defended word. But the A. Compare Acts xix. rightly renders/or the sake of his oaths. rm Eev. Tynd. had degraded herself to perform the part of an almeh or com- mon 8. Hence. Wye.) NEW TESTAMENT. Wye. meaning is.). rightly. and the head of the Baptist delivered while the feast was still in . little . It is implied that Herod in his mad excitement had confirmed his promise with repeated oaths. tov'? opKov. puts The word is plural. and the Eev.' conveying Salome the idea of acknowledging the obligation of his oath. Kev. lewpedin the middle.

and called coffano. xvi. hereft. ter .] MATTHEW. No need home they disciples go away. Desert {eprjfio'i). to Christ answers." Christ replies. Were filled {ixopTda^Tja-av). "Sat. Note the two points of emphasis. The first meaning of the word is from which develops the idea of void. foot i'Tre^fj). whose furniture is a basket {cophinus) and some hay " {for a bed). specially provided for the Jews to carry levitically clean food The while travelling in Samaria or other heathen districts. as being "let out to the Jews. 19. and that the denomination of this basket exa-irvp^ai in the other. a transcription of the Greek word. The had said. using ko^ivov: in the case of the five thousand. Wye." iii.. near the Capenian gate of Rome. ness solitary / The dominant thought of the disciples is remotefrom supplies of food. of the kind used for letting Paul down over the wall at Damascus (Acts ix. 85 is 13. These were small hand-baskets. 14. 10. Juvenal. Both meanings may well be included here. On Eev. a thumb's breadth in thickness. 20. which is bet- for the contrast between Jesus' journey hy skip and that of the multitude by land. In the Greek order standing first as emphatic. a large provision-basJcet or hamper. 6. Baskets {ko^Lvov. 25). and more easily broken than cut. word for basTcet used in relating the feeding of the four thousand (Matt. and from Rome ") gives by the masons in the cathedral at Sorrento. See on Matt. v. As the Jewish loaves were thin cakes. 37) is tnrvpk. XV.). Give (Sore). Oive ye. " "Who can doubt that the basket of the gospel narrative was of the shape here represented. in alluding to the two miracles. 15. coffins. observes the distinctive term in each narrative . B rake. XIV. The disciples say. hy land in margin. Burgon (" Letters a drawing of a wicker basket used . the Roman satirist. In Matt. describes the grove of Numa. barren. "Send them away to buy for themselves. Ba/rren is the place.. He adds.Ch. 9. Christ.

To go to {e\3eiv Tr/ao?. Wjc. tom. See on Matt. reluctance to leave 24.. 29. CHAPTER XY. 24. Tossed iv.. rather Of which our word phcmtasm is. Constrained. 2.86 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Washing hefore meals wa& commandment.. better. 32. "a fisher- Ceased {ixoTraaev). alone regarded as a as a hands. washing after meals only By and by the more rigorous actually washed their this between the courses. 26. to step on one side. in itself. Transgress (^apa^aivovtriv). The distinctive designation for was declared to be purely washing after meals- . grew weary . o^or-^^ow. A beautiful word. perfectly whole {hieam^ffav). phanstiffly." 30. (who clusively has lingered in a Greek colony. weary. distressed. Lit. Rev. imphes Were made completeness. JAi. him behind. He was afraid. 7). sank away like one 36.. XV. man and a good swimmer " (John xxi. 1. and went toward. omits perfectly. The Rev. indicates complete restoration. Rev. who is sition hid. read xal ^'XSev But some Trpos). says Bengel. although voluntary. The prepothrough or thorough. [Ch. because whole. Wash not duty. a transcription. where the Jews once carried the ccyphinus as a personal equipment) formerly lived in great numbers ? " Implying the disciples' 22. of the best texts "Although. (^acravi^ofjLevov). A spirit ((^avTao-/ia).

provided the hand that rubbed had been affused. a complete immersion of the hands.. It was the practice to draw water out of these with a kind of ladle or bucket very often of glass which must hold at least one and a half egg-shells (compare draw out now. The water was poured on both hands.. XV. The Hebrew idiom he shall certainly he executed. The hands were lifted up so as to make the water run to the wrist. The Greek is. and that the water polluted by the hand did not again run down the fingers. mortar. in order to insure that the whole hand was washed. But there was one point on which special stress was laid. is. 6). question is met with the other in the same style. " Ye also transgress. the hands were not clean See on Mark vii." which was all that originally was required when the hands were not levitically " defiled. The significance of this little be overlooked. As the purifications were so frequent. the rubbing might be done against the head. — — word must not admits that the disciples had transgressed a human injunction. such as gravel. lit. etc. " Life and Times of Jesus").e. while for washing before meat a term was used which meant. or even against a wall. which must be free of anything covering them. If the water remained short of the wrist. If " holy. 87 was the lifting of the hands . and care had to be taken that the water had not been used for other purposes.. let him to his come end by death. " He places one wedge against the other. John ii. and " "Whether the disciples transgress or in a much greater way. sacrificial food was to be partaken of. otherwise. Die the death {^avaTcp TeXevrdra). Christ the first back. or something fallen into it that might discolor or defile it. Luther says. literally. you are the greatest transgressors " (Bengel). each hand was rubbed with the other (the fist)." The one not. Similarly. In the "first affusion. Ch. 3 (Edersheim." the water had to run down to the wrist. 8). .] MATTHEW." 4. and not a mere "uplifting" was prescribed. Also {icaX). but adds." i. to rub. large vessels or jars were generally kept for the purpose (see John ii. and therewith drives 3.

. or disputings (Philip. gwen to God. i. 22. howis not mine to give. a breach of the law.. Coasts (/iepi. the phrase did not necessarily dedicate the gift to the temple. " Whatever that may be by which you might be helped by me.. if the head and body are to be well.88 5. it made of its void. Admirably.). as Eev. "For all good and evil. .. as Eev. and better.. in the soul. 21.. 7.." The man. reasonings (compare ii. Is far (d7re%6t). Lit. was not bound in that case to give his gift to the templebecause treasury. as from the head into the eyes and therefore. from those borders. not. she crossed from Phcenicia into Galilee. Have made of none effect {rjKvpdaaaTe). Kev." 157). [Ch. Lit. it is a gift to God. Compare Plato. jjor-^s. and overflows from thence. 14). Eev. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Kvpo<. holds off from me. Lit.e.. like the captious questioning of the Pharisees about washing hands. 8. whether in the body or in human nature. Out of til e heart. even if what was vowed involved 6. The picture needy parents by uttering the formula. Te have deprived authority. Weil {KokSn).. originates. ever. . {BiaXoyoa-iMol). authority. as he declared. That is the first thing" (" Charmides. Thoughts ix. Gorbcun.. a. while he was bound not to help his parent that of a churlish son evading tlie duty of assisting his . you must begin by curing the soul. By a quibble it was regarded as something like Corhan. Mark 33. Lit. XV. It was expressly stated that such a vow was binding. It is WORD STUDIES a gift (Baipov). is Eev. Out of the same coasts (dTro Twj/ dptWe/ceffi/wK). 19. It is vowed to God. as if it were laid on the altar and put entirely out of reach.).

importunate cry 23. because so many were coming on the same errand. not willing. 89 : Cried behind. is of a family meal. as Bengel exquisitely remarks. and Tynd.. Compare John iv. Cheke. Children's {t&v reKvmv). Me." 30. renders the picture whelps.Ch. down not carelessly. is better I would not. ver. In ver. Grievously vexed with a devil is Lit. Cast them down {eppf<^av).] MATTHEW. . XV. whelps. " the children's crumbs. little Diminutive : Utile dogs. 28. " Thus Christ was accustomed to send away. and to send them oAJoay fasti/ng lam Therefore Bev. hadly demonised. Bengel observes that while Christ spoke severely to the Jews. taken for the simple future of the verb smd. ning round the dogs. from Compare afie?'. Their masters. 22. "Wye. But two verbs are used the verb I will expressing Jesus' feelmg or dis. Lit. The children are the masters of the Compare Mark vii. he spoke honorably of them to those without. might easily be mis32. . ieunslrung or relaxed. Dogs The {Kwapioi<i). Lit. : : Faint {kicKv^Sicrvv). {ixpavyaa-ev)." 26. Making her daughter's misery her own. Send her away. "With a loud. The A.posir tion. 23.. but in haste. (Ara/c&j? Sat/xov/fferai). I will not (ou ^eKm). very evil devilled. With her request granted. The Greek order is. little flimg them Very graphic. V. with the pet house-dogs runtable. 27. for.. in both verses. Sir J.

WORD STUDIES seem IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. of the young ruler. 6. The disciples make In ver. Looking at the evensays to his neighbor. Morison compares the Scotch gloaming or glooming. so that they would sit on the ground. yet they who sat down to it guests. grass. he himself did not partake. XVI. 22. the grass would be burnt up. but his children or his household. the head if of the house was to speak the blessing only if he himself shared meal if . their provision as small as possible. the green 10.90 34. 3). Diminutive. turning Lowering hole. 36 the diminutive 35. were not merely he might speak even 3Y. .. is not used. the shy is glooming red. Little fishes (tx5-u8ta). 20. A. Fair weather ing sky. CHAPTER 2. several Gave thanks. Cranmer. a man the morning 3. 19. xiv. 39. (eVl rrjv yTJv).). Colloquial. vi. Compare Mark vi. Matt. (airvpiBaf). " Storm to-day " {arjiiepov : x^i-l^v). much grass. It was On then the month of flowers. the occasion of feeding the five thousand. V. " Fine weather " and in (ver. (ev8ia). Baskets See on Matt. The word is used only here and at Mark x. Rev.. The verb means to home a Dr. he was sad. then it. and John weeks later. gloomy {(nv^vd\^(ov). from Christ with his face overshadowed with gloom. in the According to the Jewish ordinance. j(^6pTovi. XVI. On the present occasion. [Ch. the multitude sat down on the grass {iirl tovi. his countenance feU. xiv. On the ground Compare Mark viii.

The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John i. Cephas. . Blessed (jjbaKapio'i). fragment of roch {ireTpo'i.] MATTHEW. thou) " Thou : art the anointed.erpo'i). 91 for 9. equally emphatic." Peter. 15. The word is feminine." xvi." ix. 18. Peter Christ replies.. Thou art the Christ. as in Homer. 1. distin- guished from Simon. See on ch. {Peter) is form of its Aramaic equivalent. but to Peter himself. Thou art Peter (o-u et n. or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (" iad. In this passage attento its tion is called. " Thou art used as a proper name. and also the emphatic position of the pronoun [av. the Son of the God. 20. but meaning. created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (" Odyssey. above). Il- A ax throwing j a stone at Hector ("Iliad. the rock {Trerprjv) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern. The emphatic . 3. a stone.." . 734). as distinguished from a stone or a. Compare on i. Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another. The word refers neither to Christ as a rock. " Thou art the Christ. and as enlightened by the " Father in Heaven. in a sense defined by his previous confession. but without losing its meaning as a common noun. Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak." IIeTpo<. nor to Peter'' s confession. 484). the living. and means a rock. 270). ix. In Homer (" Odyssey. Note the emphatic and definite force of the article in Peter's confession. v. 42) under the says. On this rock (eVi ravTy Ty ireTpa)." 17. to Peter.Ch. 10.." The reference of ireTpa to Christ The obvious reference of the word is is forced and unnatural. 243). iaslcet. is a mass which two-andtwenty wagons could not remove and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses." vii. not to the giving of the name. Note the accurate employment of the two words See on xiv. In classical Greek the of word means & piece of rock. XVI.

ii. since the church living men. 15. and besides. the addresses the church as living stones. : ' . had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss " ("Life and Times of Jesus "). he said Behold. 25. calls Christ a Iwingr stone. xxi." Equally untenable is the explanation which refers nrerpa to Simon's confession. .92 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Peter certain terms which are applied to him. iv. Christ is the great foundation. the metaphor is thus weakened. when sense in Eabbinic language. In Apoo. Gal. since Christ appears here. v. 14. " was used in the same According to the Kabbins.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. XVL this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent. but as the architect : Again. in ver. Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone. 4). Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it. ix. names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundationand in Eph. — not on Edersheim.e. and besides." says . as it is said: 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn. also. he could not rear it on the generation of Enos. i.' whence. I have found a rocis to build on it. " The word Trirpa. 5. from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter. 18. the "chief iuild. and. 29. [Oh. The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church. ii. 26. confessions. corner-stone. not " On this rock will I as i\ie foundation. God was about to build his world. and to found the world. Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna. stones of the heavenly city " Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets .. 20. i. 37. later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven. 8. x. so as to prevent all who. Abraham is called a rock. {i. but on confessors is built." himself (1 Pet. iii. laid by the apostles and prophets). 34. to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone." but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church For instance. 14. 12. it is said. 40. it does not conform to the fact. 15 ii. See Acts. nor on that of the flood. who brought destruction upon the world but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future. If.

Eoth in Hebrew and in New Testament usage iKKK7]<j[a implies more than a collective or national unity. where assembly is given for multitude in margin. 23. In New Testament. KoXea. together. XVI. to of which synagogue xiii. out. This occurrence of this word in the New Testament. xxviii. x. xvi. 27. Sixdes. the church at Jerusalem. 3).] MATTHEW. So in the first New Testament. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men. to call or 93 Church is summon. ivyo). without being confounded with the avva^ayyrj. . It is derived from fore. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Eom. house . Hades was orig- the dead —Pluto name of the god or Dis. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church. for the congregation of Israel. 39. 38) but for this there . there- It is the place to which all who depart their moral character. 1 xii. See Acts v. . the churches . not. either as nite purpose (1 collectively. this life descend. is a transcription Christ's a-vv. of the congregation of Israel (Acts vii. Gates of inally the hell {irvXai aSov). or a church confined to a particular place. Ch. 2. rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. Acts xix. 65). ek.. the imvisible and land. 11 viii. 1 xiv. Heb. a. 5) . etc. crvvarfayyri. Hence the and of Hades. the realm of shadow. which has a similar general meaning. though divided into Mysium. 43). Originally an assembly of citizens. Nevertheless avva'^ai'^ri is applied to a Christian assembly in James ii. {iKK\7]aiav). IBeiv. the church at Corinth. regularly summoned. 1 . The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be desigphasis nated as eKKK'qcria. ii. or for tlie regarded as a congregation (Gen. in Judea. to see signifies. while i-mcrvva/yai'yrj [gatliering or assembling together) is found in 2 Thess. 'Rqy. bring (Acts In words to Peter the word eKKXTjcria acquires special emfrom the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. etc. without reference to By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol. 25. The Septuagint uses the word summoned for a deficommunity of Israel Kings viii.. who presided over the realm of phrase. is more commonly employed . the Jewish community.

. and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts xxvi. His Redeemer. where he will wait patiently. and TaHarus. 27 xiv. 11 . . xxxii. xxvi. See Ps. XVX the abode of the virtuous. xiii. cxxxix. too. awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and hap- pier the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage. . . . vi. xiv. 8 xvi. while Sheol was a temporary condition. Job xix. 17-19 In istic. 19 Hos. 6. There was. Vagueness is its character- Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with The pagan poets gave the that of the Greek and Roman. 8 Isa. into the latter." Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing. and of black abysses where offenders underwent sti-ange and ingenious tortures. 13-15). . . . joyless. ix. Hades and Ezek. ix. 10). menlife. . 5. this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions that to the Pagan. [Ch. 9 Ivii. Eecl. 23-27. in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades. shadowy life. vindicator. God was the God of the dead as well as of the living 7). In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol . xlii. 94 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Hos. This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (xiv. standing like a sentinel at his this the . and others to shame and contempt (Isa. . . some to everlasting life. xiii. 2). 10. Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God. xi. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded The Hebrew conception is that of a place of as a descent. indeed. 17 cxv. is . 14. present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Ps. 21 world. . . 17. both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered See Gen. 16) as looking for and the martyrs as enduring in a better. lower than the Sheol were alike conceived as a . post. 5. 14 Dan. Hence the patriarchs are described (Heb.. 2 definite place. heavenly country hope of " a better resurrection. darkness a cheerless home of a dull. the abode of the wicked. . as a place of temporary concealment. 10 Job x. xii. This. 5 xciv. when Sheol itself should be desti'oyed and its inmates brought forth. . of popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium Styx and Acheron of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse. iii. 17 Ixxxviii. . 38 Ps. cxxxix. Hades was the final home of its tenants.

18 . Hades is the realm of the dead.] MATTHEW. and not only Death and Hades. (Luke xvi. that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden. XVI. in particular. and find his Gael (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer " (Cox. xx. is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. 22). and their souls are troubled (Edersheim. the place for sitmers (so Cremer. 8 xx. Christ also was in Hades (Acts ii. but the association is natural. but Lazarus was also in Hades. . We read that the righteous . the abode of the blessed. in the ISTew Testament." The details of this story "evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. hell (see on Matt. 23). the general judgment is predicted. which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position. 95 ger. 13. Hades. apart from all moral distinctions." Ilades is indeed coupled with Death (Apoc. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is. 27. In the ISTew Testament. and have no more bearing iipon the moral character of Ilades than the words of Zophar about the perfection of the Almighty. 15). 23). and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself. Moreover. the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were case. and in torments. but the sea give up their dead. " It is high as heaven deeper than Sheol. 7. and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast The rich man was in Hades into the lake of fire (ver. . is a broad and general Eden . are merely A * a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation. v. The words about Capernaum (Matt. see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice and similarly. 31). 8) — . the word yeevva. " judgment in Ilades. i. then. in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands. shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. " Commentary on the Book of Job "). " Life and Times of Jesus "). vi. 14. Death would naturally be followed by Ilades in any (Job xi. "in Abraham's bosom.— Ch. in which the judge will show himself his friend. and indeed inevitable. 14). In Apoc. 13. " Biblico-Theological Lexicon "). According to them. xi. in .

which is blessed or the contrary. through mouth.?). to the church (John xx. 10. Hades is throne. that. xxxviii. applied to the idea of a building parison. but in first. with formidable. the second. so was he also privileged to be the first to to the Gentiles. condition following death. Isa. to Peter. their reality. bearing the keys. to his the here. his Bind loose (SjJo-j^? Xuo-j. It is the conception. No other terms were in more constant use in Pabbinic canon-law than those of binding and loosing. and that not apostles .96 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ Will build upon the rock. Ps. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils oi the Satanic powers. with an idea of locality bound vip with it. The church or kingdom is conceived as a house. Keys (/cXeiSa?). in their pretension. oi forbidding or allowing. Compare the expression Sublime Porte. after his resurrection. [Ch. is Ottoman court. The similitude corresponding to build. of which Peter "Even as he had is to be the steward. The maintained in both membei's of the comor city of The kingdom 17. cvii. of the Rabbinic legislatiAie and judicial powers These powers Christ now transferred. and dignity of the infernal kingdom. contemplated as a mighty city. xxxviii. and Gehenna. 23. and is therefore divided into different realms. according to the moral character of the dead. been the first to utter the confession of the church. represented by Paradise or Abraham^s hosom. ix. In a sense common among the Jews. as their representative. with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. 19. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court. — — They represented the office. and as being in no way determined . frowning portals. only wear an offensive aspect when it is conceived of as possessing an arbitrary character. XVI. power. and at his bidding first be baptized " (Edersheim. See Job 13. the Gentiles should first hear the words of the Gospel. 18. Eder" This legislative authority conferred upon Peter can sheim). open its hitherto closed gates when God made choice of him. " Life and Times of Jesus ").

Ood home In classical usage. He had not shown to them It before. Jesus. He acted with greater familcorrectly.. the power conferred upon the former is set in its proper light. 18). " by a right of his own. of designating the Sanhedrim. at length expresses . of the gods as propitious. 26. with him ^primately. From that time began it {airo t6t6 ijp^aTo). xviii. See Matt. adds his betrayal into tlie hands of sinners the third (xx.Ch. etc. but is simply to be looked upon as first among his equals " (Meyer on Matt. 21.) Eev. rifices. .in margin. 54: . Since the power of binding and loosing. circumstantial Elders and chief priests and scribes. in consideration of their prayers and sacthee. may Ood he gracious to thee. his stripes. took by the hand.] MATTHEW." says Bengel. Be it far from thee (iXew? aoi. 17-19). (Set). is ascribed (Matt. took him apart to speaTc Not. and shown to be of necessity a power of a collegiate nature. so that Peter is not to be regarded as exclusively endowed with it. ^ mercy on Th& meaning 11 here is." suffer Began. For Jesus did not him to continue. and when it is regarded as being of an absolute nature. however. 18) to the apostles generally. 97 by the ethical influences of the Holy Spirit. xvi. the second (xvii. either in whole or in part. gracious toward men. . 22. 23). Must pose. which is here conferred upon Peter. reduces him to his level. viii. xxvi.. This first announcement mentions his passion and death generally. Took (Trpoo-Xa/So'/iez/os). A way 22. 3 Luke xxiv. 19 xviii. as independent of any connection with the rest of the apostles. " As if. or supreme coimcil of the Jewish nation. Mm had taken hvm to himself. XVI. but Meyer renders. . cross. Suffer. after he iarity after the token of acknowledgment had been given. was necessary in fulfilment of the divine purHeb.

with soul in margin. 23.— 98 WORD STUDIES Shall not be {ov /j. gives. thou art like a stone quite out of its proper place. Get thee behind me. Morison. Savourest follows the Vulgate sapis. I was a child I savoured (e^poof the quality vovv) as a child. from sapere. to have a Hence taste or flavor of: 2d. specially considered life. Dr. 10. : Note are in the past (aorist) tense " if he may that both words have gained or lost.. XVI. stumMing-Mock. renders it is very forcible : " Shall in no case be." (o-r/aa^ek)." The strictly. as before.^ IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Offence (cricdvBaXov). . Lit. but away from him. and lying right across the road in which I must go —lying as a stone of stumbling. 9. forfeit. xiii. 11. vii." Savourest not {oix^poveh). mindest not. a Often or mulcting in sum of money. trary. of fining cause loss or damage. discussion This will be psychological in the of the terms In in the Epistles.. exchange as an exchange. thou art offensive. Turned Not iSowart? Peter.. {avrdXKar/^a). to have sense or discernment. to he minded.. used here as the rendering of <f>poveiv. For lose. See on V. Rev.. a noble block. which means 1st. hetter. but of men. Rev. Soul {"^vxvv) Rev. Not. See iv. " Thou art not. 29. lying in On the conits right position as a massive foundation-stone. Thus "Wye. Gain — lose (/KepS^trj. 1 Cor. ea-Tai). ^rjfico)^^). The to verb in the active voice means in the classics. Thy thoughts and intents are not of G-od. 'Rev. The double negative Rev. by never. of. but thou art in my way. the final The Lord looks back to the details of each life as the factors of sum of gain or loss. [Ch. to partahe or nature 26. "When idea is. better. Compare 2 Cor.

not fashioned according to the Meeting fashion of this world. Hence. (Tyf)iia is . All these changes are in the accidents of the life. Rom. it may be asked. xii.. . He change or transfer. iii. also. See. a^art alone). apart ly tliemseVoes {kut'' IBiav fj. then.vA fashion is : distinguished from in a ayfifjia. 6. as isolated... further. XYII. Taketh {frapakaij. xii. Ch. Compare Mark xvi. . words. Why. This latter word denotes i\iQ form regarded as the distinctive nature and character of the object. 2. so that they might be alone with him. 15. where the changes described are changes in outward semblance. but of the (UsGvples . The form'''' (fiopcf)^). 99 CHAPTER 1. gives the force of the preposition Trapd. the changeable. 29 2 Cor. not conformed to this world." Thus. . his gestures. Comchange taking place by the renewing of the mind. for instance. man. 2 Cor. 2.6vov<s lit. .. iii. and do not touch its inner. a change in the inner life is described as a change of fj^op^rj. taketh with him. pare Rom." The distinction passes into the verbs compounded with these two nouns. 12 Christ " appeared in another acts. Rom. form. 13. Not said of the mountain. False apostles appeared in the outward fashion of apostles of Christ Satan takes on the outward appearance of an angel. was transfigured (jieTefiop^xoSTj).] MATTHEW. never of (r^yfuia.op4>v employed in this description of the transfigured Saviour. 2. vii. leaving the form unaffected. on Philip. viii. Apart pare (kkt' ihiav). XVn. .e. and outvfB. denoting 2. " Be ye 1/ransformed-{fieTa(iop<^ov(7Be) the .^dvei). fashioned. essential quality. 18 Philip. So 'Rev. since the change described is a change in his outward appearance ? It . ii. 14. Com: Mark ix. Eev. On the other hand. xi. is a compound of /ji. and fJLopt^rj. " Be be is firj crva-'X7]fiaTl^e<T^s i. 31: "the fashion (o-^^/^a) of the world passeth away. clothes. the i^-op^ partakes of the essence of a thing an accident which may change. 7. fierd. and 1 Cor. 21 and see.

Three tabernacles (<7«7?vo?). there is a deep and pregnant hint in the use of this word. were the same but an indefinable change had passed upon him. The same truth is illustrated in the use of fiopcfnj in Mark xvi. that the visible change gets its real character and meaning from that forewhich is essential in our Lord ^his divine nature. in the glory which he had with the Father before the world was (John xvii. XVII. But the best texts read. : (hi k-rkpa fMop<f)y) after his resurrection. Tents or booths. In truth. out of the brushwood lying near. which is. make (TroMja-tayaev). and confirmed the words from heaven This is iny iehved Son. and prophetic of his revelation " as he is " (1 John iii. be answered. 12. . 2). face. Let us TTowjo-ft). figure. — A — .' which. would not express the deeper truth of the case. expressing merely a change in the aspect of Christ's person and garments. He would erect the booths himself. so far as revealed. where it is said that Jesus appeared in a different form.: 100 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and which defies accurate definition. fact and a power in that vision which mere radiance and the appearance of the dead patriarchs could not wholly convey a revelation of Deity breaking out in that glorified face and form. 5). I will make. form identified. Peter realized that it was night. 4. and overwhelming impression upon the three disciples was due to something besides the shining of Christ's face and garments. the characteristic of which was that it prefigured his passing into the condition peculiar and appropriate to his essential spiritual and divine being. which easily escapes obThe profound servation. The accidents of . and was for preparing shelters into which the heavenly visitants might retire after their interview. pierced hands and feet. because a compound o£ vyrnia. is more characteristic of Peter. [Ch. which appealed to something deeper than sense. and the presence of Moses and Elijah and was deeper and There was a subtler than the effect of all these combined. with the divine quality of his being. may — shadowing or prophecy of his true form his distinctive charHe passes over into a acter comes out in his transfiguration.

Because of your little faith. But the better reading ia oXiyoHence Eev. Elijah cometh first. (opafio). waywa/rd. epileptic gives the true character of the disease. about thirty-five cents.ea-Tpa/j. where the good Samaritan left about thirty-three cents at the . iv. 24. Cometh. Eev..Ch.. " The Saxons . and Danes precede the Normans in England. were in dechange the current into the temple coin. 17. to twist. including proselytes (ot ra SiSpaxf-a XafjL^dvovTe's). liMeness offaith. mand to . They that received tribute-money age. 101 9. It is a point of Jewish chronology just as a teacher of history might say to his pupils. throughout/ (aTTto-Ttaz/). Perverse Bid. between four and five The annual revenue to the moneycents on every half-shekel. 24.. preserves the etymology of the word {creXr]vr}. yet does not us the fact contained in. epU&ptic. V.. male Israelite of Every and manumitted Jews. the regular half-shekel of and the money-changers. while the Eev. 15.fievTj). that epilepsy was supposed to be affected by the changes of the moon. Unbelief iria-Tlav." ready come in the person of John the Baptist. An abstract statement expressing the fact that Elijah's corning precedes in time the coming of the Messiah. They that received the half-shekel. See on Matt. 11. Tynd. The A. Wye. which they did at a rate of discount fixed by law. but hmaUo tell conveys to us the idea of demented . Is Elijah had al- lunatic {aeki^vidi^eraC). crooked / 20. a-rpe^a). Eev. and the treasury . Vision The spectacle. the Greek word. {Bi. therefore. paid in the ancient money of Israel.] MATTHEW. changers from this source has been estimated at nearly fortyfive thousand dollars a very large sum in a country where a laborer received less than twentv cents for a day's work. the moon). was expected to pay annually for the temple-service a This must be half-shekel or didrachm. Warped. XVII.

. very inade- quate. is t) ktjvo-ov). . in its older sense. uals.. Compare Shakspeare ' ' So shall my anticipation prevent your discovery. wliich means.. the stater. a king tax his own children or his subjects {dyKia-rpov). Strangers (aWoTpicov). but fol- lowing Tynd. was a correct translation. of the collectors. gives toll for Toll duty upon goods is first. when Jesus attacked a he overthrew the tables of the Yes {val). Mm.. tribxi. . He antici- pated him in speaking about Custom custom. Prevented {-irpoet^^aaev). tion. is A piece of money {aTarijpa). ii. but others than In other words. own families their subjects.. The A. Hamlet. 25.. Spake first to anticipate. Hook The only mention in the is New Testa- ment of fishing with a hook. " 102 WORD STUDIES IS THE NEW TESTAMENT. 1. V. get 'before. rather awkwardly. to Rev. XVH inn for the keeping of the wounded man. [Ch. came before him. The meaning is that Jesus did not wait for Out of this before another. to hinder. view to taxa- and then the tax itself. tax upon individ- Kr}vcro<. very powerful interest money-changers. grew the secondary meaning. one hinders Peter to tell him of the demand it. Prevent. foreigners. and represents two Hence Eev. A single fish wanted.te. a definite sum. tribute. mei'ely a transcription of the Latin a registration with a census. renders pose. or tribute (tcXt. Indicating that Jesus had paid the tax on former occasions. which is Greek word. or a shekel. ? Does 27. a shekel. because Christ names a literal transcription of the didrachmas. Wye. By getting him from accomplishing his purThis meaning has supplanted the other. those of their Not . Kev.

XYIII. were in use the one turned by hand.. as Rev. Not. 3.. as Rev. In my name (eVt too wo/iart/xoy). or. tive is very foi'cible. overlooks. The word which converted has acis quired a conventional religious sense which truthful. as things stand. an ass {ovo<. XVin. a special miracle. or on account of . Two kinds of millstones 6.." and in being appointed to take part in inserts then after who. who then is greatest ? Be converted {<TTpa(l)fjTe). millstone of asses.).. but. The picture is that of turning round in a road and facing the other way. i<po«- my name on the ground of. So far from being greatest in the kingdom of heaven. As . except ye turn. ye shall not so Shall not enter (pv ^^ ela-ixSTjre). Who then ? Who. Wye. as enter. and larger. 103 CHAPTER 1. But the double negagiven in Rev. apa. the other.] MATTHEW. a great millstone . Greek V. in nowise. Lit. A millstone (nvKos o'vuko's). . this little child. for m/y sahe. Since one of our number has been doubly honored in being called " the rock. Here Jesus says an ass-millstone. which the A. shall make himself humble become by as this little child is lowly child shall willingly spiritual process what the is by nature. by . Ch. but the essential quality of will fundamentally be more appa- rent if we render literally. 5. as this little child humbles himself. and is much 4. thus restoring the The Rev.

WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. V. go and prove to him how he has erred. Do not wait for him to come to you. There is not a will lefore your (my) Father. with snub as explanation. 15. concord of voices agreement in the deeper and more inward It has so far lost its distinctive character as a as to be used for sense.. mouth. scattered over) the mountains. if any . Rev. together. Wye.<f)a)v^(Tovcnv). go into the mountains?" Kather join leave with. The will of your Father (BeKrifia efiirpov^ev rovirarpb'} Though some read my Father (jiov). The literal rendering is. lettmg out." etc. The Rev. first. Better Rev. In the mouth (eVt a-rofjiaToi). reprove. shew him. [Ca XVnX puted." or on the testimony of. try.covTat). and sound or voice. This also corresponds with learning.. and read. There is not before thefoKie of God any determination having as its object that one of these. to test. agree {a-vfji.. and Eev. . Shall ^toi'T?. Meyer paraphrases. on the mountains. thence to rebuke or chide. If it should so come to pass. Leave upon the mountains. Transcribed in our word symphony. search out / therefore. to cross-examine with a view of convincing or refuting. The verb means. "at the 19. 'n-pdyfiaTo<i Concerning anything that they shall ask {Trepl Trarro? ov iav alTi]<. 16. Lit. shew is better than tell.104 12. The text here is disBoth A. leaving the ninety and nine. aj)ri<76i. From a-vv. " Will he not leave the ninety and nine upon (eVl. and go. etc. or letting loose. vfi&v). God's grace 14. It is not will before your Father. is not irresistible. lfsobe(eai/ yevTjTat). 13. Go {tnra'ye). which implies merely naming the fault whereas the injunction is. So Wye. Tell him his fault (eXey^ov). follow a text which reads: " Doth he not..

" . " seventy times and that seven times over. Morison observes.. 24." The point. the practice was terribly different. therefore. XVIII. 20. or seventy-seven times. as the name. where. for. tom crtB. of something to be done. stronger have asked. both enumerations are right. Authorities. "So far as the spirit of our Saviour's answer is concerned. while Bunsen renders sion seven times seventy..* It was Kabbinism that forgiveness should not be extended more than three times. for which they may Shall consent of everything whatever they Tynd. "into my "When two or three are drawn together into Christ mon centre of their desire and faith." * It is uncertain whether this means four hundred and ninety times. it is cognate to the verb irpda- 8haU be done. thing. and that on the day of atonement the reason being that the offended rabbi had learned by a dream that his offending brother would attain the highest dignity whereupon he feigned himself irreconcilable. affair. wJiatemrit he. Even so. The word wpay/ui. as Dr." com- Seventy times seven {e^SofiriKovTaKK eTrra). since to do. : 105 thing. 22.] MATTHEW. iv. and Giotiua septuagies et id ipsum septies. is unimportant. He means that there is to be no limit. however. to force the other to migrate from Palestine to Babylon. unenvied by him.Ch. though asked by the offender for thirteen successive years. In my name [ek t6 i/xov 6vo/xa). is yevrjaeTai. Lit. 8hall agree in any manner thing whatsoever Wye. it shall come to pass. shall ash. . " Forgiveness is qualitative. however. is used like the Latin res. Everything. husiness. not quantitative. It must. do not agree on the rendering of the Hebrew in that passage. seven times. The Talmud relates. however.. the conduct a settled rule of of a rabbi )vho would not forgive a very small slight of his dignity. have seemed to Peter a stretch of charity to extend forgiveness from three to . Gen. with the meaning at botthey shall desire. Meyer says it cannot possibly mean anything else than seventy-seven. claim that the expresis derived from the Septuagint. a matter. he might occupy the chief place (Edersheim). without blame. Christ is not specifying a number of times greater than the limit of seven. Those who maintain the latter.

" In C. V.. Kev.. ^aaiXel). and might be taken to The t&v hovof his servants {awapai X6701. The kingdom of heaven is like unto a humam." iv. relates how. 10. /tera loose and inadequate. : . twisted the neck) the few who appealed. compounded up together. 13. a difficulty having arisen between the consul Valerius and one Menenius. Found. v." xxi. strangled. ^hmg. °Theverb avvapaiis. V. about twelve millions of dollars. According to the law of Moses: Ex. 63). 28. with." Compare Cicero.. Compare were choked. better. Take account \a>v airov). rendering of the A. Lev. a debtor of ten Ten tfiousand talents. holding them by the throat. vants. 25. XVIH A certain king (Siv^pclyTrq.. Lit. 24.106 23. take to tahe wp. also overlooks the force oi p^erk. An enormous sum. make a reckoning w%th hu with. Yerrem. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMJINT. Thus Livy (iv.) "Lead him to the judgment-seat with twisted neck {collo obtorto). To be sold. Wye. And Cicero (" Pro Cluentio. as an aocount.e. 39. as he himself been sought out by his lord. Wliich owed iiim thousand talents. as the Roman law allowed them to do. 47. and aipo). is vants. (o^etXeriy?). a man. Less than a millionth Took him by the throat {ai/rov eTrvijev). A part of his hundred pence own debt.. and the consul ordered into prison {coUum torsisset. Lit. Mark ors often Lit. the tribunes put an end to the contest. mean to reoTcon the number of hu serof avv. serTherefore. Either went in search of him. xxii. [Ca.. throttled. [sKarov Brjvdpia). Credit- dragged their debtors before the judge. 3 . cast wp. king. i. xxv. and means literally to The A. or came upon him accidentally had in the street.

The throughout. ply the expression of a pitiless logic. borders j though easy to see how the translation coasts arose. 30.. 44. Their Lord him. it is Coasts (opia). 31. to explavn. but to a workhouse and torture. They ex- plained the circumstances throughout.. in the sense of coming upon accidentally. 23). vi. and as a mark of their confidence in Livy pictures an was taken by his creditor. though not certain as to the amount of his debt.. (fiaa-avia-Tah). More than merely narrated. 29. Went (aTreXSoiv). The imperfect has the force of earnestly besought. XIX. went away : dragging the other with him to judgment. thou owest anyuncertain about the/aci! of the ^ debt. is Not that the creditor Lit. Meyer remarks. " their own Lord . " The if'\'& simimplied. and hence a border generally.] MATTHEW. (et 107 What thou owest thing. coast being derived from the Latin cosia. verb is Told from (Biecrdffyria-av). See on Matt. " as befitted their position.. though some uncertainty about the exact amount may be This would agree ^\\h found. Besought {TrapeKokei). Compare Matt. 34. He came suddenly upon him and recognized him as a debtor. not into servitude. (to5 icvpUp eavrcov). though now 3. n o^etXet?). If thou owest anything (as thou dost) pay " The word pay (d7r6So9) is emphatic in ! position. a side. Tempting. 13. . Lit. applied to the sea-side only. Lit. Better Rev.Ch. XIX. Sid. To the tormentors old centurion complaining that he CHAPTER 1. xiii. and aajiico. and showing his back scarred with fresh wounds (ii.

two in one flesh.. Except for fornication account offornication.. which originally rus. hill. pamper. The A. The original ordinance has never been abrogated nor superseded. shall he glued.' having regard to. but the unity which that thing that God cemented and so Wye. 8. But that is not Christ's meaning. Because of (tt/so?). /juiav). Eev. of ^l^Xoif. Writing {^i^Xiov). (that of Jesus espoused. the until now. but con: He means case has not heen so from the beginning tinues in force. Shall be one flesh {ea-ovrai et? crdpKa one flesh " Wye. knit together. not the . Christ is contemplating. considered as a momentary seems to refer to the original 4). aorist God enjoined / act) i. it was not so in t/i£ heginning. means the inner bark of the papythen a book or roll of this bark hence Eev.. z.108 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Lit. . not on . Not those. used for writing. ordinance of Grod at the creation (ver. The verb is in the perfect tense (denoting the continuance of past action or its results down to the present). 9. Notwithstanding Moses' permission. 7. . What (o).e. the one of which (that of Hillel) held that a man might divorce his wife for any reason which rendered her distasteful to him . Shall cleave {KoXKij^aeraC). It was not so (ov jiyovev outws). The tense (denoting the occurrence of an event at some past time. Y. The temptaUon turned upon the dispute dividing the two great Rabbinical schools. "into 6. 5. (jir) im tropveia). XIX For every cause.ybr. individuals.. Lit. Lit. is commonly understood to mean. The word is a diminutive hill. and the other Shammai) that divorce was allowable only in case of unThe querists would be anxious to know which side chastity.. [Ch.

Sir J. while in Palestine it was unknown. t/ fie epa>T5. the state of the case. is God (pvhii<i aya^o'^ ei eh 0609)." a needle's eye {Kdfj. It is in salvation of rich men. cause (ver." The allusion TpvTr7jfiaro(. in his history of the animals of scripture. The reason why the camel was substituted for the elephant was because the proverb was from the Babylonian Talmud. Camel — through pa^tSos). wha can he .7]\ov Sid Luke xviii. 6 . XIX. " There noth- ing else that 24. and in Babylon the elephant was common. Luke xiii.] MATTHEW.<i irepl tov ayaSov Why askest thou me concerning the good? . The saying of Christ appears especially appro- priate in the light of the Rabbinic apothegm. Lit. But the true reading is. Why callest thou me good ? (ti /te Xiyei<. that a man did not even in his dreams see an elephant pass through the eye of a needle. . There fir) is none good but one. nor the circumstcmGes. 8. but salvaanswer to the question. is good but the law. is eh ia-rlv 6 aya&o'i. Not the tion in general. See on Mark x. Cheke Let these children 17. 25 Compare the Jewish proverb. 25. 26. The Koran has the same figure: "The imthe gates of heaven shut nor shall he enter pious shall find there till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle. ting and the meaning Alria refers to the matter stands thus for put- with reference to the cause which the man must have away his wife. that But the reading is. Suffer (at^exe). Not the relation of the is.Ch. if man to his wife. 36 . The case 3). XV. . ayaSov). cites a Talmudic passage "A needle's eye is not too narrow for two friends. {alrla). 14." Bochart. Compare Mark : xiv. One is there is who good. alone. lea/oe alone.. : is not to be explained by reference to a narrow gate called a needles eye. This (toOto). 109 10. nor is the world wide enough for two enemies.

" to Compare 2 Tim. 30. 30. 29. " Here (at Hamadan. for the latter was peculiar to the apostles. Explaining and confirming xix. 1. in contrast with the young ruler. In the regeneration. authorities read iroXKaifKacriova. The promise Every one (ttS?). "to all them " Not only apostles. nor ought Peter have inquired only concerning them " (Bengel). brethren. that a numerous band of peasants were collected. Or shaU have taken his seat. We. we observed every morning. the former common to them with others" (Bengel). that love his appearing. iv. before the sun rose. particularly . A gin. in Persia).110 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT." world with this x. where there is added " houses and Also the Arabic proverb " Purchase the next so shalt thou win both. XX. with spades in their hands. sit. we have followed." : CHAPTER XX. . 27. [Ch. hitherto restricted to the apostles now becomes general. smed? Man cannot save himself nor his fellow. To be construed with ye shall Shall sit {Ka^Lo-Tj). For (7ap). manifold. Early in the morning (a/Aa irpaX). Along with the dawn. 28. Have followed. which brings out more vividly the solemn inauguration of Christ's judgment. 8. "Peter had said together the words Jesus replies to them sepaice home left. in mar- Compare Mark etc. hundred-fold {eKaTovraifKaalova). rately . But many very high So Kev. waiting to be hired for the day to work in the surrounding as a fields. Emphatic. God only can save him. This custom struck me most happy illustration of our Saviour's parable. The final restitution of all things.

For a penny (Sk B^jvapiov). Representing the whole body. It refers to the dry. the scorching heat: The word is 12. 8). xli. passing by the same place late in the day. In almost every case where the word occurs in the New Testament it is connected with the idea of a Mark vi. and causing restlessness and sleeplessness. . to hum. . they answered us. for it would carry away both chaff and corn. they are doubly destructive. It was the paj' of a Roman soldier in Christ's time. coin of the at this time.") ' ' . out of or on the strength of a penny the payment being that on the strength of which the agreement was made. liberal or large amount. Every man a penny {to ava Srivdpiov). distributive. iv. from Kaito. Lit. xiii. . xvii. parching. 13. It seldom . 37. but when it does. For a penny is. dry. amounting in each case to a penny . the chiei sil^ev and of the value of about must remember to reckon according to the rate of wages in that day.. 21 Hos. Why stand ye here all the day idle ? as most applicable to their situation for on putting the very same question to them. Compare Job xxvii. and the vine in Ezekiel's parable of the Babylonian captivity is blighted by it (Ezek. " Parables.. xviii. " Second Journey through Persia.." cited by Trench. Wye.blows from the Arabian desert. 28 Luke vii.] MATTHEW. Romans seventeen cents. exciting the blood.' " (Morier. 6) the ears are blasted by it: Jonah's gourd is withered by it (Jon. 15. We . each one hy himself a penny 10. we found others standing idle. or a penny apiece. 10). The agreement arose out of the demand on the one hand and the promise on the other. 41 John xii.. scorching heat borne by the east wind. XX. brings storms. Compare Matt. the sum is 'Ava ^qy. A denarius was regarded as good pay for a day's work. Heat (/fauo-mva). Ill when. The wind. Pharaoh's dream (Gen. ' 2. One. literally. During harvest the corn cannot be winnowed if the east wind In blows. 5. and remembered his words. Ch. Because no man hath hired us. A denarius.

26. 14. [Ch. XX. 3 . but in his activity. command. It is applied to Phoebe (Eom. Eev. Lit. ver. 21.. dvaC). xvi. iii. The term covers both slaves and hired servants. AiAkovo'. Eev. For one soul working in the strength. with authority.. See on Matt. 7). scription of it (Philip. not in his relation. The attendants at the feast at Cana (John ii. moreover. Therefore. ... represents a servant. Col. 27 (SouXo?). rightly. of love Is mightier than ten thousand to atone. ComMatt." 30. Servant. to pursue. Will le. It is may be mistaken my will to giwe. The on is They heard the crowd cry Jesus . 6 Eph. v. 8. as in other cases in the A. Take {apov). corhrade. this for the simple future of the verb whereas there are two verbs. NEW TESTAMENT. iii. is often used 5) are called StaKovoc. 1 Tim. In the epistles SidKovo<. "Oed.e. to hind. (^eXj. The word deacon is. as if the money had table or counter. 12). iv. will give peXft) hovvai). coimpanion. be great See on ver. is the hondmom. JoSXo?. 28. equivalent to quotation marks. xxiii. 1). WORD STUDIES IN THE Lit. perhaps from hkos. these stones. A ransom •' for many. iii. take ivp. xv. Lit. 5 2 Cor. would Minister (Sta/coTO?).. {eratpe). 112 Friend 14. Grant (etVe)." speah . i. iii. *." Matt.. That Jesus passed by is passing ! {oTi'Ir}a-ov<. representing the permanent 7'elation of servitude. 7rapdr/ei).. as been laid down for him on a I Kev.. probably from the same root as Sicoko). 1 . 32.. But. 3.. almost a tran. Compare Sophocles. " lid yoxx." 488. pare " command Eev.. specifically for a minister of the Gospel (1 Cor.

Testament 16 Acts xi. ruler. as may be seen in the phrases Jesus Christ our Lord. . 46 John xiii. 12 compare 1 Pet. 1). 11. nature and power. as my God (John xx. etc. 2. Bethphage. . and in inscriptions applied to different gods. to Christ. 'O icvpio^. 6). in the progress of Christian thought in the New Testament. 18). (o /evpto?). is used of Christ by Matthew only once (xxi. Nevertheless. . House of figs.Ch.) . Kvpi. 17 Apoc. lord. Col. 2 . A its colt with her. ii. It is applied to In 22. xviii. Sir (Matt. Joseph is called lord of the country (Gen. These are indicated by some accompanying word or phrase. From Kvpo'^. i. i. lord (xlii. the Lord. or in address. In the Pauline writings. 10). The Lord does not separate the colt from 3. the master of slaves is called both Seo-Trori?? (1 Tim. swpreme power. 3) until after the resurrection (xxviii. also of the head of the family. 9 . 36) to the glory of God the Father (Philip. As applied . dam. 113 CHAPTER XXL 1. iii. ii. and /evysw? (Eph. 33). viii. Tit.. iv. Zeus. . 1 Pet. 8). who is lord {icvpto^) of the wife and children (1 Sam. 9 . . 24 . owner. i. 10). In the other gospels and in the Acts it occurs far of tener.o<. auone homing OAithority. Our Lord Jesus Christ. 1. xii. 6). the New ii. 6). 11 vi. it is . however. 14 1 Cor. 8) so that. as Hermes. used of the gods. Our Lord. 13. 27 Ex. 28) of all (Acts x. xviii. the meaning develops toward a specific designation of the divine Saviour. Jesus our Lord. 11) of glory (1 Cor. ii. Lord is used in the sense of Master or Ruler. while to the slaves he is Seo-Trori??. 8 . . 8. vi. xxii. In classical Greek. . xlii. . 16 . . it is used by Sarah of her husband (Gen. iv. 20. 43. XXll MATTHEW. ii. vi. Sept. it does not express his divine . God (Gen. a name for God (Matt. 45 Luke ii. as a title of Christ. The Lord Hence thority. and is addressed by his brethren as my In the Septuagint .

and had rode out with Mr. xlvii. The reference is not to the size. is wrong. [Ch. the Eastern ass being often of great beauty and spirit. male and female. that time. 4). Edward Robinson. Jerusalem. " their oww garments. cited by Dr. daughter of . not on a stately charger with embroidJesus. was on a visit to Jerusalem. He is ered and jewelled housings. {l/xdna). WORD Daughter STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Isa. correctly. met them. See on Matt. cxxxvii. 40. n4 5. but to the proportionate part of the multitude which followed him. (eauTaJj/). mounted. of the inhabitants were already imwere in deep distress. Hence Rev. son of a 'T-TTo^vyiov. as they rose the ascent to enter Bethlehem. son ofaheast-ofburden. imploring the consul to inprisoned. xlv. speaking of the inhabitants of Bethlehem who had participated in the rebellion of 1834. {i-Tn^e^Tji^ax.. On their return.. he tooh his seat upon. 8 Bahylon Tyre for the city or people of Tyre (Ps. The A. says: "At Their garments Lit. hundreds of people. He rides on a common beast-of-burden. Lit. Rev. riding. ha/ving gone upon. A very great multitude (o TrXeto-ro? o')(\o<i). ^V7o'?. vtto. from The phrase emphasizes the humble state of heast-under-yoke.. But the preferable reading is eireKa- ^Lcrev. . or mounted. 1) for the city of Babylon (Ps. heneath. furnished with the every-day garments of his disciples. nor even on an ass for the saddle. XXL Compare dmighter of of Sion. and in demand for this purpose. 12) . Set him thereon. V. Foal of an ass {vlov viro^vyiov). Morison.). Outer garments. Dr. "Wye. and all when some . daughter ofmypeojole Sitting (Isa.. Farrar. Mr. v. a yoke. xxii." The the multitude disciples spread their garments on the beasts strewed their own garments in the way. Garments 7. The most^'art of the multitude. Nicolayson to Solomon's Pools. Lit... then English consul at Damascus.

). Osame! It Was moved (eo-eto-^T. Rev. Its secondary meaning is to furnish completely. aorist tense. x. Thou hast provided the perfection of praise.. Rev. Thou 19. continued action. is more graphic. correctly. Hosanna. denoting As Jesus advanced.%t founded strength. xvii. 9. XXL] MATTHEW. . follows the Septuagint. hence to perfect. iv. in the court of the Gentiles. 115 and afford them his protection and all by a sort of simultaneous movement. are saying. the rate These changers sat in the temple. The quotation from Ps. they kept cutting branches and spreading them. 24. nite act. viii..2.. 16. See on Matt. 30. is 12. As Morison happily observes. " Thou \i. shaken as by an earthquake. The Rev.gle fig-tree. imperfects." 10. xxvi." Matt. Say (Xe^ovo-fi'). variation of tenses is not preserved in the English ver- Spread their garments. The same word as at 21. A fig-tree {avnrfv fiiav). 55 Thieves Luke . " Hearest thou what these are hast perfected {Karrjprla-ai). in margin. to change the foreign coins of pilgrims into the shekel of the sanctuary for payment of the annual tribute. one sim. 2. equip . The money-changers of exchange. From a:6\\u/3o?. J/(wec? is hardly strong enough. While the songs and shouts saying ? are rising. they spread their garments in the way before the horses. {KoXKv^oaT&v). ro55era.. and not the Hebrew." Ch. . denoting one defi- Out down^ spread in the way. the priests turn angrily to Christ with the question. 13. which is. " a profounder ground-swell of feeling. See on Matt. where it is used of adjusting or mending nets." terf ere in their behalf. and the multitude kept crying. Rev. Lit. at once. The sions. (Xj^o-T&ji'). stirred.

. as contrasted with the cTia/nge of . The presently means. that the word in this passage may have been intended to carry a different shade of meaning. twenty-four times. therefore. and in every case with reference to that change of heart and life wrought by the Spirit of God. As. " How did the fig-tree immediately wither This is a different word from 17 /MeTavoelre. of Paul's not regretting his letter to the Corinthians (2 On the other hand. the New Testament writers evidently recognize a distinction. and the verb itself only five times and.. vii. not immediately. 29. Before you can say 'come. and the . iii.Presently. 2 iv. with a meaning quite foreign Thus it is used of to repentance in the ordinary gospel sense. (/tt6Ta/ie\77^ei?). ' so so . rejjent. 8. implies an after-care. when he brought back the thirty pieces (Matt. . do it. now lost to us. as its etymology indicates {/J-eTci. 2 iv. fieTavoem.' whom I And breathe twice and cry Each one tripping on his toe .' and 'go. occurs thirty-four times. in popular speech. Compare ver." Tempest. 3). Rejpent ye. xxvii. Ay. but soon. ". repentance (Matt. used by John and Jesus in their sunnnons to repentance (Matt.Pkospbbo.: ' 116 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Cor. [Ch. away ? " Eev. Akiel. that in Matt. . 20. Judas. . since the noun which corresponds to the verb in this passage (^era/ieXeta) is not used at all in the New Testa- Repented iii. XXL Presently {irapaxpnM). ment. I will rendering here was correct in the older English sense of mSo constantly in Shakspeare stcmtly. iii. to he an object of care). and fji. 21). O'er Go. after. vii. here. 1. has I will do such a thing acquired something of a future force. 11). bring the rabble. 32). noun /Merdvoia. to this place. 8) and of God (Heb. 17). Presently ? Pros. gave thee pow'r. iv.i\Q). with a twink. MerafiiXo/j^at. to which remission of sins and salvation are promised. Will be here. Though it is fairly claimed that the word here implies all that is implied in the other word. in every case except the two in this passage (see ver. It is not impossible.

. Hedged more it Rev. from this parable at Digged a wine-press A there it was drawn off into a third and smaller basin. 2 iv. vii. Ch. fat. which once recalls. Allusions to these watching-places. is hewed out. XXI. 117 TTimd denoted by fierdvoia. iii. i. with the square gray tower at the corner of each. common in the East. temporary and permanent. are frequent in Scripture. literally. Palestine") describes the ruins of vineyards in Judea as enclosures of loose stones. I should have acted otherwise) (Trench).. juice into the lower basin. 38. 17. i.] MATTHEW. Thus. There is no occasion for one ever to thmh better of either his repentance or the salvation in which it issued. Acts ii. Paul's recognition of the distinction (2 Cor.e. v. a hedge about it / possibly of the thorny wild aloe." ." a salvation or repentance "which bringeth no regret on thinking of it afterwards " (a/ierafieXriTov). set round about (<j)pajfiov airw irepiiBTjKev). /ierdvoia de- notes the repentance which affects the whole latter is often : life. 19). but annoyance at the consequences of an act or course of acts. {a>pv^ev Xr/vov). iii. "Land and Book"). For watchmen. MerafieXeia refers chiefly to single acts . " a booth in a vineyard" (Isa. where it was allowed to settle . " It may be simply what our fathers were wont to call hadivnst (had-I-wist. "The earth moveth to and fro like a A . or known better. Stanley (" Sinai and tower {vvpyov). Hence the found in the imperative Repent ye (Matt. narrow channel cut in the rock conveyed the and pressed. There is no mistaking the purpose for which those basins were excavated in the solid rock " (Thomson. 8). one of the most complete and best preserved in the counHere is the upper basin where the grapes were trodden try. 33. and chagrin at not having known better. 1. In Isa. the former never. " Godly sorrow worketli repentcmce (fieTcivoiav) unto salvation. Not sorrow for moral obliquity and sin against God. the Hebrew word rendered by the Septuagint and here digged. 10) is noteworthy. 2. from the solid " Above the road on our left are the outlines of a winerock.

Y. Compare ver. huf). say a third or a fourth of the produce. ally They will means to turn reverence (ivrpa-Trrja-ovTai). A. 37. : amount of fruits in their season " (Edersheim. pay respect to. a vineyard-watchman's deserted hammock tossed to and fro by So Job speaks of a hooth which the the storm (Isa. 20). miserably destroy those wicked men («a«. preserves by rendering " miser41. Eev. a hut made of sticks and hung with mats. the Orient has left its mark. In Spain. not only upon architecture but also upon agricultural implements and methods. . erected only for the liarvest season on the field or vineyard. whether the harvest had been good or bad. 18). [Ch. . or else that he agreed to give the owner a definite amount of the produce. There can scarcely be a doubt that it is the latter kind of lease which is referred to in the parable the lessees being bound to give the owner a certain . 2.oLi? There is a play upon the words which the A. V.118 WORD (so STUDIES IN THE Isa. " There were three modes of dealing According to one of these. " Life and Times of Jesus").). XXI. Such leases were given by the year or for life sometimes the lease was even hereditary. He will /ca/cftj? airoXea-ei avroix. The other two modes were. keeper of a vineyard runneth np (xxvii. to watchmen in this passage would seem Let it with land. NEW TESTAMENT. 34. and mounts guard against the robber and the beast. hence to give heed to. and some have thought that it was intended not only for watching. the laborers employed received a certain portion of the fruits. passing from father to son. misses an-d the Kev. for the watchman who spreads hia rude bed upon its high platform. The verb litertoward. hammock " Cheyne on cottage .. xxiv. and Mark xii. where. erected for in the vineyards. but as a storehouse for the wine and a lodging for the workmen. Archbishop Trench says that he has observed similar temporary structures The tower alluded to have been of a more permanent character (see Stanley above). especially in the South. " that he might receive of the fruits " {airo t&v KapirSyv).. either that the tenant paid a money-rent to the proprietor. out (efeSero).

To call Thus Esther invites Haman to a banis prepared.. the the simple which ing to that husbandmen of such a character that. hincheon. the chamberlain comes to bring him to the-feast (Esth." words them. Made a marriage (iTrolrjaev But the phrase refers to the marriage-feast. Not the principal meal of the day. This was according to the Oriental custom of sending a messenger. and. winnowingLiterally it is. to notify the invited guests that the enter3. But the A. the word is used of feasting without any reference to a marriage." So the Kheiins version " The naughty men will he bring to naught. 22. them that were bidden {KuXia-ai tov'.). The verb is stronger: broTcen to pieces . to call the called. v. character of the The compound Greek pronoim marks new husbandmen more distinctly than due. . 11& : ahly destroy those miserahle men. " He will evil destroy those evil persons. fan that separates the grain from the wvnnow him.a(T^aeTai). Shall be broken {a-vvS\. scatter him as CHAPTER 2. lost in both (ievov<. KeKkrjPerhaps an unconscious play on the words.Ch. 4. which will that of the chaff. XXII.. but a noon-breakfast . and Eev. daist. A. yd/jt^ovsi). 8 vi. Grind him to powder (^iKfjLrjcrec avrov). rather than to the marriage-cere- mony. Y. XXII." Tynd..] MATTHEW. is also striking : The order of the Greek Miserable men. is misses the picture in the word. miserably he will destroy Which (oiTtj'6?).. so Rev. or belong- M. Kev. 14). a marriagefeast. quet on the morrow. In Esther ix. tainment . at the actual time. after the invitations have been issued. Kev. Dinner (apia-Tov). V. class of honest men who will give him his .

). From crtro?. he is thinking not so much of the outward token of disrespect. grain. Was furnished so Kev. passage. It is as if he had for thinking 'of. Morison observes. {aTpaTevfiara). looking intently.120 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The Greek is stronger. Not in our grand sense of arCompare Luke xxiii. 12. Not having {jxr) e-)(a>v). or food generProperly animals esTpeciaMj fed up ox fatted for a feast. (i-jfK-r^u'htf). 10. His farm his king. corn. where was your respect when you allowed yourself to come hither not (/^r. it Not in the sense of jeering. XXn.ways with the trunk roads. When the king addresses the guest. {dfieXTjcravTe<. inspection. 10. soldiers. . iehold. rally. ohjectvve fact king's notice. somewhat stiffly. xxx. Eev. expressing an outward. It is hardly possible to convey the subtle sense of the negative particle {firj) to the English reader. thoroughfare. word 9. A different word for not The man had (ovk) is used in the preceding verse. See on Matt. Armies is mies. as Dr. soldiers. Kev. xi. 7. the word means a way out through . To see {S^edaaa^at). Eev. where the rendered men of war . outlet. but the idea is correct. which attracted the not (ovk) a wedding garment. Highways Literally. as the verb denotes careful seeing. was filled: 11... 7.. that the said. but troops. (Ste^oSou?). [Ch. They simply gave (Ihcov dr/pSv). Failings {cnTia-To). his own farm. " What were you for me and my guests. The idea of crossings grows out of the junction of the smaller cross. as you knew you ought to have? " It implies. 11. bringing out to the contrast between his selfish interest and the respect due Compare 2 Chron.) having the proper garment. as of the guest's mental attitude toward the proprieties of the occasion. IVJade light of it 5. no heed.

. Shall strictly Jewish coins. introduced the practice. 25. See on Matt. is The word appropriate here because it refers to marriage between mar- riage-relatives. A penny. which was paid not in Jewish but in Roman money. conscious of the omission 121 man was entered. Better. 18). Image and superscription {eiKwv icaXeTn'ypa^). a ^ra^ or snare. (vo/itff/ia TouKj^viTov). Out of respect none of the earlier Herods had his own image impressed on them. The coin shown to Christ must either have been struck in Rome. Kev. Lit.. From Tray/s. according to which ov and its compounds stand. 39). 25). 15). even a bridegroom. or else was one of the Tetrarch Philip. and is addressed by Christ to the demon (Mark i. Herod Agrippa I. father-in-law. He was speechless foolish to silence (1 Pet. Ae was muzzled or used of muzzling the ox (1 Tim.] MATTHEW. who murdered James and imprisoned Peter.. {i^ifim^). ensna/re.. 12. a word used in classical Greek to denote any one connected by marriage a brother-in-law. and was This distinction between the two negative particles rests on the law of the Greek language. 2. v. . the current coin of tribute. and to the raging sea (Mark iv. From jafi^poi. Lit. XXIt. therefore.: Ch. Tribute"money See on ch. who was the first to introduce the to this prejudice image of Caesar on 24. and iir\ and its when he intentionally guilty of the neglect. is to be denied as a matter of gagged. tribute. compounds when something thought. 19. xvii. viii. where something is to be denied as a matter offact. marry {eTri/yafi^pevaet). See on Matt. Images on coins were not approved by the Jews. Entangle (TraytSevo-fflo-ti'). 20. Peter uses it of putting the ignorant and It is ii. xx. The outer darkness. 16.

where the same word occurs. fix their gaze upon them admiringly. V. 12. . It was in view of tion . what kind of a commandment must it be to constitute it a great one ? Not. but as 38. was greatest. in the use of this word There is a kind of grim he had rmizzled the Sadducees. the number of letters in the Decalogue. The article omitted. Or chair. . 39. : humor Compare 36. Which is the great commandment (nroia evroKr) /ieThe A. WORD STUDIES Put to silence ver. which is: which kind of command is great in the law f That is. which commandment is greatest as compared with the others 1 The scribes declared that there were 248 affirmative precepts. Moses' seat {Ka^eSpa<. Of these they called some light and some heavy. KpdaireSa). this kind of distinction that the scribe asked the ques- not as desiring a declaration as to which commandment wanting to know the pnnciple upon which a commandment was to be regarded as a great commandment. XXIIL {i(f)[/j. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. alike miss the point of this question. Phylacteries— Borders of their garments {(jyvXaKTvpia— Phylacteries. The great and first. as many as the members of the human body and 365 negative precepts. To be seen (tt/jos to SeaSrjvai).). CHAPTER XXIIL 2. So Rev. The scribes and Pharisees deport themselves with a view to being contemplated as actors in a theatre so that men may . that the law about the fringes on the garments was the greatest some that the omission of washings was as bad as homicide some that the third commandment was the greatest.. as Wye. [Ch. as many as the days in the year the total being 613. With the definite article. 5.wa-ev). Some thought jaKT)). and Rev. 122 Si. called by the Rabbis tejihUlvn. See vi. . 1. A second. in allusion to the practice of teachers sitting.

] MATTHEW. It is said. generally. for in: . They were treated as such by the Rabbis.. fort. and on the forehead. stance. to watch or guard. tn. {teacher) answers to Babli. . The phylactery of the arm was to contain a single slip. Aimed at those who courted the Abba. (TrptBTo/cXto-iaj/). 6. . more cor- rectly. that the courtiers of a certain king. 46. a. vi. with the same four passages written in four columns of seven lines each. XXIII. SiSda-KaXo? Luke ii. leaders. 123 jprayer-fiUets. The black leather straps by which they were fastened were wound seven times round the arm and three times round the hand. 11-16 Deut. 9. then. My master. 20. 4-9 xi. 39 . Lit.ve. The Greek word transcribed phylacteries in our versions is It means originally a from (jivKda-a-ca. Masters {Kol^riTaL). the foremost couch or uppermost place on the divan. Cheke renders guards. Compare John In addressing Jesus. The uppermost rooms Rev. They profanely imagined that Grod wore the tephUlin. were deterred by seeing that the straps of his phylacIt was also said that they preteries shone like bands of fire. ix. the chiefplace. xiii. They were reverenced by the Rabbis as highly as the scriptures. were worn on the left arm. & safeguard or preservaSir J. . or Father.. title 10. See on Matt.. intending to kill a Rabbi. Each of these slips was to be tied up with well-washed hair from a calf 's tail lest. might be rescued from the flames on a Sabbath. 1-10 xiii. and. and therefore an amulet. if tied with wool or thread. Rabbi. Compare the title Papa. i. toward the heart. That for the head was to consist of a box with four compartments. guarded post. like them. vented all hostile demons from injuring any Israelite. each containing a slip of parchment inscribed with one of the four passages. any fungoid growth should ever pollute them. Ch. 7. They were capsules containing on parchment these four passages of Scripture Ex. for hardens. Father {iraTepa).—Pope. 13-21.

m the face Yery graphic. renders oweth. The it tithe of these plants would be very small but to exact would indicate of the ass of a scrupulous conscientiousness." where the play upon the words hovers between the sense of bedeck and recompense.. and German geld. From assuming. XXHI {v-rroicpnav). WORD STUDIES Hypocrites IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. to act. of. A favorite plant in the East. as tethe hest. certain The Talmud tells Eabbi which had been so well trained of which the tithes had not been taken. A tethvng was a district containing Mint (j^SuoCT/ioi/). Against before. a recompense. From viroKpivo).. as to refuse corn . playing a The is. therefore. ri%v<i. ten families. to eoapoundor interpret what is elicited. Wye. Anise dill in — Cummin {av7}^ov — . or (efiTrpoa-^ev). renders anise. smell. and Tynd. kv/iivov). (Second Part). etymologically. He is guilty {oipeCKet). In the rendering of this word the A. and. seems to have been shaped by the earlier and now obsolete sense of guilt. to speaJc this the transition is easy to in dialogue. with which the floors of dwellings and synagogues were sometimes strewn. also in older English. 23. and thence to subject to inquiry. so of sepa/rating the truth from a mass of falsehood. money. feigning. he is a debtor. Kev. margin. tethe. There is a hint of this sense in Shakspeare. from. Sc. and so part. which was probably a Jine ov payment. The preposition means They shut the door in men's faces. [Ch. Rev. Act iv. to take a tenth . Compare Anglo-Saxon gyld. Ye Tithe Tithe is {diroSeKaTovTe) . tenth. to reply to inquiry. 18. 4 " England shall double gild his treble guilt. an actor. OCTii-q.. Y. wiro. he is debtor. to answer on the hypocrite stage.: 124 13. to separate gradually . BeKarocD. Used as condiments. as a result of this. the tenth commandment. Then. flenry lY. sweet.

KpdTO<i. gu^. belonging mostly to the rich. jpower.. Not the rock-tombs. " On the Author- ized Version ").). In general. 27. meat. iii. A sidelater. Eather faithfulness. d. thorouglily or through. irapd. drinking through the muslin to strain out the gnats. " In a ride from Tangier to Tetuan I observed that a Moorish soldier who ac- Jews strained animal. companied me. Strain at is an old misprint perpetuated. 41. out. 16). 42). and stram. vXitjm. xi. V. Eom. oyjrov. 23. Aristotle uses the word gnat {/ccovcoTra) of a worm or larva found in the sediment of sour wine. xi. that the camel was also un- clean (Lev. Swallow drink down (KaraTrivovre'}). Insects were ceremonially unclean (Lev. The rendering ISTote is feeble. but the graves cov- ered with plastered structures. there were certain insects which bred in wine. Strain at {8ivXl^ovTe<s). A to the Passover. correctly. cemeteries were outside of cities . Gal. 4). not. 20. when he drank. 25. 22. so that the their wine in order not to swallow any unclean Moreover. Eev. dish. and contract uncleanness by the contact (Num. It is (/cara) . Eev. heside. might easily come upon such a grave in his journey. straim. 24. but any dead body found in the field was to pilgrim be buried on the spot where it had been discovered. the dish itself as distinguished from its contents. with the Excess (aKpaa-Lwi). for instance. 3. xix. Hence the Eev. Whited sepulchres {rdtpoK Ke/eoviafievoi?). whose larvse swarm in the water of that country " (cited by Trench. accompanying sense of something dainty / as here. as in 125 Faith {iriffTiv).Ch. io filter er Bid. Hence conduct which shows a want of power over one's self incontinence or : intemperance. as Tynd. Platter {irapo^^iho'. It was therefore ordered that all sepulchres . XXIII] MATTHEW. always unfolded the end of his turban and placed it over the mouth of his hota.

if. " They appear. the others are mei'ely excavations. as powdered lime. consisting of winding or semicircular galleries. James. Zechariah was slain between the temple proper and the altar of burnt-offering. in order to make them conspicuous. Temple (vaoO). hen is used . should be whitewashed a month before Passover. 5.126 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. of the prophets. 37. The fact that this general whitewashing was going on at the time when the Pharisees gave point to the comparison. 35. Rev. dust) carries the idea of whitenviafikvoK. '' to be . in the priests' court. rightly. iv. By this name are called four the base of the Mount of Olives." Possibly they were in sight of our Lord when he spoke. Absa29. were the sepulchres which they were garnishing at their entrances.powder. with cut out of the solid rock ornamental portals. See on Matt. ing with a. (whitened. and were pointed to by him. in the valley of monuments at Jehoshaphat called at present the tombs of Zechariah.. Hen (opw?). lying between those two. passing under the mountain more than a hundred feet from east to west. and terminating in a rotunda about eighty feet from the entrance. Jesus administered this rebuke to The word kskofrom Kovii." says Dr. and St. Jehoshaphat. Tombs . as has been conjectured. [Ch. The reference would be all the more telling. Generic: hi/rd or fowl. quite extensive. the Pharisees were engaged in constructing the tombs of Zechariah and Absalom at the time that the Lord addressed them. XXIII. There is no authority for the name which they commonly bear.. but generically of the mother-bird of all species. so that travellers might avoid ceremonial defilement. Two of them are monoliths lom. and that the chambered sepulchres of James and Jehoshaphat. Thomson. sawc^ary.

The temple. 10. 31. and the porches and courts. 17 . 2 Cor. 1. 127 CHAPTER XXIY. to he present. Of the world {al&vci). Lit. resting their claims on the name Mesabound 7 . XXIV. to judge the world. 12. vii. 1 iii. x. iv. multiplied. Shall {vXTjSvvS^vai). on my name. 2 Cor. current age. as Rev.. siah. 4. John 28 2 Pet.Ch. 15. : ii..e.. Wax . irapel- vai. and the picture is that of spiritual energy blighted or chilled by a malign or poisonous wind. as in 1 Cor. including the vao'. The verb means originally to hreathe . or sanctuary. 12. The A. 5. Of . Originally. lepov. vii. 7 2 Thess. 17 . all of which. Lit. 1. in omitting the defiIt is not the love nite article. Coming [Trapova-ia^). Also arrival. ii.) Lit. the second coming of Christ iii. 1 Thess. Deceive {irXav^aj}). See on Matt. See Acts vi. . ii. shall be vi. 6. In i. presence. constituted the lepov.] MATTHEW. or blow cold {ylrvy^treTai). Of many {t&v iroWSyv). better : dirb Tov lepov iiropeveTo). 9 8 .. 12 .. the great iody. from . James v. the temple {i^eX^wv Went out from thetem: ple and was gomg on his way. iv. of manypeq^ile only that shall be chilled. 4 . 5. Bather the existing. on the strength of. 2 Pet. but of the many. They do not ask the signs of the Messiah's coming at the end of all time. Ii. the majority. my name (eTrt to ovoixari jjlov). misses the force of Christ's saying. In this sense in Philip. V. Heb. lead astray. Went out and departed from Rev. 3. ix. not vaov the whole of the buildings connected with the temple. xvi.

and there they offered sacrifices to them.. to cut of. at the last house. xi. xi. The urgency of the flight is encould hanced by the fact that the stairs lead into this court. In a moral sense it denotes an object of moral or religions repugnance. It does not denote mere physical or aesthetic dis4. after the burning of the temple the Romans brought their ensigns and set them over against the eastern gate. roof to roof there might be a regular communication. till. It is used as equivalent to idol in 1 itself . and declared Titus. The cognate verb. Rev. beasts. . . The reference here is probably to the occupation of the temple precincts by the idolatrous Koraans under Titus. . xvii. had been very picturesque word. Herod Agrippa was stopped in his work of strengthening 22.. 5 gust. to dock. The whole habitable globe. A . Escape for your life. xv. inhaUUd. 3 and. 15. 8 Jer. This moral sense must be emphasized in the New Testament use of the word.top (o eVt tov Sm/iaro^). As a fact. Him which is on the house. denotes anything in which estrange- Kings xi." Thus a person 17. Apoc. 17 Dent. It ment from God manifests . 11 . literally. generally. xiv. Abomination of desolation {^SeKvy/M Tfi<: ifyr]/Mdi<Tem<s). 13. {rfj olKovfievrj). with their standards and ensigns. 31. xxi. he would descend the stairs on the outside of the house. abridged. Chron. From make his escape passing from roof to roof. as a limb. Compare Luke xvi. The verb is." (iKo\o0coS7)a-av). Should be shortened shortened. xi. 27 Ezek. leaving a stump. 27 . 26 2 Kings xxiii. 27. . Lev. WORD STUDIES World IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. " Though you must pass by the very door of your room. See 2 . inhabited earth. 'Rev. with acclamations. various causes did combine to shorten the siege. Wye. Josephus says that. all forms of heathenism. ix. . means to feel a nausea or loathing for food : hence used of disgust generally. vii. to be emperor..128 14. in margin. xiii. XXIV. called by the Rabbis " the road of the roofs. ^SeXva-aofiai. Lit. but within the exterior court. the [Ch. 15 . 21 Dan. as the eating of unclean Deut. do not enter to take anything out.

since otherwise neither his armies nor his engines would have availed against 24. New See on Matt. place. 20. 22 iv.ira/ri. On the itself. and is It will not be connected with some particular seen of all. Eev. ihin^. Carcase (Trrw/ia). Testament. xii. 48 words do not denote different classes of supernatural manifestations. . from In m. XXIV. but these manifestations regarded from diiferent points The same miracle may be a mighty work. or a of view. the desert —Secret chambers. a corpse. to wonder). confessed that their defences. Signs and wonders {(77)iJLeia Koi Tepara). compare Job xxxix. like the lightning which lightens both ends of the heaven at once. but will manifest itself and be recognized over the whole Compare Apoc. to fall. The two words . xi.. 27. God was the Jews. Originally a Lat. therefore." world. Acts ii. from cado. miraculum. 12. Both retired places. the magazines of corn and provisions were burnt before the arrival of Titus.. Titus arrived suddenly. saying to fall. to the etymological sense of the word miracle (Lat. Shineth (^aiVerat). See vi. of the : 28. Tepwi (derivation uncertain) is as it appeals to the spectator. 8. cadaver. glorious work. and the Jews Titus himself against voluntarily abandoned parts of the fortification. had totally neglected preparations to stand a siege .Ch. fall. wilderness — inner chambers. From Mark iriizrw.] MATTHEW. Compare . absorbed in their party strifes. . «^ sem. regarded with reference to its power and grandeur or a sign of the doei-'s supernatural power or a wonder. better.. 'B. indicating that the false Messiahs will avoid public scrutiny. 30. awakening amazement. i. unmistakable fact. 30 2 Cor. It most nearly corresponds. 9 . a miracle regarded as a portent or prodigy. a wonderful . The coming Lord will be a plain. 7 " Every eye shall see him. and thence a fallen lody . The See John iv. 129 the walls by orders from the emperor the Jews. xi. 29 Apoc. often joined in the . . 26.%\.

The blow- ing of trumpets was anciently the signal for the host of Israel on their march through the desert. although previously scarcely known in the country. The mill (tc3 /iv\&)). Mourn (KoyJrovTai. Hence the symbolism of the New Testament. Rev. Shall tense. 40. 3. A parable {tt^v irapa^oXrjv). Apoc. left. With a great sound of a trumpet (/iera aaXiri/^'yo'i (poainj's /ieyaXr)'. Compare the proclamation of Christ as king at the trumpet of the seventh angel. x. The ordinary hand-mill with a handle fixed near the edge of the upper stone. Such were the " branches " which were cut down and strewed in the Lord's path by the multitudes (Matt. 41.). IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. [Ch. Hence a young sUp or shoot. XXIV. and proclaimed public festivals. 31. 15.). the parable which she has to teach. . to ireak. which surpasses the eagle in size and power. Some read with a great trumpet. Eagles Rev. and remained until the numbers were collected end of the campaign in the neighborhood of the camp. Both verbs are in the present which makes the saying more lively. Rightly. xi. puts vultures in margin. 8). therefore. and marked the beginnings of months Num. . 1-10 Ps. Stronger: heat their breasts {71 an- guish. Branch {icKdho'i).. Ixxxi. her parable. and In the Russian war vast congregates in the wake of an army. .130 WORD STUDIES [aeroi). Aristotle notes how this bird scents its prey from afar. It summoned to war. From KXdco. one is be taken— left. 32. which is turned by two women. The griffon vulture is meant. More strictly. in the Crimea. xxi. 30. One is taken and So Rev. Jehovah's people shall be summoned before their king by sound of trumpet. such as is broken off for grafting.

5. duty in its appointed time. imdermined. There was a cry made {Kpavyfj yeyovev).. 131 42. A . of continuous hered literally. 40. The /b/* justifies the epithet /bo&A in Slumbered and slept {evvara^av is. there is The verb is in the perfect tense. whether a night or a morning watch. read vfj-epa. in what kind of a : watch. hour. one.. torches. At the regular hours which Lord observes when at home and not delaying because he thinks that his Lord delayeth his coming (ver. whether a near or a remote Similarly ver. 48). due season {iv KaopiZ). Nodded is aorist. graphically thrown in as in vv.. the preceding verse. See on Wye. Rev. Read al yap /Mopal. 6. In his . in short. with a dish was a piece of cloth dipped in oil or pitch. however. which They that were foolish {a'lTive^ fimpai).). Probably a at the top.forthefooUsh. CHAPTER XXV.. a cry. Koi eKa^evhov). XXV ] MATTHEW. : present Cometh. {Siopvyrjvai). Later texts. and hence is rendered great' and decisive change was the by the English present. They dropped thei/r heads. 1. in what kind of a day. vi. Note the variation of tense. but doing his 45. representing the past event as perpetuated in the present result.. 43. broken through.). Would come is (ep')(eTat. Lit. Slum- nodded. was coming. the initial stage of slumber. 41 is But the coming or Broken up Matt. Kev. slumber. denoting a transient act.Ch. 43 iv Troia ^vXuk^. Rev. What •jTola riiJiepa. day. Slept is imperfect. wooden stem held in the hand. Lamps {XafiirdSai. 3. 19.

at length near midnight ' a marriage ceremony in India " After waiting it . V. etc. as in the very words of Scripture. denoting something in They see the flame waning and flickering. The Greek order is expressive. V. progress. The A. Not so." {eavrmv). Behold the bridegroom cometh go ye out to meet him. bles ") quotes from Ward Tynd. It is a more courteous form of refusal. To meet him those virgins arose (rare -^yipS^crav -n-aaai at. [Ch. The Greek does not give the blunt negative of the A.). all Then 'TrapMvoi eKelvai). and cry. Their lamps ing " their om. and meaning put in order or a/rrcmge. and the hours. Lit. No more sleeping.132 WOED STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. depended for supply on their fellows. Some of them had lost their lights. and ran with them in their hands to fill up their stations in the procession.. and emphatic by its position at the end of 7. (/tTjTrore ov fir) apKea-rj). XXV. describing : two or three was announced. 9. order. is {eh airdvT'qaiv). Our lamps are going out ! So Eev.. graphic force of the continuous present. waiting. misses the 8. making the reason for refusing to supply the . The translation can hardly convey the meaning of the Greek phrase. the bustle. result of the cry. Trench (" Para(" View of the Hindoos "). and were unprepared. but it was then too late to seek them. ^e personal who Are gone out {a-iSivvwrai. There a cry. cavalcade moved forward. Trimmed to {eKoa-firiaav).. lest.' All the persons employed now lighted their lamps. remoter reference. Then a/rose Those {eKelvai) a pronoun of all the vi/rgins. the trimming of lamps and the rimning to the oil-vendors. ^prepared. which implies a ousCome forth unto meeting. From Ko<7fi6<.?! lamps " emphasiz- . those form^er ones. tOTTb oxfa/miliar ceremony. or silence. and behold the awaking. the sentence. preparation in contrast with the foolish.

Applying directly to the bridegroom.. now that he had arrived at the bride's 11. 14. xxii. Not made them. Stronger than the austere (ava-TTipo^) Luke xix. as A. like our going abroad. XXV. 133 place of the negative. Some read iKepBrja-ev. 24. and Tynd. the ready ov pre- pared ones. ability (ISiav). V. 15 he that part. Connected with the beginning Straightway indicating promptness on the servant's : Traded with them {rjpycuraTo iv avroh). lord. etc. are going ouway. 4 . the servants work. 3. Wye. JPeradventure there wiil not he enough. (yd/iov^).. and so Eev. The Rev. Marriage^/eas^. 10. as Matt. The wise {pi fif). Lord. say the foolish. 17. happily. : parti- They that were ready (at eroifioi). Straightway (ev^ew?). ciple.Ch. 21 (see there). The sense is more nearly aSow^ to tra/vel. as in ver. The word is make money. Lit. Travelling (aTToSij/twi/). his 15. Lest perchcmce there he not by any ineans the double negative) enough. Lit.] MATTHEW. won. wrought Made {iij-oirja-ev). which is sometimes used in a good . Several own or peculiar capac- ity for business. To the marriage 2. whose will residence.. gives it very reply. had recei/oed. 16. gained. The virgins wait. instead of with the end of ver. Lit.. of this verse. A present and very graphic while they. And while they went {aTrepxo/Mivav). used in our sense of Geneva.. etc. with them. of Hard (o-kXij/jo?). gained. Owe us of your oil. was supreme.

making ." as Trench observes "could scarcely be applied to the measured and orderly scattering of the sower's seed. as one would throw a bag of coin upon the exchanger's table. 31). 25. A mous with esetortionate interest.. To omit the interrogation is to make the Lord admit that he was a hard master. Didst thou indeed know this of me ? Thou shouldst then have acted with the promptness and care which one observes in dealing with a hard master. . Lo. Usury (To/cft)). XXV. Hence of interest. as we say (Luke xv. Exchangers ers table or counter at Taking their name from the which they sat {rpdire^a). {rpaTre^irai^). but it became synony. Eev. for that would be saying the same thing twice.. (SteaKopTria-a^). spread abroad. The scattering refers to the winnovnng of the loosened " sheaves spread out upon the threshing-floor.. The word. 'Rev. Slothful. WORD STUDIES IN THE is. The verse should be read interrogatively. NEW TESTAMENT. and then oflfspring. pursuit of a routed ing his goods every direction.. of the wolf scattering the sheep (Matt. very graphic word. The Greek is more by Rev. xxvi. Strawed to the Not referring sowing of seed. which is thejyroduce or offspring of capital. It is rather the dispersing. 134 sense. with interest. is That is better given thine {to <t6v). he might have gone to the exchangers. as this never is at It is an epithet given to a surface which once dry and hard. Lit. better. With no more trouble than he expended in digging. [Ch. The Jewish bankbore precisely the same name. 13) to fly in . didst scatter. Originally it was only what was paid for the use of money hence usury." Hence used of the enemy (Luke i. Wye. thou hast thine own. Put {^aXelv).. meaning first childbiHh. concise. 27. and 26. 51) of the prodigal scatterinaTcing the money fly. throw or fling down.

worth performing and in another sense it is so hard as only to be possible for something with supernatural G-oats are an approinsight" (John Morley. beginning at the judge's right hand.. is the right side or parts. in one sense. Masculine. viduals. During the early empire legal interest stood at eight per cent. The bald division of men into sheep and . //w«. picture to the Greek reader that of a row. race the nations {nravra to. so Rev. and goats are represented as having previously pastured together. but permitted it in dealing with strangers (Deut. . 20 . On The the right (e'/e Sefteov). Practically usury was unlimited. while the word nations Nations are regarded as gathei-ed collectively . a month. and even forty-eight. All . Goats (ipc<f)ia). twenty-four. priate figure. custom xxiii.. goats so easy as not to be : _ Diminutive. but in usurious transactions it was lent at twelve.] MATTHEW. The whole human though the word is generally employed in the New Testament to denote Gentiles as distinguished from Jews.a) expresses contempt. 32.). 19. is. XXV. eBvr}).Ch. It soon became the to charge monthly interest at one per cent. them (avroix. 135 The Jewish law distinguished between interest and increase. In ETome very high interest seems to have been charged in earlytimes. The Jewish bankers of Palestine and elsewhere M^ere engaged in the same undertakings. xv. kidlings. Lit. but in contemplating the act of separation the Lord regards the indiSeparate is neuter. . " The sheep from the goats (or kids. in margin). 5). Compare the parables of the Tares and the Net. because the goat was regarded as a comparatively worthless animal. Ps. "Yoltaire"). Hence the point of the elder son's complaint Ifot so much as a kid (Luke xv. in the parable of the Prodigal The diminutive {epl4>i. The sheep 33. Lit. The law of Moses denounced usury in the transactions of Hebrews with Hebrews. 29).

. 3. Ye took me in {awrr/arjeTe and ye lodged me. A. flask in call 7. The 10. of gracious visitatiou. because already determined. Compare ver.. [Ch. . implies that some time elapsed before Jesus was aware * Hebraistically. or because it must ensue in virtue of an unalterable law. 3. Heb. Thus the passover is {ylverai): it must come round at the fixed season. margin. hall. the in the least. though future. 8. and to look in upon one. forming the centre of an oriental building. 'Rev. "We retain the original thought in the popular phrases go to see one. to look steadfastly at. 24. When Jesus understood it (7V0W Se 6 'It/o-oO?). an alabaster. He v. 2. 6. It is the court.. Visited visit is Lit.. and says that ointments are best preserved in them. court. having a cylindrical form at the top. Palace {avXijv). and often used as a meetTestament. Luke vii. To what purpose loss f Wye. less WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The least. Iwasha/rhourpreposition avv implies along with.. An alabaster box (aXa^aaTpov)..136 35. Wye. of glass a glass. Ye me with you into the household {I'rreaKe'facT^e). Te looked upon* Our from the Latin viso. Lit. V. XXVI. 40. One of these my Greek order is emphatic: So Eev. the ing-place. took The Tynd. But the word never means palace in the New open court or hall. just as we a drinking-vessel made Luther renders glass. 36. is as good as present. even these least. CHAPTER XXVI. The Son of Man is betrayed according to the divine decree. Comp. crv^e . The word brethren. Is betrayed {irapaUhorat). these vessels to a closed rosebud. Whereto this is this waste? Tynd. ii. and word thence to visit. 16 . It was a kind of Pliny compares cruet. The present tense expresses here something which. (le). What needed this waste ? See on John xii. circle..

24. The Evangelist says he was sitting or reclining. but in a moral sense: excellent. weighing appears to have been practised. . destined for the purchase of sacrifices. beautiful. not our Lord's. 32). and therefore heavier than the ordinary shekel. for {ea-rria-av airm). the sacrifice for men. especially when considerable sums were paid out of the templethe balance). described the per- son and where to find him. a man was condemned to pay if his ox should gore a servant (Exod. He sat down {aveKeno). Thirty pieces of silver (rpidKovTa apyvpia). treasury. 15. Reckoning the Jerusalem shekel at seventy-two cents." Ch. the sum would be twenty-one dollars and sixty cents. 20. XXVI] MATTHEW. He who " took on him the form of a servant was sold at the legal price of a slave.. 18. by the Mosaic law. very literally. xxi. Our Lord. What are ye willing to give me ? It brings out the chaffering aspect of the transaction. But the statement is that Jesus Rev. introducing us to something which has been going on for some force of the time. Such a man (rbv Seiva). f ers to Zech. Jesus perceiving it. Matthew re^ These pieces were shekels of the sanctuary. rightly.. xi. xvii. doubtless. The indefiniteness is the Evangelist's. 12. 137 of the disciples' complaint. He. was paid for out of the temple-money. Lit. morally beautiful deed. which denotes something in progress. or. perceived it at once. But this rendering misses the imperfect tense. This was the price which. But the they they weighed unto (in him. So Rev. placed for him Although coined shekels were in circulation. What will ye give? {ri SeXeri /loi hovvai?) Rather. They covenanted with him meaning is. of standard weight. See on Matt. Good work an {koKov).

ix. 28. veov. 15-17.). WORD Began STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Bishop Lightfoot. to say (rjp^avro). since we regard that passage as one of the best illustrations of the sense of covenant.. the idea of disposing or arranging is based that of settlement or The Hebrew word of agreement. 3) Mark xiv. 34 Isa. to inake a covenant. The difference is between . dates. ix. Another adjective. xv.. with the exception of Heb. : The article with the participle has the force of an epithet The hetrayer. platter. Compare 1 Sam. 20 Acts iii. 17 Mark ii. 38. 15-17. Render here as Eev. which this is a translation is primarily covenant. iii. observes that the word is never found in the New Testament in any other sense than that of covenant. Is shed {eK-xyvvo/xevov). . xviii. ix. The present participle.. Hence the phrase. 22 Luke v. 24 Luke i. . . 8. " Surely (rpv/SXta)). New {kuivov). covenant. where it is testament. Which betrayed (o Tra/saStSow). . 39). Testament (Sia^Kr)'. to distribute/ Hence of the disposition of one's property. The form of the negative expects a negative answer. 72 xxii. I am not the on^P The dish 'Wjc. 37. etc. is ' employed to denote new wine in the sense of freshly-made (Matt. From SiaTl&rj/ii. from a verb meaning to cut. On dispose of. See on Heb. We cannot admit this exception. 25. and thence of a covenant. . [Cn. . xxviii. 25 vii. covenants (Gen. raisins. figs. in connection with dividing the victims slain in ratification of • Covenant is the general Old Testament sense of the word (1 Kings xx. . on Gal. 138 22. is ieingshed. 23. consummation.. into which pieces of bread were dipped. 15 and so in the New Testament. A dish containing a hroth made with nuts. of a series of questions Denoting the commencement one after the other {every one) saying. XXVI. . . Christ's thought goes forward to the 29. Is it If I Is it ? (/t^Tt iyd) elfii). 15. 9-18).

making it ceremonially unclean not recently hewn." and Col. 13). to the young. relating a stratagem by which a town was nearly taken. Jewish HaUel or Hallehyah. for instance. what Christ had just said about the shepherd and the sheep. 12. 10. will be of a new and higher quality. 60) in which no other body had lain. are veou or veatrepot (Luke The new garment (Luke v. embracing Ps.] MATTHEW. Y. cxvi. their youth. Compare John x. " drink it new.. 1 Cor. The young. . " Put on the new {veov) man. 139 newness regarded in point of tvme or of quality. "Purge out the old leaven that ye may be a new {veov) lump . contrasted with that which shows signs of dissolution. as a shepherd before I his flock. as in the Greek.. All the elements of festivity in the heavenly kingdom In the New Testament. and saying "we are still new {icaivol) and young (veoi) in regard of . Evidently this had ceased to be regarded as obligatory. cxviii. I will go before you. They went over until it out. little more graphic if the Before a single cock shall . will go before you. A article is omitted.. So a new heaven (2 Pet. veo? is applied to wine. Before the cock crow. XXVI. xxvii. 34. iii. Sung a hymn. v. 4. The thought links itself with 32. 36) is contrasted as to XV. cases. 13) is kmvo^. iii. quality with a worn and threadbare one. cxv. Tlie tomb in which the body of Jesus was laid was Kaivov (Matt. xii. Yery probably the second part of the 30." plainly carry the sense of quality. vioi. In our Lord's expression. .Ch." the idea of quality is dominant. Trench (" Synonyms ") cites a passage from Polybius. besides the two cases just cited. In the original institution of the Passwas enjoined that no one should go out of his house morning (Exod. who have lately sprung up. Hence Kaivov. 22). and once to a covenant. the distinction cannot be pressed Thus. such deceits. cxvii." Here Kauvoi expresses the inexperience of the men in all Still.

exit shall lehove me to die.. . XXVT. The A. spite of all the doubts that can be raised against their antiquity. Beyond the brook Keand distant about three-quarters of a mile from the walls dron. the eight aged olive-trees. are at home among the children in every room. [Ch. By the time Matthew's Gospel was written. they carry us back to the events of the gospel history " (" Sinai and Palestine "). Dean Stanley says of the olive-trees there " In of Jerusalem." should die {kcLv Bey fie aTro^avelv). ") says that the barn-door fowls " swarm son (" Land and Book round every door. share in the food of their possessors. have always struck the most 36. the . He probably heard the tramp and saw the lanterns of Judas and his band. " Even if I must die. The hour is at hand. roost overhead at night. and of the arrest. thus or hardly possible to convey the exact force of so. Thombe heard. in the narratives both of the betrayal One of the twelve. They will remain. ? or so utterly unable to watch 45. 47. 35. the phrase had become a stereotyped designation of the traitor. Dr. early in the night.^' me to die. : indifferent observers. will always be regarded as the most affecting of the sacred memorials in or about Jerusalem the most nearly approaching to the everlasting hills themselves in the force with which protracted life is spared. misses the force of Birj " Though it should be necessary for Kev. " are ye thus unable. like he that betrayed him." I : ^ Gethsemane. Though V." "Wye. Kepeated in all three evangelists. if only by their manifest difference from all others on the mountain. 40. thou shalt deny me. Meaning oil-press." 140 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMBXT. What ! It is the Greek ovtco^. and with their ceaseless crowing are the town-clock and the morning-bell to call up sleepers at early dawn. so long as their already most venerable of their race on the Their gnarled trunks and scanty foliage surface of the earth. " cellently. The idea is.

Peter was still brandishing his sword. Do that for which thou a/rt come. 141 A great multitude. of the father's woman in the Pharisee's house (Luke 20). 53. and embracing some of the servants of conspicuous men in the Sanhedrin. as pivia. and the rest of a crowd armed with cudgels. 51. (tov hovhjov). cial The servant . " Enough of this hypDo what you are here to do. The compound verb has the Meyer says emhraoed vii. Wherefore art rogation of the A. force of an emphatic.] MATTHEW. Kissed him [icarecjiiXrja-ev). 49. Part of the band would consist of this regularly-armed cohort. 52. Twelve legions of angels. The Lord spurns and the mind is to supply do or he about. and says. 3Y). XXVI. thou come ? (e</>' o irdpei). Compare the story of Elisha at Dothan (2 Kings . The article marks the spe- servant the Jo<^-servant. ostentatious salute. diminutive in form but not in sense . The same word is used of the tender caressing of the Lord's feet by the 38). Judas receives a cohort of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees. but missed. ing to a Greek popular usage which expressed parts of the A body by diminutives <rapKiov. In John xviii. the nostrils . and of the farewell of the Ephesian elders to Paul (Acts XX. in effect.. The interis wrong. and kissed. the traitor's embrace. ocritical fawning. Peter aimed his blow at the servant's head." So Eev. vi. Y. The expression is elliptical Literally it is. the eye . 17). embrace of the returned prodigal (Luke xv. 3. that for which thou art here y and condensed. The Sanhedrin had neither soldiery nor a regularly-armed band at command.Ch. ofifidriov. 50. the hody. Put up again. . accordEar {mTiov).

and Luke rather one with apprehend him. A damsel iraiSia-Kij). worthy of See on Matt. epdinaav. Lit. priest adjure thee. [Ch. who would require an armed band to Hence the propriety of the reference to swords sat (iKo^e^ofiTjv). An affirmation. I call upon thee to swear. signifying the design with which he. Apart from my affirma- 66. It is more than a petty stealer. spoken thou hast asked me is Compare tion.142 55. 1. The imperfect sit. 69. Nevertheless (tt-X^i/). from pairk. See John x. All expressed by one word. one damsel. xxiii. and staves. Better Eev. V. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 18. I The high- That (iW). 8 . in. associates. 71.. you shall see for yourself. The idea literally. Buffet (6KoXa</)to-ai'). I xxiii.. In order that. 67. Howemer. a rod. exeo. holden of death / in bonds to death. Smote with the palms of their hands. Thou hast What said. and meaning to smite with rods. not with the palms. the truth. is. 39. The same word is employed Matt. because the writer has in mind a second one (ver. . iv. Through fear of being further questioned. With the fist. 71). I was accustomed to 63. to hold. put Christ upon oath. 39-43. ver. Gone out. You have the fact. denoting something habitual.adjured the Lord. XXVL A thief {XTjo-Trju). 25. Rev. tense.. death. 64. a robber. Guilty of death {€vo-)(p^ l^avdrov). It came {jiLa to mean generally to strike.

crepancy between Matthew's account and that in the book of Acts (i. Anew development of pro- Hitherto he had merely sworn. Now he adds imprecation. 18). and was afterward richly Scarlet {kokkCvtiv). He cast the pieces over the barrier of the en- closure which surrounded the sanctua/ry. Repented himself is (jit6Ta/ie\»/. that he should be induced to spend it for sisted on something for the public weal. To curse {KaTal^efiari^eiv). As if he did not know Jesus' name. who. several parts of Greece. CHAPTER XXYIL 3. which grew in would seem to have been rare among the orientals. In the temple. on his offering to purchase it.Ch. 74. was excited by the scarlet cloak of a Samian exile. But the best reading is ek tov vaov. From kokko^. . that is Ms matter. 139). Garments of this color rewarded when Darius came to the throne (iii. and therefore vnto the sanctuary. Herodotus relates that the admiration of Darius. that the In such cases the Jewish law provided and if he ingiving it. money was to be restored to the donor . xxi. By a fiction of the law the money was still considered to be Judas'. 29. invoking curses on himself if the case be not as he says. and within which only the priests were allowed.5e^?). or temple proper. 143 72. It is not lawful. This explains the apparent dis6. The man. cochineal. into the sa/incbucm). wilt see to that. See on Matt. then an oflScer in the army. and to have been applied by him to the purchase of the potter's field. fanity. As to Judas' sin or conscience. What Thou 5.] MATTHEW. XXVn. presented it to him. that to us? They ignore the question of Christ's innocence.

Lit. Thieves. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. of wine and was intended as a stupefying Or. 33. condemnation and suffering. xxvi. the Hebrew. XXVIL The which kings and emperors 32. but simply skull. 2 Kings ix. cause. 42. (Xrja-Tac).) 11 (re^^X^/ea? . An Aramaic word. meaning shull. Compelled to go {^'yydpevcrav). Compare correctly. Watched fect tense. If he will ^ xli. {el MXei ainov).144 28. saved. 41. himself he cannot etc. rohhers.. has imjpressed in margin. It is the cause of his 37. The meaning is not. {erripovv). have him i. 38. The Greek order is. {ahlav).. The place was probably a rounded elevation. Eev. short military cloak [Ch. The older texts read gall o^o<i.e. me {^^eXTjo-e /le). If he Wees him. the taking down and restoring of the victim.) 19 lecause he delighted in /te).. Accusation "Wye. = Gulgoleth. Gulgoltha. vinegar. he desireth him : . as Tynd. sanje. and used in the Yulgate.. (Sept.. and also to prevent what sometimes happened. a^lace of dead men^s skulls. See on Matt. xl. See on Matt. WOKD STUDIES Robe (x^afivBa). Ps. 36. Eev. a cause. kept watch. xvii. cause of his death. Kev. and translated sJcull in Judg. Ps. ix. as well as soldiers wore. Golgotha. The compound draught. 35. He saved others. xviii (Sept. to give the 'force of the imperThis was to prevent the infliction of wanton cruelties. 53 . v. The New Testament narrative does not mention a mount or hill. Wine (ohov). The word Calvary comes through the Latin calva/ria. The word accusation is compounded with the Latin causa. 34.. Others he 43. and so rendered by Tynd. 65.

from the three blasts were blown when one-third of the evening-sacritice service was over. John xix. were announced by threefold priests' trumpets. he gave up his spirit {-TrapeScoKe rb 'rrvevfia. and having prepared themselves for the festive season went up its to the temple. imply a voluntary yielding up of his Augustine says.« The Temple"). "Early on Friday afternoon the new course of priests. life vi^illed it. arrived in Jerusalem. but he hreathed out his life (i^eTTvevcre." to 51.m. seems Compare John ieoause he x.Ch. or about the ninth hour . Two of them were made every year. and according to tlie exaggerated language of the time it needed three hundred priests to manipulate it. of Levites. Let us see if Elijah will come to his aid. 37). The fact that the evangelists. that is. The veil of the temple. as has been asserted. Yielded up the ghost spirit. of giving. Mark xv. and of the ' stationary men ' who were to be the representatives of all Israel. was the one which covered the entrance to the holy of and not. The holy of holies contained only a large stone. life. dis- missed his Eev. the veil which hung before the main entrance to the sanctuary. eSavev. about 3 p. Vinegar (ofous)." 50. XXVII. each plait consisting of twenty-four threads. The imperfect tense implies At this point the Jews ! ! " Stop standing near interposed. 30). Lit. This veil holies. {d^rJKe to irvevfia). 48. soldiers. Ninth hour. saying. on which the high-priest sprinkled 10 . the^osca or ordinary drink of the Koman Gave him was in give the act to drink (eVort^ej'). 145 36. and as he willed it. According to the Kabbis this was a handbreadth in thickness. Sour wine .. yielded wp his spirit. on Friday " (Eders- heim. The approach The first of the Sabbath. and then blasts actual commencement. Zet he (a^e?) Do not him the drink.. and woven of seventy-two twisted plaits. " He gave up his when he willed it. 18. do not use the neuter verb. in describing our Lord's death. he died.] MATTHEW. or aiout to give. It was sixty feet long and thirty wide.

But there is no article.. See on Matt. [Ch. class : who Magdalene (Matt. When even was come. the grooves and perforations which may still be seen. 37-48). were of the body of women that had followed him. must not be construed as a recognition of Christ's divine sonship. Denoting a 55. The words 54. Neither Mary of Bethany been a sinner (Luke The word denotes merely her town : She of Mag {-q MaySaXrjvt)). 63. latter began at sunset.- 146 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. XXVIL the blood on the day of atonement. it We remember {eixvrjar^ixev).e. Not newly hewn. we remembered : i.. The preparations had to be hurried because the Sabbath would begin at sunset. hxii fresh. The Hebrews reckoned two The former began midway between noon atid sunset. or else was in an unfinished state. an earlier and a later. evenings. 57. xxvi. New tomb {Kaww). occupying the place where the ark with the mercy-seat had stood. remembered. 6-13) nor the vii. xxvi. The reference here is to the earlier evening. and have come to tell you before it be too late. A for there were doors Though in the Jews' sepulchres in general hung on hinges. six o'clock. or at three o'clock in the afternoon. Which had followed (aiVti/e?). . The Son of God. 29. They were uttered by a pagan soldier in his own sense Yet they may have taken color from of a demigod or hero. the fact that the soldiers had heard from the chief priests and others that Christ had claimed to be God's son. Joseph's tomb may have been great stone. differently constructed. woman who had dala. 56. uudefiled by anybody. though the time may have been well on toward the beginning of the later. : occurred to us we have shall just Lit. The 60.

the false impression that he has risen from the dead.. The idea is that they sealed the stone in the presence of the guard. but to the general aspect. Ye have ! (eyere). and therefore here as pointing to one who is out of the way and far removed. alone notes the outward glory. V. is akin to -irXavdm. namely. nxdvoi. Sealing the stone. the earthquake. ISTot. occurs nowhere else in the Rev. 64.). imperatively Have a guard 66. Kov<7ro)Sia<. . appearance. tahe. XXVin. Tov Id^ov. Error i^Xdvi)). Wye. CHAPTER 3.. deceit or imposture. 147 {iKeivo<s 6 irXdvos. Lit. fierd with the watch. Or. — 65. but the error on the people's part.). but the rendering rightly corrects the A. This is rather awkward. The last error.: Ch. XXVIII. more correctly. It does not refer to the face alone. picturesque vagabond impostor. the guard hein^ with them. Countenance (elSia). this latter was sealed to the rock. to wmder. The sealing was performed by stretching a cord across the stone and fastening it to the rock at either end by means of sealing clay.] MATTHEW.. if the stone at the door happened to be fastened with a cross beam. and then left them to keep watch. Or. in margin. the agency of As lightning. Rev. many render. the resurrection In effulgence. as some render. The word looking.. It would be important that the guard should witness the sealing. as referring to irXdvo^ above . Each evangelist's account of Matthew emphasizes different particulars. and hence a That deceiver . deceiver. The pronoun that is very being used of distant objects. Sealing the stone and setting a watch TJ79 {<T^parii<yavr^<i having sealed the stone Eev. will be worse than the iirst error the impression made by his impostures that he was the Messiah. New Testament.

? Secure you without care. Came to. He goeth going. He is in the act of 9.. in contrast with or as a breaking of silence. We will i. themselves. " I would have you to be free safe. " Do I conciliate men or God Lit. It is from the Latin se Gura. care. and traces to its origin the calrisen Lord before his umny 7. All hail (^aipere). persuade 10. sufficient money. Possibly from feelings of close to him. 32. after he was — — . Prostrated The first time that the disciples are described as doing 18. vii. XXVIIL the ange].). with a nice distinction which can hardly be conveyed without paraphrase. made by seeing him Yerse 17 evidently describes the impression at a distance. make you however." 148 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The ordinary Greek form of saluta- tion. Worshipped (irpotreKvvqaav). {yfia<. i. current among the Jews to this day. so. ascension. It has passed into the popular meaning to maTce Compare 1 Cor.e. satisfy or wppease. See on Matt. a/jjepi/ivov. Jesus now ap- Spake saying {iXaXrja-eu Xiycov). xxvi. [Ch. Thus the dumb man.. etymologically.. 32. ca/res " (Rev. Tronjaofjuev). 12. without. Lit. 14. modesty they had not ventured proaches and addresses them. {ireiaoiMev). Two different words are here used to express speech. a sine. The verb TuiKeiv is used of speaking. and the impotence of the military and priestly power He only notices the adoration of the to crush the new faith. Enough to bribe them to invent a lie. is. secure. Compare Gal. and correct rendering. voluntary or imposed. 9. The word = from 17. Large money (apyvpta iKava). before you {Trpoayei). As in ver.

Peter says. however. See Acts viii. wasgi/ven. we are brought by baptism into fellowship with his death. 1). Hence it is used of God (Heb. . iii. Baptizing into the name of the Holy Trinity implies a spiritual and mystical union with him. Xiyeiv refers to the but the fact that he spake to men.] MATTHEW. ^'^ In the name (et? to ovofia). and hence to use words selected as appropriate said. a sense which would give to the baptismal formula merely the force of complished. Here. given {iB69^). the name is to be baptized on the confession of that which the name implies on the ground of the name so that the name Jesus. Ch. is the preposition commonly used with baptize. iii. the point being.. vi. 2. Unto. when his tongue was In the use of the word the writer contemplates the fact rather than the substance of speech. The verb originally means iopich out. 38). 38. 3. and to put such words together in orderly discourse. Cor. Eh. i.issio7i of sins (Acts ii. as the contents of the faith and confession. .. XXVIII. make disciples of. denoting union or communion with. On the contramatter of speech. as Kom. 149 healed. 27. : . we have Jesus first breahing silence (eXaXr)a-ev). unto repentance (Matt." i. 3. . . authority. "baptized into Christ Jesus into his death. 13.. for the rem. into. he commands Cornelius and his friends to be To be baptized upon baptized in (eV) the name of the Lord. Teach {(uiSijTevaaTe). is the ground upon which the becoming baptized rests. 15 x.e. . and then discoursing (Xeyav). 5 1 In Acts ii. Power Is {i^ovcTia). Kev. Better. . 1. not what God ry. 11) et? a<^ecrn/ dfiaprtuv.. Kev. denoting object or purpose. 19. correctly. into the name. as et? fierdvoiav. began to speak (iXaXei). sjpake {ikdX'rja-ev) loosed. Lit. The name is not the mere designation. " Be baptized upon {eTrl) the name of Jesus Christ and in Acts x. by the divine decree.. then. 16 xix. expressions of thought. i. Into. . as Hev. and Zacharias. 2 Gal. rightly. 48." Baptizing into the name has a twofold meaning. In the name {iv) has reference to the sphere within which alone true baptism is ac.

but the formula in which all his attributes and characteristics are summed up... Father as his Creator and Preserver and depends upon God the is equivalent to \n. 20. and and confesses the Holy Spirit as his Sancti- and Comforter. will need to teach his neighbor. 34) (Morison "On Matthew"). in all End margin. Wye. as in the Lord's Prayer (" Hallowed be the expression of the sum total of the divine Being not his designation as God or Lord. No man. saying. WORD name : STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. (Trao-a? Alway days. tov alwvos:). after the Gospel shall have been proclaimed throughout the world.. consummation of the age. in of the world {a-vvreXeui'. It The name. after that. xxxi. . and the consv/inmation is coincident with the second coming of Christ. ' ' . receives Jesus Christ as his only Mediator his pattern of life fier . " The Saviour's mind goes no farther for after that. 150 a cha/rm. meant. and Rev. thy ")." . all the days. XXVni. evangelizing work will cease. Lit. The current age is lit. [Ch. only through his name . is The finite mind can deal with him but his name is of no avail detached from his nature. When one is baptized into the name of the Trinity. and Kedeemer. Know the Lord (Jer. he professes to acknowledge and appropriate God in He recognizes all that he is and in all that he does for man. ra? ij/iepa?).B person.

. Gentile.. use vain repetitions. dea-p-T). 35 Ka3d. xxvi. xviii. outer.TvovmTa>. xxvii. fidefiov. xx. kid. vessel. 18 Sio-Tafo). wash. jot.. d7ray. tares. xiii. 9 43 5 yet.. old.. friend.. xxviii. SiSpaxpov. 24 8if'|o8oy.. 27 riSmof. merchandise. aipcrifu). shine forth... ii. xi. draw up. 39 16 two years doubt. to be wroth. 8... iiTLopKew. 14 v. seventy times. eiivovxli<o.. utter.. 63 anise. fair weather. xxvii. xxvi.. xxi. iii. xii. hang one's self.... ix. SOW upon. xxvii. 5 XXV. wonderful..... my God. ^pfjvos. xii. 16 xxviii. xiii. 25 vii.. 27 halpos.LIST OF GKEEK WORDS USED BY MATTHEW ONLY.. 33 xi.. 17 to set upon. xvii. .. 53 ayKKTTpov. xii. 46 30. v. 7 violent. rain. strain through. v. son. 31 . marry. aifioppoea. 13 . xxi. xvi. agree.(o. 31 24 evpvx(i>poi. eSviKos. SiuKcoXuo).. such a man. 48 . xiii... 30 euKoem. having an issue of blood. xviii.. debt... XV. Ka^TjyriTrjs. 24 17 eiSea. xxvi. xiii. Sau/xdo-ior. xxii... 7 ^aerai/ioTijr. 25 ^aTToXoyiw. 23 i^artpos. ftfdwo. 7.. v. v.. i.. 10 22 Karapav'Sdvai. vii. SiiJXifw. viii. 18 16 iiprjvovoios.... 'Eppavovi^X. xxiii. vi.!. 50 dfii/a (o). 3 20 choose. 12 . 28 . 16 . broad. /3ap.. 24 imKu'Sii^ai... 25-40 'hXi'... reaper. ifiSoprjKovTdKi.. Consider. e^opKi^m. 2 bundles.. xxiii. 17 ?lvp6opai. Emmanuel. 7 very precious. 12 . vi. xxv. XViii.. burn up. xxii. innocent. xvi.. xvii. tormentor.iiai. 16 7.. ii. tell. master.. 18 xiii. 34 ^apuTLfjios.. ayyelov... xxiii. goat. x.. 25. lamentation. Ppoxr). half-shekel. as. 30 a. v. make a eunuch. 24 emyapffpeva.. 4. xxii. 7 airrjUov. xxvi. 47 . 7 dvainos. xxvii. 12 13 StaWdrropai. 18 SiX^^'^. xxii.. peacemaker. 35 ipl^ai.. ii. xxii. xxvii. xviii. xxvii.. set at variance.. 5. 15 xiii.. 4 ('yepa-is. hook. parting of the highways. xxv. xix. aKfjifiv. aKajSi/Sufm. 23 a/cpi/Soo).... . forbid. 33 iiTKmelpoi. ipevyopat. strive. 19 xiii. 12 iplfjuov. 48 ipTTpffHa... fellow. xxii. xiv.. SepKTTijf.. 0ia(rrijr. 24 lira. 27 13 evb'ia. 9 fiicTijf. xiii. hiaa-ac^ia. be reconciled. adjure.. forswear... resurrection. 10 xviii. ii. inquire diligently. ipiTopia. blameless.. vi. cKXapno). countenance.

wax cold. K^Tos. iv. . xvii. 47 18 (re\rivi.. Tvcf>6a>.. xx. mill. xxiii... 39 drag-net. appoint. 25 vli.. ensnare. 19 a-vvduTTja-is.. iv. vi. 31 depart. poKa.. aayrjvrj.. X. 74 KaTan-ovTl^ofim. cpvTcia. o-vvav^dvofjLai. XXV.3 . 2.. xxvi. 15 T-paTrffiTT^f. to xxvi. grow together. carrying away... 19. plant. ii. TpilTTjj/ia. 19 ii. 17 filXiov... false witness. xiii. sickness.. sea-coast. xv. <rvvaipa>. 13 .. brood... oliuaKos. xx. Eaca.. paniCoi. 65. ^ixoyxu. voiwTiia. 7 Trpo<faava. KnTaraSf/iaTifo). xxvii.. tribute-money. much-speaking. xxiii. vi. xviii. xii... xxvii. 1. 59.. 25 belonging to the house. 30. 24 cummin. xxii. 28. 34 23.. Trapo^jfis.. 7 10 ToKavTov. phylactery. xiv. 12. 40 22 . xxiv. whale. be lunatic. 1 i.. 7 reXcvTrj. no\v\oy ia. end (in sense of death). 15 xxiii. forestall. robe.. 41 19 24. 24 iv. 15... 22. xviii. (pvXaKTripioD.. oiSafimr.. xxvi.. neglect. Trapo/ioiiifo).. 35.. 20. 4 of /iaXaxia. xii.. 12 TrXarvs. 13 17 to be like unto. v. fiiTaipo).. &vap. xxvi . 11.36 dream. guard.. talent. xxv. fatling. fivXav. piece money.d^ofim. XV. xxiii. 24. be 6 drowned. xxviii. viii.. platter. xxii. (TiTicrros. xxvii. sink.. 23 ix. /uicrSoo/iai. xxv.. 19. xxiv. xxiii... v. 24 to smoke. 6 ippd^o). xxvii. 27 the more... 27 eye (of a needle). 25.. 5 upon the xviii... hire. 152 LIST OF GREEK WORDS USED BY MATTHEW ONLY. 36. 13. 41 iTvi/Tdtr<ra>. KufiLvov. 11 Kpvtpaios. 53 xix. 13 31 xv. 12. 19. v. smite... xvii.. xiii. watch.. xvii. irayiSeva. napaKova. 30 mile. oiKfVfia. xyiii. 20 declare. ^fvSoiicipTvpla. wide. xxii.. Ku>voi\lr. vocra-La.. 67 66. xxvii. xxiii. araTrjp. 23. xiii. KovaraBia.. 1 fielCo".... xvi. to be red or fiery. by no means. 37 household.. 27 X^afivs.. 25 nvppa^w. gnat.. exchanger. burial. secret. 15-28 Ta(pT]. meeting. stater . ii. 15 TrapaSaXao-o-ior. i. take (a reckoning). xiii. xxiv. x.. fieroiKeo-ia. xix.... curse..

in his subsequent readiness to join them on the second missionary journey (Acts xv. The surname Mark was adopted for use among the Gentiles Mark {Ma/rcus) being one of the commonest Latin names (compare Marcus Tullius Cicero. which we have hints in his petuosity of Mark's disposition. Jameson. dictating and Peter in a pulpit. The him as " my son " general opinion of the fathers. 51. would naturally be in tions of Peter seated him and writing from . is that Mark drew the great mass of his materials from the oral discourses of Peter. and. by the best . 39). and Mark taking down his words in a book (see Mrs. 11-17). in representa- on a throne with Mark kneeling before his dictation Mark sitting and writing. INTRODUCTION. and Peter standing before him. 52).. 38). Maek the Evai^gelist is. . clad only in a linen sheet (Mark xiv. and was. the son of Mary. of forsaking Paul and Barnabas at Perga (Acts xiii. authorities. 149). " Sacred and Legendary Art. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK. as John was one of the commonest Hebrew names.. This opinion finds support in the evidences of Peter's inThe restlessness and imfluence upon the style of this Gospel. This opinion was perpetuated in Christian art. identified with John Marl?. the intimate friend and associate of Peter (Acts xii. Mark was a cousin of Barnabas. as well as that of modern authorities. if the tradition be accepted. ." i. preaching to the Romans. from a very early period. in his rushing into the street on the night of Christ's arrest. with his hand raised. Marcus Aurelius). 13 xv. who affectionately refers to at the close of his first epistle.

of the Spirit. no other person's memory would the minute particulars of the prediction. Peter was ima man of observation and action rather than of reflection " When we assume. modestly passed by. He throws a bridge from the old economy to the new. the Gospel of Christianity regarded as the Luke exhibits Jesus as a Saviour. Christ's portrait is drawn " in the clearness of his present energy . and the sacredness of humanity. would not be guilty of making frequent or egotistic references to such marks of distinction " (" Commentary on Mark "). then we understand how it comes to pass tliat it is in his pages that we have the most particular account of that lamentOn able denial of his Lord of which the apostle was guilty. John deals with his person. It is also noteworthy that. John wrote that men might believe that Jesus is the Christ. " not as the . the splendid eulogium and distinguishing blessing. "While Matthew and Luke deal with his offices. and fulfilment of Judaism. the Eternal Wwd. torian. which had been previously pronounced. and might have life in him. " that Mark drew directly from the discoursings of St. Unlike the other gospels." says Dr. is a chronicler rather than a hisHis narrative is the record of an observer. His is the Gospel as related to the past. are. . John carries forward the piers of Matthew's bridge toward that perfected heavenly economy of which his Apocalypse reveals glimpses. Mark's narrative is not subordinated Matthew's memoirs turn on to the working out of any one idea. Peter in the neighborhood of Caesarea Philippi is faithfully and circumstantially recorded in Mark's pages. the relation of Christ to the law and the prophets. Moripulsive and impetuous. while the very severe rebuke which our Lord administered to St. In Matthew he is the f ulfiller of the law in Jolm he foreshadows the grander and richer economy . son. and of its unanticipated fulfilment. Mark. engraven. In Matthew Jesus is the Messiah in John. be so indelibly . on the other hand.154 INTRODUCTION TO MARK. Peter. dealing with the facts of Christ's life without reference to any dominant conception of his person or office. sympathy with the well-known character of Peter. Doubtless the great apostle as it were. expounds the freeness and universality of the Gospel.

. . All these characteristics appear in Mark's Gospel. especially if we compare them with narratives which Luke has evidently received from other sources. . comparatively few of the same words are employed by both a fact which may be. and are justly regarded as indicating the influence of Peter. fulfilment of the past. the quick transitions the frequent use of such words as straightway. and the general ful. in great part." Hence his first power of graphically describing what he was so quick to perceive.. Certain narratives in the Book of Acts record incidents in which Peter was the principal or the only apostolic actor. with his keen-sightedness.) and of the vision of the great sheet (x. . . and in expressions which reflect incidents of his personal association with Christ. his habit of observation. INTRODUCTION TO MARK. Those brief epistles contain over a hundred words which occur nowhere else in the New Testament.) of the raising of Dorcas (ix. and are characterized by his picturesque power. ness of detail. Such are the accounts of the healing of the cripple at the temple-gate (iii. though they emerge even there in certain peculiar and picturesque words.) of Ananias and Sapphira (v. of course. His object is to portray Jesus in his daily life. " in the awe-inspiring grandeur of his human perwonderwords are the appro" The beginning of the Gospel of priate keynote of his Gospel Jesus Christ. as 155 by Matthew. though . as a man who was : also the Incarnate. The traces of Peter's quick perception and dramatic and picturesque power are everywhere visible in Mark.) of Peter's deliverance from prison (xii." Such a narrative might have been expected from Petei-. . . There is. immediately the substitution of dialogue for narrative. as by John. nor as the foundation of the future. the Son of God. In these.). While Matthew fully records the . accounted for by the difference between a hortatory epistle and a narrative. we are impressed with the picturesque vividness of the story the accurate notes of time and place and number the pictorial expressions. and his sonality. less room for the exhibition of these traits in his epistles. and the account of which must have come from his own lips and these narratives bear the marks of his keen observation. the working Son of God.

while Matthew four.evov'. by adding that they left their father with the hired servants (i. " There is. never occurs in Mark nor Mark's is. 3. they took him as he was / and there were with them other little ships (iv. T). " perhaps not one narrative which he gives in common with Matthew and Luke. sent Jesus as led (dvi^x^) i^^to the wilderness to be tempted Mark as driven (ew/SaXXet) adding. as Canon Farrar observes. They belong. v. not of the past. his narrative proceeds straight to the goal. .' Mark reproduces only " Mark does not wear is 'for speed suc- Swift-paced. pre-eminently the pictorial Gospel: the Gospel of detail. He pictures the waves heating into the boat. and that in a condensed form. ences to the Old Testament. in the words to stoop down (i. 10). and throws in the little details. discourses of our Lord. 28 is an interpolation). According to Matthew and Luke Mark depicts them as the heavens were opened [avew'x^crav) i." Thus he adds to John the Baptist's picture of loosing the shoeHe latchet another touch. 156 INTRODUCTION TO MARK. 2. like a Roman soldier on his march to battle. Se was with the wild heasts . are quotations occurring in the discourses of Christ. uses a more gi-aphic term to describe the opening of the heavens at Christ's baptism. not to the recorder " (xv. Mark alone tells us that the disciples sent away the multitude. gives us fifteen of his parables. and the boat beginning to fill notes the steersman's cushion at the stem on which the sleeping Lord's head reposed (iv. 36). Matthew and Luke repreo'ent asunder {axi'^ofjL. 38) and throws the awaking by the disciples and the stilling of the tempest into a dramatic . Hence." says Canon Westcott. His account of the storm which followed is more vivid than Matthew's or Luke's. therefore. After the discourse from the boat to the multitude upon the shore. . " to the narGospel is rative. 20). 8)..o<. Mark pictures his deeds.. or cited by others. with the exception of i. . . law. incisive. . the flowing robes of Matthew. to which some detect a reference in Peter's comparison of the devil to a roaring lion (1 Pet. The word v6/j. in Peter. He gives a realistic toiich to the story of James and John forsaking their employment at the call of Jesus. His dress cinct." His His referthe Gospel of the present. 37. to which he does not contribute some special feature.

36). He like flower-heds with alone specifies the division of the two fishes a/mong them all (vi. He notes the amazement which. . for whatever reason. it is Mark that fills out the incident of the disciples' controversy with the bystanders by relating that the scribes were questioning with them. 3). Matthew (viii. Matthew (xxii. 16). 38. What question ye with tliem ? (ix. stronger than Luke's abode. Master. 3-6). kind of a commandment was lawyer who desired to know what great in the law. 34-40) ends the dialogue with . they all saw him (vi. word than Matthew.INTRODUCTION TO MARK. carest thou not that we perish ? and the command to the sea as to a raging monster. An oriental crowd abounds in color. 50). In the narrative of the feeding of the five thousand. Mark gives us the bystanders' encouragement of Bartimeus when summoned by Jesus. using the compound verb avixpa^av where Matthew uses the simple verb expa^av. would home passed hy the disciples' boat he expresses their cry of terror at Christ's appearance by a stronger . so that no one could pass that way. How many loaves have ye? Go and see (vi. 14. 49. and to Mark we are indebted for the gay picture of the crowds arranged on the green grass. in companies. 41). the breaking oi the alabaster by the woman (xiv. and his inquiry. and that they were exceeding fierce. and Clirist's taking the little child in his arms after he had set him in the midst (ix. their running to salute him. efievev) that the attempt had been made to fetter him. 38). He tells how Jesus. walking on the sea. 157 form by the distressful question. only Mark relates the Saviour's question. 48-50). their varied hues. In the account of the two demoniacs of Gadara.) relates that they were met coming out of the tombs. Jesus' answer to this question. 39). but that he had broken the fetters and that he was day and night in the tombs and in the mountains. He adds. Peace! Be still! (iv. fell upon the people at Jesus' appearance. crying and cutIn the interview with the ting himself with stones (v. Mark mentions only one demoniac. Mark gives the lawyer's reply . When Jesus descends from the mount of transfiguration. 39. but adds that he had Ms dwelling in the toinlas {KaToUrjo-iv elxev. and tells how he cast off He alone relates his outer garment and leaped up (x.

xi. He adds the little touches of Salome's He throws Herod's entering in and delighting the guests. Mark. Mark gives it. . : . emphasizes the promptness of the transaction. and details her conversation with Herodias. 36) " In the days of ii. 23 xii. hingdom. it is to be noted thou shdlt ash of me. 3 iv. 4).). Where Matthew says simply. rank of the guests. also. a feature in which. and places . also. . : : . numbers. whatsoever I vjill give it thee. ofpersons. the fact that Jesus he answered discreetly. And he sware unto her. and demanding the horrible hoon forthwith. and his significant words. Mark also enlarges upon Herod's regret he was exceeding sorry and where Matthew notes merely his compliance with the damsel's request. Thus. Mark pictures her going out. and I will give it thee. times. unto the half of my whole narrative is more dramatic than Matthew's. his enlargement npon Jesns' answer. he resem- bles Peter (compare Acts vi. so far. and her eiitering in again with haste. 7. of Ananias and 3-9). too. While the dialogue is not peculiar to Mark. a sel with the Rerodians " (iii. He promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she should ash. 29) " Simon and they that were with him followed after him " (i. Mark lets us into his feeling of unwillingness to refuse her. . : : Abiathar the high-priest " (ii. 15 . that it is charactei'istic of Peter's style. The Matthew says that Salome was put forward by her mother. 22 v. Salome demands the Baptist's head forthwith . Mark is peculiarly minute and specific as to details of persons. Sapphira prison book of Acts.158 INTRODUCTION TO MARK. Ash of me whatsoever thou wilt. 11. and promise and Salome's request into dialogue. 26) " The Pharisees took coun" The woman was a Oreeh.). 26). It is interesting to compare the account of Herod's feast and John the Baptist's raTirder as given by Matthew and Mark reMark alone mentions the great banquet and the spectively. as can be inferred from the (v. observed that Thou art not far from the Jcingdom of God. Mark alone mentions the executioner. at least. 6) Syro-Phenician by nation" (vii. Compare. " They entered into the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John " (i. and Peter's deliverance from stories in the (xii. Cornelius (x. Herod sends the executioner straightway.

Compare xi. 30). 68. (iii. Compare viii. depicts the tender compassion of the Lord. 41 xiv. the friends would naturally forget the immediate practical demand for food. through the midst of the borders of Deoajpolis " (vii. . Thus the look and curs nowhere else in emotion of our Lord are portrayed "^e looleed round about on them with anger. when the even was come " (iv. : : . xv. 7. 159 multitude from Galilee and his recovery in Deoajpolis (v. 3): The swine were about two thousand {w. He uses six different words expressive of fear." etc. 6) He looked on the young ruler and loved him (x. ye his command . xiii. 41) He sighed : deeply in his spirit Similarly (viii." . 32) : " He rnarvelled because of their unbelief " : (vi. 25. xiv. The compound trouble. INTRODUCTION TO MARK. 34) " Re looked round about " to see who had touched him in the crowd . beautiful hint of his delicate and loving appreciation of an ordinary need closes the story of the healing of the ruler's Mark A In their joy and wonder at her miraculous restoration. 31). of which the Lord promptly reminds them by daughter. 15 e'^^a/i/Seto-^at. . 31). 21. 20) Jesus departed " from the border of Tyre and came through Sidon unto the Sea of Galilee.: . Of 'places : : " A Judaea" etc. 6. Luke notes the same circumstance. 6) oc(ix. 8) : The demoniac proclaimed xi. 7) The people sat Aow^hj hundreds sxidi fifties (vi. " yourselves apart into a desert place and rest awhile (vi. affrighted the New Testament. 68 But Mark does not confine himself to mere outward details. Of number : The paralytic was "borne oifour^^ {\i. 35). xvi. Behold my mother. He abounds in strokes which bring out the feeling of his characters. 5) about him. wonder. and said. 13): The twelve were sent out two and two (vi. extreme astonishment. a great while before day (i. being grieved at the hardness of their heart " He looked round about on them which sat round (iii. that something should be gimen her to eat (v. 21) He was moved with compassion toward the leper (i. 43). 10 3 . (iii. In like manner his appre" Come ciation of his disciples' weariness appears in the words. 1 xii. 11 XV. Of time : Jesus " The rose up in the morning. : : : (v. 13). greatly amazed. 40): "Before the cock crow twice thou shalt deny me thrice " (xiv. amazement. 35) same day.

His style abounds in quick transitions. and by a third (iii. 11) " Ye leave the commandment of God. 21. 22. is He moved with compassion toward the multitude because they : lie is touched with and fatigue of the many who had come from far (viii. occurs in his Gospel something like forty times. . 1 v. 40. 42 vi. 10) they were amazed at his words about a rich man entering into the kingdom of heaven (x. 52) questioning among themselves what the rising again from the dead shoidd mean (ix. . 22). 66). find in Mark certain peculiarly forcible expressions in our Lord's language. 36). 20 vii. . 21 iv. He often defines his meaning by coupling similar words or phrases. 32) The blasphemer hath no more : : .. 20. . and sent for the centurion in order to ask whether he had heen any while dead (xv." etc. " with persecutio?is " (x. 20. " Be set at . and hold fast the tradition of men " (vii. 31 vii. 20. 27 . such as. . 32): Pilatemar-yeZZerfat Jesus being already dead. 21) he is TTbuch displeased at the disciples' rebuke of those who are bringing the young children to him (x. 45 ii. We nought " (ix. and their spreading abroad the fame of his power (i. v. 38) . 37 xi. 8) " This adulterous and sinful generation " . . " To them that are without " (iv. their heart was hardened (vi. 24 vi. sq. . In like manner Mark describes the mental and emotional states of those who were brought into contact with Christ. 7 xiv. Beelzebub is called by two His narrative runs. 13 iii. (viii. 14). 44 . 43. xi. . when the sun did set (i. 28. He depicts the interest excited by the words and works of Christ describing the crowds which jSlocked to him. 2. He imparts vividness to his narration by the use of the present tense instead of the historic (i. ii.. names (iii. : 160 INTRODUCTION TO MARK. 3. Compare i. straightway. 44). 39) . of me " (ix. . 34) : : : : . 12) " Quickly to speak evil " Shall receive Irethren and sisters and mothers. 1. and the disciples were perplexed. The word ev^im. 18. . are as sheep without a shepherd (vi. Those who witnessed the miracle of the loaves understood not. 30). 30) The sick are brought at even. 24) a sudden and mysterious awe fell upon them in their journey to Jerusalem (x.. the need he shows his interest in the condition of the epileptic lad 3) by inquiring into the history of his ease (ix.

bed (ii. mcmy jpa/rahles. sextarius. and with peculiarities of diction. and Ab})a (xiv. . It is a gallery of word-pictures. 41) KoXku^itnai. INTRODUCTION TO MARK forgimeness. . 7) . . 26 vi. . money-changers (xi. 21 He employs . is eKarovrap'x^o'^-XT' (xv. 14) . 15) paTria-p-a. In his Gospel alone occur BoanerTalitha cumi (v. 33. this book. 25). such as 17) legio.. 36). 16) speculator. . 39) . rather than with the exegesis of Of this Gospel it is especially true that its pecupassages. Three of these. I adjure (v. find him preserving the .. his diction less pure than that of Luke and John. concise. 41) Korban (vii. 4. words will reveal to us that the transcript itself is alive. Writing for liomans we find him transferring certain Latin words into Greek. where 42) 27) . because they lie peculiarly in the line of the special purpose of pa<j}(Bo<. 29) He spake without aparahle he spake not (iv. 47) To<. we may discover that it is. 34) . as Canon Westcott remarks. . words uttered by the Lord. 25 vii. and forcible. ges (iii. (xv. centurio. farthing fjogellare. Kevrvplav. quadrans. identical Aramaic . "essentially a transcript from life. he employs many words which are expressly forbidden by the grammarians. a blow of the hand (xiv. and quality cannot be caught without careful verbal Eeading it. 4) jpraetorium. He to Jewish words and usages. centurio. and Compare iii. 65) opKt^a). ex^t. 23) xpa^^afiov6<f>SaXfio<. legion (v. cm eternal sin (iii. . is at the point of death (v. His style is abrupt. with one eye (ix. 11 . I have described the characteristics of Mark at some length. 27 v.. 11 ) Ephjphatha (vii. pot (vii. tribute (xii. needle (x. 11. maid (v. census. to scourge (xv. .. which else(xii. with 34). over seventy words which are found nowhere else in the New Testament. 9. and sextarius are always adds a note of explanation . We . 9) . . 16). . Such are icr^'^Tox. executioner (vi. and some of which are even condemned as slang." but nothing short of an insight into the original and individual liar flavor study. even in the familiar versions. speculator. centurion. 12) Kopaaiov. which deals with individual words and phrases. but is 161 : guilty of 5. found in his Gospel only. Besides irregularities of construction which cannot be explained to the English reader.

book.. baptised. 6. but of the facts of the Gospel. The river. there kept going out. CHAPTER 1. John did baptize {ijevero John came to pass or arose who who haptized.eTavoia<i). the voice. The imperfect tense signifies." has a sort of exclamatory force. Beginning is expression {apxv)^ without the article. Peculiar to Mark. John came Baptism of repentance {^aTma-fia fj. Ko article as A. Zo / a voice. should rather expect Mark to put this in the more dramatic form used by Matthew Say. . He shows from the prophets that the Gospel was to begin by the sending forth of a forerunner. baptism the characteristic of which was repentance which involved an obligation to repent.. V. 3. " the Listening. prophet exclaims. and Eev. Hepent ye ! 5.. 'Iwdvvrj^ 6 ^aini^cov). Lit. 4. Kev. iii. I. A : We ing. There went out {i^eiropevero). See on Matt. Confessing. showing that the It is the beginning. not of his a kind of title. A voice It {<f>covr)).THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK.

bringing into Jerusalem jars of that wild honey on which John the bees . " Land of Israel "). Tristram few devout Abyssinian Christians are in the habit of coming and remaining here for forty days.evov<. A detail peculiar to Mark. Straightway. rent asunder: much stronger than Matthew's and Luke's dvem^Srjtrav. Wild honey. And 10. the saying in the same form 12. 89. Wye. Compare to hear . 11. Stronger than Matthew's and Luke's ^jero. Lit. afford in their recesses secure shelter for any number of swarms of wild and many of the Bedouin. the beloved. unloose. and a ruined church is on its topmost peak. (e'/e/SaWet). Tradition fixes near Jericho. 38. 11. I. 163 Lit. honey of the wood. the word used of our Lord's expulsion of demons. Matt.Ch. but with a vesture woven of camels' Compare Kings 1. 8. were opened. To stoop down. the precipitous face of which is pierced with ancient cells and chapit els. See In- troduction. to keep their Lent on the spot where they suppose that our Lord fasted and was tempted. iii. The Wilderness. 6. hairs. Thou art my beloved son. Baptist fed in the wilderness " (Tristram. Kafii]\ov). See on Matt.] MARK. Mark i.). The place is unknown. as Eev. particularly about the wilderness of Judaea. " The innumerable fissures and clefts of the limestone rocks.. with a camel's skin.. A favorite word with Mark. 7. With camels' hair 2 (rpixa<. Dr. Thou my Driveth him dvrjX'^t ix. was led. says that every spring a .. was It is led up. 34. in the neighborhood of the Quarantania. : The art three synoptists give son. obtain their subsistence by bee-hunting. ]S^t hair. Opened {(T'xi^ofj. which everywhere flank the valleys.

A little farther. here uses. wolves. The region alluded to abounds in boars. only the verb. [Ch. iv. At the conclusion of his teaching. ih. Straightway. 21." . m the power of. leopjust ards. Me and those like me. like a cast. The time the setting the time. See on Matt. Morison compares the phrases in drink. 22. Gal. See on Matt. "wi. Mark adds. Peculiar to Mark. iv.e period completed by up of Messiah's kingdom. in 24. Peculiar to Mark. Probably a fisherman's phrase. foxes. etc. Lit.164 13. To become {yevia-Sai). 2 . 4. without adding net. 19.^aXXovra<. Added by Mark. 20. hyenas. and le- U&oe in the Gospel. more graphically. The : finite verb with the parteaching. " The demons. With an unclean spirit {iv irvevfian aKo^dprtp). With the hired servants.. denoting something continuous was 23. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TB/iTAMENT.. 18. a ImuI. Repent. 16. love. See on Matt. xxi. Compare the fulness of (o Kaiph). Mark 17. 15." says Bengel. throwing about in the sea. ticiple He taught {^v SiSdaKav). jackals. Us. an unclean spirit." 'Ev {in) has the force of Dr. 29. Lit. " make common cause. That is. An addition of Mark.). iv. L With the wild beasts. It may imply that Zebedee carried on his business on a larger scale than ordinary fishermen. Casting a net {afi(^i. Mending. iii.

which is not a best texts.. 24. The cognate verb is Sai/iovi^ofiai to be rendering demons. iv. 1. 32. (0t/tt6^9. when the sun did set. gin. he came to her. they tell him of her. he stood over Mark only. That were 34.Tt). iv. 27. from Sa'^ficov.. They demanded one of another 30. and against retains devils instead of the protest of the American committee. of. only at Matt. : . See on Matt. eavTovsi). In Hesiod. or helonging to a demon. according to the and Sai/ioviov. since the Mark is i. Plato de- oras. Thales. Mark adds the crying out with a loud voice. They questioned among themselves Stronger than Luke.. and which were so often cast out by Christ haCfiav. among themsehes. Had torn (o-Trapa^av). tearing. 25... Trvpiaa-ovtra). to deities allot the fates of men.Ta. Luke. 23.] MARK. The derivation of the word rives it uncertain. but the neuter of the adjective Sai/i6vio<.Ch. "S^-^. her. I. who has thet/ {crw^rjTeiv irphf spake together. Mark. xxii. The Rev. as in distribute. they hesought him for her. Mark adds. The demon names him as giving to the destruction the impress of hopeless certainty. prostrate. 32. of which demon is a transcript. the word haifimv is used of men of . convulsions Ya. 165 The Holy One of God. The ]!^ew Testament uses two kindred words to denote the evil spirits which possessed men. Lay sick of a fever {Kareiceiro Kara. possessed with a demon. An instance of Mark's habit of coupling similar words or phrases. Luke. unfortunately. sick. viii. 12. knowing or wise. as in Pythagand Plutarch. Perhaps hauo.zx- Luke has had thrown him down in the midst. 26. At even. Lit. Devils (Bai/iovia). le muzzled or gagged. Hold thy peace See on Matt. 31 diminutive. he took her hy the hand a/nd raised her up. Tynd. and which occurs. See on Matt.

And I say. that every wise man who happens to be a good man is more than human {Baifxoviov) both in life and death." ii. .Q}v of one's genius or attendant spirit. but as an adjective. and becomes a demon. the deity considered as a power rather than as a. 40). I ' not. I the golden age. Beneficent. god and goddess. guardians oJ: mortal men. Grote (" History of Greece ") observes that in Hesiod demons are " invisible tenants of the earth. : that he speaks of a golden race of men who came first ? know that. : — parted soul. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. [Ch. in Plato's " Oratylus. 190.." quotes Hesiod as follows " Socrates : You know how Hesiod uses the : word ? Hermogenes : Indeed I do Yes. too. Sog. indicating that the person addressed is in some astonishing or strange condition. as a term of reproach wretch ! sirrah ! madman ! (" Iliad.." In later Greek the word came to be used of any de- After some further conversation." Mr. because they were ^arifiove<. . person. acting as tutelary deities. : He says of them. and is rightly called a demon. for the purpose of repressing wicked behavior in the world.. remnants of the once happy golden race whom the Olympic gods first made the unseen police of the gods. 31 ix.— 166 . . always in the vocative case. Homer does not use Bai/xovtov substantively. 200 iv. which is a name given to him signifying wisdom. like the Latin 7iunien. averters of ills. 174) Excellent stranger! noble sir! Homer also uses Bai/j. : Do you not re- member Her. Ifow. Socrates. Occasionally in an admiring or respectful sense ("Odyssej%" xiv. {knowing or wise)..'" therefore I " And Socrates goes on have the most entire conviction that he called them demons. race. he and other poets say truly that. Therefore. Soo.. 443 xxiii. In Homer Salficop is used synonymously with ^eo? and Bed. But now that fate has closed over this They are holy demons upon earth. he has honor and a mighty portion among the dead. and forming the link between gods and men. when a good man dies. and thence of one's lot ox fort. and with a sorrowful or reproachful sense. and the moral quality of the divinity is determined by the context but most commonly of the divine pow: er or agency.

later." taking the abstract term uniformly in an evil sense.Ch. but long-lived. obviating the necessity of pronouncing either that the " Yet. a Greek philosopher. and the strange gods. ing the divine nature. v.. Messed). naturally imparted a gloomy and forbidding character to those who were supposed to allot the destinies of life. In classical Greek fell into it is noticeable that the abstract to Saifioviov Baif^cov. and subject to the passions and propensities of men. Sicily. For while it abandoned as indefensible a large portion of what had once been genuine vised for the purpose of satisfying a sensibility.. also. developed Hemaking the demons of a mixed nature between gods and men. V. So in the beantif nl simile of the sick father (" Odyssey. We have seen that. 167 une. I. Hence. In tlie tragedians. While in Hesiod the demons are all good. This conception relieved the gods of the responsibility for proceedings unbecom. and toward this sense the word gravitates more and more. of . the phrase /cara halfjLova is nearly equivalent to hy chance. " obscure to human knowledge and alien to human life. rapes. which tended to regard no man happy until lie had escaped from life (see on Matt." Compare "Odyssey. more scrupulous religious was found inconvenient afterward when assailants arose against paganism generally. not only the link between the two. 3.] MARK. it . as the demon of Socrates. Baifiwv. xi. though degods were unworthy or the legends untrue. The undertone of Greek thought.. abductions — were the doings of bad demons. 61. the background behind with the development in the latter of the notion of a jfate or genius connected with each individual. occurs more frequently in the latter sense. according to Empedoeles they are both bad and good." x. the bad sense of Saifi6vio<. in Homer. siod's distinction having an agency and disposition of their own not immortal. is the prevailing one." 396). while in biblical Greek the process is the reverse. 64. though used both of good and bad fortune. this doctiine being rejected for that of an overruling personal providence. but Empedoeles. The enormities which the older myths ascribed directly to the gods — thefts. " Some malignant genius has assailed him. It also saved the credit of the old legends.

45). faith. 11. The all is peculiar to Mark. x.. 33). 22. all are seeking thee. 37. . it was The word found only in 36. they are put in opposition to the Lord (1 Cor. Luke iv. They appear. 2-5 vii. xi. and moral being (Luke xiii. . present tense. sies The Christian writers in their controver- found ample warrant among the earlier pagan authors for and not less ample warrant treating all the gods as demons later pagans for denouncing the demons generally as among the evil beings " (Grote. 35. 15 . 30. So Eev. and they that were with hitn.: 168 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. true to his nature. 18. iii. Lit. Hence the compound verb indicates that they followed him eagerly . influencing and disturbing the physical. Simon and his companions. great while before day (evvvxa). [Ch. as well as the people of the city. The continuous All the people of Capernaum. 20. 13. They are special powers of evil. 1). Tim. 14). 25 Matt. while The word is peculiar to Mark. Y. seem to have been afraid lest he should have permanently left them. All the city was gathered together at the door. Moved with compassion. Towns (xctf/xoTToXet?). mental. (Mark v. . Followed after {Kare^im^av). I. 16 Mark v. 33. Simon. Peculiar to Mark. iv. Lit. 18. better than A. suburban towns. 20 xvi. 19). They are connected with idolatry (Apoc. " History of Greece "). . was foremost in the pursuit Simon.. Mark. 21) . Only Mark. A in the night. pursued him as if he were fleeing from them. in connection with Satan (Luke x. xii. 12. wZZa^e-^owjw*. . it still retained the same word demons with an entirely- altered signification. . All. to the unclea/ii spirits faith (1 ix. This evil sense the words always bear in the New Testament Demons are synonymous with as well as in the Septuagint. 38. 41. 17.

e<7Tiv). in the house. Jesus not to thwart his ministry by awaking the premature violence of his enemies . That he was It the house ipn eh oIkov The 6ti. unto him. that. ii was heard. if they should see the leper and hear his story before he had been officially pronounced clean by the priest. . He was speaking when the occurrence which follows took place. is recitative. as Rev. as a result of this feeling. was reported — introducing the report in the direct form. any city.. or be otherwise strongly then. was noised in (^Kova^^. carrying the idea of the in the house. The word is originally to snort. horses. It II. he is in the house ! The preposition in is lit- erally into. The word does Testament. A detail peculiar to Mark. 4. spaT&e. He preached (e\a\et). II. Strictly margin." But the best texts read eV oLkw. who. in margin. to moved and . The city. as in 43. But some read not occur elsewhere in the So Rev. charged {efi^pinriardfi€vo<:). 169 Rev. The Lord evidently spoke to him ^peremptorily. drove or oast him out. to admonish or re- buke urgently.. Imperfect tense. of mettlesome Hence. or chafe. a city . (Tr/aoo-eYy/o-ai). Properly. 45. 3.fret. Compare sent hvm out (i^i^aXev) lit.. sternly. as Rev. bring him. Lit. Lit.Ch.. might deny either that he had been a leper or had been truly cleansed. Come nigh unto him New . irpoaevi'^Kai. motion preceding the stay " iZe Aaw ^one iw^o the house. The reason for this charge and dismissal lay in the desire of . and is there.. The account of this rumor is peculiar to Mark. Borne of four.] MARK.. CHAPTER 1.

. and grass grows in the crevices. this. He was not only immediately aware of their thought.evoi. . Compare Ps. earth. but clearly &nA fully aware. tar. or they could have gone into an adjoining house and passed along the roofs. Lit. of the word New Testament. but also to pry up the tiles. and goats poor in the country the may be seen on the roofs cropping it. Thomson says that Jesus probably stood in the lewan or reception-room.). cxxix. where it is said they let him down through the tiles . Very modern roof would be untiled or graphic and true to fact. 19. ashes. tus. 6. held at the corners.). . not only to dig through the grass and mortar. and the crowd was around and in front of him.?). which usually has open arches on three sides. stone slabs are laid across the joists. IL They uncovered in (a-treaT&^aaav). In some cases. scooped it out. and requiring no cords to let it down. grass gi-ows more freely. They could easily reach the roof hy the steps on the outside. as the roof is low . Perceived (eVtyi/oi.^6iJ. One of Mark's Latin words. so that they would be obliged. It is not possible accurately to reproduce the details of the scene. merely a thickly padded quilt or mat. that they held a 8. a hall which is entered from the court or street by an open arch or he may have taken his stand in the covered court in front of the house itself. Reasoning {Bia\oyi. A rude pallet. Dr. The word is. but an oriental roof would have to be dug to composition of make such an opening as was required. Broken it up {i^opv^avTe(. as in See Luke v. Some suppose that the crowd was assembled in an upper chamber. which sometimes extended over the whole area of the honse. dialogue is de- rived from this. grdba{Kpd^arTov). The preposition kiri gives the force of full]). and condemned by the grammarians as inelegant. and rolled On the houses of the hard. The bed 6. and the meaning literally dialogue with themselves. unshingled. A A and sand is spread upon the roofs. The only use [Ch.170 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

felt silk. words : No The Greek order throws the emphasis on these need have they that a/re strong of a physician. were disposed at suitable intervals. 29. Lit. rugs usually take the place of carpets " (" Central and Eastern Arabia "). or better. The roof was of timber. No need. 9. 30. . : . ix. The walls were covered in a rudely decorative manner with brown and white wash. They strong. See on Matt. Lit. So Rev. 10. II. But the best texts read ypafifuiTeK rmv ^apiaaicov. authority. oblong hall about twenty feet in height. The imper- fects are graphic kept coming. clean sand. and garnished all round alongside of the walls with long strips of carpet. it is permitted or lawful. as Eev. scribes of the Pharisees. in mar- e^ecTTi. The word derived frona 13.. and sunk here and there into small triangular recesses. which is thus " The MhJawah was a described by William Gifford Palgrave long. and sixteen or thereabouts in breadth. they that are See on Luke xiv. destined to the reception of books. gin. and other such like objects. 17. 11.] MARK (TrepiTraTei). upon which cushions. It is Power {e^ovalav) is . covered with faded In poorer houses. They had fol- lowed him into the hall where the company were seated. Scribes belonging to tlie sect of the Pharisees. 14. and flat the floor was strewn with fine. This hall answered to the k'hdwah of Arabian houses. 16. His house. Walk walk about. ii. lamps. power. Resorted—taught (ijpxeTo—iSlSaa-Kev).. Authority or right the dominant meaning in the New Testament. 15. 171 9.— Ch. that are whole (ot i<7%uoi/Te9).. combines the ideas of right and might. Scribes and Pharisees. See Luke v. fifty in length. Levi's. was not ablej and 2 Pet. kept teaching.

A word found in Mark only. 29. John the Compare John iii. 20. — 21. See on John iii. Hence the use of the were fasting. Hence is no mention of them in the account of the marriage at Cana. through. Lit. Matthew (ix. to pluck {ijp^avro oBov iroielv t'CKXovLit. 29. as they went. So Kev. is E. Whole men evil. a leech. Another of Mark's double expressions: then in that day. as Mark does.. refers to the fact as a custom . H. The A. the guests invited to the bridal.172 WORD STUDIES IN THE home no need NEW TESTAMENT.). See Intro- duction. The is sons of the bride-chamber are different from the groomsmen. side.. rfi Then— in vi^epa. hut they that home 18.. Matthew and Luke use hid. throweth wpon. Used to fast {rjaav vqcxTevovrei. Began. to [Ch. Wye. hegan to make a way jplucUng the ears.. finite verb. 36) use eTn^aXKei. JohvUs diseiples and the Pharisees. there They are The scene laid in Galilee. V. Seweth 16) {iTrtppaTTTei). Head as Eev. as and Luke (v. In Judaea there were at every marriage two groomsmen or friends of the hridegroom. sons. 19.. where groomsmen were not customary. those days. Children of the bride-chamber correctly as Kev. re?). as in Judaea. correctly. The proper reading is eV eKeiwi in that day. He went(avToi' irapaTropevea-^ai). It is {viol toO wfi<^S)vo<i).ev. The threefold repe- tition of the word fast characteristic of Mark. the ascetic. And of the Pharisees. went along healong the stretches of standing grain. More noteworthy that Christ twice uses a figure drawn from marriage in his allusions to Baptist. but not Trapd. This does . we speak 23. But the o/" is wrong. of clajyping a patch upon. but Mark means that they were oiservmg a participle with the fast at that time.

Each cake was made of about They were anointed in the middle with oil. as he journeyed. but . happened to be a feast-day that required sabin which case it was prepared on Thursday afterbatical rest noon. Had need. Judges xvii.e. The Kev. and in the temple itself. 25. or cakes. ruHbing with their hands. i. xii. According to tradition. is Mark adds this to the which cific. ark of the covenant. Y.. to make a way. The renewal of the shewbread was the first of the The priestly functions on the commencement of the Sabbath. five hand-breadths broad and ten long. in both necessity. for in that event thej' would have been compelled to break down the stalks.. the the loaves which were set forth before called them the loaves of the face. and distributed among the outgoing and incoming courses of priests (compare same for tlie priests). rij? TrpoBea-ecog). . twelve loaves. ranged in two piles of six each. The offence given the Pharisees was the jprepa/ration of food on the Sabbath. 26. the presence unless that day . Matthew and Luke. It was eaten during the Sabbath. and Luke. deposited on the golden table in bread which was taken off was the porch of the sanctuary. which is simply to go. Mark.. The had need is generic was an hwngered. The shewbread The Jews (jov'i loaves ofproposition. iroLrjcrai oBbv idiom occurs in the Septuagint. probably adopted here the phrase The same iter facere. of God. describing the peculiar character of the need. The analogy lay in the the toas hungry is spe- . stating the motive. rightly retains the rendering of the A. Matthew says to eat. five pints of wheat. that the disciples broke a 1Y3 not mean way for themselves through the standing corn by plucking the ears. i. but turned up at either end. 2. two hand-breadths on each side. Thej could not have made a way by plucking the heads of the grain. The bread was made of the finest wh eaten of There were fiour that had been passed through eleven sieves. according to the number of tribes. the Lord. h] mabk.e. each cake was in the form of a cross.Ch. Lit. 8 avTov. to resemble in outline the The shewbread was prepared on Friday. apTov. See on Matt. describing the act. who uses Latin forms.

as one who dogs another's The compound keeping leside or near him. to watch carefully or closely. III.e. Imperfect tense.. They watched watching. This CHAPTER 1.ea-ov). Future tense : whether he will heal. with the preposition together with ? Herodotus 39) uses the word of condoling with another's misfortune. On rtjpeco. Arise and stand in midst. the So Wye. Compare the con.. and looking forward 3. {jrapeTripovv). dolere. to the future. The participle indicates that the withering was not congenital. Why the compound (vi. (Sid). 2. Lit. IH This old bread.. A withered hand (i^r/panfiivriv More cor- rectly Rev.. They aspieden him -played the spy. removed on the Sabbath morning. but the result of accident or disease. Wye. The avv therefore implies Christ's condolence with the moral misfortune of these hardforce of con. to watch. that which David ate. Hise into the middle." 462) says. of. verb. Plato (" Eepublic.).. verb. see on John xvii. the reader being placed at the time of the watching. 12.: 174 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Luke says his right hand. in condolence. the whole state will either rejoice or sorrow with him {^vWuTrrja-erai). or for the sake of. . Tynd. Ms hand withered. He would heal {S-epwn-evaei). to grieve. with irapd. i. ffvv. hy the side of. Being grieved {a-v\XvTrovfievo<. rrjv %et/3a). was 27. " When any one of the citizens experiences good or evil. hearted ones. [Ch. For man is saying given On account by Mark only. only by such priests as were Levitically pure. Latin. Stand forth {eyeipe ehro /j. 5. with. rise into the midst. They Tcept means steps.

meaning a blow. irom '7r\rjy'^. fell upon. in order to escape . or ha/rdness in general. 7. (eVotei). Others read -Koiei. in. Thus Sophocles. 8. Withdrew. 8. " Ajax. he In either case the tense has a continuous force what things he was doing or is doing. and Ucopaait} is origi- thence used of a calhis on fractured bones. 10. : accurate detail of places. Lit. the mass ofpeople 8. . Our word plague Compare Acts xxii. x. {irwpcoa-ei). for rest. iii. scourges. xiv. in all the passages rightly gives hardening. 25 Eph. The word occurs in two Kom. because it which is better than hints at i\\Q process going on. given with such minuteness of detail in vv. Compare ver. are also peculiar to Mark. is xi. Mark only records Christ's feeling on this occasion. and Tynd." 279 : "I . Note in vv. nally the process by which the extremities of fractured bones are united by a callus. 7. It is somewhat it strange that caecitate) which does not adopt that rendering here (Yulgate. 7.tinplaga. 9-11. Imperfect tense. 12. where the order of the Greek words is reversed.Ch. a Jcmd of marble. See Introduction. is given by both Wye. . 34. 176 Hardness From Trwpo?. 24.'La. IlXriy^ is used in classical Greek in this metaphorical sense. iv. A great multitude (TroXw ttX^^o?). ha/rdness. XI. Heb. sions on Mark alone notes no less than eleven occawhich Jesus retired from his work. The Eev. itself. Plagues 24. 36.] MARK. New Testament. 46 vii. wrongly renders following the Yulgate caecitas. stroke {fida-Tiya?).. Pestilence or disease is thus regarded as a from a divine hand. 1 . blindness. Mark's He did is doing. Pressed upon (eVtTrwrTeti'). Y. 31 ix. . 2 . his enemies or to pray in solitude. other passages in the 18. vi. In the former case the greatness of the mass of people is emphasized in the latter. The reasons for our Lord's withdrawing into a boat. Hence of callousness. or for private conference with his disciples. See i. Lit. 31. where the A.

The unclean spirits (ra). m 13. Lit. how Aeschylus. {iva)." 251: " O Persian hath the abundant prosperity been destroyed by a single hlow (eV /it^ TrXriyy). that of severe.176 WORD STUDIES IN THE {Tfkrj^ri) is NEW TESTAMENT. he himself would. it indicates the intent of his charge. The article indicating those particular spirits which took part in that scene. pare the kindred noun diroaroXoi.. [Ch. really come from heaven {^eov. 14. appoi/nted. strenuous reproach for It is several times used in the predomunworthy deeds or at as here. The word here. and Eev. See ver. 14. carries the same idea. the that indiProperly. : 12. In this sense the word carries. HI. more strictly. Out of the larger number thus called he selected twelve. As apostles. to the That According cates the substance of Christ's charge. The word is commonly rendered In classical Greek its rebuke in the inant sense is New Testament. Com- . acts. A.. New Testament. however. the imcleai^ ones. So of war. : When they saw (orav iSedopow). made.. Ordained {iiroiria-ev). Y. apostles. in the sense of charge. bottom. sion is Mark's preci- shown in the use of the two articles and in the arrangement of the noun and adjective The spirits. Might send them forth {dTroa-TekXr)). "whom. The imperfect tense denotes a repeated act. He charged (iireTifia). scourges. Eev. The av in orav gives an indefinite force as often as they might see him. 11." land. fear that a calamity god). "Persae. More accurately as Eev. Eev. a suggestion of a charge under penalty {rifir]). Whom he would {ox)<} ijSeXev avro?)." not allowing any to offer themselves for special work. whenever they ieheld.. He charged them order that they should not make him known.

Although Mark mentions that the apostles were sent out he does not classify them here in pairs. venience of a ciently designated . To have power Note that he does not and to cast out. possibly because the incon- not have sufiiwhich of them was intended. He surnamed them Boanerges Boavripje<. however. instead of This would indicate that each of the two was surnamed Some.Ch. Compare Peter. may have hindered it from ever growing into an appellation. which prompted them to suggest the calling of fire from heaven to consume the inhospitable Samaritan village (Luke ix. {exeiv i^ovaiav)." a dual name given to them as a pair. the three who shared the Lord's particular intimacy. this being the tainty attaches to both the origin only instance of its occurrence . and the application of the Most of the best texts read ovofiuTa. which would 13 . The reason of its bestowal we do not know. Some uncer- name. in pairs (vi. 16. xvi. name. but to preach and to have authorThe power of preaching and the power of exity to cast out.). common surname. The Greek Church calls John Bpovro^mvoi. 54) which marked James as the victim of an early martyrdom (Acts xii.. The say tojyreach power of driving out demons was given that they might apply it in confirmation of their teaching. 2) and wliich sounds in the thunders of John's Apocalypse. And Simon he surnamed Mark relates only his to naming and not his ajpjpovntment. 177 15. in. Y). Lit. leaving his appointment be understood. 17. {i-ire^Kev the avToh ovo/j. have claimed that it was a " son of thunder. names.] MARK. It is justified by the impetuosity and zeal which characterized both the brothers. though not perpetuated like the surname Peter.a he put upon them name. . as the name Dioscuri was given to Castor and Pollux. It seems to have been intended as a title of honor. Matthew and Luke both introduce Andrew between Peter and James. But he alone throws Peter and James and John. 20. were so different that special mention is made of tlie orcising divine authority with which they would need to be clothed. into one group.

is a familiar Hebrew idiom. 20 the Greek fathers TrpoaTOKkriTO'. WORD STUDIES IN THE HL The phrase. 4 : "No name is more striking in the Gananaean. 3. Bartholomew is not mentioned in John's list of the twelve (xxi. A name the Jews. 18. in use Andrew among . threshed corn is Compare son of _perdition {John ii. The two surnames. xvii. Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. as are Philip and Bartholomew in the parallel passages of the synoptics. Tolmai. 12). 40. See on list than that of . mean the same thing heloved child. x. Thomas. Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus. and translated by the Greek Didymus (John xi. horses. of Greek origin though man. 41) and hence is always styled by 18. Properly. A Hebrew name. He was one of the two who came earliest to Christ (Matt. 7) xxi. 10). meaxAng fond of is said to have been a chariot-driver. Almost A Hebrew name Bar certainly identical with Nathanael. 2).. 6). Simon the Canaanite. He is the Judas of John xiv. fi/rst called. Probably he had two names. iv. . Philip {^iXiwirov). In ecclesiastical legend he Another Greek name. son of the floor (Isa. Tolmai. sons of. 22. 16).— 178 — NEW TESTAMENT. meaning twin. Luther calls him derfromme Judas {the good Judas). compare John i. and signifying mamly. Bartholomew. Matt. . . X. sons of disobedience (Eph. are sons offire (Job v. in which the distinguishing characteristic of the indiThus sfparhs vidual or thing named is regarded as his parent. [Ch. 2 . from avr]p. v. but do mention Bartholomew. as in Matt. the thunder-voiced. Matthew. son of Philip and Nathanael are associated by John. See on the superscription of Matthew's Gospel. i^Avlpkav). but Natlianael is while the synoptists do not mention Nathanael in their lists.

] MARK. 179 Simon the Zealot. Imperfect tense. and its Glancing back to the many notices of crowds This reassembling of the multiinterference with the repast of Christ and the dis- ciples. which the sayings are linked by this conjunction an impressive rhetorical progression. Yery graphic. But hath an end. 20.. See on Matt. See on Matt. x.Ch. And. What revolution of thought and heart could be greater than that which had thus changed into a follower of Jesus one of the fierce war-party of the day. 27- vivid compound verb. 4. His friends house with him. 32. in 24.e. as evident from the two one.. 26. Not connecting two is parts of one accusation. they that helonged vmio him. x. Spoil {Biapirda-ai). since they were in the 21. And. His mother and brethren.. Compare vv. 22. they kept saying. is peculiar to Mark. 31. kinsmen. Beelzebub. 25. which looked on the presence of Kome in the Holy Land as treason against the majesty of Jehovah. which are equiva- lent to quotation marks. Note the way . Mark uses the stronger and more where Matthew employs the simple dp- . Iscariot. by origin or birth. Lit. " Life and Words of Christ "). Peculiar to Mark. Tynd. tudes. Wye. heside {ol Trap" avrov). they who were from him : i. for to none of the twelve could the contrast be so vivid between their former and their new position. a party who were fanatical in their Jewish strictures and exclusiveness ? " (Geikie. Not his disciples. in the preceding narrative. in. but two accusations. 19. They said {e\eyov). Judas Again.

32.aro'i). snatching right and left. and compare Kev. misses Mark's gathered. The A. So Wye. 29. Again. exco. . his vessels. WOHD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. In There was gathered {(Tvvd'yeTaC). as footsteps. ii. or holden of. and note Mark's superior preci- sion and fulness of Guilty detail. He had taught Mark only. So. 33. See Matt. They said (6X. tea/r [Ch. to His goods {rh (TKevT)). there before. They Tcept sayvng. An utterly false Kightly as Eev. . to hold or have. Compare Mark xi. in. So Wye." graphic use of the present. as the wind . (eVo^^o?).. See iii. of. 11 2 Tim. xii. V. They sent unto him CHAPTER 1. Imperfect tense. 31. who. xi. 15 x. everlasting trespass. ox piersisted in saying. . The A. 16 Acts ix. . IV. 20.180 irdaai. Yvom iv. primarily. generally. " There is So Eev. 28. 34. to carry away. Looking round on them which sat round . 27 James Eternal damnation {almvlov aiiaprrnji.67ov). followed the erroneous text of Erasmus. has gone wrong in following Tyndale. judgment. IV. in pieces. calling him. Compare 1 Cor. to seize as plunder. to efface. rendering. was sitting words in about him. xxiii. Lit. The verb means. Compare Matt. thei-e. in turn. Detail by Mark only as also the ver. 7-9. KjOtVeo)?. Lit.V. . wrongly rendered damnation. of an eternal sin. in the grasp 10. the sea. The special object of the robber may be precious vessels of gold or silver but the word is probably used in its general sense of household . gear. is ii. and a multitude about him. An addition peculiar to Mark. 30. 31 .

These two participles. thus describing the process more vividly. which I have The sower soweth the word.Ch. 12. The lusts of other things entering in rh XoiTTo. 13. Peculiar to Compare Mark. iv. 11). Mark only. 19. {a-wkirvi^av). precise than either Matthew or Luke. Luke viii. spoken or may hereafter speak. the world. More xiii.. it is non. 12 1 Tim. IV. literally renders the participles. Choked The = con {to- gether). Luke viii. 181 preposition. Unto them that are without {iKelvoK tow e^m). Lit. They that were about him with the twelve.Christians in the contrast to it. eTn^vjjbiaC). 11. ofievov).). Col. Matthew and Luke. 1 Thess. That sprang up and increased {ava^aivovra koI ai^avThe Kev. iv. Compare Matt. denoting continuance. Parables (rois •rrapa^o\a<. 14. latter contrast with me. The phrase means Its sense is always determined by outside of our circle. not in the limited sense of mere . The parables. carries the idea of com-pression. iii. 19 . It began to yield and kept yielding as it increased. moreover. 8. rot? XaiiroK {to the rest). Lusts. When he was alone. 7. with less precision. the pronoun of remote reference. It yielded no fruit. v. uses simply i/eeivoK {to them). Added by Mark. up to thirty.] MARK. 13. <7w» 7. 10. (at -n-epl 11. The two words are peculiar to Mark. those Thus. Matof thew (xiii. explain the use of the imperfect tense iSlBov {yielded}. 10. Mark only. growing wp and moreasing. the disciples. 1 Cor. 5. Thirty {eh rpidKovTo). Christians contrasted -wiihjpeople .

. familiar household implement. correctly. but in the general sense of longvng. should have oast.). is also 15 . The Latin modius. So also ^Hhe bed" and " the stand. Candlestick (Xvxvlav). 16. Such as. seed into the ground. Concealment is a means to 26-29. V.d . and should he sleeping amd rising night . Tiii. the lamp. The word sexual desire. stam. Both the lamp come? This impersonation or investing the lamp with motion is according to Mark's lively mode of narrative. Properly. i. 20. A candle Xvxvo?). Bed {k\Iv7)v). seoeetlt.. One of Mark's Latin v. (jMoSiov).e. He says that things are hidden in order that they nrny he manifested. stand. lamp- Which shall not be manifested {iav fif) ha (jjavepcoSfi). " As if a man should have cast 26. Bev. as Kev. See on Matt. cometh. Brought (e/)%6Tai).182 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The whole. [Ch. Philip. A (o good rendering of the pronoun o'Onve<iy which indicates 21. the aorist by the presents sleep and rise {KaSevBr/ and iyeCp7}Tai. literally. a couch for reclining at table. 22. Pe- tense.. The lamp the article indicating 2. Christ say that every hidden thing shall be This is wrong. makes revealed. The A. v. Lit. The modius was nearer a peck than a bushel. IV." : Bushel words. as is the throwing Compare Luke of the passage into the interrogative form. revelation. used of desire for good and lawful things (Luke xxii. Lit. culiar to The paeable oe the seed gkowing Mark. 23). the class of hearers.. 15. 15. See on Matt. followed Should cast {0dXri). i.

It occurs in xii.). is from the margin of A. See especially John iv. Rev. In what parable might we put . Putteth verb is sendeth forth. only one other passage of the New Testament. as Meyer does.e. is ripe. It is. brought forth verb is is it (TrapaBol). shall home delivered itself wp which is stilted and artificial. whose rendering is adopted by Rev. in margin When the fruit shall have allowed. Snch the force of the 27.. in The rendering.] MARK. lengthen. of the city gate which opened to Peter of 29. in {aTroa-TeXXei). the season permitted" {jrapaBiSowrj'i).. He knoweth not how order 28. not passive..: Ch. Grow {fjLTjKvvTjTai). shall have admitted of being harvested. The Greek how Tcnoweth not he. Y. i. 183 . Lit.. is verj' lively : (to? ovk olBev avr6<. a free rendering : . So Rev. for the active. perhaps. misses the figure. that particular seed which article. Lit. self-acting. better to explain. meaning to deliver up. and day. The aorist tense indicates the single act of casting the presents the repeated." Seed (top airopov). . continned sleeping and rising while the seed is growing. Is own accord. Of herself (avTOfidTrf). {anrkcneCKa) 30. The seed is .. This rendering cannot be correct. be extended by the seed lengthening out into blade and stalk. putteth in. Xenophon and Herodotus use the word in the sense of permit or allow and an exact to ha/rvest . parallel to this occurs in the historian Polybius (xxii. he had to sow... 38 : "I you to reap" Peculiar to Mark. The sent the same as that used of sending forth the apostles to reap the harvest of souls.). 24. 9) "When margin. IV. Acts its 10 . Lit. airfjv "jrapa^oXfj Sw/j^ep With what comparison shall we compare It? (eV tLvi Lit. Hence usually explained.

Lodge (KaTaaKTjvovv). the herbs . with branches from each side of a trunk an inch or more in thickness. 32. it is sown. 20.. taking the ? This phrase is repeated {otuv (nrapri). etc. viii. pitch their tents. That are upon the earth. with a fine tact. toward Carmel. It begins to grow great from the time when dirapy.. It is small Here the in ver. emphasis is on orav. tree. A little detail peculiar to Mark. we. Herbs {twv 'Ka'xavcov). Groweth up. Implying that Mark knew yet more parables that at that time. When it is sown it is sown. into a fig-tree. rightly. see note on Matt. . Matmaheth. [Ch. Lit. those which people are wont to plant in their gardens. One of the Talmudists describes the mustard-plant as a 32. See on Matt.184 it WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Peculiar to Mark. 33. Dr.. On branches. IV. Rev..).. were spoken As they were able to hear it. Another says that he was wont to climb into it as men climb Professor Hackett says that on the plain of Akka. putteth out. 31. Thomson relates that near the bank of the Jordan he found a mustard-tree more than twelve feet high. Mark only. as distinguished from wild herbs. xxiv. into consultation. when. Such. Eev. (Trotei KXdBov? fMeyaXov. Peculiar to Mark. thew has hecometh a tree. In what parable shall we set it forth ? Note hearers. the Kev. he found a collection of mustard-plants from six to nine feet high. In ver. — Shooteth out great branches liit. of which the wood was sufficient to cover a potter's shed. 32 the emphasis is on at the time when it is sown. The word denotes garden or pot-herbs. 32.

41. 185 36. and it tumbles down here irresistible. From kotto?. The Anglo- Saxon version has Lit. IV.op). Storm (\aTka'<^). There was (iyivero). A beautiful and picturesque word. heating. The definite well-known part of the boat's equipment holster. Peace. loot. in the boat in which he was then sitting. Compare Septuagint. has foUowed. rather tamely. be still {cnmira. 2." 38. toil. More strictly. Calm. of the whirlwind out of which God answered Job. 1. 18. peacecibleness. Even as he was in the ship. wax dumh ! How much more vivid than the narratives of either Matthew or Luke is this personification and rebuke of the sea as a raging monster. a shaking. there arose or ensued. feared exceedingly {i(j)ofii]3r)(Tav <f>6^ov fieyav). 37. Ch. See on Matt. speeding swiftly above a long and level plateau. 24. Tre^iytwao-o). also.. viii. Tynd. Mark adds the detail about the accompanying boats. Macgregor (" Eob Eoy on the Jordan ") says that " on the sea of Galilee the wind has a singular force and suddenness and this is no doubt because that sea is so deep in the world that the sun rarefies the air in it enormously. gathers much force as it sweeps through flat deserts.. he silent! be 39. 1. See. weariness. They theyfea/red a great fear. 3. Job xxxviii. and the wind. until suddenly it meets this huge gap in the way. article indi- —the coarse leathern cushion at the stern for the steersman. xxi. "Wye.] MARK. Lit. The sea sank to rest as if exhausted by its own beating. Eev. So Luke. Job Matthew uses a-eia-fib^. Just as he was. . A cates a pillow (to 7rpoa-Ke<f)dKai... Ceased {eKoiraaev). Distinctively 2k furious storm or hmrriccme. meaning. muzzled ! Wye. Mr. The aorist tense indicates something immediate.

What manner A. ure of the miserable man . who then is this ? CHAPTER 3. With fetters and chains {TriSaK Kal aXva-ea-w). a foot. they would attract those who sought to flee from fellowship of their kind " (Trench. The Kara. [Ch. : Since these things are so. V. who.). and with reception of the dead. So "In unclean places. so that fetter \%feeter. is related topes. his abiding. a generic word. V. down. a settled habitation. adding. as it does. " Miracles ").186 WORD STUDIES of IN is THE NEW TESTAMENT. many strokes which wonderfully heighten the terribleness " of the man's condition. (derivation uncertain) is a chain. denoting a bond which might be on any part of the body." "AKvcri'. gives it ner of {vui. is man The rather a rendering of Matthew's what man- rightly The Rev. Mark's is the most eminently graphic of all. (Trench. To those not on this account shun them. "Miracles"). often so large as to be supcells ported with columns. just as the Latin pedica. " The pictand in drawing it. upon their sides for the cities. each is fearful but evangelist has some touches which are peculiarly his own St. Dwelling {KaToiKrjaiv). gives the sense of Compare our phrase settled down. is akin to trktfjb^the instep. ' ' The pure fetters on his shinnes grete Were of his bitter salte teres wete. fetter. . TreSr]. . than of Mark's rk. /Mv^jfuicnv). 4. 27). a plural of : shackle. The Anglo-Saxon So Chaucer fot {foot) isfet . 3-5 are peculiar to Mark. being either natural caves or recesses hewn by art out of the rOck.. too. unclean Tynd. Being. without the all and oftentimes in remote and solitary places. . The tombs who did {toi<. because of the dead men's bones which were there. WTio then is this ? The then {apa) is argumentative. these tombs of the Jews would afford ample shelter. and also magnify the glory of his cure The details of vv. this ? (rk apa ovtos ia-nv •n-oraTro?. V.

{e\eyev). Crying {Kpd^tov). V. was saying " corns out . Aristophanes uses it of the frogs ("Ranae. Peculiar to Mark. to grind or crush. he was saying both in the A. Wliat have is there to to do with thee ? thee ? (rt'e/ioi Kal<Toi." 285). is lost condemned by the grammarians as inelegant. crying out. 6. Two number.. 8. Lit. The verb (rwTpi'/3<u means originally to riob together. as in the case of the epileptic child at the Transfiguration baffled spirit Mount. headlong moHence. The verb indicates hasty. small gdbhets. Ch. As usual. opKil^a). Mark alone gives the detail of . in 187 Broken pieces {(TvvreTpl(j)^ai)." 258). The dering of the imperfect brings out the simultaneousness of Christ's exorcism. " and.). Ran {ap/j/tja-ev). Afar off (aTro /uiKpoS-ev). not. an ina/rticulate cry a shriek.. The im- perfect gives the reason for this strange entreaty of the demon. as Rev. and then the articulate speech.] mark. and Rev. Jesus was commanding. rushed. Crying — he saith. and of the bawling of a boor ("Equites. v. I The inarticulate cry (ver. Stronger than Luke's is The verb I adjure. Wye. Thousand. the outbreak of demoniac malice.. as is also he rem. . 7. renders. and the cry Torment me 13. The verb denotes 5.. the force of For he said which Imperfect tense. Mad broken the stocks to Rev. 5). the literal ren- wreaked his malice on the man. It has been suggested that the fetters might have been of cords which could be rubbed to pieces. what me and What have we in common ? Ipray thee. tion. I adjure thee by God.

See {:^eapovaiv). looking stedfasth/. and with a view to search into and understand it to look inquiringly and intently. e^et). denoting action once for in contrast with the imperfects. the steep. Eev. as he was entering. as one than simple seeing. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. crvv. and which are cited by some as evidence of the early composition of his gospel. Hence Eev. avrov). together. 27. but while he was in the act. indicates the united . and aweSXi^op. — words run thus : My litetc.188 WORD STUDIES Steep place. One of the Lieth at the point of death {ia-xaTO)'. 15. In order that. uncouth phrases peculiar to Mark's style. rightly. rjKoXov^ei. is went away. Tcept following. The aorist tense.. Compare Luke viii. behold. as For it was more Eev.. That (Jva). While he was stepping into the boat the restored man was beseeching in the present tense. Not the subject but the aim of the entreaty. is clothes. I pray thee come (Jva iX^av). multitude kept following and thronging as he went along. A But the noun has the definite article: tov Kprifivov. his anguish he speaks brokenly and incoherently. 23. : Clothed. The participle Not after he had embarked. is This little endear- ing touch in the use of the diminutive peculiar to Mark. The words I pray thee are not in the Greek. all. V. When he was come {ifi^aivovro'. "With this corresponds the graphic imperfect TrapeKoXei.. For a long time he had worn no 18. : him. rightly. In He went {airrik^ev). tle Literally the ruler's daughter lieth at the point of death that thou come. [Ch. The The preposition in the latter verb. My little daughter (to ^vjarpiov). Lit. The verb means who has an interest in the object. kept thronging.

not yet four years old.' ' ' ! ' : ! ' ' Of many hands of. Lit. under . under the And was nothing bettered. To be taken. and make her sit down over anArise from thy flux other. If this . flux. other doses. and let some one come behind and frighten her. and a handful of fenugreek (another kind of fennel). .. pressure of a crowd.] MAKK. Compare Tynd. saying to her at each remove.' But if that do no good. and given in wine to the woman that has an issue of blood. and let them lead her away from this ditch. Let them be bruised together. from the prescription for the medical treatment of such a complaint given in the Talmud. 31. Had suffered {ira^ovira).. in prescribed. If this does not cure her. (Quoted from Lightfoot by Geikie. And let them remove her from that. Arise from thj' flux If these do no good.e. Arise from thy flux. and say. but rather grew worse. and say. Mark is much fuller and more vivid than Matthew or Luke. and give her to drink. does not benefit. take of Persian onions three logs (pints) boil them in wine. and let her hold a cup of wine in her right hand." Ca v. set her in a place where two ways meet. . among them this which let them burn some cuttings of vines. What she may have suffered will appear New Testament. and make her sit down over that. and say. physicians {xmo). 43. not merely suhjected to treatment. " Life and Words of Christ "). Compare Luke viii. side. a handful of crocus. 189 ver. take a handful of cummin (a kind of fennel). ' Arise from thy . as everywhere in tlie in the sense of suffering pain. are " Let them dig seven ditches.. Luke's professional pride as a physician kept him from such a statement. i. " Take of the gnm of Alexandria the weight of a zuzee (a fractional silver coin) of alum the same of crocus the same. over ten in number. Let these be boiled in wine and give them her to drink. Let her take in her hand a cup of wine. Thrusting thee on every 26.

From his house. "Wye. having fully known. 36. The object of the Saviour's knowledge was thus complex 1st. V.Kovtra'i (Luke viii. healed. 29. as from the reading a. Heard. ix. his power . Tynd. 30. travailest. Lit. kepi saying as she pressed through the crowd.. 35. Plague.. had gone forth. that the power proceedimg from him. spoils. Rev. who had hidden herself in the crowd. He looked round about {Trepie^eirero). 32. the peace in store for her. For she said {eXeyev). she is healed. disxi. That virtue had gone out of him (t^v ef avrov Bvvafiiv More correctly as Rev. Be Contemplating whole of thy From the ruler of the is synagogue.!'). : gone forth. 17). eyvw. This and the following sentence are peculiar to Mark. 50). 2d. She was or 28. she knew. In peace (et? etpiyi'T. perceiving. iii. either to herself or to others. things torn or stripped from an enemy.).' Idrai. Mark alone adds. [Ch. 22. Troublest (o-zcuXXet?).190 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. Imperfect He kept lookvng around for the woman. plague. \iA. that his power had e^eXJ^ovaav). which may be rendered Rev. Note the graphic change in the tenses. Compare Luke where occurs the cognate word a-KvXa. or over- . Imperfect tense. xviii.to peace.. This is The correct reading is either not heeding. irapaKovaa<i. Knowing {iTrtr/vov<. See on Matt. She knew— she was See on 10. 34. 36. (compare Matt. for the ruler himself addressed. tense. easest.^ im.

hehoTdeih. . 10. The present participle. CHAPTER 2. . XdXovfievov. . xvi. mourners crying al-a-lai ! 40. 42. is that In of removal / hence of a man removed out of his senses. 17.. as here. (SwdfieK). and is rendered tromce. . 20. of which the English ecstasy is a transcript. && Eev. often coupled with. hei/ng spoken. A descriptive word of the hired authority in the house of master of the house " (Bengel). a stranger. and la-TTj/M. Put them out. Mighty worl<s . Better Eev. Disregarding would be more appropriate if the message had been addressed to Jesus himself but it was addressed to the ruler. Lit. See on Matt. powers. 5 xxii. of amazement. Jesus overheard it. Biblical Greek it is used in a modified sense. Astonished. 8 Luke V. is from e/e. seems to fall in with this. See on ver. Seeth {l^eapet). "EKi7Taai<. which. Only Mark relates the taking of the parents with the three disciples into the chamber. 15. YI. viii. Outcomings of God's ^owe^. in margin. seems the more natural. but used also by Matthew. In Acts X. really 41. amazement. on the whole. at work upon the earth.. it is used in the sense of our word ecstasy. Its primitive sense. vi. out of. therefore. VI.* "powers of the world to come " (Heb. 10 xi. He was "Wonderful Maid {Kopdaiov). Astonishment (eKOTaaei).] MARK. xi. which carries the sense of bewilderment. 26 Acts iii. Tjnd. Ch. 'Rev... to place or put. 38. 28.. ] 91 heanng.fea/r. Wailing (aXaXa^bj/Ta?). Not a classical word. See on Matt. 5). virtues.

is emphatic. 29. Rev. v. To help and encourage each other. Herod would is late in hearing spiritual news" (Bengel). of the sages of the Books "). This one. I see no objection to rendering was angry at him. There is some dispute about the rendering. On the peculiarities of Mark in this narrative. ovto<. 5. 8-12. liwt. By two and two. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and also for fulness of testimony. to strengthen. and enabled him to wield its powers. 19. VI. See on Matt.. 14. 192 3... 53. The he. with no alternative translation in the margin and in Luke xi. and pdtvvvfii. From a. which falls on the continuous tenor of the first thirty years.. " snatch of Herod's theology and philosophy. of him. Morison observes. Was spread abroad. life of Christ " (Farrar. See Matt. these powers work in him. taking evel')(ev avrm with an ellipsis . [Ch. He is risen. 7. not have known A palace " But for the rumor. Press v/pon him. Mighty works do show forth themselves in him {ivepyovaiv al Bvvd/Mei^ ev avrm). The Eev. with set themselves against him in the margin. 16. but he thought that death had put him into connection with the unseen world. "Mes- They were offended. Had a quarrel against him {iveXxev avra). Sickness regarded as constitutional weakness. 17-29. vehemently. Sick {appaxTTOi^). x. The from infancy to manhood. not. As Dr. This very John. Tynd." He knew that John wrought no miracles when A alive. renders Set herself against hiin. see In- troduction. This word "throws the only flash carpenter.

had within anger against him. Observed him {aweTi^peC).. 13 . and De Wette. a-vv.le easily to overcome the wavering mind of her husband " (Grotius in Meyer). Astyages concealing the anger {top x°^°^) which he felt toward him {pi ivei'x^e). vi.). Jcept . 4. who hoped. 12. 17.Ch.. Yery literally. ivelx^ a-(pi Seivbv x°^V) nourished a fierce amger against So Moulton. xviii.oi/. Birthday^ See on Matt. i. Tqpelv. he was much perplexed. closely . or Tceep. from fiiyai. Imperfect tense. him safe. is rjiropei strictly. Lit. 1 Pet. ix. are . 19. to be ab. Both civil and military dignitaries were present. The notice of the banquet and of the rank of the guests is peculiar to Mark. howand iropo^.Jcept preserved. with other distinguished men of the district {chief men). and reserved. High captains (pjjtXtdjO^ots). 193 herself {iv) of %oA. (evKaipov).] MARK. Did many things . Herodias' purpose. 15 . So Herodotus. Only here. lust. Her demand for John's murder was the result of a long-cherished wish. commanders of a thousand men. Peculiar to Mark. and Apoc. a passage. Convenient Mark only. So Kev. 119. 6. VI. to from be in The proper reading. was desiring all along. circumstances where one cannot find a way {iroXKa iiroiei). 23. vi. Answering to a Roman military tribune. great.SeXei. Luke ii. A late word. d. through wine. ever. xiv. and the concurrence of sycophants. 118. as the result of guarding. Convenient for " Opportune for the insidious woman.. Hence. Compare Matt. The other reading 21. out. meaningless. them. A mistranslation. Lords (fieyiaTaa-iv). Grimm.. to ^preserve 20. anger. Eev. not. Desired (^. is rightly. See on John xvii. i.

but to emphasize the fact that Herodias' own daughter was put forward instead of a professional dancer. Where Matthew has sorry. diately. 21. (jcopaaiw). xiv. 33 . 11 straightway. Mark's narrative emphasizes the eager haste with which She came in straightway and demanded the boon forthwith. im." : Charger.. Mark iv. forthwith. The expression by and : : by in older English was sometimes used of by and by" place. Hence Kev. is 27. speculator was a guardsman. 23. 9. By and by (efawT^?). [Ch. Y. 26. The king prompt in his response.). 41. Acts X. A {aireicovXdTopa). hy and hy : eu-SJetu?.mediately : and the same word in Luke xxi. WORD The STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. One of Mark's Latin words. and " Two young knights lying by and by" (near together). in Matt. ii. straightway. " the daughter of Herodias herself said Heroclias {avTri^Trj<. is reported to have said on his death-bed "I wote (know) not whether any preacher's words ought more to move you than I that is going by and by to the place that they all preach of. 30 presHev. avrfj'. Obsolete in the old sense of immeThe A. Y. See on Matt. Thus Chau- cer. misses the point of I''' Damsel 25. iy and hy. ently. 17. translates ev^i/?. Edward lY. " Right in the same chamber (close by). by the translation the said: the object being not to particularize the Herodias just referred to. xiii. 8. correctly. 'E^avrfj'.. the murder was pushed.194 22. is rendered immediately. whose business it . Mark's favorite straightway. See on Mark v. VI The A. Philip. Exceeding sorry. Executioner speculator. xi. 'Hpa)BidSo<. Acts xxiii.

. It came gradually to denote one of the armed body-guard of the Roman emperor. Stier (" "Words of Jesus ") says of Herod : " This man. in squares or oblongs open at one end. " He met the executioners {speculatoribus). it Herod imitated the manners of the and was attended by a company of speculatores. Come apart. in tahle-compamies. their distinctive oflSce to act as executioners. Green. and Tynd. literally. This question and Christ's 39.Ch. Mark only. . renders 29. By companies (ffu/iTTOffta ffy/iTToo-ia). and with divans or The open end couches following the outside line of the tables. The Jewish dining-room was arranged like the Eoman three : tables forming three sides of a square. and then stretched out his neck. The people sat down. who was made up speaking of his kingdom like Ahasuerus. explains the arrangement of the multitude here described by Mark. Thus Suetonius says of Claudius that he did not dare to attend banquets unless his speculatores with their lances surrounded him. xxiv. Seneca uses the word in the sense of executioner. 195 was to watch or spy out {specula/ri). VI." Koman though court. whose of contradictions. inner life was burnt out . Peculiar to Mark. and yet a . hangman. Corpse. so that the disciples could pass along the inside and distribute the loaves. iii. and yet thinks of a resurrection who has a superstitious fear of the Lord Jesus. was not Wye. See on ch. 37. T." 31. curiosity to see him. 28. . . This of the square admitted the servants who waited at table. declared that he had nothing to say against the execution of the sentence. ma/rh-Jciller. and yet the slave of his Jezebel willingly hearing the prophet. Shall we go and buy. See on Matt.] MARK. and unwillingly killing him who will be a Sadducee. arranged like guests at table some companies of a hundred and some of fifty. etc. answer are peculiar to Mark.

Participle. See on Matt. beside women amd which we should have expected from Mark. after he had taken leave. Rev. children . . 21. filled. xiv. In WORD STUDIES ranks IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. So Luke ix. v. JAt. the latter in the imaorist implies the instamtoMeous. Not generic. Rey. tra/vailing. the continuous All. See on Matt. Toiling (^ao-aw§o/*6j/ot. Tynd. When he had sent them away 'Rev. Mark alone adds. Lit. adverb. iv. fishes.. Men (avSpe?). The the former in the aorist. and k^pt gimng out. the imperfect act. suggesting the appearance of flower- beds in a garden. 196 40. Brake and gave {KUTeKKaaev. baskets. . 13. Fourth watch. Baskets full (ko^ivcov trkTjpoDfiaTa). hy companies. 24. fillvngs of See on Matt. correctly. 48. and yellow clothing of the poorthis the color. iSiSov). [Ch. a detail 46. Wye. Farrar remarks that the multiplication evidently took place in Christ's hands. He brake. {aTrord^afievo'. a fact which would appeal to Peter's eye.. including men and women. ii. distressed. 20. Lit.. The verbs are in different tenses perfect. more xviii. 2 Cor. Were 43. 6. the literal homing It was Better.m.. He saw (t'Scbi/). Peculiar to Mark. between the acts of breaking and distributing. VI {irpaatai n-patrtal). The former est orientals makes an Eastern crowd full of color . in in this sense only in later Greek. and used 61 Acts . this ever. seeing.?). 41. howwhich induced him to go to them.. tn'ovhled... Between 3 and 6 a. like beds in a garden. xiv. Unclassical. blue. Compare Matt. describes the arraifigement The red. 18 .). and of the 44. but literally men. tormented. seen.

moored to the shore. he went up (ver. 'Avi^rj.] MARK. wpon / in the m. xiv. Spake with them {iXdXT](rev fier avT&v). Eev. one and an- other thither. Lit. standing quite high out of the water. they sent. 38. 42. Both Matthew and John give the simple dative. . both Luke and John. avroh. See on Condemned as bad Greek. in view of Peter's relation to this gospel. to thsm. Ceased. 4. but used by Mark ii. Peculiar to Mark. Drew They may have anchored 65. exceedi/ngly Sore amazed (XiW e/c "Treptcraov i^iaravTo). Compare the cognate noun e/cffrao-t?. Peculiar to Mark. 197 Would have passed by them. of the loaves Lit. strong expression peculiar to Mark. Rev. seems to indicate a vessel of considerable size. to bring to Jesus.. concern- mg sea. the loaves. that Mark omits the incident of Peter's walk on the waves (Matt. hitiier Carry about (irepi^ipeiv). 53. them From place to place where the sick were. about.. Peculiar to to the shore {^poampihia^aav). Beds {jcpa^aTToii). (cTrt The miracle rot? aprots).. They did not reason from the multiplying of the loaves to the stilling of the Mark. wherever Christ might be at the time. off shore. though the meaning may be near the shore. Mark's with them. Ran round. 28-31). They all saw him. 51. and gives the idea of a more friendly and encouraging address. is more familiar. see on Mark v.Ch.atter of. were amazed. Matthew has •jrepC. 50.. 'E^ia-ieyond measure. See on Mark iv. It is significant. 51). 52. A Peculiar to Mark. and ravTo. VI.

YII. Hence (as Lightfoot rightly remarks) Mark vii. . word which has given and on which it is impossible to speak decisively. Strictly. WORD STUDIES Peculiar to Mark. tory if there were any evidence that such was the custom in washing but there is none. Riglitly. Wye. the literal one. (/cparowTes)." But he elsewhere says ("The Temple. 'Rev. with his usual literalism gives with inclined to adopt. See on Matt. therefore. Syriac). 3. to explain this translation in so many of the versions (Gothic. (ayopat?). frequently or diligently. TU. 25 holding or /as^. which I am Holding Ileb." 206. ix. Meyer. that is. which may go {TTvyiMfi). . A critics much difficulty. with the fist . yet so that the water should neither run up above the wrist. Edersheim (" Life and Times of Jesus. 11. See on Matt. The Kev. CHAPTER 2. retains an ancient reading.. rubbing the unThis would be satisfaccleansed hand with the other doubled. Border. Lit. So denoting dhstinate adherence to thi ^m^ tradition. in margin. . common and so Kev. gives in the margin the simplest meaning. " For when water was poured upon the hands they had to be lifted. should be translated except they wash their hatids with thefist?'' Tischendorf in his eighth edition.. . iv. note) says " the custom is not in accordance with Jewish law. That Oft is. .." ii. Eev. In the streets xi. trvKvd.. 20. ii. [Ch.198 56. the fist. market-jplacea. . and Tynd. nor back again upon the hand best. Added by way of explanation to Gentile readers. Defiled {koivuk). . diligently. note). 14 Apoc. Yulgate. 16. by doubling the fingers into a fist. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT..

4).. of wash. The New Testament use of the word to denote submersion : . .." 176) . ix. " Symposium. 3. being iaptised (/SaTTTt^oA'ei/os) from a dead body. says of the crowds which flocked into Jerusalem at the time of the siege. 3). however. 2 Kings v. Iniquity iaptises me Terror hath frighted me. of a youth overwhelmed {^airri^o/j^evov) with the argument of his adversary (" Euthydemus. in its directions taken " in the sense of The Teaching . in margin. been at that time the technical term foi' such washnigs (compare for a religious purpose." : In a metaphorical sense Plato of drunkenness drowned in drink {^e^am-na-nhoi. be traced back to the Levitical 32 (of vessels) xi. xxi. of the Apostles " (see on Matt. Thus Polybius (i. describing a naval battle of the Eomans and Carthaginians. scope of this usage. Thus the washing of pots and vessels for ceremonial purification could not have been by plunging them in water. xx'x." Josephns (" Jewish War. xi. into the endless It will be cient to give the principal facts concerning its meaning and In classical Greek the primary meaning is to merse. 15. which would have rendered impure the whole body of purifying water.] MARK. x." iv. 199 '4. . 7. 7 (sprinkling with purifying water) Exod. 40 (of clothes) ITum. The word may be Luke . 6).. . 10 Mark vii. 10) throws light on the elastic interpretation of the term. 4. of Naaraan's dipping himself in Jordan (e/SaTTTtcraTo) . " They sank{e^d. Judith xii. See Levit. 21 (of washing hands and feet). 3). 38 Heb. The snflS- work does not admit of our going controversy to which this word has given rise.'iTrifyv) many of the ships. " They over- whelmed uses it {e^dirTia-av) the city. The word appears to have 19. says. (/SoTTT/^et) . viii." 277). already used as a translation of vi-^mvTat (ver. Wash themselves {^a-Trrlatovrai). Septuagint. washifig or sprinkling. Ch. may washings. The American Revisers insist on hathe^ instead eott and Hort. Two of the most important manuscripts.. 25. xi. 51. read pavTiacavrai. sjprinhled themSee Rev. 6. VII. Judith washing herself {i^airri^eTo) at the fountain Sirach xxxi. and could not therefore have been limited to the meaning immerse. In the Septuagint the verb occurs four times Isa. This reading is adopted by Westselmes.

we cer{kXiv&v). See on Matt.. as a whole. " xiii. & joint measure. worship him. But thou hast not living water. XV. Brazen vessels {'xoXkuov). identifying them xxiii. Note the past tense. . and of the Holy Spirit" (Chap. pour water upon the head thrice into the name of the Father. has worship. malcing void. Compare his rendering of " That they be worshipped of men . Omitted in some of the best manuscripts and by Kev. xv. Mark only gives the original word. is a mistranslation. " If any man serve me. copper. their forefathers.. Rev. 10. Wye. Die the death {Bavdr^ TeKevTaTw). running) water.. 11. heautlfully. and then 6. Finely. actuated by one spirit. Tynd. See on Matt. If this belongs in the text. my Father shall is . Making 6. Tables and texts. vi. V. 2. tainly cannot explain ^aTTTia-fioini as immersion. VIL " Baptize in living (i. the word meaning couches.). VII. Honor. adapted from the Latin sextarius. if Pots {^eaTav). and ascribes to one section what was done by another. ancient and modern. and if thou canst not in cold. cruets. But if thou hast neither. The A. translates. ^ Ye handed down. 6. for baptism." death.— 200 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. xv. 57. Christ views the Jewish persecutors and bigots. [Ch. " A prophet not without worship but in his own country " and especially John xii. Matt. Compare Matt. Wye. More literally. Another of Mark's Latin words. then in warm. cruses. Lit. 26. 4. baptize in other water .. Well (aaXoi?).e. for the 35. and of the Son. of 13. Ironical. come to an end hy Corban. moment with Ye slew. none effect. See on Matt.

18-23. So. Purging all meats {KoSapi^mv TrdvTa to. The word does not refer to a part of the body. hreech. The words purging aU meats (Rev. cleansed " (eVa^a/ato-e)." Canon Farrar refers to a passage Christ was enforcing the truth that within. Liddell and Scott give only one definition ^jprvoy. Y." This rendering significant in the light of Peter's vision of the great sheet. ^poDfiara). in which Peter probably realized for the first time the import of the Lord's words " It is doubtless on this occasion. these words are in apposition with draught the draught which makes pure the whole of the food. and derive from eSpa. this he said (italics). Christ asserts that Levitical uncleanness. — . So unintelligent as not to understand what I uttered to the crowd. funda/ment. disciples. is of small importance compared with moral uncleanness. explaining the bearing of Christ's words and therefore the Eev. properly renders.. in writing his Gospel. Draught {a^eSp&va). seat. Canon Farrar remarks " "What God hath : Peter. vn. . due to the fact that St.eats cleam) are not Christ's. 15). cloaca . Mark. 19. but the Evangelist's. The Matthew says Peter. and as the sole ultimate authority for that this vision in the Acts. and of the words. such as eating with unwashed hands. xv. the informant of St.] : MARK. Peter. Peter spoke for the band. all defilement comes from This was in the face of the Eabbinic distinctions between clean and unclean meats. making all m. which Christ gives in vv. There is no dis- crepancy. Compare English stool. still under the influence of the old ideas. who says in his homily on Matthew " But Mark says that he said these things making all meats pure. cannot understand the saying and asks an explanation (Matt. This was the interpretation of Chrysostom. who purifies all meats. 201 17. says. 18. mahing all meats clean.— Ch. since it is the place designed for receiving the impure excrements. : cited from Gregory Thaumaturgus : "And is the Saviour. is the source of both narratives. According to the A.

first. Plural. [Ch. {irovrtpiai). slavish class man Jcnabe from which it is derived) originally meant simply a boy or a servant-lad. 48. : {Kaicid). . thoughts... in margin. Both adjectives occur Apoc. according to its nature. characterizes evil rather as defect : " That which is not such as. Matthew. in a moral sense. . those Thoughts that are evil. in their nature and purpose. 22 Philip. 4. xxiv. is dangerous. shrewd turns. 2. As ttoi/os means hard. Thus the thoughts are styled evil. 21). Thoughts. Radically. ver. the wicked one. . as being that which. so the adjective "jrovrjpo'i." IIov7)p6<i. The word SiaKoyiafMol. So Kev. just as our word hnave (like the Gerlaboring. and idea it might be or ought to be " (Cremer). with an under-thought of suspicion or doubt. a loving do to trouble one's neighbor and do him ill offices. means. then in bad case or plight. the thoughts in action. Satan is called o Trovtjpo^. 14.202 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT." i. which are evil. So Jeremy Taylor " Aptness to indicates acti/ve wickedness. 8 either with one's own mind. op- from which it runs This conception seems to have been associated by the high-born with the life of the lower. it carries the idea of discussion or debate. 19). are the two most prominent words in the narrative of we owe both events " (" Life and Work of Paul. battle for instance. 276-7). another. these thoughts irovrjpot. xiv. . to toil. 21. VII. wichednesses. 1. evil (see evil thoughts.. Luke ix. they ought not to calls be. or with vi. 22. KaKO'. both in a peculiarly pregnant sense. destructive. Prom The adjective Troz/iypo? Eev. as here and James ii. in Matt. Hence of incapacity in war y of cowardice jpressed by toils . . the evil servant. the hitherto unnoticed circumstance that the two verbs. as Luke v. does not in itself convey a bad sense and hence the addition of adjectives denoting evil. taking shape in purpose. Eom. however in (xv. Evil Thoughts (8ta\o7K7/noi o/A:a«oi). xvi. KaKO'i BovXo^. to delight in mischiefs and tragedies . clecmse and profane (or defile).. into the sense of morally bad. 46 . is a servant wanting in proper fidelity and diligence. vigorous labor. Wickedness TTovelv. ii. destination. therefore.

16 1 Pet. xvi. The word does not . The picture in the word is that of a man with It is the sin of an uplifted his head held high above others.. show one's self.. and may mean that here it is but is often used without this notion. 5 Rom.ia). xii. " tion w\t\\ aaeXr/eia. iii. It is used of reviling. Syro-Phoenician. Blasphemy {^\aa(fyr]/j. 13. and (^aivea^ai. calumny. renders railing. Rev. Libya being often used for Africa. malicious. and Kev.] MARK.o<. Compare Prov. 31. daugh- v. to Pride (virepr](f>avia). irovqpo'i).^). mischief-working eye. . Diminutive. Ch. as distinguished from a Lilyo-PhoenicioAi of North Africa. house and the wish to 25. ii. At Rom. xxvii. 23. as also at 2 Pet. and (" —that of would seem better to take in as lawless insolence and wanton with Trench. vi. ter. The entering into the be secluded are peculiar to Mark. 26. it wide a sense as possible caries. with sjpitefvl treatment and audacity. 16 (mind not high things) 1 Tim. wantonness. of the Evil eye {6<f)$aXiJi. well cludes lasciviousness.. 6. Daughter See on ch. 4. injurious activity. Hence Eev. 24. . its As passage its exact meaning is not implied by being classed it with other kindred terms. where lasciviousness seems to be the probable meaning. . 203 It in. it is rendered wantonin A. xiii. Lasciviousness Derivation unknown. with the meaning of positive. From virep. In classical Greek defined in this as violence. xiv. iii. Phoenician of Syria. iv. since that stands in remarkable ethical connechas the same duplicity of meaning" Testament "). word. 8 See Matt. 39 evil-speaking in general. necessarily imply blasphemy against God. heart against God and man. 18. See Synonyms New A on wickednesses. little i^v^aTpiov). See on ch. Rom. (aa-iXr^eia). and to render. as he remarks. abov'e. . from its association with chambering {Koirai. etc. V. VII. Went away.

Lit.. 32-37. but on the fact of speech. Laid (fie/SXTjfj. 26. 30. in ix. . threw : thrust. See on Matt. to commamd or straitly charge. their The masters. Astonished. Charged (Steo-TeiXaro). Not absolutely dumb. vii. 26. thrown. 22. This would indicate that the little dogs were pet dogs of the children. etc.evov). Diminutive. first. Lit.).. 32. yer. Plain {opl^m). See on Matt. to separate / then to define or distinguish . Peculiar to Mark. children's crumbs. 26. 33. 36. 35. 37. Had an impediment his with difficulty / XaXo:. Deaf See on Matt. To speak is (XaXeti. A narrative peculiar to Mark. See onMatt.: 204 27. Moyif. {Kcocpbv). 29. Peculiar to Mark. 18. 35. xv. of the demon which possessed the boy (e/SaXev). speaking. 28. not on the matter. WORD STUDIES IN THE first NEW TESTAMENT. The verb means." See also Mark i. Mark adds under the tcMe. She had probably exwhen the demon departed. perienced some fearful convulsion Compare Mark ix. and as that which is separated and distinguished is emjphasized. 28. VH Let the children be filled. " It hath cast him. rightly. Com- Put (e/SaXei/). See on Matt. The dogs. pare he spakeplain. speech (jioyiXaKov).. [Ch. xxviii. The emphasis . xv. 32. So Wye. 26 ix. Lit.

from — have compassion (anfKa'^yyiifni. and kidneys. fulfilled. lungs. : 38) here adds a detail leside which we should rather expect in Mark women and children. 1 . Brake and gave. Peculiar to Mark. affection. in the sense of tender rneroy.... Philip. v. 20 . it properly rejected literal sense in Philem. See i. xv. 45 . See on Matt. especially the nobler entrails the heart. iv. Tynd. 9. The Eev. 55. explains the frequent use of the word howels in the A. Began. 8. Acts 18. xiv. Four thousand. sufficed. 7. vrn. fail. They have been with me ti/rnoe. 20. 20. See Luke i. Peculiar to Mark. the 2 Cor.. has it only in its the single passage. 41. 2. 32. inward parts. liver. Were filled. 206 CHAPTER 2. These came gradually This to denote the seat of the affections. See on Mark See on Matt.] MAKK. of sit them came from far. 11. to recline. 34. using i. 8 . V. Lit. in every such case. vii. {irpoa-fjihovaiv). The beginnings Mark. Ch. Baskets. 15 . they con- as Eev. A peculiar verb. 6. cnliar interest for 7. 10. Some 6. To down (avwireaelv). vi. I Till. See on Matt.ai). v. 17. Lit. 3. Wye. With his disciples. Faint. 12. Matthew (x'v. i. vi. of things seem to have a pe1. like our word heart. . 78 atfKarfyya. cornpassion. Wye.

as trees walking (following the reading. 11. The Kev. Hebrew idiom. Took [eiriKa^ofievo'. VDX See on Matt. Peculiar to Mark. he looked stedfastly. [Ch. They . The expression is elliptical. but he knew they were Made him look up. Tynd. reads. 5.: 206 WORD [ar^fielov). There shall no sign be given {elho'hrjaeraia'n^elov). Peculiar to Mark. caught. exercise of his restored sight. them as trees. Ashed see roiii. He saw (ive^Xeirev). He the saw and continued first to see. iii. 23... and substi- tute Bii^eyjrev. The best texts omit. at bottom. this word emphasizes their ethical purport. more accurately. and is really.). See on Matt. (imperfect). token. looked like trees. 24. . xi. Wye. vii. As applied to the miracles of our Lord. It is a if a sign shall he given. cb? BivBpa •jrepiiraTovvTa^). : direct question 8eest thou aught ? The change of tenses is graphic. Sighed deeply in his spirit. Rev. Compare the above Jle looked stedfastly. Lit. for they were walking about. 20. If I do not thus or so. 12. I see m^n. The one loaf is a detail given by Mark only. as declaring that the miraculous act points back Sign of itself to the grace and power or divine character or authority of the doer.for {on) Ihehold He saw them dirnhj. following the {opib) amended walking. I men BXetro) av'^paTrov. Imperfect tense. he fixed his eyes on definite objects. large and misshapen men. renders the If he saw {eXrt /SXevret?). STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. may some judgment overtake me. a form of imprecation. In- stead of vaguely staring. fastened his eyes. denoting the single act. Continuous aorist tense action. 14. text. 22-26. Dost thou see (present). Compare Heb. 25.

Peculiar to In this Mark. adulterous and sinful generation. But the best texts read airavra. 34. xvi. his. 38. temple in three days. he questioned or ashed. 207 Every man.. 29. 26. vv. See on Matt. or huild- mg the Not ambiguously. would. . 31-33. i. plainly. all things. Mark Not as a secret or mystery. as in his words about being lifted wp. Following the reading So Kev. Pecuhar to Mark. 21-28. On 32. — lose. shining. 36. The pronoun avrov. Will (^eXet). 19. Peculiar to Mark. So Rev. See on Matt. Bengel remarks that one may confess Christ and yet be ashamed of this or that saying. Hence he calls the multil/ude with .. but explicitly. Vni.] MARK. His cross. is in an emphatic posi- 35. tion. And Gain the gospel's. He saith (i'rrrjpdiTa). More correctly. From rJjXe. compare notes on Matt. Eev. Mark omits the commendation of Peter. avyij. xvi. his disciples. See Introduction.Ch. Jesus said to all now pauses for what he has to say now is to be who follow him. a-7ravTa<. only. Wye. The farthest things were clearly seen. far. It is more than is wishful. My in general words. He spake the saying openly.). Clearly {Tri'Kavy&<.

[Ch. See Introduction. See on Matt. The Greek word only here in the New 9. Beloved son. Suddenly {i^diriva). A word pe- . IX.. xvii.. The particularizing of the scribes as the questioners. 5. 15. Answered. most dearworthy. The word is used of a gleam from polished surfaces —arms.^^:^aav). Wye. Testament. 16. Sore afraid. and vv. Tell {BtTjyija-covTai). lightning. are peculiar to Mark. 2. Luke ix. water in motion. Wye. the twinkling of the stars. Questioning.: 208 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 3. Mark. 'Rev. Were culiar to greatly amazed {i^e^a/j. 14. xvii. 7. The scribes. CHAPTER Compare Matt. IX. glistering. Though no question had been asked him: but the Lord's transfiguration was an appeal to him and he desired to respond. Wye. Peculiar to Mark. through. As no fuller. Mark's word is more graphic than The word is from Bid. asking. and ^yeo/^at. 15. Shining (o-TiX/Soi'Ta). 8. Tynd. etc. 2. aghast hy d/read. eiTrrjre. Matthew's to lead the way.. Hence to lead one through a series of events to narrate. disputing. 28-36. sleek horses. 1-13 . Transfigured.

dasheth down. grindeth. Tit. and elsewhere. the son's misery. thou canst believe {^o el Svvrj).). 15 . or knock down. 14. Lit. to Ireak. Faithless has acquired the sense of treacherous. XV. If explain to an English reader the force of the definite article 14 .. IX. retains this reni. Our from this. 21-27. pvning away are peculiar to Mark. a term of margin. Wye. V. which is the sense adopted by Rev." etc. 209 18. xxi. and relates the process of the cure in graphic detail.. the physician. not keeping faith. Yery touching. who makes " Have mercy on me " her daughter's case entirely her own 22. : (Matt. lAt^seisethholdofhim. Peculiar to Mark.Ch. fighters : to fell.. Also his falling on the ground. 'Rev. word catalepsy is derived Ittaketh him(KaTa\a/Sj. and such is Tyndale's translation. He gives the dialogue between Jesus and the boy's father. out of belief. 22). The word believe is wanting in the best texts. The form prjaa-m is used in classical Greek of dancers beating the ground. 15 .] MARK. wallowing and foaming. at 1 Cor. and of beating drums. Gnasheth with his teeth. Unhelieving would be better here. Faithless {aina-TO'. Us. Apoc.). It is difficult to 23. 20. straightway the spirit. Mark is more specific in his detail of the convulsion which seized the lad as he was coming to Jesus. The Eev. We might expect the detail of these symptoms in Luke. in tlie form pda-creiv. He notes the convulsion as coming on at the demoniac's sight of our Lord. " When he saw him.. Teareth {prjo-a-ei). But Christ means without faith. The father identifies himself with Compare the Syro-Phoenician. theifthou canst. Later. with rendeth in The verb is a form of prffvvixi. dering of the A. Eev. vii. This and the 19. 8.

Testament meaning servant.. Not tarrying. 31). (irapa). would have done betHe was teaching. iii. this represents the servant in his activity . Peculiar to Mark. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. I believe. 2. The present tense is graphic." etc. may be either a slave or The word deacon is an almost literal transcription a f I'eeman. in x. 1 1 Tim. Passed tiirough {TrapeTropevovTo). Lit.an. in order to link its fulfilment to the might paraphrase thus. Servant (Sta/coi^o?). iii.210 here. See 1 Cor. The former de- noting the inarticulate cry. to pursue y to be the follower of a person to attach one's As distinguished from other words in the I^ew self to him. passed along cities. 30. SiciKovoi. iii. 35. petitioner's own faith" (Meyer). . followed by the words. without connecting it with the further construction. See on Matt. Cried out and said — eXeyev). the ejaculation. represents him in his condition or relation as a hondm. i. iii. . The teaching was the continuation of the " began to teach " Is (viii. of the original. 5 Eph. A . Jesus said : " If thou canst 24. ter to give the force of the imperfect here The Eev. with lively emphasis. while SovXa. IX " It takes up substantially the it father. " not through the hnt past them. and puts We " that if thou canst of thine— as regards that. The word is often used in the New Testament to denote ministers of the gospel. Rev. Bengel says. Probably from . He taught (iSiSaa-Kev). minister. xxvi. The future is 2. slave. See Philip. He delivered.. Mark uses BovXo'. which cannot be neatly rendered. things are possible. ZimKod. — all things can heP (Kpd^a<. coAist. : sought seclusion because he was engaged for the time in instructing. all There is a play upon the words Sui/j. . 7 1 Thess." 31. and elsewhere. and Swara. 44." etc. jpossible. " Lord. realized by the Lord as already present.. word spoken by the [Ch. 33-35. 8. 12.

Tynd. Mark's words which goggle-eyed." See on Matt. Wye. \A\.Ch. the millstone is hanged. 6. vi. Diminutive.7nay hm)e 'become saltless. libel Lit. Hell. name. will ye restore. Accordingly Wye. v. a Utile hook . 13.. Lat. Let {eaT7]<Tev). 43. 5. Compare CHAPTER 2. Have lost its saltness (ai'aXovyei'ijTat). 6. renders ordamed. Note the graphic present and perfect tenses . Compare on Matt. has a offorsaking. oddly renders 50. 37.. X. xix. See on Matt. Lit. is branded as slang. 7. 211 36. v.evo'i).] MARK.. a testimonial of her dvvorcement. iv. 13. 7. ''upon {em) my name. Wye. Eev. X. found only in Mark. When The verb is he had taken him in his arms {evaritcakuTdfi. great millstone.. Will ye season {apTva-ere). and Tynd. Col. xix. one-eyed. 22.. With one eye (jiov6(j)3-aXfiov). They had not received the man who cast out devils in Christ's 42. One of Wye. lihel. Lit. Shall cleave. See on Matt. thy name. 4. 5. in John's conscience is awakened by the Lord's words. 38. and only he records this detail. Tempting... 47. In my name. xviii.. millstone of asses. . Bill See on Matt. xviii. Uhellus. See on Matt. and he hath been cast. Lit. {^i^iov). from which comes our word a written accusation. iVfillstone. See on Matt.. bide by.

renderings of the A. Running and kneeled. One of them (Phrynichus) says. 9. fervently Messed.. xix. ing. and expresses the earnestness of Christ's interest. What. . 25. X. WORD STUDIES Shall be IN THE {ecrovrai. word stigmatized by the grammarians as unclassical. Two details peculiar to Mark. These details are peculiar to Mark. Alford here in the veafiiQve. fiiav). V. the heoommg of one from two. laying his hands upon them in the blessing. Y. here are correct. Imperfect tense. as he went on his way. were reiuJe- Took them in his arms. shall than the A. See on Luke xviii. they Similarly. xix. and see Introduction. 16. The compound rendered Messed including the laying on of hands occurs only New Testament. Luke uses /SeXoi^T^?. Compare Matt. It is stronger than the simple form.^ X6t/3«9 eir The best avrd. texts read KuTevKoyei. See on ix. {irpoa-e^epov). 30." The preposition expresses more graphically So Kev. There The is no change of reading as in Matthew. Messed them. 25. 17. hecome. . etc. 17. The word paints forcibly the Applied to the sky in Matt. 24. 36. 18. 13. Put his hands upon them and blessed them. nobody would know what it is. Why callest thou.212 8. xvi. riS-el? to. He was sad {(7Tvyvda-a<. They brought were bringing. as they were successively brought. [Ch. lowering. Kegarding the two as one.). it.. gloom which clouded his face." Matthew also uses See on Matt. "shall be unto one flesh. Needle (pac^tSo?). 22. NEW TESTAMENT. one flesh ek a-dpKa Lit. 'Note "With beau- especially with j)ersecutions. the surgical needle. where the text was altered to conform it to Mark and Luke. A Houses. 3 . etc. and Rev. " As for pa^k.

is particular about names. which is very injurious to the I once walked the streets counting all that were either eyes. Which are accounted to rule. Minister. For. v. See on Matt. Blind. Kamleh. are rigidly veiled " (" Land and Book "). 50. ciples is noted Were amazed. pungent dust. Mark. Palgrave says that ophthalmia is fearfully prevalent. that seem to 43. . leaped up. fell on the dis- 42. 213 tif ul delicacy the Lord omits wives . in the sense of over against. The sudden awe which by Mark only. The best texts read dvairi^Brja-a'}. 3. Peculiar to Mark. sprang up. instead of .. so that Julian's scoff that the Christian has the promise of a hundred wives is without foundation. 32. Wye. 45.• not on iehalfof. says of on the occurrence of the slightest wind the air is with a fine. for they the male population. 50. " The ash-heaps are extremely mis- Thomson chievous filled . For many [ovtI n-oXXwv). Beggar. Son of Timaeus. and adding greatly to the vividness of the narrative. and it amounted to about one-half The women I could not count. 46. "It would be no exaggeration to say that one adult out of every five has his eyes more or less damaged by the consequences of this disease " (" Central and Eastern Arabia "). Diseases of the eye are very common in the East. X.] MARK. especially among children. have prmceheacl on folks. or. Rose (dvaa-Ta^). as usual. 35. 49. blind or had defective eyes. See on ix. as Kev.Ch.

A . Perhaps. "AfjLcpoSov is literally any road which leads round (a/i<f)i) a place Hence the windvng way. Mark. John. XX CHAPTER XL 2. In a place where two ways met (kin. 4 is peculiar to Mark. strictly palm-branches. into. Utter of branches and leaves cut from the fields (only Mark) • — A near by. from «Xaa>. 8). "It is a topographical note." The detail of ver. from cnei^w. kXclBov^. save! 11. Mark. " that could only be given by an eye-witness. The word or a block of buildings. so as to form a bed or a carpeted way. judicial " (Meyer). Mark and Luke have colt only.. Matthew.. tov afi(f)6Sov). fiata. 34. which in an Eastern town is usually crooked. el<s. Only Matthew adds the ass. in . 4. Peter was one of those sent. crn^dSa<. Matt. occurs only here in the New Testament. or leaves beaten together or strewed loose. Both Matthew and Luke have ev. but They threw their garments into the way and spread them there. When he had looked round. look serious. sorrowful. by contrast with the usual crookedness. or beat down / hence a mass of straw. the street in Damascus where Paul lodged was called /lS. Compare iii.(7'l^^p'A^ (Acts ix. Colt. in the open st/reet." says Dr. Mark.e&mng. Hosanna. inspecting. to break hence a young slip or shoot. 8. rushes. 5. such as is broken off for grafting a twig. As^ " the master of the house.. [Ch. Key. and his stamp is probably on the narrative. 'M. Branches. 11). According to Luke (xxii. Peculiar to Mark. the feathery fronds foi'ming the tufted crown of the tree. Morison.214 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. In the way. to tread as related to a branch. and John use each a different word for iranches.

or thief who purloins or pilfers whatever comes to hand.. for all the nations See on Matt." in Encyc. 12. (vaaiv rot? e^veuiv). not thieves. 215 13." — 14. precedes the leaf.. in Christ's parable (Luke x. but used also by Matthew. entitled to the respect was not regarded by the Jews due to the other part of the enclosure. See on Matt. booty. " for the time of figs was not yet. 30). 1. traveller to Jericho. " Snch words as these naturally find their place in the mongrel in might Greek of the slaves and freedmen who formed the first congiegations of the church Rome" (Ezra Abbott. in through order to save a long circuit. 15. correctly. The as court of the Gentiles. Having leaves. xxvi. xxi. conducting his operations on a large and systematic scale. Afar off. Thus the fell among . " Gospels. i. The robber. See on Matt. His disciples heard it. Britannica). Peculiar to Mark. not to thieves. People would be tempted to carry this. A den would be appropriate to a band of robbers.. 16. (lepov).. Thieves xxi. bands. 27. If An unusual thing at that early season. The temple enclosure. Of all nations. 29 . is thus to be distinguished from the KXeirTrj'. and with the aid of (^rja-Tosv). In classical usage mostly of cattle. See on Matt. Mark alone adds. xii. shall be called a house of prayer hy all nations. But render with Rev. John x. Vessel (cr/cet)o9). XI.] MARK. Rev. If. 5. suchheing the case. leaves haply {el apa). which. This our Lord rebukes. robbers.. 55. Mark iii. Another unclassical word.e. From Xrjk or \eia. moreover. Which rendering implies. Art. iv..Ch. vao:. 8. 17. or sanctuary. etc. robbers. the tree having he might find fruit. Temple not the vessels. Money-changers {icoWv/Sia-Twv). in the tig. 13. Peculiar to Mark.

into a st/range country. received. Receive (eXa/Sere). ceived. 20-22. 23. When evening was come (orav). xxi. as Eev. An addition of Mark. Wine-fat {vTroKriviov). a lake. Shall come to pass {jiveTai). press {Xrjvo^).. XH Lit. See on Matt. The Rev. xxi. ing came on . trough.. another coxmtry. Compare Matt. New Testament. in which a trough was excavated.. All the details are peculiar to Mark. not ou the evening of the purging of the temple merely. But this is too So Wye. whenever even19. [Ch. Compare Matt. 33-46. 14. Only here in wine-press was constructed in the side of a sloping rock. 1. Eev. Kather comethtopass.. The word means simply went abroad. from the The word here used Wye's translation. xxv. or the lake.. . 14. 27.. which was Underneath this was dug another the wine-press proper. wine-press. with openings communicating with the trough above. dalf This was called by for the means this trough underneath {viro) the press. vi. ha/ve re- 26. 20-24. 24. See ou Matt. whole structure strictly This is the explanation of (delved). bnt each day at evening. Walking. forth in pilgrimage / and Tynd. CHAPTER XIL 1-11. More lit. into which the juice ran the Romans lacus. Trespasses. Went strong. went Rev.216 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. into a far country {aireS'^fj^c-ev).

. 37 . Wye. Tribute. yrom the Lord. See on Matt. showing that the rent was to be paid in kind. xh] fruits. 6. (i^eSavfui^ov). we give. The Lord's doing (Tro/ja Kvpiov). Acts i. Penny. xxii. hunting. See on Matt. follows measure. A touch peculiar to Mark. Catch (ar/pevcraia-iv) Hence the picture in the word is that . : A Luke 11. They marvelled out of The A. Therefore.face. Mark only. quently scripture j)assage oi scripture hence freanother scripture . 16. See on Matt. 16. Trar/iSevaaxriv. xxii. xx. Those husbandmen. Person Shall {irpoa-coirov). mark. Lit. iv. 217 {dirb) Of the from the fruits. literally. xxii. See on Matt. V. while that in Matthew's word. 16. 15-22. JAt. The preposition e'f. fect denotes corvtmuomce : they stood wondering. Last.. Compare Matt. The best texts omit. 7. 15. Lit. 14. etc. the same scripture. is that of catching in a trap. 20. xxii. the chase. 21 . .. 19. 10. 13-17. The imperanother reading. with the simple 17. marvelled greatly. They marvelled out of.Ch. Or. ar/pa. they the hicsiandmen. 2. Scripture t/iis (ypa^^i/). From 13. of hunting. tencmts. verb eBavfia^op. indicates great astonishment. Hence Kev. Image and superscription. . John xix.

correctly. Mark Compare aa-Tepe<. There. retains the A. [Ch. They questioned. Xn. Well {jcdkSi'. irXavrJTai. Asked 24. out of thy whole heaH. With all thy heart (e^ oXt. 25. Who of {oi:Tive<s). xiii. tomed to designate portions of scripture thing contained in them. ii. 28. The article refers to it as something familiar. How In in the bush (eTrl God spake. 1 Pet.. xviii. dering. ad/mi/rdbly. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.e. Matt. 30. refers to a particular secThe Jews were accustion in the Pentateuch. See 5.. xi. A rendering which obscures the meaning. 611 'HXia . 38. Of the wandering sheep. What {TToia). Is it not for this Err (ifXavaa-Se). wander out of the way. The heart. 26. 2-6. of what nature. from which our word^^Me^.? t^9 KapBia^ aov).. 2. The reason of your error of the power of God. and puts in in the margin. Exod.. the hush by the most noteworthy Therefore Rev. Of the martyrs wandering in the deserts. V. 27. The woi-ds point forward to the next is two clauses. in the hooh of Moses on the hush. however.218 18.. Lit. xi. in theplace concerning the hush. not only as the seat of the . i. rightly. Stronger. Compare Rom. wandering stars (Jude 13). Lit. -Compare 12 . peculiar to Mark. Lit. iii.'). {e-Tn^pcoTcov). Latin errare. Ye do greatly err. Often rendered in the New Testament deceive.. cause that ye err f your ignorance of the scriptures and Hence Eev. Heb. of Mijah. An utterly wrong ren- tov fidrov). finely. Rather. in the section of scripture which tells of Elijah. heautifully. Therefore {Bia tovto). Wye. 6. An emphatic close. doss : that This pronoun marks the Sadducees as a party characterized by their denial of the resur- rection. the Rev.

From crwlrjfii. is a union or bringing together of the so used to denote the faculty and sion. . and intellectual. often used in the life. 30. Well. 25. Well («a\ft)?). the jpru- dent. See on Matt. The For {oTi). . ness of individual existence " (Cremer). ii. xi. Neighbor. XII. thou hast said. Hence. 32-34. to send or bring Hence awein<. 43. New See Matt. 33. A different word from together. 10 Kom. Testa. especially the 31. a new and explanatory sentence : with this word but it is better with Kev. 219 affections. and qualifies the succeeding verb. 44. 38 Luke xxi. 20 xx. 18 lieb. 19. So that the word denotes " life in the distinct. Peculiar to Mark. as an emphatic designation of the man himself. xii. xi. Mind (Stai/ot'as). —physical. See farther on spiritual. Exclamatory. The phrase is adof a truth. See Matt. Soul {yjrvxv'. spiritual. begins . xv. Master. x. Compare mind with an quick comprehenof on o-vveT&v. The faculty of thought: understanding. The A. Incorrect. 32. verbial. object.). truth (eV aXi^^eta?). that in ver. to translate that. . Ch. Matt. Understanding (crweo-eo)?). thou hast said the truth All the best texts omit God. xjrvx'-ico'i.. as one says good! on hearing something which he approves. intelUgence.] MARK. The word is ment in its original meaning of Acts XX. 28 x. 3 John . sagacity. for there is one God. v. and make the whole sentence continuous Thou hast truthfully said that he is one. . moral understanding. 11. V. 1 Cor. t/ruthfuUy. but as the centre of our complex being moral. in truth.

Their specific objects were careNine were for the receipt of what was fully marked on them. Having his mind in possession The word occurs only here in the " having his wits about New Testament. to the Scribes and Pharisees. Lit. him. in the end. a colonnade. at large. Imperfect tense : were casting in as he . From mind. in {e^aXXov). 39. property. See on Matt.220 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Uppermost rooms (TTpwTOKXtcrta?). and within it." Beheld Cast. The Scribes were universally employed in making wills and conveyances of They may have abused their influence with widows. the other four for strictly voluntary gifts. People often left their Widows' houses. The treasury. " The Temple. which most of the people Cast looked. Money copper. shaped like trumpets. Desire {^eXovTav). 1/01)9. <Ae chief couches. See Edersheim. Observed thoughtfully. In the Court of the Women. Discreetly [vowexm). Not indicating a social distinction.. These chests were narrow at the mouth and wide at the bottom.. i. 40. which All round it ran covered a space of two hundred feet square. legally due by worshippers. XD. whence their name. whole for- tune to the temple. The common people (o iroXixs oxlwi). are casting. So Rev. 34. bat the great mass of the people : the crowd 38. (eSrewpet). and a good deal of the temple-money went." 37. against the wall. chiefplaces. More correctly. : Note the graphic present tense (xaXKov). : [Ch. were the thirteen chests or " trumpets " for charitable contributions. and exfo. to home. 41. 19.

Lit. and the question. Thrown down (icaTdXv^). loosened down. husked . A Note the particularity of detail in Mark. Farthing of a {KoSpdvrTj'i). and connected the ancient city of David with the royal porch of the temple. simply the indefi- Poor IVl {tttcoxv)- See on Matt. 3. quadrans. v. CHAPTER XIII. and weighing above one hundred tons (Edersheim. 2..Ch. From Xem-To^. order This poor widow (r] XVP".. names of the four who asked the With the following discourse compare Matt. Roman Latin word. many rich. and thence Therefore of a very small or thin coin. N'ot a good translation. thin ovfine. ites (^TTTa). very graphic word. The spring-stones of the arches of the bridge which spanned the valley of Tyropoeon (the cheese-makers). Xra. implying gradual demolition.<^vTr) rj TrTrnxv)very suggestive. 42. Stones.] MABK. {iroXXd). Eather. 221 possibly Much many things . is The Greek : this widow. or amd she poor. 1. Yet these were by no means the largest in the masonry of the temple. 3. over against the temple. Both at the southeastern and southwestern angles stones have been found measuring from twenty to forty feet long. measured twenty-four feet in length by six in thickness. 43. Lit. one as distinguished from the nite article. A certain (jMia). peeled. "Temple"). forming a kind of climax the poor one. Better. . as farihi/ng is A fouTthimjg. or a quarter as / quadrans meaning a fourth. as Kev. many pieces of current copper coin. xxiv. He adds.

D. XHL the use of my name (cTri)my name. within which a pestilence thinned all ranks of the population. A. according to Tacitus. in Phrygia.222 6. the Pompeii was largely destroyed. when the people rose in I'ebellion and threatened the life of the emTacitus says that it was accompanied by frequent earthperor. During the i-eign of Claudius. Such as 7. Claudius. Slaves and freemen perished equally amid the wailings of . would be a cause of terror to the Hebrew Christians as the three threats of war against the Jews by Caligula. count of which. a.d. 51 : A . There were serious disturbances at Alexandria. The famine in Judaea was probOf the year ably the one prophesied by Agabus. dead. " they were exempted from in tribute for five years " at Laodicea. 46 or 47: at Rome.d. which levelled houses. Basing their claims on "Wye. a. quakes. and the fruits of the soil in every direction. in which the Jews were the especial objects of persecution at Seleucia about the same time. . Acts xi. to cry aloud. Rumors of wars. a. 70) occurred A. v{pon. in which more than fifty thousand Jews were killed and at Jamnia.. 50 and again at Rome. A. four famines are recorded One at Rome. WORD STUDIES In IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 44 one in Greece. the roads with funerals: neither sex nor age escaped. a. a. Opoeco is. a. . 42 one in Judaea. 28. 65 A.d. . The houses were choked with : .d. trees.d. even to the gates of the city. . . 60 : : Campania. disgraced by so many deeds of horror. [Ch.D. and Nero. was further distinguished by the gods with storms and sicknesses. Lit. 41. a. 41-54.d.d. 53 majority.. on the day on which Nero entered his " on acat Apameia. with no atmospheric disturbance that the eye could trace. 38." says Tacitus. Between the prophecy and the destruction : great earthquake in Crete. near Joppa. Campania was devastated by a hurricane which overthrew buildings. 52. opvaions of lattles.d. Troubled {^poela^e).D.d. by which. of Jerusalem (a. in Phrygia. a.D. literally. Earthquakes. city of Famines. 63. Tacitus says: " This year.

Present may ie leading. rightly. The verb literally means skin ov flay. See on 25. shall ghe. travail . See on Matt. xxiv. prince's cruelty " (" Annals. promiscuous as they were. do not be worrying about your defences. xxiv. 9. the elect or chosen whom he 20. Lit. xxiv.. Abomination. xxiv. While you are Take no thought beforehand Matt. falling by the common lot of mortality. 17. and by a slang usage. comes to mean to cudgel or heat. Housetop. vi. Light {(peyyo^). 14. however. 19. The word is used in the New Testament wherever the light of the moon is referred to. chose. read iroirjaova-iv. haps. 223 often hurried to the pyre their wives and children. 15. . 33.Ch. They lead {ar/acrit'). going along in custody to the judgment-seat. A few editors. but meaning the light of a lamp. The amplification. subjunctive. Shall shew (Scoo-ovo-ti'). See on Matt." xvi. 22. deserved the less to be lamented. Shall ye be beaten to {Sapi^a-ea-Se). It occurs also in Luke xi. See on Matt. Xm. creation which God created. 29. inasmuch as.] MARK. Compare Matt. 10-13). (ji^ Trpo/iepiiivaTe). The deaths of knights and senators. they seemed to anticipate the sat in tears. 24. who were by which they had and consumed together witli them. the only other instance. 20. Rev. 15. 22. Shortened. like our phrase to tan or hide. is Sorrows (mBivav). shall make or do.' for the word used especially of bi/fth-throes. better per- 11. 'Note the peculiar and compare ver..

xxiv. From the uttermost most earth. XIII. etc Tov ovpavov iriiTTovTe'i So Kev. 32. The to present participle. The picture is of one in pursuit of Wye's rendering of the sleep. conceived as a flat surface. From the outermost border of the earth. The word is derived fromoypeuo). 37 . xi. word is that of a While the other word conveys the idea of simple wakefulness. fall. as of a shower part of the earth to the utterpart of heaven {air aKpov yrji. Mark's expression is more poetical. 38 Luke xii. xxiv. . Compare Matt.. The apos- . A different word picture in this ver. to where the outermost border of the heaven sets a limit to the 27. xxv. and inrvo<. The A. The two words form one notion a man abroad. gone far in pilgrimage and Tynd. V. [Cu. See on Mark Come to pass {jLvofieva). coming pass in process offulfil- metn.' but of one already gone. sleep. Branch. and / therefore better as Kev. which is gone into a strange country.. eco? aKpov ovpavov). from that in ver. 31. of falling stars. go. (a7/3K7n'etT6). this adds the idea of alertness.. 28. ecrovrai falls very far short of the graphic original the stars shall he falling from heaven. 1 Pet. Compare Matt. restless. {av^pwiro'i aTr6^fio<i). xiv. . since the idea is not that of a Matt. whole passage is striking See ! wake ye and pray ye ! 33. v. 14 . Kev. thus giving the sense of contmuousness. 8. man ahout to So Wye. Watch to hunt. 36. 34. . Watch See also {ypi^yopeire).— 224 25. and therefore wakeful. The stars of heaven shall : A : rendering which ol d<rTepe<. 29. The sleeping man rousing himself. sojourning in another country. See on Matt. 8. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 33. A man is taking afar journey . 34.. Parable. as incorrect.

greatly disputed. The Temple"). Watch. sometimes a little earlier. the captain of the temple made his rounds. was really one and the same festival.. is The closing and summary word 37. 36 : the stronger CHAPTER 1. a^vfia). is 225 ver. 15: " Blessed is he that watcketh and heepetk his garments. sometimes a little later. It Lit. 6-13. " Sometimes he came at the cockcrowing. is peculiar to Mark. Spikenard {vdpBovTna-TiKfj^). authorities define genuine or Brake. 34 . xvi. . The feast of the passover {to 'irdiT'xa Kal to. He came " and knocked and they opened to him " (Edersheim. Compare Apoc. xxvi. 3-9. the passover and the unleavened bread and the urdeamened. ing the night. dur- ties are thus night season in keeping with the figure.] MARK. 3. Sought mg. This detail Possibly by striking the brittle neck of the flask. compared with the doorkeepers." The all to preparations for the morning service required astir. xxvi. word of ver. The Kabbis use almost the very words in which any scripture describes the unexpected coming of the Master. Imperfect tense : wereall this while seek- Compare Matt. XV. Alabaster box. (efi^Tow). The meaning of Trto-rt/c^yis it The best unadulterated: pure nard. See on Matt. Any guard found asleep on duty was beaten. and the guards had to rise at his approach and salute him in a particidar manner. Be awake and on guard. be early The superintending priest might knock at the door at moment.Ch. and the In the temple. XIV. 7. or his garments were set on fire.

whose business it was to draw water. 15. Conveniently (/catpos). See on Matt. "He of the house was a . See on Matt. will And he (airros). Lit. 10. 7. clay. (ive^pifiSivTo). earthenwa/re : Kepdfiiov. And whensoever ye Note Mark's amplifica- tion. fiov). See on 5. See Deut. The word is and as used . what she had Peculiar to Mark. potter's Luke xxii.. to anoint {irpoeka^ev fivpla-ai). ber. 8. (e'^'^ret). found only here. from Kepa/jLo<. etc. 14. NEW TESTAMENT. 11. is come aforehand fivpi^co is she anticipated to anoint. WORD STUDIES IN THE etc. The Greek is more emphatic. Might find a good opportunity 13. 6. hath anointed iefarehand. A man. The verb 11. [Ch. My guest-chamber {KaTaXv/id not classical. See on Matt.. He kept seekingi busied himself continuously from that time. Atmse^ show you.: 226 4. 8. 15. xxvi. Murmured Good. will. Probably the owner disciple. 7. {evKaipco'i). He sought Imperfect tense. (o eo-^ev eTrolrja-ev). by an oriental signifies Hence inn at Luke ii. xxvi. XIY To what purpose. Eev. A Oi slave probably. She hath done what she could she did. Money. xxvi. She Lit. xix. My chama hham or ca/ra/oanserai." So Rev... It was a common practice that more than one company partook of the paschal supper in the same apartment but Christ will have his chamber for himself and his disciples alone. Pitcher. Mark i. 11. 43.

XIV. See on Matt. See on Matt. weighed down: very heavy. The cup. See on Matt. Cocl< crow. The double negative with the future forms the strongest possible assertion. 35. {ov yJ) a-e will not deny airapv^a-ofiai).Ch. See on Matt. 33. xvi. xxvi. . generally in the proportion of one part to two of water. Sung an hymn. xxvi. See on Matt. 20. 23. 15 . 36. 23. Gethsemane. 5. 32. 30. participle is significant. Compare sore amazed (eiel^a/i^eia-Sai).. {ia-rpcofievov). It 24. Go before. Dish {Tpv^Cov). 34. To be to Mark. shed See on Matt.. Imperfect tense Lit. xxvi. A word peculiar : Prayed {-n-poa-TitixeTo). The wine was the ordinary one of the counwas mixed with water. only red. is Is {to eK-xyvvofievov). twice. with couches properly spread. Lit.] MARK. Covenant. 29. See on Matt. xxvi. I (aTrapvjyo-j?). Heavy (Kara^apwofievoi).. 32. 28. xxvi. 28. This present mind the sacrifice is already being offered. try. 26. and Furnished Lit. 227 strewed with carpets. 30. 5e^<m to pray. Mark alone adds Deny 31. xxvi. xxvi. 40. 25. ix. New. 6. The compound verb signifies utterly deny. To the Lord's hemg shed.

! 228 il. Expositors are utterly at sea as to meaning. See on Matt.. See on Matt. 'IvS6<. xxvii. 59 Mark xv. A John xviii. See on Matt. Palace {avXr)v). Eev. xxvi. John. means of knowing who the youth may have been. 48. word found only here and See on Matt. One of the twelve. xi. a-vyKoS^p. better.evo'}). mutual token a concerted : by Mark in this passage. See Matt. gives the force of a signal. Lazarus. 47. 51. Ear {mTcbpiov). and St. 3. xxvi. at 10. A later Greek compound used only Compare a-rjfieiov. See on Matt. the brother of Martha and Mary. Kissed. There is no 51. James the Just.. as also on muliititde. 51. The <7vv. and Mark The incident is related by Mark only. else in the its [Ch. robber. 55. . The probable derivation is from an Indian : India being the source from which came this fine fabric used for wrapping dead bodies. xxvi. . What The verb with the participle occurred after occurred while So Rev. XIV. 43. Sat with {^v he was sitting. 46 Luke xxiii. Eather. xxvi. Token (a-va-crrjfiov). and in which Christ's body was enveloped. 45. 47. In this im- personal sense the word occurs nowhere New Testa- ment. xxvi. 53. Paul Linen cloth (aivBova). quadrangle See on Matt.. The servant. A thief. as Rev. 44. enough {aTrixei). 49. xxvi. 48. with. xxvi. roimd which the chambers were court. 51. Matt. . denoting continuousness. 54. Peculiar to Mark. 52. the built. WORD STUDIES It is IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Conjecture has named Mark himself. 17.

28. Mark adds this detail. (w/joavXtov). Buffet. is where the word KaTa3efiaTi^etv. 56. Porch vestibule. and the following sentence. v. 74. reoei/ued. 65. called forth the challenge of the maid (ver. See on Matt. Curse {ava^efiarit/SLv). thei/r Their witness agreed not. which demanded two witnesses. 58. See on Matt. 64. which shining on Peter's face. {pairlfffiaariv). Guilty of death. 3). Made with hands. by John (xix. Peculiar to Mark. xxvi. 62. 68. .Ch. also vnade without hcmds. xviii. The 71. The corSo Kev. fire $w? . Only here in New Testament. 25. e/3aXKov. At the self. officers. and compare Matt. xxvi.. 16 . XIV. xxvi. xvii. Lit. 229 v. See Deut. See on Matt. I am. Palms but used of their hands also An unclassical word. 64. 67. 1 Tim. Received him into 66. 19 . xxvi. doum (Kara) curses on . extending from the outside gate to the court. Did strike. Servants. Eev. custody. X.. See on Matt. Following the old reading. : is never used of iheji/re this is the point to it- but of the light of the and the evangelist directs attention that the firelight. 66. rect reading is eka^ov. The word means hlows. fire (7rpo?To ^w?). to call Compare on Matt. testimonies were not equal. 6 Heb. Beneath. In relation to the chambers round the court above. 66). ing the requirement of Hence the difficulty of fulfillthe law.] MARK.

he thought thereon (eVtySaXmi/). cordingly omits with him.. to throw. See on Matt. XT. with insurrection with him {ava-racnbetter texts read a-Taenaaand the Rev. Fellow-rioters. Lit. The words [Oh. stirred up. Do Latinism. 1-5 with Matt. texts. rmv. which Barabbas and 8.). Xeita is to xiii. were not telling the truth. Denoting a class of criminals. his fellows Note the article: the insurrection for had been imprisoned. But the omitting the aw. Mark. shake. To content (to 'iKavov irotrjcrat). Wye. 16. But the best texts read avaSo Kev. the right thing. The hishops stirred the com- pany ofpeople. 11-14. 2.). and used by Mark only. insurrection. and ^aXXxo. 1. thing. Moved Hence A feeble translation. to A do enough to the people. 8. (aei). ha/ving ujp. 72. CHAPTER Compare 7. When he threw his thought ujpon it. Crying aloud gone {ava0oija-a<. Ever 11.. the hall called Matthew has simply the Pretorium. ac(fellow) : Who The {o'iTtv£<. are synony- mous. From eVt. The courtyard. /3as. as usual. into fies. went up. XV. Omitted by the best {aveaeiffav). aeiafio'.230 himself WORD if lie STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. Better as Rev. to do the sufficient Compare the popular phrase. ampliPretorium. Them that had made aa-Twv). vv. xxvii. sur- . 'Wye. rioters. When upon.. 15. an earthquahe.

Matthew adds the word Mark has simply purple. Better impress. Hence a body of men-at-arms.. 33." The imperfect tense is used in the 14 (Pev. 21. taJce olvov).. Compel. See on Matt. {iSlSow).] MARK. xxvii. xxvii. . Wine mingled with myrrh {iafivpvia-iMevov myrrhed wine. Utle. Lit. 24. 22. in margin. xxvii. What each should take (tw ti aprj). as a ball. rollers. XV. which is sometimes (as by Josephus) used to translate airelpa. So Pev. xxvii. See on Matt. V. so that the people passing through the vestibule into this quadrangle found themselves in the Pretorinm. who should what. 23.. offered. Manipulus was originally a bpndle or handful. a knot or curl in wood. See on Matt. soldiers Purple. John. ful of The . for soldier's cloak. 34.Ch. ancient Pomans adopted it a pole with a hand- hay or straw twisted about as the standard of a com- pany of soldiers hence a certain number or body of under one standard was called manipulus. Note the accuracy Golgotha. Pev. 38. " John would have hinThey were for giAiing . 37. 27. The superscription of his accusation. See on Matt. 231 rounded by the buildings of the Pretoriura. iii. superscription . attempted to gime. See on Matt. simply accusation y Luke. Lit. Originally anything wov/nd or wrapped round. in designating Simon. the coils of a snake. Matthew. excellently.). An addition of Mark. Thieves. as Pev. 26. xxvii.. The same idea is at the bottom of the Latin manvpulus. Band {tjirelpav). See on Matt. 41. as in Matt. IT. They gave same sense dered. 28.

See on Matt.. The veil. King of (xv. 48. xxvii. See on Matt. On the latter word. Honorable (evayriiiMiv). sense of noble . honorable in rank. 41. . noble xiii. [Ch.4pt/ia." 413). Not the Son of God. tained.232 29.9auz?). it So Plato. which Rev. The same word The Christ. see on Matt. shape. Followed : See on Matt. Son of God. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 38. Israel. Vinegar. xvii. accustomed to. XV Ah ! {ovet). ITie fore- The day Sabbath. 64. See on Matt. well. 56. imperfects 42. 2. 39. therefore. 62). See on Matt. Joseph. 2). has rea son of God. 57. Arimathaea : the article indicating a man well known. Later. were m the habit. Lit. figure. xvii. he from Joseph of Arimathaea('Ia)cr^^oa7ro'. and form. 32. Both Even. In its earlier tryrnui. ii. before the Sabbath {yrpoad^^aTov). 1. emphasize the dignified external appearance and deportment. See on Matt. Destroyest. xxvii. Referring to the con- fession before the high-priest (xiv. — ministered {^ko>mv^ovv— Bitjkovow). The Latin vah ! as at xiii. but 40. Compounded of eS. use this adjective would. hearing (" Republic. Referring to the confession before Pilate 36. xxvii. To the centurion Christ was a hero or demigod. came to be used in the See Acts 50 . 2. xxvii. Peculiar to Mark. 12. xxvii. 51. 43. and only here. Magdalene.

Better. 233 Counsellor. This query and the asking the centurion are peculiar to Mark. Luke xxiii. 5. XVI. xxvii. corpse . Eev. 44. as appears from {roKiM'qa-ai eUr^X^ev). Body {irrmfia). in boldly ha/vmg dared Daring all possible consequences.. of this chapter is held to be from It is omitted from the two oldest manuscripts. 60. texts. risen. Stone. It was wonder rather \!a&-a.. Omitted by best {^K<na<Ti. Lit. correctly. Quickly. Peculiar to Mark.. Beheld {H^edpow). fright. By a large number of the . Astonishment See on Mark v.. and Introduction. 47. 46. XVI. Afraid {e^o^ovvro). See on Matt. Affrighted.] MARK. as the word is used only of a dead body. More At the rising of the sun {avareCXavTo<i rod ^Xt'ow). Wondered. amazed. See ix. 45. The wonder merges ablest into/ear. 8. 15. better. See on Matt. as Kev.Ch. 51. when the stm was 3. Imperfect tense. Went went in. steady and cartful contem- CHAPTER 2.<i). Eev. The verb also implies They took careful note. Were looking on meoMwhile. 28. plation. modern critics the remainder some other hand than Mark's. A member of the Sanhedrim. xxiv. 42.

. 25. 14. XVX The first day of the week a-a^fidrov). Out V. go. More Afterward {iiffTepov).. cast out. 40. in this connection (i. A phrase which Mark does not use. Compare iv. to the To every creature whole creation. (7ro/jei/. An expression never correctly. Went. irap ^y. Mark unusual expression. 6. it is somewhat singular that this circumstance was not mentioned in either of the three previous allusions to Mary ^?). ix. With Mark's well-known habit of particularizing. So in vr. 13. nowhere else in the ISew Testament. Rightly. . is /nd<s aa^^drcov. xvi. (ttoo-j. 25).. This verb for to go occurs nowhere else in this Gospel except in com- Them that had been with him {rol<. {eKeivrj). 12. She in ampled xiv. fier avrov <y€vonivoi<s). 7. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. See also vv. rfj KT^aei). 11 xii. 21. Went pounds. In ver. Another form form. is used with e'« An iK^aXk€iv. 8 . 11. a different used by Mark. peculiarity is The equally marked if we read with some. 12. (xv. A circumlocution foreign to the Gospels. 29 . as Eev. of whom 26. 2 of this chapter it Out of whom he had cast seven devils. (erepa p. {Trpmrrj [Ch. 4. 15. 15. After these things (/iera ravra). 234 9. It would imply an emphasis which is not intended. 10. Not found elsewhere in Mark. (a<^' habitually uses the preposition vii. An absolute use of the pronoun unexMark.op<f)fi). 47 . Often in Matthew. 26 Moreover.^6ta-a). from. aTro. 1).

Kplfia. of evrt. Cook in " Speaker's Commentary " Samuel P.. or extent of the penalty to be endured. to the Study of the " Philip Schaff. " On the Printed Text of the Greek Testament .9oui'TO)i^).. Eev. degree. though he frequently uses the simple verb. 29. Mark Yindicated against Kecent Objectors and Established " . Burgon in his monograph. sent forth through them the sacred and incorruptible message has. The sick {appmarovs). from the east unto the west. " also in the commentaries of Alford and Meyer. 5. 20. judgment.D.. are . Shall be damned {Karaicpt^a-eraC). rightly. manuscript of the eighth or ninth century. . to Peter and those who were with him).. The preposition irapd. See on Mark vi. and. alongside of.D. " The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel according to St.e. Samuel Davidson. Following (e7ra«o\ou." The found subject of the last twelve verses of this Gospel critically discussed in . 235 16. ." Then we read " But all the things enjoined they announced without delay to those who were around Peter {i. Tregelles. itself. 18. gives the sense of accompany.. words " In some instances there is added as follows. 8. " History of the Chris- Church " Canon F. And afterward Jesus himself. is A most unfortu- nate rendering. LL.D. "Introduction to ." See on the kindred noun.• foreign to Mark's diction. D. on Mark . IT. D. 1 Cor. known as L. " Introduction New Testament tian . at the close of ver. Following cZos«Zy force Both this and the word for follow. tlie Criti- cism of the New Testament " James Morison. 17. condemned. XVI. may be the second volume of Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament by Dean John W. LL. The word a judicial term." Ch. D.D. rendered by A. C. " PracCommentary on the Gospel according to St. in ver. Shall follow (irapaKoXovSTjcrei). these : : A of eternal salvation... as Dr.D. damnation. xi. Frederick tical Henry Scrivener. Mark . by nothing at concerning the nature.] MARK. V. Moall rison truthfully says. "determines.

ix... village-town. (in swearing).. 6 f'lcSau/iafo). 16 yva(j)evs. dxunb. 38 to marvel. 34 35 ix. 49 25 35 xiii... viii. xvi. 36 KaraKonra).. aypevto. 24 13 KfVTvpiav. ix. 20 Boavepyh.. 17. S3. iavaa-ipjis. 17 fji^opia.. 4 wallow. leap up. discreetly. exceeding vehemently... cast. vii.ov. borders.. 16 pvpl^u). abroad... come running togetheii the point of death. iv. 23 enough. ivayKoKi^ojim. ah! ha! xv.. xii.. v. ft. acppi^a. 39... 16 deadly. take in the-arms. 8 i^ovhivom. at oKcuTpo^avia. 40 follow after. fuller. 37 caxaTttts. vii. 23 ova. xv. 6 little drao-rerafo). vii. KaroUrjais. XV. 44. 5 25 Karevkoyca. cockcrowing. ix. ix. X. 50 x. xiv. vovvexS'i.. 32 8 24 27 36 fVeiXe'o).p. ix. 25 SKoKos.. if to wound ix. ix. 15 Kara^a. vi. hard. ItriKvvopai. xiv. xii. 29 ^etmjs. 50 viii. 5. diTf'xfi. xiv. x. 3 v. SKs. vii... 31 X... like. grow. 23 ij<f>i€v. XV. i^amva.. 3 45 two thousand.. xvi. 18 a^(^t/3aX\(ii. having an impediment in speech.. in the night. ii. 12 ix. 15 KvXioiiat. beat.. 30 Weigh down. Suo-KoXof. suddenly. . LIST OF GEEEK WORDS USED BY MAEK ONLY....a. xii. it is sigh deeply. i. 13 . in the head... vii. 17 ya/wVico/iai.. suffered (permitted). 37 from a child. v. ix. eWtpio-o-ms. Kecf>a\ai6co... sew upon. dwelling.. .. fioyiXdXor. 21 enippdiTTo. cKtafi^em... .... wrap. cut. foam..... eye. to content.. of. fm<TvvTpcx<'> ix. . place where two ways xi. aTTooTfydfo). TO htavbv noiiiv. come down. KaTo^apivio. uncover. ii. 21 napojioios. 41 25 diroSriiioc. to be amazed. 34.. sons of thunder. xv. 4 op. TraiStdSei'. saltless. iii. pot. 8. to wonder because daughter. xiv. xiii. aiitpoSov. 3avndfeii' 8ta. 46 tvvvxov. iv.. zii.. i. 12 fVi^iiXXo) (neuter).. viii. 4 16 xi. centurion. fiio-X"Xto4... catch. KaraSiuKo).. v. bless. 20 i. set at naught. Koj/tidwoXtr. 18. 34 4 . anoint. vii. meet... xiv. salt.. 12 %vyaTpi. dvaTnjSao). i.. to be given in marriage.. xii. i. iv. a.. araXor.. 13 ix.

vii. xiii. Syxo-phoenician 26 come nigh unto.. 5 bath.. 35 fist. iirepTrcpta-a-ms. GREEK WORDS USED BY MARK ONLY.. branch. executioner. o-jTEKoi/Xdrmp. vi.vpvi^a. clearly.. Tpi'fo). xiv.. 11 24. xiv. irpocropfil^ofuu.. 4 . vi. 7 to be glistering... ix.KKTaa. a-va-trritiov. 46. o-TiX/So).LIST OF TrepiTpixai.. a iii. 38 countersign. avKKviteoiiai.. iv. vii. hand. o-wSXi/Sco. jrpao-id. be grieved. take thought beforea garden-plat.. vii.. day before the Sabii. 48 vi. brazen vessel. 7rpoarK((j)aKaiov. mingle with myrrh.. 31 jrpoo-a^/SaToc. with the 3 vir(pT}<l>avia. o-Ka>Xi)f. 68 TTpofifpifivaa... xi.. or layer of leaves. 237 run round about. vi. wpoa-iropcvopiai.. xii. a table-party. xv. 44 Tri\avya>s.. gnash.. moor come to the shore.. 40 Trpoav\iov. a-Taa-iapTrjs. o-Ti/3ar... pride. 8 (Tvfmoaiov. ix. porch orforeoourt. 27 23 37 viToKrjvLov.vpa^oiv'i.. viii. cushion. 53 unto. XV. <Tp. 4 woman. xv. beyond measure. 18 vii. 3 XoKkIov... 44.. to 'S. to throng or crowd. 25 22 vii. token. worm. insurrectionist. 42 iTpo(Tcyyl^a>.. X. wine-fat 1 or wine-press. 39 v. ix. 55 vi. iTvyprj.


When we ing upon no conclusive evidence. 11. According to the legend. 24. and that. with an inscription to the effect that it was one of seven painted by Xnica. in enumerating the seven deacons of Jerusalem. iv. we find very about this evangelist. 30 . he carried with him two portraits painted by himself the one of the Saviour and the other of the Virgin and by means of these he converted many A — — of the heathen. confirmed the popular belief that Luke the Evangelist was meant. drawing of the Yirgin. That he was a physician and the companion of Paul are facts attested by Scripture. 19. and rude the Greek painters carried it into Western Europe. however. 14 2 Tim. though his connection with Paul does not definitely appear before Acts xvi. Legend has been busy with the name of Luke. xv.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE. gives is much information about the church supported by the fact that he there (Acts xi. discovered in the Catacombs. iv. The Greek Church. readily accepted the tradition which represented him as a painter. 1-3. 22. in which painting is regarded as a religious art. name 1-3 . 5) without reference to the nationality of any of the others. and his name occurs in only three passages of the New Testament Col. mTRODUCTION TO THE WRITINGS OF LUKE. that he traces the origin of the " Christian " to that city. That he was an Asiatic-Greek convert of Antioch. though restlittle : . apply to historical sources. Philem. 35) . he informs us of the Antiochian origin of Nicholas (Acts vi. He never mentions himself by name in the Gospel or in the Acts. xiii. .

nevertheless. 69. ii. dvdyKrjv. 3 .omans being accustomed to educate some of their domestics in the science of medicine. i. 1 Thess. 1 Cor. 23 15 . ajro V. AvayKT). from henceforth. 2 Cor. vii. and remained there until his liberation. 52 . sets forth that conception of Christ's life and work which was the basis of Paul's teaching. iii. iii. 16. 16. His connection with Paul gave early period. 7. and not elsewhere. . Acts xii. Paul from Caesarea. 15 . In the sense of avaKpivetv. Tradition makes him to have died in Greece. presents remarkable coincidences with Paul's The Gospel itself epistles. Gal. xxi. ideas. 2 Cor. xxi. Toi vvv. xxviii. ii. Pauii. through the shipwreck at Malta. were peculiarly common in the names of slaves. like Lucas for Lucomus. xxiii. tween the style of Luke and of Paul. 30 x. 18 . vii. vi." Some two hundred expressions or phrases may be found which are common to Luke and Paul. Bom. xxii. where he uses the first person plural. He accompanied 10. 10 . ten times in all in that epistle. . " There is a striking resemblance beas Mark does of Peter. from the large number of physicians who belonged to that class. . lead captive. iv.. to Eome. to examine judicially. are Luke. at a very he wrote his Gospel under While his preface says the superintendence of that apostle. and to grant them freedom in requital of services. 19 . 5. 26 1 Thess. and more or less foreign to other New Testament writers. 18. 3 . axxtidkan^iiv. in the phrase needs. He represents the views of Paul. It has been assumed that he was a freedman. distress. vii. ?.(<» I must 1 Cor. ii. reject. 23. xii. for instance. Physicians often held no higher rank than slaves. 24. 1 Cor. 48 10 . which corresponds to their spiritual sympathy and long intimacy. to the opinion that rise in the church. Such. 21 . both in language. and spirit. dScTfii'. and it was believed that his remains were transferred to Constantinople. vii. iv. 4 . 14 . the Greeks and E. : 240 mTKODTJCTION TO LUKE. nothing about the Pauline sanction of his Gospel. v. 8. xiv. xii. . 37. 2 Cor. the work. x. and it has been noticed that contractions in as.

" in remembrance of me. 14. 6 1 Cor. 3. . iyKaaeiv. 4. 2 Cor. 13 . 2 Thess. xv. ii. Titus ii. 32. (I firjTt. also. bring to naught 15 . i. xiii. ix. 15. twenty-six times i. 46 . make void. "JS\eo?. 1. 36. 13. viii. x. clothe. Patjii. Both are fond of words characterizing the freedom and uniFor example. Col. V. do away. 16 . i. iii." for " This is my blood of the new covenant. 3. iv. mercy. fifyaXvvfiv. 1 Cor. and ninetyfive in Paul. exalt. Gal. interpret. vii. grace. ii. destroy. 16 . give light." and both adding. 20. magnify. 19. xiv." A few of the numerous instances of parallelism of thought and expression may also be cited : Luke. 26 iv. vi. vi. 7. xiii. 1. 1 Cor. 9 . iii. faith. 18. 20. xviii. HoIt/ Spirit They agree in their report of the institution of the Lord's Supper. . except. Eph. iii. KaTapyelv. LUKB. 79 . make without effect. vi./ INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. xix. endue. an alwvos. in Paul. 27. occurs eight times in the Gospel. 2 Cor. world began. 2 Cor. xv. 3 Kom. . xiii. 5. 21 . 22.' SiKaio?. 5. iii. iv. xii. favor. vi. righteous/ TrveOfia ajiov. Bom. 36. Eph. and Acts. StKaioa-vvrj. iv. %a/3t9. 49. Siepfiriveveiv. iii. since the 241 Pattl. iv. 11 . knowledge. 13. X. 29. etc. in Paul. Compare. shine. i.^. Uia-Ti. 48. Acts ix. 53. in the moral sense. both giving "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. i. to 1 Cor. . 10. Kom. 1 Cor. 46. 1. 39. sixteen in the Acts. and everywhere yv&a-K. 13. six times in the Gospel and ten twenty-seven times in the Gospel in Paul. expound or 27. i. 2 Cor. 9. righteousness. Eom. 13. Philip. Acts V. iii. Acts xivii. to faint. 30 . Eph. 5 2 Cor. xxiv. 70 . 58 . versality of gospel salvation. fjri<f>aivetv. xxiv. xii. . 12. Acts iii. i. Col. 17. tvdiaatriai. Col. 11. cumber. 4. 10.

of fervor. his vocabulary rich and well selected. spirit of holy infancy. all Luke considerably exceeding that of the other evangelists. iv.242 LcKB. 27. appears in the Acts as in the Gospel. fifty the universal testimony of the ancient church. 15. He says " The Gospel of Luke is the most literary of : the gospels. He substitutes classical words for many which are used by Matthew and Mark. i. 41. Hebraic and Hellenic. xii. . Philip. declare Luke to be the author. 35. X. xi. Acts. X. no less than the identity of style. Paul. 8. The same humanitarian and ish Gentile character of his writings. i.. 1 Cor. 56. Eph. New Testament are common From a purely literary point of view Luke's Gospel has been pronounced. 8. x. vi." is the best writer of Greek among the evangelists. although attempts have been tion to made to assign its composi- Timothy and to Silas. well contrived. Matthew rounds does better : a little the rough outlines of Mark. at once sition. 3. 14. sea. and reasonable in the irrational. its improbabilities. the gospel feeling in its primitive freshness. Everywhere there is revealed a spirit large and temperate. 19. lake. XX. Bom. of . uniting the emotion of the drama with the serenity of the idyl. ix. INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. 17. X. dif- fuse over the legend an incomparably sweet coloring. ix. are its true to the very nature of parable. wise. its Its exaggerations. He displays a genuine skill in compoHis book is a beautiful narrative. He uses over seven hundred words which occur nowhere else in the T^ew Testament. inconsistencies. and to identify Silas with Luke. Tit. and constitute charm.. A joy. 20. as distinguished from JewOf the writings. 18. X. as Xifivj]. 33. 27. Luke he writes. sober. Luke's long residence in Greece makes it probable that he had Greek readers especially in mind. About words not found elsewhere in the to both books. His construction is i-hythmical. even by Renan. for ^aXaa-a-a. to be the most beautiful book ever written. 2 Cor. sweet . 21. 1 Cor.

oXtj^Sx}.. As we have seen. indicates a familiarity with the terms used by the Greek medical schools. tribute. too. <f>6po'. scribes . . Compare. it is true. can hardly be called an excepBut the style of profession. bushel. The latter word. and Simeon. 15 . other evangelists. o/pafijiaTeh. He words for hed in the description of the healing of the paralytic (vv. His ner is style is clear. verily . 42) fjL6Bio<.. val. occurs in two passages in the Acts (v. in xxi. for the Latin form. far- though he avoids . with the time of his jointo Macedonia. legion / napkin / is dacrdpiov. with the exception of Hippocrates. man- purely historical events which have come under his own obsei-vation he treats in the minute and ciftjumstantial style of an eye-witness. truly. 10. narius thing. but both these passages are Petrine. iir o\9j5e^as. both in the Gospel and in the Acts. Xeryemv. coincides ing Paul at the first visit may be noted at Acts xx. as well as the first of Christian hymns. d/M'qv.INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. . fa/rthing. for Kfjva-o<. Mary. lawyers. are the last of Hebrew psalms.. Elizabeth. and unpretentious. Hippocrates. and the anthem of the angelic host. master. of a truth. ix. yea. and a similar change Luke also acquires a peculiar flavor from his His language. lonica. 18-25). 243 uses three distinct when describing the lake of Galilee. Where he describes events on the authority of others.. They can be literally transfirst xii. 2 (compare Mark two chapters the history of the infancy which he derived probably from Aramaic traditions or documents. as hrjvdpiov. all the extant Greek medical writers were Asiatic Greeks. except in the He less Hebraic than the — — lated back into the Hebrew without losing their beauty " (Schaff). picturesque. 4-6. we find eTrto-Tarij?. So. Luke was probably a Greek of Asia Minor and. indeed. avoiding the vulgar Kpa^^aro^ of Mark. his . the detailed narrative of the events at Philippi with that of the occurrences at Thessa- The change of style at Acts xvi. " The songs of Zacharias. and where his language has a stronger Hebrew coloring than any other portion of the New Testament. and furnishes an incidental confirmation of the common authorship of tlie two books. census. KohpdvTt]'. for 33). animated. from the histori- cal to the personal narrative. instead of Rabbi j vofiiKoi. for instance. / He uses several Latin words. deaovddpiov.

" Matthew and Mark use for needle the vulgar word or hold. the ordinary diction of the evangelist. or more common in his writings than elsewhere in the New Testament. Second. recording a similar saying (xi. and nowhere else in the New Testament. Luke. will be pointed out in the notes as they occur. peculiar . and Hippocrates. to he in pain. ga^e up the ghost (Acts v. 39). of of Caria. 'E^iifrv^e. has often a medical flavor. and all of which were in common use among the Greek physicians. 38. 19-26). 4) says that the scribes and Pharisees will not Thus Matthew move (Kivfjaai) tbe burdens they impose. three times in the taken is used nine times by Luke. "ye yourselves touch {Trpoa-^aveTe) not the burdens. and Aretaeus. in the account of the healing of Simon's wife's mother (Luke iv. with one of their fingers. we find ei\iccofievo<. the ancient physicians were accustomed to distinguish between great and little fevers. occurs four times in Luke's writings. off the coast Galen was of Pergamus in Mysia. needle's eye.ftdl of sores. The word mean. and to be used In the proverb of " the camel and the rarely even by them. the surgical needle. 5. we read that she was taken The word {(Tvve'xpiJbevri) with a great fever {TrvpeTw /xeyaXq)). 46). " No mean city " {da-rjfio'i. he was born and lived in the island of Cos. when dealing with unprofessional subjects. and occurring only three times in the New Testament.ai. and only It occurs frequently in this sense rest of the New Testament. (xxiii. In the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke xvi. is a rare word. medical man.. as . Thus. of Cappadocia. 39)." using a technical term for gently feeling the pulse. says. in words tion. the regular medical term for to he ulcerated: ohw5>iJ. 10). according to Galen. or a sore or tender part of the body. to have Moreover. Aretaeus. which asserts itself in words peculiar to him. pa(j)l<. These terms while Luke alone uses ^eXovrj. used by Luke only. and phrases used in descriptions of diseases or of miracles of His terms are of the technical character peculiar to a healing. The word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Acts xxi. as does also the simple verb e%&).. Dioscorides. first. in Cilicia Anazarba The medical peculiarities of Luke's style appear.24:4: INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. but frequently in Galen. in the medical writers. It seems to be almost confined to medical writers.

when it turns upon ordinary topics. . fact that the talk of specialists. 6. the uniting of nerves and of bones. illustrations of this. 13) : wholesome or sound (1 Tim. Mark have piljav. Eev.. 'branded (1 Tim. and .: . It is an every-day are only what might naturally be expected. INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. Hippocrates uses it of a messenger deIn the parable of the sower. and is applied by Hippocrates to a Delivered the letter" {avaS6vTe<. itching (2 Tim. to he healthy. is the professional 245 term for a disease without city. to this passage. etc. — avfi- with it parts of the body. was the professional word for the closing of wounds and ulcers. : 10 . it grew—grew i^avereiXe. comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth. and of the earth. in his de. or of nourishment through the body. 17) i. and is used by Dioscorides precisely as here. In the same parable.." Luke (viii. of vegetation.). Hippocrates uses together iKfid'i. iv. in its figurative ap- plication to doctrine as 2 Tim. 3) wp with pride . V. 3 rv^toSeh. 4) seared . and ^veaSat. as well as technical. distinctive '^ symptoms. and is a medical term for the d/istribution of blood through the veins. Such peculiarities. mKavri)pia(jyi. canker (2 Tim. vi. "they have no root. 12).kv(i>v. 6) has (x/jidBa. : : (Gal. to grow. whether in the professions or in mechanics. of plants. iii.. Matthew and li vering a letter. for sprung up Matthew and Mark have <f>veicrai These latter words are used by medical writers to describe the growth of (vv. grow together. jdjjpaiva. ii. unconsciously takes form and color from their familiar calling. to Svfi^vea^M. out themsel/ues off ^ofievoi. iv. of diseases. of plants growing together in the same place. Eev. scriptions of diseases noting their duration and symptoms. the medical term ior the juices of the body. . puffed up (1 Tim. moisture. 33). The verb occurs only here in the New Testament. 2) kvi)airoKo^ovTM. moisture. while Luke has (f)vev (Eev. The attempt has been made to show that Paul's style was influenced by Luke in this same direction so that his intercourse with his companion and physician showed itseK in his use of Dean Plumptre cites as certain words having a medical flavor. Luke is also circumstantial. vyialveiv. 7). 6 vi. Acts xxiii. lifted i. so far from being strange or anomalous.

afterward restored it to the senate and governed it by a proconsul a fact confirmed by coins of the very time of Paul's visit to Cyprus. one Consuls were called by the Greeks viraToi and hence a ^owho acts instead of {avrl) a consul. Roman provinces were of two classes. Thus. 43 Luke's accurate observation and memory appear especially in the Acts. 1-8 . and in his descriptions of nautiWith nautical details. who were only deputy-governors of the propraetor of Syria. is precise in the use of terms. therefore. comes to Felix or Festus. Tjyeficov. 41. and his calling its magistrates a-TpaTTjjol or praetors.. Luke regarded Cyprus as a senatorial province. he calls them by the general term dius. or propraetor. He speaks of Sergius Paulus as the jproconsul of Cyprus. So the city authorities . though at first he reserved Cyprus for himself. the acquaintance often displayed by a landsman who has been much at sea and in frequent intercourse with seamen. title of the governor of a senatorial province of an imperial province The governor was called dvTia-rpa. at See Acts iii. 12) as proconsul (A. at ix. may have allusions he consul was avl^vvaro'. the stages of the patient's recovery. in Acts xiii. Evidently. ix. Acts successive stages of Elymas' blindness are noted sight 11 . and the proper was dvSvTraTo<. 18.TTjyo'i.. So Luke speaks of Gallio (Acts xviii. bearing the name of the emperor Clau- — and of the provincial governor. his accuracy in naming the civil magistrates is noteworthy. viii. 7. and we find that Augustus. xxvi. When he deputy) of Achaia. 26). It has been conjectured that at some period of his professional life he as in his omission of . with the title avS^inraroi.. and the process of Saul's restoration to also exhibits traces of professional sensitiveness^..246 INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. Similarly accurate his designation of Philippi as a colonia (Acts xvi. In his political served as a surgeon on shipboard. etc. and consequently governed it by a propruetor. 24. in his allusions. 12). governed by a proconsul . he exhibits cal and political matters. senatorial and imperial y . Y. 30). He Mark's implied reflection upon the physicians who had treated the woman with the issue of blood (Luke Mark v. 40. The xiii. is governor (Acts xxiii. which was a senatorial province. a title which they were fond of giving themselves.

as of the Loi'd's coming to Jerusalem across the Mount of Olives (xix. 8) . compounds of -rrXeo). rulers of the city (Acts xvii. having the right of self-government. sight. also. invested with the character of priests.. at who. lonica. Thus Satan is the gospel of contrasts. aireTfKevaav. salem on this route. as cast . .. 31). and in local descriptions. the precision of Thus there are fourteen verbs denoting detail is remarkable. and were. INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. hardly passing (xxvii. vessel. for Thessalonica was a free city. etc. Luke's accnracy on this home out hy an inscription on an archway in Thessawhich gives this title to tlie magistrates of the place. ovvTo literally. 247 of Thessalonica are styled TT-oXiTcip'x^ai. to sail. 8) course (xvi. 38) . Testament.games. . with a distinction indicating the pecuSeven of these are liar circumstances of the ship at the time. ran with a straight : l^ote also the technical terms for lighten- ing the ship by throwing overboard the cargo eK^oXrjv CTrotIkov^i^ov. defrayed the charge of public amusements. sailed under (the . as binding a daughter constantly emphasized Luke's Gospel is down from heaven in Jesus' vision as The evangelist portrays entering into Judas the churlish doubting Zacharias and the trusting Mary the of Abraham . ei^vSpo/j^Tja-a/xev. We may also note the Asiarohs. as presidents of the . Here he brings out the two distinct views of Jeru37-41). 7) away (xiii. an irregularity in the ground hiding it for Verse 37 marks a time after one has just caught sight of it. irapaXej6fji. Ephesus (Acts A similar accuracy appears in the Gospel in the dates of more important events. Thus we have sailing lee). the first In the narrative of the voyage and shipwreck. . as sifting Peter. This short in- scription contains six names which are mentioned in the New chiefs of Asia.evot. over against Jesus. and the names . and where the local magistrates had the power of life and death over the citizens. xix. 11). the progression of a ship. 18) of various parts of the lightened (xxvii. . and the very names of some together with their number seven point is — — who held the office not long before Paul's time. . and 41 the second. So. sailed slovily (xxvii. like the aediles at Rome. vireifKeva-afiev. made a casting out (xxvii. 4) BpahmkoovvTe^.

to call down fire on the inhospitable Samaritans. Meet for thy lowly shrine Sooner than they should miss where thou dost dwell. Luke's is the gospel of the poor and outcast. the humblest and most sinful are shown as not excluded from Jesus. Isaiah's The Baptist cites concerning him prophecy that tlie all flesh shall see the salvation of God. The genealogy of Christ is traced back to the common father of the race. and the parable He notes the comof the Good Samaritan is peculiar to him. Babe divine. ." . adoring Mary . zen of the Roman empire. Simeon greets him as a light for his elder brother . The highest heavenly honor is conferred on the humble Mary of Nazareth. revelation to the Gentiles. Adam." and see the simple shepherds repairing to the manger at Bethlehem. He contrasts the gratitude of the one Samaritan leper with the thankHe alone records the refusal lessness of the nine Jewish lepers. His Gospel is for the Gentiles. His frequent use of words Luke's is the expressing the freedom and universality of the Gospel has already been noted. and relates how Jesus abode with Zacchaeus. instead of to Abraham. It ia Luke who gives the keynote of Keble's lovely strain "The pastoral spirits first Approacli thee. . the penitent and impenitent thieves. . As a phase of its universality. For they in lowly thoughts are nurs'd. and Naaman's cleansing by Elisha. mendation of the humble Publican in contrast with the selfrighteous Pharisee. 24:8 INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. Angels from lieaveu will stoop to guide them to thy cell.: : . Only in Luke's story do we hear the angels' song of " Peace and good-will. He records the enrolment of Christ as a citias by Matthew. the father of the Jewish nation. He alone mentions the mission of Elijah to the heathen widow. Simon and the loving sinner. who represent the seventy Gentile nations. unmersal gospel. Luke alone records mission of the seventy. the bustling Martha and the the thankful and the thankless lepers the woes added to the blessings in the Sermon on the Mount the rich man and Lazarus the Pharisee and the Publican the good Samaritan and the priest and Levite the prodigal and quiet. as the twelve represent the twelve tribes of Israel. He omits all reference to the law in the Sermon on the Mount.

he gives the mi- nuter details of the birth of Christ. And. with others. lavish upon him their ten- while the daughter of Abraham whom Satan had bound. She appears as ministering to the Lord and as the subject of his ministries. Luke's is the gospel of womanhood. the song of Zacharias the Magnificat. and the accounts of his circumcision and presentation in the temple. He alone tells the story of the birth of John the Baptist . occurs in Matthew and Mark together forty-nine times. woman. Judge. the song of Mary the JTwic Dimittis. and the Unjust — . Luke's first is the gospel of song. treasured with delicate reserve and holy reticence in the hearts of the blessed Virgin and of the saintly Elizabeth narratives which show in every line the pure and tender coloring of a woman's thoughts. and the weeping daughters of Jerusalem on the knew the comfort of his words and the healing and life-giving virtue of his touch. To him we owe . Mary of Magdala. To him alone belong the prayer-parables of the Friend at Midnight. or the angel's salutation. "He alone. . and the Gloria in JExcelsis. The songs of Mary and Elizabeth. He has been justly styled "the ." Luke's is the prayer-gospel.INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. his subjection to . It is ing of the poor and poor Lazarus in Abraham's bosom. and in road to Calvary Luke alone forty-three." . . Woman comes promi- nently into view as discerning God's promises. Christian hymnologist. the penitent thief. Joanna. Luke's is the gospel of infancy. 249 He pictures supper. the song of Simeon the Ave Maria. finally. Susanna. of his garment. the song of the angels. no less than of a living and simple faith. Mary and Martha. she who touched the hem der care. are full of a clear spiritual perception. " preserves the narratives. and the callmaimed and halt and blind to the great the gospel of the publican. the harlot. the Benedietnis. The word yui/^. . To him we are indebted for the record of our Lord's prayers at his baptism after the cleansing of the leper before the call of the twelve at his transfiguration and on the cross for his enemies. the prodi- gal." says Canon Farrar. and the testimony of 'Anna. the sorrowful mother at Nain.

and all . will always be the favorite chapters for chilfirst two chapters who delight to gather around the manger of Bethlehem. His Gospel " sheds a sacred halo and celestial charm over infancy. and the questioning with the doctors.250 his parents INTRODUCTION TO LUKE. dren. as perThe petuating the paradise of innocence in a sinful world. and to rejoice with shepherds in the field and angels in heaven " (Schaff).

I. or arrange. happily gives the is Toa-a-o). A literal translation. way. embracing the whole of the A declaration {Si^ynaiv). Forasmuch as (eTreiBi^Trep). Have taken in harld Used by Luke only. New as Testais well ment. with the accompanying idea of thoroughness. Sta. not nofrratmes. Hence something which leads the reader through the mass of facts a narrative. Many took in hand to draw up. {i-jrexeiprjo-av). 13). by the rendering d/raw vp. CHAPTER PEOLOGTJE. which Rev. To force of the preposition ava. 1. The A." set forth in order {avard^aa^ai). Note the singular number. up. and implies that previous attempts have not been successful. Hippocrates begins one of his medical treatises very much as Luke begins his gospel.. Sjj. V. through. New Testament. It occurs frequently in medical language. The word carries the sense of a difficult undertaking (see Acts xix. A compound conjunction irep. toj)ut in order. Only here in New Testament. is true to the core of the word. to lead the : . and giving the sense of certainty. but a na/rratime.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE. since. " As many as have taken im hcmd (iirexelpria-av) to speak or to write concerning the healing art. as A. Only here in From and '^eofiai. v. : Only here in eTret. known.

Even as. have heen fulfilled. of Jesus' ministry. the frequentative form of i^kpa. Explained by the words in the next sentence. 17. iv. full. x.. Hence. therefore. facts. . Delivered (TrapiSoa-av). As applied to things. i. See on Matt. Compare Acts i. The word was particularly applied to a Galea applies it at least seventy-three times to the writings of Hippocrates. otfull assurance.252 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. with a preconceived design. practical experience were necessary elements Personal knowledge and of an apostle. Note the distinction between the many who attempted to draw up a na/rrati/ve and the eye-witnesses and ministers who handed down the traditions. eVoTTTat (2 Pet. Which are most surely believed {t&v irevXripoi^opriiievcov). V. Only here in New Testament. [Oh. to Compare 2 Tim. us. 1. . In medical language denoting the attendants or assistants of the principal physician. 5. Kom. is inadmissible. Applied to persons. The word is chosen to indicate that these events happened in accordance to iring. to fulfil. the sense of the A. eye-witnesses and ministers. iv. Compare the modern medical term autopsy. niedieal treatise. 21. Not necessarily excluding written but referring mainly to oral tradition. Ministers {virrtpirai). of a personal examination of disease or of the parts of the body. 25. 21 Heb. Also 'bring full measure . L evangelic matter. Eye-witnesses and ministers. Peter uses another word. 27. Render as Rev. From the beginning the (aTr' dpxm). Referring to the composition of the narrative. and ^opka>. v. . The official beginning. Frequent in medical writers. 16). Wye. commencement 22 John xv. JEye-witnesses {avroirrai). meaning to bringfrequently or habitualh/. From ifKrjpri'i. Among who were 2. heenfiUed in us. 22.

stability. Used by Luke {eirir/vuxi). it is only in the sense of the thing spoken of . thus far. The verb means to follow closeh/. {dcrtfxiXeiav). Tynd.Ch. where Rev. ver. and so. renders here having traced the course. Things (Xoycov).From Karrixeco. With the idea oifuU knowledge is or. Certainty faU. to resoimd/ teach by word of mouth . 4. iii. In Accurately (a«/3tj8w?) From uKpov. security against error. to Hence steadfastness. and cr^aXKojjbai. Mightest know See on Matt.). reads thou didst follow for thou hast fully known. the highest or farthest Hence to trace down to the last and minutest detail. The word occurs frequently in medical writings. with uKpi^m. the facts of the gospel. 16. From a.] LUKE. Having had perfect understanding {-TraprjKoXovSriKOTi). struct orally in the Wye. others. to Wast instructed {kuti^xV'^^). order («a^ef»7?). from above. as here. and sometimes.. not. It would imply that See on deTheophilus had. to in- elements of religion. and hence to See 2 Tim. Lit. accurately. been orally instructed. 263 3. but the exposition of the facts with a view to show their evangelical meaning and to their appropria- . the events series. From the very first {dvm^ev). vii. and claims that not only faith. which Eev. 2. 10. histories. Properly words (so gives in margin. as regards Theophilus. I. Eev. only. of more accurate knowledge than possible from the many who have undertaken the narration. . The word catechumen is derived from it. doctrines of the Godet translates instruction. Incorrect. ha/oing sea/rched out diligently. trace accwrately. the subject or matter of discourse. livered. in Christian writers. in which sense it occurs often in classical Greek. If the word can mean thing Some render it accounts. being conceived in a descending point. at all.

advcmced. I. The Greek style now gives place to the Hebraized style. once every six months. before daybreak. See 1 Chron.). The service of the week was subdivided among the various families which constituted a course. to designate the priests who were to cleanse the altar and prepare its fires the second for the priest who was to offer the sacrifice and cleanse the candlestick and the altar of incense . are included in the word. 1 . His lot was (eXaxe). There is force in this idea. Well stricken {n-po^e^rfKore'. .. and at the Feast of Tabernacles all the twenty-four courses were bound to be present and officiate. The college of was divided into twenty-four courses. A Course priests {i<^fiepia<. Compare Gen.. his account in order that Theophilus may hsLve fuller knowledge concerning the accounts which he has heard by word of mouth. [Ch. King. 254 tioii WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Wye. On Sabbaths the whole course was on duty.mng histories. by faith. daily service. Luke has drawn up this sense will be implied in the context.. Lit. See Introduction. to embrace their doctrinal and evangelical import that he may see the facts of Jesus' life and ministry as the true basis of the Gospel of That his . Acts 21.). The course of Abijah was the eighth of the twenty-four. 10. vii. knowledge may go on from the facts. Lit. 6. and if we hold to the mea. 7. 9. Four lots were drawn to determine : the order of the ministry of the day the first. or even words. On feast-days any priest might come up and join in the ministrations of the sanctuary. salvation. had gone far in their days. from one Sabbath to another. A Hebrew expression. viii. xxiv. Each of these did duty for eight days. THE NAERATIVE. title decreed to Herod by the Roman Senate 5. Before God. on the recommendation of Antony and Octavius. .

There are said to have been twenty thousand priests in Christ's time. was heard. I. we and which he certainly would not be preferring in that public and solemn service. the clouds of incense (For a more detailed account see rose up before Jehovah. to the altar of burnt-offering. 255 . It was probably at this time that the angel appeared When the signal was given. If we render the aorist literally.). the whole multitude to Zacharias. John.Ch. The sanctuary. owing to his extreme years. 6. Edersheim. Hence the aorist is appropriate. Burn incense {S-vfJuaa-at). See on The latter 1 Pet. See on Matt. Is heard {ela-r^Kova-^).] LUKE. instrument called the Jtfagrephah. 14. and As they passed into the court from the Ploly Place they struck a large placed burning coals from the altar in a golden bowl. and filled a golden censer with incense. so that no priest would ever offer incense more than once. withdrew from the inner court. and pour out the drink-offering. the third for the priest and the fourth and meat-offering on the altar. Zacharias had probably ceased to offer. which summoned all the ministers to their places. op(aXKia<Tt. 5. i.). the priests spread the coals on the golden altar. " That prayer. " The Temple. and the chief officiating priest was then left alone within the Holy Place to await the signal of the president to burn the incense. and arranged the incense. The incensing priest and his assistants Only here in went New first Testament. while within. Silence pervaded the temple. its Ministry. wm heard. which. which thou no longer offerest. Joy and gladness {x"'P"' '^"''' word expresses exultant joy. referring back to the past acts of prayer. and fell down before the Lord.<. . iv. Ascending the steps to the holy place." is fa/vorahle." etc. appointing those to lay the sacrifice who who were should burn incense Temple {vahv). The reference is to the prayer ^ysr offspring. 13. Meaning God or Jehovah showeth grace. avoid the question as to what prayer is referred to.

his A Even from ver.for I am old. on Jas. Litke xvi. sydzr. 25 xii. the messenger of peace and restoration. It is . moral state. voluntary. Wjc. Wisdom {(ppov^erei). Lit. 8. though mostly so in the New Testament. auoTrmv). the destroyer. Appropriate here as applied to good ends. means Compare a lower an atirihute or result of wisdom. (Godet). the champion of God against evU." 256 15. disposed. is .. mother's womb. See Dan. . yet. I require a s\^. wisdom (see 13). Gabriel viii. Strong drink kind of Hebrew word. : a practical term corresponding to disobedient. shalt be silent being The finite (eo-j. WOED STUDIES IN THE (aiKepa). meaning anyWye. Thou silent. wisely. 41. however. the minister of wrath. a sign. Michael (see on Jude 9) is guardian of the sacred treasury. emen vn his mother's womh. Tynd. iii. Compare. This is word than crocfiia. " The former is the forerunner 21. In Jewish tradition the 19.. Not able to speak.. and not necessarily in a good sense. which unjust steward. the use of the kindred word ^poi't/Ao? in Rom. the right Prepared* {KaraaKevaa-fiivov). Lit. [Ch. of Jehovah the Judge the latter of Jehovah the Saviour 20. may or may not be 17. ti). "Eti. while yet unborn. NEW TESTAMENT. still. 16 ix. of the It is practical intelligence. a standard of knowledge. prudence. A djusted. Gabriel. according to what? It de- mands For.. Showing that the silence would not be . thou shalt le verb and participle denote continuance. intoxicating liquor not made from grapes. Meaning wiaw o/" C'^oc?. placed m Whereby {KaTo. 16 wise in your own conceits / and the adverb ^povifjiax. xi. I. 18.

concur. better as were wait- Wye. 21. Trench observes that " when the Christian Church was forming its terminology. Clearly perceived. which. and partly by elevating old ones to higher than their previous uses. See on Matt. Waited {fjv irpocrhoKoiv). especially Marvelled. ek. had played their part in religious matters. According to the Talmud. The finite verb and participle. Ministration (\etTov/37wx?). They perceived vii. Better ^ev. Wye. and so in . the the chief priests. Hence. denoting fre- quent repetition of the same signs. was abiding. \eiTo<.] L0KE. already in use in the Septuagint. are of a Tcind which shall be fulfilled. will go on. a worlc. slain 22. the appointed time. priests. Kaipov. and at the time will be consummated. and (rjv ver..contimiedmaMng Again the participle with the finite verb.. tij) to. the right ^o«W of time when circumstances shall fitting Mvae cess of fulfilment. incredible as they seem to you. public. (oiVti/e?). which it did partly by shaping new words. The pronoun qualitative. and epyov. season.Ch." Hence than such as it adopted this word. ing. were accustomed to spend only a short time in the sanctuary. AeTiotingprotracted waiting. It is an ajp^ointed. Siavevav).. otherwise it was feared that they had been by God for unworthiness or transgression. The preposition implies ThejPTObeginning now. was From beckoning. 16. I. In their season (et? rov Kaipov). of the latter it more readily adopted those before employed in civil and political life. He beckoned signs.ielonging to the people. 4. 23. liev. as the constant word for performi/ng priestly 17 and ministerial functions . Hence service of the state in a public office. : exactness: at the completion of the appointed time. de- noting a " My words. 257 is My words which class. time. {eTreyvojcrav). is more specific than 'xpovo^.

24. 25. . And opened heaven from its long interdict. 7 that used by Hippocrates. And in her mien this language had impressed. barrenness. the sense would be She hid herself. . 358 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 24 ii. triiage Conceived {aweka^ev). saying (I have hid myself) . nor Eev. Eut it means Elizabeth assigns the reason for her Her pi'egnancy was God's work. and XX. hecause. 34-45. " The angel wbo came down to earth with tidings Of peace that had been wept for many a year. Testament. 24. and she would leave it to him also to announce it and openly to take away her reproach. merely as recitative or equivalent to quotation marks. [Ch. prcyphets. etc. Looked upon (eVetSei'). He did not seem an image that is silent. Gabriel. Fully expressed. Hence the specification oifive months. entire seclusion.. are peculiar to himself. as fre- quently.. Ecee andlln Dei f as distinctly As any figure stamps itself in wax. taking it. Hid {vepteKpv^ev). All of these. Mr. and teachers. render hecause. in common use among medical in writers. . Thus both appear on the sculptured wall which flanks the inner side of the purgatorial ascent. Neither A. except i. of course. Only here New ori. x. Ilepi signifies com/pletely .! ." Purgatory. 5 i. 31 i. 28. is almost as large as Compare i. 26. the ISTew Testament of the ministry of the a{postles. pregnancy. Used by Luke only. which her condition would become apparent. after peculiar seclusion. and he pictures them with exquisite beauty. The annunciation and the angel Gabriel are favorite themes with Dante. etc. Hobart ("Medical Lanof Luke ") says that the number of words referring to . used by Luke. all. In front of us appeared so truthfully There sculptured in a gracious attitude. . One would have sworn that he was saying Ave For she was there in effigy portrayed Who turned the key to ope the exalted love. I. Y.

as Eev. of Ulysses going to the assembly " Athene shed 30. Rom. So of the 9 8 responsive sentiment of iha/nhfuT/ness.: : " . Tsis. 22.te. iii. uttered by Christ. respecting the gracious words. 103-108. In front of her his wings expanded wide. good-wiU. ii. agreeahleness. endued with grace. 1 Cor. 3. 6. 14. 2 Cor. From the same root as . because thou enterest there. 2 Tim. 17. See on Jas. . that circle round joy sublime which breathes out from the That was the hostelry of our desira . . See Luke vi. 9 . II. 9 but mostly in the formula thcmhs to God . 3. . i. 2 Cor. . I. and Tynd." ii. iv. ." Paradise. Cast in her mind {BieXoyi^ero ).. Am Maria gratia plena singing.. 33. The imperfect tense.] LUKE. ii.. something which delights the beholder. 32. mibstanix.. Lady of heaven. words of grace. 47. Thou that art highly favored (KexapiTwfievr))." See also Prov. womb And I shall circle. 12) and Septuagint. 40 . Primarily that which gi/vesjoy or pleasure / and hence outwa/rd beauty. xlv. 4. kvndness." Grace {)(apiv). is therefore wrong. 22. Luke i. vi. 259 In Paradise Gabriel appears as a light circling round the Yirgin and singing "I am The angelio love. ii. is i. Thus Homer. " grace is poured into thy lips.^a/pa). 28. in margin. xxiii. loveliness. 94r-96. to rejoice. 7. viii. And again ' And the same love that first descended then. " began to reason. Paradise. while Thou foUowest thy Son. Wye. Lit. 57. i.Yn\ga. Acts ii. As a beautiful or agreeable sentiment felt and expressed towa/rd another . Ps. 29. So Eph. Ch. III. and mak'st diviner The sphere supreme. conveyed in Luke iv.. famor.. xv. 6. Substantially the same idea. 34 xvii. xxxii. The rendering full of gfrace. 30 . Only here and Eph. : down manly grace or beauty upon him " (" Odyssey. . lit. I. All the best texts omit blessed art thou among women.

v. i. See Rom. in all the terrors of the thun- Exod. in classical Greek.. 31. in classical Greek only as the detial expression f in New Testament. The dis37. xl. in sleep. So a gratification or delight. in which God had appeared (Exod. grace. Wye. Hnswoman.. word. shall be innpossible {ovk aSw6eov ttuv prjfio). a amor. "Denoting the mildest and most gentle operation of divine power. word. absolute loving-kindness of God toward men. as commonly in New Testament. Compare the classical legend of being beloved of Jove. 10). cousiness. 7. spontaneous. either in Matthew or Mark. denoting the free. but rightly rendered by Kev. arqcrei irapa tov With God nothing . sin. [Ch. the word and was consumed by his lightning. . based on the emphasis oifreeness in the gift or favor. and. signifies a constituent part of a speech or writing. but make her fruitful " (Bengel). a gift. xxxiii. a boon. bnt not of good-will. Mark ix. where the distinction is made between %a/3ts. 22 . who.260 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. See on ver. Thou shalt conceive. 24 Jesus. 21. overshadow. works. The word is a general term. i. and Smpea eV x^P'''''h * 9¥^ *^ grace. Sometimes a phrase. as distinguished from the contents as a whole. IV. The nature of the relationship. 35. and so The word does not occur contrasted with debt. her as he appeared in heaven. as distinguished from X6709. cosyness. which is condemned by the grammarians as unclassical. The best texts substitute for it a feminine form. The higher Christian signification. however. etc. meaning of the same family. trtr/yevk. 36. 34 1 Kings viii. law. 'Pijfia. that the divine fire should Compare not consume Mary. besought him to appear to Semele. The metaphor in is taken from a cloud. light in battle. a single word. . unknown. 15. Thus it may be either a word or a saying.e. derer. I. as opposed to 6vofia. Cousin is {a-vyyev^'s). Shall See on Matt.

from God. The A. {ave^mvrjcre ^covy fie: voice. tw 0ec3. 32. render thing. The two do not belong together. not every. lifted up her voice with a loud cry . 51. and Rev. as appears both from the connection with the angelic message and from^ the following words. 32. V. and at this sight the promise she had Mary herself received acquired a startling reality. the sense is evidently saying. cry inarticulate. though A.." 41. gives sayings in margin. ^o)j/jj She spake out with a loud voice For <f)a}vr}. In Luke ii. Eev. I. irapa. and the movement of the child. The statement is. But there this are only two other at all ad- New Testament where meaning is though the word occurs seventy times. 261 tinction in the New Testament is not sharp throughout. read Kpavyjj. though may also be used of inarticulate utterance. rendering of this passage is. V. of Mary. as in this passage.. with God. but all the later texts read 'irapa tov ©eov. itself has rendered it in the almost identical passage. thus rendering in the verb the force of ava. The Eev. like the Hebrew gahar. Eev. 15. 40. which fixes the meaning beyond question. . errs in joining ovk and irav. besides picturing the fact more naturElizabeth's sudden and violent emotion at the appearance ally. See on 1 Pet. *' serves to put the reader in Entered into the house. though a little stilted No word of God shall he void of power . 15 Acts v. ver. prompted an exclama- She . It is maintained that pfum in the New Testament. which has come to pass : the saying which has become a fact. . rightly. ii. also follows the reading. " Kept all these things " (Luke ii. and translating nothing. These are Luke ii. V. 19). "This detail." says Godet. passages in the missible. should clearly be sayings. stands sometimes for the subject-matter of the word the thing. for the A. joXtj). up. Ch. In Acts v. 42. Elizabeth she recognized the truth of the sign that had been given her by the angel. 2. Eoery {ttuv) word of God shall not {ovk) he powerless. V. sympathy with the emotion of With her first glance at at the moment of her arrival. The babe {to ^pe^o<. therefore. right.] LUKE. as the A.).

14. xxxii. xxv. receiving impressions from without and from within. I which was followed by words The verb It ava- ^mveo) occurs only here in the New Testament. 32. 1. 42. {e7re^e\jrev). . the angel's announcement to Mary included more than the fact of concepand Elizabeth. " Elizabeth's Said {eiTrev). spirit {-^uxv See onMarkxii. in the spirit of prophecy. Regarded i. Note the two " 27ie God who is the or my Saviour. 33. Ps. 11 . however. xcv. 5 . gint. referring to the " She believed that there shall be a substance of her belief It is urged that the conception.262 tion WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. See on ver. Lit. but Mary's hymn breathes a sentiment of deep inward repose " (Godet). 3. On the other hand. Sept. 132. salutation was full of excitement. Compare the song Hannah's song differs from Mary's in of Hannah (1 Sam. Simply. ii. had already taken place. My soul is soul^ "Jrvev/Ma).. its sense of indignation and personal triumph compared with Mary's humility and calmness. [Ch.). Many. Spirit is the highest. Deut." etc. ii. See Septua47. 30. Compare ver. noblest part of our humanity. so that the fulfilment was no longer future." The title Saviour is often applied to God in the Old Testament. xxiv. 48. as well as with the spiritual element. them by word man. the seat of personal in)- — — having a side in contact with the material element of humanity. : . prefer that. and transmitting pressions. See on Jas. (oTt). The the principle of individuality. 44. articles. ical term for a certain exercise of the voice. to what 46. 7 cxix. Ps. the principal point of faith. Compare 1 Sam. It is thus the mediating organ between the spirit and the body. or sign. xxxi. {elirev. 5 . . is predicted in w. 15 . may have alluded tion 45. said). which was fulfilment. was a med- For joy For (eV dyaWida-ei). in joy. the point of contact between God and God my Saviour {rwOea rai a-mrfjpi fiov). deepest.

Servant {-jtmBo'}). 263 the misery with 50. has took up. Com- pare Ps. and suggests the old phrase Wye. iv. which issues in gracious ministry. Acts x. peculiarly the sense human wretchedness coupled with the impulse to relieve it. especially moral understanding. faculty of thought. vi.. yevea. here. on : thence to grasp helpfully or sense oi partaking (1 Tim. made strength. see Matt.'''' From generation Lit. to take up for.'.). cxviii. 46 Mark vi. 22. in the sense of godly reverence. 15. Hath holpen {avreXa^ero). . 2. For the former. Often child. A Hebrew form of Lit. 32 Luke xii. Mercy (eXeo?). 13.: " valiantly " {eirolrjae Svva/xiv.). 30) deals . "Grace takes away \kiQ fault. unto generations and generations. 8. made might. x. Some prefer to render " by the imagination. For the latter. The word is used in both a good and a bad sense in the New Testament. expression. but here ser- vant. mercy the misery. Wye. Compare 2 Cor.. . The word emphasizes ver. 5. .. 4. espouse the cause of. 27> 30.. xiv. 51. Acts iii. 4. Bengel remarks. xli. Sept. xxi. as to generation (et? yevea? koI Kev. un- derstanding. to its composition : meaning of the word according to re- ceive instead of.Ch. or in return {avrl). which of grcLce (see on hence. as Col. . refers the word here God own : with mind of his heart. 20 xi. The of the Lord doeth the imagination to (hiavoia). in allusion to Isa. In The right hand made strength). So Shewed strength (i-n-oirja-ev KpaTa)." thus making the proud the instru- ment of 54. their destruction. 26. carries us back to the primitive The verb means to lay hold To lay hold in the to help. iii. Wye. 7 xv. 2). 35 22 Apoc. Fear {<f>o0ovfMevoi. . L] LUKE. . but prob- ably not in this sense. See Eev. . theocratic notion of sonship is Meyer truthfully says that the never expressed by ttuk. son or daughter.

: 264 58. 62. a style for writing. xii. they were consulting Zacharias by signs. Writing-table (^ivaKlZiov). Only here in the New Testament. They called (IkoKovv). the New Testament. Occurring nineteen times in Thirteen of the seventeen are in connection with miracles of healing. Table was formerly used in the sense of tablet. eX. about to call : as Rev. 59. exxxii.. 65.. The imperfect tense signifies. 17. i. 6. Were mutually {Bid) talked 69. A Hebrew form of expression." Samlet. Lit..e.eo9 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Were noised abroad of. from the toMe of my memory. has aj}oyntel.. Tynd. . Imperfect tense.. (StaXeXetTo). 63. Compare Ps. probably covered with wax. Used in a similar way by medical writers. While the colloquy between Elizabeth and her friends was going on. Thus Shakspeare " Yea. Used by medical writers of a physician's note-book. A magnified his mercy with her. I. The meaning is a little writing-tablet. as for callvng. Horn. They made signs {kvkveuov). 5. Hebrew expression. See 1 Sam. See 2 immediately (•Trapop^/io). Sept. 24. theywould have called: they were Bishop Lightfoot has happily suggested. writing-tables. [Ch. or the iniiiction of disease or death.eyaXvvev to So "Wye. i. saying. I'll wipe away all trivial fond records. they were or. Had shewed great mercy upon her avTov fier avrfi'i). Wrote. Wye. 64. and seventeen of these in Luke. Kings X. {i/j.

not constituted hy the laws or customs of men. But live forever. hut antedating them / such as the payCompare the fine passage ing of the proper rites of sepulture. entrails of mercy. hire.: Ch. 75. 77. That thou. Jnj a/n- The hoh/. oo-toTTj^iis It is pare Eph. See on 1 Pet. literally. has the science of 78. Wye. eXeou?). The Ameri- 74 Serve XaTpov. of the service of God. shouldst overpass The unwritten laws of God that know not change. nor can man assign When first they sprang to being.. A needlessly verbose rendering. "Wye. mercy. insists on of old. Plato uses it Originally to serve y<?r hire. The day-spring from on high (amroX^ the rising. Hence God. frightfully. Lit. Lit. 11. I. is not restricted to righlmess towa/rd men. 'Oaia is used in Greek to denote the everlasting princvples of right. can Eev. lowels of Eev. in the "Antigone" of Sophocles (453-55) " Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough. e'f v\^ou?). 265 {wir aiwi/os). That have been since the world began retained . In no case is it used of moral excellence as related to men. iii. 70. (oo-toVijrt koI Siicaioa-vvy). They are not of to-day nor yesterday. (Xarpeveiv). is properly what is confirmed classical cient sanction and precept. 8 mercy in margin. holiness of the truth. health. 24: . though it is to be carefully noted that SiKaioavvrj. iv. v.by Eev. Tender mercy {a-'irXdyxva . Knowledge of salvation. true holvness . from Holiness and righteousness adjective oo-tos. The word occurs in the Septuagint as a rendering . Comrighteousness. a mortal man.] LUKE. Throughout the New Testament its look is godward. gives heart of Jas." concerned primarily with the eternal laws of " the dimne consecration and inner truth of righteousness" (Meyer)..

The phrase was originally \ised by the Greeks to denote the land inhabited by themselves. the entire when the Greeks became subject to the Romans. From evSv'. So Kev. II. shall visit. Some. Compare the a hemenly hody (Isa. See on Matt. The word was used nomination . 12). this is conceived in the mould of the Roman empire. straight. . as something rising or springing wp. read i-TruTKeyfreTab. . Ix. Sept. mandment. 5 Zech. Wye. a The world {rrjv oiKovfiev7)v). 1 Pet. though. Lit. afterward. 1 . has he See on Matt. Roman world .266 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. a decree. The article indicating a Shewing (avaSeifeo)?). "Wye. draw Hence the military term dress for arranging a line. who personal ojdnion / and. 27. springing upfront on high. [Ch. 19. 2. however. Hence. to arrange. 80. Christ uses it in the announcement that the Gospel shall be world. in contrast with barbarian countries. has dress. of hranch.). in some cases. to set in a straight line. the inhabited (land). This Wye. vi. latter is the sense here. xxv. The deserts (rat? well-known place. which is formed through the old French dresser. iv.. Acts xi. From Boxeio. Mai. rising . 79. Hath visited 12. of the public announcement of an official hence of the public inauguration of John's ministry. Ix. CHAPTER 1. To guide (Karevl^vai). ii. 2. 36 . ujp. xxiii. 28 xix. II. {itrecrKeyJraTo). from the Latin dirigere. eprjixoK). strictly. to thimJc. ii.. still later. of kindred verb arise {dvaTeXKco) in Isa. Decree {86yfia). as in this passage. for the whole inhabited In the New Testament this latter is the more common usage. by which the Also of the Messiah is denoted (Jer. as the opinion of one can impose his opinion authoritatively on others.

this was the first enrolment made . 37. letrothed. 14) . to enrol himself with Ma/ry. house may read either. Once it is used of the world to come (Heb. tion The prepara- and bustle and travel were in progress. i. were going. 24. with reference to a second enrolment which took place about eleven years irpcoTT] iyevsTo).. 24. on Matt. and Rev. 2. Great with child {eyKvtp). register or enter in a list. which may be taken in And this taxing was first made {avrrj rj aTroypa^ Hather. ii. According to the Jewish mode of would be enrolled by tribes. later. 31). andfamihj. Rev. enrolled. The town of their birth belonged. alike miss the graphic force of the imperfect tense.. The word means properly Commentators are divided as to to refers to taining the population.. registration the people clans.. i. House and lineage. 3. v. 5). with Ma/ry. IL] LUKE. this occurred as the first enrolment / or. 267 preached in all the world (Matt. either sense. Be taxed whether it {a7roypd<j>ecrBai). Y. . as Rev. See Matt. 20. also Not merely i. and Paul in the prediction of a general judgment (Acts xvii. vii. 25 . See on Ch. to which the village or place and where the house and lineage of each were registered. and is referred to in Acts (iTTopevovTo). 18. his To own city. an enrolment for taxation. Compare Josh. To be taxed with Mary. 16-18. or for ascerRev. families or and households. denoting merely the fact of her accompanying him or. We Espoused. implying that both their names must be registered. went wp 5. Ch. Only here in Wew Testament. xxiv. 4. Went The A.

. [Ch. {iv too KaraXt/fiaTi). the Ji/rstrborn. " Life and Words of as some have maintained. is here and ver. Dr.. . ch. lies the gay and picturesque litter of the East. . an inner court. Wye. 268 7. Camels wait to be unloaded dogs quarrel for a bone Bedaween from the desert. Tynd. . but outside the wall. 11. her son. which can hardly be the meaning here. Half- . a range of arches or lewans. . there is often a huddle of sheds. a tower from which the watcher might descry the approach of marauding bands. a place where a man and his beast may lodge where a trader may sell his wares. 121. On one side of the square. In the arcliwaj's slake his thirst. (See Geikie.) found no KaraXvfjia. The word refers to the ordiSyrian Jchan nary Mian. were kept" ("Land and Book"). . as stables for the asses and camels. . they Christ. In the inn Mark xiv. Where built by a great sheikh. their red zannars choked with pistols. consisting of one or Thomson says more rooms. " I have seen many such. Used by Luke spelt also only. the buffaloes and In the centre of the khan springs a fountain of water. manger creche. cratch. 12. in front of and including a cavern where the cattle French a manger. set apart from the main edifice. Only here. it would have a high wall. In that case the expression would be. xxiii. " and a mart a refuge from thieves a shelter from is a fort the heat and dust. goats. Compare Quite possibly a rock-cave. an open gallery round the four sides. here and 15. in many cases. are at prayer. WOBD STUDIES Her first-born son. has a : cracche. IL The Greek reads literally. swathel. In both these passages it is rendered guest-cJianiber. 14.. . and.. . Naturally found often in medical writings. on which see note. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Wrapped Swaddle In a xiii. . squat the merchants with their bales of goods. hostrey. in {iv ^d-rvrj). or caravanserai. the first necessity of an Arab's life and around the jets and troughs in which the limpid element streams." i. and a pilgrim may A . from the verb to swathe. guest-chamber. Only swaddling-clothes {ia-irapydvaxrev).

So possibly here. since it is common to speak of the fiock Compare John x. because of their necessary isolation from religious ordinances. Luke xii. . . 269 naked men are cleansing their bands ere sitting down to eat. ^vKaicri is sometimes used of a watch as a measure of time. II. on the road to Jerusalem. specially devoted to sacrifice. a tower known as Migdal Eder. night-watches. Here a barber is at work upon a shaven crown there a fellah lies asleep in the shade. Keeping watch (<^vKdaaovTe<i <^vKaKa<.). Their flock {ttjv iroiiivqv). 4. 25 . which rendered 8. Omitted by the best texts. Animals straying from Jerusalem on any side. See Eev. " The Holy Land "). xiv. the templeThe pronoun their would flock. and equally that he was to be revealed from Migof the flock. It was a settled conviction among the Jews that the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem. . 48 . .. 38.] : LUKE. as in Matt. dal Eder. There was near Bethlehem. as belonging to the shepherd. were offered in sacrifice. fall in 9. as far as from Jerusalem to Migdal Eder. and their manner of life. furnish no objection. . May not the singular number with what has just been said ? the flock. watching watches. or station the watch-tower where sliepherds watched the flocks destined for sacrifice in the temple. lowly. There is a play upon the words in margin. . . Shepherds. as a class. . were under the Rabbinic ban. Luke's Gospel is the gospel of the poor and This revelation to the shepherds acquires additional meaning as we remember that shepherds. 3. strict legal observance wellnigh impossible.— Ch. Mark vi. Behold. The beautiful significance of the revelation of the infant Christ to shepherds watching the flocks destined for sacrifice Here was the needs no comment. . and to boil his mess of herbs " (Hepworth Dixon. Each man has to carry his dinner and his bed to litter his horse or camel to dress his food to draw his water to light his fire.

" Here the army announces peace " (Bengel). The word is used in this sense in Greek. 7. i. It adds to the vividness of the narrakeep to the strict rendering of the aorist. Sign See on Matt. correctly Kev.. "the people. feared vnth great fea/r. They were sore 10. Wye. etc. Is tive to born {irix^). article. . was horn. heawenly knighthood. The babe " a babe. is strictly literal J evangeUse to : you a great joy." (/Spe^o?). The Greek {eirearTri). Eev. 11. 3. i... See on Matt. vfilv I afraid. where the verb is rendered Came upon classical assaulted j so that the Eev. is A literally multitude of the heavenly host." the article pointing specially to the people of Israel. See on Matt. 12. A Saviour. Rev. rightly. 38 of this chapter. has no article. lAt. flavor. Wye. as properly in Acts xvii. Christ. properly. as [Ch. prefers here.1370 WORD STUDIES More EST THE NEW TESTAMENT. Bbst {aTpariai) army. 2. (t&) Xaw). Which People (^Tw). rendering here is preferable.. II. The rendering to come upon has a hostile I'enders coming up. which Eev. Eev. 1. ii. xapai/ bring you good tidings of great joy {evayyeXi^ofiat /jLeyaXtjv). See on Matt. Lord. hea/venly soldiers. The angel. as in Acts xii. xi. No 13. In ver. (crijfieiov). 21. See on 1 Pet. 5. Tynd. cm cmgel. xxi. 20. as well as in that of to stand hy. Of a class or character which.

follows. unto men of good pleasure. hea/rvng together in her heart. and so proclaim the Messiah in the temple." xxi. The shepherds. pare Sophocles. on 1 4. ix. These shepherds. i. o-w. with or withi/n herself: closely. : Note the imperfect tense was keeping all the while. For a similar construction... Let us go (SteX. Wye. Sid. " Oedipus Ooloneus. Pondered ing. through. Com- . The utterance of the shep- herds contains a climax to pass . and would meet those who came to worship and to sacrifice. : expressive kept.. Pet. Mary and Joseph and the babe. Lit. 271 Peace. According to this the rendering is. ch.'i Both Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort read evSaKla<. as Kept (awer'qpei). see Acts 15 Col. good-will toward men {elp^vrj iv av^poifroi. See on the simple verb rijpeco. would presently be in the temple. " Let us go and see this saying. oonferena. 15. having charge of flocks devoted to sacrifice.So)yi46j/). but to Tceep. ^ome texts &M oi av^pwrroi. evBoKia). i. Found (avevpav). the men but the later texts omit.. 19. to men of . See on : ch. Vulg. good-will. The preposition through the intervening space. which the Kev. The word signifies not merely to guard.a). Hence the compound verb is very the result of guarding. n. Wye. he is well pleased. {pfjfj. {a-vfi^dWova-a). Each has the to. : hrvngi/ng togeth&r The present participle. 17. Only here and Acts 'Avd in- dicates the discovery of the facts in succession. implies Thing has come 16." 1472-4. 37. pondercomparing and weighing facts. pointing to the several parties already referred See on ver.] LUKE. They made known. or as Eev. among men in whom 14. 4. 8.. i. which the which Lord made known. 13. article.

five gether.. to the Lord. . Times of Jesus. the plural including Joseph with Mary as partaking of the ceremonial defilement. and there is no avoiding it. H. and for eighty days after the birth of a daughter. 16 Exod. xiii. V. Young pigeons lit. The cost offering of the poor. 16." i. oftener than in The word law all occurs in this chap- ter. A pair of turtle-doves. see Edersheim. Women on that the . The mother of a child was levitically unclean for forty days after the birth 22. " Life and sepulchre on the road.: : 2Y2 WORD STUDIES My IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. but would drop the price into one of the thirteen trumpet-shaped chests in the Court of the Women. this errand commonly rode to the temple on oxen . To present him 23.$aKiiv) (fact) having compared thine opinion hast thou this ? " of her purification {al -^fjiipat.. . fulfilment of the law 24. shekels of the sanctuary Num. and with what (a-uiJ. So Spenser "More light than culver in the falcon's fist. and accordingly elaborates the details of the by the parents of both John and Jesus. xviii. the heaven-ordained come upon him who stands here. young ones of jaigeons {voa-aoii'i irepia-Tep&v). their. Wye. The law times . " Life and Words of Christ. . 2. Luke the rest of this Gospel put toemphasizes the fact that Jesus " was made under the law " (Gal. her : but all the avTrj<. follows the reading auTTj?. The first-born son of every redeemed of the priest at the price of five household must be about two dollars and fifty cents. the doves would cost about sixteen cents. body of so large a beast between them and the ground might prevent any chance of defilement from passing over a For details." p. of the Lord. iv. has culver-Mrds / culver being an old English term for dove. end of life has [Ch. tov KaSapia-fiov The A. She would not bring the creatures themselves. or two young pigeons. children. How dost thou know.). 195 " The Temple. The days of a son." i.. best texts read avrmv. 127. 302 Geikie." . "Antigone. While the lamb would probably about one dollar and seventy-five cents. 4). " Oedipus.

12. custom. and Isa. 27. homing heen revealed j i.. Ch. occurs twice Heb. "in the irvevixaTu). 18 . while he waited for the fulfilment of the revelation. mitting or setting free on payment of ransom and as Simeon uses the word for hond-servant.. Lit. See Isa. v. 5. it is evident that his death is 29. Devout (euXo/Sij?). . xi. Lettest thou thy servant depart (a7ro\i5et? tot SoOXov The word is often used of manuaov). Lit. Yery common in medical writings. it was 26. well. e. thou dost release. as Kev. 28. to give a response to one consulting it. xii. n.. 1. prompting him.. Compare Aq^cs o/'/sraeZ. it emphasizes the element of : ci/rcumspection.] LUKE. From eS.9o9. that After the custom {koto. It was revealed {rjv Ke-xprifiaTiaiJievov). and is thus peculiarly expressive of Old Testament piety. Acts xxviii. evKa^eia. Hence of a circumspect or cautious person who takes hold of things carefully. 10. See on Matt. Consolation of Israel. As applied to morals and religion. than a Spirit (eV tw Holy Spirit special divine impulse. Rest. Y . Used by Luke only. as one who walked with God. Indicating rather condition. occur more frequently in Luke than elsewhere. The verb means primarily to have dealings with / thence to consult or debate about business matters and so of an oracle.e. to elSia-fiivov). Compare Acts ii. The kindred word. .. By the Spirit:" the his spiritual Lit. 273 25. ii. So may I see the consolation Lit. godly-fear. The Messianic blessing of the nation. to he accustomed. a cautious.. The word here implies that the revelation to Simeon had been given in answer to prayer. Of 20. according to which was wont to he done. it stood revealed. with its minute attention to precept and ceremony. A common form of adjuration among the Jews was.. xl. careful observance of divine law. and Xa/i^dveo. the Messiah himself. and e5-a>. Only here in New Testament and the kindred words. to take hold of.

6. v. Gentiles habits (iBva>v). It may be rendered the un- veiling of the Gentiles. . Godet's him under the O In Lord (Seo-TTOToi). xi. Eev. 1. and refers equally to the Gentiles. 54. treated as a remarkable fact. and hence of a people bound together by like or customs. ii. lighten (ek aTroKoKw^iv). properly puts end of the sentence.. 18 xviii. 18 iii. Y. and so Rev. a lamp. correctly. See on Mark xiv. Acts x. often unfortunately renders \v'Xyo<. Wye. . 19. . . to he accustomed. Sometimes the word is used in a purely moral sense. figure of enfranchisement from " release of a sentinel from duty " is fanciful. See Acts xv. 23 Eom.274 WORD STUDIES m THE NEW TESTAMENT. were formerly without God and salvation. . this in its emphatic position 31. Hence the extension of the gospel salvation to . Paul is called distinctively an apostle and teacher of the Gentiles. . the people {irdvrmv rmv Xawv). and who therefore occupy a different position with reference to the plan of salvation. . and a chosen vessel to bear Christ's name among them. ii. The light itself as distinguished from light ((/)e3?). 4 Eph. Eev. Of all tion. light. 1. all peoples. 11. which the A. According to biblical usage the term is understood of people who are not of Israel. xii. xvi. iii. In Acts xv.. [Ch. to denote the heathen in opposition to Christians. See Matt. Assigned to the same root as eS-w. 21 xxiv. 32. See Introducpeoples. 20 1 Pet. See on 2 Pet. 14 xxviii. 1 x. them is . ii. 12. 18. .ybr Wye. 9 Eph. Wrong. at the peace. 45. and the expression at last is merely historical designation of the non-Israelitish nations which. A To r&velation. as such. The noun is plural. 6. we see this difference annihilated. to the shewing. IL conceived by service. on the universality of Luke's Gospel. Zight is promised here to the Gentiles and glory to Israd. See 1 Cor.

vi. And Joseph. ix. this combination of finite verb and participle denotes continuance or progression they were ma/rvelling while Simeon was speaking.. because many will be raised up through him to life and glory (Rom. the finite verb in the singular agreeing with the father. As usual. and so. xxv. has already received light by the revelation of the law and the prophets. {^v Sav/jLa^ovTesi). : so to lie fall. instead of for revelation. The and rising again . above. V. 14 Matt. Sis father was and The Greek construction is Them. The Rev. Marvelled peculiar. the child being separately and specially designated. render the words Israel. Forthe he will be a stumbling-block to many (Isa. best texts read 6 iraTijp airov. appointed or destined. The parents. So Rev. however. For the 7'isvng. The A.] LUKE. but describes an inherent charaoteristric of the sign . 7. viii. Which ticiple is shall the present be spoken against (avrtXe'/o/ttej/oi'). i. mamy. while the plural participle agrees with both. Through the Messiah. mother wondering . . The father. Is set (/cetrat). 42. : prophecy. The verb means primarily to he laid. Ch. predicates the falling and the rising of the same persons the fall and fall . his 34. The parand the expression does not voice a . the falling and rising up of The American Revisers give it correctly the falling a/nd the rising. as the law is said to be laid down. and that light will expand into glory through Christ. 4. because {tttuxtiv koI avda-Toa-iv).: : . 33 1 Cor. 44 Acts iv. : rising agai/n of many. Some et? airoKoKv^iv. 11 Rom. for the imveiUng of the Gentiles. 275 The Gentiles are regarded as in darkness and ignorance. and hence to be set forth or promulgated. xxi. his 33. ii. 9 Eph. Compare Isa. 6). God through Israel will attain its true and highest glory. . II. is ambiguous. 23). as here.

Ixxix. A sword. The make a mutual agreement . verb originally means received. See on ch. but the best texts read etu?. have put all enemies under his feet. le gainsaid. Used in Septuagint xvii. 37.276 WORD STUDIES IN THE it is NEW TESTAMENT. Coming up {i-jnaraffa). 20. for in the temple. It was to the pious a public utterance. instead of &>?. which the words. In the beginning. those would be inappropriate. waiting for the Messiah.. TroXXat?). might be supposed to be stating her age. Served (\aT/j6vouo-a). a widow even for (or up to) fourscore and four yea/rs. Lit. The present participle. iv ^/Mepai. [Ch. Y.. 3. and the statement refers to the time of her widowhood . ones who were with her . worshipping. 36. a large nailed to the cross. A Thracian broadof the sword of Goliath (1 Sam. as a babe. Spake. and their fitness to be wedded to high-priests or kings. U the character to experience contradiction from the world. 51). tliat waited. xii. Asher.<.. so all through his earthly the end. sword {pon^aia). Of great age {irpo^e^ijKvla vanced in many days. 9. about. i. 38. 74. until. Sept. until he shall and on the cross and so it will be to a sign of which . ii. See on ver. Kev. "Wye. ad- Of about fourscore and four years (to? erwv oySaqKovra rea-a-apmv). Ps.. serymg'. Only here and Apoe. 13. A prophetess (Tr/ao^^rt?). The A. Compare Heb. So Rev. figure of Mary's pang when her son should be Strictly. idea of reciprocity is retained in the expression " to return thanks" for something to Gave thanks {av^a>fio\oyeiTo). That tribe was celebrated in tradition for the beauty of its women. a tolcen to whom it sfiall 35. and the Compare Not etc. Jesus experienced ministry this at the hands of Herod .

Went a day's journey. All the best texts omit iv. of the virgin-mother) the youth. 277 In m. Nazareth. 39. that shared the journey. 8). as above. seven days of the festival. 41. xi. Thus implying him up and down. iv. a tlwrough search they Seeking him {dva^TjrovvTes!). Before they missed him. coming firm and strong (Isa. From dva. the suckling begin(Isa. 6) the suckling its (Isa. literally. See on Matt. and see Isa. All the way as they went. 23. 7) . vii. 44. Had fulfilled the days. : looked for 45. so-called half holidays. the child clinging to mother the child be. with. son of the law. or warrior (Isa. Twelve years old. xl. Not necessarily the whole With the third day commenced the when it was lawful to return home. and came under obligation to observe the ordinances personally. The company The company {crwoSia). 40. xxviii. . as Kev. to ask for food (Lam. 8) . xxxi. 4) the weaned child (Jer. xl. Compare ch. ver. i. From crvv. The Jews marked the : development by nine different terms . 14. etc. ii. . They sought and ^rjTeoa. . the redemption of Jerusalem. themselves in person. 25. (Isa. from the tottom uj>. Though women were not bound to present At which age he was known as a 42.. to seek. he that shakes himself free the ripened one. 68. the way. n. Render. (dve^'^Tow). Nearly equivalent to the consolation of Israel. ix.] LUKE. and 6S69. 43. 2. stages of a the new-born babe ning 9) . Force of dva. Jerusalem {ev'Iepova-aXijfi). H is parents. child's The child grew.Ch.

In such popular instruction the utmost latitude of questioning would be given. Son {TeKvov). Sitting. and hence In dmrmg. i. " Life and Times. to come out upon the terrace of the temple. to strike out or drive away from. Understanding {aweaei). Lit. Amaze is to throw into a maze or labis yrinth . gether. circle (Edersheim. 47. standing not only of facts. Eders247). II. child. They were amazed {i^errXdyrja-av). a teacher's place. From the temple. See above. surrounding and mingling with the doctors. . not after. and a faithful rendering. i. but of facts in their mutual relations. mer). Joseph had been so called by the holy child himself but from this time never " (Alf ord).. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. literally. 33 where there is meant " the love of a well- pondered and duly considered resolution which determines the whole person the love which clearly understands itself" (Cre. the feast. [Ch. Thy father. Com- pare Acts xxii. the time of separation. were wont. upon Sabbaths and feast-days. very strong word the verb meaning.' and so to drive out of one's senses." etc. and so is closely akin to the Greek word here.. 278 46. 48. See on Mark xii. WORD STUDIES After three days. See on Matt. From avvlrj/ii. which sat upon the ground. but sitting in the among the doctors and their hearers. the parents set out for " seek the child Jesus From this. to hrvng toHence that quality of mind which corribines: under.. home before the close Not occupying 3. "Up to this time . on ordinary days. who. "We read in the Talmud that the members of the Temple-Sanhedrin. that we must heim argues that of the feast. Hence in the general sense A of great amazement. It is in this audience. and there to teach. 1. sat as a court of appeal from the close of the morning to the time of the evening sacrifice.

II. Kept through (SteTjj|06t). Lit. 34. 33 . And he said. 52. 14 iv. rightly retains. in effect. it is necessary. . The preposi- tion Bid. Compare Gen. . ix. 51. " Even behad been subject to them but this is mentioned now. or it iehoves.. indicates close. a child to where he be The saying {to frnfia). The words will bear this rendering. 22. persistent keeping. : 27& seehing • Have sought {i^riTovfiev). Must (Set). See on ch. 43. 21 xiii. xxxvii. but had been. Not even to the angels fell such an honor as to the finite verb. " Where is found but in his Father's house ? " 50. Lit. Imperfect tense were Mary is going over in mind the process of the search. Mark John 26. Which Eev. 11. 31. See Luke iv. all the circumstances which might have weakened the impression of the events. 49. Jesus. which would be superfluous here. The first saying of Jesus which is pre- served to us. xii. The participle and denoting habitual. i. Compare Heb. he when it might seem that he could by this time have exempted himself.). fore. parents of Jesus " (Bengel). the things About my Father's business (eVrpt? tov Trar/ao?). 7. 54.. faithful./ LUKE. 37. .Ch. Mai'y's question as to was not as to what her son had been doing. i. xxiv. 46 . 4 . 4-8. iii. xvi. xxvi. is but the Eev. viii. continuous subjection. m of my Father. Stature {ffKiKici). and expressing both the inevitable fulfihnent of the divine counsels and the absolute constraint of the principle of duty Matt. 29. upon himself. Only here and Acts xv. through. . Was subject {rjv {nroraacrofievot. A word often used by Jesus concerning his own appointed work. answers. The word may be rendered age. better. in my Father's house.

xiv.. 4. which do not appear in the others.280 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Pontius Pilate. Which both Matthew and iii. Luke iv. 15. 1-8. the Baptist . John. Used in medical language of the relaxation of disease. In this prophetic citation Mark adds to Isaiah Malachi iii. 1. in the same sense. arose. Mark See on Matt. Pilot of Pounce.. Lit. [Ch. III. 1-12 . penaunce. 3. Matthew. iii. Compare Matt. Wye. which does not appear in either Matthew or Luke. denoting the destination of rite.. v. Better as Eev. Paths tracks. 2. 5 of Isa. The country about Jordan. Came {Ir^kvero). Hence beaten . CHAPTER 1-18. or camie to pass. See on Jas. The Synoptists introduce him under different titles. unto. 1. in . IU. call the wilderness. Luke adds vv. Isaiah. 52. (t/sj'/Sow?). From rpL^a. The word occurs Luke more frequently than in all the other New Testament writers combined. See on Matt. the son of Zacharias . Both Luke and John use the kindred verb ouftirj/a.. xl. 39 John iv. Here. 'Wja. 4. 1. Baptism of repentance. the Ba/ptizer. Mark i. Remission {ajteaiv). Mark. to rub or wear. 1. For the {eh). Tetrarch.

" Land and Book 7. Notice the succession of images Brood of vipers . .. or he used to say to those who were coming crowds of people which kept pouring out successively. of the tree . He said {eXeyev) to the multitudes that (eKTropevo/xevoi. to all the inhabitants to assemble along the visit certain places in sent forth a general proposed route and prepare the way before him. the imperfect. 5. III. The use of the tenses is graphic. came forth Me said. and rough ones made level and smooth. somewhat in the style of Isaiah's exhortation. off- been observed that John's figurative language is altogether the language of the desert. Lit. the crooked places straightened. the present participle both de- noting action in progress. the threshmg-floor.. the root f . in many places. It has {yevvrjiJLaTa). Compare i^eTropevero. also imperfect. Valley {^dpay^). Mrths. he Tcept out. bettei". I had the benefit of these labors a few days after his majesty's visit. The stones were gathered out. heralds were sent out to call on the people to clear and improve. The exhortation 'to gather out the stones' (Isa. On posed to Lebanon. offire / the winnowing am. These farmers do the exact reverse gather up the stones from their fields and cast them into the highway. and it is this barbarous custom which.] LUKE. 10) is peculiarly appropriate.— " Ch. so that the sense saying. the garner. of a 281 6. Strictly. to the Generation spring. and came forth. and the Tmrning of the chaff. the emirs and sheiks proclamation. when the Sultan visited Brusa. went out. Luke gives the substance of the Baptist's preaching summarily. chasm or ravine in a mountain-side. (Thomson. . In allusion to the practice occasions of their progress.. Rev. the slame-hoy loosing or hearing the sandals / the baptism. The same was done in 1845. the old roads or to make new ones. Shall be filled— brought low. fruits (of repentance) the axe at : . or customary action is.^). "When Ibrahim Pacha proof Eastern monarehs. Matt. Ixii. iii. on a grand scale. renders the paths uncomfortable and even dangerous ").

and under these again the portAtores. iii. The Romans farmed out the direct taxes and customs-duties to capitalists. 11. and with for Jews to John's was on their descent that the answer of these rebuke turned " Ovs father is Abraham. ix. Asked (iTrrjpcoTwv). See on Matt. 2. 9. SbIkw/jli. literally. These stones. on their payment of a certain sum in publicum. was paid by Under these were the submagistri. Imperfect tense. indicating a delusive fancy. ance which you profess in margin. . Begin. Fruits (Kapirov'i). See on Matt. The word it stands first is in the sentence. Repentance (ttj? /ierawia?). to shew secretly. v.jTuit. HL Warned {viriBei^ev). Matthew has the singular number. provinces . to shew. Rev.282 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. xii. whence they were called puilicani.). Sometimes this sum. a tax. buy. or actual cus- . Publicans (reXwi/at). indicating the 10. . The word implies a private Compare ch. XX. in : See on Matt.. Father. publicans. living in the a company." Note the article the repentcoming to my baptism." See on Matt. iii. being greater than any one person could pay. The collectors of From reKo'. fre- Coats {'x^iTcova'. iii. to Roman imposts. KapTrov. 10. " your repentance. 9. 16 8. into thejpuiUc treasury. 11. to our father. quent repetition of these questions. Hence. With the first accusing of your conscience. "We have Abraham reason ." and : therefore emphatic. Matthew has thin/c not. 5 Acts or confidential hint or reminder. and wveo/iai. under. and [Ch. "He anticipates even attempt at excuse" (Bengel). 40. 35.. From viro.

283 tom-house officers. Hence Eev." as a popular term of reproach.' said he. instead of the more comprehensive term arparimTai. a hard thing for a ' man who mind his own For. 17). Strictly. soldiers iy profession. ' they bring . any case. hence to agitate or terrify / and so to Lit. what must we do f Only here in New Testament.: Ch. right topay taxes. wlio are referred to by the term reXoovai in the New Testament. Latin word concutere is used by later writers in the same sense." 13. " All publicans are robbers. and we. The wein the Greek is emphatic. : from Crito that desired to life at Athens was business. and hence naturally associated with the publicans. unfortunate. The word " publican. expressed by the following words to extort in John would hardly have commanded them 14. to extort is used of the exaction of legal tribute. how much more heinous a crime must it have been in his eyes to become the questionably honest instru- ment for collectvng them. What shall we do? closing the question. ni. If a publican was hated. Even the Gentiles despised them. Exact (TTjoao-ffeTe). and were so notorious for their extortions that they were habitually included in the same category with harlots and " If a Jew could scarcely persuade himself that it was sinners. how still more intense must have been the disgust entertained against a publican who was also a Jew " (Farrar..] LUKE. Soldiers (a-rparevo/jLevot). Some explain it of soldiers engaged in police inspection in connection with the customs. serving as soldders. " Life of Christ "). to shake violently / The corresponding extort money from one by terrifying him. soldiers on service: hence the participle. Xenophon says of Socrates " I know of his once having heard Do violence {Suureia-ijTe). very aptly. The word exaction is is and excessi/oe The change of the Eev. They were often chosen from the dregs of the people. Farrar cites a Greek saying.. xviii. was used even by our Lord (Matt.

Kettig. to stir up. contrary to the law. of shaking the palsied or of a shaking by which the or benumbed limbs of a patient liver was relieved of an obstruction. Acts xii. : . Luke also uses two other compounds of the verb aeioj KaraaeCa. scholars. or who plundered sacred fig-trees. by Hippocrates. a fig. The fig-tree was the pride of Attica. . The word in this passage .: 284 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. is The common ex- based on the derivation from avKov. 1)." ii. as. extort from no mari hy violence. in an interesting paper in the " Studien und Kritiken " (1838). but because they think I would rather pay money than have any For this process of blacktrouble " (" Memorabilia.'' of Luke has the later. [Ca HL actions against me. not because they are ' wronged by me." 639) of their allies they falsely accused {iaeiov) the substantial and rich. to shake. the verb acquired the meaning to accuse planation of this word Such is the old explanation. which occurs also (peculiar to Luke) in Mark xv. a-eicD. ranking with honey and olives as one of the principal products. secondary and therefore the American Kevisers rightly meaning. to ieohon. 840): " Thou Shalt make much money \)j falsely accusing and frightening" (<reltiy re And "And again (" Peace. for instance. Accuse any falsely {avKocpavTijcrrjTe). and required legal protection against export." mail. Thus Aristophanes (" Knights. explains that. As informers were tempted to accuse innocent persons by the reward paid for pointing out violators of the law. writers. and (paivo). falsely. to make known/ hence of informing against persons who exported figs from Attica. to extort / It is used by medical insist on. was used. 11. 9. IT and avaa-iico. which is now rejected by though the real explanation is merely conjectural.. Neither is it proven that there was a sacred kind of fig. as tribute in Attica was paid in kind as well as in money. and there is no authority for the statement that there was a time when figs were scarce. Both these are also used by medical writers.

In the Sept. 285 and as figs represented a great deal of property. there was a temptation to make false returns of the amount of figs to the and that thus a class of informers arose who detected and reported these false returns. 10. and their services were rewarded. . and he would not let him ofE until he ceased to molest Crito and paid a sum of money besides. especially. in order to thwart another who was annoying him and this person. by threatening him with an action dangerous in its consequences. 13.. to oppress or deceive. . It is the bane of our city that it protects and cherishes this poisonous brood. in which it would be settled what he should suffer or pay. hold to the A. neither extortion being described by the previous word. and received a percentage of the fine which was imposed. and uses them as informers. of Zacchaeus. : . in order to be safe from their machinations. The American Eevisers xix. John xxi. and many persons who were enemies to those accusers one of whom he summoned to a public trial. "Wye. says Xenophon. and render neither accuse any one wrongfully. spying out whom he may surprise with misfortune and ruin. Compare 6-\lrdpiov. so that even the honest man must flatter and court them. the publican." The word occurs only here and eh. 8. metaphorically. The sycophants as a class were encouraged at Athens. These were known aafig-shewers. From oi/rov. Wages (oyjrmvloK). . Y. 9. Socrates is said by Xenophon to have advised Crito to take a sycophant into his pay. make ye false challenge. to one who makes rich men yield up the fruits of their labor or rascality by false accusation. and from whom he can most easily extort money. "quickly discovered on the part of Crito's accusers many illegal acts. Whatever explanation we may accept. and later. cooTcedmeat. provisions. it is used in the sense of assessors . ally. Hence o'^aiviov is T^v\m&v\\y provision- fsh. From it comes our word sycophant.] LUKE. j?sA." Demosthenes thus describes one " He glides about the market like a scorpion. Another writer has suggested that the reference is to one who brings figs to light by shaking the tree and so. .Ch. in. it is evident that the word had some original connection withjS^s. and that it came to mean to slander or accuse falsely. with his venomous sting all ready. generAt Athens.

this emphasizes evil in its activity." etc. 19. 17. Better && 'Rev. administer. So Hippocrates. 3-5 . (Xvcrai). chief-working eye. as our apply. but Matthew ^aerrdaai. ii. An evil eye vii. 9. See on Matt. 29 and see on Jas. iii.. of the Preached (evryyyeXi^eTo). reasoned.. Testament is denoting evil. With this understanding the use of the word at Rom. 17-20. 18. Mark. : See on Gospel. in. money. (Mark 22. So iii. ii. One mightier (6 l(T'xvp6repo<. Hence Satan 22) a mis- is o irovrjpo'i. [Ch. very common medical word. 12. Fan —floor— purge.). and Galen. 16. {erepa). Hence mightier. 23. 15. Compare Matt. Mark vi. See on Jas. . xiv. and so used of supplies and pay for an army." 286 WOBD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. " a^pply a decoction of acorns. The definite article points better as Kev. Mused i. Rev. See on Matt. See on Mark Added {-Trpoa-i^Kev). Used by Luke twice as often as in all Testament. he that is to an expected personage. several words in the New vii. New A See on Matt. the evil one. used of the application of remedies to the body. " a/pply wet sponges to the head . also 11. 19. Unloose to bear. Com- pare ch. . Evils {TTovTjpmv). (StaXoYt^o/ieWi/). xiv.)." becomes highly suggestive. Being reproved Of {i\€yx6fi€vo<. Superscription of Matthew. the rest of the In prison. 4. 3. preserves the fuller meaning word according to its etymology preac/ied good tidings. various. 20. different. " the wages of sin. vi. Other Eather.

Thou aH my son. Better. as A. 21-23. Compare Matt. 13-17 Mark i. tw irvevfunC). IV. Mark 1. Read as Rev. This should be joined with the preceding words. So Matthew. the beSo Mark. 1-11 . indicating the duration of his stay in the wilderness. He was not only im- pelled imto the wilderness. 21. the vnlderness during forty days. The American Revisers ren- indicating the sphere rather than the impulse of his action. The A. the shape. Matthew has the In a bodily Peculiar to Luke. when he begem (to teach) was about thirty years of age. It should be as E. 2. says. into. iii. is wrong.] LUKE. Began CHAPTER 1-13. Was led.. Lit. has followed^ the reading The proper reading is ev. the beloved. This is my son. Was opened {avewx^vai). By the der in the Spirit (eV spirit. But Matthew. iv. being forty days tempted. 9-11.. God : Mark. Thou loved. " The Spirit <^w>6^A. but Mark o-^^tfo- (iivovs. in. but guided in the wilderness by the Spirit. (iK^aWei) or thrusteth him forth... V. So Matthew. ets. . Sprnt. not of his temptation. Forty days.ev.Ch. Compare Matt. art my beloved son. im. m<rel iraiv rpiaKovra). 22. V. Spirit of The Holy Ghost. A. Into the wilderness. IV. rent. to be about thirty years of age {?iv apxafievot Peculiar to Luke. 287 . i. Y. Mark 12-13. 23. Spirit.

does not mention the fast. irapaXa/i^dvei. Luke. having fasted. which. did eat nothing. It is written... Only here in ISTew Testament. Compare Matt. iv.). Peculiar to Luke. hrand-marks. 5. M See on. (dpTo<.. iv. enlarges upon it : —for to me To tJiee Matthew. STUDIES IN THE iv.In a ^TiyfiTj is literally moment Ming of an 6. Pinnacle of the temple. Bread a loaf.: 288 WORD devil. "on bread. vi. The He See on Matt. {iir' See on Matt. taTceth." implying depend- Compare. these stones. See on Matt. NEW TESTAMENT. [Ch. Gal. Compare (7TLjfjLaTa. (r. a dot hence a point of time. By bread ence. eye. See on of ch. 74. See on ch. Matthew has down only. Tynd. iv. 3. Matthew. 9. ii. 5. iv. Matt. Lit. Matthew has the plural loaves. 5. i. See on Matt. 9. in his narrative. 8. Serve. . throughout the New Testament. therefore. Eev.. a ritual act accompanying seasons of prayer. Lit. iv. 1. Matthew uses the word vrja-Tevaa-. 3. iv. time (eV a-Tir/fifj xpo^ov). a marh made hy a pointed instrument. Down from hence. in the twim.7a76i'). aprai). The world. 1. 4). 4. IV. He brought Matt. Mark This stone. hy every word {eirl -jravrl prifiaTi. thou wilt worship." etc. Note the emphatic position of the pronouns : " will I give if hath been delivered thou. 4.. is used of abstinence for religious purposes . 17.

For Matthew's it is Luke omits Matthew's again.. article. 40 sq.. See on Matt. It is said. More strictly. Only here in Better as Eev. iv. and at Gethsemane. With the had been brought up. He taught (awTo? eS^ao-Kev). written. guard. careful guarding. Peculiar to Luke. Better therefore as Kev. 28& 10. Matt. and reXico. correctly. For a season (a%/cit Kaipov). TLe preposition to guard thee. Incorrect.. from crw. In their iv. implies dose. sees (John viii. every temptation. completed.. means to hrvng to one end together. untU a convenient time . Kev. 4. 16-31. The verb avvTe\ia-a<. 53. Stood up. Lit. 15). 12. The imperfect tense denotes a course of teaching. Peculiar to Luke. 7. To keep {Bui<j)v\d^ai). together. See Matt. hence to bring to an end utterly. The temptations formed a complete cycle.. Peculiar to Luke. Nazareth. on.. Every temptation ended. iv. 13.] LUKE. as he did in the person of Peter (Mark viii. New Testament.) . 33) by the Phari. but being summoned by the superintendent of the synagogue. iv. i. Hev. xxii. See ch. Had ended all the temptation. IV. since Satan meant to assail him again." verifying the favorable reports about himself in person. 16. 11. to accomplish. that Nazareth where he Not as a sign that he wished to expound. 6. See on 1 Pet. "Ae AimseZ/" taught. So "Wye. is wanting in Matthew. so that it could afterward be said of Jesus that " he was in all points tried like as we are " (Heb.Ch. All the temptation {iravra rightly. The phrase. 15. 7. 19 . ireipaa-fiov). hands {iirl x'^i'p^v).

The former word was used in medical language of the opening out of various parts of the body. none of After the law folconsisting of less than three verses. [Ch. by chance: reading at the place where the and trusting to divine guidance. 8. Opened simple verb [avaTrrv^a^). Was 18. the inner 17.. Superscription In may piist-classicp. 1. Hence a roll. Both this and the -rrrvcraco. aometimes of reading aloud with comments. and the latter of the rolling up of bandages. rolling it wp (Apoc. 14). vi. {?iv was having been written . see Edersheim. unrolled. Lit. the "minister" took a roll of the law from the ark. For a detailed account of the synagogue-worship.l CivbIc. diminutive of . jeypanfiivov).* After the liturgical services which introduced the worship of the synagogue. The word is also used to denote a division of a work. IV. .. * See on Gospel. i. used for writing. See on Christ. lowed a section from the prophets. " Life and Times of Jesus. removed its case and wrappings. 12) and elXia-a-a. xxlv. read {avayvoovai). them . and then called upon some one to read. 15. explain the parentUtsis in Matt. to close (ver. The use of these terms by Luke the physician is the more significant from the fact that elsewhere in the New Testament avoiytu is used for the opening of a book (Apoc. at least seven persons To were called on successively to read portions of the law. roll As if opened of itself. which was succeeded immediately by a discourse. Usually in ITew Testament ofjmiliG reading. Found. 2. written i. v. The book {^b^Xiov). It was this section which Jesus read and expounded. 5. 430 sq.290 WOIiD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Anointed. . 30). occur only once in the New Testament. for . stood written. Lit. hark of the jpapyrus.. tidings." i. 2-5 x. To preach good of Matthew. This . See Acts xiii. viii..e. 8 xx. On the Sabbaths. Matt. 15 Neh.St/3\o9. and is therefore appropriate here to as related to the A mark the writings of a single prophet whole body of the prophetic writings.

Them pieces. Iviii. to cha/rge. with sound of trumpet. men xlii.. xlii. yea/r gave rise among some of the Christian fathers to the theory that our Lord's ministry lasted but a single tation of the Wye. hroJcen to deliver in broken The same Hebrew word is used in Isa. properly. 20. 3 "a which the Septuagint uses for ireak. in darkness and those who The allusion is to Israel. iii.). 5. as a herald. of Isa.. 8-17). 291 v. xxv. IV. the first day of the year of Jubilee." from the house of both as captive exiles and as prisoners of Satan in spiritual bondage. The best texts omit. xii. 6. Wye. to he captives {alypaXmroK). proclaim) the acceptable year of Note year. To To Eev. set at liberty v. sit 7 : "To bring out captives from the restraint." which the Septuagint translates by reSXaa-fievov. 15. 10. has ca/i/tifs. in New Testament. the A literal interpre- word year. To the and aXia-KOfiat. send away in disSee on ch. the poor (jncoxoK)- See on Matt. the blessings of the opening year (Lev. Hence. the Lord. ii. Wye. {d-Troa-TeiXai) Lit. and Jas.. which formerly signified captives. Lit. To preach As on (Rev.. of prisoners of war.] LUKE. on which see) the word for Iruised is awrpl^co. crushed reed shall he not break. taken or conquered. . In the citation of this latter passage (Matt. Compare Isa. 3. heal the broken-hearted. So To preach See on 2 Pet. To 3. prison. where liberty is to be proclaimed to all in that year of the Lord pleaswnt. Inserted from the Sept. Only here : that are bruised {re^pava-fievov. when the priests went through the land proclaiming. 19. {ic^pv^ai). Better as 'Rgy. proclaim.Ch. a word which does not occur in the New Testament. From al)Q*'% a spear-j>oint. ver. into remission.

He As about to teach. There was a continuous stream of admiring comment. Compare ver. the word attention itself. 23. to stretch. Indeed. The participle and finite verb denoting continuous. i.). Proverb {irapa^oKrfv).292 20.ey. Sat down. heal thyself. that being the habitual position of a Jewish teacher. 3. Note the imperfect tense.. A . See on ver. saying which Luke alone reand which would forcibly appeal to him as a physician. B. 22... a kind of chapel-clerk. xiii. etymologically considered. Literally 30. 17. See on ch.. Ukeness. Rev. as the teaching elder. Expecting an affirmative answer. WORD STUDIES He closed IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. Were fastened {Tjaav aTevi^ovTe<. (\670t? t^s . They confirmed the reports which had been circulated about him. and words of grace. denotes fixed attention. who. rolls. dovbUess. but indicating a solemn and weighty opening. (Trru^a?). Lit. 25. cords. as Rev. IV.)^aptT09). a^ Minister is likely to be misunderstood as referring to the president of the congregation. Physician. Similarly. Is not {oirxj). The verb. See on Matt. would have addressed the people if Jesus had not done so. Minister {virripeT'g). Surely (Travro)?). y. Jy all meams. Not necessarily denoting his first words. as Rev. the same 21. were wondering. It tendant. [Ch. 14. steadfast attention. Wye. conveys idea. Lit. means the attendant who had charge of the sacred was a salaried officer. At the gracious words correctly. He began. Bare him witness.. from Teivm. parable. See on Matt.

as Eev. Only here in New Wye.. Wye. and ox^coSek:. especial]}' since the same epithets were applied to the appearance of the eyebrows in certain diseases as were applied to hills. The word Thus Hippocrates. Compare Septuagint only in 2 Chron. that is. 25. 29. " The eyebrows seem to ha/ng over.Ch. like mounds. overhanging the Maronite convent at the southwest corner of the town " (" Sinai and Palestine "). Testament. 40. . describing a deadly fever. on the side of a mountain. Only here in New Testament. there ca/me {or arose) a great fa/mine over 27. xxv. Mark i. is used in medical language both of the eyebrows and of other projections of the body. but over the town. The brow which {o^pvo^). 42).] LUKE. xxvii. Lepers. of a rock. is originally cap or hood. cope. the middle-English word for a leper. a diminutive of the Latin miser. and derived from misell/m. 21-28. This is not the situation of Nazareth yet its position is still in accordance with the narrative. The same appeal was addressed to Christ on the cross (Matt. More literally the land {iyevero and correctly. but the brow is not beneath. all the land. 293 Galen speaks of a physician who should have cured himself before he attempted to attend patients.''"' the same word which Homer uses So Aretaeus. Stanley says: "Most readers probably from these words imagine a town built on the summit of a mountain. and in the 31-37. . wretched. projectvng. and such a cliff as is here implied is found in the abrupt face of a limestone rock about thirty or forty feet high. depicts them as Trpo^SXJjTes. 12. says. It would naturally occur to a physician. IV. renders meseZis. Cast him down headlong {KaTa/cfyrj/ivia-ai). A great famine was throughout i-rrl all Xt/MO'i fjAya'i iraaav rrjv yrjv). from which summit the intended precipitation was to take place. It is built upon. describing the appearance of the eyebrows in elephantiasis.

day. On word ver. no possible which a physician would be careto injure. as ra d^vfm. 33.. (jiTjSev Mark omits this detail. It is m and Mark common in medical language.9i7Tt). vii. amazement . See on Matt. Rev. 36.. and what have we in common Hold thy peace xxii. and three times in Mark while Mark alone has the strong compound e/c^a/i/Sew. in connection with disease by In medical language. Used and only here. 28. etc. to. The finite verb and participle denoting continuance. 6). WORD STUDIES IN THE hihouTKcov).294 31.. 15).. See on Matt. to be greatly amiazed (Mark ix. as of medicines or diet hurting or benefiting. Testament —here pKay^av avrov). the Sabbath-days is . •34. (rt r)^Liv koI croi) ? Lit. opposed to ut^eKeiv. came upon all. Qdfi^o'. teaehing. as Kev. What have we is there to us to do with thee to thee f i. occurs but twice in New xvi. ((/>t/a£o. 32. single day. A spirit of an unclean devil. ? what So Wye. They were all amazed {i'yiveTo ^dfi. as . ful to note.^o'i evl TrdvTa's). IV. to be is used by Luke only.e. 12. that the only case in which the rendering Luke adds to word the epithet unclean.. amazemsnt.. as in often used in the plural form for the probably after the analogy of plural names of festi- vals.. 16 The Kev. 35. of convulsions. was [Ch.. 18. amazed. fits. to benefit. or perhaps following the Aramaic plural. ^afji^eofjbai.. Taught {fjv Correctly. Hurt him not way. Lit. {pi\}fav).'be muzzled or gagged. The kindred verb. NEW TESTAMENT. Lit. Had thrown Luke only. BiKatTTeiv. the Urth-day . the feast of unlea/vened bread . yevia-ia. occurs only once in Luke (Acts ix. This is Where should be demon. They were astonished {l^e-iryJ^a-aovTo). JAi. (rot? crd/3^aatv).

in its earlier sense of a report. Compare Matt. In Acts xxviii. (a-vvexofj-em]). ELippocrates uses both words together " the ears (aicoal) are full of sound (^^of) . 38-41. and Acts ii. IV. vii. the roaring. ch. it is joined with fever. as here. holden. Paul uses it of the constraining of Christ's love (2 Cor. and of being in a strait (Philip. Heb. " and Aretaeus of the noise of the sea. aKorj. So Wye. v. 2. not only because of the coolness.. and is a 23). See ch. 19 is a quotation from the Septnagint. The epithet great peculiar to Luke. See on used nine times by Luke. . Laid his hands on. common medical term in the same sense.— Ch. iv. When the sun was setting. Peculiar to Luke. is Another mark of the physician. . 8. The ancient physicians distinguished fevers into great and small. 40. iv. Sick men with dimers languishi/ngs. 1 Acts xvii. as Luke xxi. 2 of the mighty rushing wind at 37. The people brought their sick at that hour. rumor. See on Matt. 24. Matt. Rev. As a physician might do. "Hxpt was the medical term for sound in the ears or head. Peculiar to Luke. 14). Mark i. 295 here. 38. ^^^-^ noise. 25. .. Rev. sick person was . The fame Pentecost. Only {^X"^)where the correct reading is tjxov. 10. and only three times elsewhere. i. but always in the sense in which medical writers employed it hearing or the ears. Peculiar to Luke.regarded as work. but because it was the end of the Sabbath. Mark uses The same word occurs . 23. 25. 29-34.. Diseases (voo-ok). and carrying a See John v. Wye. Taken The word is A great fever {irvpeTm fieyaXat). in Luke. 20 xxviii. 26. He stood over her. viii. It is the word used in Acts ii. xxi.] LUKE. Rebuked. 39. 14^17 . xii.

but is confined to the meaning of delicacy. Mr. as Matthew does (viii. he never uses ^aaavi^eiv. 18-22 Lit. is correct according to the reading Tov aKoveiv.296 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 1). ing. . 35-39. 41. " Implying the solicitude and indefatigableness of this miraculous ministry of love " (Meyer). 1. 6). sickness. Y. Imperfect tense: were seek- unto him (^XJov eo)? avrov). Mark i. . to. were laid 'wpon. 23 ix. Sought after (eTre^jjrow). since this word is never so used in medical language. Pressed hear. Y. to torment. and heard. The true reading is «ai ctKoveiv. which it follows. too. Stronger than came even up to. of effeminacy. Mark i. 16-20. the word there meaning to examine some part of the body or some medical question. [Ch. for e(o<! is Came CHAPTER 1-11. {eTriKela-Bai). . The articulate utterance. iv. showing that they did not discontinue their search until they found him. V. as it is never so used in medical language. Mark's narrative here is fuller and more graphic. Luke") remarks that the medical bias of Luke may be seen from the words he abstains from using as well as from those he does use in respect of disease. Saying. Crying out {Kpavyd^ovra). . 35 x. The inarticulate demoniac scream. 42-44. So Rev. To The A.. Every one. Hobart ("Medical Language of St. Compare Matt. Compare 42. So. as Matthew does (iv. Thus he never uses fiaXaKca for sickness.

The . 11. v. as 2. Ships {Tfkola). vii.. The reading diroTrXiiva) is rejected by the best texts. All the words were common in medical language.. Originally. . plural. sea. iv. 38. Acts xxii. The singular number. jput out. was stood. see also Apoc. : standing. of washing the prisoners' stripes and the body of Dorcas. The word occurs in the New it these in Luke. put out. He uses of letting Testament seven times. Luke uses four 3. topardon. and five of down Paul in a basket at . of the woman wiping Christ's feet with her hair. Acts xvi. word for putting out to sea. The special Taught The imperfect. 33 ix.. vii. addressed to the whole Also of the boat's crew. {XCjjLvqv). Used of vessels in general. He continued the teaching he had begun on the shore. Metaphorically. meaning little hoots. 297 He stood {avTo<! ^v eo-rw?). 14 wwofidcrato. during the night's work. They and John use ^aXaaa-a.] LUKE. only at ch. to be indulgent. Rev. 37. Ch.. of Lake Luke also An illustration of the more classical style compared with Matthew and Mark. Kev. a diminutive form. : From the sand and pebbles accumulated different words for washing or cleansing ttXwo). €K/idaa-m. Let down (xakdaare). The pronoun distinguishes him from the crowd which pressed upon him he on his pa^t Render the participle and finite verb as Eev. nautical Thrust out {eiravwyarfelv). here. of unbarring a door. of washing away sins. Were washing. Some texts read ifkoidpta. 16 Xovo). to slacken or loosen. . as a bow- string or the reins of horses hence to let sink as a net. ad- dressed to Peter as master of the craft. ch. x. 4. of wiping the dust from the feet. 18. {iSiSa<TKev). Launch out. 44 airoXovco. so that dnroiidcra-a is the only one peculiar to Luke. . See on Matt.

viii. of rending off and Trpoa-p^yvv/Mi. All the words occur in medi- cal writings. irepipprjrfvvfjii. iv. to The word originally means make a sign. or even better. as Rev. Luke alone uses the two compounds clothes (Acts xvi. (Kareveva-av). fails to give the force of the imperfect. began to break. net (Smtvov). They beckoned assent. of bandages medical writings. See on those passages. Some. . were breaking. as John especially. and always with never uses Rabbi. V. read to. The A. and of letting down a boat into the sea (Acts xxvii. 30). 14. weariness Toiled (KOTTi. iv. generally. A general term for a net. BIk- rva. . . Master (eVto-Tara). to beat violently (ch. 18). . . which appears also in the compound noun for a casting-net {dfi^i^rja-rpov.. The word used by Luke was in common use in . They made signs because of the distance of the other boat. 22). V. to nod and so. later Brake (SiieppijyvvTo). [Ch. The fish or fowl. for casting a net (Matt.. The word occurs also at ch. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. as has been suggested. At thy word (eVt'). hardly. Wye. whether for See on Matt. Rev. the nets. 29 Acts xiv. 6).da-avTe'i). The difference is unimportant. and John use /3a\Xo) or a/i^tySaWw. 16 John xxi. 48. 25) of striking a ship's sails. 18. 18 xiii. reference to Jesus. as . 7. because they were too much amazed to speak. suffering. 49). and therefore indicating exhavstvng toil. Some texts read BieprjaaeTo. loosening down into a vessel to be steeped. From kotto'. iv. possibly. see on Matt. Relying on : on the ground of. He Used by Luke only. 298 WORD STUDIES . 17. 47 Mark i. Damascus (Acts ix. and only twice beside in the New Testament. Trench suggests were atthe point to break. to denote relaxation of the limbs abatement of sickness letting herbs . Mark. 5. commander. .. vi. from the form of the verb. Matthew.

they were ahnost drenched. See on 1 Pet. Grhost (2 Cor. T might workmen (Mark i. 16) The persons referred to in ver. xiii. Lit. dr/pevco. take hold with.. Lit. 7 the word rendered j>ar^- ners is fieroxoc from fierd. From /Su-Jo's. have been only hired ciated with the principals. airbv). thoushalt he catching. The kindred noun. " Oedi- pus Colonus. ii. 8. fellowship.: Ch. . Only here and 1 Tim. Lit. i. to take alive : in war. Fell at down at Jesus' knees. Wye. the latter. they wept. the depth. {(rvWa^iffSai). to . Began of to sink (^v3^i^eaBai). 9) . temporarily asso. {KoivavoX). 299 He\p It.Sa/ti/So? irepdax^v amazement encompassed him. the catch or haul.union of the Holy x. In ver. The draught sense : (t^ arypa)." 1605 "Zeus from the dark depths thundered. addressed to Peter and his companions catch or take. 9. and shuddering. 3. \s. 10. The verb ^mypeco. Compare Sophocles. used of the fellowship of believers with Christ (1 Cor. at their father's knees Falling. the comm. with. The word is used both In ver." 9. and e^o). vi. the participle and finite verb denoting that this is to be his haBoth Matthew and Mark make the promise to be Luke to Peter alone. and the girls Heard it.] LUKE. is compounded of fojo'?. 14). 4 : catching and of that which is caught.. 6. a common interest. He was astonished (. Compare Philip. Partners . " let it of the ae^of has the former down your net for catching " here. 20). The word here denotes a closer association. and bitual calling. the communion of the body and blood of Christ (1 Cor. v. Thou shalt catch {ea-y ^myp&v). to catch. living. lit. Kowwvia. to Hence.. to have. drowning men in destruction.

Leprosy was known among physicians under three forms the dull white. the clear white. All three evangelists say cleanse instead of heal. &&. will (^eXo)). so did these. Compare 2 Tim. compare Iliad. 26. more accurately. See on Matt. Luke means to describe an aggravated case. 40-45.. Mark i. /"mZZ of leprosy. the servant of God is represented as taking men alive out of the power of Satan. Compare Matt. as indi- cating that Christ's ministers are called to win men to life. seems to be used here with professional accuracy. as instrunjents of his will in itself word thus contains (compare A. O son of Atreus. — I. when Menelaus " Adrastus clasped the warrior's knees and said.. and captured Croesus himself alive " {e^daypTja-av). viii. 45. gives the force of the passive voice. the veins fuU of blood / the QuisfuU of : roaring. as the fisherman draws out the fish from waters where they were free and happy. where. Y. Rev. vi. 2-4 . to an element in which they cannot breathe. Iliad. 86. 6 . i. 300 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. take oaptwe. Full leper. . me So Herodotus There is : " The Persians took Sardis. of leprosy. 12. The an answer to the sneering remark of the Apostate Julian.. I to this malady. Make me clean {Ka^apicrai).: . threatens the prostrate Adrastus Thus Homer.. The 'worA full in this connection is often used by medical writers. to be preserved unto the will of God i. 378. but must presently perish. and Rev. " for. 19. Matthew and Mark have simply a The expression." 12-16.e. that Christ aptly termed his apostles fishers . Be thou clean (Ko^apia-^ijTi). take prisoner " (C^pfi). ii. be thou made clean. and the hlach. [Ch.). x. full of disease . instead of killing. because of the notion of uncleanness which specially attached 13. certainly a reason for the use of this term. V. according to the best supported rendering..

a. to ie an attend- do service. it A strong word. A lively change (Sirjp'xero). 16.. in ver. to heal. the usual New Testament word for withdraw being avaX<»/3ea). .] LUKE. 15. and therefore of a physician. A strictly literal rendering . throughout the region. Infirmities {cuy^eveimv).Ch. xii. See Matt. 14 Acts iv. strong. 15 . In classical writers it has also the meaning to heal. Came together {avvrjp'^ovTo). 14. Mark i. Idofiai. The participle with the impersomething in progress. {^epwjrevea-^ai). 17-26. viii. often of : military orders. Mark has ifi^pi(ii]a-dfievo(i. To be healed ant. so that he was inaccessible. strictly or sternly charged. See on No one (jMnjSevt). from the narrative to 15. The multitudes were corm/ng together. 7. ii. 43. 1-12. The conditional negative : no one that he might chance to meet. He charged {7rapi]jyeiXev).(»/)wi/). Go. 17.).a. "Wye. ICept coming together. not. Aristotle nses of a physician to prescribe. Compare Mark ii. 12 . See on Matt. Mark iii. exactly answering prmus. the word walked ahout. to attend upon. v. Went abroad At. etc. or treat medically. but he was engaged in retirement and The word occurs only in prayer. and thus fect of the finite verb denoting corresponding to the imperfect in ver.y. »^o^> and <tMvo<. direct address. as undoubtedly in the New Testament. 301 14. and compare . to Originally. 7. to the Latin in. and Withdrew (^vi)7ro. shew thyself. strength. Imperfect. Luke. or were coming. and in Luke (xiii.

uses four words for the beds of the the general word for a bed or couch ix. V. uses the verb . 6 Mark ii. this Rev. read ahrbv. The best texts. . have distinguished Jerusalem as a disfrom all the rest of Judaea. Only in Luke and Tim. V.. sea-shore. 24 his usage in this respect being in strict accord ix. 33). paralytic viii. them ^ the sufferers The A. Taken with a palsy {irapaXeKufiivo^). .— 302 17. and valley Jerusalem being regarded as a separate district. was present So Rev. 15 a rude pallet (see on litter. The pronoun has a slightly emphatic he as distinguished from the Pharisees and teachers of the law. them. and meaning in aid of his healing. referring to Christ. WORD STUDIES BT THE NEW TESTAMENT. iv. 39) " (Edersheim. as ver. " Jew- Was present ing. with the Rabbis. " Only one would. Tiles. a small couch or lift here. Couch sick : (/tXti/tSiw). 18. that he should 18. Kpd^PaTo<i (Acts 4) . conversant with the law. 1 Judaea and Jerusalem. i.e. [Ch. (as Matt. follows the readwho were present. Wye.. Whenever Luke mentions . 33) 7 with that of medical writers. however. 19. more disease. as it Mark ii. 7. palsied.. trict separate 8 . slates. he and not the adjective irapaXvTiKO'i. probably in intentional contrast with Christ's teaching. a couch so light that a woman could and carry away. Luke . kXIvt). . i. intimately acquainted with the state of matters at the time. referring him. V. 3-10 compare Acts viii. Doctors of the law (vo/iohSda-KaXoi). as Luke markedly does on several occasions (Acts ish Social Life"). has sclattis.e. neatly. heal . to heal i. Luke often uses vofUKO'. .. The Rabbinical writers divided — Judaea proper into three parts mountain. 15. x. but in the other word the element of teaching is emphasized. avTov'i. Thus. back to ver. i. in the . He was : force teaching. kXiviBiov..

. To 22. contrary to. 21. in contrast with the apparently less direct. and Something contrary to received opinion.). amMzement tooh hold on see on Mark v. See on ch. Standing first for emphasis. Myrrine says "Come now. emphasizes the direct address to the man : unto thee I say. Into the midst before Jesus.. : 303 let "Lysistrata" of Aristophanes. They were all amazed all. Lit. On eKcrraa-K. 14. 8. See on Matt. 15). 28. Lit. Mark ii. In forgiving the man's sins he had healed him radically. See on Mark ii... Only here in Bo^a. A publican. Compare Matt. reason. was of the same 26. Wall< {irepiirdTeC). last. piece. Unto thee (o-ot). The last cannot be accurately distinguished from the two are peculiar to Luke. man's personal condition was assumed now he brings out the personal side of the connection. opinion. 6. Luke 24. Kev. Better. 7. From irapd. 42. See on Mark ii. and hence strange. iii. 13. as {eKo-raa-K eka^ev a'Kavra'. The fourth term.Ch. as Kev. ix. See on Mark ii. Strange things {-TrapaSo^a). me carry our conch " (icXivihov). 12. 916. 4. He saw (eSeda-aTo). 27. The command to rise and walk . New Testament. thy sins he forgiwen In Jesus' mind the connection between the sins and the thee.] LUKE. form an iambic verse in the Greek. amazement. 23. 27. Perceived. walJc about. KKivdpiov (Acts V. Tlie words who is this that s^eaketh hlasphemy. 9 . Compare the English paradox. since the verb denotes looking attentively. xi. beheld. v.

its primary 10 XV. A reception. Re began 16-22. Feast same root as ix." So Rev. 33. {^oxvv). but hkofiai. Acts xxiv. Better. to receime. is found in Luke vii. follows a reading which omits Kot. . as a thicket. Children of the bride-chamber. etc. or the . The word literally Only here. 26 1 Tim. plumage of a Prayers bird. sons 19. 13. 28. the 31. 10 vi. rjfjbipai 36. 35.. and hence distinctively of petitionary prayer. The A.&6t). (vioix. especially appropriate at a banquet " (Bengel). etc.. For this meaning Paul uses it only in it is the regular word in medical writings. to he in sound health. faith. as Kev. 34. . supplications. See on Matt. But the days will come when. ver. : They that are whole and Mark use IcrxvovTe'. . groom shall be taken away. In classical Greek the word is not restricted to sacred uses. sense.). 27 and once in John.— 304 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. From want. The thought " The days shall come and when the brideis broken off. 3 Tit. 10-17 . 9. i. (Sej^o-et?). Imperfect. . Both Matthew This use of the verb in strong. 13. Rev. xiv.«oXov. the metaphorical sense sound doctrine. A parable. and continued following. which is inserted in all the best texts. 29. Y. Compare Matt. Receipt of custom. more correctly. [Ch. means close-paohed. v. 3 Ep. Mark ii. 29-39. etc. Often {irvKva). to M- low. then shall they fast. sov/nd in See 1 Tim. (ot v-^iaLvovTei). 2.. " From a garment and from wine. i. Only here and ch. 23. V. sound words.at. and. to is employed of requests preferred to men. He followed (?. ix. {iXeva-ovrai Be Ka\ orav). . Used by no other evangelist. From the 8e^o/u. See on Mark ii.

The new maketh read a-)(^i<T6t. Better (^pv^TOTepot!). hy the use of which latter term " the incongruity of the proceeding comes more strongly into prominence " (Meyer). In Luke the damage is twofold first. to throw : some- No man rendeth a piece and putteth. to the old garment.a ifiariov Putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old (eVtxaivov eTn^dWei.. putteth upon. 39.] LUKE.dTiov iraXaiov). ivl i/ji./i. which directly governs Eev. insert ff'xJ.t^a)m). YI. from eV/. instead of being used intransitively.Ch. exact meaning cannot be determined. a piece. 305 ^rj/j. a rent (to kmvov o-^^t^et). not(ovo-i. 1-8 . instead of widening the rent. e-jn^dXKei. See on Matt. 30. xii. good. thing clapped on. So Kev. The best texts read will ')wt agree. and its 20 . 1. Me will rend the new. literally. "^Je^ :. so that the rendering is. governing the new. See on Matt. omits. etc. xi.aa'i. No having rent a piece from. CHAPTER 1-5. that. wvne-shvm. The best texts read ^piyo-ro?. hamvng rent. The second after the first (SevrepoTrpcoTq)). o-u/i^avT^o-et. and second. 'EircpKruia. in injuring the new garment . man So Both Matthew and Mark have cloth instead of garment. Mark 23-28. in New Only here it. is. 37./. as Rev. the rent in which is enlarged. however. ix. Many high authorities omit Rev. Compare the kindred verb here. eVi/3Xi.. piece . The best texts. In Matthew and Mark there is only a single damage. a new garment. namely. putteth it. in making the old garment appear patched.a. Bottles (aff/eoii?). by cutting out a piece . ii. Testament. as in Matthew and Mark. The best texts will rend. Compare Matt.. VI. Kender. 17. a patch. Agreeth the future . upon. and ^dWa.

See on Mark iii. 6. A very precise Luke only mode sional. Mark r) iii. xii. Did take. xii. Rev. Peculiar to Luke. Plucked In classical (eTtXKov). 26. The shew-bread. the force of o^Se: Have ye not read (ouSe "have ye ai'e^z'WTe) ? The A. 6-11. See on Matt. His right hand of statement. 2. The verb means xii." 306 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 7. was going. 1. See on Matt. Lit. Did eat (ija-Siov). 5. Greek the word See on Imperfect. Imperfect. V. Compare Matt. See on Mark ii. Rubbing • {^d>xovTe<i). 1. is used mostly of pulling out hair or ii. This accuracy is profesAncient medical writers always state whether the right or the left member is affected. Not lawful. feathers. VI Went through pare {BiaTropeveaBai). Lord of the Sabbath. Imperfect.. his hand the right one. werepkicking. They watched {-rrapeTripovvTo).. watching. Com- vapa-n-opevea-S^ai. See on Matt. See on Mark iii. They kept . 3. 2. 23.. Mark 23. specifies which hand was withered. not so much " have ye not read even this ? 4. {fi '^elp avrov Be^ia). 2. 9-14". were eating. —Mark ii. Withered. 6. 1-6. went along ieside xii. misses as read?" Rev.. [Ch. as they walked. to rub small. Cornfields.

12. and emphasizing the eagerness of the Pharisees to discover a ground of accusation. The word thus implies senseless rage. the mountain. as distinguished from intelligent in- dignation. 10. an indi/oidual life thrown See on Mark xii. I {BiaKojKr/Moiis:) See on Jas. Imperfect. So Rev. Mark has ewolTjo-ev.t of understamdvng. ma3ness. "Avoia. Life {"^vxvv)is / ask. The all-night prayer peculiar to Luke's narrative. They were is. .. 4 Matt. So Rev. Peculiar to Luke. wam. question Better as Rev. x. all along aware. is night {rjv SvawKTepevav). He knew (^Set). rightly. Peculiar to Luke's narrative. He was ii. a soul safe. Some authorities. Wye. it carries a hint of into to maTce by the special case at hand. the present tense. ail Continued Testament. 13. Though the a general one. 30. ] LUKE. 11. The arm was not filled withered. or " whethei' he is actually healing. 8. Thoughts 9. Rev." which is farfetched. . properly. Mark iii. VI." This may mean either " whether it is his habit to heal. will ask(eVe/)Q)T». xv.(7<B). 13-19. The best texts read ivepcDTw. he made or constituted.Ch. with madness. a it life. The article denotes a familiar place. A mountain {to 6po<s). 2-4 .). 307 He would heal {Sepaireva-ei. " whether he is healing. read ^e/aoTreuet. Peculiar to Luke. Compare Matt. 19. Chose (e'/cXefayttew?).." Find. Thy hand. 12-16. Only here in New Used in medical language. however.

Iscariot.. 18. Judas 17. Philip 15. and of trouble generally. Judaea and Jerusalem. x. Yy. 17-19 are peculiar to Luke. in a plain or level place. There is no article. x. iii.. aean. with the idea of want of arrangement and discipline. 18.308 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and better. Andrew. Mark iii. See on Matt. 17. Peculiar to Luke. In literally. " and as they . a crowd or moh. 18. and therefore of confusion and tumult. 15. Hence it is applied to the noise and tumult of a crowd. he went wp into the mountain and sat down. More the plain (eVi roirov irehivov). Mark as the Ccman' Judas. like the Latin turiae. See on Mark iii. and the interpreters begged him to explain what he meant.evoi. Matthew. See on ch. 16. 4. Matthew says There is a discrepancy in the two narratives. See on Mark 18. . The xii. when on the funeral-pile he uttered the name of Solon. apostles. best texts read ivo'x\ov/j. [Ch. On the order of the names. Thomas. as Eev. From o)(\o<. 18. and so passes into the sense of the trouble and annoyance caused by these. See on Mark iii. 17. Thus Herodotus says of Croesus. 17. Vexed (o'xXovfievoi). See on Superscription of Matthew. See on Mark iii. VI He named 14. see on Mark iii. occurring only here and Heb. Simon. v. and Bartholomew. James and John. See on Thaddaeus. 18. 4 Mark iii. Distinguished by Matthew and See on Matt.

35. V. are Luke is more technical. 56. Motoit. Ye poor. v. Luke employs it The Seemon on the 20-49." Compare. Sought—went out {i^rtTow—i^i^pxeTo). shall be healed. to heal. 3. and by ver. 86. were samed. 44 xxviii. Compare Matt. and iawi^ovro. another professional word see on ch. See on Matt. 36. where Siacroxj-ri (A. the technical word. .] LTJKE.. 1 to viii. Lifted opened his up his eyes. v.. . 7. 1. but always with some addition showing the nature of the saving. v. v. Luke adopts the style of di- rect address Matthew of abstract statement. 1). 48. Luke viii. Both indicate a solemn and im- pressive opening of a discourse. which occurs twenty-eight times in the New Testament. See on Matt. were thoroughly sawed. Thus Hippocrates. Y. Both imper- The A. heal) is explained by ver. 309 pressed for an answer and grew troublesome {koX o'xkov vapeXovrmv) " I. seventeen of these in Luke. Peculiar to Luke. 36 Mark vi. 1. VI. Blessed. fects. for virtue was going out of him. and Eev. as equivalent to IdcrS-ai. 20. from some calamity. Luke also uses the two words employed by Matthew and Mark. 31) that had been sick. Medi. Healed (taro). " troubled {ivaxXovfiivq)) with a spasm or tetanus. lose in vividness by not rendering them accordingly. 44. 47. Frequent in medical language. 3. using the strictly medical term.— Ch. The multitudes were all the while seeking to touch him. v. 3. xiv. but in the sense of escaping from a severe illin this sense ness or Acts xxvii. used. where hieam^aav. "found the servant whole (vyiaivovra. laS^aerai. Thus Luke vii. — cal writers do not use am^etv or Siacrda^etv. also. Compare he mouth (Matt. Compare Matt. 10. to save." — 19. .

and had a double signification: the historical kingdom and the spiritual and moral kingdom. 16-20). kingdom of God. It is " an organic commonwealth which has the principle of its It was foreshadowed existence in the will of God " (Tholuck).310 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. exstrongly out. whose life of perfect obedience to God and whose sacrificial offering of love upon the cross reveal to men their true relation to God. through David's prophecy of the everlasting kingdom and the king of righteousness and peace to describe the . since it was expected to be fully realized in the Messianic era. xlix. when God should take upon himself the kingdom by a visible representative. xxii.). (Ps.. by whom all things are made and consist (John i. or of the heavens {r&v ovpavwv). They very often understood by it divine worship . . its eternity and superiority over the kingdoms of the world are brought For this kingdom Israel looked with longing. yet " there was among the people a certain consciousness that the principle itself was of universal application " (Tholuck). The ideal kingdom is to be realized in the absolute rule of the eternal Son. and most frequently employed by Christ himself kingdom though Matthew also uses. essentially. with its divinely revealed destiny . both in a physical and a spiritual sense. Kingdom of God {rj ^aatXela rov S^eov). The ultimate idea of the kino-dom is that of " a redeemed humanity. In this sense it was apprehended by John the Baptist. in Daniel. a phrase used by him only. " Behold your God. less freThe two are substantially equivaquently. though the pre-eminent title was hingdom of God. sectarian. In Daniel this conception is distinctly expressed (vii. adoration of God. and political.'''' The hingdom of Heaven was common in the Rabbinical writphrase ings. VI. 10). Jewish. [Ch. 9. xl. . 14^27 iv. lent terms. . Ixxii. pecting its realization in the Messiah and while the common idea of the people was narrow. The kingdom of God is. until. and whose spirit works to bring them into this relation. i. . Jesus Christ. through Isaiah.' the sum of religious duties . Compare Isa. but also the Messianic kingdom. the absolute dominion of God in the universe. Matthew has kinffdom of heaven. toward clearer definition from Jacob's prophecy of the Prince out of Judah (Gen. 25 ii. 44). The idea of the kingdom advanced in the Jewish theocracy. 3 Col.

and thus giving a divine impulse and direction to the whole man. The kingdom develops from within outward under the power of its essential divine energy and law of growth. also. the Tares. Luke xi. and became internal by being enthroned in the heart.oXh." This kingdom is \. expressing itself in forms of knowledge and art. The law ia written in his heart. . which insures stacles. i. 43 xix. the parables of the Sower. or the state . its internal principle " (Tho- The consummation is described in Apoc. rather than God by moulding him from without by a moral code. vi. . or the Ohv/rch . God is in Christ reconciling the world unto himself. xiii. 12. but by the evolution of holy character in men. The Church is identified with the kingdom to the degree in which it is under the power of the " As the Old Testament kingdom of God was spirit of Christ. like the Roman empire and the Romish hierarchy. . and the Drag-net and compare the expression " theirs. 9 Apoc. pervasion of society like the leaven in the lump (Matt.Ch. xxii. 28. is the kingdom. xiii. . the perfection of the New Testament kingdom will conthat is. The kingdom of God in its present development is not identical with the Church. 34 . the Leaven. sq. It is a larger movement which includes the Church. pressing. xvi. VI. . V. 16 xvii. As a present kingdom it is incomplete and in process of development. perfected and completed when it ceased to be external. 311 manifesting social itself in a religious communion. v.] LUKE." Matt. . its progress and final triumph against all ob- Similarly. xxi. exactly corresponding to luck). 3 . . 29 . 32) working toward the vi. In like manner the State and the Church are shaped. vii. It is expanding in society like the grain of mustard seed (Matt. 19. 27 Matt. XX. 28 Mark ix. on the other hand. xiii. . 20 xvi. 31. its work in reconciling and subjecting the world to planting in his heart begins at the fountain-head of man's life. xii. a communion. or yours. 47 2 Pet.). and an aes^AeiSic communion. so. 11 1 Cor. 21 see. adequately ex. 20). present (Matt.. xi. Luke 20) . not by external pressure. 33). XXV. and the Gospel of Christ is the great instrument in that process (2 Cor. and future (Dan. by imits own divine potency. sist in its complete incarnation and externalization when it shall attain an outward manifestation. xxvi. 19.

66) and by John (Apoc. 64. . 19 ment . 13 xiv. viii. his human life. be comforted. Compare Matt. . WORD STUDIES Now.. He is the archetypal man. . 6 . of The phrase is employed in the Old Testacircumlocution for man.312 21. v. types of civilization. (/eXat'oi'Te?). . — deem nothing human and could be touched with " It also exalts a feeling of the infirmities of the race which he was to judge (Liddon. in whose presence distinction of race. the narrow horizon which bounded. intervals of ages.. See on Matt. 8 . with special reference to his as a Ps. shall v. xxiii. to which our Lord referred in Matt. Son Man. and eighty-nine times in Ezekiel). xxvi. The could title asserts Christ's : tion with our race humanity his absolute identifica" his having a genuine humanity which strange. 13 sq. [Ch. Matt. degrees of mental culture are as nothing " (Liddon). . . 50. It had also a Messianic meaning (Dan. 63. Nothing rises local. See on irev- mourn. sectarian dwarfs the proportions of his world-embracing character.). XXV. 30. he inaugurates national. Strictly. i. to v. Laugh 22. 14) and when acquiescing in the title " Son of God. ^iz. weep audibly. him as the representative ideal man. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Weep 3^ovvTe<. xxiv. Irenaeus says. by Stephen (Acts vii. It was the title which Christ most frequently' applied to himself and there are but two instances in which it is applied to him by another. Matthew.' He closes its the earlier history of our race. the blood. (jeXda-ere). xxvi. 52 Matt. 6. vii. Shall be filled. 4. VI Peculiar to Lnke. "). " Our Lord's Divinity . 64). individualizing. as it seemed. he sometimes immediately after substitutes " Son of Man (John i. XXXV. 11. He above the parentage." addressed to him" self. transient. as St. " All is human history tends to liim and radiates from him its he the point in which humanity finds ' unity . He recapitulates it. future. 4 Job frailty as contrasted with God (Num.

to exhort or console. Woe. In its original sense of callmgfor add the noun appears in the New . and thence into that of consolatory exhortation and ." properly changed " Have received Consolation KohJkw. " I have all things to the full. . vi.Ch. he exceeding glad {ar/aXXidaSe see on 1 Pet. has have their reward " to " tkey have reThe verb. iv. From irapd. viewed simply as a man. coming round to mean that which one is summoned to give Thus it embodies the call for consolation. Christ's is the Son of God" humanity can be explained only by his divinity. Literally. off or jTrom. ceived. the Eev. The solution is ex- pressed in Heb. and therefore entreaty. 23. to call or {7rapdK\ii<n<. "/ have all things {airi'xm TravTo). and summon. authority of judgment over all flesh. Matthew. his miracles combined. 5. to a sUjppUant call. VI. These woes are not noted by Matthew. " The absolute relation to the world which he attributes to himself demands an absolute relation to God. the world. Its use corresponds with that help. 24. when Paul says. . he must be more." he does not mean merely an acknowledgment of the receipt of the Church's gift. Their fathers. Divested of all that is popularly called miraculous. Peculiar to Luke. 44. and e'x^eo.). under the historical conditions of his life. He is the Son of Man. 41. See ch. to the side of. passing on into the sense of exhortation. (airixeTe). and the response to the so — of the kindred verb irapaKoKew. a calling to one's side to help . title 313 But the as means more. Philip. 18.] LUKE. literally means to have nothing left to desire. the Judge. only because he (Luthardt). As Son of Man he asserts the By virtue of what he is Son of Man. A humanity so unique demands a solution. he is a greater miracle than all i. : i. 6)." Thus in to have. Compare i. Leap for joy (crKipTija-aTe). but that he is fully furnished. 16. the Lord of . compounded of aTro. t/iey In Matt.

Neither the noun nor the verb appear in the writings of John. Compare Matt. See on Matt. 15 E. meaning wavers between . to . however. V. Well («a\a)s). "With the sense of hearing in order heed : giving heed. xi. 4. atmosphere for him that climbs and 25. in Matt. xii. " the child to mahe strong. and that true comfort is given. the and resist is short. in Acts ii. 12. Christ says " they that console exhort. 7. 18 . . xii. fairly. 36 Mark i. 8 Tit. The comfort which Christ gives is not always soothing. 25 2 Cor. vi. and was comforted in spirit " (A. see on John xiv. Luke xvi. 15. The verb. toils and fights. ii.). 4. 43. 16." he speaks in recognition of the fact sorrow is the outcome of sin. 4 with tnuch entreaty. jpray In the sense (Matt. strengthening).KXrjro'i. waxed. VI. . 22 Eom. The verb. 23 xiv. but in strength to fight and overcome sin. The atmosphere of the word. Handsomely. 22. In some instances. is peculiar to him. 8 Heb. the . is to convince of sin and oi judgment. In the sense of in Acts xiii. 2 Cor. in not the atmosphere of the sick-chamber. 314 WORD STUDIES IN THE IfBW TESTAMENT. Comforter. 4 Philem.. " there appeared an angel from heaven comforting him " (A. On this word. 4 . therefore. 34 xiv. It is from the later Latin confortare. Testament only in 2 Cor.. the Comforter. . It should be noted. not only in pardon for the past. 15. etc. . 25 . : [Ch. but the tonic breath of the open world. 80. the noun may be found . of consolation or comfort the noun occurs in Luke ii. Luke xxii. 40 xi. Y. 27. . 26. or Advocate. xiii. . and exhortation or counsel. viii. but the kindred word Trapa. the Paraclete. The Holy Spirit. that the word comfort goes deeper than its popular conception of soothing. Mourn and weep V.. Thus "Wycliffe renders Luke i. v. i. {jrev^a-ere xal Kkavaere). 40 v. Which hear. ii. . When. 3 vii. rendered ieseech. Underlying the word is the sense of a wise counsel or admonition which rouses and braces the moral nature and encourages and strengthens it to do and to endure. however. i. . 24 . .om. mourn that shall all be comforted.. The verb appears frequently in this sense. waxed stronf) and Tyndale. viii. of moral struggle and victory .

a slap. —coat. (alpovTo^).. See on Matt. The cheek mere is irapeid. often in New Testament. Cheek . nemer despadring." . which selects its object for a reason. Hoping A . only here in New Testament. lifteth.). but arfa-Kmaiv. which implies an instincti/oe. So.. but what ch. (aiTovvrt).. Not <f)i\ova-i. VI. Compare Matt. to &oery one that asks. taketh Taketh away Cloke up. of a sentiment based on judgment and calculation. xv. 40. 23. xii. 34. therefore. Luke 36. but a heavy an act of violence rather than of contempt. affectionate attachment. The blow intended blow is not.ire\m^ovTe<. Properly. and by Eev. thei/r' farther. Lit. " omni petenti. 30. Ask again {airaiTei). 315 29. v. Love. See. when classed with publicans. [a-iayovd)..] LtTKE. Lend (Sai/etfere).. as The article marks them as a class. Used in medical language of diseases demanding or requiring certain treatment. is "What ki/ndoi thanks ? On thamk its quality ? Not what (%a/3ts). Peculiar to Luke. lovers. and meaning later Greek originally to give up in despair. Asketh V. thank (TTota) « your reward. word. 15-17. on John xsi. Lit. non om/nia petenti give but not everythi/ng he asks. at interest. the jaw. is What i. Tynd. See on Matt. see on 30. Ch. Every one. 20. the very sinners love for nothing again (jj/rihev a. a sense which is adopted by some high authorities. 32. Augustine remarks. 42. Only here and ch. Sinners {oi aiiapTwKol).

v. "Pressed down. {oi aTrrjXTriafievoi ix. part of the body. but 38." and its kindred adjective are used by medical writers to describe desperate cases of disease. 11." this sense in the Septuagint.. despairing of his health. v. running over. Eev. 16. 18. Isa. {'xpTjcTTO'i). the sense here The verb is. rightly.''^ Compare ch. xxix. " I will measure their it : . " Bring thevail (the mantle. 30. Pressed down A common Shaken together. " shall rejoice. release. The poor among men So in avS^patvcov) Apocrypha. Bosom {tov KoXnrov). 17. . See on Jas. Boaz says to Euth. horts to the opposite of what he has just forbidden So Eev. VI was familiar with 19. In Euth iii. Merciful {oiKrlp/jiove^). 7.. 45. and thus forming a pouch. xxii." The and the climax in the allusion in every case is to a dry measure three participles would be destroyed by Bengel's interpretation. as liquids. 37. that thou hast upon thee. " Judith ix. 11. open) and he measured six measures of Compare Isa. " do good as those who consider nothing as lost. and opposed to •y^aveiv." barley into Old Testament). Compare Matt. Christ ex" do not : condemn. 68 . Forgive {a-TroXvere). so Eev. over. Kind 36. Bengel says..316 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. to touch gently. In the Ea'stern markets at this day vendors may be seen pouring the contents of a measure into the bosom of a purchaser. Children of the Highest {vloX ly^LaTov). xxiii. Only here in New Tes(n-eTriecTfiivov). 2 Mac. The gathered fold of the wide upper garment. Lit. and hold it (hold it. Thus r&v ^^ [Ch. 15. medical term for pressing strongly on a tament. .. sons. xi.kv(ov)P According to this. release. as soft goods / running But this is fanciful and incorrect. bound together with the girdle. See on Matt. Ixv. as dry articles shaken together. 48. " A saviour of them that are with- out hope {a-K't}K'Ki<Tyi.

See clearly to cast out. particle expects a negative reply. rendering the participle See on Matt. perfected. the word is used of a hay in a beach. it is used of restoring a brother taken divided. Can the blind (/i. guide. Perfect more literally. . " Expressing the pretence of fraternal duty. corrupt. 43. Better. iv. 40. 39. 18. In Acts xxvii. as Eph. the Latin sinus means both the hanging.] LUKE. — {KaTavoei<}) 3. 317 former work into their iosom . is etythere is no good tree that Iringeth. ' To this is opposed Thou hypocrite ! ' " (Behgel). since the word com- bines the ideas of leading and instructing. SevBpov KoKov. xxxii. 1. 41. {KaTr]pri(Tfievo<. this Rev. Similarly. 6. whether in a physical or a moral sense. Hence the meaning to ^er/%c^. Brother. baggy bosom of a robe and a bay. more correctly. Surely the hlmd cannot. in a fault. Let allow me me cast out (a^e? eK^oKas) with a studied courtesy to cast out. as Rev. 12. etc. i. 39. set to rights..ijTiSwaTatTU(^\o?)? The interrogative etc.) ? Another interrogative time expecting an affirmative answer. 10. See on Matt. where Paiil exhorts to he perjoined together {/caTrfpTia-fiivoi) in opposition to hein^ fectly In Gal. — mote 42. A good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit (oueVTiv Rev. Sairpop. considerest See on Matt. The word signifies to readjust. particle. forming a bend in the land like the hollow of a robe. vii. 21. vii. VI. Used in medical language of setting a bone or joint...: Ch. restore. Shall they not {ovxi. Lead {oSriyeiv). vi. iroiovv Kapirov aaTrpov). also Jer. See 1 Cor.). iv. Beholdest (/8\e7ret?) (Kdp^o<i) — beam (Sokov).

writings. rightly. . in Mark 26. : [Ch. Digged deep : {ea-Ka^ev Koi e^d^vvev).. As a medused of excess of fluids in the body jloodvag.. See on Matt.. Lit. He it is was doubtless acquainted with it medicinally. Eev. heat. Neither. The A. he digged and went The ical flood it is {Tr\r)fifivpa<. 2 " Tour riches are cor- rujpUdP The word means rotten. I will shew you vii. to whom he is like. into the solid rock. 44. The A. Matthew has irpoakKo-^av. Y. : Grapes 45. 19. on the other hand). Evil. thistles. omits agmn {iraXiv. 48. rpi^oXuiv. The and only in this passage. more literally. a cluster of grapes. It occurs only here and ver.. : Luke only. v. J^-a^iS. re- gards the two words as a strong expression of a single idea but the idea is twofold he dnig (through the sand). NEW TESTAMENT. as it was extensively used by ancient physicians. 49. and deepened down deep.). {a-To^vXrjv). word occurs term in There is no article ajlood. V. Bramble-bush (0dTov.. stale. .318 WORD STUDIES IN THE o-j^ttm. 37). 24. So Kev. where Pentateuch. See on Luke iii. Used by physicians of a rupture of the veins. Eev. and the medical writings abound in prescriptions of which it is an ingredient.) Matthew has The word occurs only once outside of Luke's xii. nor ogam. Peculiar to Luke. Galen has a chapter on its medicinal uses. VL mologically akin to in Jas." It is the word employed by the Septuagint for the bush out of which God spoke to Moses. used as the familiar title of a section of the Luke also uses it in the same way (xx. 47. : Beat vehemently (TTpocre/J^iy^ei'). Galen also has a saying similar to " A farmer could never make a bramble bear our Lord's grapes.

the The numbers of a cen-.] LUKE. feU to- gether. vision of troops. In medical language used of the falling-in of parts of the body. Commander of a apx<^. Mark A and thence came to mean any division. captain of which was called centurio. a company. or chief captains ers of these cohorts . See on ears. A CHAPTER 1-10. viii. a Graecized form of the Latin word centwrio. whether conIn military language it meant a disisting of a hundred or not. 'Rev. Ruin (Jnjyfia). Matthew ment. fell in. Centurion {eKarovTdpxov). collapses or shrivels. into the ears. In the ears (e« iv. Ta<. i. d. Compare Matt. 37.Koa<. Sayings See on ch. 49. 1. earth without a foundation." The commandcenturion (Acts x. From e/carov. thefall. The Eoman legion tury varied from about fifty to a of a kind . bands. Lit. as the Italian band.''^ m . Upon the The two men It fell (eirea-ev).).. centuria was originally a division consisting of a hundred things a hundred. But the best texts rea. upon are conceived as alike selecting a spot where the sand overlies the rock. " the temples fallen Matthew uses the simple verb eirea-ev. collapsed. Luke 2. has 7rTd)<Tt?. vn.. {prifjuna). " consisted of ten cohorts or a-irelpai. The one builds directly ppon the sand. Only here in New Testamedical term for a laceration or rupture. 1). uses KevTvpiav.d a-vveirea-ev. breaking. the other digs through and down into the rock. VII. of which Cornelius was a were called chiliarchs. the limb quickly Thus Hippocrates.. 5-13. and hundred men. 37.Ch. Matthew.' fell. hundred. not necessarily of a hundred. 319 the sand. Only here in New Testament. Lit. to commamd.

on Acts x. which occurs A bond-servant. more correctly. In this case Luke omits the mention of the disease. is used in its older meaning. office was also servant. from the Latin instate. eariv). 24.. V. 12. besides properly rendering icniv is. Eev. VII. XV. The A. to urge or press upon. and cites. Render as Rev. " instant in prayer. was the viUs. Better as Rev. san}e. Dean Howson (" Companions of St. It does not between the master and tlie servant. and the care of the watch. Heal 4. xii. So Rom. 4." Wye. Better asking. and Julius. Matthew has irah. or vine-stock. vi. That he was worthy {on d^io'. See. Lit. The Rev. On oTi. It may mean only that he was a valuable servant. which is given by Matthew. 19. who escorted Paul to Rome.. takes it as a mark of quotation. The duty of the centurion was chiefly confined to the regulation The badge of his of his own corps. instantly {irapeKoKow Instantly.). which commonly means at once. instead of was. Dear {evTifio<. as Kev. 1. See on Matt. (John xviii. further. 7. ii.). Servant (SouXo?). {Siaa-tocTT)). held in honor or value. jpressingly. the one at the cross. They besought him lesought. 23. See on 1 Pet. See on ch.). or companies. though such may well have existed. of which the commanders were called centurions. Each cohort contained six centuries. a also at ver. 12. necessarily imply an affectionate relation Beseeching {ipwT&v). that. vi. prayed busily. see on ch. Paul ") remarks on the favorable impression left upon the mind by the officers of the Eoman army mentioned in the New Testament. Too strong. The word to heseech (irapaKaKeco) occurs in the next verse. and known by letters on the crest of his helmet. He wore a short tunic.. besides the centurion in this passage. renders as a conjunction. [Ch.. a-TrovBaio)'.320 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. He is worthy that thou shouldst .

Vn. when he was what met by the second messenger from the centurion. used in the sense XX. 9. for the best texts read Trape^y. 32 . 35. but our sufficiency {'iKavoTrj'. of much. thou shouldst do. should have omitted to note the imperaThe literal rendering tive mood here. He hath built {avTo<i wKoSo/irjo-ev)..ov). 7. vii. " not that we are sufficient It is also {iKavol). 321 do this . iii. Possibly kinsmen. "the synaelders gogue. hvrn- at his own expense. " worthy to bear " and 3 Cor. Lit." servant shall be healed (IoS^tw 6 irah p. 6. . 5. 36. 23. Lit. viii. 9 Acts ix. vi.] LUKE. 8. Lit. "say with a word. iii." " profaning the synagogue " (Bengel).. Compare Matt. rightly. Also. Went (iiropeveTo).) is of God. 11. " The article.. 12 viii. the second person. . at least in the margin. He was going. It is not easy to render the exact force of these words. Set under authority {vwo i^ovaiav 21 ratraoiievo^). See on ch. Mark v. 27. Say in a word. not elders now. It is strange that the Eev. Let my servami le healed. 19. he shall do. long. Trape^ei. Me is emphatic. He tense is explained by was on the way.Ch. ix. self. sufficient. instead of the third person. 5. See on Matt. A synagogue {rrjv awar/wyriv). our synagogue. did not merely avoid Hence Eev. many. Worthy (iKavo^). The sense of . Note the prois the more graphic : My fessional word for heal. Friends. The imperfect follows. Trouble worry. {aKvKXov). See on Matt.. ." See ch." marks the particular synagogue which these represented.

Mentioned nowhere else in the Bible. having soldiers under me. It seems evident. no tradition marks the it spot. See on ch. Whole (vyta'ivovTa). station of command. sick. But. Others read iv Luke's usage favors the latter. trance alone could have had — that which One en- opens on the rough . so that the words might be paraphrased thus: "I am a man whose daily course of life and duty is appointed and arranged by superior authority. res ef^?. immediately west of Endor. 31. in my subordinate obey. after. 9. after (eV ry e^?). reraryfievo^. is the ruined village of Nain. a Tnan (as compared with thee). If that be so. " For I also. it is a question whether the word man (av^pw'iro'i) may not imply more than is commonly assigned to it. No convent. how much more thou. am set under authority. soon Nain. having soldiers under myself. that the centurion regarded him as more than man. is very subtle. under these circumstances. The best texts omit that had been 11-17. at least. viii. [Ch. The present participle indicates something operating daily. and the centurion is describing not his appointed position so of life. drawn up in order. See on Matt." The centurion speaks in a " 1 know how to figure which is well explained by Alford obey. much as his daily course The word set originally means arranged. being myself under authority and I know how others If then I. Taking the Greek words in their order they may read. I am. but this would be more accurately ex- the present participle with the verb pressed by the perfect participle. under are commonly understood to m^^'o. who art over all. 11.WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. am obeyed. "On the northern slope of the rugged and barren ridge of Little Hermon." Just what estimate of Jesus these words imply we cannot say. The day So Rev. v. 10. and whom diseases serve as their Master. : . which lies in a further recess of the same range. placed The words set in a subordinate position . the name alone is sufficient to guarantee its authenticity. VH elfii. Peculiar to Luke.

323 It hillside in its downward slope to the plain. 8. Compare Acts ix. " Land and Book "). " It is in striking accord with the one biblical incident in the history of Nain that renders it dear to the Christian heart. bier for holding anything bier. originally. mnst have been ' in this steep descent. The tombs were See on Matt. and are situated on the hillside to the east of the village " (Thomson." {(jop6<s). Here the Edersheim says " of wicTcer-worJc. of a vessel sometimes of a cinerary urn.] LUKE. ' 12. Compare ch. outside of the city. From aifSMr^yya. as an ancient Jewish commentary explains. as. our world. nigh to the gate of the village. 13. ceased to belong to his mother " (Bengel). they carried out the dead man. iii.. that about the only remains of antiquity are tombs. 1 Pet. " Had it been in Judaea. Rev. woman. . In classical Greek. 40. and the long procession of mourners stayed. "For he had already Delivered {eSaicev). 3. Not fearing the ceremonial defilement of contact with the dead. 42. The open 15. : Sat up (dveKoiBia-ev). ought to lead the (« Jewish Social Life ")• way in the funeral procession " Had compassion jpitiful. The Lord. " Sinai and Palestine "). according to Eastern custom. and ' the young man delivered back to his mother " (Stanley. ilee came the women for. In this in- transitive sense the word is used mostly by medical writers. Carried out. ix.' that. Eirst . VII. ' ' the bier was stopped. See on 14! Touched. ga^e.Ch. the nobler entrails. These are cut in the rock. Edersheim says. Saw her. xxi. regarded as the seat of the affections. the hired mourners and musicians would have jpreceded the bier in Gal. who brought death into they followed. (eaifKopfyyicr^^.

is expressed by this verb than give.. Better. whatever may also the conditional not (jirf) : occur. simple giving/. aT-e receiAivng. xi. {Bvo Ttm?). fear took hold on all. joy-giving gift.). ch. 2 . {eKa^ev he [Ch. This rumor. Two Lit. 29. 19. More i. {ixapla-aro). and compare freely Horn. 3. Marking the two See on Matt. It is applied to evil spirits by Luke only. VIX There came a (j)6^o<i airavTa'. iv. 21. moreover. which spreads destruction or corruption pents. two certain ones. vi.. v. . 2-19. certain two. report : viz. Shall not be offended ijii] a-KavBaXia-Sfj).. even while Jesus is speaking and John is in doubt.. as often. 19. He gave ii. He gave See on viii. See ch. Evil spirits {•jrvevfidTtovjrovTip&v). Art thou. iii. Mark iii. On Trovrjpo's. classes of disease recognized in medical writings. The thou is emphatic. 10." . See on Matt. 18 viii. 30 12. that Luke distinguishes here between disease and demoniac possession. Compare Matt. as a free. are walk- ing. 1 Cor. Hey. as Rev. xii. 17. gracious. Lit... as the poison of serNote. chronic and acute. X'"'P'''>ff<^or. Note " shall not find. see ch. shall find none occasion of stnirnbln/ng. it is In accordance with its signifiapplied in medicine to that . had vindicated his claims by raising the dead. 32. Rev. etc.. 23 . See on Matt. cation of evil on its actvve side. . 45.. Also. WORD STUDIES IN THE fear on all NEW TESTAMENT. xiii.324 16. Eev. Diseases — plagues {voamv—/laa-rtymv). 22. in margin. of a great prophet who IT.. 32. evil. The blind receive. xi. 23. 18-35. with the sin- gle exception of Matt.

IsA^areinhixury. before. Eev. seers (jiavTe^) . therefore. Only here in !N"ew Testament. {l^eda-aa-^ai). 5. Jas.) of things divine " (" Timaeus. luamry. central idea of the word is. The revelation may or may not relate to the future. Often rendered palaces.. the interpreter son it is Hence it is the technical term for of a divine message. see on 2 Pet. 325 is 24. 26. a royal treasury. and &o. before. Kings' courts {fiaaCKeloi'i). On rpv^. one to whom God reveals him- 72). The self and through whom he speaks. applied to a capital or royal city.. or to place. not necessarily afaz-eteller. A prophet {'7rpo(f>i^Tr]v). see on Jas. The prophet is a forth-teller. This is indeed included in the term. 15. correct but behold.. So Plato " For this reacustomary to appoint diviners or interpreters to be : judges of the true inspiration. or instead of one. m Live delicately (T(3i/(^5v7rapj^ovTe?).] LUKE. viz. and are not to be called diwiners at but interpreters {TrpotjyrJTai. easily runs into that of in hehalf of. ii. heforeha/nd . and irpo. to See on Matt. in later Greek.. in turn. in front of. and this latter meaning. Lit. intent gazing. 13. The essence of the prophetic character . in front of. and a royal diadem. Sometimes. VII. ii. to li/ve where Compare the kindred verb vn hoxury. The word is from (prjfii. occurs. and thus forming This sense runs natura medium between him and the hearer. one who speaks standing before another. know that they are only repeaters all. To see xi. of dark sayings and visions. the only other place Tpv(j)da>. they do not Some persons call them diviners. awkward. 25. to speak. it On inrdp'xpine<. viz. Y. are." Similarly of an advocate to speak for. ally into that of instead of. for. (eV t/iaTt<r/iw ej/S6^§)). The prophet is. but does not cover its meaning entirely. primarily. v.jpublicly . Gorgeously apparelled ^lendnd clothing. The verb implies steadfast. This meaning of the preposition may have reference to time. The popular conception of a prophet is limited to his foretelling future events.Ch.

xi.. Matthew has eKoyfraaS^e. Lawyers (vofiiKol). preters and doctors of the Mosaic law. See on Matt. 'Rev. lilMe children. might saj'. v. much better. less. Against themselves (ew reference to themselves. at xi. 16. for '• . Lit. Prepare {KaTaaKevda-ei). Rejected {^^eTrja-av). Set aside. Mourned {i&prjv^a-afiev). 27." and. 16. kavTovi). Of audible weeping. Justified Rev. xiv. hut Utile / or. beaten your breasts. made it vain through their disobedience. See on Matt. " corrvparatively little.326 is WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Diminutive." 29. that God's baptism was right. Weep 17. See on Matt. i. Children on Matt. One of the Hebrew names prophet. (eKKava-are). with (TratSt'ots). More strictly. VIL immediate intercourse with God. We piped. waMed : play- ing at funeral. 17. the earlier name. 33. Bread and wine. 10 and in 1 Cor. or omnulled . 26fied a shewer or seer. ix. as some maintain. Least (jjLiKpoTepo'i)... 32. [Ch. Paul shows that revelation stands in necessary connection with prophesying. Peculiar to Luke. will concerning John's Declaring. 30. Playing wedding. signiSee 1 Sam. Ifot legal practitioners. but inter- 30. See Market-place. xi. See on ch. as we God. . by being baptized. 4.

wet.. as rain. A Trench cites a description of a dinner at a consul's house in Damietta.] LUKE. VII. 7. most blessed sinner thou hast shown the : world a safe enough place for sinners the feet of Jesus. — Sat (/cara/eetTat). Alabaster. Rev. 2. 38. repel none. Bernard beautifully says: " Thanks to thee. Creditor {SaveiarTf}). the feet were turned from the table toward the left and the elbow rested on the Wash with {^pexetv). "Parables"). . sinner. as Kev.Ch. " Many came in and took their places on the sideseats. 327 37.. More literally and better. Lit. See on Matt. 2. xx. (^rt?). Wiped 41. 21. {Srjvdpia). From Bdvewv. vi. Eev. (i^e/xacj-a-ev). (ixapla-aro). which spurn none.. See on Pence 42. xxvi. v. A woman who Of that class which was. reject none. a loan. "Where alone the Pharisee vents not his haughtiness. omits framMy. there surely the Ethiopian changes his skin. See on ch. . They spoke to those at table on business or the news of the day. lender. is reclining at meat : a lively change to the present tense. a lender of money at interest. Her presence there is explained by the Oriental custom of strangers passing in and out of a house during a meal to see and converse with the gnests. and our host spoke freely to them" ("Parables"). by Trench. Properly ch. At his feet behind. See on Matt. a sinneress. Wye. the couch walls. 34. Frankly forgave is which implied in the verb. See on ver. The body of the guest rested on table. and the leopard his spots" (cit. uninvited and yet unchallenged. etc. and receive and admit all.

VIII. In vv. vii. " who ewnforgiveth See on sins. The compound verb has the force of kissing tenderly. Only here in New Testament. She hath anointed mjj'eet with costly ointment." n peace (eiV eip'^vrjv). 37. 1 45. the word fivpov. soon afterwa/rd.. I {kolC).. suppose means to take take wp hy gettmg under. ment. Christ means to say to Simon. 46. It might be rendered. " thou didst not anoint my Aead. 38. Lit.328 43. . into peace. 4. it. Better. Also 50. To kiss {Kara^iXovcTa). iroKiv Koi See on ver. Ceased (SteXtTrez/). hy city and village. Within themselves as Eev. Much better as Rev. Mark CHAPTER 1-3. village {icaTh. caressing. Common in medical language. accordingly. They began. The verb literally [Ch. 49. with ordinary oil. and to discontinue giving remedies for a time. Peculiar to Luke. (eV eawrot?). in margin. VIII.. Afterward (ev tS> koJ^s^^). Eev. 1. is used. V. liquid ointThis was the finer and costlier of the two. Kwfji/rjv). Throughout every city and Lit. meaning to he intermittent. NEW TESTAMENT. Luke notes the first uprising of the thought.. See on ch. the nobler part. 34. Oil {i\aia>). a/mong themselves. I WORD STUDIES IN THE {v7ro\afil3dva>). 11..

one to whom the management of affairs 4^18. Heb.Ch. Was trodden down. noting something in progress. 1-25. Were come sorted. 6. {ttjv ireTpav). Com^ iv. By the way-side. liar to rendering which would apply better Eender. Out of every city (Kwra iroKlv). " and the twelve (went) with twel/ue. And the twelve were with the translators. as Kev. to standing grain. Or proclaiming. trodden underfoot.' is turned over. 1-23 .. Only here and See is a quotation from the Septuagint. 4. xiii. 15. 7.] {Ktipixrawv). dere- 5.." etc. The word thus literally means.. Eev. Peculiar to Luke. thence to turn over to. xiii. 3. him . Sprung up grew. Preaching pare ch. Lit. better. City by city. ... xiii. See on Matt. i. to turn towa/rd j 3. vm. The were is supplied by Better. 329 as a herald. " or. Matthew's i^aveTSiXev. 18. " he himself went about. and so commit or intrust to. Steward {eiriTpoirov). The rock Matthew has the rocTcy places. To sow. See on Matt. Compare Matt. and Mark the rocky ground. ii. on Matt. LUKE. and with him the From itrvTpkirw. {imiropevofievav). as Rev. His seed. (0uev). The present participle They kept coming. Eev. is it Sprung up xii. Pecu- A Luke. Mark iv. where hamvng sprung vp. xiii. transfer. and see on 5.. 1 Pet. him.

ver. The word the medical ex- pression for juices of the body. See on Matt. xiii. 8. (awitaaiv). or endure for a while. VIH Only here in New Testament. of plants.<f)vela-ai). 7. Only here in ISTew Testaand Matt. the kindred Mark xii. . the juice of thought (" Clouds. and the unitit {(7v/ji. Mysteries. ing of nerves or bones." Lit. 33. 6. . For awhile believe. Among eV. simple e-TTvi^av. of plants growing in the same place " The hellebore grows together with : the vines. as here.330 IVI WORD STUDIES istu re {tKfidha). 61. Matthew In time of temptation. [Ch. 233). Aristophanes. Matthew has the choked/ and Mark crvveirvi^av the avv. together. choked off. comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth. See on Matt. Luke is very fond of compounds and sonorous words. See on ch. A hundred-fold. in. Matthew is and Mark have depth of earth. 10. 7. CJioked {aireirvt^av). emphasizing the idea of compression. xiii. Stronger than the simple as giving more prominence to the danger. The technical word among physicians for closing of wounds or ulcers. See on wwc^TOtow«?mp'. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 13. See on Matt. The parable is this. xxiii. when tribulation or persecution cometh. and of the earth. 8. Dioscorides iises it. xiii. Understand noun. xiii. and Mark have endureth. Matthew and Mark have. Sprung up with See on ment. 11. In the midst. (eV fiiaa). 11. 21. metaphorically." Hippocrates uses this and the preceding word together. According to its interpretation. Omitting the thirty and sixty of Matthew and Mark..

v. properly. Bring (no Implying the impulse under fruit) to perfection (reXea^opovaiv). 331 aloof. noble. 17. lamp. Correctly. 16. noble. VIII.')(ovffiv). Candle (^iyyov).. vi/rtaious. Correctly rendered in A..Ch. Which de- notes as. Peculiar to Luke. These are they which them {ohToi. " they that have heard.] LUKE. Honest . as Rev.. a stand. YA. but in the sense fair. Go forth {tropevo/jievoi). 15. of the Latin honestvbs . v/nder).. contrast -with. Rev. Hence Rev. 22. Fall away. Lit." etc. hold it fast. 21. Honest.. Much better Rev. not in the popular sense. fall Or m patience. (Xvyylax. See on Mark Candlestick on Matt. 14. . rightly. y. Choked with (wtto. which they pursue their course. such Honest and good heart. Only here Testament. 16.. it iecometh unfruitful. as belonging to a class. Keep {KaTe.). The verb literally means to hring to an end or accom- in New jplishment. withdraw or stamd Matthew and Mark have stumMe. on which see note. but not so the parallel passage. giving the force of the compound verb. elaiv oX-rivei). See Nothing is secret — manifest. Peculiar to Luke. iv.. 13. worthy.. and as they go on their way are choked. ver. In amay. Matthew and Mark have. With patience. Much better Eev. Mark iv. Tlie present participle.

31-36. . and his friends could not fall in with him. He fell off {awo) into sleep. See on Matt. Storm (Xai'X. 37. The word describes the action of the sudden storms which literally come down from the heights surrounding the lake. See on Matt. 22-25 35-41. Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. viii. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. iv. 24. 18-27 . 22. Come at him {crvvrvxelv). Often in Acts in the accounts of Paiil's voy- 23. Seemeth eth he hath. iv. i. 26. It is the word used of Jesus' being led up into the wilderness and the mount of temptation (Matt. More vivid than either Matthew or Mark. Jesus was lost in the crowd. has. or take to sea . Compare Matt. Wye. sujyposeth. viii. 57-62. 22) also of bringing up a sacrifice to an idol-altar 1 . He fell asleep {a^inrvcoffev). ix. The manner of hearing. pass we over the standing water. Very graphic. The verb means to lead up / hence to lead up to the high sea. . who have there arose. viii. renders " thhikon which see note. Mark the matter. Mark iii. On laJce. (Acts vii. 3. The word properly carries the idea of an accidental meeting. . 46-50 . ye hear what ye hear (Sowet). put to sea. 41). Matthew has ffewr/cto?. xii. see on ch.. . Launched literally See on ch. (ttw?). v. How has Ti. Peculiar to Luke. Compare Matt.332 18. Luke ii. 1. v. VHI.ai/r). Tynd. forth {avri'}(^a-av). Mark iv. 24. 19-21. [Ch. guesseth . Only here in New Testament. Came down {Kare^r}). and slightly so here." as Jas. Eev. See on Mark a shaking. Wye.

rectly. v.. Compare the more there. Luke is especially fond of compounds with (Steyep-Sets). Matthew and Mark have came Gerasenes. There met him out of the city. i. Master. are used in our nautical terms hear wp See Introduction. 5.] LUKE. See on Jas. The texts vary. Note tlie imperfects they were fillvng . corhe awoke. detailed narrative of Mark. Only here in New Testament. sitions. Luke trasted with the instantaneous descent of the storm expressed by the 24." 25. on Luke's variety of words (eX-Jwro?. homing heen thoroughly awakened. and describes how the waves beat into the boat. hid. as A. The raging Arose awoJce.. blamed. and see notes Wye. goes into minuter detail. and hear down. 22. See on ch. A calm. aorist came down. Wrong. Rebuked. Over against {avmrepa). {KKvhmvi).. riX^ov). ver. 333 filling with water {aweTrX-qpovvTo). 39. The words out of the 27. . Used by Mark. Y. Rev. forth. VIII. Peculiar to Luke. He commandeth. iv. Compare launched Only here in New Testament. So Rev. as usual. for sailing. con- They were only. The two prepoup and down. Lit.: Ch. The verb means literally down from the sea to the shore. others Gergesenes. 26. It is the word used just before. to sail They arrived (KaTeTrXeva-av). dty belong rather with a certain man. some reading Gada/renes. Matthew and Mark have " a great calm. they were beginning to he in danger. 6.

28. for he was commanding.334 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. See on Matt. Better. often implies religious or superstitious feeling. viii. was kept under gua/rd and hound. fetters. Chains and Breaking there. Lit. The best texts insert koI. This is the prostration of abject terror. Compare Mark iv. and Long {iicavat). v. 10. See on Mark v. 16. 4. It had seized . The verb literally Used by Luke only. iv. 41." etc. 15. word of sichiess. and see note . See on Matt. Rev. 6. See on Mark v. does not sufficiently bring out the vigilance with which be was attended. V. does not improve by reading he commanded. VIIL devils longtime.. Mark has '7r/joo-e«wi7o-ev. Rev. Rev. See Acts means to snatch and carry away with He was kept bound {iBeafievero <j)vXacr<T6fievo(}). What have Torment uses the I to do with thee ? See on Mark 24. See on ch. Luke never iv. and read " who had demons. [Ch. 28. 4^6. lifting wp the voice. 5. {Siappijaa-oov). 9. Compare Mark v. as Matt. Imperfect tense. See on ch. {a-wrjpTrdKei).. The imperfect expresses the simultaneousness of the exorcism and the cry torment me not. 7. for a long time he had worn. 12 xxvii. is Cried out implies what conveyed by our phrase. The compound verb with ava. {avaKpd^a<. vi. The A.). (ervv). he was bound. He had commanded {-TrapijjyeWev). after devils (demons). So the Am. wp. Which had vii. 29. which iv. as Matt. being guarded. and. 4. Tombs. Fell down (TTjOoo-eTreo-ev). {^aa-avlarjs:). viii.

In vv. I beseech. The demons refer to their place of abode and torment. Command them. Expressed Greek by two words. xii. two thousomd. the bottomless.. 6 Sai/iovicrS-eh.Ch. Only Mark gives the number of the swine. 33. . beseech. See on ch. He that was possessed with devils. irapaieaXico ^Q^. where Paul besought the Lord to remove the thorn in the flesh. See on consolation. The deep (a/Swo-o-oj/). 2 Cor. 31. . etc. In Rom. Ran violently (&p/ja}a-ev). LUKE. to which Christ descended always of the bottomless pit. 33. 24. The restored man. as Eev. 22). more neatly. . v. Lit. healed {ia-aS^). Compare Mark v. 28. 2 Acts viii. A steep place. The same word 38. they say Seo/wtt. ch. rushed. Beseech See on used to render ch. 335 Was 30. 8. the demonized. Frequently of requests to Christ while on earth. v. 19. x. and to be allowed to enter into the swine. 9. and in Apoc. is prayers. Many devils were. IlapaKaXeo). vi. often of prayer to God (Matt. {<ruveixovro). It is noticeable that in ver. Besought (eSeero). (Mark 10). Rev. 38. 36. 32. I pray. iv..jprayed. recognizing . vul] driven. The plural. 32. where the demons address Christ as the Son of the highest God. ix. in the Was 37. 38 Luke x. where they ask not to be sent away. ix. they say TrapaKoKim. Peculiar to Luke. vi. They were taken as of the fever. 10). See on Matt. referring to the legion. Im-periect : was beseeching. See on ch. Mark has a quite different request. etc.. 7. to Jpray. used of Hades. Aeofiai. that he would not send them out of the country (v. Transcribed into our abyss. is used of prayer to God in only one in- stance. 31.

Lit. says in Decapolis. choice. many as Jesus had done. With the idea of pressing The simple verb is that ren- dered 43. we find a ruler of the synagogue named Jair " (Stanley. to be often used interchangeably in the (SiTiyov). xiii. Throughout the whole city. Lit. Jair. " Jewish . Hem. things. omits Mark's statement that she had suffered many things from many physicians. o a\fra/jLev6i).336 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 18-26 . "). i. (Io-tij). Stanched 45. ch. VHl dis- Jesus' divine power. Mark v. recount. Luke. Compare Matt. who conquered and settled Bashan (ISTum. 41 Josh. that. how many all and thus according with recount. ^at/ec? {iBelro) to be with him. 33. 20. must not be closely pressed. New Testament. ix. and was not bettered but made worse. as in vv. tament. The two words seem 39. when. See on Matt. however. : together {avv) upon him stifii/ng. xxxii. era. as 41-56. 41. Church 42. in the same region as that which he conquered. 44. Jairus. ix.. touched (jk who is it who is he that . 1... telling the story throughout {Sid). Had spent {irpocravaXdia-acra). Some texts omit who had Only here in New Tes- spent all her living upon jphysida/ns. with the idea of See on declaration. " His name lingered down to the time of the Christian 30). Thronged {crvvi'irviyov). Declared things throughout. Mark How great things (oa-a). Shew Eather relate. 8. The tinction. A common medical term. 22-43. The name of one of the Israelite chiefs. [Ch. Who touched ? Kev. with professional sensitiveness.

A. 337 Throng and press {a-vvexovcnv airoSXi^ovtriv). rightly. 52. Falling down. of the same incident. with 1 reference to Jesus' knowledge of the toiich at the moment it was applied. v. 38. Matt. — 21. properly supply house. vii. V. Trouble. as the ruler himself is present with Jesus. and Rev. Wept and bewailed. 47. Tyndale ren- ders dis-ease. Mark v. were weeping Compare on bewailing. 139 since Mark uses it in his narrative . See on ch. crush. Both imperfects. its The evangelists use the It is used here in the sense of virtue. as Dean Plumptre in '' The Expositor. Dead. but in terror. in the old verbal sense of disturb. See on fell down. — mighty works. word frequently of miracles physicians.Ch. according to use by naturalists and Still.. and in the same sense (Mark v. 36 . 50. more literally. Virtue (Bvva/iiv). "Dead is Placed first in the thy daughter. Eev. Eev." Greek order. 28. ix. Not in worship. In peace. 49. which occurs here only. renders the latter. xiii. From the ruler of the synagogue's house." iv. and /perceived. for emphasis. 35. It means to squeeze out.. iv. see ver. 19 So. rendid touch. On the former word. Eev. and ch. Hath touched {ri-^aro) : — ders the two aorists strictly perceive {eyvmv). See on tribulation. as wine from grapes. power. 46. VIIL] LUKE. Rev. too much stress must not be laid upon it as a mark of Luke's professional accuracy. and bewailing. Mark V. See on Matt. . 37. 48. 30). 38.

damr CHAPTER 1-6. Following the reading pd^Sov^. villages.tTwi/as). to he without a way out. The radical idea of the compound verb seems to be of one who goes through the whole list of possible ways. Shake off. From Bid. Mark vi. 6. Take(aIfp6T6). 14 . CompareMatt. See on Matt. 1. Was perplexed (StT^Tropet).338 54.. 6. staff. perplexity. as in John ii. xiv. The tetrarch. Throughout the towns (/carA ra? K<»|ta?). sel. The present participle. x. 14. 9-11. Instead Matthew and Mark. Lit. Matthew and Mark have to.Y. 1-2.xiv. See on Matt. 14-16. 7-9. of the unclassical KopaaCov. IX. The preposition is distributive.. Pwo ajyieee : the force of dvd. Called together. pd^Bov. to le im. 5. for which read Two 4. Staves. rightly. There abide. 6-12.. See on Matt. with a view of carrying away. called 1. through. Eev. x. DC of Maid (17 irah). Uft. 7. 7-13. x. 21-29. and finds no way out. . village iy viMage. 3. Hence. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Mark vi. Lit.. [Ch. 7. Lit. That was done {rd yivofieva). and diropio}. coats {dv^ Bvo . 10. all that is being done. 1. Used by Luke only. Compare Matt.

30-44.T6t). Mark xiv. Declared (Bifriy^a-avro). 10-17. desired (e'5». a ii. except when he halted in order to furnish Victuals (eTTto-tTtCT/iw). in companies. Compare Mark vi. occurs. 15. • 10. Primarily the in New TesIntransitively. {laro) them that had need of healing (SepaTreia^). Compare Mark vi. food. himself with sujyplies " {eTricriTia-fiov eveKa). 7. " Cyrus hastened the whole journey. Desert 13. Buy 14. guest-chamber. up one^s quarters . 39 cli. Bethsaida. lodge / either because the harness is of the travellers' horses loosed. to decline. See on Matt. KaToKvfia. . In a company (wXto-ta?). The kindred word 14 or inn. 15. The is plural. {epr)fj. xiv. Healed See on 12. Lodge (KaTaXva-axTiv). Mark 2). erly a stock of provisions. And when the day began Eender. tament to destroy (Matt. Lit. Wye. (Std). 1. 339 9. IX. Related everything throughout See on ver. etc.jhesoitght.. Only here in New Testament. He 'Rev.Ch. very literally. The word also used in classical Greek . 15. PropThus Xenophon. Peculiar to Luke. order. to wear away. to bow down. Omit To wear away (KXlveiv). and the day began. v. table-companies. He did more than desire. Hence often xiii. or because the fastenings of their garments are untied. Give ye.] LUKE. xiv. Lit. i. ch. Peculiar to Luke. 17 .<p). v. It means Fishmg-place.. Luke . 37. closing the sentence in the See on Matt. Greek The ye emphatic. verb means to break to take up or dissolve.

And there was taken up that which kets. putting the comma after avToi<. is more accurate. As he was Ye. Christ of God. sion differently. and making the latter word depend on ko^ivol.mitted. i. and see note there. 20. A common word for serving x. 18).. basRender. whom do ye say that I am ? The God. xiv. remai/ned over to them. xvi.. See on Matt. Brake and gave {KaTeKXaaev—iSiSov). See on Mark 16. 27-30. See on Matt. vi. 41. as in Mark vi. Mark viii. 20. see on Matt. instead of after KKaa-fidrasv. There were taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets {koX ijpOr} to irepicra-evcrav aiiroi^ kXmo-fidroav Kocpivoi ScoSeKo). a deposit : that which I ha/ve up a meal. 13-20. the Son of the living Mark. i. set leside. 1. The Christ. The Kev. 48 xxiii. See on Matt. Only here in N'ew Testament. The word implies . xvi. The Christ. Compare Matt. Lit. of broken pieces. 15. Compare Luke . praying. [Ch. 34. 17. to them. Baskets. On Christ. 6. 18-21. 46 1 Tim. . to To table set before {iTapa^elvai). of a couch for reclining at table. (Luke xii. i. 39. Peculiar to Luke. Were filled. 18. twelve baskets. From the sense comes that of putting in charge. Each evangelist gives Peter's confesMatthew. v. He straitly charged (eVm/ijyo-a?). IX. Emphatic : " but ye." 340 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. committing oi placing heside. therefore. 8 Acts xvi. since the was at the side of the guest. 12). com. Note the two tenses. 21. . Hence the kindred noun irapa^KTj (2 Tim. fragments .

x. as children under bad influences. Jesus is putting the case as a common-sense question of profit and loss. Mark viii. 6. A merchant's word. on the part of. not only of human life. to Mil or demolish. 22-27. 42 Luke xv. Will save (. 7 Jas. 341 to an emphatic. 8). 23). As an verb. Of . Compare Matt. he might have been saved" Greek.. i. 24. . and Mark viii. classical used : 1. i. 14). Of moral abamdonment (Luke xv. Rev. is This word. would come. ii. The verb means to re- on scrutiny or and therefore implies deliberate rejec- tion. Not the future tense of the verb come. Lit. 4. Lose (Bengel). 24. properly. i. or other objects. 23. . solemn charge its a penalty wpon one. 31-38 . . Rev. Of the elders {airo). 11). construction a. 19 . Peculiar to Luke. See on Matt. and thence. The same same. would ('>}rvxvv). 34. 27 Mark ii.. xvi. as a city or heritage. waste. (ver. Will come after {BiXei). Li New Testament of killing (Matt.] LUKE. 32). strictly. 11 Heb. . a-uxrai). trial. See on soul. Ch.. The conditional negative no man. from the side of. 13 xii. i. who- ever he might be. Be rejected {a-irohoKviMaa-^vai). Gain (KepS^a-wi). .s will come after Life 25. charge under penally. but the present of the verb to will : wills to come. 22 1 Pet. Daily. Of ths doom 6. Of destroying and perishing. Of death in active battle or elsewhere.. 1. ject . 19 John vi. IX. but of material and intellectual things (1 Cor. to meaning being. . morally abandoned or ruined. in life. Of losing of property. Of losing (Matt. ix. "When 2.JeXi. being demoralised. 30. Of laying 4. : lay No man {fj/rjBevl). 3. i. (aTToXetra?). Mark xii. 21-28 22. .

Luke xxi. Eom. but the idea at the root is the same. John iii. Christ is said to have "endured the shame. His glory. . Threefold glory. and commits to him the judgment and the glory of the angels who attend him. It is " the grief a man conceives from his own im26.. Thus in the use of the kindred noun alay^yvrj. The feeling expressed word has reference to incurring dishonor or shame in the eyes of men. be ashamed (i-Traicrxw^). 12. of course. souls. as the exalted Messiah the glory of God. the public disgrace of them . attaching to crucifixion. 9 . Horn. [Oh. ii. 2 Pet. but from being humiliated in the eyes of the guests. It will be as if he should feel himself disgraced before the Father and the holy angels in owning any fellowship with those who have been ashamed of him. 19. 16). 11 xi. correct] j.e. xvi. Thus. John 28 . iii." though espousing its ': contempt of the Jew and of the Greek. but from fear of the knowledge and opinion of men. in the New Testament. .. begins with shame to take the lowest place not from a right sense of his folly and conceit. NEW TESTAMENT. xiii. etc. 2. in itself. grief . too. Onesiphorus was not ashamed to be known as the friend of a prisoner (2 Tim. xii. . X. In Luke xiv. Man here by a strong metaphor. See on win your Also on Matt. Compare Heb. Heb. who owns him as his dearly beloved son. forfeit his own self. 16 " I am not ashamed of the gospel. The word means to fine. Another business term. by Hence it does not spring out of a reverence for right Trench). mnerce. . Literally. 28 ii. cause subjects to the me to whom it is a stumbling-block . Cast away {^rj/Mtm^ek). 15 . the glorified Christ cannot experience the sense of shame." i. in the use of the verb. i. Hence Rev. 9. of the invpenitent (Matt. Luke 3 . Shall this by perfections considered with relation to the world taking notice upon the sense of disesteem " (" Soath. 16. the man who impudently puts himself in the highest place at the feast. and foolishness. It is used of the Son of i. IX. mulct y to punish by exacting forfeit. So." cit. and is bidden by his host to go lower down. His own. 26.342 WORD STUDIES IN THE x. shame.

taste of In the New Testa- ment only here and Heb. of sorrow. The tradition that mountain was Tabor is generally abandoned. 28-36. 374). fierafwptjxoST}. he must have gone to pray his first recorded prayer about death. 343 taste. from which the springs of Jordan descended to the valleys of Israel. in . Along its mighty forest-avenues. and seen the great light the land of Zabulon and of Naphtali. 2-13. . . The kingdom of God." iv. 1-18 28. Peculiar to Luke. 2Y. Mark ix. and many a place loved by him and vainly ministered to.. The word the sense of exj>e- rience. when he left them forever " (Ruskin. the Promised Land. is The common in Eabbinical writings. to a physician Chrysostom by Alford) compares Christ who first tastes his medicines to encourage the sick to take them. Lit.Ch. the mountain. Taste of death. (cited 9. See on ch. is often used in classical Greek as. pray. Rev. before he knelt. his feet dashed in the dew of Hermon. even with his human sight. sloping down to his old home hills on which the stones yet lay loose that had been taken up to cast at him. . the mount of fruitfulness. the gleam of that lake by Capernaum and Chorazin. " Modern Paintthis — . death.] LUKE. Was altered (eyevero erepov). of freedom. the hills above Nazareth. whose house was now left unto them desolate and.. : ers. and Mount Hermon is commonly supposed to have been the scene of the " Hermon. which is indeed the centre of all transfiguration. 20. to taste of toils. Luke avoids Matthew's word. Compare Matt. phrase. A mountain.. from the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt. could see to the south all the dwelling-place of the people that had sat in darkness. far in the utmost blue. and from the steep of it. chief of all. To 29. Galilee of the nations could see. ii. used of Christ. became different. IX. until the grass grew fair with the mountain lilies. vi. but never of death. was meta/morphosed. xvii.

glistering (see on Mark ix. pression of color Thus. "Accomplish. i^aarpaTrrmv (only here in New TesKev. . 22. Spake (e\eyov). retains the word of the A. In the mouth of Christ it covers the ideas both of death and ascension. in the fourth book of Homer's " Odyssey. where see note). The Rev. The imperfect is graphic . and 686<. as the light.344 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. i. which is compounded of ef. and thus used at Heb. Matthew. but combined with different terms. 3).). 31. The Greek word is familiar to us as Hebrews from Egypt. 2. [Ch. Its original sense is clear. the two were in the act of talking. not only of the whiteness of the snow.. out of. departing. 'No word. Mark. a somewhat formal sound.. he was about accomplish. White (XevKos. IX. . See Heb. See on Matt. were speaking. though it has. V." is very significant with reference to Christ's death. . tament). xi. for instance. See.. but of gray dust. applied principally to the migration of the Better. 8. Moses and Joshua had begun an exodus from Egypt. tlie story of the capture of Proteus laus." xvii. whence the word decease. Im- perfect. however. to modern ears. 18 iv. He was writing for Greek readers. This verse is peculiar to Luke. 30. as the vision revealed itself. a going away.. Luke. He should accomplish to {efieWev irXrjpovv). flashing as with the hrilliance of lightning. a Journeying / and thus corresponds to the Latin decessus. All three evangelists use the word. In classical Greek very indefinite as an exbeing used. asEev. exodus. Decease {e^oBov)." or " fulfil. 15. to sented the transformations of heathen whom that word repreby Mene- deities into other forms. There talked {awekaXow). aT'Ck^ovra. but had not accomplished the going out of God's people from this present world. Peter uses it of his own death (2 Pet. dazzling. iii. could more accurately represent the original.

16 . 4. to Peter. Heavy (fiefiafyrifiivoi). Let us make.] LUKE. . after the over- powering influence of the strongest emotions. 33. See Exod. . 3. v. Not implying any reproach mark of his bewilderment in his state of ecstasy. in the extreme rapidity of the formation of cloud on the summit. Master. it as a psychological fact. and Jesus. as a symbol of the divine presence. Lit. Lit. and the cloud.: Ch. 4. As they were departing {ev Tm Siaxcopl^ea-^ai avroix. . it might include all the six but the disciples hear the voice out . I think. " as they entered into. . "Jesus might have smiled at the naive proposal of the eager apostle that they six should dwell forever in the the slopes of little sucooth of vrattled boughs on Hermon " (Farrar). 6. The dened or "It was but natural for these men of simple habits. in quick reaction. The verb only here in New Testament. at night. "A beautiful imperfect Overshadowed them {eTrea-Kta^ev). bur- 32. xvii. A cloud. strange peculiarity has been noticed 34.. in their departing. and as quickly disperses and entirely disappears" (Edersheim). civ.. to be heavy witli sleep and we also know (ypjpressed. A of the cloud. " began to overshadow them " thus harmonizing with the T/iem {avroixi) must." be confined to Moses.). 345 perfect participle. Elias. but merely as a Not knowing wliat he said. IX. See on Matt. xiv. drowsiness would creep over their limbs and senses " (Edersheim). xvii. Grammatically. 10 Ps. See on ch. and in the strong mountain air. words. Tabernacles. 1 Kings viii. and after the long ascent. See on Matt. 19 xix. . The whole sentence is peculiar to Luke's narrative. In a few minutes a thick cap forms over the top of the mountain. that. about Hermon. rests on these three as a sign to the disciples.

" the sacred disease. by sorely. Rev. the voice was past {iv tw yeveaSav ttjv <j)covrjv). See on Matt. in Luke. and by medical writers of examining the condition of a patient. 36. Compare Matt. ii. Perverse.ei|rai). iii. the coming to pass of the voice. 22. Jas. 14^29. 39. When m 37-43. 18." Bruising {a-wrpt^ov). xvii. 37.. iv. the suddeii coming on of the iits". ings of : He mentions and their lasting a long time. xvii. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. . we might rather expect to find in Luke especially Christ's question. Mark ix. 20.. Faithless. Suddenly {e^ai^vr)^). (BiSda-KoXe). 15. when the voice Lit. gnashing the gether. Used only once outside of the writLuke Mark xiii. Come down Master {KaTiS^ovrmv). 19. 21. Taketh {Xafi^dvei. how long he had been subject to these attacks. 41. 14^21 . 18). Epilepsy was called by physicians details in his account than the other evangelists. came. Rev. 18. See note on Mark ix. : Yery frequent and only once elsewhere 38. of sudden attacks of disease. teeth and j>ining away (ix. [Ch. Y. Naturally. frequent in medical Luke has more medical writers.346 36. . look with pitying regard To Only here and Jas. ch. in treating of epilepsy. Look upon (6'7ri/3A. Hobart remarks that Aretaeus. Mr. toCompare the details in Mark. IX. The details in Mark ix. admits the possibility of its being produced by demoniacal agency. expresses the (7vv. 3. with A. See on Mark ix.). a physician of Luke's time. in margin. literally . The word means crushing together. Teacher. See on Mark ix. See on hruised. 17.

did {iiroiei). my name. until Suffer (avi^ofiai). Compare Matt. 1. . 33-50. Compare Matt. Imperfect. Better as B. i." 42. {jruveairdpa^ev). 47. and Jas. 38. IX.. See on teareth.. Lit. Mark ix. A reasoning {Sia\oyia-/jLb<i).. debate or discussion. Shall be delivered (/LteWei TrapaSiSoa^ai). Mark Tare vulse. 14 2 Oor. long {e(o<} TTore). See on Matt. a the nearest rendering. 22. Strictly. bear with. on which see note..] LUKE. by himself. Used only by Luke and at 16. 22 . put these sayings into Let these sayings sink your ears. He took a little child {iiriXa^o/Mevo^ having laid hold of. Better. xxiv. father. xviii. for a cramp. vii. 1-35 . 5. ix. See on Matt. Peculiar to Luke. 18. iraiSiov). is Only here in New Testament. Threw him down (ep'pri^ev). Lit. 23 . 46. 4. is Con- which the exact Latin equivalent. 51-56. (jieyaXeioTriTi). By him {vap 48. 347 when. xvii. xi. He 44. 28. Mighty power 2 Pet. was doing.. to be delivered. Astonished {i^eirX'^a-a-ovTo). Lit. See on ch. In kavTtS). 43. A ii. . is about 46-50. the word 43-45. kindred noun. be S7rapayii6<. would. down into your ears. Mark ix. The literal meaning is to " bear uj> (avd) under. Mark alone records the taking him in his arms. xviii. 30-32. i.ev. See Acts How xviii.Ch. perhaps.

61. dva\a/j. into heaven. New 1 Cor. Kev. This means when fifiepa<. "Opveov is found in Apoc... A man. See on Matt. their own dead. flying fowl. Publish abroad. Peculiar to Luke. another form for the word in this passage. . See on Matt. See on Matt.). xviii. received up. Mark scribe. Thou goest {d-n-ipxp). 62. 20. for hi/rd in the Strictly. .). is the usual word for being received See Acts i. xxiii. 11. Nests. Luke is speaking of a. not when they were fulfilled: when the time was drawing near. When the time was come (eV t&> crv/iTrXijjOoOo-^at ras in the fuljillmg of the days. 60. iii. viii. 57. certain viii. were well-nigh come. Compare Matt. 34. as Rev.^dvo). through/- regions. "Opviv occurs Matt.. 58. XV.'\fn'i occurs nowhere else in the New Testament kindred verb. 22. " goest away" {diro). 20. days of his heing taken xijp : his ascension into heaven. As Kev. Preach out all {Sidr/yeWe). I will follow thee whithersoever-away thou goest. 57-62. but the 'AvdX7]fj. iv. the days were heing fulfilled. Matthew. 348 51. [Ch. 35-41. (toii? viii. hid. Their dead eavrSv veKpov<. 30. 2 . WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. xix.. a Lit. 1 Tim. 21 and iTT'qvov. 17. That he should be received up Lit. 16. occurs Birds {TTereiva).. Holes. period beginning with the first announcement of his sufferings. 2. but both times in the sense of hen. xxiii.. IX. 37 Luke xiii. 37. and extending to the time of his being Lit. The common word Testament. the (t^9 avaXrjfii^eco'i avrov). 19-27 .

any one elected to an office. to things behind. and compare Luke xiv. object which attracts his interest. looks behind at some He is only half at work. that of a man who. but also to give final instructions to his friends and servants. Wrong. rightly. Lit. X. i. previously. Lit. seventy others. 80.] LUKE. and half -work only Fit (eur^eros). giving B3 . of Paul taking leave of the brethren at Corinth. . Peculiar to Luke. {eiri^akfiiv iirv)... CHAPTER 1-16. 62. In the New Testament the word is used invariably in the sense of bidding farewell. Appointed {aviBei^ev). 2 Cor. not merely to take formal leave. 13. as a soldier to his post or an official to his office. be included is in the his to return meaning of the word in this passage the man desiring home. ch. X. ii. as Kypke suggests. Other seventy. to Uft ujp and shew. Used by Luke only. Hence to dismiss one with orders. . Lit. and.. with reference to the twelve. shewvng. well-placed: adjusted. Mark vi. Similarly. for he had not appointed seventy Eev.. This latter sense may. In this sense the word used only in later Greek. 46 is rendered by Rev. them instructions at parting. as Acts i. presumably. See note there. instead of keeping his eye on the furrow which he is drawing. To bid farewell (aTTOTafatr^at). Acts xviii. 18. hamng laid his Back (et? ra oirLam). 24 " /Shew which one thou hast See chosen. after he had talcen lea/oe of them. 1. Put his hand to hand upon. In classical Greek it signifies to set apart or assign." Hence to proclaim. will be the result " (Godet). 349 61. and later to detach soldiers. Lit. "The figure is while engaged in labor. : on the kindred noun..Ch.

Mpo<. On/oe or thrust forth. and temporary " These instructions were also intended to reprove another propensity which an Oriental no matter how urgent his business. X. they must pause and intrude their own ideas. cially. xxxiii. 2. and enter keenly into the business. For victuals. Shoes. 12. plicated. 38. resist. From is. [Ch. Used by Luke For money. he must stop and make an endless number of inquiries. much See on ch. " Land and Book"). Lit. (^e/sKr/xo?). or discussing any other matter. 3. See on Matt. 5 were not to carry a change of sandals. ripe corn hut few workman. send forth (aTroo-TeWw). x.. that which gathered in summer. but that they See Dent. and the tone of the household. though it in nowise concerns them and. summer (compare is Sipofiai. an Oriental can never resist the temptation to assist when accounts are being settled or money counted out. If a son of peace be there. 9. implying the urgency of the mission. . wallet. Send forth (eK^aXy). The clink of coin has a positive fascination to them " (Thomson. 25. If they come upon men making a bargain. Oriental salutations are tedious and comto a rapid mission. Not that they were to go unshod. referring to the character of the head of the house. Judg. So Rev. more especan hardly . Peace to this house. Wye. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. viii. The command is suited Compare 2 Kings iv. only. Compare Job xxi. to Harvest. 29. Scrip {irrjpav). and answer as many. The usual oriental salutation. Purse (fidXXdvTiov). xix. See 6... A Hebraism. Pray. Rev. xxix. 4. 350 2. I See on Mark i. WORD STUDIES The harvest become warm). 20. 5. Salute no man. If he meets an acquaintance.

(ad/cK^). See on Luke v. and soiled with them his noble face. a coarse. Cleaveth. and Spvvfii. As a sign of mourning. Latin sagum. aarfrivii. From vi. cloak. he showered them o'er His head.: Ch. Ashes (<77ro8o)). and was a material similar that upon which Paul wrought in tent-making. to stir up. xiii. sackcloth Compare 2 Kings vi. . dirt. See on Matt. So the Greek means a j)ack or iaggage. the net-shaped coarsely woven. Sackcloth together . Only herein New 13. The same a root. Frequent in medical lan- Wipe off {airop. appears in (see Matt.. / See on Matt. Thus Homer describes Achilles on hearing of the death of Patroclus common among ' ' Grasping in both hands The ashes of the hearth. {Kovioprbv).. etc. Strictly. 30 Job xvi. dust that raised by walking. 27). 10. 23. xix. xlii. as ashes or as a sign of sorrow." Iliad. in which latter passage the is piit next the flesh in token of extreme sorrow. X. is 351 See on Matt. . x. ix. The same Josh. The workman Dust worthy. 2. 20.daaoiie^a). 5. Testament. d/rag-net and adr/o<. 15. according to some etymologists. 4). 11. chist. guage of the uniting of wounds.] LUKE.. 7. It . 12). iv. Mighty works. xi. xviii. 25 . 47). word in Hebi'ew crayi] is used to describe a grain-sack. and this it is coarse material of which made (Gen. soldier's was employed for the rough garments for mourners (Esth. is From k6vi<. Hebrew sa^. Defiling one's self with dead things. 1 1 Kings xxi. was the Orientals and Greeks. what is knotted It was made of goats' to or camels' hair (Apoc.

12 30 Apoc. ii. the article. See 1 Sam. 15. Compare Apocrypha. 30. . 15. etc. Despiseth 21 . 19. the future shalt he exalted. iv. For tj. 22. But (ttX^v). throw dust on their heads. " The fuller development of the new dispensation begins with the mission of the seventy. 2 Mace. mourning for Hector ' ' In the midst the aged man Sat with a cloak wrapped round him. And Priam. and not with the mission of the apostles. after having drowned the murderers of her brother. women. [Ch. xvii. xxiv. an Egyptian queen. describing a funeral at Thebes. Kev. in the mourning over the ravages of the Assyrians. the best texts give fi-q.work. girded with sackcloth.: . ? Hell. rendered which. 14. xviii. i. the priests minister at the altar. when he rolled Upon the earth. Which art exalted to heaven." Iliad. 352 WOBD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 19 Job ii. xvi. xiii. {o^ereT). Stifling with ashes was a Persian mode of punishment. . 5-7. Herodotus relates that Nitocris. howbeit. and compare Gal. See on Matt.. Its ground. X. or cover their faces with mud " (" Modern Egypt and Thebes "). 18. 168-5. in order to escape the vengeance of their friends. iii. See on Luke vii. Sir Gardner Wilkinson. 15.. earth. he gathered with his hands. from Luke's point of sight. .. 2 Sam. Rev. Pender. which.. threw herself into an apartment full of ashes. 12 Ezek. See on Matt. According to Jewish tradition. 16. The seventy. Hades. the interrogative particle and for the participle having heen exalted. Shalt thou he exalted. 2 xiii. xi. with the body exposed above the waist. there were seventy or seventy-two . says: " Men. 17. as Rev. and children. 14. and much dust Strewn on his head and neck. In Judith iv. is the symbolic evangelization of every nation upon and not the restoration of the twelve tribes of Israel. . . and with ashes on their mitres.

it Here denotes the rapt contemplation of a vision. perfect. implying that Jesus' stay was such that his followers could contemplate his glory. In Apoc. p. The verb denotes calm. October. or to the time of the triumplis which they are here relating. to the Study seventy-two different nations of the Gospels").Ch.] LUKE. 9. xii. Compare John ii. 1.. both terms are applied to him. " "While you were expelling the subThe Eeordinates. See my article on the Revised New Testament.18.. and of the angel who met Compare Zech. upon 23 : earth. In this sense. 6. 1. I beheld {i^ewpow). dazzling brilliance homing fallen. See on 1 Pet. Satan. Rejoiced. and rendei in the Holy 23 . like lightning. . Lit. A transcription a verb to lie i/n . devil. is the more common term in the New Testament. As lightning. xxix. Describing vividly a suddenly quenched. xxii. 21. Presbyterian Review. The aorist marks the insta/ntaneous fall. i. 4. of David. of the Hebrew word. In spirit. 2 Job i. I was beholding the Master fall " (Godet). Hence an adversary. derived from wait or oppose. 22. was ieholding. 1881. x. visers do not seem to have had any settled principle in their rendering of this word throughout the New Testament. The Spi/rit. iii. the holy." thoughtfully and attentively. intent. Balaam. ii. Fall (Treo-owa). brief. " Int. The best texts omit Jesus. " they Ieheld his miracles. continuous contemplation of an object which remains before the spectator. So John though calmly and leisurely we ieheld. In ch. X. 1 Sam. 353 and tongues in the world. 14. 646 s'q. refers either to the time The imwhen the seventy were sent forth. ^fa/3o\o?. some read instead of seventy " (Westcott. i. Num. best texts add raar/lq).

second volume. Peculiar 29. To inherit. See on ternptation. Tempted. xi. Eev. See on Mark xii. 27. 25-27. shalt love. i. These were not petty stealers. 16. See on ch. 27- 25. See on Matt. I think this stronger than desiring . Neighbor 30. rather. See on Matt. xi. determined. but men of violence. iv. Luke adds strength. 22. to take up . It means. thank. 43. Used by Luke vii.. 30. 55 and Luke xxiii. 25. desiring. Prudent. vii. Answering {vTroKa^mv). See on ch. (ttXi/o-iW). Thieves 39-43. Thou etc. Matt. 25. From 16. xi. 1 Pet. 19. 43. vi. [Ch. 17. X. 2. Willing is {^eXcov). (Tra/seSo'Sij). i. (Xj^o-rat?). The Paeablb op the Good Samaritan. to Luke. to take up another's dis- course and reply. i. See on Jas. and xiii. only. 4. See on inheritance. See on Matt. xxvi. and in this sense only here. See on Matt. . 29-37. See on Matt. See on Matt. strictly. 30. compare Matt. v. 25. of conversation. Are delivered Lawyer. 26. this point to ver.354 I WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. as . The word will be fully discussed in the Read. Eternal {alwvtov). xi. Fell among. 13. See on ch. and hence.

There came down. . xvi. 32. and. passed on. 1. however. Seeming to imply that the Levite went farther than the priest in coming near to the wounded man. By chance {Kara avyKvplav). Not of his clothing only. occurs nowhere else in the New Tes- tament." and was protected by a fort and a Koman garrison. " his The condition being a matter of unconcern to these robbers. Lit. as it chanced . 1). Lit. saw. happening to he half dead or " leaving him half dead.] LUKE.• word rifiiBainj. The fnll force of the ex- pression cannot be rendered into English. 6. but of all that he had. The road from Jerusalem to Jericho passed through a wilderness (Josh. was going down. Priest. stripes is the usual sense of the . {irXrjya^ iiriMvre':). 48 Acts xvi. 355 was shown by their treatment of the traveller.. xv. The best texts.Ch. Imperfect. as Eev. .coincidence of circumstances. The Talmudists said that there were almost as many priests at Jericho as at Jerusalem. Passed by on the other side occurs only here and ver. xii. a coincidence. It has the metaphorical sense oi plagues in Apoc. The verb 32. half dead. 8.. hewing laid on blows. word in the New TesSee ch. ment. having observed his condition. Stripped. 23. Wounded Slows or tament. omit rvyx^'V^'''"" Only here in New Testa31. Eev. The word means. By. Came and looked. X. Half dead {rmi^avfi rvyxdvovTo).. which was so notorious for robberies and murders that a portion of it was called " the red or bloody way. The word Tvy)(avovTa throws an element of chance into the case. etc. literally. {avTim-apfj\S6v).

") says : Land " About Jericho. X There is a strong contrast with the other cases. the fountain." . ch. in a position Hepworth Dixon ("Holy midway in the descent from Bethany to commanding a view of the road above and below. and another farther on. Pouring in {iwixecov). or inns. ruined caravanserai. archways. lengths of wall." "Bind with wool. "Wine 6. Hipand Beast (kt^vos).. " down avTov. Usual remedies for sores. and the court.. Kev. See on inn. i. [Ch. Wounds {rpavfuiTa). at the most dangerous part of the road. being call Khan plainly traceable in the ruins. to receive a place of common reception. 7. /car The Levite had come Karci tottov. Only here in New Testament." 34. pocrates prescribes for ulcers. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. wandering Arabs own resting-place for the night. and Sixo/iai. Only here in : New Testament. wounds. made on the very spot where search would be for them. From Trdv. a possession / since animals anciently constituted wealth. on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem are mentioned by modern Porter (" Handbook of Syria and Palestine ") speaks travellers. Oil and wine. . {iiri). and still make use of as These ruins are those of the lewan. soft etc. and a downright heartiness in the words. of one about a mile from Bethany. situated on the top of a bleak Concerning the former. all. Khan el Almah. ii.ej>lac6. if no such ruins were suspected of existing. down to him. Perhaps akin to KTrj/ia. Remains of two khans. See Isa. so that a piece of property and a beast were synonymous terms. which the their . as to cleanse. Only here in New Testament. Came where he was. Bound up {KariBrja-ev).356 33. stands a pile of stones. an extensive. called ridge. a noble inn Moud^ar. sprinkle with wine and oil. Eather wpon and oil to soothe. Inn (TravSo-x^elov). to ih.

and will repay. " about much serving. Yisit at the house in Bethany. and was chiefly busy with the preparations for his entertainment (ver.Ch. and Bi'xpfuu. {jieTo) He : that shewed mercy on him. From viro. The Luke. Two pence. in composition with the verb. was drawn hither and thither. Martha is marked as the head of the household. The stranger Samaritan became neighbor to the wounded traveller " (Alford). to receive. Only here in New Tes- The Rev. 40. 39. The / is expressed (eVoi)). Came to him {iina-Taa-a). Came up to him. 357 cents. as Rev. instead of to draw from aroxmd (irepi). the guest. 35. She received It was Aer house. . "Trepi. was distracted. 40). Was neighbor (wXijo-iW 7e7oz/6i'ai). 37. 36. 38-42. So Kev. might better have inserted in the text the marginal rendering. Aas become neighbor. / will repay. 2. itnder. About thirty-five See on Matt. Trouble hvm not for the reckoning . him as with a brother. The centring round Jesus. Eather with him dealt with The lawyer avoids the hated word Samaritan. Peculiar to Received {vTreSi^aro). I is emphatic.. Martha's attention. Was cumbered {jrepiea-'n-aTo). Only here in New Testament. 38. is followed immediately by another Tre/jt. XX.] LUKE. sat beside (Trapd)." tament. proved neighbor. sud- denly stopping in her hurry. More correctly. Sat {irapaKaSea-Beia-a). The verb means... literally. X. Jesus throws himself back to the time of the story. Received him under her roof. Lit. around. " The neighbor Jews iecrnne strangers.

Daily sion. Above all heing. leaving. Abundant. to com. only here and Kom. d. From eTTiivai. in- dicating that she had been assisting before she was by Jesus' presence. Hence. the outward confusion : and bustle. tumult. of the Spirit helping our infirmities. applied to Christ. drawn off Some read KaTeKenrev. The aorist. From a. : regarding the days in their future succes- c. iirioia-iov). Troubled {%pv0d^ri). i. c. 41. to take hold . hence p?'e-eminent. viii. The principal explanations are the following 1. together with . is to come hereafter. recijprocaUy — doing her part as Martha does hers. excellent. 25. For our essential life (spiritual). who 2. 26. avv. vi. For our sustenance (physical). [Ch. Compare Matt.: : 358 WORD STUDIES US THE NEW TESTAMENT. ieing. Yet to come.). h. The coming. Daily bread {t6v dprov top Great differences of opinion exist of the among commentators as to the strict meaning word rendered daily. tahe hold and do her part along with me. the imperfect. . Hence. avri. See on Matt. did leave. It might be paraphrased.e on. and so necessary. It occurs therefore. Thou art anxious (jiepi/Mvas). as Eev. or to-morrow's bread. the Bread of life. d. CHAPTER XL 2-4. 9-13. Anxious denotes the inward uneasiness trovhled.0dvco. XL Hath left {KaTiKiirev). a. Coniimml. The verb consists of three elements \ap.. 3. bttI and ova-La. vi. From ^opv^o^. where all the elements of the verb are strikingly exemplified. was Help {<7vvavTiXd^T]Tai.

our Ijveadfor the coming day. into. 12. avoids the invidious liint of seducing or enticing which attaches to lead. ] LUKE. gives " bring us not. . i. daily. (fiipo). It is objected to this that it contradicts the Lord's precept in be anxious for the morrow. {afiaprlof. condensed). "the familiar rendering. iii. to bear or bring). Jas.). then not only must we not pray for to-morrow's food. ment"). See on ch.Ch. 4. 25) not to be anxious for our Zi/e" (Lightfoot. Matthew's debts appears here. Matt. Matt." The rendering in the margin of Rev. besides being a more accurate rendering of the word (etV. Sins vi.). to come and concludes by saying. Lead {elaeve<yKy<. 21. Tliat is indebted. is. Compare debts. The latter adopts the derivation from i-n-iivai." which. vi. Those who cussion. vi. " And further. if the command not to be anxious is tantamount to a prohibition against prayer for the object about which we are forbidden to be anxious. But the word does not necessarily mean the morrow. v. See on Matt. " If the prayer were said in the evening. not to . James tells us that God does . but we must not pray for food at all since the Lord bids us (Matt." satisfactory discussion must assume the reader's knowledge of Greek. profitless to the 359 It English reader to go into the disquoted as saying that the term is " the rack of theologians and grammarians.would answer the purpose so well. 34. no doubt it would mean the following day / but supposing it to be used before dawn. indeed. Forgive. would be A scholar is A are interested in the question will find (" it treated by Tholuck and also very exhaustively by Bishop Lightfoot ("On a Fresh Kevision of the New Testa- Sermon on the Mount "). which has prevailed uninterruptedly in the Western Church from the beginning. on. 3 . XI. is a fairly adequate representation of the nor. it would designate the day then breaking " (the coming day). 15. Eev. does the English language furnish any original one word which .

" Land and Book "). drawn away by our own own that evil hearts. thou dost not impose. [Ch. and that something. vi. therefore. it would be beyond our present strength to keep from sinning. THE NEW TESTAMENT. would be to ignore our manhood. that God will not suffer the trials of life to become temptations to evil. and servants sleep (Thomson. ix. as James tells us (i. caution is written even over the door of God's own house God also sends trials to prove and chasten us. My children are with me in bed. keep us from should convert our temptable condition into actual temptation. lusts keep us out of the power of our Thou knowest our frame. 13) but the circumstances of a man's indeed ahoays. so far as we can judge.. we are dust. " suffer us not to be . V. But we may pray. and will surely pray." We pray. See on Matt. 16. 7. The Paeable of the Fkiend at Midnight. 13. Set before. What thou imposest : What Forbid that our evil desire No man is a coward for being afraid of his own heart. A but something may change the salutary power of trial into the corrupting power of evil solicitation . marks the highest quality of courage to know what to be To pray that God will not bring us afraid of and to fear it. to Luke. God tempteth no man but " every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed. parents. children. 5-9. the more keenly conscious we become of the weakness of our nature. See on ch. within the possibility of temptation. It Temptation.— 360 WORD STUDIES IN . and rememberest Kemember our weakness. . (Eccl. prayer. not tempt any life often. XI man (i." It is not a coward's seeking. -Keep us out of situations in which. we would not shun. 14). Tynd. — "A whole family in the same room" my servants are with me in the chamber. Peculiar 5. or to pray to be taken out of the world. involve possibilities of temptation. is our own evil desire. 1).

Dumb (icaxjiov). 22). " Parables "). he xii. ii. commences of which of you that is a father. The word . and of the Syro-Phoenician 9. her low conception of his person when she uses the term of his asking God (John xi. theFatker." unfounded. Christ never uses the word of his own asking 2) Ask. 16. _purpose. Lit. 11.. is * Further examination has convinced me that this distinction See Prof. renders it is as though the pronoun were the sentence. xv. Martha shows. seek. 32. Matt. Of any of you (rtVa). 7 .. " The three repetitions of the command are more than mere repetitions since to seek is more than to ask. 22-37. {alreiTe). . Only here in very striking word to describe persistence. 17. New Testament. and to knock than to seek " (Trench.] LUKE. 20. etc. Only here in New Testament. Compare Matt. who isfromSeaven. Lit. ix. Heavenly Father. Thoughts (Siavo'^fiaTa). shcMneless- ness. . 14. 25. as asking on equal terms. vii. Tempting. 15. xi. As related to prayer. The A. See on Matt. 17-23. 15. A Importunity {avaiSetav). V. iii. Sign. indefinite but interrogative and Kev. 22-28).* and hence of man from God (Matt. 23-33) . knock. Ezra Abbot's " Critical Essays. it is illustrated in the case of Abraham's intercession for Sodom (Gen. . Primarily with a sense of intent. but always ipwrSi. 13. See on Matt. Being {vTrdpxovre'!). for the asking of an inferior Ask xii. See on temptation. See on Matt. Beelzebub. (Acts 20 . XI. woman (Matt. 361 8. Jas i. from the Father.Ch. x. therefore. See on Jas. 14. xviii. vi. 15. 5). rightly. 13.

— . Wrong. See on Matt. Also with the All his armor {rrjv •jravoirXlav). A It xii. Rightly. Tynd. Be divided.— 362 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Dry p\aces {avvBpeov roTrav). 28. 18. xiii. article: the stronger. la-xypb^). See on Mark v.. he would manding the 22. 22 xxxiv. Compare on groot^. 35. Lit. 21. in the open space. Is See on Matt. Rev. more literally. 26. for the armor is regarded as a whole the panoply which is a transcript of this word. for there.. Tynd. the court round which the house is built. his : own.. mount guard. and are brought to its families and households in their ruin. x. amd am. xii. xii.. less.. ^AvXrj is strictly the open court in front of a house later. : the strong man. 20. tence a more detailed description of the general is brought to So Kev. icaterThe haunts of evil spirits (Isa. comdoors. has the article 29. Wye. 24. Rev.Ja)7r\to-/tej/o?). house shall an house. 29. Rev. party strifes fall on 18. A stronger. you. court . XL house divided against itself falleth {oIko'. the divided kingdom gin. mardesolation. his harness. . See on ch. It might be taken metaphorically A — : is brought to desolation. Spoils (ra Matt. Fully armed: down (KaTo) from to heel. 14). one house shall fall wpon another. (o See on Matt. Satan. [Ch. o-«{)Xa). his whole armor.. 21. as our door or roof. come upon strong man So Rev. and render house falleth upon house. Armed head (Ka. eirl oIkov Some make this an enlargement on the previous senjTiTTTet). xii. His palace (eavrov avk^qv). . and so applied to the house generally.

. 19 . Taketh to him Emphatic : (jrapaXa/ji^dvei). 363 By goats. («aToiK6t). 14. xii. xi. " (Bengel)." This is rendered in margin of A. under the figure of a goat. as Kev. . Evil. a remnant of the Egyptian worship xvii. and in the Eev. The present participle gether unto him. it is said "the screech-owl shall rest there. down {Kara) make their dwelling there. xxxiv. sacrificed to . seven of them. xii.. Adam's first wife. XL] ^ LUKE. and therefore. was worshipped by the Egyptians as the fertilizing principle in nature. 28. See on Matt. who. 5. (Isaiah) night-fairy. 21. ment. See on adulterous. 27. 30. The reference is to a popular superstition that Lilith. More wicked. were gathering toOnly here in New Testaor v^on him (ivi). Compare Matt.Ch. Old Testament. 39. Shall rise up (iyep^a-eTai). Compare Matt. xi. 26. A sign to the Ninevites. 31." iv. " She speaks well. two passages are meant goblins shaped like by some of the Israelites (Lev. "taketh spirits. 40. Seven. From the dead. 29-36. etc. Were gathered thick together . Matt. the night-monster (Hebrew. In Isa. forsook him and became a demon which murdered young children and haunted desert places. Lilith) and by Cheyne satyrs in these which were . .. 29. 15) of Mendes or Pan. 38-45. Mark to vii. {e-rra^poil^ofievav). Y 2 Chron. Settle iii. B lessed. Rest. Dwell {oIkoi}) See on ch. Y. but womanly xii. See on Matt.

cellar or crypt. stand wp. [Ch. 36. thee. (ela-iropevofievoi). latter is the Secret place {KpinrTrjv). the lamp with its bright shining. thus which is in Matt.. though it occurs. XI. The proclamation. vi. namely. 41. v. as Eev. Wye. Which enter time to time. {icripv^iia). Preaching ii. xxiv. x. 35. 5. 32. 'Aa-TpaTTTj means lightning : see ch.. xii. See on vi. v. . is in places: Single—full See on Matt. . See as witness. are entering m from Light (^€7705). Candlestick. a^ear This verb is also used of implied here but the meanHence Kev. 18 and that is the usual meaning in classical Greek. 23. here is more than Solomon. which The bushel. Candle. 24. The More correctly. on Matt. a Greek word transcribed. is rising from the dead. Matt. of the light of a lamp. A Lit. It is used here to emphasize the idea of moral illumination. 6. See on Matt.. on which see notes. in See on Matt. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. . the light. 29 34. Properly. The word occurs in only two other Mark xiii. of light. and that shall ing is. Shall rise up {uvainria-ovTai). 33. See on Matt. emphasizing the inward light. 15. 15. that. something more. The light that thee . See on 2 Pet. Eather. . 22. lamp.. Better with the con- tinuous force of the present participle. bright shining of a candle (o Xvxyof tjj dtrrpaTrff). xii. rarely. Lit. Properly s^aw?.364 WORD STUDIES greater (7r\etov).

anise.'s " cleanse the within by alms. Washed {i^airria^). Only herein New Commentators differ as to the meaning. but generally reject that of the A. vi. be- cause of xxiii.. xxiii. The word rendered Compare. remaining in the dishes) give ye alms* 42. . brotherly spirit of inward righteousness. and platters. Ye tithe {cuKoheKaTovre). 318) of " construing through a brick wall. Y. See on Matt. 3Y. irapo'^k.. . So Eengel. immediately after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue. Probably from fleshy leaves. is not open to the charge of Mr. 365 Better. See on dinner. 4. platter.e. which will prompt you to give of the food which the vessels contain (that which is within) to your suffering brother. 38. The present tense. That thing that is over Such things as ye have Testament." The rendering is quite " intelligible . xiv. Rue {vT^avov). Y. Tithe is tenth. Meyer. also. its thick. 4.." * v. Matt. iri^yvvfii. .. and says: "Your virtue consists in washing the outside. Let some poor man partake of your meats and wines " (Godet). as Eev. 23. 6. Matt. Wye. Yonge ( Expositor. on which see note.] LUKE. Eev. and making a respectable appearance. 8. 13 Hos. asfeziA. 23." " Do yon think it is enough to wash your hands before eating ? There is a surer means. xxiii. xxii. Besought (epwra). XI. charger in Matt. give alms of the contents of the cups within. ix. Alford. Jesus is insisting upon inward righteousness as against pharisaic externalism. 3d Series. 41. Compare Matt. See on Mark vii. Platter (TrtVaKo?). Too strong. Dine [apiaTqarj). Matthew has See on The Eev. Cultivate rather the loving. The morning meal. 25. to make fast . ' 39. those things which are The meaning is.Oh. (i. " quite as much so as Mr. (ja evovra).

Herb i. A technical term in medicine for feeling gently a sore part of the body. even us. 32. also («:al ij/^Ss). Grievous to be borne {Bvcr^daraKTa). unseen ones. the lawyers. them and avoid ceremonial defileHere they are not seen. 4. from that of Matthew. has wort. That wall< over {'rrepnraTovvTe'i). Pharisees (rot? ^apia-a(oi<. " or afoo unto you lawyers. una/^arent. Or perhaps better. 45. of the trumpet giving an vavthe tombs. The participle. 14. occurs only here and 1 Cor.). move. Luke's form of expression Pharisees . Matt. ^ww ISTote Ye lade. origSee on Mark iv. the learned.. 4. (uiSpt'^ets). (Trepi) on their daily business. XI "Wye. or the pulse. xxiii. walk about . as they walk. xxiii. Compare the German wurz. xxiii. the word meaning to outrage or affront. [Ch. inally the general herh. and men walking on them are see men may unconsciously defiled. and without the article and therefore better.\dxavov). See on Matt. root or wort. Tombs which appear not [ra ixvqfieia ra aSrpui). The lawyer converts Jesus' upbraided) into an insult. Us 46. " ye 44. the certain sound. 43. Matt. Compare hea/oy laden. You. xiv. and similar words. The word aBrj\o<. Also («:at)." 43) : Emphatic. the Pharisees.366 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 27. Touch {irpoa-yjraveTe). woe." marking them by the article as a well-known religious body. Only here and Matt. Hence coUwort.. Only here in New Testament. Irnerterm for a plant. . has Kivrja-ai. In Matthew the sepulchres are whitened. who says. Lit. the article as in the address to the Pharisees (ver. 28. Reproachest reproach (see Mark xvi. while differs Luke has " woe unto you. xi. 8. that ment.

connect this with what follows: "first of all beware. Originally to dictate to a pupil what he is to learn by heart. and a-Toiia. The altar is the altar of burnt-offering. Ye Or are huildmg. See on Matt. 53. Lying in wait —to catch (eVeSpeuoi/re? CHAPTER Sijpeva-ai). is 51. 1. Ye bear witness Rev. build. of the prophets. See on Matt. xxiii. XII. An innumerable multitude {r&v fivpiMwv tow o')(\jov). 33. The altar and the temple. compare 2 Chron.— Ch. First of all. 367 47. sent. Provoke to speak {airotrTOfuiTl^eiv). Met- aphors from hunting. carrying on the work now." 276). 5 and . along with them {avv).] LUKE. It is our word myriad. See on Matt. 29.) Hence to catechize. equivalent to vaov. that ye allow (jidpTvper eo-re km more correctly. : 54. 29. sanctuary (Eev. a-vvevBoKeiTe). 19. temple. Hence. ye a/re witnesses and conThe compound verb means " give your full approval.. See on Mark Only here in New from. (Seww? evexeiv). XII. in Matt. the mouth. Ye think favorably (eu) . See on Matthew xiii. xxiv. Many etc. xxiii. Testament. Tombs 48. Thus Plato " When the grammar-master dictated (avoa-TOfiaTi^ot. and making him say what they-wanted him to say. The word fivpltK strictly means a number of ten thovsa/nd. with the to you " (" Euthydemus. idea of putting words into Christ's mouth. lit. From airo. 35." Leaven. house. 18-21. OIkov. .). of any countless number." (So/eetre) . generally. iv. xxiii. To urge him vehemently vi.

xxiii. 32.. Fall. See on hypocrites. 29. 17. magazine. " fear not from . See on Matt. xi. 43. Hell. which taught him to regard Jesns as an enthusiast or even as an im- ." but. the friends of me. " from the hands I of. See on Matt. " O my friends. has his seat. ch. 5. 'Rev.ia<s). Unto you. the distributor. 29. have proceeded from a sincerely pious Jew. to Closets cut or dwide. Distinguished from hlaspheme. See on Matt. as {\6yov). afraid of (jiri i^o^'q^Te airo). 22. (a-vjKeicaXviJLfjiivov). XIL Which Classifying the leaven which belongs to the category of hypocrisy. House-tops. forewarn (uTToSei'^ft)).e. xxiv. STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Lit. Hypocrisy. x. Sparrows. Confess me. under the influence of his early education. See on Matt.. iii. x. : (Ta/j. reij. Lit. There the stewa/rd {rafieioiq). A might. will 7. 2. " confess in me. warn. 4. 46. my friends (vfiiv rot? (fiiXoK /lov). V. which word against the poor and humble Son of Man Godet observes." Be not i.368 WORD (^Tt?). Covered up : Only here in ITew Testament 3. See on Pharisees and lawyers. 13. Matt." See on Matt. The word has the same root as and means an apartment where supplies are divided and apportioned a treasury. 6. 7. and therefore a secret and well-guarded place. Not an address. implying close concealment. See pnwa^ned. ch. [Ch. 10. . A word follows. " unto you. X.vw..

Bestow {avvd^o}). Lit." erty is The whole question of the tenure of his propHe had said m/y fruits opened for the rich man. {yjrvxv)- 19. Some however. 30. framtic. 38-40. i. " Which do you take to be the more worthy of admiration. the mes- sengers of God. addressing Aristodemus. Appointed or constituted. 14. 15. j>rej)ared). See on 1 Pet. also. 4).— Ch. airo). In Xenophon's " Memorabilia. iv.] LUKE. Beware of {<pv\da-a-ea-S^e guard ^/ourselves from.. iii. or those who make intelligent and active creations ? " (1. texts. xi. Fruits {yev^iMara). See on Matt. So Rev. " the things which thou hast or possessest.. read ror o-trov. sin of the Jews was pare Acts 11. 369 postor. iii. Lit. my corn. Answer {aTroXoy^a-rja-^e). but never in Is New Testament. Made {Karia-nja-ev). Take thine ease. 15. says. XII. in the sense of crazed.. those who make images without sense {d^povd) or motion. Sometimes. 17-19). 28.e. Whose shall those things be which thou hast provided ? The Greek order puts that first which was uppermost in the rich man's thought his accumulations : " and the things which thou hast provided (Rev. F oo\ (dcjjpmv). Lit. The power of the for the sin in rejecting and resisting the Pardon was offered them there of crucifying the Lord (see Acts ii.. gather together. and comSpirit of Pentecost. Soul See on Mark xii. The indefiniteness is impressive.. 20. whose shall they be ? " God does not say. 18. they require.. 24 . required {airaiTova-iv)." Socrates. 17. Senseless.

stature. xxxix. too. second place. 3. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and they shall die suddenly and be deprived of all their kindred. are deceived. etc. dead. age. shall pierce into the other naked soul. but a very large one. See. clothed in fair bodies. (ra/j. John occurs. 16). also Herodotus speaks of one who was of the same height with another (iii. that is to say." 523). also. the object of which is to foster and prolong life. The original meaning of the word is time of life. Moreover. and read how they toil not. . for they shall be judged when they are dead and the judge. Stature ix. . {tjXikmv). Rev. as in Ps. But both the usage and the 21. so that the judges. with his naked soul. I will deprive meu In the of the foreknowledge of death which they now have. vi. 5 but. goods. in margin. Zeus replies: "In the first place. ls"ow his proprietorship shall ignored. Storehouse 25. as the text implies {that which is least). is [Ch. 11. be- cause the judged have their clothes on. shall be naked He. {rjXtKi'^v) Heb. commonly. and evil souls are clothes on who also have their and their souls veiled by their mortal part. 23 measure of sometimes represented by a measure of length. . they shall be entirely stripped before they are judged. Christ is speaking of food and clothing. most of all. See on Matt. Consider. connection are in favor of the meaning age.370 and not once. They are Whose they be ? He is to be dispossessed af Plato relates souls of the how Pluto complained to Zeus that the dead found their way to the wrong places. 24. age. . 22. my his.eiov). 3. A 21. time is . xi. See onver. in classical Greek. XII. and leave their brave attire strewn upon the earth " (" Gorgias. vii. So.. the addition of a cubit (a foot and a half) to one's stature would not be a small one. 25. How they grow. The other meaning. Some texts omit they grow. Take no thought. See on Matt.

Moth. of doubtful mind (/j-erempi^ecrBe). into which on ch. v. 2 Tim. speaking of the papyrus-plant (byblus). Be ye New Testanient. Thus Thucydides says of the war between Athens and Sparta " All Hellas was excited {/lerecopos. a covered earthen vessel. heated to a glow " 92). The verb means. From /SaKKoy. 2. to unloose : so of vessels. " Such as wish to enjoy the byit first in a closed vessel {ev KKi^dv^). Which is to-day in the field. or keep in fluctuation. This i. up. Something money and other things are cast. 36. lives. " having a desire to depart. Compare Jas. seek etc. instead of ^oiZ. to unloose their moorings and go to sea. Philip. bake used for food. Shall return {avaXvcrr}). The regular oven or furnace is ittto?.. Ye is emphatic : " and ye. wider at bottom than at top. not what ye. . The rendering he return is a kind of inference from this : when shall leave the wedding and return.. So Rev. Sti-ictly. purses." 29." Compare departure [avaKvaeai). : 33. (ii. the grass in the field which to-day is. is its originally. in which bread was baked by putting hot embers round it. and render is absolutely exists. Some u^a^ 28.) by the coming conflict between the two chief cities" (ii. or excite.. See X. : Construe in thefield -^xih the grass.Ch. the metaphor being drawn from breaking up an encampment. — vjj^et). sense in the only other pas- occurs. . Herodotus. 23. iv. Wye.. Only here in The verb primarily means to raise to a height / .] LXIKE. Oven {icXl^avov). Toil — spin {Kotriq. says. And seek not what. satchels. Of departing sage where or break it generally. 4. Xn. Bags (^aXXdvna). Rev. 8). buoy up. to throw. the lower portion of which is blus in full perfection. as with false hopes and so to urisettle. etc. 6. 371 read.

for ing. that Christ speak- Wye. 42. attendance (Luke ix. [Ch. due season. vi. Would come. 11). x. 35. the unis faithful . What hour {iroia&pa). Matt. See on minister. Much better as Kev.372 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Mark xiii. XII. wait- ing on. xxii. From its original meaning oi. As a servant girding up his loose garments to wait on the table. 48. 19. the wise and wise steward. Properly. xxiv. 45. 37.). faithful Household {S-epaTreia'. 42. See Watching.. See on Matt. At the appointed time for distributing See on Matt. 30. . on Matt. the lord's delay and of the ^postponement of the reckoning uppermost in the servant's thought. xxiv. Viedd'mg {T&vyd/Mav). See on ch.. Serve. it comes to attendants . oometh. Unbelievers it is {airla-rajv). 2. that That faithful steward. 43. 35. Lit. See on Mark xiii. xxiv. xx. not oi faith. 38. The emphatic word. Delayeth. rations. See on Matt. oi fidelity. the marriage/^asi!. man. 26. See on Matt. 46. 39. See on Second watch. mean the retinue of Portion of meat In {cmoiJberpiov). Stripes. Lit. Broken through. measure offood. Gird himself.. Lit. the body of household servants.. since the thought of is. unfaithful men. 45.

Better. 35. See on Matt. interpret. for. 10 . Matt. as Eev. See It is (yiverai).] LUKE. 49.. 14 53. In the exercise of your ordinary habits to the heavens. prove. the etc. etc. Discern (SoKifid^ew). <yap v'7rdyeL<. 16. You can test and prove the weather by your signs . for as thou art going. Kev. of observation which you apply 58. Heat (Kava-mv). 7. but you cannot apply the proof which lies in the signs of the times.. A cloud. gives the idea. and whose best policy it is to make terms on the spot. Philip. " They shall be divided. 50. Am . father shall be divided. Fire. . Wye. it cometh i." Daughter-in-law. 38. XII. I straitened. Y.). V. correctly. Rev. Y. 55. With article. xx. 23. and compare 2 Cor. to pass. 12. the definite x. on Jas. i. The the plural. constrained.Ch. Of yourselves. ch.. which you so often There cometh a shower. father against the son. as Kev. 57. 1 Pet. does not Their translate yap. . When thou goest (w? The A. iv. See on Jas. A spiritual impulse which shall result in the divis- ions described in the following verses. ix. But the verb is in Eightly. see. See on ch. Wye. own judgment should show them the necessity of repentance toward God and this duty is urged under the figure of a debtor who meets his creditor in the way.. V. 54. It means here test or jprove. See on set hefore. a shower is coming. i. Or. 373 Commit. See on trial and tried. the cloud.

as Trench observes. juices which the vines would extract from the earth. 42. intercepts the Why cumbereth Kal. in margin. Emphatic. to effect or accomplish . 24 . here in New Testament. Luke xi. "It is three years from the time at I which I came. Besides being barren in itself. Mite (A. CHAPTER XIII. or since. iii.). These three years which. V. V. it out^^ (ck) from it." (varoo-vjoj. sun. 8. Eather." it down (eK/eoi/roi^). Only to bring things to an issue. De Wette. The specific elements included in it are expressed by Bengel above. 3. 111. 4. standing first in Greek order: " Hale On the way give diligence.. Officer {n-paKTopi). and occupies room " (Bengel). Only here in New Testament. is the key-word of the sentence. The A. 25 . xviii. also (Rev. it also injures the " Not only is it unfruitful. vi. XHL the As thou art in the way. . but it draws away the soil. 4. See on ba/rren and unfruitful. 7. . debtors. From irpda-a-a). The verb cumbereth {kutmeans to make of no effect.374 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Sinners (o^etXerai). Compare AawZ. Lit.eTTToi'). from Cut among conne. So Rom.). as Rev. 12 . apyei) . Drag. mahes the land unfruitful. Cumbereth expresses the meaning in a very general and comprehensive way. Possibly with reference to the figure at the close of the last chapter. omits the very important which. 17. i. The name jprahtor was given at Athens to an officer charged with the collection of taxes hence an exactor. and hence to exact. "cut the other trees and the vines.. 2 Pet. 31 Gal. The best texts insert d^' ou. [Ch. Compare Matt. See on Mark xii.

An evil demon.' whom thou He an. an Arabian writer's " Thou must take a hatchet. Only here in viii. 11. The not certain that it was details of the disease. The vine-dresser / will cut. New Testament. And if it bear fruit. 12. ' Do not ' so. Lift {a-vyKirn-rovaa). and be not overhasty in cutting it down bear fruit. do it not. " Thou shalt cut it down. thenceforth). and if not. Thou art loosed {airoKekvaai). this year it will certainly bear fruit.] LUKE. and go to the tree with a friend. XIII. hatchet.' Then will the it still refuses to tree that year be certainly fruitful and bear abundantly. unto sayest. are characteristic of a physician's Bowed together ment. 375 9. a case of possession. thou shalt . and gives the stem of the tree three blows with the cryiiig. A spirit it which caused is infirmity. It must needs be — it But must be hewn down back of the Nay. Used by Galen of strengthening the vertebrae of the spine. see its ver. then cut it down. Spirit of infirmity. and the noting though of the time of narrative. well but if not. cut it down." Trench adds that this story appears to be widely spread in the this East. continuance. only have ' . relaxing tendons.' Ch. for it is unfruitful. ' I will cut down this tree.' the other says. year. Join after that with hear fruit. then after that. 16.. does not say. from thou wilt certainly have fruit if patience with it." but refers that to the master. 7-10 be accepted as genuine. Medical writers use of releasing from disease. " If it bear hxAt for the future (ek TO /jLeXKov. and taking off bandages. well . it But the other restrains him. Only here in New Testa- unless John herself up {avaxinfrai). swers. The only passage in the New Testament where it the word is used of disease." Trench ("Parables") cites receipt for curing a palm-tree of barrenness. . Rev.

of lifting up the bauds which hang down. {dvop&aSr)). See ch. . Strive. Birds. 31. 12. 10. His garden. his own {iavrov) where 19. Compare 1 Tim. Strait gate (a-Tevfj<. Used only by Luke and Paul. 13. Rev. and not a gate. Satan. X. and Heb. Rev. The best texts omit great.. [Ch. See on Mark 33. iv. See on ch. 44). xxii. ix. 3. vi. Glorious things. 8.376 13. vet. 24. Matt. See on is meant . 16. See on ch. are being done. See on Matt. Compare thou ii. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. vii. Loose (Xvei). See on Matt. 7. The door of a narrow door. . except John xviii. Leaven. 58. Lit. Great tree. Stall. Branches 21. were put toshcvme. Were ashamed. of setting up tlie tabernacle of xii. xi. Y. 12 2 Tim. xii. agony. («Xa8ot?). house. he could personally observe and tend it. XHI The verb occurs. games and thus conveying a sense of struggle. She was made straight 15. "True to its principle of contrast. Originally to contend for a prize in the public . Properly.. xxii. more correctly. iv. denoting their being then in progress. 13. this book gives Satan a prominent position" (Abbot). aymvia. as Rev. 16. The kindred noun. .. art loosed.. Acts XV. Were done {'yivofievois:). See Introduction.Svpas). David.- 18 17. is used of Christ's struggle in Gethsemane (ch. xi. 36. 12.

26. would Herod willeth or is determined to kill thee.. Day..Ch. V. In thy presence {evdiriop a-ov). Lit. Herod. to will or determi/ne. repeated with emphasis " (Bengel). 377 a gate opening vii. fa/in. Compare with you v/m&v). seems rather 32. That fox. In Matt. is. When once Some (acji ov). ver. I is fixed. {/te^' Not as beloved and familiar guests. places at 31. Of what vii. The meaning Kev." Whence household. the banquet. we know his birthplace and family. and to TciU.e. 7-9 Matt. xiv. is . but it is casts his Shall sit down {avaKXiS-^crovTai). According to the Jewish idea. LUKE. 30. " The sentence 27. Ye do not belong to my " know whence he (Jesus) We " i. 25. is used. know not whence. cases the A. xxvi. Will kill {9-i\ei airoKTelvai). one of the main elements of the happiness of the Messianic kingdom was the privilege of participating in splendid festive entertainments along with the patriarchs of the nation. As in so many renders as the future of the verb to kill . whereas there are two distinct verbs. where the image is of into a way. 6. Compare : editors connect this with the previous sentence etc. See John 27 : family. gate. 13. 7. feeble. 29.. in allusion to Compare ch. Used by Luke only. . Describing his cunning and cow- Cures {ldaei<i). Sit down at table. . ardice. xxiii. from the time that. Matt. XIII. {-n-oBev).] (ver. 25). iriiKr). Jesus thought into a familiar Jewish image. The best texts read hour. " Shall not be able when once. With this accords ver.

" it is not admissible that. xxiii. Some end my career of healing^'' etc. 20 . 12. 37. and See on Mark 2. XIV. 4. See on will kill. 7. Luke xx. if such a prophet as I should perish elsewhere than in Jerusalem " (Godet). : come to interpret. " I an end : I have do'oe. The verb means to acc^t is. The primary meaning is a well^ as distin- guished from Pull out. and. Pit Took hold of him. my life. in a manner. with reference to Jerusalem as having a monopoly of such martyrdoms. Closely i^apa). a. correctly More wp (dvd). shall be perfected {TeKeiovfMi). ver. . Which had the dropsy The \isual man. They chose.. Took." The expression is ironical and hyperbolical. to theocratic decorum. " It would be contrary to use and wont. 34. present of the certain The present tense "the The meaning is. 5." have gathered {i^MXTja-a ivia-vvd^ai). 31.. Expositors differ greatly. CHAPTER 1. were engaged in watching. Imperfect: were choosing. [Ch.I 378 I WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. vi. others. way {v8pio7nK6<i). 1 future" (Meyer). . Would I desired to gather. 1 Tim. The participle Watched iii. Something going on before his eyes." Hen. so that the sense {ovk ivBexerai). See on Matt. {'^crav Traparrjpovfievov). 33. XIV. fountain. a dropsical of marking a dropsical patient in medical language. Lit. Lit. 2. It cannot be or admit . finite verb. {(f)peap).

A definite act among these preparations described by the aorist. Begin. invite etc. but the beggar and the empty soul. Lit. xxii. 3. See on ch. . Wedding. and come about your doors. v. in general. 4. Or Used by Luke only. 16." 233. and will be the best pleased. A striking parallel occurs in " And. marriage-feast. wa^ m. is 12. and corresponding to the — modern late dinner. for inviting to a festival. Call not thy friends. More ^'^o^&iX-^. 379 The chief seats. 3 . he hade {iicaXecrev). feast. Matt.] LUKE. 29. Made were (hroUC). and attend you. and will invoke blessings on your head. His prepara- tions is in progress. Imperfect. Humbled. See on Matt. 29. Theophrastus designates one who thrusts himnext the host as /it/e/aoc^tXort/io?.. of the reluctant 9. when you make a not your friend. Since the other. Or couches. the technical word See Matt. See on Matt. Feast (tvyrp)). Plato's " Phaedrus.aMng. xxii. See on Zow^. XIV. Sit down {avdireae). move- The lowest. vii. John ii. Dinner supper. 13. lay yourselfbaek. for they will love you. Blessed. The Greek writers refer to the absurd contentions which sometimes arose for the chief seats at table. 16." reception.Ch. onewho seeks 8. 2. 10. 11. and the most grateful. Emphasizing the shame ment toward the lower place. intervening places are all assigned. self into the place Jpetty distinctions. Sujpper {^dirvov) the principal meal at evening. V.

the broad streets contrasted with the narrow Icmes. off. The former word from 7r\aTi5s. he This servant to call you at the proper time. cannot. 36). " WhM thou didst command done. newly married man had special indulgence allowed him. [Ch.. "Land and Book "). Wye. ")• Make excuse {-n-apaiTeid^aC). 20. 22. as then. Following the reading w?. 23. or some unbreeched youngster of his family. Our phrase. See also 2 Tim. that may not be in anywise. 25. " The chief. The man who ' had the most plausible excuse returned the surliest and most peremptory answer. or do us the favor" ("Central and Eastern Arabia 18. It is true now. as." . See Deut. The best texts substitute is wliat. hroad. Streets (TrXaTeta?) lanes {pvjxa^). 33. As thou hast commanded. servant 17 Come. great streets and small streets. Rev. Compare 1 Cor.. comes up to us with the customary tefaddaloo. Heb. xii. Testament refuse. o. or emeer invites. The fact that this custom agreeis confined to the wealthy and to the nobility is in strict Sent his servant.. ii. idea here. 1 19. 6. always sends a often repeats the very formula mentioned in Luke xiv. where the man who made the supper is supposed to be of this class.— 380 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. bey. I home necessity: a strong expression. Palgrave mentions a similar formula of invitation among the Bedouins of Arabia. He is but just joined in wedlock. ieg expresses the must needs {e^i^ avdyKriv). : ment with the parable. for the swpper is ready. Render as Rev. Also rendered in New where both meanings occur. XIV. that to refuse is a high insult to the maker of the feast (Thomson. Lit. I A "But Croesus answered. Go out (e|) from the city. Go (effX^etz/). 21. Herodotus relates how Croesus refused for his son an invitation to a hunt on this ground. 'Say no more of my son going with you. vii. " If a sheikh. xxiv. and is busy enough with that " (i.

Gal. Hedges See on Matt. From Thus yfnj^o<s. but on the hand " (" "Wasps. rest. to left 36). may Here mean either a hedge. as figured by a tower. 33. and took the ballots (ra? \^^ov'i) wherewith they were to give Plato: "And you. move their hand from right So Aristophanes." 656). or a place enclosed with a hedge.. Thus Herodotus " The Greeks met at the altar of Neptune. charge. Similarly Used also of voting.: Ch. 330). would you vote (av \}r7J4>ov their votes. A very strong word . Only here and Apoc. Compare constrained. The subject of the is parable is the life of at- Christian discipleship. 22. xiv. . 12. 28. Counteth (i^^t^ist)." See Acts xxvi. properly of loading a ship. not with pebbles {\}r^^oi<. Matt. Hence ex- pense. Not to use force. 17). but not all the sa/me cross each one his own. It 23. Allied to hdiTTm. Herodotus says that the Egyptians.). 18. XIV. "Nature and grace alike abhor a vacuum" His cross. 381 xxi. a pebble. A tower. to devour. cast your pebble) with me or against me ? " (" Protagoras. xiii.] LUKE. Techon with pebbles). calculate. but to constrain them against the reluctance which such poor creatures would feel at accepting the invitation of a great lord. ii. 10. used as a counter. (ii. filled {ye/jLiaSjj).^ot?. May be (Bengel). {<f>pa/y/iov<!)." l^eio. : Cost {rijv hairdvqv). vi. when they calculate (Xoyia pebble (see Apoc. Acts xxvi. " Reckon roughly. a lofty something distinguished from the world and tracting attention. from Latin calculus. 11 . More correctly. as something which eats up resources. ^ovrat \|rj. 27. which structure. the hedges beside which vagrants Compel. his own. An important All must bear the cross.

Attentively watching the progress of x. Compare Rom.e. surrounded hy. against another king (erep^ ^aaiXel Lit. That when he stopped we longed to hurl together. i. Such trumpet-blowings in it." 31. See on ch.. XIV. To finish [eKTeXia-ai).. ii.. And into such a song. . Lit.). a footing of equality king treating with king. 19. elprivriv). 29. v. the things ofpeace). Conditions of peace {to. to come together with another So Rev.. the building.. king /or war. in ten thou14. Idyls of the King. With ten thousand sands 32. strength.. 2 Pet. to encounter another king in wa/r.). Compare Jude : Asketh On xi. The unto completion. 11. things which Tuake for peace (ra rfj^ elpilvr]<. preliminaries. To be strong in body or in resources. " This man was not worth enough. " to finish out " (e/e). . 18. Was not able {ovk ia-xva-ev). make even or squa/re. Lit. ^^goodiov nothing. Begin to mock. From tV^w. See on ch." In this latter sense. With sarcastic emphasis.382 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 30. •n-pb<. valere. or was not good for the completion. and hence to com/plete. Lit.. [Ch. To make war (TVfi^aXetv 6t? iroXefiov). Sufficient {ek a-rrapTia/jbov). Lit. things looking toward peace . Matt. Behold {3-e(opovvTe<. " Out he flashed. 9. " Tennyson. xiv. coming down To sucli a stern and iron-clashing close. as Lat... This man {ovro^ 6 av^pcoiro'. : (eV Se'/ca ^^tXtao-ii^). such fire for fame. 13. See oupower. means to kindred verb uTrapTi^co. As his resources come to an end. in the midst of {ipanS). not used in New Testament. and so to ie worth.

Ch. XV.]



Forsaketh {airoTarrffeTai). Bids good-hy to. Rev., reSee on ch. ix. 61. " In that forsaJceth lies the key to the whole passage" (Trench). Christian discipleship is founded in self-renunciation.




lost its savor.

See on Matt. See on Mark

v. 34.


be seasoned.

ix. 50.



the wilderness.


a desert place, hut uncultivated
&re he.in^ pastured in

plains; pasturage.

Note that the sheep

traveller, cited anonymously by Trench, the wilderness. " There are, indeed, some accursed patches, where scores says


of miles


rising before another.

before you like a tawny Atlantic, one yellow wave But far from infrequently there are

regions of wild fertility where the earth shoots forth a jungle
of aromatic shrubs " (" Parables



he hath found



On his shoulders. Lit., his own shoulders. "He might have employed a servant's aid, but love and joy make the labor sweet to himself" (Bengel). The "Good Shepherd" is a " We cannot go through favorite subject in early Christian art. any part of the catacombs, or turn over the pages of any collection of ancient Christian monuments, without coming across it again and again. We know from Tertullian that it was
often designed upon chalices.

We find


ourselves painted in

upon the roofs and walls of the sepulchral chambers; rudely scratched upon gravestones, or more carefully sculptured on sarcophagi traced in gold upon glass, moulded on lamps,

engraved on rings
of Christian


and, in a word, represented on every species that has


come down

to us.




was selected because

expressed the whole

sum and








He is sometimes stance of the Christian dispensation. represented alone with his flock ; at other times accompanied by his apostles, each attended by one or more sheep. Some.

times he stands amidst




sometimes he caresses one

but most commonly so commonly as almost to form a rule to which other scenes might be considered the exceptions " he bears a lost sheep, or even a goat, upon his shoulders " Eoma Sotteranea "). beautiful (Northcote and Brownlow,


specimen is found in the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, at Eavenna, erected about 450 a.d. It is a mosaic in green and gold. The figure is a beautiful one, youthful in face and form, as is usual in the early mosaics, and surrounded by his sheep. Facing this appears, over the altar, the form of Christ seated beside a kind of furnace, on the other side of which stands a little open bookcase. He is engaged in casting heretical books into the fire. Are they, indeed, the same the Shepherd Christ of the Gospels, and the polemic Christ of the ecclesiastics ?


With me.


with the sheep.


life is his


(Gregory, cited by Trench).


See on Matt.




The Paeables of the Lost Com and of the Peodigal


Peculiar to Luke.

8. Pieces of silver {Bpax/J-a^). Used by Luke only. coin worth about eighteen cents, commonly with the image of an owl, a tortoise, or a head of Pallas. As a weight, 65.5 grains. common weight in dispensing medicines and writing prescrip-





transcribing the

Greek word, dragmes.




Her friends.


friends, for the



used in the

feminine form.


Through her own



says "




the sheep, Jesus

sheep strays of

but a piece of

Ch. XV.]




such as should have kept

could only be lost by a certain negligence on the part of it " (Trench). In the one case, the

is fastened on the condition of the thing upon the sorrow of the one wlio has lost.

in the

According to the Jewish law of inheriwere but two sons, the elder would receive two portions, the younger the third of all movable property. A man



tance, if there

might, during his lifetime, dispose of all his property by gift as he chose. If the share of younger children was to be diminished by gift or taken away, the disposition must be made by a person presumably near death.


one in good health could

diminish, except by gift, the legal portion of a younger son.

The younger son thus was

entitled by law to his share, though he had no right to claim it during his father's lifetime. The request must be regarded as asking a favor (Edersheim).

Unto them.
13. All.


to the elder,


did not ask


Everything was taken out of the father's hands.







our phrase

went abroad.



The word used


winnowing grain.

See on Matt. xxv. 24.

With riotous living

{^wv da-mras:).


Uving unsavingly.

affcoria, is Only here in New Testament. Eev., in all the three passages where it occurs, rendered by the See note on the last 1 Pet. iv. 4). Tit. i. 6 riot (Eph. V. 18

The kindred noun,






See on

cost, ch. xiv. 28.

In that land.



characteristic of the

"far country."

The prodigal

feels the evil of his environment.


(with a

shade of emphasis) began to be in want."


be, in



[Ch. XV.



varepo?, lehind.


pare our phrase of one

bein straitened circumstances, to fall

Joined himself


The verb means

to glue or

himself engage him, and who upon the citizen, who was unwilling to " T- he untook him into service only upon persistent entreaty. " wretch is a sort of appendage to a strange personality happy Compare Acts ix. 26. Wye, cleaved. See, also, on (Godet).


expressive here, implying that

\\b forced


V. 13.

feed swine. As he had received him reluctantly, so he An ignominious gave him the meanest possible employment. keeping of swine The occupation, especially in Jewish eyes. was prohibited to Israelites under a curse.



He would
he was

fain (eVe^uyaet).






the while he was tending the swine.

Filled his belly {yefiiaat rrjv KotXlav). The texts vary. The Rev. follows the reading 'xppTaa^vai, " He would fain have ieen filled" using the same word which is employed oi. filling


who hunger and
and of the

thirst after righteousness (Matt. v. 6, see
xiv. 20). He had wanted was no better now. All he

thousand (Matt.

the wrong thing




wanted was to


his belly.




The word


a diminutive

a horn, and means,


horn, from the

shape of the pod. The tree is sometimes called in German BocTcshornbaum, OoaC s-horn-tree. " The fleshy pods are from six to ten inches long, and one broad, lined inside with a gelatinous substance, not wholly unpleasant to the taste when thoroughly ripe " (Thomson, " Land and Book "). The shell or pod alone is eaten. It grows in Southern Italy and Spain, and it is said that during the Peninsular War the horses of the British cavalry were often fed upon the pods. It is also called


Ch. XV.]



Saint JoKtHs hread, from a tradition that the Baptist fed npon its fruit in the wilderness. Edersheim quotes a Jewish saying, "When Israel is reduced to the carob-tree, they become repentant."



to himself.


striking expression, putting the
as a

kind of madness. It is a wonderful stroke of art, to represent the beginning of repentance as
the return of a sound consciousness. Ackermann (" Christian Element in Plato ") observes that Plato thinks of redemption as

state of rebellion against


a coming

as a severing of the inmost being

an apprehending of one's self as existent from the surrounding element. Several passages of Plato are very suggestive on this point.
to one's self ;


He who

bids a

soul " (" Alcibiades,"

not as

man know himself, would have him know his " To see her (the soul) as she i., 130). we now behold her, marred by communion with

the body and other miseries, you should look npon her with the eye of reason, in her original purity, and then her beauty

would be discovered, and in her image justice would be more clearly seen, and injustice, and all the things which we have described. Thus far we have spoken the truth concerning her as she appears at present but we must remember also that we have seen her only in a condition which may be compared to that of the sea-god Glaucus, whose original image can hardly be discerned, because his natural members are broken off and crushed, and in many ways damaged by the waves ; and incrustations have grown over them of sea-weed and shells and stones, so that he is liker to some sea-monster than to his natural form. And the soul is in a similar condition, disfigured by ten thousand ills but not there, Glaucon, not there must we
; :


'"Where, then?'

At her

love of wisdom.

Let us see






converse she seeks, in virtue of her near kindred with the

immortal and eternal and divine also, how different she would become, if wholly following this superior principle, and borne by a divine impulse out of the ocean in which she now is, and disengaged from the stones and shells and things of earth and








rock, which, in wild

grow around

her, because she

crusted over by the good things of feeds upon earth, and Then would you see her as she are termed. this life as they
is'" ("Republic," 611).

Have bread enough and to spare

{irepuytreiovTat aprav).

abound in lomes.

'Wye, 2>l6nty of loaves.


lam perishing.


best texts insert wSe,

here, in contrast

with the father's house, suggested by the fa-

ther's servants.


His father.


affecting touch in the





Trench cites an Eastern proverb "Who draws near (God) an inch, I will draw near to him an ell ; and whoso walks to meet me, I will leap to meet him."






See on Matt. xxvi. 49.
called thy son.

To be


omits maJce

me a



slavish spirit vanishes in the clasp of the father's arms.

Bengel suggests that the father would not suffer him to utter the news. I once heard Norman McLeod say in a sermon, " Before the prodigal son reached his home he thought over what he should do to merit restoration. He would be a hired servant. But when his father came out and met him, and put his arms round him, and the poor boy was beginning to say this and that, he just shut his mouth, and said, I take you to my heart, and that's enough.'

22. To his servants. Bond-servants. There is a fine touch in throwing in the hond-servants immediately after thy son (ver. 21).

Bring forth.



add quickly (Taxv).

So Eev.

Ch. XV.]



The best robe {o-toXtjv tt}v irpcoTijv). Lit., a robe, the first. Properly of a long, flowing robe, a festwe garment. See Mark
xvi. 5


xx. 46.


See on Jas.


Compare Gen.



Shoes. Both the ring and the shoes are marks of a free man. Slaves went barefoot.


fatted calf.

a festive occasion.
24. Is

The article denoting one set apart for Tynd., " that fatted calf."

evpeSTj). Both aorists, and pointing back to a definite time in the past doubtless the moment when he " came to himself." Wye, hath limed.

alive— is found

The Prodigal Son


a favorite subject in Christian



return of the penitent

the point most frequently chosen, but

the dissipation in the far country and the degradation the swine are also treated.



dissipation is the subject of an

interesting picture by the younger Teniers in the gallery of the
is feasting at a table with two courtean inn, on the open shutter of which a tavernscore is chalked. An old woman leaning on a stick begs alms, possibly foreshadowing the fate of the females at the table. The youth holds out his glass, which a servant fills with wine.




sans, in front of

In the right-hand corner appears a pigsty where a stable-boy is feeding the swine, but with his face turned toward the table, as if in envy of the gay revellers there. All the costumes and other
details of the picture are



also represents

feasting with his mistress, and gambling with a sharper

him who is

sweeping the money


the table.


other points of the story

are introduced into the background.
table in a garden before an inn.


Jan Steen paints him at man plays the guitar, and

two children

are blowing bubbles

pleasures of the spendthrift."
riotous living

" an allegory of the transient Mrs. Jameson remarks that the

treated principally by the





the swine

treated by Jordaens in the Dresden



youth, with only a cloth about his loins, ap-








trough where the swine are feeding, extends his hand, and seems to ask food of a surly swineherd, who points him to the trough. In the left-hand corner a young boor is playing on a pipe, a sorrowful contrast to the delicious music of
Salvator Rosa pictures him in a landkneeling with clasped hands amid a herd of sheep, oxen, scape, Rubens, in a farm-stable, on his knees near goats, and swine. a trough, where a woman is feeding some swine. He looks im-

the halls of pleasure.

ploringly at the



of the finest examples of the
in the splendid picture in

treatment of the return
the gallery of the
Stirling ("

by Murillo,

It is thus described by Annals of the Artists of Spain ") " The repentant youth, locked in the embrace of his father, is, of course, the


of Sutherland.


principal figure his pale, emaciated countenance bespeaks the hardships of his husk-coveting time, and the embroidery on his

tattered robe the splendor of his riotous living.

A little


dog, leaping up to caress him, aids in telling the story. On one side of this group a man and a boy lead in the fatted calf on the other appear three servants bearing a light-blue silk dress

of Spanish fashion, and the gold ring; and one of
to be

them seems
lost one."


at the

honors in preparation for the




A symphony:

concerted music.


Inquired (eTrw^dvero).


to inquire.


come— safe

and sound. Compare

m aZwe





the observance of



the lesser proprieties of the father, in the midst of all his natural affection,

yet full of the moral significance of his son's return

— that he

has come back another person from what he was when he went or while he tarried in that far land ; he sees into the deep of
his joy, that







by both.

receiving him now indeed a son, once dead once lost to him and to God, but now found But the servant confines himself to the more

external features of the case, to the fact that, after all he has gone through of excess and hardship, his father has yet received him safe and sound" (Trench).

Ch. XVI.]




He was angry {mpyiaSr}). Not with a mere temporary of passion, but, as the word imports, with a deep-seated wrath.




Some read the diminutive, ip(<f)iov, "a In any event a contrast is intended between the

kid and the fatted

This thy son.



brother, but with the bitterest


Was come



says came, as of a stranger.


" eat

Devoured {KaTa(f>a^(ov). We say "eat uj);" the Greek said down " (/cara). The word is suggested, no doubt, by the

mention of the

the kid, and the feasting.


Peculiar to

The Payable of the Unjust Steward.


From ot«o?, a house, and i/e/tw, to Hence, one who assigns to the members of tlie household their several duties, and pays to each his wages. The paymaster. He kept the household stores under lock and seal, giving out what was required and for this purpose received a signet-ring from his master. Wye, fe/rmour,



distribute or dispense.


or farmer.

Here probably the fewt^steward.

Was accused

Only here




Sta, over, across,




To carry

and hence to carry reports, etc., from one to another to carry See on devU, false reports, and so to calumniate or slander. Matt. iv. 1. The word implies malice, but not necessarily

Compare Latin traducere whence traduce.

{trans, oven, ducere, to










Eev., was («? SiaaKop-rri^mv). Lit, as wasting. sonaething going on at wasting; not merely a past offence, but See ch. xv. 13. the time of the accusation.

Had wasted



is it



hear this {titovto


Better ae

Kev., IVhat is this that

I hear ?

Give an account

rhv Tioyov),


"give back"

The (rov) account which is due. ArisRev., render. (airo). signet tophanes has a striking parallel "And now give back my my steward " (" Knights," 947). for thou Shalt no longer be

Thou mayest



strictly, as

Eev., thou canst.

Tai<eth away.



taking away.

He was

not yet


possessed, as is

shown by what




See on ch. xiv. 30.

"I have



His luxurious

had unfitted


for hard labor.

In Aristophanes (" Birds," 1431), a sycophant is asked " Tell me, being a young man, do you lodge informations against He replies " Yes why should I suffer, for I strangers ? "


know not how

to dig


To beg


See on besought, Matt. xv. 23.


nnay receive.


debtors of his master (ver.


were together

Alford and Trench think that the debtors but the words seem to me to indicate that he He called to him each one, and dealt with them separately. unto the first ; after that (eVetra) another. said



Lit., baths. The bath was a He6. Measures (/Sarou?). brew measure, but the amount is uncertain, since, according to Edersheim, there were three kinds of measurement in use in



the original Mosaic, corresponding with the


that of Jerusalem, which was a fifth larger

and the common


Ch. XVI.]



the Jerusalem.

Galilaean measurement, which was more than a fifth larger than Assuming the first standard, the bath would be
fifty-six pints,


and the debt, therefore, a large one.

Take thy

bill (8efat <tov to, jpdfifiara).

take back thy

Eev., hond.

Wye, obligation; and

in ver. 7, letters.
bill is



used for a single document.

the bond

which the buyer has given, and which

in the steward's keep-

He gives

back to the debtor for him to alter the figures.



was a

secret transaction, to

be hur-

ried through.


To another



different one with a different
different rate of dis-


and his circumstances demanding a


and the




cor was ten baths/ the dry


measures being the same.




the steward.

Eev., properly,



Commended. Admiring

his shrewdness,



was defrauded.

Unjust steward. Lit, stewa/rd of injustice. See on forgetful hearer, Jas. i. 25 and compare words of grace, Luke iv. 22 unjust judge, Luke xviii. 6 son of his love. Col. i. 13 The idiom is a Hebrew one. lust of v/nclea/nness, 2 Pet. ii. 10. The phrase expresses Jesus' judgment on what the steward's
; ;

master praised.

Wisely (i^/joW/ua?). See on Matt. x. 16. Wye, prudently. would suggest shrewdly, though in the modern sense of sagaciously, since the earlier sense of shrevjd was malicious, or Plato says " All knowledge separated from rightwicked. eousness and other virtue appears to be cunning and not wisdom." In Matt. vii. 24-26, it is applied to the sagacious








man who built his house (jimpo^) man who built on

the sand.

on the rock, opposed to the foolish " It is a middle term, not

bringing out prominently the moral characteristics, either good or evil, of the action to which it is applied, but recognizing in nothit a skilfnl adaptation of the means to the end— affirming or disapprobation, either ing in the way of moral approbation of means or end, but leaving their worth to be determined by other considerations " (Trench, " Parables ").

The A. Y. In their generation {ek ttjv yeveav ttjv kavraiv). Lit., in reference to their misses the point, following "Wye. own generation; i.e., the body of the children of this world to which they belong, and are kindred. They are shrewd in dealing with their own hind ; since, as is shown in the parable, where the debtors were accomplices of the steward they are all alike unscrupulous. Tynd., in their kind.

Than the children men of the world make

of light.


sons of the light.


their intercourse with one another

profitable than the sons of light



intercourse with their



" forget to use God's goods to form
friends of the

bonds of love to the contemporaries who share their character "

forget to "







to yourselves friends. Compare Virgil, "AeAmong the tenants of Elysium he sees " those

who, by good desert, made others mindful of them."

Of the


of unrighteousness (e« tov fiafiwva t^9
as in ver. 8, steward
ver. 11.

The same idiom



Compare unrighteous mamm,on,
spelt with one
It is a



Chaldee word, meaning riches. " Of the It occurs only in this chapter and at Matt. vi. 24. mammon" is, literally, hy means of. In the phrase of unrighteousness, there is implied no condemnation of property as


it is

styled unrighteous, or belonging to unrighteous-

ness, because it is the characteristic

and delight and desire of the


and representative object and unrighteous world

Ch. XVI.]



their love of
the riches

being a root of

all evil (1


vi. 10).


of wickedness.


fail (eKXtVijTe).



the best texts read


" when

it (the



They may






Unts or tahernacles.
general proposition, yet vcith

That which

is least.


a reference to


as the least of things.

See next verse.

11. Faithful.



therefore, possible toward the un-



That which



Eiches are not ot^ra,

but given us in trust.

Your own. Equivalent to the i/rue riches. That which forms part of our eternal being the redeemed self. Compare the parable of the Rich Fool (ch. xii. 20), where the life or " Thy soul shall be soul is distinguished from ^q jpossessions.




shall the

wealth be ? "


also, rich to-

ward Ood (ch. xii. 21). Chrysostom, cited by Trench, says of Abraham and Job, " They did not serve mammon, but possessed and ruled themsel/oes, and were masters, and not servants."



Properly, household servant.


See on minister, Matt. xx. 26.
See on Matt.
vi. vi. 24.



See on Matt.


Rev. renders literally, accord14. Covetous {(fiiXdpyvpoi). ing to the composition of the word, lovers of money. Only here








and 2 Tim. iii. 2. Compare the kindred noim, 1 Tim. vi. 10. The usual word for covetous is irKeoveKT7)<! (1 Cor. v. 10, 11
vi. 10).

Only here and ch. xxiii. 35. Lit., (e^efivKT'^pi^ov). turn up the nose at. The Romans had a corresponding phrase, to naso adunco suspendere, toliomg on the JiooTced nose: i.e., to turn up the nose and make a hook of it, on which (figuratively) to hang the subject of ridicule. Thus Horace, in one of his satires, giving an account of a pretentious banquet at the house of a rich miser, describes one of the guests as hanging everything to his nose ; i.e., making a joke of everything that occurred. The simple verb occurs at Gal. vi. 7, of mocking God.


See on Matt. xxiv. 15.


Kev., entereth violently.

Wye, maketh violence
See on Matt.

See on Matt. xi. Tynd., striveth to go in.

17. Tittle.

v. 18.


The Parable of Dives akd Lazakus.

Peculiar to




Imperfect, and frequentative



his hahitMol attire.

Purple {irop^vpav). Originally the purple.^sA from which the color was obtained, and thence applied to the color itself. Several kinds of these were found in the Mediterranean. The color was contained in a vein about the neck. Under the term purj>le the ancients included three distinct colors: 1. deep


with a black or dusky tinge the color meant by Homer in describing an ocean wave: "As when the great sea grows j>^i,rj)le with dumb swell " (« Iliad," xiv., 16). 2. Deep scarlet or crimson— the Tyrian purple. 3. The deep blue of the Mediterranean. The dye was permanent. Alexander is said by Plutarch to have found in the royal palace at Susa garments





which preserved their freshness of color though they had been laid up for nearly two hundred years and Mr. St. John (" Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece ") relates that a small pot of the dye was discovered at Pompeii which had preserved the tone and richness attributed to the Tyrian pui'ple. This fixedness of color is alluded to in Isa. i. 18 though your sins were as scarlet, the term being rendered in the Septuagint (poiviKovv,

which, with


kindred words, denoted darker shades of red.


and interesting description of the purple may be found in J. A. St. John's " Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece," iii., 224 sq.
Fine linen



yellowish flax, and the


made from it. Herodotus says it was used for enveloping mummies (ii., 86), a statement confirmed by microscopic examinations. He also speaks of it as a bandage for a wound (vii.,
It is the

word used by the Septuagint

for linen (Exod.

XXV. 4

xxviii. 5


6, etc.).


of the Egyptian linen


so fine that it




Gardner WilkinIt

son says that some in his possession was, to the touch, comparable to

and not inferior in texture
as transparent as lawn, a

to the finest cambric.

was often

fact illustrated

by the

painted sculptures, where the entire form is often made disLater Greek writers tinctly visible through the outer garment.

See Wilkinson's " Anused the word for cotton and for silk. cient Egyptians," first series, iii., 114 sq., and Eawlinson's " Hisyellow byssus was used tory of Ancient Egypt," i., 487, 512. Greeks, the material for which grew around Elis, and by the which was enormously costly. See Aeschylus, " Persae," 127.


Fared sumptuously





Compare ch. xv. 23, 24, 29, 32. ing merry in splendor. he ate, each day, shiningly.



See onpoor, Matt.

v. 3.


Qod a


Abbreviated from 'EXed^apoi, Ehaza/r, and mean" It is a striking evidence of the deep im-







made on the mind of Christendom, that the term lazar should have passed into so many lanpression which this parable has

guages as


has, losing altogether its signification as a


name "

laid (e/Se/SXT^ro).


was thrown:

cast carelessly


his bearers


left there.



house or temple.
Full of sores

The gateway, often separated from the In Matt. xxvi. 71, it is rendered ^orcA.
Only here in





regular medical term for to he ulcerated.

John uses the

kindred noun


ulcer (Apoc. xvi.

See next verse.

Eagerly, and not receiving what 21. Desiring (iin^v^iSiv). he desired. The same thing is implied in the story of the prodigal, where the same word is used, " Ae would fain have been filled " (ch. xv. 16), but the pods did not satisfy his hunger.

The crumbs



{t&v TnirTovrcav).


the things


best texts omit



(aXA,a kuX).


hut even.


(instead of

finding compassion), even the dogs," etc.

Licked {i-n^eXeixov). Only here in New Testament. Cyril, by Hobart, says " The only attention, and, so to speak, medical dressing, which his sores received, was from the dogs who came and licked them."


to being


phrase, equivalent the Israelite Abraseems the personal centre and meeting-point of Paradise"

Abraham's bosom. A Rabbinical with Abraham in Paradise. " To




^QY., Hades.

Where Lazarus
xvi. 18.

also was, but in a

different region.

See on Matt.




Ch. XVI.]



in New Testament. ComSee on cb. xxi. 26. Compare the exquisite passage in Dante, where Messer Adamo, the false coiner, horribly mutilated, and in the lowest circle of Malebolge,



Only here


in medical language.

"I had, while living, much of what I wished And now, alas a drop of water crave.


rivulets that from the verdant hills Of Cassentin descend down into Arno, Making thew channels to he soft and cold. Ever before me stand, and not in vain For far more doth their image dry me up Than the disease which strips my face of flesh.


Inferno, xxx. , 65 sq.

Tormented (68ww/*at). Used by Luke only. Tormented \& The word is used of the sorrow of Joseph and Mary when the child Jesus was missing (ch. ii. 48) and of the
too strong.

grief of the

Ephesian elders on parting with Paul (Acts xx.



I a/m in



Lit., child.

or quittance.



ch. vi.

Received hack (airo) as a reward 34 xviii. 30 xxiii. 41.

Gulf (xda-fia).
English chasm.
or ulcer.

From ;y;ao-K6>, to yawn. Transcribed into the In medical language, of the cavities in a wound




ch. xxii.



and see on


Pet. V. 10.


Send him



father's house.

Compare Dante,

where Ciacco, the glutton, says
" But when thou

sweet world,

art again In the

I pray thee to the


of others bring

vi., 88.

e'/c. Offences." From the dead (e'/c veKpwv). WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. it pays. See on charged. The verb means to pay what is due. xvi. Only here in Impossible Testament.400 31. ch. 33. Compare Matt. Hurled: with an underlying sense of by so great an outrage. 21. Only here in New Testament. (avivBeKTov). [Ch. "if one went. but using a different preposition {airo). It is wellnigh impossible to give the English reader this nice play of prepositions. far from persuading the Pharisees. 29. is Xt. 6. {a-rro) Galilee. Matt. It were better {Xva-ireKel).). M i II sto n e . XVIL Be persuaded. Thus Luke ii." Though one rose. 23. Rebuke. Dives had said. New See on it cannot be. "they will Abraham replies. called out 3. CHAPTER 1. stfraAtly Thrown {eppiTrrat. . XYII. from. preposition {Ik. Inadmissible. and is equivalent to our phrase. from within. ix. from the outside . was the immediate exciting cause of their crowning act of unbelief" (Alford). out of (e'/c) the city of Nazareth. ch. v. Dives had said/rom the dead. 4. A rising the dead was more than a messenger going from among from the dead. . "We can hardly pass over the identity of the name Lazarus with that of him who actually was recalled from the dead but whose return." repent. The correct reading here a millstone / not a great millstone as Matt. Abraham's the province. See on offend. violence. xviii. Josepli went up from. and compare on 2. xiii. Dives had said. The general distinction is atro.9o? fJLvKiKo's. "they will not be ew en persuaded. out of) implies a more complete identification with the dead than Dives' cnro. Matt.

XVII. in whose hearts nothing certainly found a place less than did the ethical kingdom of God. 1 Pet. xii. 25. 1 Pet. Not useless. Through the midst of. after Meyer). . this 9. (da-TpdirTova-a). ch. also mean hetween or on the latter. is modern" (Trench. 12.] LUKE. See on disallowed. Only here and ii. Unprofitable {a-)(p€loi). 6. 20. not speaking of the inwardness of " The whole language of the kingdom of heaven being within men. Its growth in the world is a process oi pervasion.)." Moreover. but a physician would readily make the distinction. New fined Testament.j Ch. " The profit does not begin until the servant goes beyond his obligation " (Meyer). 401 Sycamine. the fig-fiiulberry (ch. From %/)6ta. rather than men being within the kingdom. Only here in The progress of the kingdom cannot be de- by visible marks like that of an earthly kingdom. like the working of the leaven through the lump. 4-. A 11. With observation (jieTh TraparTtprjaew. 24. See on ch. Rev. insists Lepers. Goods. Y. 4. 10. 21. " servant owes all things" (Bengel). xxiv. and tried. 31. xix. Jesus is the kingdom. Meyer acutely reBetter. 26 See on Matt. 12. I trow not. marks that ^'you refers to the Pharisees. i. 29. as both were used medicinally. Within. but having rendered no service beyond what was due. v. It may The Am. 4). Lighteneth Rejected. in the midst of. The names were sometimes confused. on the horders of. Lnke distinguishes between and a-vicoftopea. Or mulberry. Omitted by the best texts. reguirement something which the master must pay. but of it& presence.

Only here and Acts vii. but weary Ek than doubtful That word is from vTranriov. CHAPTER 1-14. 27.402 WORD STUDIES the house-top. xxi. Wye. and so to j)reserve alive.. xxiv. 1 Cor. thence to produce alvve ov endue with 37." . Eagles. To the end that men ought (tt/so? to Seiv). (eKBiicrja-ov). " Lest at the last she. The word xii. with reference to its heing necessary always to pray.a. coming. and so Wye. the part of the under the eyes. etc. strangle me " and Tjmd. 19. xxiv. preserve IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. It is used only once again. . and means to strike under the eye. 37. by Paul.j TeXo9 epxofievTj vTrwrnd^r} /ie).. " Lest at the last The judge fears lest importunity she come and rail on me. On See on Matt." So G-oebel and Meyer. 3. Lest by her continual coming she weary me (Jva fif) ek r6\. Peculiar to Luke.o<. Faint {iyicaKeiv). and of eh reXo^. give a sound and much livelier meaning here. Lit. ov finally. too strong. " Lest at last she come and assomU me. ajnb SEE The Parables of the Unjust Judge AND Publican. [Ca XVm. 33. : The more literal sense of this the boxer does his adversary. 28. " I huffet my body " treat it as ix. the Phari 1. and in its literal sense . 5. Regarded (ivTpeTTOfievo'i). lit. XYIII. See on Matt. life. to give face one a black eye. 2. Originally to engender . in the end.). To turn coward or lose heart.. {^mojov^aei. shall quicken it. is Avenge do me justice. See on Matt. word.m. Shall 19. or wear out for vTrairid^ri is more mean continually . 17. It means See on Kom. unto the end.

So Euripides " Thou art Jove-bom." John and joy go with thee yet (Kal) I part : shall leave me alone. depart. is on God. and throws the sentence " And is he slow to punish on into the form of a question " {eir avroK) ? venture to suggest the following their behalf I : Kal not infrequently has the sense of yet. sage. The emphasis order. 30 whence he is. and yet {Kal) he hath opened my eyes. or seems to delay. See on ch. as 403 Goebel may culminate in personal violence. or (5) of delaying sympathy or help. adopts the former. shall he not. also. from thee unwillingly " " Ye know not from (" Knights. : Aristophanes : " O crown. " Shall not God avenge his own yet he delayeth help elect." 1249). and yet (Kal) I am not Render. xvi. carries out the parallel. suggests. . cuts the knot by the most " and he is long-suffering over (eVt) them.] LUKE. widow instead ? Surely he will." 1147). The judge delays through indifference. The Rev." literal of renderings : (3. 7. or to Such is its usual rendering in the New Tesendure patiently .: Ch. and yet {kuI) thy utterance : is unjust " (" Helena. God delays also. xvrn. (1. and that ere long. or of contrasting God with . he intentionally exaggerates his 6. which cry unto him day and night on their behalf. and explained either {a) of delaying punishment. 32 : " Ye alone. JAt. This rendering. the judge of injustice. The Am.. Perhaps. in order to try his children's faith. then. So John ix. 8. (2.) Them {avToTs) refers not to the persecutors of God's elect.) The secondary meaning of restraining or delaying may fairly be deduced from the verb." etc. tament. The unjust judge. Rev. And Greek shall not God. or and yet. but to the elect themsel/ues. fear.) The verb fJuiKpo^vftem means to he long-suffering. the judge." even as the unjust judge delayed to avenge the xvi. " and God." etc. A very difficult pas- and interpretations vary greatly. In the Though he bear long with them.

will the Nevertheless. Yea. Publican. cate. With an vi.). {rov'i {i^ov^evovvTtn. Stood stand. Kev. XVHL because his purpose is not ripe . . Lit. Xonroii'. but he. See on Matt. 10. class. In our mysterious creed. but so it looks And we lose courage then And doubts will come if God hath kept His promises to men. 25. correctly. all others. Standing was the ordinary Compare Matt. As though there were no God . will do justice Tynd. too. The other (ere/so?)." Faber.ev. Lit. vi. It implies taking an attitude. O there Than is less to try our faith. striking not necessarily in a bad sense..... [Ch. though he defer them.. iii.. xi. Notwithstanding God is certain to vindiSon of man find on earth a persistence in faith answering to the widow's ? 8. Took his his position ostentatiously . 11. They threw others beside themselves into one E.. set at Others the rest. up v. But xix. 8 and compare Acts : havimg leen placed. ' ' He hides himself so wondrously. to the suppliant. 12. all The expression is stronger. 404 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 24. 20. implication of his being a different man. See on ch. 5 Mark : . In the godless look of earth In these our hours of need. Lit.). He is least seen when all the powers Of ill are most abroad. Despised nought. made nothing of. posture of the Jews in prayer. It is not so. See on ch. 9. {a-ra^6l<i).

Lit. . but only of his gains — pay tithes ^his annual increase. and again between the Feast of Tabernacles and that of the Dedication of the Temple. during the Captivity. See on ver. x. 9 (Kev. Besides. Luke . "He lets us see. in Twice in the year. that he was not created a Gentile 2. xxi. the rest of men. . does not mean to possess. In a timid attitude: merely standing. Lit. LUKE. on the antiiversaries of national calamities. the publican. "Wrong.] {irpoarjiixero). xxix. The Israelite did not of his possessions. he does not omit directly to mention him " (Goebel).) Acts xxii. This publican here. The law required only one fast on the great day of Atonement (Lev. that he was not born a woman. As the publicans. 1 Thess. 23. ineaning possess being confined to the perfect and pluperfect. the See Gen.Ch.). so. the week. 12. but to acquire . See on ver.. 28 . 4 (Rev. not postmring as the Pharisee. xiv. the verb. Imperfect: 405 iegan to pray. xvm. ov pro- P ra.. this {one). I give tithes {a-n-oBeKarm). See on Matt. 19 (on which see note) . iv. that he was not a plebeian 3. . Possess {KT&fiat. afterward. 9. Deut. 7) though public memorial fasts were added. even in the general enumeration. This publican. Eev. xxviii. that he is thinking of the publican. Compare Matt. Other men {olXoiirol tSiv dvS-pdoTrmv). 13. 22 . xvi. 22. . 29 Num. xxiii. that . Standing (eo-rw?).y ed ceeded to pray. A Jewish saying is quoted that a true Eabbin ought to thank God every day of his life 1.. . g/et. Extortioners. 11. The Pharisees fasted every Monday and Thursday during the weeks between the Passover and Pentecost.). in the present tense.

. 1-16 . xix. 13-16. Eev. looking upon him. loved him.. Suffer. Compare Matt. 20. others. Mark ii. So Mark. Only Mark notes the taking in his arms. Mark x. ." He thinks about no other "With the definite article. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. XVHL from Afar Some explain. Lit. Lit. Infants (t^ ^peifyrf). See on 1 Pet. sorrowful. Come 23. He was very eyevijS^. xix. [Ch. Compare the different arrangement of the commandments by the three synoptists. 17-31. still Yet lackest thou one thing (eVt ev aoi Xeiirei). "the man " (Bengel). (Bevpo). the Pha/risee. Matthew has lay his hands on them amd 16. from the sanctuary.406 WORD STUDIES off. xix. 14.. Lit. xx. x. 15. 18-30.. xix. A sinner " (to3 dfiaprcoXm). ie Be merciful {iKcur^Ti). Compare Matt. hither. ^qpitiated. etc. Lift up his eyes. 16-30 . Ruler. 2. 18. pray. 13-15 . Why callest thou me good ? See on Matt. See on Matt. sinner. Do not commit adultery. Peculiar to Luke. Touch. one thing is lacking to thee.. 22. Mark alone adds that Jesus. 22. 17. As worshippers ordinarily. 16-17. more correctly renders See on Mark x. he became.

which was a common medical term for bringing the sick to a physician. xix. 31-34. xx. See ch. 17-19. 32-34. i. more correctly. All {iravra). 1. . See on ch. Or. Cried (l/epafev). xxvii. through. 5 . xvm. Acts xix. 28-34. Compare Matt. the preposition 34. To be brought unto {ay^vai Used by Luke alone in the sense of bringing the sick to Christ. is in the previous verse. Compare Matt. 29-34. A stronger word than e^6r)aev.Ch. To go through the eye €t<reX-9etv). Saying {pn/ia). ing Were he- 35-43 39. Luke alone has ^eXovr). Mark x.. 25.] rich. expressing secondary agency. The best texts read ra iBia. Compare Matt. more literally. eooceed- mglyP 25. Camel. 407 : Very The Greek order forms a climax " rich. cried. is to which merely to cry or shout. 23 . The other word is condemned by the Greek grammaeye. See on Matt. Kev. xix. is the peculiar word for the surgical needle. 27. 28. said (Keyofieva).. . of a needle (hih Tp^fiaToi ^eXoV??? to enter in through a needles Both Matthew and Mark use another word for needle see on Mark x. He also uses the compound verb irpoadym. Lit. xx. 41 . Mark v. to scream or shriek. 20 . So Eev. Trposi). which were said to them at the moment. Mark x. our own. which. besides being an older term. rians as barbarous. ix. 46-52. LUKE. xv. (joa^i?) . By the prophets {^i£). both in that and in other senses. 37. 24. 31. Acts xvi. while this cry clamorously .

especially balsam and was. They are very insipid. 1. of Peraea. called lyname. XIX. Named i. Zacchaeus. {ffKbiciq). and fiopov. CHAPTER 1-10. 9 . is. Matt. The fig-mulberry. resembling the fig in its rived and the mulberry in its leaves. the rmilberry. Who See on ch. It is a favorite and pleasant conceit with old it . 25. fig-tree. Dr. xii. (wo/iart KaXov/xei/o?). From avtcrj. an appropriate seat for an officer of supeSee on rior rank to preside over the collection of revenues. JAt. he was." He sought (ef^jret). The Stokt of The city Zacchaetjs. Hence Amos expresses the fact that he belongs to the humblest class of the community. 2. "the just. 14). Stature 4.408 WORD STUDIES m THE NEW TESTAMENT. Thomson says that it bears several crops yearly. Not to see what Tcvnd of a person. was close to the fords of the Jordan. 3. so that Zacchaeus could easily have climbed into it. because it produced worthless figs. XIX. Luke iii. Com- pare ch. and none but the poorer classes eat them. 61. Jericho. Imperfect. Lit.. and on the richest plain of Palestine. 12. [Ch. foolish. Sycamore (a-vKOfiopeav). He was busy seeking as Jesus passed. It grows with its large branches low down and wide open. Some old writers defrom fiwpo<s. which grow on short stems along the trunk and the large branches. Peculiar to Luke. therefore. /S'acca^. . by calling himself a gatherer of sycamore fruit (Amos vii. on the frontier abounding most in the choicest productions.. but which one of the crowd he was. fruit. ix.

1). shown forth. 3. give. {KaraXva-ai). It was common for the publicans to put a fictitious value on property or income. Fourfold. and which the most delicate (" "Adopting the royal style which was commends the loyalty of a vassal in manner by freely exactinsj his services" Ecce 7. — If. On the harsh exaction of such debts. restoration. 58. as if a milder xviii. More correctly. To be guest ix. I for standing. is ment Not. 11. 11. that the figmulberry (sycamore) should occur in connection with the figshewer (sycophant).] LUKE. xviii. familiar to him. It is an odd coincidence. Describing a is about to make a solemn declara- He was is like the Pharisee in attitude. 12. See on ch. iii. formal tion. and then to charge usurious interest on the private debt. Luke xii." If I have taken anything by false accusation <f>dvTriaa). Zacchaeus were unconscious of any such extortion but is way of saying " Whatever I have taken. It is my practice to give. but not in spirit. Eev. The restoration required of a ^A^e/'(Exod.Ch. XIX. as of one who See on ch. act.cmythmg does not state a {e'l tl e<rvKo- merely possible case . see Matt. The common phrase show wp {pva) represents it. 12. sinner. I must abide. lodge. nothing more. . Homo "). 28 ." See on ch. A 8. or to advance the tax to those unable to pay. 5. It means to he brought to light . Only here and Acts xxi. Stood {a-To^eU). iii. 14. See on ch.. Appear (dva^alvea^ai). 409 commentators that Zacchaeus' sycamore that day bore precious fruit. but a vow. applied to the Pharisee in here used of the jpvhliccm. Zacchaeus' state" I now give by way of not a vindicaUon. xxii. The more formal word the temple.

nobleman. Meyer very remarks : " The small sum Compare. 17) which relation is less regarded in the parable in Matthew" (" Commentary on Luke ").). " Sermons. An occupier formerly meant a trader.) Minas." a condensed form of .. Ps. " which Kev. See on traded. here he has ouly devoted a definite sum of astonishes us. money . 410 13. 16. But in Matthew. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Pounds lars (fiva^. of consequence" enough to be raised to a royal digThe number of slaves in a Koman nity. kavTov). occurs Judges " new ropes that never were occupied .. expression for while I go and return. the relation of faithfulness in the least to its great recompense (ver. cvii. {TrpayfiaTevaaaSe). 11 changes to wherewith no worJc hath ieen done." " He that occupieth usury. rightly. trade ye. whole property . Wye.. Tynd. follows this reading without comment." Rev. to the purpose of putting his servants to the proof there- with and the smallness of the amount corresponds to what is so carefully emphasized in our parable. it was considered reprehensible not to . household was enormous. [Ch. elianges to ten servants of his. since the his is emphatic Moreover. Between sixteen and eighteen dolaptly apiece. it Occupy sense which — : : Till I come (Iw? epxofiai). huy and sell. His ten servants {Seku BovXov. the Lord transfers to his servant his XXV. xvi. Eev. which is adopted by both Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort eV c5 epxo/j^ai. xxv. viz. on the other hand. have a slave for every sort of work. The word occwpy has lost the conveyed to the makers of the A. Occupy. lit. had but ten servants. It is strange that the Eev. . that of using or laying out %ohat is possessed. while the Revisers' text takes no notice whatever of the reading of four of the leading manuscripts.. Matt. " while I come. the talents (Matt. Toward the end of the Republic. merchcmdise ye.." So Latimer. Compare the " ocaupy Prayer-Book version of the Psalter. XIX.. in the sense of to use. sometimes reaching hundreds. 23 their business in great waters. V. it would be absurd to suppose that this his own.

] LUKE. The thou wert absent. i^ovcriav excov). spiration : The Latin suda/riMon. xxv. To be read interrogatively. Lit. imperfect. Hath gained Lit. perTrench notes that its the napkin which the idle servant does not need for use (Gen. xxv. XIX. Dry. 13. See on strawed." 23. From ava. as Rev. proper up of to his pound.). Better interest. the table of the money-changer. Only here (Trpo?) in New Tes- tament. Matt. Matt. Matt. Sow (ea7reipa<. Had gained by trading (Siewpay/xaTeva-aTo). xxv. See on Matt. yet not even a cottage could be bought for a pound " (Bengel).Ch. 27. Have thou authority {hSi ha/vi/ng authority.. Usury xxv. " city for a poimd. Matt . 21.. Made I {em-ovqa-ev). A 18. dry. kept (elxov). for that reason. Testament. See on ver... I was keeping while 20. (t6k<p). "Didst thou know that ? Then. "Wye. 24. iii. Austere {ava-Trip6<i). Bank hoa/rd. See on exchangers. 19) he uses for the wrapping from sudor. Thou i<newest. thou shouldst have been the more faithful. hath worked besides the original sum. Napl<in (aovhapi^). 16. 24. 411 15. See on usury. Lit. a cloth for wiping off the sweat. made. (jpairet/xv). Eev. 22. Only here in New 16. and thence hard. {Trpoarjpydaaro). Be thou Cities. 27. See on ha/rd. xxv.

XXV. an inequality of ground hiding it for a Verse 37 marks the Jlrst time after one has first seen it. Compare Matt. xxi. verse 41 the second and nearer view (see Introduction. Mark 1. Their garments. sight. and the angle of the western walls. 29. cut Only here in them down xxi. NEW TESTAMENT.. A few moments. Slay {KaTa(T^d^are). The 41. It was at this point that the shout of triumph burst forth from the multitude " (Stanley. He drew nigh. on Luke's topographical accuracy). " Sinai and Palestine "). XIX. "At this point (the former) the first view is caught of the southeastern corner of the city. Beth phage. on the supposed site of the palace of David. : .. 29-44. {jtXtjv). 1-11 . A {Kara). See on Matt. for the most part. in their reverence and love for their Lord. crowned with the mosque of David. a rough field. their own garments See on (eavTwv). The Lord. road descends a slight declivity. Only here in New Testament. The temple and the more northern portions are hid by the slope of Olivet on the right what is seen is only Mount Zion. but then covered with houses to its base. 35. 36.. 3. More strictly. 31. and in an instant the . . hoioheit. The descent. See on Matt. 7. it reaches a ledge of smooth rock.412 27. strong word : slaughter . New Testament. and surmounted by the castle of Herod. xxi. and the path mounts again it climbs a rugged ascent. 1-11. However it [Ch. " Again the procession advanced. caught on this route. and the glimpse of the city is again withdrawn behind the intervening ridge of Olivet. Matt. may be with the unfaithful servant. now. xi. WORD But STUDIES IN THE Rev. Two distinct sights of Jerusalem are 37. Spread {vTreaTpcovvvov).

Primarily. iv. 30.. in {a-wi^ovaiv). and elsewhere). Only Testament. 56 . 413 whole city bursts into view. literally 43. . used in fortifying the intrenchments of a camp. 42. means a pointed stake. with pale. 12-19 46.. So Rev. 45-48. and thence the palisade itself. Lit. as attentive (e^eKpe/iaro). a ditch was dug roimd the entii-e circuit. Compare Matt.. and the earth from it thrown up into a wall. 9. See on ch. The word a lank. 12-19. upon which sharp stakes were fixed.. stuck hy Rev. wept over it " (Stanley). cxxxvii. New See on 1 Pet.. . 17. 38. Only here in New Testament. Kev.Ch. here in Visitation. Every Roman soldier carried three or four of these stakes on the march. hung upon him. like a threshing-floor or pavement. Were very Testament. Wye.. Thieves xi. It is hardly possible to doubt that this rise and turn of the road was the exact point where the multitude paused again. correctly. The Septuagint uses it in the sense of dashing down to the ground (Ps.. as Tynd. Mark 48. With audible weeping. {Xrja-T&v). and in allusion to the Psalm. Mark xi.] LUKE. A trench (xapaKo). to beat level.. Luke x. when he beheld the city. Only here in New Tynd. Lay thee even with the ground {iSa<j>iov<Tiv). Wept (eK\ava-ev). Keep thee 44. 12. him. from the succeeding reference to the children. xxvi. See on Matt. and He. ii. In fortifying a camp or besieging a city. xxi. XIX. .

XX CHAPTER XX.).).. A long time 10. implying rather a strong probability. Went into a far country. stone us to death. See on Mark xii.<rfievo<. Only here in New Testament. . xxi. 9-19. 27-33. The adverb of 'ia-o<}. 33-46 . Of the fruit.414 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. 1-8. Not necessarily _/ar. preposition. Let out. vii. together^ Only here in New and the additional with themselves. it is an even chance that.. 5. 12. equal. as Eev. Lit. 16. They reasoned The {avviKo^icraino). See on ch. 6. Compare Matt. cmother country. but Mark xiii. Wounded {Tpav/jLaTia-avTe<. 13.yfrai. [Ch. 9. 11. he added to send. 2. " Stone us down''^ (KaTo) i. Compare Matt. Only here and Acts xix. See on Matt. avv. It (the people collectively) is having heen persuaded. They be persuaded {7re'jrei.. it xxi. Compare the phrase. 33. xxi. It may be (IW?). . denote a very close conference. It expresses more than perhaps. Testament. He sent yet {Trpoa-iBero n-ifj. Lit. See on {UavoiK. Only here in New Testament. ia-nv). 34. Mark xi. 6.). Denoting a long-stand- ing and settled persuasion. A Hebrew form of expression. 23-32 . Mark xii. Will stone (/caTaXi^ao-et).e. 1-12.

Only here in New Testament. wiasy it not 4r-1. every. 44. forbid (jir) God 17. The stone. yevoiro). xxiii. to pieces. Matt. Compare Matt. From (jjepw. . deed. and so. 20. Lit. knavery. Watched. authority of the 21. 415 Reverence. 1. 21. he. censios. From -n-av. uses the Greek word instead of the Latin Krjva-ov. generally. 41. 'Rev. XX. 22. which feigned. Tightly. See on Matt. See on 1 Pet.Ch. Craftiness (wavovpyiav). 37. 15-22 iii. Lit. Matt. iyKaShjfii. 18. See on Matt. Something. See on Jas. 16. etc. Iroken Grind him to powder 20-26. Hence wmcrwpulousness.. in Matthew and Mark. Rev. 44. See on Matt. 13-17. 13. feigning. Destroy. See on considerest. and epyov. Hence of per- sons sent in for the purpose of espionage. Acceptest not the person. as Only here in New Testament. former. See on Matt. 23.). Luke therefore. Mark xii..] LUKE. xxi. to send in. Eeadiness for every and any deed.). 3. Shall be hrokem {arvvS-Xaa-^i^treTai). to bring. Perceived. See on hypocrites. -Spies {iyKaJ^irovs. the specific . Mark 2. vii. From a garrison into a city. The (t^ apxH icaX rfj i^ovala). . xxi. general the latter. ii. which is brought i/n by way of payment. See on xxii. ii.. Tribute {(jyopov). the The power and authority Roman power in official. xxi. (XiK/jLija-ei.. Which should feign {viroKpivofievovi).

Rich. Mark xii.— 416 24. etc. 46. Only here in New Testament. to make known. See on Matt. omits. NEW TESTAMENT. Compare Matt. Asked. 27-40. 40. and emphatically in the sentence. saying. 39.yu. Widows' houses. 37. Compare Mark xii. (eVt t?}? jScltov). Compare Matt. xxii. m thejplace concerning the hush. them that were casting. 23-33 27. 1. secret. Mark 47. 20. 37. Mark xii. Singular number. Shewed (i/jLi^vva-ev). 2. xxii. Originally to disclose somethmg Hence. See on Mark xii. See on Mark 26. 41-46 crov). Treasury. xii. See on Mark xii.. . STUDIES IN THE See on Matt. See on last Mark 41. i. WORD Penny. [Ch. " Saw rich men. chief places. See on ch. His words (/37. 48. were casting Compare Mark 41. xx.. properly. generally. 18. Standing in. V. as Eev. CHAPTER 1-4. 41-44. XXI. 35-37. 36. At the bush Wrong. xxii. xii. Rev. 18-27. XXI Image and superscription. Render xii. Rev. correctly. Of thy feet {tSjv ttoB&v A.aTo?). Equal unto the angels (la-dyyeXoi). . .. See on Chief rooms. 26. 41-44." Not the rich only xii.

skilful. Compare Matt. Hence of something set up in the Such were the golden vines pie- temple as a votive offering. Rev. {i)<rrepTjfiaTo<. unto the gifts. 3. farmer. is the same word.. 1.. xxiv. to set up. JAt. 43. becomes crafty. same process may be observed in other languages. becomes a rascal : villain. i. x. lack. See on LUKE. See on Mark xii. Behold (BewpeiTe). 3. Penury 5-19. Mark xiii. 5. v. The meaning the one The signifying devoted in a good. and so devoted to evil and accursed. becomes a scoundrel cumning.: Ch. Rev. more simply. Offerings of God. See on Mark xiii.). The word avdSe/ia (Gal. 27 See on Mark xiii. 417 2. Only here in l^ew Testament. Offerings {dva^fiaa-iv). The best texts omit of Ood. lad. 4. of her want. such as a golden wreath after . 42. both on the temple and on provincial synagogues. Mites. a. Mark xii. something devoted. From avariSrjfii. The other is the common or Hellenistic form. 18. 2.). . XXL] Poor. in . This poor widow. 8. Hev. two forms develop gradually a divergence 6. See on Matt. and mounted above the entrance to the holy place. See on ch. Stones. neatij. with bunches of grapes as large as a man. form. The magnificent porch of the temple was adorned with many such which Sosius offered he had taken Jerusalem in conjunction with Hei'od and rich flagons which Augustus and his wife had given to the sanctuary. 1-14 . Thus kna/ve.. 1-13. Luke uses the classical dedicated gifts. the other in a had sense. sented by Herod the Great. Gifts were bestowed by princes friendly to Israel. Thrown down.

19. agined by the 13. xix. Some texts A jiaronomasia or combination Especially limoi. tumults. justice. to See on Matt. Only here and ch. In Septuagint. 23. better. See on ch. and rare in classical Greek. or Vengeance (eKSt/cTjo-eco?). 37. necessity. 15-42. 22. Of rendering y^Z^ xviii. immediately.. 17. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. of fearful objects imsick. xxiv. not. XXI. Rev. turn out. 6. Be not terrified (/a^ rn-TorjSijre). xxiv. See on Matt. 8. See on avenge. 11. 3. Kev. rightly. 20-36. Hence disestablishments. Kev. {avar/Kfj). Wrong. Only here in New Testament. 4. ch. xviii. From a. 15. confined to sights. and in the classical poets. (/cTjjo-ecr^e). ye shall win. issv^e. xviii.. . Famines and pestilences reverse the order of the words. thence /orce or violence. and ko^- IcTT'rjfii. Used in medical language by Hippocrates. xxiv. 9. Isa. Commotions {aKaraaTaa-ias. unsettlements. Compare Matt. 14^37. To answer. [Ch.. Fearful sights {^o^-qrpd). rightly. Lit.). establish.. See on Matt. WORD STUDIES Deceived. 12. Possess ye See on answer. Eev. 1 Pet. common in Paul's epistles. (Xt/xot xiii. Eartiiquakes. loimoi. of like-sounding words : xal Xoifiol). By and by (eiiBecos. Mark xiii. iii.). !Not terrors. led astray. but fearful things. satisfaction. It shall turn {anro^rjo-eTaC). In my name.418 8. Distress Originally constraint.. anguish. 14. dist/ress. Better as Eev.

So Wye. better.: ." y. He breathed out his jax. Y. Only here in New The word originally means to leave off hreathing . He threw The hardy chief. The original idea of the word is heing held in a tight grasp. ii. the roaring.. Only here is in New Testament. Trodden down. 4. : Led away captive. the 419 24. fainting (iiro^ixovTo) to his heart.Only here and 2 Cor. is properly a returned sound. 'Hp^jw. Ch. 24. Ulysses.. xi. Kindred with avvexofievt}. 1031. The proper reading is r)xov'i. to swoon. the sea and the waves roaring. . 38). on which see note. billows. Thus Homer. when Laertes recognizes Ulysses ' ' Testament. ch. Failing (dTroyjrvxovTcov). roaring. iv.. Waves {(jaXov). drew hiva. 346. xxiv. notion of the word swell of the sea. {arofian). etc. Edge mouth. iv. 18. So also Sophocles.] LUKE. Denoting the oppression and contempt shall follow conquest. 33. as of the Generally a ri/ngi/ng sound. The radical unsteady motion. which 25. Signs {a-rifieta). In Heb. roaring. XXI. Round his dear son his arms. The A. an echo. or picturing the sword as a de- vouring monster. the word is used in both senses " the mouths of lions " " the edge of the sword. Either in the sense of i\iQ foremost part. Render jperjplexity for the roaring of the sea. 26. See on captvoes. especially the rolling Rev. 34. of " Hector dragged behind Achilles' chariot life (dir«i|/u{e>' $lov). follows the reading rixpva-T}'^. blows on an anvil. Distress {a-woxv)." . Lit. See on Matt. the participle. With perplexity. taken (ch. the noun. xxiv.

. with a view to determine the progress of the season. in its original sense Surfeiting {KpanroKr}). "in process of fulfilment. 32. Overcharged 32 . 25. ii. 26. vation uncertain oi fulness. 24 . v. Acts iii. xxiv. Look up. to pass: The present participle. xxiv. 27.6i/a). 10." etc. xii. {airoK.). to hreathe or llow. See on depart. Compare 2 Cor.vTpmai. Im- plying careful dbseroation. : In the medical writings nausea or headache. i/fvxw. shaken {adXev^tJovrai). xiii.<i). {r^ivoaaKeTe). 5. Matt. 7j The root of the 28. is 38 31 the same as that of hillows. 34. Trench finds an equivalent in fulsomeness. Graphic. xii.420 WORD STUDIES EST THE NEW TESTAMENT. ii. 19 . Rev. See on ch.. Come to pass ^"^ more correctly. See on Matt. Luke uses four compounds of Compare this simple verb. ch. lettest Redemption 29. as implying being previously howed down with sorrow. Perceime would be better. xvi. XXL Matthew alone uses the simple verb.. iv. all of which are peculiar to him. . [Ch. 12. See on wax cold. 4. Weighed down. Acts V. Only here and Acts 1. Know 31. Only here in New Testament. 30. Compare Matt. Shall be See on ch. Expectation {irpoahoKLai). 11. intoxication. Parable. Acts Heb. Lit. refreshmg. ver. ch. ch. 29. game wp the glws% cool. 29. " looTcing. Ye see {^eirovres. Luke verb vi. The world. it is used of drunken . {fiaprj^&a-iv). xi. comvng Compare Mark xiii. ix. (7ti/6/u. 11. ye know. Deriakin to the Latin orapula.

New Came early in the Testament. diificult to The rendering give a better. See on Matt. XXII. 3) the means of support (Mark xii." Sought. suddenly as a snare. 3. See on Mark xiv. 4 . 1 Cor. 17-19. . See on Mark xiii. 17) or the manner of leading it (1 Tim. : 36. morning {tip^pi^ev). 4. Compare are well d/rxmh. 44 Luke viii." Compare entangle. 31. 1. Feast Froperlj festival. Mark xiv. v. . were seeKwg'. Imperfect. 37. iv. 43 xxi.] LUKE. nigh. Compare Matt. Abode {rjvXi^ero). business of this Suddenly {al^vllwi). . xxi. Only here and 1 Thess.lO. 3. 1 John iii. and so . Imperfect: "was drawing nigh. vi. See note on John ii. its is too general. The Wye. Watch. The meaning here is^ertaining to the sujtport or luxury of life . vi. XXII. considered either as to in the only other passages parallel is Matt.Ch. Only here and Matt. 1. means . ii. 2). Cares (/iepi/ii'ots). 17. This and kindred M'ords in the New Testament always refer to intoxication. contemporaneously with the approach of the feast. As a snare. 25. Of life this it life (/Stwrtwat?). though might be Btbs. xxvi. 12-16. vi. 10. or that which intoxicates. life. Join with the previous sentence " come 36. 15. life. xxii. duration (1 Pet. Only here in CHAPTER 1-6. {eopTrf). 421 Drunkenness (/i€%). Matt. John ii. 38. Drew 2. 33. where it occurs.

10. 1 Cor. See on ch. 15. 4. 14-18 14. with. Iscariot. The leaders of the temple-guards Compare Acts 6. The that of an open and/air consent or pledge. Both Matthew and Mark have the twelve. 23-25. XXH. Promised idea is (i^afioTuiyrjaev). iv. Furnished. With desire Compare John iii. xxvi. The apostles. 16. Compare Matt. 13. re^oiceth with joy . 17. See on Matt. Testament 21. 28. 20 Mark xiv. 17. xxvi. 11. xi. 15. Betrayeth (Tra/jaStSoi'To?). xxvi. And he (/cawetj/o?). Mark xiv. 24-30. Acts iv. See on Matt. See on Mark xiv. to take and so make way 3. 25. . The present participle: is noM» engaged in betraying. Expressing mfeTwe desire. 26-29. 5. 20. iii. Better. x. See on Mark xiv. The cup. xi. See on xiv. Guest-chamber. 15. 22-25.. . Captains {<rrpaTri'yol<i). up <md carry off. xiv. threaten I with threatening. NEW TESTAMENT. . 1. sfy-ewed. Compare Matt. have desired. A man— pitcher. 6 . (Sto^-^Kjy)— shed. to Kill {aviXaariv). See on See on Mark Mark Mark xiv. [Ch. Satan. See on Matt. B read {dprov). a loaf. xiii. 28. 19. 29.422 WORD STUDIES IN THE Lit. 12. Wjc. 14. 19-20.

Rev. ment. Continued (Sta). 26. Prayed {eherj^v). greater. or So Xenophon. v. Sift (a-ivida-ai). ch. 3. who charged with an attempt to kill his brother. off Rev.efievTjKore'. See on minister. Greatest. renders the aorist participle. ohtam. that now he alone has to do with that wretch. 1. 25. (o-trov). See on ch. I appoint {ZiarL^eiJLai). Wheat 32.). 33. as with an enemy " (Bengel). A strife (^tXovetKia). Only here in New Testament. 423 With me. The i-esult proved that Satan had obtained him for the time. 31. obtained you by ashing. 26. xx. ] LUKE. begged him. denoting a delinite act." Only here in New Testament. Strictly. 28. Converted is simply the Latturn round [convertere). by once " when once thou hast turned again. is sometimes means i. "have remained through " 29. Properly. and showing. and 1 Pet. See onjyrayers. " an eager contention. by asking. xvi.: Ch. dispose. A general term. Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution {hid). v. to hia. Lit." (eVto-Tjoe'i/ra?). " Anabasis.. Hath desired It Only here in New to Testaheg off. 24. Art converted inized rendering of the word to Strengthen {aT^piaov). XXII.. Luke is especially fond of compounds with {i^riTriaaTo). grain. in margin. . Wye. "He does not say with you: thus separating the traitor from the rest of the disciples. The mother of Cyrus. Doth serve. {Biafj." {i^aiTrjo-afiivT]). Matt.

11 xxii. Mark ix. Compare Matt. . De by an inward urgency. adopts this view. 39-46. Rev. The cock. xxvi. Luke i. Matt. New 4 . stahUsh. fixedness." so. 43. 32-42. 30. . 43 Acts ii. the things concerning xxvi. In classical Greek this latter word is often used of the fulfilment of an oracle : also of things which are settled beyond controversy. Mark xiv. Wye. 17 vii. 30. Was withdrawn The Yulgate has a/vulsus " he was torn away. The meaning is. let him sell his garment and buy a sword.ve finally settled. See Matt. erned by hath.. Wette decidedly rejects it. The two ecy expressions here give the two meanings. 36-46. The phrase is synonymous 37.. Godet apparently. He refers to him by that name. The place. Deny. See on Gethsemane. Strengt/ien may The word vav^\QS. Imperfect. The proph- i& fulfilled . 1. etc. Prayed. Have an end {reKo'i exei). purse or scrip (and is therefore penniless). The only instance of Christ's directly addressing him as Peter. There appeared used in the 3 . 34 xiv. [Ch. fvlfilled). which note only a tempora/ry 34. Compare as xxi. and Meyer Acts inclines to it . {co^Br]). The word most commonly Testament of seeing visions. xvii. de- Rev. WORD STUDIES IN THE is NEW TESTAMENT. 40. he that hath not a. effect. he was taken away. began tojpray. 7. 36. Peter. much better. . See on Mark But sword is not gov36. XXII. me a. It is too far off in the sentence. {airea-irda-ST]). est. 26. with he aocoTnplished {TeXeaSijvai. So Wye. 41.424 10. 35. See on Matt. xxvi. The . Mark xvi. He that hath no sword.

prayed. 19. 1 Pet. There is in the aorist participle a suggestion of a growing intensity in the struggle. G reat or clots. (eVto-^^uwi/). Multitude— one of the twelve. kiss. etc. To See on Matt. XXn. 45. See on Matt. Tia/oi/ng become in an agony : having progressed from the first prayer {began top^^ay. For sorrow. and the fact of a sweat accompanying an agony is also mentioned by them. Strengthening on was not able. to prevail in or among. See on fervently. {eKreveaTepov). LUKE. xvi. 44. 47-63.evo'i iv ayasvia). Was lievo<!.. Only here in New Testament Aristotle : gouts tions a bloody sweat arising tion . as Kev. means a vision. made in agony. which is not conveyed by the simple being. though very awkwardly. xxvi. . xxvi. 22 . 425 it kindred noun ment. wherever See Luke occurs in the New Testa- i. Yery common species of sweat to blood. It is More earnestly i. 23. xiv. beca/me. 3. above. xxvii. See 30 and cannot. . Literally. ch. Compare Matt. The mention of the cause of the drowsi- ness is characteristic. 47-56 . Mark xiv. 47. 47. d ro ps (Bpofi^oi). Being in an agony {^^oyi.] oTTTOurLa. See on y^vd- being. 43-52. "Wyeliffe's rendering he. menfrom the blood being in poor condiand Theophrastus mentions a physician who compared a in medical language. Agony occurs used by medical writers.Ch. Only here and Acts ix. 41) into an intense struggle of prayer and sorrow. Used transitively only by Hippocrates and Luke. 47. {iyevero). xxiv. More correctly. hints at this : and only here. Commonly intransitive. ver. ch. 22. it is.

By the fire (tt/so? to See on Mark xiv. seizeme. Compare our vulgarism. See on Mark <^m<i). xiv. 57. xxvi. See on Matt. Luke x. Ear (toTi'ou). 63. the assembly . So Kev... xxvi. Mark 54-62. Compare Matt. Kindled (7r6j0ta'»|rai»Ta)z'). 17. Wye. and taken as the answer to the question. His right ear. 62. Both Matthew and Mark use diminutives. tan or hide. xxvi. [Ch. 68. This time Luke uses the diminutive. set in full blaze. 30. 64. Uttle ear. Suffer ye thus far. The elders {irpea^vrkpiov). See on Matt. Ms ear. the right one. JAt. Or court.kmdled all round {irepl)'. 51. etc. 69-75 . The meaning then is.. thence to cudgd. 61. to go so far as to The expression thus corresponds with Matt. 65. Mark xiv. See on Matt. permit them. This is variously interpreted. 66. More correctly. I think the text requires that the words should be addressed to the disciples. 52. Lit. to Originally to flay . XXH The servant. 54. of the elders. 55. xxvi. Thief xi. Smote (Sipovre^). xxvi. 54. (Xj^o-t^i/). and compare Mark xiv. 63. Only Luke records the healing. Hall. Healed. 47. 56. 66-72. 51 .426 60. shall we smite. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

XXIII. Were the more 30 . 20. in medical language. (e| iKavov). sending up to a higher court. Compare long. 437 CHAPTER 1-5. Mark xv. waxed stronger. See on ch. xxni. Compare Matt. 21. as in ver. Sent {aviirefi'ylrev). Eev. of a well-toned body. Only here grow strong. Of a long time {^XTTt^ev). 6. 10. . 28. xvi. 14. vii. . Originally the word Only here and Acts xviii. was hoping — all this long ii. xi. . in New See on sense is. 11. 8. 22. of the preaching of Apollos. 2 11. ch. Imperfect. and compare Acts IVIany (iKavois:). 1. Used of Compare Acts xxv. 8. ing Paul to Caesar. 6. The best texts omit.. Lit. hence.] LUKE. 9. and Philem. to Testament. Stirreth up {dvaa-eiei). Hoped time. 5. of sendmeans to send hack. 11. Here the Kev. Miracle {ar]fieiov). See on Matt. 2). In a judicial sense: as the result of their examination before the council.Ch. Vehemently (eirovco^). Mark xv. 3. fierce {hriayyov). is See on The in- creased urgency shown by the use of a stronger word than jperverteth (ver. 1-6. sent 7. Wye. they were Tuore energetic cmd envphatic. 2. We found. urgent. ver. Of Galilee. 11. xiv. means well- strung . literally. The verb means. It also him up (avd). xxvii.

hia<npk^vTa is Probably the words are nsed without any intentional in ver. . turning upside down) turning while d7roa-rpe<f>ovTa emphasizes the turning different ways away [airo) of the people from their civil and religious allegiance. 30 Apoc. so Acts vii. Matthew the garment Mark has simply jmrple 13-26. 14. Mark xv. and Matthew scarlet bright or hiUiant. 17). . xv. xxvii. Aia<7Tpk^ovTa implies more of the idea distinction of distraction (compare Wye. 428 11. in order to teach him better. [Ch. who was not likely to be nice in his choice of words. I shall deliver him amended. to turn .. iii. This meaning underlies even the use of the word by Pilate. XXHl ComMark Gorgeous . Examined amination . 22. of meaning. up. Apparel specifies (xv. (xxvii. of a legal examination. Chasten is from the Latin castus. Another compound of Perverteth {a-iroaTpetftovTa). 28). (iffSriTa). has jmr^le {rrop^vpav). . turning away. "Wye. Instead of punishing him with death. So Wye. since it always implies an infliction which contemplates the subject's amendment and hence answers to chastise or chasten. 19. Originally to bring up a child Hence. pare Acts X. to instruct . rendered by the same word crrpe^co. 3. Lit. 10 Apoc. to purify. (kokkIvijv).. {iral^). 7. of Moses instructed in the wisdom of the Egyptians and Acts xxii. The general term for raiment. he will chastise him. WORD STUDIES m THE NEW TESTAMENT. . dvd. 15-26 . of Paul instructed in the law..). {avuKpiva'i). "pure. 2. Chastise (TratSeva-ai. In popular speech chastise &nd punish are often confounded. 16. xii. Compare Matt. as Heb. Originally implying a thorough extop. So Heb. The word is not synonymous with punish. . To discipline or correct. {\a/nrpav). xii. from bottom to Technically. 6-15. So Wye. 6. white. and Tynd. 6." " chaste " and to chasten is. properly.

Always in the New Testament whether an individual or a crowd. xvi. 2. Spake Addressed. Away xxii. Gave sentence Only here in {iireKpivev). {aipe). One of such a kind as that he had been imprisoned. {tcaTo) Prevailed {KaTia-xvov). Compare the peculiar word used by Matthew and Mark. Said (ehrev). The verb means to lie upon. accost. to lay one's self down to work. Luke vii. in the sense of to 21.. Compare Rom. Compare Aristophanes. 429 of them. They were urgent. hold on (iiriXa^ofievoi). 4. Who (oo-tk). All LUKE. Ch. Shouted Imperfect.. 20-23. Mark xv. instant {eTri/ceivTo). and answers to our vulgarism. xxii. {iire^mvow). lying down to it. . xxvii. 24.] 18.. 7. together (Tra/ATrXTj^Jet). 20.^. 23. Only here and Matt. ICept shouting. Acts xxvi. tence. 4. The whole multitude (7rX. Dropping the speech-making tone. and simply asking a question. xii. the remonstrances of Pilate. See on Matt. v. pressing. roar. Omit of the chiefpriests. 22. 26." 253 KairiKeifievoi}^ Lit. {"Kpoa-e^rnvrjaev). vii. " Knights. Had power {la-xv<i) to bear down. ^6a. Laid . 26-33. take away. Used by Luke only. 36 19. Pronounced the final sen- New Testament. xxii. : Their voices. iv. Classifying him. 40 . 18. Lit. Compare Acts xxi. roar with all your might. 24. Instant.9o?) Only here in New Testament. xii. Compare Matt. 2. 41. 12 2 Tim. 22. in the sense of See on ch. 31-34 . etc. Compare Acts xxi. XXIII.. Compare Acts 22 .

26. 31. 30 Compare Gal. v. a tree. So Shak' ' speare The deep damnation of his taking off. The A. 7.. might make a very awkward and unBetter Rev.. If ch. V. The Greek word is the translation See on Matt. Originally wood. Tree (fuX?)). 13. XXTTT 27-32. Coming up close to the cross. xvi. pleasant statement. 33. the contemptuous emphasis on oiiTo<i. 39-44 . Vinegar. devise His speedy taking off. xxvii. 5. x. and 1 Pet." Lear.: 430 WOBD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 29-32. 32. on the gospel of womanhood. 34. two others. 35. he. of the Hebrew Golgotha. " i. 24. malefactors. 39 . Hills (j3ovvok). Compare Matt. . xxvii. Calvary (Kpaviov). V. Mark xv. See on Mark xv. 18. Coming to him. 35^3. The possible omission of a comma before malefactors in the A. " Let her who would be rid of him. Lit. Peculiar to Luke. 38. ii. Only here and ch. Scoffed. Acts v. x. Beholding. xxvii. iii. See on Matt. so that the Put to death {dvaipeSTJvai). timber. Used of the cross by Peter. 30. Macbeth. 1. to talce up amd carry away. Two other. iii. does not give this fellow. 14. In later Greek.. 33. See on See on ch. . See Introduction. [Ch. 36. Greek idiom answers to our taken off.. Superscription.

It occurs three times in the New Testament here 2 22. Originally uses it an enclosed park.. . out ofplace. 2. Waits on thy triumph even as all the blest With him and Thee shall rest. 4. Gen. The expression here answers nearly to our familiar phrase. Seen at thy side in woe. : . Lord.] Railed {ifiXaa-fjt'qfiei). xxvxi. thickly grown with all kinds of trees" (ii. Compare Matt. 8.. perverse . ' ' Where'er thou roam'st. And again " The Greeks encamped near a great and beautiful ^a/-^. In the Jewish theology. 431 39. as in . 44-46. harm. xvi. xii. or pleasure-ground. 7). Cor. So Eev. 33-37.. we must understand. . 42.' — Kbble. where it is rendered unreasonable. we know. ii. 45-50 . Receive. .) In the Septuagint. Mark xv." i. Till we have learn'd to say. 2 Thess. iii. m. full of wild animals. and so strange. In Paradise (jrapaSeiero))." : Ch. which he hunted on horseback. 7 and always of the abode of the blessed. of the garden of Eden. 6 no Amiss {aTOTTov). Only in glory. glory. the department of Hades where the blessed souls await the resurrection and therefore equivalent to Abraham's bosom (ch. 41. " in thy kingly 43. Xenophon of the parks of the Per- " There (at Celaenae) Cyrus had a sian kings and nobles. Watching thy patient smile. 2. thy siuful servant own. ' 'Tis justly done. Through the midst of the park flows the ]-iver Maeander (" Anabasis. 4 Apoc. one happy soul. ." Compare Acts xxviii. palace and a great park {TrapdSeiao<i). XXm. Lit. by Thee we hang awhile. Each on his cross. . 14. eccentric. Into thy kingdom. Christian Yea/r. Are receiving would be better. . 23). " has done nothing out of the way. . ii." In that case Some texts read for ek. iv. into. LTJKK Imperfect: kept itp a railing.

Gave up the ghost life). ix.432 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 56. (aivSovi). along with {avv). nearly one-sixth of the whole amount is occupied with the account of the twenty-four hours beginning with the last supper and ending with the . 51 . 51. Luke. See on Matt. xxvii. {i^eirveva-ev). See on Matt. That followed {a-waKoXov^ovaaC). inclusive. Councillor. It is a significant fact that. breathed out (his sent out the spirit. xxvii. down {KaTo). Midday. 38-41. reckoning the aggregate space occupied by the four Gospels.. I commend Wye.. in New Testament. Mark. 46. The verb means to put {riSrifii). vote or opinion with another : 53. 45. followed with 50. good 51. Linen xvi. Returned (uTToa-Tpei/raffat). 46. . {jrapaTlSefmi). Another of Luke's numerous compounds. Matthew and just. Hence to put down the same to agree with or assent to. See on ch. and compare Luke Hewn and not in stone (X^fevrw). 49 to 56. {avv). 51-56 49. xxvii. So Eev. Only here in New Testament. 43.). Mark xv. 47-49. This word occurs thirty-two times in Luke. See on Matt. 50. Lit. honorable . and only three times in the rest of the New Testament. Compare Matt. rich . xxvii. Mark xv. See on Lit. 16. Veil. 19. Sixth hour. The Greek student will be struck with the array of compounds. from ver. xxvii. 55. Only here calls him Consented {avyKaraTe^^eifievoi. See on Mark xiv. [Ch. See on Matt. at all in classical Greek. XXIIL 44. Ninth hour.

e. He replies. at I..e. xxviii. that he supped " at deep ing. Very early in the morning {opS^pov (So^ew?).. XXIV. used of time . Mark xvi. The best texts omit this verse. burial of Jesus. Stooping down.. Lit. xxviii. 5-7. 4-8. Philo says that the Hebrews " about deep dawn (as here). loolceth. in their sight. 24. the record would occupy one hundred and eighty volumes as large as the whole Bihle. late at night. If we possessed the whole life of Christ. ch. Idle tales {\ripo<. written with the same detail. literally. 24. cloths. To them {ivm-n-iov avT&v). silh/ talk. feigned things. Clothes... Only here in Used^in medical language of the wild talk of delirium. deep.. asks Crito the time of day. Jas. It is not uncommon in Greek to find ^aSv<. See on bright shining. i. or the dawn ieing deep." 43). i. Wye. breaking evening . the body had been rolled. Mark xvi. 6p$po<} /3a^u9. Compare Matt. See on 25.). Compare Matt. lightninxf. CHAPTER XXIY. " i. nonsense. 4. 36 and compare II. xi. Lit. 5-7 .] LUKE. Shining {oaTpairTova-ai'i). Eev. the dawn is deep. Not garments. 28 . 1-3. " Crito. 433 There is no day in all Bible history narrated with the fulness of that day. xvii. (Plato. Ch. 1 . while others crossed the Red Sea were yet in bed. ch. xvii. Akin to aa-Tpdirt}. 12. deep dawn. Tynd. New Testament. 2-4. madness. as deep or late evenPlutarch says of Alexander." So Socrates. Only here and ch. in prison. but the linen bandages in which So Rev.

Went they observed him. Should have redeemed. 1 who have no Compare Heb. and who does not know. 16. and was already walking with sorbed 15. vi. Ye have {dvri^dWeTe). 21. etc. See on and compare sojourning. Hapoiicelv. 9. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. i. Lit. is rights of xi. See on Beside things : Eev. deem (XvTpova-^ai). The only of the A. citi- used in later Greek of strangers zenship. i. Jesus drew near while they them when in their talk. etc.. Wye. The use of the imperfect were abhere is very beautiful. "Discussed a doubt and tossed it to And which are sad see note. in Art thou only a stranger TrapocKel^ 'lepovtyaXrjfi). Imper- fect : were hoping all the while. looking sad. More hoped. should re1 Pet. and the word is an adjective. [Ch. strangers. So Kev. '^ what kind oi things. exchange. and render. all this (a-w irdatv tovtok. {aKvS-pasTroi). Seven miles. So. 18. {rjX-TTL^ofiev). 1 . is commonly understood adverbially stranger ? " But the emphasis of the question falls there. to dwell as Jerusalem (o-v /two? a stranger. add xal eaTo^a-av. Only here and Matt. Lit. 1 Pet. Lit. 17. with {ffwevopeveTo).: 434 13. 18. XXIV. What things Trusted (TToia). more correctly.. Threescore furlongs. 18. 17. and fro " (Tennyson). Y. and no settled home.). on The best texts piit the interrogation point after walk. nearly. Thou alone art a pilgrim Pet.. " Are you nothing hut a in Jerusalem.. . i. with aU these his betrayal and crucifixion. throw hack and forth. and they stood still. Render " Dost thou alone dwell as a stranger in Jerusalem ? " Are you the only one who sojourns as a stranger in Jerusalem." correctly.

Fools and slow of heart (avoTjroi xal ^paSei^ rfi KapSia). is feeble. does not convey the precise meaning. perception of the mind as consequent upon sight.. It is therefore equivalent to dull of perception. ea/rly ones. day 22. absorbed in his story. in the eternal order of things.. ver. They had read what the prophets had spoken. better. goes deeper. Literally the verb out of place . and in fulfilment of the eternal counsel of God as expressed in . "He (Christ) is jfossing (dyet) this day as the third. Mark xvi. throws himself back to the time of his interview with the women. which implies. besides seeing. XXIV. Lit.Ch." Rev. in all/ relying upon {iiri) all the utterances of the prophets. 26. 14. rightly. amased us. Literally it is. and contemplates the region oi feeling and jnoral susceptibility. and so. Compare op&po^. It is now the thi/rd since. not. Lit. The word is componnded of d... Only here and Apoc. etc. xxii. This is an unfortunate translation. but had failed to perceime its application to Christ. The A. Compare ha/rdness of heart. Early {op^pival). The best texts omit to-day. popular use of the word fool. and voeco. He v. Cleopas. those sorrowful disciples /bofe in that sense. and slow to respond to these testimonies of your Your heart is dull own prophets. 435 To-day is the third d&y/ {rpiTijv TavTTjv^iJbipav Sryei a-'^fiepov). in the light of the ordinary. jmt Hence us astonished {i^iarvtrav). The phrase forms an idiom which cannot be neatly rendered. slow of heart. to drwe one out of his the A. Jesus would never have called . Made to means senses. V. Eev. V.] LUKE. That they had seen— which said. 25. 1. davm. Ought not {ovxl eSei). While this rebuke relates to the understanding. is. which that. 16. " They came saying that they home seen a vision of angels which say " Q^eyova-iv). All (eVi iraa-iv). the following one. 23..

he. Wye. They went (iiropevovro). does not attach to this act of Jesus. {irape^Loa-avTo). And gave (eTreSiSov). the prophecies. (Ke/cXiKev). was giving it to them. Is far spent iowed down. their invita- 29. was essentially fitti-ng that Christ should : Eev. 28. . So Eev. It is not simply. implying a real removal (Beza. away from them with onr invisibly. {Trpoa-eTroiija-aTo). Or interpreted : throughto out {Sid). Imperfect. he went on interpreting from passage passage. 27. Lit. in an instant. of their sight (auros a^avro? iyevero became away from them.from them. Imperfect. cited by Alford and Meyer). has declined. which would imply that his body remained. their eyes were opened (aorist tense). hence to take to one's self what does not belong to him and so. They constrained Contrary to {irapd) his apparent intention of going on. going on. He blessed. he suddenly departed from them.* •NotS^wTos aJroir. invisible. XXIV. The verb means origi- or attach to. Clearly recognized. is now 30. is construed avTa)v. became invisible to tliem. They knew {eiriyvaxj-av). when. away from them. 15.436 WOBD STUDIES IN THE it NEW TESTAMENT. to jpretend . but invisibly but o-tt' airHv.. 31. Made nally to as though . but he passed Lit. though pretending as implying anything false. indicating that while he was in the act of distributing they recognized him. and having broken. .. [Ch. A very beautiful use of the im- perfect. is clumsy but correct hehoved it not the Christ to suffer ? He expounded {Biep/Ji'nvvev). suffer. were going. add He was tion. The iyevero. And he vanished out air avr&v). and would have gone on but for Only here in New Testament. Only here and Acts xvi. became.

with the intention of learning its com. and was opening the scriptures ? 34. and means rather sorwpidous considering or hesitations. 8. the A." and deceiming. Tholuck. 4. Eev. See on Jas. 22) . ^ KapSia '^fi&v Kaio/Mevt} rjv w? eXahei—hirivoir^ev).. In Phil. 12. " he himself stooA?^ And omit. unsuitahle to the reference of murmurings to God. is. doubting is better. fools. i. 1 John i. {oirxi — : speaking. Peace be unto you. cause the verb means to tell 'Rev. . So in 1 Tim. Jesus himself. Handle {\lrT]\a(j)'^craTe). indicating uncertainty in the consciousness of duty. XXIV. So Wye. ver. 26. 1. Alford. xiv. {SiaXoyia-fiol)." ) Ch. pays no attention to the graphic imperfects here. are more or less distinctly implied in every ooourrenoe of the word in the New Testament. face modifying influence upon it. Thoughts 22. is decisions of doubts (Eev. Godet. rehearsed is better. beat length or relate in full. 437 Did not our heart burn— while he talked— opened. V. The best texts omit Jesus.. . while. position (Gen. saith unto them. but at most a feeling of its surthis. serupUs. Beet. marginj or scruples. it may be. xxvii. 43. ch. The A. 27 . xii. Bothaorists. De Wette. The best texts 38. said. They told (i^yovvro). Eender as Kev. 21. Why do you perception ought to ii. They are speaking of something which was in progress " was not our heart burning (finite verb and participle) while he was 32. word occurs also Acts xvii. " Compare note on. " It never ex- presses the so handling an object as to exercise a moulding. ii. as Meyer observes. Jas. Rom. As if he had reason about a matter which your spiritual discern at once.* 39. Hodge... reasonings. doubtings. as usual.] LUKE. The Lord rose and appeared. 1. Is risen (^76/j^)— appeared (w0^). xxii. The 18. So Meyer. Lange. Shedd. dispuiings (Ee v. 36. See on appea/red. v. not seldom. ii. 35. 14. it signifies * Beaaonings. Compare Heb.

Only here in New Testament. Of an honey-comb. Jas.. Only here in JSTew Testament. See on fools.ov). anything that shall he eaten. Remission. in popular usage. Note the article. xxiv. The best texts omit. on Matt. See on ought not. 5. i. lix. {vovv). See on jareacher. 18. 44. better. [Ch. ii. anything to eat. In his name. 15. Judges. 438 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. . its old sense otfood in general. Christ {tov Xpia-rov). Some editors place a period . and on forgiven. 47. xii. no more than a ieelmg J'ar or after an object. without any actual coming in contact with it at all " (Trench. 29 .. 14 Deut. Must 45. 10 See on Heb. Broiled. Render. 46. 2 Pet. thus it is behoved. See on ch. XXIV.. Isa. and see Should be preached. the Christ.. 26. omyihing eatable. The words. Meat (0pd>ai/j. Rev. Understanding ver. The best texts insert my. Used of groping in the dark. as written that the Christ should suffer. Beginning from Jerusalem. iii. On the foundation oi See on Matt. 25. v. Lit. Thus it Rev. 41. 26. 2T. Wye. of the blind. Which had been closed. xxviii. The best texts omit. Job v. 5. 1. " Synonyms ")• Compare Acts xvii. 42. 3 . as the word meat has largely lost. xvi. {eirl). ver. (Set).

" * omitting and : " beginning from Jerusalem ye 49. send forth. clothed with strength. to the English reader. * Tischendorf (8tli ed. giving the force of /emphatic.] LUKE. 439 after nations. &p^dfi. The Rev. nohility and wealth. in classical Greek. XXIV. better. are witnesses. Endued with power. I send (eyo) i^airoa-TeWo)). has properly substituted the simpler clothed. conveys the This metaphorical sense of clothed is exact figure in the word. Aristophanes has clothed with audacclothed with And was carried up into lieaven. text read ip^d/ifyoi. The old reading. and Rev. is explained as the im- . and join these words with the next sentence.. Westoott and Hort. found ity . referring to Knpvx^vcu. personal accusative neuter. Rev. referring to the disciples. which. Homer. 51. Plutarch.ei>oii.). e^. Some texts omit.Ch.


moment of commencement. While the truth and importance of this statement are admitted. has its manifestation and proof in the acts and experiences of the apostles and first churches. continuation. Treatise {\6yov). I. fruit ' ' The its earthly life of Jesus. 7 xiv.THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. (^p^aTo). Or. . concluded with the ascension. JAi. and the Acts of the Apostles the . Began (1). 20 xxvi. in which Jesus had apj>eared as doer and teacher " (Meyer). as a simple historical statement equivalent to " all that Jesus did and taught. has and his heavenly life. xi. This is interpreted in two ways. 19 Luke vii. . According to this explanation the word serves " to recall to the recollection from the Gospel all the several incidents and events. commencing with the ascension. CHAPTER 1. as indicating that the Gospel contains the ieginnhig. Th<i former (tw Tr/aajToi/)." In favor of this is is the fact that the synoptists to its often record that which done or said according . Luke refers to his Gospel. (2). etc. . theji/rst. Either. thus giving vividness to the account. 37 Mark vi. it is objected that such an intention on and continued efficacy . See Matt. of the doings and teachings of Jesus. 22. Or narrative.. up to the ascension. 38. and may justly he considered as the continuation in heaven of the work which he had begun on earth " (Baumgarten and Gloag). The history of the Church was under the immediate control of the exalted Redeemer.

' ' taken up. This is well put by Bernard (" Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament. omits probably assuming that a jyroqf implies certainty. not all that Jesus did and taught.evo<:). the past and the founding of the Church in the earth is presented as one continuous work. shew. former treatise' delivered to us. Special inxiii. . junctions or charges. and do. with whom he had chosen. 6 ." Leet. The second. iv. Had given commandment xi. a fixed boundary. and not be inferred from a single doubtful phrase. 22.) " Thus the history which follows is linked to. Construe with had given commandment : by means of the Holy Spirit. states a truth. and so commend jpresent. profess to give us. Shewed himself (•n-apeo-Tijo-ei'). 3. as some interpreters. Hence. assist. commend. end.. I think the first explanation is more likely to be correct. 442 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. however. and which should left to be kept in mind constantly in the study of the book of Acts. that which Jesus continued to do and teach after the day in which he was : . Infallible proofs {TeKfJujploK). and perfected The by the same Lord through the ministry of men. The gwe or furnish. Not." 2. lY. Through the Holy Ghost. which inspired him. . begun by the Lord in person. token. provide. Compare Matt. and hence a fixed or sure sign or infallible. goal. As regards Luke's intention. pre- sent. the value and importance of which cannot be overestimated. L Luke's part would have been more clearly intimated. [Ch. but all that Jesus legan to do and teach until the day when he was taken up. original meaning is leside. to the attention.' The following writings appear intended to give us. or (may I not rather say) welded ^i\h. Mark 34 Heb. . ways in the This verb as is rendered in to place a variety of New Testament. in fact. . The Rev. to set hefore the mind.\dfj. {ivTei. The word is akin to rixfiap.

as a military term. 1. 7. and ofjLoXojea. Commanded {nraprf/yeiXev). — Kaipoixs). Not after many. time also- . The promise {i-jrayyeXiav). xiv.). Only here in New Testament. Eev.. not after many of these days. does not occur . prop- erly omits the article. but after a few. really means to acknowledge his obligation See note there. appearing. and hence generally of association at table. by the space The only passage where the ingiven. Forty days days.evo'i). for her lascivious performance. Asked {e-rri^pwrav). To wait for {irepiijueveiv). Eev." terval (St' rjfiep&v Teaa-epdicovTa). Matt. meaning to promise in response to a reqitest. together. thronged or crowded. salt: eating salt together. and this and its kindred and compound words are the only words for promise in the New Testament.. The imperfect. Lit. and aX?. throughout the New Testament. of passing a watchword or command . 'Tiria-xveofiai. between the resurrection and the ascension 4. ^Hhrough forty is Rev. Both the A.. following the derivation from <Tvv. The former of these words.Ch. Lit. denoting the repeti- tion and urging of the question. of Herod promising Salome. I] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. (o-waXtgo/iei/09). hence. 6. and so generally to command. 443 Being seen Only here in New Testament. Originally to pass on or t/ramsmit . The times—the seasons {-xpovov. {oirravoft. From o-w. V. of. Signifying a free promise. give eati/rvg together in margin. together. and Kev. Being assembled together and a\j$s. Not many days hence ' (ov /lera TroWas Taina<i ^fiepa'.. given This is the invariable sense of the word without solicitation.

See Matt. [Ch. The best texts read ^jlov. de- was tlie name given to the room directly under the flat roof. 8. and means originally to persist obstinately In .444 lutely. xxiv. 1 . Hence more correctly. Such rooms were often set apart as halls for meetings. Stronger than the simple possessive proOften used adnoun. 13. The way conceived as belonging to connected with it in reference to the neighborthe mountain hood of Jerusalem. my witnesses. The verb is from xaprepof. the cities of the Samaritans (Matt. The participle and finite verb.evovTes. "With the It article. 10. noting some well-known place of resort. Unto me (/xot). Used by Luke only. In such an apartment Paul delivered his farewell address at Troas (Acts xx. in. as Rev. WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. " where they were abiding. 3Y). definite pe- riods. apart. The adjective mQ2iU. as {^a-av Trpoa-KapTepovvTef). It was the supposed distance between the camp and the tabernacle in . Samaria. xvii.). 5). Sabbath-day's journey.'& ^p-ivate. according to Jewish tradition. I without regard to circumstances the latter. Abode {^aav Karaiu. Lit. privately. with the idea offitness. finite Continued verb." 14. as Kev. strong. 3. An upper room {ro virepmov). verbially in the phrase war lliav. 12. denoting continuance or habitual residence.). stanch. 4). 8. . and the body of Dorcas was laid (Acts ix. See on Luke i v. A the wilderness (Josh. or. iii.. 20. A Sabbath-day's journey (aa^^arov exov 6B6p). Looked steadfastly (aT6j/^foj^T6?^a-ai'). having a Sabbath^s way. Formerly they had been commanded not to enter x. of me .. Participle and this above. personal. was abont three-quarters of a mile. His own (t^ t'St'a).

etc. 443 to adhere firmly sense here.] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES.. brethren. The best texts read iv. {6fioSv/iaB6v). 15. keep near at hand. Lit. Rom. was a multitude of persons gathered "0)(\o^. The best texts substitute i!Ae. xii. Guide. 6. Mary. Holy. xii. So Rev.. and in to. Hence So in Mark iii. steadfastly. ment.. In prayer. Mentioned here for the time in the New Testa- Of the disciples {rwv tia^rwv). Much better as Rev. multitude.e. stated. among. Numbered {Karrjpt^iJ/qiievo'. and together. Matt. I. 12 . More brethren (ai/SpeyaSeX^ol). would not be used of a number about to be 16. about. dignified and solemn than the simple This scripture. names together were about. Luke vi. " that a small ship should wait on him. " i. See on lead. . With {(Tvv). With one accord 19. men. Lit. The best texts omit and last supplication. 9. brethren. 39. Only here in New Testa- ment. The idea of steady 'persistence is supplied by the Kev.Ch. ITie Spirit. Men and Brother-men.). The number {^v re there o')(\o<s of the ovofidrasv iirl to avrb). etc. SeeonMark 10.. The Holy Ghost the {t6 Uvev/ia to "Ayiop). See on agree. 17. The best texts read aBeXipwv. xviii.. xiii. brothers.

7). Compare Luke i." 410. Falling headlong headlong. a country-house. The A. KKrjpov). The expression means merely that the field 18.-huilding. Akeldamach. I. office. ver. 19. Jiawing hecome He burst asunder (iXaKriae). Better. Or. to crack. " his portion " lit. 9. 44. " Clouds. Bishopric {eTriaKOTrrjv). of the bones cracking beneath a blow ("Iliad. Part {tov lot. used in classical Greek of a place for cattle.446 WOBD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. (tt/jt^i'^s 76v6/iei/o?). Compare Luke xix. So Homer. of receiving received. 12. 12. the lot which was So Eev. Compare JM- See on possess. 20. is Aceldama. 20. See on minister... V. 616).. opric. Compare Aristophanes. Judas did not purchase the field. the language then spoken in Palestine.. Luke xviii. Also of aj'arm. public magistracies.. Eev. Matt. ii. more 'properly. Only here in New Testament. Ministry." Eev. So Herodotus (i. Habitation is The word : and went back the way he had come. Lit. was purchased with the money of Judas. And different person. xxvii. till he reached the yold" (eTravKiv). to burst with a noise.. does not give the his. (eVai/Xt?). 26. Only here in New Testament. Another (erepo?). but the priests did with the money which he returned to them (Matt. "received hy lot. 4. obtained." xiii. force of the : article. with overseershijp in margin. Lit. [Ch. as Eev.. . better. The word Aramaic. xx. Obtained {eXaxe). ii. In classical Greek. See on 1 Pet. better. Ill) " The herdsman took the child in his arms.. See on ch. Purchased {etcrriaaTo). Strictly.

vi. lot.. 18 The rendering before. Kev. 28. over us. to take the place. hea/rt-Tcnower.a?). Luke xiv. Compare Acts 23. Only here and ch. An expression Compare Deut. fell amoAj. the place. take the That he may tai<e part (Xa/Sety tov Kkrjpov). 8 . The margin of Rev. better. to But the best texts read rov tottov. Compare "the place was peculiarly in this ministry.e. 22. son of Saba .. Rev. . Ch. in intercourse. See on trespasses. (/ea/jStovj/wcTTa). Matt. xv. 28. Only here in New See on counteth. is own place. 14. Matt. 24. Y. 32. He was numbered Testament. 17. Luke X. m the presence of. Lit. 1. 21. . 19 Ps. Luke xxi. I. By transgression fell {m-ape^). Matt.. is stronger than the simple possessive pronoun. 9 Acts Among our head. xvi. 447 for constant . 21. 1. 23 . Barsabas.. {jidprvpa). occurs Witness ii. xviii.. a mistake often One who shall bear testimony: not made on Heb. A Tpatronymic. The rendering of the A. his. and supported by Matt.. 12. John x. 8. a spectator. as befitting his the place which awful sin —Gehenna. xii.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.' like Bar Jona.. Which knowest the hearts Lit. is us (e<^' 17/u. xxv. 26." Tov It his own. {a-vyKaTeyjrrj<f)icr3i]). cxxi. as a sound rendering. is explanatory. and went out. ix. i. Went ix. His tStov. 25.

43. The day. 37. 15. sitting. ix.. a ch.. the measure was not full. together.. as of the rushvng of a mighty The house. i. 11. of a mighty Of a rushing mighty wind {<f)epo/j. wind home along.. In the Old Testament it is called the feast of weeks. is conceived as a measure to be filled up. With one accord (ofioS^v/MaBbv). was being fulfilled. Was fully come (a-v/MirXTjpovcrJ^ai). because occurring on the fiffrom the second day of unleavened bread. as Rev. or being distributed Simong the disciples. II. calculated blessings of harvest. Not merely the room. Cloven . See on Luke iv.ea. Uast.^6fi€vai jXaiaa-ai).epi. The best texts substitute A sound (^^o?). Were 3. H CHAPTER 1.• Pentecost. 25. [Ch. ofiov. 13. ySma?). Awaiting the hour of prayer. xvii.448 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. tongues parting asunder. 10. according to the Hebrew mode. Many prefer to render tongues distributing themselves. So long as the day had not yet arThe words denote in jprocess rived. of fulfilment. tongues {Siafj. So Rev. Compare ch. instead of referring it to the cloven appearance of each tongue. Lit. See ver. margin. xvi. See on Luke Lit. Only here and wind. 51. Rev. tieth day.. and the feast of harvest. 2.evri<: jrvofj-. There appeared. Uvorj is a hlowing.nmg fiftieth . Rev. Used by Luke only. Its primary object was to thank God for the 'M. See on Luke xxii. See Deut.

when this sownd was heard. The sound of the Rev. i. 26. See on Luke ii.. See on Matt. Strictly different. Like as of It Not consisting offire. confundere) is the most . Acts. It would seem that each apostle was speaking to a group. xxxii. It is used by later Greek writers of the utterances of oracles or seers. or to individuals. Gave (eStSov). jXcocrcrat'i). vi. cli. 449 {aael).] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Deut. sat. Lit. 2 Zech. Devout. etc. 2 Ezek. act.. xiii. from their native tongues. 6. .. The general address to the multitude followed from the lips of Peter. Denoting an abiding. See ver. 9. loud utterance under the miraculous impulse. Bringing into prominence thefirst impulse of the See on hegan. xxv. Note the One of these luminous appear- ances sat upon each. 4. x. . to utter.. since among these are mentioned those whose permanent residence was in Mesopo5. With other tongues {eTepai<. Used only by Luke and in the A peculiar word. 19. fire. correctly. and purposely chosen to denote the clear. So in the Septuagint. Began. See 1 Chron. 1. TavTTj'. Were confounded so that {awe-xv^)- I^it-j '"'«« pou/red together literal render- confound (Latin. of prophesying. And this sound ha/ving taken j>lace. this was noised abroad {jevofievrjg Be tjj? ^wv^? Wrong. but must be taken in a wide sense. it tamia. here Dwelling (icaToiKovvTes:). Lit. Ch. and also different tongues spoken hy the different apostles. II. When rushing wind. 1 .). 24. . hnt resembliny singular. A Utterance {aTro^Myyea^^ai). graphic imperfect Jce^t giving them the language and the appropriate words as the case required from time to time.

Medes. Galllaeans. [Ch. which distinguished them from the inhabitants of Judaea. The 7. dialect . The latter marvelled. 31. pare Mark iii. but in different idioms . out of one's senses. Not regarded as a sect. denotes the continuing wonder late meaning to regard with amazement. since the foreign- ers present spoke.iov the name was not given to Christians until afterward but with reference to their nationality. Eather. Used only by Luke and Compare 32 . The verb is literally to put out of place . Imperfect. both spoke Greek. Judaea. in the Acts. 21: He is ieside himself. hence. Compare Mark xiv. Medes. Thej' used a peculiar dialect. The Phrygians and Pamphylians. but different dia- of the same language. The dialect of Galilee being different from that of Asia. ing possible. ^^ Comword. xix. and charged with errors in grammar and ridiculous mispronunciations. Parthians. to the Eomans. . H. the Parthians.450 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. not only different languages. 70.''^ . Language lects {hiaXeKrtp). 9. but in differ- ent provincial forms. Not the Asiatic continent nor Asia Minor. Amazed and marvelled (e^laravTO koI iSavfia^ov). Kepresen ting portions of the Persian empire. xxi. Heard {fjKovov). former word denotes the first overwhelming surprise. and Elamites. and with a suggestion of beginning to specuon the matter. Judaea. were hearing. and Elamites all spoke Persian. In the time of the apostles the term was commonly understood of the proconsular province of Asia. They were blamed for neglecting the study of their language. principally of tlie kingdom of Pergamus left by Attalus III. and including . for instance.

See on ver. earnest.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. (7\eu«:ou9). 10. rightly. New wine toxicating. 4. west of Egypt.Ch. must have contained many Jews. forth. Eev. Rev. Where the Jews were numerous. fiiyoM. sj Said (aTre^^eyfaro). Wonderful works (fieyaXeia). {Sirj-jropow).. Arabians. Better. Two-fifths of the population of Alexandria were said to have been Jews.perpIeosed. n.. From 12. Others {erepoi). gives the force of the participle. i. as ^ev. " This most solemn.. Mysia. Speak (^mKovvtcov).. Cyrene. only. Better. In Libya. Used by Luke only. Rev.(Sta%\6uafoi'T€?. and 11. xix. Strangers sojov/rners. 2 Pet. mighty works. "Whose coimtry bordered on Judaea. texts). 1. Egypt. {einhr)iJ-ovvTe<s). "st/^ee^ swine. 8. 14. From 'xKem\. See on 1 Pet. 451 Lydia. Mocking. 16. and at times parts of Phrygia. i. great. different class. Rev. Caria. but with no prejuin a hostile spirit. 7. Of a 13. The first who so curiously. yet sober speech " (Bengel) . Were in doubt Used by Luke See on Luke ix.. Those who now spoke did so See on ver. so the best a joke. See on majesty. Lit. speaking. See on Luke xviii. rightly. Only here in New Testament. The name Asia Minor did not come into use until the fourth century of our era." Of course in- Standing up (o-ro^ek). commented on the wonder did dice. 4. 11 ..

{repaTo). ing prayer. [Ch. or condition. {evmriaacr^e). 20. 20. 22. . All flesh. and the ear. betrayed. Better. Only here in Kev. See on Matt. 20. xi. oS?. Third hour. See 1 Tim. that great and notable day. Nine in the morning Compare 1 Thess. Rev. An adjective: gi/ven forth. appearing (compare our word Epiphany).. Dream dreams {ivimvia ivvn-vuia-^a-ovTai). From in. The kindred noun iiri^dveia. : the hour of morn- 17. New Testament. See on Matt. Ye have taken. That great and notable day of the Lord come. the day of the Lord. I will give. ii.. sex. 19. Or jportenis. with d/reams. xi.. mighty works. Notable (iiri^avfj) only here in New Testament.. 11 Hearken iv. 13.. gwe i. 14 2 Tim. Shewn to The verb means to^om^ be that which he claimed to be. heightens the emphasis by following the Greek order. See on Matt. The verb occurs only here and Jude 8. See on Luke 37. Waking visions. Visions (opdcrei?). The best texts read iwirvioK. The Kev. The best texts omit. vi. v. Lit. 7. I will shew (Sftio-ft)). Wonders Signs. Approved {aTroBeSetyfievov). Lit. iv. 23. "Without distinction of age. Being delivered (e/eSoToi/). Words 15. powers. 1 . out or shew forth. {prjiiaTa). 20. is often used of the second coming of the Lord. ear. Miracles {Svvdfiecrt). xi. 452 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Tit.. The reference is to visions in sleep.

Others suppose that death is represented . 7 . xiii. but to see before one's self. xviii. Pains {mSivasi). xi. the birth-pangs ceasing with the delivery i. Rejoiced {'^yaWida-aro). ren- dering the aorist more closely... therefore. Or be shaken. See Matt.. on anything. Een- dered lodge. I should not be moved xxiv. though it is true that in classical Greek the word is used commonly of birththroes. as Eev. (/eaTao-Ki^vfflcret). The verb simply means is left to affix to or Only here in New Testament. perhaps.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 32. did slay. pains and that.).. My flesh shall Luke xiii. 32 . 25. 26. Generally so rendered in the New Testament. Mark iv. See on wesfe. and to make the pains of death stand for death generally. Matt. 26. It is encamp on hope. pitch . Shall rest ter. Matt. ^' .r]v).. [fir] aaXevSS)). Betdwell in a tent or tabernacle. i. etc. in tramail. The idea of to be supplied. I foresaw {Trpoa)pa>iJ. viii. 32 a beautiful metaphor. it should be rendered snares of death the figure being that of escape from the 5. Eev. Crucified the cross hand of lawless {Trpoffirri^avre'. on the whole. the This seems to be far-fetched. . was glad. where the Hebrew word for s^mres is rendered by the word used here. See on Luke xxiii.Ch. 29 . to take the expression in the sense of the A. dwell. 6. snare of a Kuntsman. men. Lit. The meaning is disputed. as in Ps. Have slain {ave'CKere). The best texts read by the 453 Wicked hands. Eev.e. It is better. xii. V. See on 1 Pet. 20. xvi. resurrection.. 24:. Some claim that Peter followed the Septuagint mistranslation of Ps. 19. Heb. n. Not to see heforehand. 8.

. Mount The According to the flesh. because the facts are notorious. Lit.). 30. on hope : resting on the hope of resurrection his body being poetically conceived as hoping. Is not ascended {oi dvi^r..454 its WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Leave (eyKaraXeA/ret?). and therefore without reserve. TL tent there to rest through the night of death. The latter word from Trav. Lit. Lit. [Ch. speech . From ap-)(o). Rev. The patriarch iraTpid.. (8c()<76ts).<i. Lit. vnth freedom... Aorist. Suffer 29. Aorists. it is permitted me.. Lit. give. I may. and of the sons of Jacob (Acts vii. He is dead and buried {l-riKevT'qcye koI era^). It is allowable for him to speak. best texts omit. did not ascend. denoting what occurred at a definite past time. where most of the Jewish kings were interred in the same tomb. {iraTpidp'Xpv). Eev. he hoth died and was huried. 8). speahmg everything. .). Freely (/iera irappriaia'. rightly. leave iehind. 27. and a pedigree. to hegi/n. all. In hope (eV . Eender as Eev. he wovld set one upon his throne. Or among us (eV rnuv). eKvlSi.). he would raise up Christ. until the morn- ing of resurrection. It is used in the New Testament of Abraham (Heb.. His sepulchre is with us. and prja-i. Applied to David as the father of the royal family from which the Messiah sprang.. vii. 4).. 34. On Zion. Let me speak {i^bv el-n-elv).

the wine of astonishment {B.wiiie of staggering). omits of thy feet. also.e'<f.. xi. as Gen. 8. and Christ himself had commanded the apostles to preach to all nations. From d. He expected they . 7wt. It is found in the Septnagint.. cix. The radical idea of the word is given in the simple verb vva-aa. 36. See.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Lit. 19. See. unto a long way. etc. 7." iii. of the grief of the sons of Jacob at the dishonor of Dinah. therefore. upon the name... (Sept. also. 2. . 15. to cause to fall.Ch. stupor). the See on Matt. but not the mode. would become Christians through the medium of the Jewish reIt was already revealed in the Old Testament that they should be received. 3 . Cicero. in the Old and New Testaments. iii. Jas. says that his speech left stings in the minds of his hearers (" De Oratore. n. 11-13. probably to the Gentiles.) 16 occurs Kom. speaking of the oratory of Pericles. See on Luke iii. of the puncture of a to prick with a sharp point. xxix. the sting produced by Peter's words. of horses dinting the earth with their hoofs. 'B. They were pricked {Karevvyrja-av). spear . 37. v. in the sense of slwmber (Rev. ii. (Sept. Afar off {ek fiaKpciv). 10. In name {iirl rm ovofian). Here. See on Matt. 39. 455 35. 38. xxviii. Referring Lit. A. Y. Assuredly (a(T^dX5)<i).) 3 : olvov KaTavv^eQ)<. and o-(^o\\q>. Ix. Peter knew the fact that the Gentiles were to be received into the Church. steadfastly. Only here in New Testament.. : Compare Isa. Ren^ission. lix. painful emotion. 15 Eph. who are described by this phrase both See Zech. Thy footstool. 34. vi. Repent. Ps." The kindred noun Kardw^K cviii. ligion. The word does not occur in profane Greek. xxxiv.jvrmly.eviCQ. So Homer. of the sharp. " iroken in heart. Ps.

i. earnestly. And various. he ye saved. Other (Ire/jot?). active participation in that interest and in each other. teaching. The preposition Scd gives the force of solemnly. English meant doaile. meant vntractaMe. il. Did he testify {BiefiapTvpeTo). So Shakespeare ward). from communis^ A . apt. " And if she be froward. 5. gives the force of wpo?. U to Shall call {n-poaicaXia-rjTM). relation between individuals which involves a common interest and a mutual. "Spoken like a toward prince. perverse. Then hast thou taught Hortensio to be untowa/rd. common. [Ch." Taming of the Shrew. Fellowship (jcoivatvia). Kev. 14. So Shake- speare : "What means this scorn. The word answers to the Latin communio. Lit." Taming of the Shrew.. v. Save yourselves {a-w^Te).. xxxii.. K. Compare Deut. are froward. TJntowa/rd." 40. iv. More strictly. From /cotj/o?. Continued steadfastly. " 'Tis a The opposite Toward in earlier is froward {from- But a harsh hearing when women good hearing when children are toward." 3 Henry VI. therefore. . {inZayri). : " shall call unto him. John.. crooked. Doctrine Better. Untoward {aKo\ia<.: 456 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. See on ch.. 42. 3. 5. 1.). 2. thou most untoward knave ? " i.

Not . contrasted with in 1 Cor. vii. sometimes rendered communion. Hence used to designate the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 38. 17. to irealc. and Compare principle of Christian fellowship which underlies the gift. Possessions in general movables. 3. Occasionally it is used to express the particular form which the spirit of fellowship assumes as in Eom.Ch. i. 45. Compare Philem. Fellowship is the most common rendering. From house 15 . Kev. with.jprayers. xiii. Breaking {KKdaei). Possessions {KTrniaTo). athome.. Goods 46. Landed property. 6. Did eat their meat (jiereXd/i^avov Tpo(f)r}<s). participation in sympathy. occurs often.. iv. heria-ei<. xviii.. Always of prayer to God. 5 " yourfellowship} in the gospel. 1 . Luke v. 14. The kindred verb Kkd^m or Kkcm. 43. Luke ." . See on Matt. Compare viii. John i. xvi. xv. 42. 16. Fear . as Kev. Compare fellowship." signifying 2 Cor. food. With one accord to {o/iol^vfiaSbv). and only in the phrase hreaking of hread. Used by Luke only. but always with an emphasis upon the labor. 7. 457 common. Prayers on (Trpoo-eup^aw). : co-operation in the widest sense suffering. 26 Heb. like the noun. ver. .] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. (^6/3o9). awe : as Mark 41 44. x. giving the force of fierd. house {kut th^e oIkov). but reverential i. 19. 2 Col. terror. n. {virdp^eK). take their Partake would be better. Thus Philip. . 19. only of breaking bread. . Better. but. . temple. Luke 16 1 Pet. 33 and hesought. iy. 16 . Common {icoiva). as 1 Cor. xiii. where it signifies the giving of alms. etc. Hence. ISTote the imperfect : " continued to partake.

Only here in New Testament.). [Ch. 18. Ill Singleness (a^eXoTjjTt). Testament. Lit. It is. The time of the evening sacrifice or. Imperfect : kept adding. therefore. these senses in the a/re. To the church. " Godliness. i.. 13 ye are heing saved. Went up {avk^aivov). The imperfect: were going So Eev. . . ascending the temple stood. Eom. 47.458 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. not. 1 Cor. xvi. those that were being saved. 47. CHAPTER 1. And it is hardly necessary to say that the divorce of morality and religion must be fostered and encouraged by failing to note this. Such as should be saved (row a-co^ofievov^). xv. III. 24 . Salvation a thing of the present. whereas the present Compare 1 Cor. Y. tion as a rescue Christ. 18. The verb is used in Thus. as well as of iliepast all &Tvdi future. 'The Lord added to the church daily such as should he samed^ where the Greek implies a different idea" (Lightf oot. important that the idea of salva- from sin. " On a Fresh Eevision of the New Testament "). and we can but regret such a translation as Acts ii. as the words of prayer indicate. Derived from a. . or on the change. righteous- ness. would it is is require the verb to be in the future. as A. Added {n-pocreTiBei).. Hence of some thing simjple or^lain. for the prayer which accompanied the offering of incense. as Eev. a present state. and (fiiKKev's. New viii.. x. The rendering of the A. participle. half an hour later. V". we were sawed (not 9. on the highest of which the Ninth hour. should not be obscured. is salvation. wp. stony ground. Eom. terraces. See on Matt. shall or shall be saved. through the knowledge of God in and therefore a progressive condition. is life. 2. and so laying the whole stress either on the past or final on the future —on the first call.

] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Compare " the churches were established (ch. and ireSiov. Leaping up (e'^aWo/teKo?). and hence implies taking hold with ?». See on 1 Pet. used by Luke and described by Galen as the part of the foot lying beneath the leg. Was (e/SaffTa^eTo). only. i. technical. xvi. Silver and gold {apyvpiov koI Properly. technical word." 4. 5). Only here in New Testament. Feet {^da-ei'}). and the kindred noun a-repiafia. upon which the leg directly rests. Attentively. Used in medical language of the sudden starting of a bone from the socket. Imperfect : " they were wont to lay. or of the sudden bound of the pulse. 3. of starting from sleep. See on Luke iv. {^\i-\}rov). Only here in 'Hew Testament. Strictly. and Look 6. A peculiar. 5).f/rm grasp. leaping forth. steadfastness (Col. Imperfect: "was being carried as they were going up (ver. the flat of the foot between the toes and heel. Ankle-bones {a-(f>vpd). (oTeviVa?). {inrdpxiov). In medical language applied to the bones in particular. vii.Ch. silver and gold money. the part next the toes. That was carried hemg. ii. 10. as distinguished from the rapao'i. 459 ii. See on Matt. Used by Luke only. The verb means originally to jc>ress or squeeze . Lit. . He took (TTiao-a?). Fastening his eyes compare Acts i. 2.. '^(pvalov). 8. Received strength {ia-repem^aav). 7. 20 . Also Some of the best texts read a-<f)vSpd. They laid (kTi^ovv). 18. See on Jas. 1). ni. but the meanis ing the same. 15.

but more gloriously still. Ut Walked began his {TreptetrdTeC). newly acquired power.. the people under God's covenant. The {eK^aii^oi). leaped up. 22). such as in this name of Israelite they were declared to Nor was this all. See on Luke v. men.). Greatly wondering Compare wonder (eV). walked. Wonder {^dii^ovi). or. Israelite's. strength. not as he was Jacob.460 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. with the Edomites bnt none except themselves were the seed of Jacob. that the disease was progresand the genital. iv. was herein traced up to liim. stood. perhaps. had lasted over forty years (ch. The imperfect.. [Ch. Kev. The term Israelite gave place to that of Jew . Men of Israel.. to walk. but Israel was the sacred name for the Jews. (ver. testing connotes of the case are. Held {KpaTovvro<. Luke 11.. sive steps of the recovery The medical — 10. The question expressed in the people's explanations of surprise. 10). . as Kev. 36. Correctly. Amazement (e'/coTao-eo)?). their descent be. See on Mark 42 and compare . . Or recognized. Lit. and hence was for the Jew his especial badge and " To be descendants of Abraham. The best texts omit. took fast verb from Kpdro<. 12. Held them^TO^y. The lame man which was Render as he held. this honor title of honor. they must share with the Ishmaelites of Abraham and Isaac. Used by Luke only. V. hold. They knew {iireyivaaKov). took knowledge. healed. An honorable and gradually conciliatory form of address. continued walking about. as the nation of the theocracy. iv. "Wondering om< ^measure He answered. 26. but as he was .

6 of JSTebuchadnezzar. 18. 42 to Joshua. Eightly. Compare Luke i. III. 21. 1 but elsewhere. Ps. i. 21 . in Matt. 7 of Moses. Josh. xxxiv. Isa. A murderer {dvBpa (f>ovea). 29 to Job. as Eev. m When he. xii. The term servant of Jehovah. T. 8. 8. xxiv. 20. xlix. . vi. Isa. cv. a man who was a mur- derer. Our own 13. says he was " of the stock of Israel. Or demanded. See on ch. 54. 13 God's chosen servant for accomplishing the work of re" Unless we render servant demption. Deut. Weh. 9. ing from Isa. 14. " in order to make the contrast felt between what Pilate judged and what they did. . . 69. 10 Dan. there will be no allusion throughout it all to that group of prophecies which designate the Messiah as the servant of Jehovah."^ This is further emphasized in the next verse. and had prevailed" (Trench. xlii. (2) To a minister or ambassador of God called to any service. Amos iii." It is said that the modern Jews in the East still delight in this title. Ch. 19. . See on Luke i.. "Synonyms"). V. the pronoun of more definite and emphatic reference. So Paul.] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. and in the Septuagint as the servant of God. quot- applied to Jesus. He is sKeCvov. where . Lit. (tS/a). The word is continually used. . in enumerating to the Philippians his claims to have confidence in the flesh. so to Abraham. 1 Iii. . xxvii. See on Luke xi. the passages where the phrase Trat? Qeov occurs in the New Testament. or servant of the Lord. the Latter.. Pilate. 461 who. had power with God and with men. . servant. His son {iralha). Israel. (3) Peculiarly of the Messiah. Desired (^TT^o-aeTiJe). xlii. like the Latin pieer. son or child. is applied in the Old Testament (1) to a worshipper of God. in every case has changed to servant. 5. servant. vii. Jer. Job i. in the sense of servant. which Kev. 25. See 2 Sam. i. 6. . 26. who learned obedience by the things which he suffered " (Trench. " On the Authorized Version of the New Testament "). 6 of the prophets. renders. The A. as a prince. as 5.

the condition of one who has his entire allotment. to enter a name. 25. of favor (xapw)- The Prince of \'\ie{apxrtovTri'. . erasing {e^aXe{^ovT€<i) up and down. 14. {x°'pi. or on the iasis of. 32. So Aristophanes: "They do things not to be borne. Be converted Not a good rendering. and so by Rev. More espe- Blotted out (e^aXei^S^vat). 1. because the verb is in the active voice. at Heb. twice or thrice" ("Peace. cially with reference to an item in an account. Ye see (Sewpetre). fo)?)?). ii. 19.. . Only here in ISTewTestament. The Greek brings out by the position of these words what Bengel calls " the magnificent antithesis " between a murderer and the Prince of life.) some of us. xii. Perfect soundness {oXoKXrjpuiv)." 1180). Forgiveness of sins under the The word is used thus in Ps. entire. which was not de- manded a condition of his cure. HI To be granted 15. 19. a lot. {i-TnaTpiylrare).462 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and see on Matt.). Through faith (eV/) is rather on account of. See on ver. Ap')(7]^6<!. and xXripo^. author. faith which we had {kiii t§ iriarei). (Sept. xliii. ' " 16. 2. xxviii.. See on Lukex." This is the only place where the phrase occurs. ii. Denoting. but the Prvrvce of life ye killed. ISTote the article: the not the cripple's faith.. Compare Made strong {ia-Tepecoa-e). Kev. From oXo<. 38 . and others. again. and thence originator. means. Through as faith . 1 Isa. by. Better as Eev. 18. In classical Greek the verb is opposed to iyypd<j)eiv. Better here as Eev. ii. entering (ejypd(l>ovTe<. ch. author. turn figure of the erasure of hand-writing. See on Luke xxii. 10 . in margin. Also at Col. Bj way [Ch. though sometimes rendered ^/"mce. therefore. Ii. 7.a^vai). primarily.. 'beginning. Ye demanded a murderer.

. The kindred verb. restitution {anroKaTaaToaew'i).. 14. xxvi. The Rev. Shall (ott alStvoi). See on ch. Only here in New Testament. in i. av). Used by Luke only. Compare ch. Only here in {i^oXoSpevS^a-erai). ch. The verb originally means to take in hand. and see on ver. the kindred verb. the restoring to denotes complete place of a dislocated visers insist Since the world began on from of old. 13. Render in order may come).' it its Acts 6. etc. as Rev. Matt. gives covenanted in margin. to or r&oivmg withfresh air. originally to noun covenant Hence to arrange or settle mutuaWy. etc. 16. See on Matt. Only here New Testament. to restore. . 25.. to distribute or arrange. 7. seasoiis. Ch. His Son Jesus. 12. xxiv. with. 28. The derived from the verb SiariS^fii. 20. Of i. and see note. the face. occurs Matt. hl] (oTTft)? the acts of the apostles. Covenant {BiaS^K7]<s)." giving the force i^. Presence {irpoa-vyirov). Times (Kaipol). The word means coolmg. is make a covenant 26. xxii.evov). Compare wax cold. appointed. Of refreshing (am'x/rwfews). But the best texts read 'Trpoice'xeipicr/jLevov. As a technical medical restoration joint. Made (Ste^ero). 14 xxvi. out. The best texts omit Jesus. xxii. 463 that. The American Re- be destroyed New of Testament. 21. 23. Rendef'/ servant for son. Which before was preached {rov 7rpoKeKripvyiJ. or thai When (so there "Wrong. Lit. Better. xvii. 11 terra. . of health . Rev. " utterly destroyed.

the resur" In the Gospels the Pharisees are represented as the great opponents of Christ is in the Acts it most violent opponents of the apostles. xvi. also. opposed the creed of the Sadducees. along sephus speaks of him as a person of such consequence as to be with the high-priest. " Commentary on Acts"). The Sadducees denied both . The reason of this seems to be. 4. Being grieved {hiairovoviievoC). IV. prisoner to Rome. in attacking the apostles. in testifying to the resurrection of Christ. [Ch. Better. came the to ijevi]S7) as five thousand." but in Jewish writings chiefly as " the man of the temple mount. who taught the resur- rection of that Jesus whom the Pharisees had persecuted and dogma 3. i. {iireaT'qaav). Came upon visions. 18. suddenly." vexed through amd through.. indicating the addition to the that helieved. by unmasking their hypocrisies and endangering their influence among the people whereas the apostles. Only here and ch." Josent. In hold (et? Ti^prjo-iv). Perhaps. renders the force of Sta by "sore troubled. 4. as Rev. in ward. Or stood hy them. the Sadducees who are the . Translate ie. crucifled. in To them the duties of the templethe unclean from entering. 4. original number of many . The Rev. pare Luke xxiv. IT. CHAPTER 1. Tlie resurrection. that in the Gospels Jesus Christ came in direct collision with the Pharisees. See on 1 Pet. guard It was the duty of the Levites to keep at the gates of the temple. rection and a future state. A somewhat antiquated rendering. 11. police were entrusted.464 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The number was about Rev. Of d/rearm or appear to. order to prevent Captain of the temple. Acts xxii. to 2. the Sadducees aimed an indirect blow at the favorite of their rival sect" (Gloag. Com20. xxiii. under the command of an official known in the New Testament as " the captain of the temple..

occurs frequently in the New Testa- ment in different phases of this original sense. 13. 4 of comprehending. : . Eph. : 12. Ignorant {Ihi&TaC). . xi. Only here ii. common. 12. {iirer^CvcocTKov). Unlearned (a7/3a/tyuaT0t). In 2 Tim.. Boldness. ch. See on 10. ii. Salvation (ij a-coTTjpia). 16. v. 18 Philip. : grasping mentally. very literally. to apprehend or grasp. Or recognized. Luke ii. ignorant. Originally. With special reference to Kabbinic culture. 16. John xii. perhaps with a slight emphasis on the want of proCompare 1 Cor. 19.. sometimes plebeian. 13. What power— what name. Mark ix. IV. 24 2 Cor. fessional knowledge. 25. he distributed. the absence of which was conspicuous in Peter's address. Lit. In the absence of certainty it is as well to retain the meaning given by the A. what power what hind of name. Thus. Lit. spread 30 {Siave/j/r]^). Or. . 17. v. .] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. ISTote the article : the salvation the Messianic deliverance. Perceived (KaTaXa^ofievoi). 35 1 Thess. . Took knowledge ch. Have ye done. 29. Conferred It (jxvve^aXov). one in a private station. 465 sort of 7. 34 . 6. " their word will eat as a . a layman thence. iii. Eom. 23. in l^ew Testament. as here. as opposed to one in office or in public affairs. iii. 37. iii.. See onfreely. unlettered. to seise The word. xiv. Acts x. Therefore one without professional knowledge. ix. generally. See onpondered. xxv. 30: of seizure by a demon.. ill-informed . meaning originally upon or lay hold of. The ye closes the sentence in the Greek with a contemptuous emphasis youjpe(yple. Ch. 18 of something coming upon or overtaking.

Matt. See on Christ. ver. and Tit. Rage nally. where it is rendered purloining. The money {to 'xprjixa). Servant (TratSo?). will " They regard the whole 18.466 canker. 28. : OrigmaWy. as a canker." 27. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Origi- Of men. and bridling {<f>pvaTT6fievo<i). The verb means to set ajtartfor on^s self. New Testament. From z/6o-^(. CHAPTER 2. See on ch. 1. with neck erect like a horse. punish. to give. Y. . 25. to curiadl or dock .). literally. V. Kept back {kvoa^LuaTo). Jceep to jprune as trees 24. Thy disposing power. {KoXda-oovrai). aloof. 16. The sum of money. wrongfully. Thy hand. ii. efet). i. ga/ve iach {airo) .. Heart and soul. 32. Lit. as something which they were in duty bound 3Y. to give one's self haughty airs. 13." WORD STUDIES is. ii. thence to check. Didst anoint {expo(Ta<. apa/rt. 1. See on 2 Pet. neigh or snort like a horse. have dist/rihution or spreadmg {vofirjv however. See on 2 Pet. to Only here in {i<f>pva^av). 33. members of the council as speaking in the figure of a canker. 30. hence to appropriate 10. Philo describes a proud man as " walking on tiptoe. in hounds. 21. ii." To speak Punish {<l>Myy€a-^ai). iii. Gave {airehihow). goes too far when he represents the Bengel. See on Mark xii. [Ck. Lord (Seo-Trora). 3. and to act and speak insolently. Only here.

Conceived (e'. jwa this deed in thy heart ? — Wherefore didst thou i. contracted. Better. 29. " They were not it occurs In Euripides (" Troades. only.Jow).. Some. it occurs in the phrase. whiles it remained. In the sense of shrouding for burial. Luke xxi.' also of tucldng up the garments about the loins. it is found in Aristophanes. The verb means to draw wrapped draw in/ hence used for shortening sail.ivo'i. resolme upon it. shortened) In the sense of wrapping up i.pwtav jmed. The design would require a different case in the noun. on failing. limbs. whose entrance into the as- sembly of the saints was like a speech " (Bengel). refer the word here to thepressimg together of the dead man's humbling a person. and in medical writers. Wound him up (o-w6o-Tet\ai/). vii. reducing expenses. Used by Luke A rare word." See. 6. or him round. however. " the time is short {a-vvea-ToX/j.ain thine own f lX\.. lie 467 3. 4.. 7. 8. drawn together. as a preparation for service. of wrapping cloaks or garments about one. " The woman. as 'Rev. which occurs in ver. Whiles it remained. . xxi. . as Meyer." Ch. etc. . where the same verb is properly rendered lie (unto God). Eev..] the acts of the apostles. Gave up the ghost (i^eylrv^e). properly.e. Answered. of bandaging a limb of the contraction of tumors. own (ovp^l/ierov? (Tol efieve). : . To 4.. 5. lie to of Satan was to decewe the Holy Ghost. 26." In medical language. also. To to (i/rewo-aff-^ot).. was it not thine Lit." 382) shrouded {avveireaTaK'qa-av) by the hands of a wife. v. together. The result of the attempt is merely to lie. very happily. Eather. Satan fills the heart to decevve. See Ezek. A play on the words. remain to thee f remaining.e. and of organs of the bodj'.. did it not rem. did it not Eev. occurring in the Septuagint. lowering or In 1 Cor. to decewe. " Every spirit shall faint.

much Perhaps pointing to the money lying at his feet. See on Mark ii. Couches {icpa^^dTwv). {ireipdaai). attitude of the citizens at large. sense of an unnatural union comes out clearly in 1 Cor. See on music. To put to the proof Spirit. 15 x. were ieing wrought from time to time. have " joined himself " to the chariot of the Ethiopian prince (Acts viii. 3. is is Ye have agreed together {a-vvetpcov^STj vfiiv). 14:. 16. xii. passive. . the imperfect. 13. . 11. 17). All. it other respecting this deceit. 4. Join himself (KoWaa-^ai). was it agreed ly you. deterred by the fate of Ananias to the from imiting themselves church under false pretences. vi. 25. could whether the be deceived. See on Luke xv.468 For SO still WOBD STUDIES IN THE {roaomov). NEW TESTAMENT. The steps of the young men returning from the 12. Jcej)t being added. The whole body of believers. Unbelievers. In but two instances (Rom. Were wrought (eyej^ero). See on The feet. The verb The figure in the word Lit. The vi. without a special command. or unexpected union. 9. all . 9 1 Cor. ruling in the apostles. The rest. burial are heard at the door. 29). Were added {irpoaeTl^evTo). 26) and the fact that certain persons " clave to " Paul in Athens is expi-essly contrasted with the . [Ch. The best texts read eyivero. Luke xv. 15. the word implies a forced. Thus Philip would not. Your souls were atPuned to each that of concord of sounds. Graphic. Saul's attempt to join himself to the apostles was regarded by them with suspicion (Acts ix. To tempt Holy ver. Imperfect.. V. unnatural.

Peter pamng by. Tiear.. The senate (yepovaiav). The Sanhedrim. {Zia -rris 19. 14. and see on Luke xviii. der as Rev. 469 ren- The shadow dering is. is Incorrect.. iv. 68. are the chiefs who form the the king's title council. but as in ch. 9. Taking on very early an official sense. often used in the sense of just about. 19. 8. 63. like the Latin senatus. Imperfect : began teaching. 1. But the proper etc. or cause to arise : the dawn. By night wkto^). ch. In the common prison {evrrjp'^aeiSri/xoala). There no Note. m the course Compare More correctly. which vi. . his shadow might. 3. during Compare ch. ipxo/ieyou Tlerpov. 18. 21. night : Sid. xix. as 1 Cor. public ward. of Peter passing by. Eev. from senex. which Christ revealed. too. the notion of age being merged in that of dignity. that another word is used for the prison in the next verse (t^s <^v'kaKri<i). Thus in Homer yepovrei. Compare John Not equivalent to these words of life. 20. Ch. im. rectly. Trjpri<yt. an abstract is term meaning ward or keeping.* as Peter passed hy. It is is commonly employed in contrast with the life to come. The eternal life a peculiar use of the phrase. the Stand.] the acts of the apostles. opvvfjLi. Early in is the morning (i/tto 'Ttto. old. article. therefore. of. cor- moreover. xv. The council {a-vveSpiov).. rhv op^pov). fathers. to "OpSpov is from See on Luke xxiv. v. used * The construction is plainly the genitive absolute. xvi. about daybreak. Ren- Taught {iSiSaa-Kov). ii. 11 Of this life. Compare the Latin pat/res. From yepcov. an old man. beneath.<s is not used in the sense of jyrison.

18. " is fittingly transferred from the college of the Greek gerontes to that of the Jewish presbyters. in the very same terms. Matt. 5. " The the well-known term. 0vXaKij emphasizes the being put under guard. "so and so." They summoned. The word [Ch. and the question. We Lit. in this passage is of the Spartan assembly. See on Luke ix. Eev. 15. the best texts read the simple verb were greaU/g perplexed. Gerousia.* 28. straitly cliarged. Tijprjo-K is keeping. 19. prison-house." dvope'iadai. Or ye want. were per- .^ were loss. giving the force of Sta. we cha/rged So Rev. first The phrase is remarkable as furnishing the instance of that avoidance of the name of Christ which makes the Talmud. but the whole council {all the senate) of the representatives of the people. V." * plexed. not only those elders of the people who were likewise members of the Sanhedrim. Intend {/SovXea-^e). See on Matt. Still another word for prison. See on willing. however. Prison {Bea-/MmT^pwv). The different words emphasize different aspects of confinement. v. the assembly of elders. and Bea-fiwT'rjpiov the being put in ionds. The best texts omit ov. in addressing the Eoman senate.. for Siairopeio-aoi. thoroughly at a Compare Luke xxiv. refer to him most This man's. 18. with desire I have desired. i. frequently as Pelom. " Where. See on ver. perplexed. They doubted much {SinjTropow). with the two kings. Did not. 'Rev. as the result of guarding. 19. Officers {inrrjpeTai). 4." as Meyer remarks. 22.470 WORD name STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. {-jrapayYeXta "n-aprjyyeiXa/iev)^ you with a charge. consisting of thirty members. Compare vv. 26. 24.. not. See on Luke xxii.

Stronger. originally. 54. To slay with one's own hands. 33. 15.] the acts op the apostles. 30. See on Acts i. iii. See on ch. A strong figure for exasperation. to authority {apxv). See on Matt. tening to another ireil^ecrSai. This is a deliberate course of action. 32. The verb means. is the only several in use which expresses the conception of 'TiraKoveiv is to obey as the result of lisobedience exclusively. in itself. v. Obey. 15 . vii. 471 29. In That is a ch. Only here saw ammder. 21 Tit. to They were cut and ch.: Ch. 29. See on Luke xxiii. is to obey as the result oipersuaThis is the special term for the obedience which one owes sion. Ye slew {Siexeipiffaa^e). Repentance Luke iii. where it is used of the ship's oflScers hearkening to Paul's admonition not to loose from Crete. of obedi- Sometimes one of the irei^m is used. Tree. To slay. . to the heart {heirplovro). mere listening to or considering the proposition made to them. 21. 2 . See on Luke 31. — remission. . 10. Prince. 1 and in every case. See on ver. ence to established authority. : . 32. We ought (Set).it occurs four times in the New Testament Acts V. Jas. . either of Gqd or of magistrates. . iii. Peter and John say hearken (a/coveiv). In Acts xxvii. 21. we must. xxiii. iii. 29. the most common word being viraicova). To obey (ireSapxelv). But this word. v. Paul speaks of his admonition as divinely inspired compare xxvii. 22. Only here and ch. 32 xxvii. 31. Witnesses. xxvi. iv. 19. Not often used in the New Testament to express obedience. 3.

1. 472 34. The best texts omit mwcA. little A 36. sublime In this case the apostles are described as digniindifference.e. Better as Eev. people... Joined themselves irpoa-eKXiSi). were inclined . See on Luke ii. 24. 2. V. apostles. 29. space {^paxv). by indignity. little while.. implypower of Theudas' boasting... 37. a tent (2 Cor. Taxing {a'7ro'ypa^y<. from of w. They were counted worthy This is to suffer shame (/carijf- an instance of what rhetoricians style an oxymoron. v. fied i. To fight against God {Seofidxoi). Refrain {airoa-TrjTe). which is witty or impressive through sheer contradiction or paradox. be loosened It will come to naught {KaraXv^creTai). (e| avSpm-rrcDv). men. Obeyed. stand Of men devices. down. See on ver. The best texts substitute tov<} av^payrrov. xxv. to be God- fighters. 2. ing ^e j)ersuasive the word for obeyed {iirei^ovro). a (Trpoo-eKoW??^??). Much Were 38.apo'i. the WORD The STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. foolish & pointedly foolish saying. 39. ISTote learned to. See on Matt. Used of the dilapidation of the temple (Luke xxi. off. [Ch. and of the dissolution of the body under the figure of striking See on Mark xiii.. as lahorious idleness. 1). proceeding out of their Lit. i. The best texts read or took sides with. Out of men. and p. dispersed {Btea-Kopiria-Brja-av).. sharp.a)^crav aripiaa^vaC).). Lit. 6). Lit. . 41.

They were removed by Seleucus ISTicator from Babylonia.. with Hellenists in margin. i. as a contrast is now introduced at the with the prosperous condition of the Church indicated close of the last chapter. See on the kindred word mw/-- Grecians (EXKrjviaTwv). either to "Barbarians" or to "Jews. in both cases. In is the former case . islands. Jiide 16. but Jews who spoke Greek. From Egypt they gradually spread along the whole Mediterranean coast of Africa. used in antithesis. ix. Grecian Jews. Was multiplied {'n-Xr]^vv6vT(ov). He settled eight thousand Jews in the Thebais. Kom. 22. to Antioeh and Seleucia. The word is used but twice in vast majority of The the New Testament —here and ch. which is very common in the Ifew Testament. not GreeJcs. of Jews who had embraced Christianity. Macedonia. Greece. 17 . The word "EWi/v. Kev. and under the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes scattered themselves through Asia Minor. The word Hellenists denotes Jews. 1 Cor. 14 . by thousands. The contact of Jews with Greeks was first effected by the conquests of Alexander. in progress. but who spoke Greek and used the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the original Hebrew or the Chaldaic targum or paraphrase." In it means all nations which spoke the Greek language (see Acts xviii. and forgot the Aramaic dialect which had been their language since the Captivity. And (8e). vl] the acts op the apostles.Ch. 29 —and. A murmuring murers. Greek. 23). i. and the ^gean them adopted the Greek language. (70771/(7/^0?). Better iut. and the Jews formed a third of the population of his new city of Alexandria. Lit. "when the disciples were multiplying " the present participle indicating something . " Grecians " might easily be understood of Greeks in general. much better. 473 CHAPTER VL 1.

1 Cor. JAt. : Leave {KaTa\ei-\}ravTa^). ii. The names are all Greek. equivalent to Gentiles (see Gal. It was . 474 WORD it STUDIES LN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Of good report ha/oing witness borne them. Serve tables. etc. Daily {KcA^ixepivy). The reference to the distribution of provision. Only here in New Testament.cro/iei'). only as he spoke Hebrew and retained Hebrew customs. who traced his descent from Jacob. Hence. He was 'E^pato'.. 3. 16 . He might speak Greek and be a Hellenist. There is no reason to infer from this that they were all Hellenists. 5 . is Or service. See on minister.e. Ministration XX. lAt. xi. Eom. of Hebrew parents (Philip. We will i. i. in either case. Eev. Lit. pleasing or agreeable. 5. The imperfect denoting some- thing habitual. See on ch. and not between it and other nations.. Hather Jvrsake or abandon leave in the lurch.. Hebrew is man was 'lov^alo<i. Only here in New Tes- were overlooked.. Stephen. Superintend the distribution of food. 26. (jiapTvpovfievov^). a Hebrew and compare 2 Cor. {BiaKovia). The distinction between Hebrew and Hellenist was a distinction within the Jewish nation.. Were neglected tament. 22). Hebrews. a Hebrew. continue steadfastly. {-Trape^ecopovpTo). [Ch. Vt 9 the latter different is .. attested. X.. give ourselves continually 14. ii. Reason (apea-Tov). 32 3). 4. a Jew. it is wholly from Hellenist. ('7rpo(7«ajOT6/3j. i. iii. A and conformed to the religion of his fathers. Matt. 2. the proper antithesis to Hellenist. Thus Paul calls himself a Hebrew of Hebrews .

They were probably partly Hebrews and partly Hellenists.). pretation. go to confirm the former inter- — . according to the analogy of such expressions as obedience of Christ (2 Cor. VI. iii. —the commands is This interpretation according to the analogy of the ex- pression hearing offaith (Gal. 7. Accordingly. The great majority of the best modern commentators hold . and not as the source. but as the report or message of faith i. which treats of faith.e. of the obedience and hence . also. and often renderedyame. 22). faith. but as the obedience rendered to faith as the authoritative is impulse of the new life in Christ. hea/ring being always used in the New Testament in a passive sense. 28 . Compare. intelligible.] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. 38 Eom. 2). i. ov faith considered as Christian doctrine the Oosjpel. where faith is to be taken as the object. the faith in the ecclesiastical sense. aKor]. though it becomes in man the subjectime moral power of the the power of the Spirit. the one Hebrew and the other Greek. x. added to the fact that in both these passages the former meaning gives a good. is In the great majority of New Testament passages faith as the only life. 16). . 23 are the strong passages in favor of the latter view but the general usage of the New Testament. regenerated through regarded objectively as a power submission. rumor. 475 customary among the Jews to have two names. This passage and Gal. 5 xvi. 1 Mark i.Ch. clearly used in the sense oi faith in Jesus Christ: " the con- viction and confidence regarding Jesus Christ perfect mediator of the divine grace and of eternal his and through work of atonement " (Meyer). iv. This interpretation is 2. . 1. where the meaning is. To the faith (t^ m-Ccnei. 5). John xii. . . x. obedience of faith (Rom. report (see Matt. clearly. and perfectly consistent sense. is new life. authority which 3. which is to be rendered. 26).. 24 . i. not to be explained as the obedience which springs from faith. obedience to Christ obedience of the truth : (1 Pet. xiv. Opinions differ greatly as to whether this is to be taken as meaning faith in Jesus Christ. not as equivalent to the reception of the Gospel. i.

Cilicians. See 47.476 that faith WOKD STUDIES is to IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. and means here Jews or their descendants who had been taken as slaves to Home. Suborned {inri^aXov). Of the libertines. in consequence of the decree of Tiberius. This is the first record of the hostility of the people toward the disciples. They were not able {ovk laxvov). 10. and not as Christian doctrine.d. 3. their religion. freedmen). VI be takeu as the subjective principle of Christian life (though often regarded objectively as a spiritual power). xvi.. They stirred up the people (a-vveiclvqaav tov Xabv). had returned in great numbers to Jerusalem. : 9. They were likely to be the chief opponents of Stephen. for which they had suffered at Home. The verb occurs only here in the l^ew Testament. 30 . to move them together (avv). and had there received their liberty and who. to substitute. . 8. Alexandrians. 12. ii. [Ch. It implies to stir up as a mass. In Jerusalem. and probably in other crafts. 11. Imperfect was working wonders during the progress of the events described in the previous verse. about 19 a. . to put one person in place of another . as another's child for one's own to employ a secret agent . expelling them from Rome. ch. and Asiatics. See on Church. and even Thus we have in this verse men- tion of the synagogues of the Gyrenians. as carpets under one's feet hence. in Jerusalem. See on Luke xiv. and to instigate or secretly instruct him. Did (eVoiei). large cities. was endangered . Libertines is a Latin word {libertini. xvi. the several synagogues were arranged according to nationalities. because they supposed that by his preaching. The verb originally means to put under. in one^s place. Matt. 18. Only here in New Testament. Synagogue.

The covenant it is of circumcision. Used by Luke 29. 4. Lit. Possession heep. Caught seized. {(TvvripTraarav). not even the steppmg of a foot.— Ch. as in the shekinah and the pillar of fire. See on Luke 14. Outward. TIL " Then said the high-priest. (/carao-^eo-ti'). comes the sense of a step considered as a raised place or seat. visiMe glory. viii. which is its meaning in every other passage of the New Testament. 5. 2. It denotes &permam. The glorified countenance of Stephen has caused a pause of surprise and admiration. the peculiar character of which There is no article. Brethren. ver. Appeared (w^^). Addressing the members of the Sanhedrim. Fathers. is and better omitted in rendering. See on Luke xxii. 8. 477 Better as Rev. CHAPTER 1. Not so much as to set his foot on {oihe ^rjfiairoho'i). This Jesus of Nazareth. gave him a covenant. VU. which occurs only here in the New Testament. which the high-priest interrupts by calling upon the accused for his defence " (Gloag). only. defined by the next word He .] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. Of glory. 43. Contemptuous. Only here and See on Luke viii. 15. See on 1 Pet. Inheritance (K\i7/3oi'OytiwM/). 4S..ent possession. and hence a tribune oy: judgment-seat. Addressing the audience generally. From the original meaning. i. a pace or step.

In Egypt (eV AlyvTrrqi). wise. See on shall he filed. Knew be taken not.. it. But the best texts read el<s 12. iii. maJce exis set out. fifteen. literally did not know his history and : Joseph's this may services.e. but meaning in proportion as. Not merely a successor. 1 10. death. Sustenance {xopTdafiara). When {ica^iai). Matt. iii. more correctly. as. or place outside. posed.." Threescore and . Only here in New Testament. "A certain sense of patriotic pride 14. v. and a As sixty years had elapsed since new dynasty was coming to the throne. 21. and see on envying. iroielv eK^era). Afflictions {SXiyjrecov). 11. Jas. [Ch. So that they cast out (toO The verb eKTiS^/Mi. being not a particle of time. did not recognise his merits. into Egypt. iv. of which circnmcision was the completion 9. 13.) threescore and all " the idiom expressing the sum in which the in- dividuals were included. 18. See on <ro^os. 478 WORD STUDIES IN THE i. to Lit. Lit.. not ... EgyptP Note the is Joseph's race. but a monarch of a different character. xiii. AtyvTTTov. Compare Jas. 19. " mi (ei. and seal. and construe with sent forth : " he sent forth our fathers into 13. fifteen implied in Lit. Eev. For their cattle: fodder. Another (ere/ao?).. Moved with envy {^r]Xd)a-aine<}). NEW TESTAMENT. See on Matt. VH. to employ cunning against. of circumcision .evo^). 6. Dealt subtilely {KaTacro(j}ia-dfj. Some explain. Jas. repetition of the name. 14. the word 17.

in classical 479 a uncommon child.. Lit. See on Acts 7. Or. There is no reason why the meaning should be limited to took him .. Better. " There may be something in the depth of the soul which afterward emerges and ascends from that sea into the heart as into an island " (Bengel). 9. 20. Gen.. Compare Jon. Josephns says that those who met him. 33. adopted (aveiXeTo) it " (" Clouds.." is correct. The word is used in the Septuagint of Moses (Exod. 2. exceeding hefore the Lord. as he was carried along the streets." 531). season i. 4 : Nimrod a mighty hunter mighty unto God. rightly. Took up (aj/eiXero). and rendered goodly. or juncture. of Cyrus. seasonable " (Bengel). So Aristophanes " I exposed (the child) and some other woman. exposed in infancy: "The herdsman's wife entreated him not to expose {iK^eivai) the babe " (i. iii.. hence refined. a town. Live (fipejyq). Incorrect. ii. comely. x. 112). Exceeding fair (dtrreto? rm dew). 21. It the water (as Gloag). he preserved alme. and means originally town-hred . in God's Heb. Used among Greek writers of taking up exposed children also of owning new-born children.. expressing the result. A." into his heart (avk^r\ eirl rfjv KupSiav). fair unto God: a : 3 great unto : God great.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. i. See on 1 Pet. Hebrew superlative. of 2 Cor. (iJuoYoveicr^ai). : ''Aardo'i^fair (only here and up from 23. Greek for the exposure of new-born Thus Herodotus. 23). hdbes. The ex- . having taken it. V. The rendering of the A. beauty. " so that they cast out. x. sight... Young children Eev. is from ao-ru. Time {icaipm). 2). xi. came " it arose into his heart. v. VII. forgot their business and stood still to gaze at him. elegant. "Sad. Lit. The Jewish traditions extol Moses' ii. See on Luke xvii. and not Pharaoh's design. Ch.e.

Appeared (m^^ij). to mind. 4:3. . 35 Isa.oving did not utterly remove. 8 reigning shall thou reign.. 33. here. {Karavorja-at). i.e. 24. Mark 26. Trembled . So Rev. xvii. " I have surely seen. Matt. Lit. ward off from one's self. See on Matt. With the suggestion of a sudden appearance as in a vision possibly with the underlying notion of a messenger of God.. i. Ixv. The of a vision. xxxvii. [Ch. 28 .. sight (to opa/Mo). iii. with a collateral notion of requital or revenue. . Would have Lit. VII imitated from the Hebrew. Understood (avviivat. shall thou indeed reign. Judg. 18. See on understanding. See on ransom. Always in the See on Matt. set them at one {aw^'Xaa-ev avrov^ ek drove them together to peace. yevo/jbevo'i). lit. / will surdy go. and occurs in the Sep- "The ark shall not come 16). xii. Deliverer (XvTpmrrjv).). 17. Gen. {Ihibv elBov). iii. .e. 27. 3. i. : : 35. 31. A Hebraism. vii. urged them. elpjjm^v). iv. having See Exod. xx. i. xii. a Only here in New Testament. rem. go itp into the heart (Jer." 34.). I have seen.. 25. See on Luke xxii. I have seen seen I saw. originally to Only here in New Testament." lit. See.. Striciij. {evrpo/io'. Jer. xxxii. Compare 24. Compare Judg. ransomer or redeemer. 28: utterly drive them out. 7 (Sept. having iecome trembling having fallen into a tremor.480 pression taagint: WORD STUDIES is m THE NEW TESTAMENT. Defended The word means {rifivvaro). also. 9. Lit. 9 going 1 wUl go . and 7'ed^emed. 1 Pet. New Testament To behold Luke 32.

as Eev. death did not remove him earlier. not merely as an emblem. but as a god. and was then embalmed and entombed in one of the sepulchral chambers of the Serapeum. and there is a beetle upon his tongue " (iii. association with the protecting and helping power of the angeL 38. Several of these animals were worshipped at different places in Egypt. He was If a natural not allowed to reach the natural term of his life. Bengal says. Only here in New Testament. Better. 18. 41. 28). The calf which is so called has the following marks He is black.e. which thereupon conceives Apis. but longing for the idolatries of Egypt. in the great Temple of the Sun. ix.. and not in Septuagint. and on his back the figure of an eagle. 481 By the hand the hand " . He was regarded by the Egyptians. Another sacred bull was maintained at Heliopolis. and all came forward from their houses to welcome him as he passed. im. under the name of Mnevis. with a square spot of white upon his forehead. Herodotus says: " Now this Apis. As symbols to be borne before them on the march. " very notorious crime is denoted by an extraordinary and newly-coined word. (eV xeipt). Compare 1 Pet. The hairs in his tail are double. He was lodged in a magnificent court. Shall go before us. and was hon- A : 31 . living. Turned back in their hearts. a temple devoted expressly to the burial of these animals.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Apis was worshipped at Memphis. His festival lasted seven days." This was in imitation of the Egyptian bull-worship. is the calf of a cow which is never afterward able to bear young. Lively. VII.. '^with i. 39. 40.Ch. ii. 6. when he was led in procession through the streets. Compare Neh. The best texts read <tvv xeipl. They made a calf (ifioa-'x^oiroiriaav). 4. which he never quitted except on fixed days. he was drowned when he reached the age of twenty-five. or Epaphus. Not desiring to go back. ornamented with figures twelve cubits high. The Egyptians say that fire comes down from heaven upon the cow.

and their notions of the golden calf. and not mere metaphorical representations of as. near Thebes." 2 ser. [Ch. The portable tent-temple of the god.482 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 197). or the moon walk: my heart hath been secretly enticed. Though not it a part of the religion of the Egyp- Eawlinson thinks may have been connected with their earlier belief. were doubtless in imitation of a ceremony they had witnessed in honor of their sojourn in Mnevis during ii. See on Jas. black animal. cal tradition. and not from Apis. To worship i. since prayer is represented in hieroglyphics by a man holding up his hands. Lit. Star-worship. that tlie Israelites borrowed " The offerings. or Sabaeanism. in asserting the purity of his life (xxxi. A third sacred bull. more correctly. was from this. 27)." tians. and spread into Syria. which consisted in the worship of the stars. ii. The host of heaven. (avijjayov). 26. serve.. vol. with the . p.. Kev. cows did not hold the rank of gods. he says " If I beheld the sun when it shined.. but were only sacred. led up. Tabernacle of Moloch. {XaTpeveiv). his According to Rabbiniimage was hollow. and Other bulls and its hairs were said to grow the wrong way. was maintained at p. 43.. and my mouth : : that is above. 291).. heated from below. accompanied by a star (Herodoii. tus. It was a huge. It is to the Sabaean worship that Job alludes when. Hermonthis. called Bacis. VII Wilkinson thinks that it ored with a reverence next to Apis. 21. idol to Moloch was an Ammonite whom children were sacrificed. though the Chaldaean religion was far from being the simple worship of the host of heaven the heavenly bodies being regarded as real persons. vol. the rem- nant of the ancient heathenism of Western Asia. dancing. Egypt " (" Ancient Egyptians. to be carried in procession. rejoicings practised on the occasion. or hath kissed my hands this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge for I should have denied the God ing in brightness. tronomical phenomena. See on Luke 74. Offered 42.

See on Matt. It is tament.] the acts op the apostles.. Nathan. which is it clearly the occurs. stands for cir. is condemned by the fact that KaTdtrx^cis does not mean taking possession. trance into The preposition may and subsequent rest . and Phoenicians paid divine Remphan.ch. • and that appears to be the more simple and in succession natural rendering here homing received it (from Moses). but holding possession. ashed: through Tabernacle (vKr^vmiid). to which the Arabs. The Romphan. Rephan. both signifying Joshua. Alford's rendering. More 46. when they Before the face Dent. correctly. Sa/viour. 483 head of an ox and outstretched arms. Jesus. and supposed to be the Coptic name for Saturn. * tent vii. 45. in his anxiety to preserve the strict force of iy. be explained as combining the ideas of enand this seems to be the explanation adopted by the Rev. Only here in New TesThe verb originally means to recewefrom one another. vii. On the whole. It was not a tabernacle or which David proposed to build. at tMiv taking possession of (he Gentiles. See 2 Sam. More strictly. though grammatically defensible. apparently assumes that sV. Rev. it seems best to hold by the rendering oi the Eev. but a house.* /caTaa-x^ea-ei). in their turn. That came after ihtahe^diievoC). meaning in ver. 23. their cries being stifled by the beating of drums. Desired {yrriaaTo). See 2 Sam." The same expression occurs in the Septuagint. into.. rfi Into the possession (eV entered on the possession. v. renders during the possession of the Gentiles. honors. texts vary between Renvphan. 5. vii. Egyptians. I cannot help thinking forced and unnatural. : very neatly. in. The names are the same. which. 2. "amay from the face. The A. {airo irpoaonrov). which is in- admissible. i. 21. into which children were laid. Rev. xi. the only other New Meyer. Testament passage where . or while the Gentiles were in the state of possession.

unto ordinances of angels. 11. xxxii. 12 The phrase work. xvi. E. habitation. Eh means with reference to. " what manner of house" 51. temples. Disposition {Siarayiji) is used by A. more correctly. to fall against or upon. 2 Cor. The best The meaning is more general in with hands. in the sense of arrangement^ as we say a general disposed his troops. Lit. as Rev. Compare [Ch. 'x^etpoTrolrjTa). Heb... 19 Ps. ii. Resist {avTiTTiTTTeTe). ayyeXmv). who were confined to their temples. The kindred verb BiaTacram occurs. ye ha/ve Who (oiTW'es). 4. rightly. ver. The expression is. 18. however.. Only here in New Testament.). etc. 24 . in- By the disposition of angels (ek huiTayh. Kings xix. xiii. Compare Mark texts omit vook. implying actwe resistance. V. It is a very strong expression. Stronger than the simple relative who. 58 .484 2. 11 . iv. Used of faUvng upon an enemy. and mostly in the sense . 53. In contrast with heathen gods. The Most High. 1.<. 2. What house. VIL Rev. oIkov.... WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Eph. xiv. More correctly. . where it is rendered ordi7ianee. ix. 18 2 Chron. and uncircumcised {ffK\r)porpdx'n>^oi koI Both only here in New Testament. {yey ivrjaJ^e). 48. {to. 28 2 is common in the Old Testament of idols. cxv. . and 2 Chron. 49. 47. vi. v. : : . Temples made with hands (. a house.ev. often. Ye have been hecome. or works of tnen's hands. used of a things made " Moab shall come to his sanctuary sanctuary in Isa. Lit. (ttoiov). Stiff-neclted aTrephfiTjToi. The word occurs only here and Rom." See Deut.!^6tj0O7rowyTot? vaoh). : and emphasizing their sin by contrast with their privileges asmuch as ye were those who receimed.

19). was to be twice the size of a man. : 37. 12 . it is translated set in order. See on Luke 57. 18. Compare the word spohen hy angels (Heb. i. ii. not killed. 1 Cor. i. as Kev. They were cut. 1 . See Eph. as it was ordained hy angels. 2. steadfastly. held together. iii.Ch. One of the witnesses was to smite him with If he were a stone upon the breast. 4. A Stopped Stoned. the scaffold to which led. The Son of man. xi. See on Luke x. Render. teeth. 10 . VII. {e^pvxpv). Luke iii. xxxiii. See on ch. 13. the second witness was to throw another stone at 58.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Ixviii. 55. of am. xi. vi. See Deut. v. with his hands bound. Rising from the throne to protect and receive is represented in the New Testament as seated at the Father's right hand. with a noise. as wild beasts hence to gnash or grind the See on Jas. Standing. 17. Usually Jesus 3. iii. 34. therefore. 15. Lit. iii.!^oi'). iv.. so as to throw him down. ((7wi'eff. 22. In 1 The reference is most . and see on Luke his servant. 54. ajppomt. except here by Stephen. Compare Paul expressly says that the law was administered hy the msdAvmh of angels (Gal..ger. Looked up 15 . Compare ch. the criminal was to be . According to the Eabbis. ii. probabl}' to the Jewish tradition that the law was given through Ps. the agency of angels. 2). A different word is used to express remorse. 485 of command or See Matt. I see {3-eiop&). 20. In both instances. 56. Heb. vi. ch. Col. Gnashed Originally to eat greedily. title never applied to Christ by any of the apostles or evangelists. 20. Being {vTrapxtov). i. 33. ii.

in Christian speech and thought. asleep {eKoifi'^Si]). Marking his calm and Though the pagan authors sometimes used it He death. not as a figure." he used the word. with place carried in its .ov) the place to lie down to sleep. a hiding-place. or dove-cot. on the other hand. was only as a poetic figure. all the people were to stone him until he was dead. a-T'^a-r]<s avroK jAt. pigeon-holes for cinerary urns — . a mere memorial of something gone a columbarium.rjT'^pi. And thus. however. rest. little . as the doctrine of the resurrection struck its roots deeper. 9). it is Which. waking the elements which enter into sleep. [Ch. Calling upon God. if he were yet alive. 60. Thirty years after Stephen's martyrdom^ Paul speaks of him- aged (Philem. From 59. The pagan buryingnothingness. it So Kev. rrjv afiapriav TavTrjv). The body was then to be suspended sunset. is evident that Jesus is meant. Jesus. It was a hurying-place. In that mystery of death. since applied up to the age of forty-five. said. the word dead. A young man self as the {veaviov). t?ie Lord. Ood is not in the Greek. gave place to the more gracious and hopeful word sleep. its but the Christian thought of death as sleep. fell peaceful sleep to signify death. " Our friend Lazai-us sleejpeih {KSKolfji/qTai). An unquestionable prayer to Christ. Saul. with its hopeless finality.. brought with it into Christian speech the kindred thought of a chamber of rest. gives no indica- tion of his age.fix not this sin wpon them.486 him. Lay not this sin to their charge (/at. a monumentum. in which the pagan saw only life. The first mention of the apostle to the Gentiles. Jesus saw continued — name no suggestion of hope or comfort. the vision just described.. VII Then. and embodied it in the word cemetery {Koi/j. When Christ. but as the expression of a fact. till WORD STUDIES IN THfi NEW TESTAMENT. and from the prayer which follows.

Ixxix. I fear. taking off. V. viii. It is only when we collect the separate this number in which when we weigh the terrible significance of the expressions used that we feel the load of remorse which must have lain upon him. 18. 3. Canon Farrar observes " The part which he played at : time in the horrid work of persecution has.. Paul"). Carried to his burial {a-vveicofiia-av). . («07reTw). The word is used of bringing in harvest.. Jea^mp' (of the breast). 5). of continued passages allusion is — they are no less than eight in to this sad period. Stephen (Sri^avov). been always underrated. viii.* it — made is only action. On See Acts 3 . devastated. vi. to carry together . 13. 2 . the name. 32. Death {avaipecreC). Made havoc {eKv/iaivero). has destroyed. to bring the dead to the company {avv) of the other dead. Only here in New Testament. Ps. Only New Testament. 5. and the taunts to which he was liable from malignant enemies" ("Life and Work of St. YIII. see on * The deacon (Acts Mark iii. 9. 2. 10.Ch. xxii. See on Luke 25. Note the imperfect. Not the apostle. Compare Acts ix. 487 CHAPTER 1. Lit. ii. where the A. ix. Only here in New Testament. but where the Greek is jropS^a-a'i. Lit.. Lamentation here in Lit. either to assist in burying or. better.] the acts op the apostles. 4 . it is used of the laying waste of a vineyard by the wild boar. He was the first who received the martyr's crown. See on Luke xxiii. 3. In Septuagint. Philip. hence. Meaning crown. 21. xxvi. Devout.

He was amazed. 13. which.7. and multiplied by the general expectation of a great deliverer and the spread of the Messianic notions of the Jews.a 'Rev. The great power of God. 11. (e'^to-Twi'). Were 9. . Acts 22. Bewitched ii. 7.. ICept doing from time to time. See ver. 18. Bewitched." and 1. amased. i. SvvdfjLei<. they designated 10.488 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 14. Better a. z&ver. Which were done are coming to pass. The best texts add ^ koXovwhich is called. See on ch. Imperfect. koI i. 9. palsied. Amazed. signs and 20 . Note the 'Hhe Christ. power of God.^. X/)fo-To'i'). more neatly. tricks. The same word After having amazed the people by his is employed. Lit. fievTj. (7ti/o/iei/as). See on Matt. Eev. Miracles and signs powers. Seeonch. and render that power of God which is They believed that Simon was an impersonated called great. ii. (aT/fiela xi. See on Luke (jia^evmv). Continued with. 15. Lit. The present participle. v.)... Used sorcery Only here in New Testament. as the great. He did {iiroiet). who practised upon the credulity of the people by conjuring and juggling and soothsaying. One of the wizards so numerous throughout the East at that time. v. VIU Christ (tw see on Matt. article. as is described in the next verse. Taken with palsies {irapaXeKvfievoi). See on Luke healed. as the highest of powers. [Ch.

Lit. Lit. The country. . 16. Perish with thee (<rw thyself. 4 Acts xv. iv. which contracted form of fiea-rjthe rendering at Acts xxii. subject of discourse. If (ev^eta). 3) . Iviii. 14. Destruction overtake thy money and 21. <Toi e'ir) ek avrnKeiav). In the name (ew to ovofia). 34. " into the name. The south (fiea-rjii^piav). 14). fiepia. {vir^p'xpv). 19. Thou hast fallen xxvii.. le along with thee unto destruction.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. straight. Part nor lot. and of love as the hand of perfectness (Col. Rev. 9. The word avvhea-fiov denotes a close. 23. Lit. 19) .. Lit. Thought fykirivoiob). biit figuratively. as The matter of which we Luke i. 20. only here and Matt. into. 6. of the close compacting of the church represented as a body (Col. more literally. 5. Only here in ITew Testament. are talking: the Right 22. See Isa. a thinking on or contriving. into and continuest Oall. Lit. ^oX^v). Thou bast fallen into iniquity as into fetters. Matter (Xoyw). ii. iii. Samaria. 26. They were had been. 6. 6." See on Matt. ii.. 489 See vv.. uot the city. and hence implying a. In the gall is (et? in. together). 16. Bond of iniquity {a-vvBea-fiov aSt/et'a?). The doubt suggested by the heinousness of the offence. noon. It is used of the bond of Christian peace (Eph. perhaps. Lot expresses the same idea as^osr^. See on Jas. VXn. firm bond {a-vv. is midday.Ch.j)lan or design. xxviii... A . Gall qfhitterness bitter enmity against the Gospel.

On desert. or Caesar Only here in at Meroe a Rome. Of Ethiopia. Rev. that Christifrontier of Ethiopia. too. Desert. 15 x. tion indicate a doubt on Philip's part. : Treasure sian word." : Of great authority tentate. like Pharaoh in Egypt. adopted the Egyptian as the language of religion and of the court. Egypt. New Testament. and their dominion was again confined to the It was through Egypt. VIH the only other passage where occurs. to Gaza. which it continued to be till the power of the Pharaohs had fallen. See on Luke xv. Understandest thou what thou read est (apa 7674^0)The play upon the words cannot be translated. anity passed into Ethiopia. including the modern Nubia. (/coXXtj^ijti). [Ch. A Per. 11 Acts 30. queens living in an island near Meroe. see on Luke One There were several roads from Jerusalem the way of Bethlehem to Hebron. Cordofan. XV.. 12. gives at noon in margin. Keferring to the route. in the northern part of this district. and thence is mentioned by through a region actually called a desert. 29. and Northern Eawlinson speaks of subjects of the Ethiopian Abyssinia. 4. even in the age of the apostles. . Join thyself V. {yd^r]^). 490 WOBD STUDIES IN THE it NEW TESTAMENT. The interrogative particles which begin the quesa-KeK h dvayivcoa-KeK) .). The name for the lands lying south of 27. {Svvd(TTr)s. The common name of the queens of titular distinction. Pie further remarks " The monuments prove beyond all question that the Ethiopians borrowed from Egypt They even their religion and their habits of civilization. as is shown by the eunuch of Queen Candace. A general term for a po- Candace.

Humiliation. IX. Suddenly and miraculously. Breathing out {itnrvimv). read. 10. (eVopevero 7^/9). He 33.. 1 Pet. CHAPTER 1.." etc. THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. wickedness ? 35. the contents of the passage. He did not stop nor take another road to seek him. His contemporaries. See on Mark xii. 37.Oh. ii. In the Greek which these words are marks them as the cause or source of the " breathing. See on Matt. but went on his way. Compare Matt. A mistranslation. Eev.] 31. Threatenings and slaughter threatening. for how could I understand except. was reading . 491 How : I he able ? the can (ttw? 7ap av hwaifi/rfvy. imperfect. . xi. Lit./w how should for connecting the question with an implied I negative 32. {aireiXrj'i kuI ^ovov). "for he went." A reason is given for the eunuch's seeing Philip no more. 2. Generation. IX. v. Lit. Lit. correctly. the case in ^ desire. Who shall declare their Opened ment. " No . Caught away. 29. his mouth. place of the scripture irepioxv rrj^ ypacjyfjti). rightly. 39.. Ireathmg wpon or at. And he went. Kev. and murderous construction. Indicating a solemn announce- The best texts omit this verse. Strictlj. etc. and so corresponding to against the disciples. {f) The 6. so Eev. " breathing hard omz! threatening...

6 . xii. In Paul's own account he says that the words were spoken in Hebrew (ch. Trembling and astonished. xxiv. Compare ch. Straight. texts. iv. Speechless Street {eveot). compare 2 Cor. There shined round about ch. A na/rrow street or lane. 6. 3. 22. 17. 2 viii. how many. 11. Only here and Flashed. 4 . xi. Eev. as an aggravation of his cruelty (ch. Rev. Women. 7. 492 2. xvi. see on Matt. 9 xxii.). 3 . 29 and on the How great things iftad). In Christ.. the fuller expression of the idea. 25. Only here New Testament. xxii. 15. more correctly. The in best texts omit. [Ch. Brother. . 7. . 16. xxii. "the way. characteristic direction of life as determined See ch. 5. an instrument figure. So called from its running in a direct line from the eastern to the western gate of the city. xxvi. Chosen vessel (o-Aceuo? iKkoyfjs. 17 xviii. 14. xix. A light. Saying. 4." expression in the Acts for the Christian religion: by faith on . 13. WORD Of this STUDIES m THE NEW TESTAMENT. (pvfirjv). etc. xxiv. xxvi. see ch. more correctly. Transferred from ch. and omitted by the best 6.. See on Luke xiv. 21. xxvi. For Jesus Christ" (Meyer). Lit. On vessel. women xxii. {irepiijaTpaylrev). It is hard for thee. 4. IX A common " the way (t^9 oBov). See on Luke 36 . 4). Paul three times alludes to his persecution of ix. .. of choice. 14).

of. huildvng up. 23. and aironrlirTeiv. of xiii. The mention of the scales.: Ch. laid waste. IX. proper name.\\\ei. being hnit together in love. ii.Siyo-a?). Christ. Laying await it ever occurs. See on ch. The correct reading is Jesus. and so to Used in the literal and physical sense in Eph. viz. There —scales New {airi-jreaov — XeTr/Se?). Y. but an To kill. to fall off. of by putting together. 11 . In this sense See Levit. x. xxvi. but not the particular circumstances which Luke records. Christ. . xx. occur only here in the We heard Paul relate 20. 13. xxii. hence to compare and examine. how he felt at that moment" (Hackett). as evidence. 'Ra. and of particles from diseased " may suppose that Luke had often parts of the body. In 1 Cor. 2. 32. the word occurs in the Septuagint. i. instructing. Judg. Both words Testament. personal name. a/ppellatvoe. 16.. 8. The Not a. 30 but properly . Rev. Christ was not yet current as his Paul's object was to establish the identity of Jesus the Nazarene with the Messiah. ch. 19 So rendered by A. viii. (eVi/SouX^). is characteristic of the physician. Confounded. 16. wherxxiii. made ha/ooo 3. he does not mention his blindness in ch. ii. Paul uses the same word in Gal. as Destroyed (n-o/a. 6. 24. or incrustations. Note the article. such as are incidental to ophthalmia. 22. 21. See on ver. In Paul's own account of his conversion in ch. In Col. See on Lukexxiii. he mentions both the blindness and tlie recovery of sight. was used technically by medical wi'iters of the falling of scales from the skin. 3. ii. Compare ch. 20. The verb means to bring or put to- prove.] THE ACTS OP THE APOSTLES. the individual or personal name of the Lord. . fell 493 18. Proving gether : {a-vfi^i^d^mv). iv.

attempted: lit. In Paul's account of this adventure he uses crapjavrj. xix. Hackett says that he observed such v^indows in the wall at Damascus.. Declared {Sirjjija-aTo).. vi. Or built up. Eev. day and night. 11. v. Grecians. [Ch. or. Join himself. changed by Kev. See on ch.494 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. emthe different churches throughout the three prov- inces of Palestine. Went about hand. 1. more accurately. iii. 2. On the mode of escape.25. Better. . . through the wall. 12. as is explained by 2 Cor. 31. xiv. xi. in every case. By the wall (Sta rov recxovi). correctly. Luke xv. took in The churches. E d if e d i . 27. Grecian Jews. 33.. 15 1 Sam. See on Matt. Luke i. See on ch. and compare on declaration. 20. or through a window in the wall itself opening to houses on its inner side. compare Josh. {i-rrapprjo-ida-aTo). x. rather to the execution of the plot than to the plot Watched. See on Had preached boldly ii. as some think. all bracing The best texts read the church . hejit See on Mark watching. 39 . Eev.. 29. See oxv freely. Related throughout. 29. Inaperfect: they were or . IX. 1. " Laying await " refers itself. ch. 26. io plot. 15 . {iirexetpow). 13 . Luke viii. a plaited or braided basket of wicker-work . ii. Either through the window of a house overhanging the wall. of ropes. Basket {airvpihi).

by the Holy Spirit inspiring the preachers. . (tara/ffe). it is is disputed. See on Luke 34.. i. Saron. 'Rev. 5 and Luke ii. and the fact 33. 19. Maketh thee whole Luke vi. viii. 4. Messiah. See on Make Not. 17 Heb. : Eev. . joined with Trapafiv^iov or vapafivS^ia. 25 (see note) one^s side for help. Lydda. from Joppa . 32. as in 1 Cor. ii. Matt. of his having been bedridden for the whole time. v. 35. where. hericeforth. The duration of the malady... are characteristic of the physician's narrative. Always with the defi- nite article the plaJin .] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Here exhortation is the rendering approved by the best authorities. Bed. 495 From irapaKoKiw. but on the an evidence of restoration. as Lit. thy bed (a-Tp&a-ov ffeavrm).. Ch. But note the article : Jesus ^Ae Christ the AnoiMed . 16 .. 33) about a day's journey from Jerusalem.healeth thee. 1. properly. 2 Thess. Jesus Christ. to call toward or to The word is rendered in the New Testament both exhortation and consolation. extending thirty miles along the sea to Oaesarea. 18. . and moving the hearts of the hearers. spot. IX. stm-ew for thyself. Better. xiv. 8 2 Cor. ii. as 'Rqy. See on Mark ii. In some passages the meaning 3. the meaning of which also varies between incenti/oe and consolation or assuagement. xii.. Eight years. . rt {irapaKkrirTet) . .e.. 15 Rom. 14. as Philip. C o mf . to be construed with was multiplied : was mvltiplied iy the exhortation of the Holy Ghost . xii. Compare Acts xiii. Sick of the palsy. palsied. V. /S'Aijit'ow. The Lod of the Old Testament (Ezra ii.

Upper chamber. only here in New Testament. See on Luke See on vii. . i. 2. (Sera). Rev. to come through. She may have been known by both names. It was customary at this time for the Jews to have two names. 40. X. as many Made {iiroCeC). See Song of Solomon ii. i. Lit. The best texts putting the request in the form of a direct ad- Delay not. The imperfect : was accustomed to mahe.. Roman soldiers and 2. Italian. 37.. 3. [Ch. . X. Centurion. 2 Pet. 13. — Dorcas. Tabitha alent of the former. v. (jiaSijTpia). come on. The latter word being the Greek equivwhich is Aramaic. Devout {eva-e^Tjs:). . (^ie\^elv). 5 vii. To come 39. 3. Which Lit. A feminine form. which was both a Gentile and a Jewish town. one Hebrew and the other Greek or Latin and this would especially be the case in a seaport like Joppa. and meaning gazelle. which in the East was a favoi'ite type of beauty. Coats and garments.496 36. Probably because consisting of not of natives of the country.. That lie See on ch.. oKvrjtrri'. CHAPTER 1. 38. 9. . Band Mark xv. {a-ij-elprf. read dress. would not delay (/ii) oKurjcrai). See on godliness.). See on Matt. 16. 17 iv. WORD Disciple STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. as.

least fifty cubits from any town " (Farrar. tanner. " Life and Work of St. I found two tanneries directly on the seaside. Better. Prayed See onprayers. describing a visit to Joppa. /as.. and because of the ceremonial requirement referred to above. Nor dream'd his prayers and tears Would help a world undone. says shells. 55 and see on Luke iv. Prime. 3. I observed that the rocks in front of them were covered with the water a few inches deep. William C. tening his eyes. : "I was walking along the sea-beach. as op When he looked (dT6i»icra?). A vision. See on ch. Outside the walls. " If a tanner married without mentioning his trade. X. and also submitted them to some process iu the 32 . (Seo/ici/o?). vii. The law of levirate marriage might be set aside if the brother-in-law tanner's yard must be at of the childless widow was a tanner. 497 33." silent Kbble. thought aloof For heavenly vision soared. Paul"). 6. and the tanners were commanded to dwell apart. his wife was permitted to get a divorce. Jewish law was regarded as unclean by strict Jews. " The while upon his terrac'd roof The In lov'd apostle to his Lord. its A Showing that the . vii. more accurately. Eev. Luke v.Ch. " XJnheard by all but angel ears The good Cornelius knelt alone. to the southward. clearly or distinctly. posed to a fancy.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Compare ch. both for proximity to the business. looking for about a fourth of a mile from the city. Christian Tear. 4. 20. and that they soaked their hides on and at these rocks. Evidently {(jiavepm). strictness of the was losing hold on Peter since the tanner's oecnpation A By the seaside. 31. Mr.

bellying sails of ships. 9. Declared {e^rjy7]crd/jLevo<. English they. Those messengers. They soldier. He an into a trance {iweTrecrev iir amov eKa-Tacnt. 8. read iyevero. 'beholdeth. Lit. correctly. and more literally. (^^eXe yevcraal^ai). Very hungry (-Trpoa-Treivo^). Saw (. The best texts omit. Better. 18." may indicate that the form of vessel which appeared to Peter " recalled an image most familiar to his previous life the . 9 . 42. the servants and the The pronoun has a more specific reference than the {eKeivatv). J. " applied to loose. present tense is graphically introduced Unto him. sail-cloth or a sail. See on Luke x. as Eev. Luke alone employs the word in this sense of ecstasy fell ecstasy or trance.. Dr. Originally . rehearsed. [Ch.498 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. upon h.^n« linen . 34 John ii. or happened to him.^ecopet). See on Luke xxiv.). Rawson Lumby suggests that the word. is Kev.. however. better. . Sheet {o^ovr]v). Only here and ch.. later. 11. more See Matt. The Eev. xxvii. into the narrative. 14. The best texts. 5. 3 . rendered both to eat and to taste. See on ch. See on astonishment. de- TeviaS^ai frequently the latter. Would have eaten sii'ed to eat. Only here in New Testa- ment.).. i. and compare Acts xx.im. X water which I did not stop to understand " (" Tent-life in the Holy Land ")• Of them that waited on him continually >rci}v (Trpoa-Kaprepovv- avTw). came upon him. Mark v. 1 Pet. 35. fell 11. 10. ii. xi.

we must render hovmd. " We are to imagine the vessel. . pulls the end {u-pyjiv) of the rope. unclean. let down hyfov/r corners. 14. 40 xx. All manner of four-footed beasts (Trai/TaT^Ter/jtiTroSa). used of the linen iandages in which the Lord's body was swathed. but the best texts omit.). while the corners attached to heaven to support the whole. The best texts omit. 6. The victim's forefeet are a cord. hegmnings / the extremity or corner." iii. If this is retained. Farrar) is unwarranted by the usage of the word. Stronger: hy no means.. Knit (SeBefiivov). 499 wind-stretched canvas of the craft on the Lake of Galilee" (« Expositor. together with the follow- ing and. describing the sacrifices of the Scythians. looking like a colossal four-cornered linen cloth. Compare Corners marking itself {ap')(al<. 12 John xix. The word for sheet in this passage was also the technical terra for a handage. as was the kindred word o^oviov. The suggestion of ropes holding the corners of the sheet (Alf ord. Mr. all the four-footed l)easts. Hobart says " "We have thus in this passage a technical medical phrase the ends of a bandage used for the ends of a sheet. . a beginning of the sheet. 5. xi.. of very many Wild beasts. and thereby throws the animal down " (iv." The word is used in this sense by Herodotus.] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. : — — 12. " and the person who is about to offer. which hardly any one except a medical man would think of employing " (" Medical Language of St. Not. ch.Ch. Lit. clean and hinds.. letting down. bound with cautiously. It was the technical expression in medical language for the ends of iandages. Luke ").. 60). X.. Without exception. 6. and. or attached . Lit. taking his station behind the victim. "With that simple and audacious self-confidence which in his (Peter's) character was so singularly mingled with fits of timidity and . Y. Render. 272). as Rev. Not so (jj/r)8afi5)^). See Luke xxiv.

until they found the dwelling of the tanner. so to speak. 22. Call not thou common (a-u fjur) koIvov).).^aT«r^). and not easily found. " Life and Works of Paul ") Comdepression. (Sta) streets way through 18. inquiries. goes deeper than merely stylmg " common. accoi'ding to Worshipped {irpoo-eicvvria-ev). 7. state. friends. Was warned Near (ej^pj. this by avyyeveli. Doubted [SiTj-n-opei. The word are sary / hence of those ties . 12..''^ 17. 22. defile. A general summons to {Siev^vfiovfievov). On reflection. Thought on Was earnestVy (Bid) pon- dering. Called. {dpar/Kaiov.. [Ch. which orders him. who Mood-relations. " make not thou common. 24. But as must be taken in the sense of intimate meaning which it has in later Greek writers. Eev. The thought 15. See on Matt. but justified by the . and reminds the divine Interlocutor that he must. Common {kolvov). See on Luke as ix.). " having asked their and houses.. modern English An unfortunate transla- usage. a 25.500 WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Unholy.ot profane it by regarding and calling it common." Lit. he boldly corrects the voice pare Matt. xvi. compared with his ecstatic Had made inquiry (StejOWT^o-ovre?). in order to make 19. X. ii. originally means necesbound by necessary or natural relatives or kinsmen is expressed tion. any one within. "Having inquired out . In himself. have made an oversight " (Farrar. do not thou Do n. who was an obscure man.

Ch. But Peter's statement is general. " If any man serve me./cir what reason. Tacitus also says of the Jews that " among themselves they are inflexibly faithful." reverence by prostrating himself after the usual oriental manner. charitable aid. my Father Here the meaning is that Cornelius paid shall worship him. by contrast with ye. "but Grod hath showed me. Me. emphasizes the violation of established order." 29. and to guide the circumcised alone to the well which they seek " (Sat. according to which to worshvp meant simply to honor. connections " (" Histories. 501 usage of earlier English. and matrimonial v. xiii. being used only here and 1 Pet. In the marriage-service of the English Church occurs the phrase. Philistines. This usage survives in the expressions worshi/pful and your worship..). The Jews professed to ground this prohibition on the law of Moses but there is no direct command in the Mosaic law forbidding Jews to associate with those of other nations. They keep separate from all strangers in eating. " With m j body I thee worshijpP So Wycliffe renders Matt. 105)." Of another ment. " and John xii. and ready with . 104.).. 1 Used of the Only here in New TestaSam. It See note there. Peter. or honor paid to dignity or worth. With what intent {rivi Xoya). xix..] THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. An unlawful thing (aSe/atToi. . "Ye know. 28. 26. 19." etc. 3. being from the same root as t13^/j. The word is peculiar to iv. " Worship thy father and thy mother.i. Emphatic.. Juvenal says that the Jews were taught by Moses "not to show the way except to one who practises the same rites. 5). xiv. Worship is worthshvp. nation (aWo^uXw). More strictly. X. to lay down or establish. 3-5 (Sept. but hate all others as enemies. sleeping. referring to the general practice of the Jews to separate themselves in common life from uncircumcised persons..

'^/juipa^). j>rayi/ng was prayed (j^v ivvdrtiv Trpoo-ei^j^o/tej'o?). ckiring the ninth hour. 1. Gloag De Wette.. The contents of the message: the report or history which 38. The historical present. X. evidence. I perceive. They explain the as is these MSS. healing. though against strong MS. done by several high authorities. Lit. viii. giving 33. respect The word That word (j6v \6yov). Weil («a\w?). The message. vividness to the narrative... And healing. 6. went through (the country). At the ninth hour JAt. See on Christ. reckoning backward from the day on which he was speaking. 1. it proclaimed. saith. Went about Compare ch. 13. Four days ago {dirb reTdpTr)<. Respecter of persons (Trpoo-wTroXjj^TrrT??). The and {kuI) has a particularizing force and in particular. Jas. Alford. 37.. [Ch. I was heejying the nimth hour ofpra/yer. Lit. is : do- * It must be confessed that this statement. the rendering is as Kev. Matt.602 30. See on ofpersons. from the fourth day. {SiTjX^ev). Said {(fyrjo-i). Anointed {expKrev). ii. {prifia)..* 31. I was fasting. 4. until this hov/r. Hackett. 34. You have done a courteous and handsome 5. by the omissioA in. "With the omission of / fasting. as thus amended that the rendering would be greatly simplified by retaining the obscure and omitted words. 36. and. I The best texts omit. i. fact that no mention of fasting is made in ver 3 . WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Only here in New Testament. Eev. iv. and. Foicr days ago. as Meyer. ing good. thing in coming. Compare 3 John See on ch.

Ch. X.]




Only here and


on which see note.




best texts insert koX, also:


also they slew

" also

having an incressive

They added

crowning atrocity

to other persecutions.


See on Luke

xxiii. 31.

Shewed him openly


avrbv e/i^avfj



Mm to iecome manifest.

Compare, for the construc-

tion, ch.




Chosen before The


Only here


simple verb ^etporoi/ew,

anoint, oc-

2 Cor. viii. 19 and originally means to hand for the purpose of giving a vote. Hence to elect by show of hands, and generally to ajtpoint. Plato uses the word of the election of leaders of choruses (" Laws," 765).
curs Acts xiv. 23
stretch out the

In later ecclesiastical usage deacons.


signified ordain, as bishops or

Who (otTH'e?).

The compound pronoun marks them more

strongly as belonging to the class of eye-witnesses.
42. Testify (Sia/uipTvpaa-l^ai).

See on ch.




See on Luke


Jas. v. 15.

His name. As in the Lord's prayer: not simply the but all that is embraced and expressed by the name: Christ's " entire perfection, as the object revealed to the believer for his apprehension, confession, and worship " (Meyer).




only example of the bestow-


of the Spirit before baptism.


of the circumcision.


this point



tinguishes Christians into two classes

—those of the circumcision







and those of the uncircumcision
the latter Gentiles or GreeJcs.

calling the

former Jews, and

Were amazed.

See on ch.





Note the

article: the

water; co-ordi-

nating the water with tlie Spirit (see 1 John v. 8), and designating water as the recognized and customary element of baptism.





More correctly, " fAroMp'A-

out Judaea."


of the circumcision.

See on ch.

x. 45.


Men uncircumcised




indignant expression.

See Eph.

speech (compare Luke

Graphically indicating the solemn purport of the jcii. 1), or perhaps, in connection with

expounded, his beginning with the first circumstances and going through the whole list of incidents.


See on Matt.





xxii. 24, 27.


Nothing doubting


The Eev.

renders inaking no distinction, taking the verb in its original sense, which is to separate or distinguish. The rendering seems
rather strained, doubting being a


rendering in the


Testament and giving a perfectly good sense here. See Matt, xxi. 21 Mark xi. 23, and note on Jas. i. 6. It was natural that

Peter should hesitate.

The six brethren. The men of Joppa who had gone with Peter to Cornelius, and had accompanied him also to Jerusalem,
either as witnesses for

him or

for their


vindication, since

they had committed the same offence.




" the

13. An angel. It has the mentioned in ch. x.


Forasmuch as


Better, as Eev.,




equal/ making them,




recipients of the




They which were

scattered abroad



the technical expression, the dispersion, see on 1 Pet.
so used here.



The Greeks ("E\\7;i;a?). Some,
the Grecicm Jews.

however, read 'EWtj-

The express ohject of the narrative has been to describe the admission of Gentiles into the church. There would have been nothing remarkable

See on ch.

vi. 1.

in these


preaching to Hellenists

who had long

before been

received into the church, and formed a large part of the church
at Jerusalem.
It is better to follow the

rendering of A. Y. and

Kev., though the other reading has the stronger



Jews no contrast between Jews and Hellenists, since Hellenists are included in the general term Jews.

the contrast with the statement in ver. 19,

to the



ting iefore.

Purpose (7r/3o^e(76t). Ovigva.&\\j, placing in public ; setHence of the shew-hread, the loaves set forth

before the Lord (see on





set iefore


as an object of attainment


strictly vpright.




More than


where it is distinguished from hUaio'i, just or " His benevolence effectually prevented him censurrighteous. ing anything that might be new or strange in these preachers " to the Gentiles, and caused him to rejoice in their success




To seek


Strictly, like

our " hunt

up "






[Ch. XI.

called Christians

{xpvf^"-T((7ai, Xpi<7Tiavov<;).


former of these two words, rendered were called, meant, origithence, in the nally, to transact business, to have dealings with;

which to, to answer, from use to denote the res;ponses of an oracle ; a divine adSee Acts x. 22 and compare Matt. ii. 12 vice or warning. Heb. xi. 7. Later, it acquires the meaning to hear a name ; to le called, with the implication of a name used in the ordinary
course of business, to give audience



transactions and intercourse of men ; the name under which one passes.* This process of transition appears in the practice of naming men according to their occupations, as, in English,


John the Smith," " Philip the Armorer


" a practice



the origin of


familiar family names, such as Butler, Car-

penter, Smith, Cooper.
the coppersmith (2
X. 3)



Compare in New Testament Alexander Tim. iv. 14) Matthew the publican (Matt. physician (Col. iv. 14) Erastus the chamber;




xvi. 23);


the harlot (Heb. xi. 31).

In the


line is the use of the

The meaning
vii. 3.

word calling, to denote the word in this passage is

one's busiillustrated

by Kom.





They did not assume




It occurs in only three passages in the
; ;


here ch. xxvi. 28 and 1 Pet. iv. 16 and only in the last-named passage is used by a Christian of a Christian. The name was evidently not given by the Jews of Antioch, to whom Christ was the interpretation of Messiah, and who would not have bestowed that name on those whom they despised as

The Jews designated the

Christians as Nazarenes

5), a term of contempt, because it was a proverb that nothing good could come out of Nazareth (John i. 47). The name was probably not assumed by the disciples them-

(Acts xxiv.



for they were in the habit of styling each other be-

lievers, disciples, saints, brethren, those






was bestowed by the Gentiles.

Some suppose



p. 341).

* The Rev. Samuel Cox's application of the word to Christians, as making the daily business of their lives, is forced (Biblical Expositions,

Ch. Xn.]



applied as a term of ridicule, and cite the wittj' and sarcastic character of the people of Antioch, and their notoriety for in-

venting names of derision

; but this is doubtful. The name given simply as a distinctive title, naturally chosen from the recognized and avowed devotion of the disciples to Christ as their leader. The Antiochenes mistook the nature of the name, not understanding its use among the disciples as an official title the Anointed but using it as Ajaersonal name, which they converted into a,^aHy name.

may have been



See on Luke




The world.

See on Luke



Lit., 29. According to his ability (ko^co? rfviropelro rt?). according as any one of them was prospered. The verb is from eviropo's, easy to pass or tramel through; and the idea of prosperity is therefore conveyed under the figure of an easy and favorable journey. The same idea appears in our farewell; fare meaning originally to tra/vel. Hence, to bid one farewell

wish him Si prosperous journey. Compare God-speed. the idea here might be rendered, as each one fa/red well.



To send

relief (ew SiuKoviav


Lit, to send for



That time
See on

(eKecvov rbv Kaipbv).


correctly, that jimci-



The date


a.d. 44.

Herod the king. Called also Agrippa, and commonly known as Herod Agrippa I., the grandson of Herod the Great.
Stretched forth his hands (eVeySaXev ra? %6t/)a?). JAt.,laid on his hands. The A. V. is wrong, and so is the Eev. Eender, laid hands on certain of the church to afflict them.








used in the older and stronger sense See Exod. xxii. 21 ; ISTum. xxv. 17 of torment or oppress. Matt. XV. 22. Its modern usage relates rather to petty annoy-





Kev., better, a^


Killed— with the sword.

While the martyrdom of



described at length, that of James, the the apostles, is related in two words.


He proceeded

to take




A Hebrew form of expression. seise. Lit., he added to take. Compare Luke xix. 11, he added and spake; Luke xx. 12, again he sent a third ; lit., he added to send.



so that there

A quaternion was a body of four solwere sixteen guards, four for each of the
The whole seven days
of the feast.

four night-watches.



to the elevated place

Bring him forth (avajayeip airbv). J^it., lead him up ; i.e., where the tribunal stood, to pronounce
See John
xix. 13.

sentence of death before the people.

Without ceasing



See on fervently,

1 Pet.

Acts xxvi. 7
iv. 8.



Wrong. The word means 22 and compa.re instantly, Luke xxii. 44 fervent, 1 Pet.



idea of continuance


however, expressed here by



verb with the participle.


literally, jwayer


a/rising earnest.


Would have brought.

Eev., correctly,

was ahout





See on reserved, 1 Pet.



The imper-

were keeping.


Came upon


Better, as Rev., stood hy.

See on

ch. iv.

and compare Luke



Cn. XII.]





the prison, but the

where Peter



So, rightly, Eev.

V. 40.



garment, or mantle.


on Matt.



Better, watch: the soldiers on guard.

Explanations of \\\e first and second watch differ, some assuming that the first was the single soldier on guard at the door of Peter's cell, and the second, another soldier at the gate leading into the street. Others, that two soldiers were at each of these posts, the two in Peter's cell not being included in the four who made up the watch.

he had considered {a-vvt.Z(ov). The verb strictly same time. Hence, to see in one view, to take in at a glance. Peter's mental condition is described by two expressions First, he came to himself (ver. 12),



to see together, or at the


or, lit.,

when he had iecome present

in himself/ denoting his

awaking from the dazed condition produced by his being suddenly roused from sleep and confronted with a supernatural appearance (see ver. 9). Secondly, when he had hecome aware
(a-vviBcov) ; denoting his talcing in the situation, according to the popular phrase. I do not think that any of the commentators



emphasized the force of avv,

together, as indi-

cating his comprehenswe perception of



the elements of the refer the word to his recognition of his deliver-

ance from prison, which, however, has already been noted in ver. 11. While it may include this, it refers also to all the cir-

cumstances of the case present at that moment. He had been he was there in the street alone he must go somewhere there was the house of Mary, where he was sure to find friends. Having taken in all this, perceived it all, he went to the house
; ;

of Mary.* by Xenophon (Anabasis, i., 5, 9). the numerous evidences of power furnished by a great empire) might see {cruviSeiy, in a compreheusive

This force of the verb



"For one who

directed his attention to

it (i.e.,

glance) that the king was powerful."

So Plato (Laws, 904), speaking of God,








The small outside door, forining the 13. Door of the gate. entrance from the street, and opening into the wXiav, or doarway, the passage from the street into the court. Others explain

as the wicket, a small door in the larger one,


is less


A damsel {iraiSiericrj). Or maid. The word was used of a young female slave, as well as of a young girl or maiden generally. The narrative implies that she was more than a mere menial, if a servant at all. Her prompt recognition of Peter's

iudicate that she

and her joyful haste, as well as the record of her name, was one of the disciples gathered for prayer.

R h d a. Hose. The Jews frequently gave their female children the names of plants and flowers as Susannah (lily) Esther (myrtle) Tama?' (palm-tree). " God, who leaves in





mighty conquerors, treasures up that of a



for his church in

ages " (Quesnel).


She knew.




Constantly affirmed

Better, confidently




used in

older sense of consistent.


verb contains two ideas strong assertion (to-;^;!;?), and holding to the assertion through all contradiction (Sta) ; hence, she strongly


consistently asserted.

Angel. Guardian angel, according to the popular belief among the Jews that every individual has his guardian angel, who may, on occasion, assume a visible appearance resembling
that of the person

whose destiny


committed to him.
having shaken downward



with his hand, in order to bespeak silence and attention. a familiar gesture of Paul. See ch. xxi. 40 xxvi. 1.





he saw that our actions had

life," etc.,

going on to enumerate

various details,


seeingall thisiravTa niyra a-umSiii/)."




Ch. XU.]




iv. 9.

See on Luke




and com-

pare ch.

Put to death


Lit., led



to execution.


technical phrase like the

Latin ducere.

Compare Matt,

xxvii. 31.



Originally, to rub away, or consume

hence, of time, to spend.


Onginallj, to Jlght {S-vfio/j,ax(ov). but as there is no record of any war of Herod with the Tyrians and Sidonians, the word is to be taken in the sense Only here in New Testament. of the A. Y.

Highly displeased

Chamberlain (tw

eVt TouKotTwvos).


the one over the

Appointed. Only here in New Testament. 21. Set (ra/cT^). Wliat the festival was, is uncertain. According to some, it was in honor of the emperor's safe return from Britain. Others
it was to celebrate the birthday of Claudius others that was the festival of the Quinquennalia, observed in honor of Augustus, and dating from the taking of Alexandria, when the month SextiUs received the name of the Emperor August.





More literally, ha/vmg arrayed him-

Royal apparel.

Josephus says he was clothed in a robe en-


of silver.


See on ch.

vii. 5.


elevated seat or throne-like

in the theatre, set apart for the king,

from which he might

look at the games or address the assembly.

Made an



The word

Only here in New Testaused especially of a popular harangue








"At Jerusalem Agrippa enacted the the commons). with solemn gait and tragic countenance, amidst general Jew, acclamation but at Caesarea he allowed the more genial part of a Greek to be imposed on him. It was at a festival in this Hellenic capital, after an harangue he had addressed to the populace, that they shouted, " It is the voice of a god and not of a man " (Merivale, " History of the Komans under the Empire ").


The people


The assembled




As most
a god.

of the assembly were heathen, the


does not refer to

the Supreme Being, but


be taken in the

pagan sense


angel of the Lord smote him.

An interesting par-

furnished by the story of Alp Arslan, a Turkish prince " The Turkish prince bequeathed a of the eleventh century. In my youth,' said dying admonition to the pride of kings.
allel is

was advised by a sage to humble myself before God to distrust my own strength and never to despise the most contemptible foe. I have neglected these lessons, and my Yesterday, as from an neglect has been deservedly punished. eminence, I beheld the numbers, the discipline, and the spirit of my armies the earth seemed to tremble imder my feet, and

Alp Arslan,





I said in


heart, surely tliou art the

greatest and most invincible of warriors.

king of the world, the These armies are no

longer mine

and, in the confidence of



by the hand of an

my personal strength, I " (Gibbon, " Decline and


Eaten of



Only here




Of Pheretima, queen

of Gyrene, distinguished for

her cruelties, Herodotus says: "ISTor did Pheretima herself end her days happily. For on her return to Egypt from Libya,
directly after taking vengeance

on the people of Barca, she was overtaken by a most horrid death. Her body swarmed with worms, which ate her flesh while she was still alive " (iv., 205). The term, as applied to disease in the human body, does not

Ch. Xin.]



occur in any of the medical writers extant.

Theophrastus, however, vises it of a disease in plants. The word a-KoyXr]^ is nsed by medical writers of intestinal worms. Compare the account of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, the great persecutor of the Jews.
" So that the



up out of the

body of

wicked man, and whiles he lived in sorrow and pain, his flesh fell away, and the filthiness of his smell was noisome to all his army " (2 Mace. ix. 9). Sylla, the Roman

dictator, is also said to

have suffered from a similar
ch. v. 5.


Gave up the ghost. See on




See on Luke


Lucius of Cyrene.

Attempts have been made

to identify

him with Luke

the evangelist

but the



breviation of Lueanus, and not of Lucius.

It is

is an abworth noting,

however, that, according to Herodotus (iii., 131), the physicians of Cyrene had the reputation of being the second best in Greece, those of Crotona being the best and that Galen the physician says that Lucius was before him a distinguished physician in Tarsus of Cilicia. From this it has been conjectured that Luke was born and instructed in medicine in Cyrene, and left that place for Tarsus, where he made Paul's acquaintance, and was, perhaps, converted by him (Dr. Howard Crosby, " The New Testament, Old and New Version "). But, apart from the form of the name (see above), the mention of the evangelist's name here is not in accord with his usual practice, since he nowhere mentions his own name, either in the Gospel or in the Acts and if the present passage were an exception, we should have expected to find his name last in the list of the worthies of Antioch. Of the five here named, four are known to be Jews and therefore, probably, Lucius was also a Jew from Cyrene, where Jews are known to have abounded. Luke



the evangelist, on the contrary, was a Gentile.









from Rom. xvi. 21, where Lucius is enuPaul among his hinsmen. If a-vyyevek, kinsmen, merated by means here, as is claimed by some, countrymen, it would prove Lucius to be a Jew but the word is commonly used of relatives in the New Testament. In Rom. ix. 3, Paul applies the term to his fellow-countrymen, " my brethren, my kinsmen according
tain can be inferred

to the iiesh,

who are


Which had been brought up with
der foster-hrother, as Rev.


others, comrade.

Some venThe word has both


Ministered {\£iTovpyovvr(ov).





See on the kindred noun This noun has passed through the
civil service, especially in the tech-

following meanings
nical language of


2. A function or office of any kind, as of the bodily organs. 3. Sacerdotal ministration, both among the Jews and the heathen (see Heb. viii. 6 ix.

Athenian law.





eucliaristic services.

shij} (Lightfoot, "


Set forms of divine worPhilippians," ii., 17). Here, of the per5.

formance of Christian worship.

Our word






Separate. The Greek adds S77, now, which is not rendered by A. V. or Rev. It gives precision and emphasis to the command, implying that it is for a special purpose, and to be obeyed at the time. Compare Luke ii. 15 Acts xv. 36 1 Cor. vi. 20.
; ;




Luke's use of words for sailing, see Introduc-


plural implies that the Jews were Augustus, according to Josephus, made Hei'od the Great a present of half the revenue of the coppermines of Cyprus, so that numerous Jewish families would be




in Salamis.

settled in the island. In the reign of Trajan, upon the breaking out of a Jewish insurrection, the whole island fell into the hands of the Jews, and became a rallying-poirit for the revolt.

Ch. xni.]



two hundred and forty thousand of the native population were sacrificed to the fury of the insurgents. "When the rebellion was extinguished, the Jews were forbidden thenceforth, on pain of death, to set foot on the island.
It is said that



Better, as ^ev., attendomt.

See on

V. 25.

us in the next word, but not in this term.

That the man was an impostor is told It is the word used of the wise men who came to the Saviour's cradle. See Matt. ii. 1, Y, 16. Elymas was a magian / of what kind is shown by

false prophet.

See on Matt.




Son of Jesus or Joshua.

The deputy

Better, Key., proconsul.


Introduction to Luke, on Luke's accuracy in designating public

Sergius Paulus.

Di Cesnola

relates the discovery at Soli,

which, next to Salamis, was the most important city in the island, of a slab with a Greek inscription containing the name of
Paulus, proconsul.


xi. 25.

Better, as Rev., a

mem of understanding.

See on Matt.

Elymas. alent to Magus.


Arabic word, meaning the wise, and equivSee on ver. 6.

Withstood. "The position of soothsayer to a Roman prothough it could only last a year, was too distinguished and too lucrative to abandon without a struggle " (Farrar, " Life and Work of Paul ").
consul, even


— Paul.



occurrence of the

the Acts.

Hereafter he

constantly so called, except

name of Paul in when









a reference to the earlier period of his


explanations are given of the change of name.

The most

seems to be that it was customary for Hellenistic Jews to have two names, the one Hebrew and the other Greek or

Thus John was

also called

Marcus ; Symeon, Niger

As Paul now comes prominently forward as the apostle to the Gentiles, Luke now retains his Gentile name, as he did his Jewish name during his ministry among the Jews.
Barsabas, Jvstus.

connection of the name Paul with that of the deputy seems to me purely accidental. It was most unlike Paul to assume the name of another man, converted by his instrumentality, out of respect to him or as a memorial of his conversion. Farrar justly observes that there would have been in this " an element of vulgarity impossible to St. Paul."


Set his eyes on him.

See on Luke

iv. 20.



Originally, ease ovfadlity

Only here in New Testament. doing ; hence readiness in turning

the hand to anything, bad or good
pulousness, wickedness.

and so



A kindred word (pa8i,ovpyr)fj,a, lewdness,
possibly with an allusion to Ely-

Rev., villany) occurs at ch. xviii. 14.

Right ways.



mas' crooked ways.
11. Mist (a^Xii?). Only here in ISTew Testament. The word used by medical writers as a name for a disease of the eyes. The mention of the successive stages, first dimness, then total darkness, are characteristic of the physician. " The first mirais

cle which Paul performed was the infliction of a judgment and that judgment the same which befell himself when arrested on his way to Damascus " (Gloag).




See on Matt.






See on Luke


Ch. XIII.]



Paul and his company {ol irepl rov IlavXov). Lit., those around Pcml. In later writers, used to denote the principal person alone, as John xi. 19, came to Mary and Martha; where the Greek literally reads, cams tp the women aroimd

Mary and


Paul, and not Barnabas,


appears as

the principal person.


See on ch. See on ch.
See on ch.

ix. 31.


of Israel.

xii. IT.






Eestricted in the Acts to the people of

Suffered he their manners {erpoiro^opTia-ev). From fashion or manner, and (popem, to bear or suffer. The preferable reading, however, is €T/3o</)o^opi;o-ei' from rpo^o?, a nurse; and the figure is explained by, and probably was drawn from, Deut. i. 31. The American revisers properly insist on

the rendering, as a nursing-father


he them.





The A. V.



literal rendering.


Eev., gave them their land for am,



so far

the meaning inheritance


concerned (see on 1 Pet. i. 4), but does not give the sense of distribution which is contained in the word.

Before his coming

{irpb irpoa-mTrov


euroBov airov).

before the face of his entrance.

A Hebrew form of expresto



Think ye



think secretly:


to suspect, conjecture.


f u If

i 1 1

best texts read to us.

H ath


Comjpletely fulfilled











[Ch. XIII.

The sure mercies

(ra oa-ta ra Tnard).

Lit., the


things, the sure.

Rev., the holy

and sure









v. 14.


Lit., wa,a

added unto. Com-

pare ch.



41. Perish (acpavicrSrjTe).





Only here and

ch. xv. 3.

See on



The word

a very strong expression for

the fullest and clearest declaration

declare throughout.




and hence

The word commonly means intermeexplained by some as referring to the in-

But the meaning is iixed by ver. 44; and though the word does not occur in the New Testament elsewhere in the sense of next, it has that meaning sometimes in
termediate week.
later Greek.


Religious {cre^o/xevcov). 50 and ch. xvi. 14.





Proselytes {Trpoa-rfKvrmv). Originally, one who arrives at a a stranger / thence of one who comes over to another





'Rev., jealousy.

See on Jas.






strong enough.

Better, as Rev.,

thrust, denoting violent rejection.




a crisis.



See on


xv. 43.


of rank, or, as Rev., of honorable estate.


Ch. XIV.]



merely a



a good rendering, because it implies whereas the word is a general one for




See on Matt.
x. 11.

x. 14.


See on Luke


vii. 6.



See on Luke
xii. 19.


See on ch.

the Lord.



the Lord: in reliance onhiva.




strong, as is also the Rev., onse^.

In case an actual assault had been made, it would have been absurd for Luke to tell us that " they were ware of it." It is ratlier the purpose and intention of assault beginning to assume the character of a movement. See on Jas. iii. 4.

To stone. Paul says he was stoned once (2 Oor. This took place at Lystra (see ver. 19).



Were ware


Kev., hecame awa/re.

See on

considered, ch.

xii. 12.

They preached the gospel




verb with the participle, denoting continuance. prolonged their preaching for some time.

The They

vi. 4, etc.).


The almost


meaning of

the word in the

New Testament is impossible (see Matt.



sense of

or impotent occurs only

here and Horn. xv.




force of the

imperfect should be

given here.

He was

hearing while Paul preached.

Thus. the earlier pagan having become like to men. xvii. Better. xii. Compare Leaped {r]\aro). They did not understand what was being about their divine character. Pallas meets Of As " in the shape young shepherd delicately formed. . As the herald of the gods. made straight. . are the sons of kings. Upright (o/a^o?). The fact that the people now spoke in their native tongue explains why Paul and Barnabas did not interfere until they saw the preparations for sacrifice. remnant of In A belief that the gods visited the earth in human hirrf form. A javelin. XIT. 13. WOKD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. conversing with them in Greek. when Ulysses lands upon his native shore. Lit. A mantle lay a Upon her Shone in their sandals shoulder in rich folds her feet in her hands she bore . Odyssey. indicating a single act. 331-225. Homer. for example. 13. 485 sq. The apostles had been 11. is full of such incidents.." : 520 10. Luke xiii. To mark the good and evil deeds of men. names Barnabas Jupiter. rist tense. as Eev. and see note there. [Ch. the likeness of men (o/iotw^evre? dv^pioTroi'. Again." !/. And walk our towns in many different shapes.. In the speech of Lycaonia. walked. The Greek of these deities were Zeus and Hermes. . Mercury is the god of skill in the use of speech and 12. xiii. denotes continuous action. one rebukes a suitor for maltreating Ulysses ' ' Madman ! Came down from heaven and were what if he a god The gods ! Put on the form of strangers from afar. Note the aowhile the imperfect. and Paul Mercury. Only here and Heb. It said by the people was natural that the surprise of the Lystrans should express itself in their own language rather than in a foreign tongue.). leaped up.


Ch. XIV.]



of eloquence in general, for the heralds are the public speakers in the assemblies and on other occasions. Hence he is sent

on messages where persuasion or argument are required, as to Calypso to secure the release of Ulysses from Ogygia (" Odyssey," i., 84) and to Priam to warn him of danger and to escort


to the



Grecian fleet (" Iliad," xxiv., 390). as the " eloquent " grandson of Atlas,

Horace ad-



formed by oratory the savage manners of a primitive race (" Odes," i., 10). Hence the tongues of sacrificial animals were offered to him. As the god of ready and artful speech, his
office naturally

extended to business negotiations.


was the

god of prudence and skill in all the relations of social intercourse, and the patron of business and gain. A merchant-guild And as, from at Rome was established under his protection. its nature, commerce is prone to degenerate into fraud, so he appears as the god of thievery, exhibiting cunning, fraud, and



represents, so to speak, the utilitarian side of


human mind.


In the limitation of his faculties and

powers, in the low standard of his moral habits, in the abundant activity of his appetites, in his indifference, his ease, his good-

what Christian theology conformity to the world, he is, as strictly as the nature of the case admits, a product of the invention of man. He is the god of intercourse on earth " (Gladstone, " Homer and the Homeric Age ").
nature, in the full-blown exhibition of




chief speaker

(6 '^yovfievof

rov Xoyov).

Lit., the lead-

Barnabas was called Jupiter, possibly because er in discourse. appearance was more imposing than Paul's (see 2 his personal Cor. X. 1, 10), and also because Jupiter and Mercury were commonly represented as companions in their visits to earth.f

Of Jupiter



Properly, ^Ae Jupiter, the tute-

Iliad, v.,

* See the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, and Horace, Odes, B. i., Odex. 390; xxiv., 24. As, for instance, in the beautiful story of Baucis and Philemon, as related

by Orid (Metamorphoses,






[Ch. XIV.

laiy deity of Lystra.

unnecessary to supply temjpk, as Eev. The god himself was regarded as present in his temple.

The gates



gates are intended




say, the city gates ; others, the temple gates ;


others, the doors


of the house in which Paul and Earnabas were See on ch. xii. 13.
in (elaeirrihta-av).



A feeble translation,


if this



The verb means

to leap or sprwig.


best texts read


spi'ang forth, probably

gate of their house, or from the city gate,

from the the sacrifice was

prepared in front of


Crying out


Inarticulate shouts to attract atten-



Of like passions (d/iotoTraSet?). Only here and Jas. on which see note. Better, of like nature.




1 Thess.



where the same




M.ore correctly, generations, as ^ev.

Jupiter was lord of the air. He dispensed the 17. Rains. thunder and lightning, the rain and the hail, the rivers and tem" All signs and portents whatever, that appear in the air, pests. belong primarily to him, as does the genial sign of the rainbow" (Gladstone, " Homer and the Homeric Age"). The mention of rain is appropriate, as there was a scarcity of water
in Lycaonia.

Food. Mercury, as the god of merchandise, was also the dispenser of food. " No one can read the speech without once more perceiving
its subtle

and inimitable coincidence with his (Paul's) thoughts


Ch. XIV.]




expressions. The rhythmic conclusion is not unaccordant with the style of his most elevated moods and besides the ap;

propriate appeal to God's natural gifts in a town not in itself

unhappily situated, but surrounded by a waterless and treeless plain, we may naturally suppose that the filling our hearts with food and gladness was suggested by the garlands and festive pomp which accompanied the bulls on which the people would afterward have made their common banquet " (FarFor the coincidences between rar, " Life and Work of Paul "). this discourse and other utterances of Paul, compare ver. 15, and 1 Thess. i. 9 ver. 16, and Eom. iii. 25 Acts xvii. 30
' '



ver. 17,

and Pom.


19, 20.



See on ver.



To Derbe.

A journey of only


few hours.



More correctly, made

as Pev.

See on Matt. See on Luke



vii. 6.


See on stablisA,! Pet.

v. 10.


See on



Rev., more correctly, appointed.
ch. x. 41.

Only here and 2 Cor. viii. The meaning ordain is

Elders {irpea^vTipovi).
the church.

The word

or bishops (see are called elders, in speaking of Jewish communities, are called bishops, in speaking of Gentile communities. Hence the latter

For the general superintendence of synonymous with iirla-KOTroi,, overon visitation, 1 Pet. ii. 12). Those who

term prevails in Paul's

and commit,


See on

set before,




1 Pet. iv. 19.







With them


In connection with them;

assisting them.

And how

(«ot oti).

Better, that.

and particularizing force

The and has an incres" and in j>a/rticula/r, above all."

1. Taught. Rather the imperfect, were teaching. They had not merely broached the error, but were inculcating it.



Better, custom, as Kev.
in the Acts,

2. Question (^i7Tj;yttaTo?). Found only ways of a question in dispute.