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Foreword 1. Sets 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Introduction Sets and their Representations The Empty Set Finite and Infinite Sets Equal Sets Subsets Power Set Universal Set Venn Diagrams Operations on Sets Complement of a Set Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets iii 1 1 1 5 6 7 9 12 12 13 14 18 21 30 30 30 34 36 49 49 49 55 63 74 86 86 87 88

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Relations and Functions 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cartesian Product of Sets 2.3 Relations 2.4 Functions Trigonometric Functions 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Angles 3.3 Trigonometric Functions 3.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles 3.5 Trigonometric Equations Principle of Mathematical Induction 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Motivation 4.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction

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Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Complex Numbers 5.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers 5.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number 5.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation 5.6 Quadratic Equations Linear Inequalities 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Inequalities 6.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation 6.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 6.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables Permutations and Combinations 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting 7.3 Permutations 7.4 Combinations Binomial Theorem 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices 8.3 General and Middle Terms Sequences and Series 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Sequences 9.3 Series 9.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) 9.5 Geometric Progression (G.P.) 9.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M. 9.7 Sum to n terms of Special Series

97 97 97 98 102 104 108 116 116 116 118 123 127 134 134 134 138 148 160 160 160 167 177 177 177 179 181 186 191 194 203 203 204 212 220 225

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10. Straight Lines 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Slope of a Line 10.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line 10.4 General Equation of a Line 10.5 Distance of a Point From a Line

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11. Conic Sections 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Sections of a Cone 11.3 Circle 11.4 Parabola 11.5 Ellipse 11.6 Hyperbola 12. Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space 12.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space 12.4 Distance between Two Points 12.5 Section Formula 13. Limits and Derivatives 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives 13.3 Limits 13.4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions 13.5 Derivatives 14. Mathematical Reasoning 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Statements 14.3 New Statements from Old 14.4 Special Words/Phrases 14.5 Implications 14.6 Validating Statements 15. Statistics 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Measures of Dispersion 15.3 Range 15.4 Mean Deviation 15.5 Variance and Standard Deviation 15.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions

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236 236 236 239 242 247 255 268 268 269 269 271 273 281 281 281 284 298 303 321 321 321 324 329 335 339 347 347 349 349 349 361 372

16. Probability 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Random Experiments 16.3 Event 16.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability Appendix 1: Infinite Series A.1.1 Introduction A.1.2 Binomial Theorem for any Index A.1.3 Infinite Geometric Series A.1.4 Exponential Series A.1.5 Logarithmic Series Appendix 2: Mathematical Modelling A.2.1 Introduction A.2.2 Preliminaries A.2.3 What is Mathematical Modelling Answers

383 383 384 387 394 412 412 412 414 416 419 421 421 421 425 433

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Chapter

1

SETS

In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there must surely be something to be said for a study which did not begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but is the oldest and the youngest. — G.H. HARDY

1.1 Introduction

The concept of set serves as a fundamental part of the present day mathematics. Today this concept is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. Sets are used to define the concepts of relations and functions. The study of geometry, sequences, probability, etc. requires the knowledge of sets. The theory of sets was developed by German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He first encountered sets while working on “problems on trigonometric series”. In this Chapter, we discuss some basic definitions and operations involving sets.

Georg Cantor (1845-1918)

**1.2 Sets and their Representations
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In everyday life, we often speak of collections of objects of a particular kind, such as, a pack of cards, a crowd of people, a cricket team, etc. In mathematics also, we come across collections, for example, of natural numbers, points, prime numbers, etc. More specially, we examine the following collections: (i) Odd natural numbers less than 10, i.e., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 (ii) The rivers of India (iii) The vowels in the English alphabet, namely, a, e, i, o, u (iv) Various kinds of triangles (v) Prime factors of 210, namely, 2,3,5 and 7 (vi) The solution of the equation: x2 – 5x + 6 = 0, viz, 2 and 3. We note that each of the above example is a well-defined collection of objects in

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MATHEMATICS

the sense that we can definitely decide whether a given particular object belongs to a given collection or not. For example, we can say that the river Nile does not belong to the collection of rivers of India. On the other hand, the river Ganga does belong to this colleciton. We give below a few more examples of sets used particularly in mathematics, viz. N Z Q R Z+ Q+ : : : : : : the set of all natural numbers the set of all integers the set of all rational numbers the set of real numbers the set of positive integers the set of positive rational numbers, and

R + : the set of positive real numbers. The symbols for the special sets given above will be referred to throughout this text. Again the collection of five most renowned mathematicians of the world is not well-defined, because the criterion for determining a mathematician as most renowned may vary from person to person. Thus, it is not a well-defined collection. We shall say that a set is a well-defined collection of objects. The following points may be noted : (i) Objects, elements and members of a set are synonymous terms. (ii) Sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, X, Y, Z, etc. (iii) The elements of a set are represented by small letters a, b, c, x, y, z, etc. If a is an element of a set A, we say that “ a belongs to A” the Greek symbol ∈ (epsilon) is used to denote the phrase ‘belongs to’. Thus, we write a ∈ A. If ‘b’ is not an element of a set A, we write b ∉ A and read “b does not belong to A”. Thus, in the set V of vowels in the English alphabet, a ∈ V but b ∉ V. In the set P of prime factors of 30, 3 ∈ P but 15 ∉ P. There are two methods of representing a set : (i) Roster or tabular form (ii) Set-builder form. (i) In roster form, all the elements of a set are listed, the elements are being separated by commas and are enclosed within braces { }. For example, the set of all even positive integers less than 7 is described in roster form as {2, 4, 6}. Some more examples of representing a set in roster form are given below : (a) The set of all natural numbers which divide 42 is {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42}.

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Note In roster form, the order in which the elements are listed is immaterial. Thus, the above set can also be represented as {1, 3, 7, 21, 2, 6, 14, 42}. (b) (c) The set of all vowels in the English alphabet is {a, e, i, o, u}. The set of odd natural numbers is represented by {1, 3, 5, . . .}. The dots tell us that the list of odd numbers continue indefinitely.

Note It may be noted that while writing the set in roster form an element is not generally repeated, i.e., all the elements are taken as distinct. For example, the set of letters forming the word ‘SCHOOL’ is { S, C, H, O, L} or {H, O, L, C, S}. Here, the order of listing elements has no relevance. In set-builder form, all the elements of a set possess a single common property which is not possessed by any element outside the set. For example, in the set {a, e, i, o, u}, all the elements possess a common property, namely, each of them is a vowel in the English alphabet, and no other letter possess this property. Denoting this set by V, we write V = {x : x is a vowel in English alphabet} It may be observed that we describe the element of the set by using a symbol x (any other symbol like the letters y, z, etc. could be used) which is followed by a colon “ : ”. After the sign of colon, we write the characteristic property possessed by the elements of the set and then enclose the whole description within braces. The above description of the set V is read as “the set of all x such that x is a vowel of the English alphabet”. In this description the braces stand for “the set of all”, the colon stands for “such that”. For example, the set A = {x : x is a natural number and 3 < x < 10} is read as “the set of all x such that x is a natural number and x lies between 3 and 10. Hence, the numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are the elements of the set A. If we denote the sets described in (a), (b) and (c) above in roster form by A, B, C, respectively, then A, B, C can also be represented in set-builder form as follows: A= {x : x is a natural number which divides 42} B= {y : y is a vowel in the English alphabet} C= {z : z is an odd natural number} Example 1 Write the solution set of the equation x2 + x – 2 = 0 in roster form. Solution The given equation can be written as (x – 1) (x + 2) = 0, i. e., x = 1, – 2 Therefore, the solution set of the given equation can be written in roster form as {1, – 2}. Example 2 Write the set {x : x is a positive integer and x2 < 40} in the roster form. (ii)

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Solution The required numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. So, the given set in the roster form is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Example 3 Write the set A = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . . }in set-builder form. Solution We may write the set A as A = {x : x is the square of a natural number} Alternatively, we can write A = {x : x = n2, where n ∈ N}

**1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 4 Write the set { , , , , , } in the set-builder form. 2 3 4 5 6 7
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Solution We see that each member in the given set has the numerator one less than the demominator. Also, the numerator begin from 1 and do not exceed 6. Hence, in the set-builder form the given set is

**n ⎧ ⎫ , where n is a natural number and 1 ≤ n ≤ 6 ⎬ ⎨x : x = n +1 ⎩ ⎭
**

Example 5 Match each of the set on the left described in the roster form with the same set on the right described in the set-builder form : (i) {P, R, I, N, C, A, L} (a) { x : x is a positive integer and is a divisor of 18} (ii) { 0 } (b) { x : x is an integer and x2 – 9 = 0} (iii) {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18} (c) {x : x is an integer and x + 1= 1} (iv) {3, –3} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word PRINCIPAL} Solution Since in (d), there are 9 letters in the word PRINCIPAL and two letters P and I are repeated, so (i) matches (d). Similarly, (ii) matches (c) as x + 1 = 1 implies x = 0. Also, 1, 2 ,3, 6, 9, 18 are all divisors of 18 and so (iii) matches (a). Finally, x2 – 9 = 0 implies x = 3, –3 and so (iv) matches (b).

EXERCISE 1.1

1. Which of the following are sets ? Justify your asnwer. (i) The collection of all the months of a year beginning with the letter J. (ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India. (iii) A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world. (iv) The collection of all boys in your class. (v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100. (vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand. (vii) The collection of all even integers.

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(viii) The collection of questions in this Chapter. (ix) A collection of most dangerous animals of the world. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Insert the appropriate symbol ∈ or ∉ in the blank spaces: (ii) 8 . . . A (iii) 0. . .A (i) 5. . .A (iv) 4. . . A (v) 2. . .A (vi) 10. . .A Write the following sets in roster form: (i) A = {x : x is an integer and –3 < x < 7} (ii) B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iii) C = {x : x is a two-digit natural number such that the sum of its digits is 8} (iv) D = {x : x is a prime number which is divisor of 60} (v) E = The set of all letters in the word TRIGONOMETRY (vi) F = The set of all letters in the word BETTER Write the following sets in the set-builder form : (ii) {2,4,8,16,32} (iii) {5, 25, 125, 625} (i) (3, 6, 9, 12} (iv) {2, 4, 6, . . .} (v) {1,4,9, . . .,100} List all the elements of the following sets : (i) A = {x : x is an odd natural number} (ii) B = {x : x is an integer, –

1 9 <x< } 2 2

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(iii) C = {x : x is an integer, x2 ≤ 4} (iv) D = {x : x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”} (v) E = {x : x is a month of a year not having 31 days} (vi) F = {x : x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k }. Match each of the set on the left in the roster form with the same set on the right described in set-builder form: (i) {1, 2, 3, 6} (a) {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} (ii) {2, 3} (b) {x : x is an odd natural number less than 10} (iii) {M,A,T,H,E,I,C,S} (c) {x : x is natural number and divisor of 6} (iv) {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS}.

**1.3 The Empty Set
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Consider the set A = { x : x is a student of Class XI presently studying in a school } We can go to the school and count the number of students presently studying in Class XI in the school. Thus, the set A contains a finite number of elements. We now write another set B as follows:

x is odd }. Then W is finite. d. we do not know the number of elements in C. 1. (iii) C = {x : x is an even prime number greater than 2}. we write all the elements of the set within braces { }. So. 5}. (iv) D = { x : x2 = 4. (iii) Let G be the set of points on a line. B = {a. x is a natural number}. According to this definition. We give below a few examples of empty sets. the set B contains no element at all. When we represent a set in the roster form. (i) Let A = {x : 1 < x < 2. Consider some examples : (i) Let W be the set of the days of the week. Consider the set of natural numbers. Then A is the empty set. because 2 is the only even prime number. then S is non-empty finite set. We say that the set of natural numbers is an infinite set. g} and C = { men living presently in different parts of the world} We observe that A contains 5 elements and B contains 6 elements. Definition 1 A set which does not contain any element is called the empty set or the null set or the void set. 3. Then G is infinite. because there is no natural number between 1 and 2. We see that the number of elements of this set is not finite since there are infinite number of natural numbers. B and C given above are finite sets and n(A) = 5. e.Then C is the empty set. we mean the number of distinct elements of the set and we denote it by n (S). By number of elements of a set S. If n (S) is a natural number. b. because the equation x2 = 4 is not satisfied by any odd value of x.4 Finite and Infinite Sets Let A = {1. we represent . n(B) = 6 and n(C) = some finite number. 4. B is an empty set while A is not an empty set. (ii) Let S be the set of solutions of the equation x2 –16 = 0.6 MATHEMATICS B = { x : x is a student presently studying in both Classes X and XI } We observe that a student cannot study simultaneously in both Classes X and XI. Then B is the empty set because the equation x2 – 2 = 0 is not satisfied by any rational value of x. Thus. c. Then D is the empty set. (ii) B = {x : x2 – 2 = 0 and x is rational number}. The sets A. How many elements does C contain? As it is. but it is some natural number which may be quite a big number. 2. Then S is finite. the set is called infinite. The empty set is denoted by the symbol φ or { }. It is not possible to write all the elements of an infinite set within braces { } because the numbers of elements of such a set is not finite. Definition 2 A set which is empty or consists of a definite number of elements is called finite otherwise.

2. 3} and B = {2. Then A and P are equal. . . Note All infinite sets cannot be described in the roster form. 2 . 3. 4. {1. 1. . 3} are equal.3.} is the set of natural numbers. it is finite. Hence. (iv) The given set is the set of all prime numbers and since set of prime numbers is infinite. Clearly. For example. . Example 6 State which of the following sets are finite or infinite : (i) {x : x ∈ N and (x – 1) (x –2) = 0} (ii) {x : x ∈ N and x2 = 4} (iii) {x : x ∈ N and 2x –1 = 0} (iv) {x : x ∈ N and x is prime} (v) {x : x ∈ N and x is odd} Solution (i) Given set = {1. since each . 2. the set of real numbers cannot be described in this form. –2. Hence. . Definition 3 Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements and we write A = B. All these sets are infinite. 2}. Hence the given set is infinite (v) Since there are infinite number of odd numbers. We consider the following examples : (i) Let A = {1. 3.} is the set of integers. the given set is infinite. 2. the two sets have exactly the same elements. 7. 2}. then the sets A and B are said to be equal.} is the set of odd natural numbers. 2. . Otherwise. (ii) Let A be the set of prime numbers less than 6 and P the set of prime factors of 30. {.SETS 7 some infinite set in the roster form by writing a few elements which clearly indicate the structure of the set followed ( or preceded ) by three dots. Note A set does not change if one or more elements of the set are repeated. (ii) Given set = {2}. 3 and 5 are the only prime factors of 30 and also these are less than 6. . 4} and B = {3. it is finite.5 Equal Sets Given two sets A and B. . –1..–3.1. 0. . 3. 1. Then A = B. For example. because the elements of this set do not follow any particular pattern. the sets A = {1. the sets are said to be unequal and we write A ≠ B. {1. (iii) Given set = φ. if every element of A is also an element of B and if every element of B is also an element of A. 5. For example. hence. since 2. it is finite. Hence. 3 . 1. .

the set of letters in “LOYAL”. C = E. Since 0 ∈ A and 0 ∉ B. 2}. Therefore B ≠ C. B = {L.8 MATHEMATICS element of A is in B and vice-versa. Thus. 2}. EXERCISE 1. 3. 3. Which of the following are examples of the null set (i) Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2 (ii) Set of even prime numbers (iii) { x : x is a natural numbers. A ≠ D. it follows that. L}. . Then X and B are equal sets as repetition of elements in a set do not change a set. C. Y}. B ≠ D and B ≠ E. B = {1. hence C ≠ D. 3. . –1. A. 5} and E = {5}. A ≠ C. the only pair of equal sets is C and E. Y. Solution Since 0 ∈ A and 0 does not belong to any of the sets B. C = {x : x – 5 = 0 }.99. Since B = φ but none of the other sets are empty. . we find that.} (iii) {1. A and B are not equal sets. B = {x : x > 15 and x < 5}. 2. D = {x: x2 = 25}. D ≠ E. if any. x < 5 and x > 7 } (iv) { y : y is a point common to any two parallel lines} Which of the following sets are finite or infinite (i) The set of months of a year (ii) {1. Since E = {5}. O. Also C = {5} but –5 ∈ D. Thus.2 1. the set of letters in “ALLOY” and B. (ii) A = {n : n ∈ Z and n2 ≤ 4} and B = {x : x ∈ R and x2 – 3x + 2 = 0}. 1. give reasons: A = {0}. D = {–5. O. . A ≠ B. Example 8 Which of the following pairs of sets are equal? Justify your answer. (i) X. 100} (iv) The set of positive integers greater than 100 (v) The set of prime numbers less than 99 State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite: (i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis (ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet (iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5 2. L. X = {A. D and E. X = {A. Further. That is why we generally do not repeat any element in describing a set. 0. A ≠ E. L. Solution (i) We have. L. Y} = B (ii) A = {–2. E = {x : x is an integral positive root of the equation x2 – 2x –15 = 0}. . . 2. . O. Example 7 Find the pairs of equal sets.

In other words. 8. Using this symbol. Y = set of all students in your class. 5. 1. b. select equal sets : A = { 2. 4. 8.. 8. B = { 1. 4. B = {x : x is solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0} (ii) A = { x : x is a letter in the word FOLLOW} B = { y : y is a letter in the word WOLF} From the sets given below. we write A ⊄ B. 15. It follows from the above definition that every set A is a subset of itself. D = { 3. (i) A = {2. 6. 4}. 1} 1. 16. The fact that Y is subset of X is expressed in symbols as Y ⊂ X. 18} (iii) A = {2.0) In the following. 6. a } (i) A = { a. 4. We may note that for A to be a subset of B. all that is needed is that every element of A is in B. 3}. A and B are the same sets so that we have A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A ⇔ A = B. c. then a ∈ B. 2} E = {–1. where “⇔” is a symbol for two way implications. 8.6 Subsets Consider the sets : X = set of all students in your school. –1}. 3. F = { 0. If it so happens that every element of B is also in A. 4. A ⊂ A. A ⊂ B if whenever a ∈ A. Definition 4 A set A is said to be a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B. state whether A = B or not: B = { d. (iv) The set of animals living on the earth (v) The set of circles passing through the origin (0. we can write the definiton of subset as follows: A ⊂ B if a ∈ A ⇒ a ∈ B We read the above statement as “A is a subset of B if a is an element of A implies that a is also an element of B”. then we shall also have B ⊂ A. Since the empty set φ has no elements.SETS 9 4.e. 1}. In this case. We now consider some examples : . The symbol ⊂ stands for ‘is a subset of’ or ‘is contained in’. If A is not a subset of B. B = { 10. 14}. We note that every element of Y is also an element of X. . . 16 } B = { 8. we agree to say that φ is a subset of every set. we say that Y is a subset of X. 25. 12. b. c. . 10} B = { x : x is positive even integer and x ≤ 10} (iv) A = { x : x is a multiple of 10}. d } (ii) A = { 4. 12. 20. 30. 2. 12}. i. C = { 4. } Are the following pair of sets equal ? Give reasons. and is usually read as if and only if (briefly written as “iff”). It is often convenient to use the symbol “⇒” which means implies. a}. G = {1. H = { 0. It is possible that every element of B may or may not be in A.

A = {1. 3 }. we call it a singleton set. Here A ∈ B as A = {1} and B ⊂ C. 1. (iii) Let A = {1. (iv) Let A = { a. A = { 1. u} and B = { a. 4. B (iii) A .6. 1. 7. –2. Note that an element of a set can never be a subset of itself. 3}. . Thus. c. C (iv) B . . Insert the symbol ⊂ or ⊄ between each of the following pair of sets: (i) φ .1 Subsets of set of real numbers As noted in Section 1. q ∈ Z and q ≠ 0} q . u} and B = { a. C φ ⊂ B as φ is a subset of every set. 5. 5} and B = {x : x is an odd natural number less than 6}. i. –1. . 9}. give an example. there are many important subsets of R. Is B a subset of A? No. (Why?) Example 11 Let A. Example 9 Consider the sets φ. If not.{ a } is a singleton set. p. . also B is not a subset of A. o.} The set of rational numbers Q = { x : x = p . then A is called a proper subset of B and B is called superset of A. C = {1. . 2. But A ⊄ C as 1 ∈ A and 1 ∉ C. 3. B = {1.} The set of integers Z = {. and we write Q ⊂ R. . (Why?). 2. Let A and B be two sets.6. 0. o. b. Solution No. 3. Then A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A and hence A = B. d}. We give below the names of some of these subsets. 2} and C = {{1}. . –3. 3} is a proper subset of B = {1. 5. .. . B and C be three sets.10 MATHEMATICS (i) The set Q of rational numbers is a subset of the set R of real numbes. i. Then A is not a subset of B. d}. If A ⊂ B and A ≠ B . . . If a set A has only one element. is it true that A ⊂ C?. B = {{1}. e. e. 3. . Example 10 Let A = { a. B Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (ii) A . 3. . 3. 3 ∈ A also belongs to C B ⊂ C as each element of B is also an element of C. 2. 2. The set of natural numbers N = {1. c. 2. then B is a subset of A and we write B ⊂ A. 4}. If A ∈ B and B ⊂ C. Let A = {1}. (ii) If A is the set of all divisors of 56 and B the set of all prime divisors of 56. . . 9}. For example. 5. b. A ⊄ B as 3 ∈ A and 3 ∉ B A ⊂ C as 1. Is A a subset of B ? No. .

b ] = {x : a ≤ x ≤ b} We can also have intervals closed at one end and open at the other. Some of the obvious relations among these subsets are: N ⊂ Z ⊂ Q. written in set-builder form.6. 0 ) defines the set of negative real numbers. Members of Q include –5 (which can be expressed as – ) . Fig 1. Q ⊂ R. –5 < x ≤ 7}. The set [ 0. Members of T include 2 . are shown in the Fig 1.2 Intervals as subsets of R Let a. 1 7 11 5 . The interval which contains the end points also is called closed interval and is denoted by [ a. b ]. The set ( – ∞. Thus T = {x : x ∈ R and x ∉ Q} = R – Q. 5 and π . For example . These notations provide an alternative way of designating the subsets of set of real numbers. Thus [ a. On real number line. b) but a. b themselves do not belong to this interval. Then the set of real numbers { y : a < y < b} is called an open interval and is denoted by (a. b ) = {x : a ≤ x < b} is an open interval from a to b. b ] = { x : a < x ≤ b } is an open interval from a to b including b but excluding a. [ a.e. For example. ( a. can be written in the form of interval as (–5.e. 5) can be written in setbuilder form as {x : –3 ≤ x < 5}. i. T ⊂ R. b).SETS 11 which is read “ Q is the set of all numbers x such that x equals the quotient p q . 9]. then A ⊂ B.1 Here.. N ⊄ T. i.. if A = (–3. . ∞) defines the set of non-negative real numbers. 2 2 3 7 The set of irrational numbers. ∞ ) describes the set of real numbers in relation to a line extending from – ∞ to ∞. 1. including a but excluding b. 7] and the interval [–3. while set ( – ∞. denoted by T. where p and q are integers and q is not zero”. we note that an interval contains infinitely many points.1. various types of intervals described above as subsets of R. 3 (which can be expressed as ) and – .. the set {x : x ∈ R. b ∈ R and a < b. 5) and B = [–7. all real numbers that are not 5 1 rational. is composed of all other real numbers. All the points between a and b belong to the open interval (a.

Thus. we know that every set is a subset of itself. { 1 }. for the set of all integers. In P(A). It is denoted by P(A). {x : x is a triangle in the same plane} (vii) {x : x is an even natural number} . { 1. we are interested in the set of natural numbers and its subsets such as the set of all prime numbers. b). in human population studies. . 4 } . c } . d } (iii) {x : x is a student of Class XI of your school}. etc. {x : x is an integer} . { 2 } and { 1. if A is a set with n(A) = m.3 1. if A = { 1. then P( A ) = { φ. B. . and so forth. . the set { 1.{ 1 }. . .{x : x student of your school} (iv) {x : x is a circle in the plane} . The universal set is usually denoted by U. Thus. 2 } is a subset of {1.8 Universal Set Usually. The set of all these subsets is called the power set of { 1. { 2 }. . in a particular context. 2. Let us write down all the subsets of the set {1. Also. So. 2}. 3. [a. in all. This basic set is called the “Universal Set”. and all its subsets by the letters A. For example. 2 }. 2 }. then it can be shown that n [ P(A)] = 2m. 1. . note that n [ P (A) ] = 4 = 22 In general. . { 1. 2}. We see that {1} and { 2 }are also subsets of {1. φ is a subset of {1. 2 }. 1.{x : x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1 unit} (v) {x : x is a triangle in a plane} . C. [a. four subsets. . . the set R of real numbers. 2 } has. { 1. the set of all even numbers.12 MATHEMATICS The number (b – a) is called the length of any of the intervals (a.7 Power Set Consider the set {1. { b. as in above. 2}.5 } (ii) { a. the universal set can be the set of rational numbers or. .2 }} Also. We know that φ is a subset of every set . for that matter. . every element is a set. 4. we have to deal with the elements and subsets of a basic set which is relevant to that particular context. b]. φ. . {x : x is a rectangle in the plane} (vi) {x : x is an equilateral triangle in a plane} . For example. b) or (a. Make correct statements by filling in the symbols ⊂ or ⊄ in the blank spaces : (i) { 2. while studying the system of numbers. 2}. b]. b. the universal set consists of all the people in the world. 2}. c. viz. EXERCISE 1. For another example. So. Definition 5 The collection of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A. . 3.

3.4. 2.9 Venn Diagrams Most of the relationships between sets can be represented by means of diagrams which are known as Venn diagrams. Which of the following statements are incorrect and why? (i) {3.SETS 13 2. 6} and C = {0. if A = φ? Write the following as intervals : (i) {x : x ∈ R. 2.7. b } ⊄ { b. 2. 6. 3} ⊂ A (ix) φ ∈ A (x) φ ⊂ A (xi) {φ} ⊂ A Write down all the subsets of the following sets (i) {a} (ii) {a.1.7. { 3. the elements of the sets are written in their respective circles (Figs 1. 4}} ⊂ A (iv) 1 ∈ A (v) 1 ⊂ A (vi) {1. 3 } ⊂ { 1. The universal set is represented usually by a rectangle and its subsets by circles.2.6.2 . 2.5. b. 12] (iv) [–23. Given the sets A = {1. 4 }. 4. 8. 9. John Venn (1834-1883). 4. which of the following may be considered as universal set (s) for all the three sets A. 12] (iii) (6. 2. 2. 4. 0 ≤ x < 7} (iv) {x : x ∈ R. e } ⊂ { x : x is a vowel in the English alphabet} (iii) { 1.8} 1. 3. 4} ⊂ A (ii) {3.2 and 1.8. (ii) The set of isosceles triangles. c } (v) { a } ∈ { a. 6. 5} ∈ A (viii) {1. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {0. 5. 5} ⊂ A (vii) {1. 1. 5}.4. 3. 5. b. B = {2. 8}.3. – 12 < x < –10} (iii) {x : x ∈ R. Venn diagrams are named after the English logician. c. 2. – 4 < x ≤ 6} (ii) {x : x ∈ R. 5) What universal set(s) would you propose for each of the following : (i) The set of right triangles. 4.6. 2. c } (vi) { x : x is an even natural number less than 6} ⊂ { x : x is a natural number which divides 36} Let A = { 1. These diagrams consist of rectangles and closed curves usually circles.3) Fig 1.3. In Venn diagrams. 3 ≤ x ≤ 4} Write the following intervals in set-builder form : (i) (– 3.9. Examine whether the following statements are true or false: (i) { a.10} (iv) {1. a } (ii) { a. 7.5. 3} (iv) φ How many elements has P(A).2. 4} ∈ A (iii) {{3. 5 } (iv) { a } ⊂ { a. b} (iii) {1. 3. 5 }. 0) (ii) [6 . B and C (i) {0.

4. o. and also B ⊂ A.. the common elements being taken only once. Find X ∪ Y and interpret the set. Example 12 Let A = { 2. i.2.3. 4. Geeta.1 Union of sets Let A and B be any two sets.. 10. Solution We have. U = {1. we get the number 18. i.. U = {1. we get 65. Similarly. 10. o. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2. we have learnt how to perform the operations of addition. 12}. Akbar} be the set of students of Class XI. when we perform the operation of addition on the pair of numbers 5 and 13. 8..6.3 The reader will see an extensive use of the Venn diagrams when we discuss the union.8. Example 13 Let A = { a. .10} and B = {4. David.2. u } and B = { a. e. then A ∪ B = A. Ashok} be the set of students from Class XI who are in the school football team. 1.4. Again. For example.10 Operations on Sets In earlier classes. intersection and difference of sets.10. Ashok}. David. i. We will now define certain operations on sets and examine their properties. Henceforth. Find A ∪ B. Show that A ∪ B = A Solution We have. 12} Note that the common elements 6 and 8 have been taken only once while writing A ∪ B. e...3. Geeta. Illustration 2 In Fig 1. Fig 1.6.4. Let Y = {Geeta. if B ⊂ A. X ∪ Y = {Ram. Solution We have A ∪ B = { 2. who are in school hockey team. Akbar.e. A ∪ B = { a. Each one of these operations was performed on a pair of numbers to get another number. i.. 8} and B = { 6. there are some operations which when performed on two sets give rise to another set. we write A ∪ B and usually read as ‘A union B’. The symbol ‘∪’ is used to denote the union. . Example 14 Let X = {Ram. subtraction.8.10} is a subset. u } = A. . 8. 6} are subsets. This is the set of students from Class XI who are in the hockey team or the football team or both. This example illustrates that union of sets A and its subset B is the set A itself. 1. 6. u }. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2. The union of A and B is the set which consists of all the elements of A and all the elements of B. performing the operation of multiplication on the pair of numbers 5 and 13. Symbolically.2. 6. multiplication and division on numbers.3.14 MATHEMATICS Illustration 1 In Fig 1. we will refer all our sets as subsets of some universal set.

we write. Solution We have A ∩ B = { 2. In symbols. A ∪ B = { x : x ∈A or x ∈B } The union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. 4. 8 }. 9. 3. 8 are the only elements which are common to both A and B.5 indicates the Fig 1.4. Some Properties of the Operation of Union (i) A ∪ B = B ∪ A (Commutative law) Fig 1. 7 } = B. X ∩ Y = {Geeta}. Example 15 Consider the sets A and B of Example 12. Find A ∩ B and hence show that A ∩ B = B. 6. Hence. 3. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}. The shaded portion in Fig 1. Definition 7 The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B. . Solution We see that element ‘Geeta’ is the only element common to both. We note that B ⊂ A and that A ∩ B = B. 5. 10} and B = { 2. 3. Example 17 Let A = {1.2 Intersection of sets The intersection of sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common to both A and B.4 (ii) ( A ∪ B ) ∪ C = A ∪ ( B ∪ C) (Associative law ) (iii) A ∪ φ = A (iv) A ∪ A = A (v) U ∪ A = U (Law of identity element. 5. we can define the union of two sets as follows: Definition 6 The union of two sets A and B is the set C which consists of all those elements which are either in A or in B (including those which are in both).4 represents A ∪ B.10. Symbolically. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B. 5. 8. Example 16 Consider the sets X and Y of Example 14.SETS 15 Thus. Hence A ∩ B = { 6. Symbolically.5 interseciton of A and B. 2. Solution We see that 6. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B} The shaded portion in Fig 1. Find A ∩ B. φ is the identity of ∪) (Idempotent law) (Law of U) 1. 7. 7 }. Find X ∩ Y. The symbol ‘∩’ is used to denote the intersection.

7 (i) to (v)].16 MATHEMATICS If A and B are two sets such that A ∩ B = φ. (i) (iii) (ii) (iv) (v) Figs 1.. e.6 In the above diagram. 3. Fig 1. The disjoint sets can be represented by means of Venn diagram as shown in the Fig 1. ∩ distributes over ∪ This can be seen easily from the following Venn diagrams [Figs 1. Then A and B are disjoint sets. For example. then U A and B are called disjoint sets. A and B are disjoint sets. (iii) φ ∩ A = φ. (iv) A ∩ A = A (Idempotent law) (v) A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) (Distributive law ) i. (i) A ∩ B = B ∩ A (ii) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ C = A ∩ ( B ∩ C ) (Associative law). let A = { 2. 6. 5. A B because there are no elements which are common to A and B.7 (i) to (v) . 7 }. U ∩ A = A (Law of φ and U). 4. 8 } and B = { 1.6 Some Properties of Operation of Intersection (Commutative law).

SETS 17 1. Solution We have. Is A ⊂ B ? What is A ∪ B ? 3. o }. we write A – B and read as “ A minus B”.8. k.4 1. 7. u } and B = { a. 2. since the element k belongs to B but not to V.e. Example 19 Let V = { a. 6}. e. 8. C = {5. B = φ 2. 4. b }. Fig 1. b. 6}. 2.9 EXERCISE 1. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets : (i) X = {1. the intersection of any of these two sets is the null set as shown in Fig 1. e.8 Fig 1. Let A = { a. V – B = { e. 3} (ii) A = [ a. 3. c} (iii) A = {x : x is a natural number and multiple of 3} B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iv) A = {x : x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6 } B = {x : x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10 } (v) A = {1. Find A – B and B – A. A ∩ B and B – A are mutually disjoint sets. Symbolically. b. 9. 5} Y = {1. 3. then what is A ∪ B ? 4. i. 2. The shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A and B. 10 }. 5 belong to A but not to B and B – A = { 8 }. B = {3. 8 }and D = { 7.9. We note that V – B ≠ B – V. If A = {1. i.. u} B = {a.10. If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B. 6. 4. o. 3. 5. Example 18 Let A = { 1. Find V – B and B – V Solution We have. o. we can rewrite the definition of difference as A – B = { x : x ∈ A and x ∉ B } The difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. A – B = { 1. i.3 Difference of sets The difference of the sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. 5 }. 8 }. since the elements 1. We note that A – B ≠ B – A. since the elements e. 3. u}. 4. Remark The sets A – B. c}. since the element 8 belongs to B and not to A. 6. 2. Using the setbuilder notation. B = { 2. o belong to V but not to B and B – V = { k }. 5. 3}. 3. B = {a. i. find . 4}.

Justify your answer. 13. We see that 2 ∈ U but 2 ∉ A. 9. 12. f } (iii) {x : x is an even integer } and {x : x is an odd integer} If A = {3. o. 12. find (i) X – Y (ii) Y – X (iii) X ∩ Y If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers. (ii) { a. and is denoted by . C = {11. 12. (i) { 2. 10. e. 17}. b. e. 16 }. 6. 9. 7. B = {x : x is an even natural number} C = {x : x is an odd natural number}andD = {x : x is a prime number }. D = {5.18 MATHEMATICS 5. 11 }.e. and 7 ∈ U but 7 ∉ A. 14. 11. 9. 6} are disjoint sets. b. A = {x : x ∈ U and x is not a divisor of 42 }. d. the set {2. Now 2. 3 and 7 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. (iii) { 2. 8. The set of these three prime numbers. 6. 7. 3. e. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) B ∩ C (iii) A ∩ C ∩ D (iv) A ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C) (vii) A ∩ D (viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D) (ix) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ ( B ∪ C ) (x) ( A ∪ D) ∩ ( B ∪ C) If A = {x : x is a natural number }. 8. c.. 15. d }are disjoint sets. 6. 21}. (i) A ∪ B (ii) A ∪ C (iii) B ∪ C (iv) B ∪ D (v) A ∪ B ∪ C (vi) A ∪ B ∪ D (vii) B ∪ C ∪ D Find the intersection of each pair of sets of question 1 above. 7. 10. B = {7. u } and { a. 7} is called the Complement of A with respect to U. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) A ∩ C (iii) A ∩ D (iv) B ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) C ∩ D Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint (i) {1. 20 }. 15. 5 } and { 3. B = { 4. 12. 15}and D = {15. i. 11} are disjoint sets. 20 }. 3 ∈ U but 3 ∉ A. 6. 9. i. 10. 14 } and { 3. then what is R – Q? State whether each of the following statement is true or false. g}. 4} and {x : x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 } (ii) { a. 3. 10. b. 11. c. find (i) A – B (ii) A – C (iii) A – D (iv) B – A (v) C – A (vi) D – A (vii) B – C (viii) B – D (ix) C – B (x) D – B (xi) C – D (xii) D – C If X= { a. 18. i. 6. 2. 3. Thus. 4. 13}. 7. C = { 2. o. (iv) { 2. If A = { 3. 4.11 Complement of a Set Let U be the universal set which consists of all prime numbers and A be the subset of U which consists of all those prime numbers that are not divisors of 42. 15} are disjoint sets. Similarly. 1. 5. 16. 10 } and { 3. d } and Y = { f. 11. d. because 2 is divisor of 42. 8. u } and { c.

6.SETS 19 A′. 6}. 4. 6 } ( A ∪ B )′ = { 1. 4. Solution Clearly A′ = {1. 3. Find A′. A′ ∩ B′. 7. 5 }. B′ . then ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′. 3} and B = {3. 8. Find A′. 4. A = {2. alternatively. 10 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. we write A′ to denote the complement of A with respect to U. 5}. 2. 3. Find A′. 8. 10} and A = {1. 6. 7}. 9}. So we have A′ = {2.10 }. we want to find the results for ( A ∪ B )′ and A′ ∩ B′ in the followng example. Symbolically. Example 22 Let U = {1. 5. 10 } Hence (A′ )′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A′} = {1. as the difference between a universal set U and the set A. we see that A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. 6 }. 5. then its complement A′ is also a subset of U. 6 } Also A ∪ B = { 2. Thus. so that (A ∪ B )′ = { 1. A′ is clearly the set of all boys in the class. Example 21 Let U be universal set of all the students of Class XI of a coeducational school and A be the set of all girls in Class XI. 5. 4. 6}. 3. 8. 9. 6 } = A′ ∩ B′ It can be shown that the above result is true in general. ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ . Example 20 Let U = {1. Thus. A ∪ B and hence show that ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′. 3. 8. 4. Solution Since A is the set of all girls. Similarly. 6. Again in Example 20 above. If A and B are any two subsets of the universal set U. 4. Hence A′ = { 2. 5. 3. 4. 7. 2. 3. Note If A is a subset of the universal set U. Then the complement of A is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. 4. Obviously A′ = U – A We note that the complement of a set A can be looked upon. Definition 8 Let U be the universal set and A a subset of U. 2. This leads to the following definition. Solution We note that 2. B′ = { 1. 6. 5. These two results are stated in words as follows : . A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. we have Now. 7. 9} = A It is clear from the definition of the complement that for any subset of the universal ( A′ )′ = A set U. we have A′ = { 2. Hence A′ ∩ B′ = { 1.

6. (iv) A′ ∪ B′ Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. A = { 1. e. c. h. e. b.10 (ii) A ∩ A′ = φ (i) (A ∪ B)´ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ 3. 6 }. 6. 5. b. 8} and B = { 2. find the complements of the following sets : (i) A = {a.10. f.20 MATHEMATICS The complement of the union of two sets is the intersection of their complements and the complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements. De Morgan’s law: Fig 1. write down the complements of the following sets: (i) {x : x is an even natural number} (ii) { x : x is an odd natural number } (iii) {x : x is a positive multiple of 3} (iv) { x : x is a prime number } (v) {x : x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5} (vi) { x : x is a perfect square } (vii) { x : x is a perfect cube} (viii) { x : x + 5 = 8 } (ix) { x : 2x + 5 = 9} (x) { x : x ≥ 7 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and 2x + 1 > 10 } If U = {1. . If A is the set of all triangles with at least one angle different from 60°. 3.5 1. c} (ii) B = {d. (iii) (A ∩ B)′. 5. 5. These laws can be verified by using Venn diagrams. 4. 4. (ii) A′ ∩ B′. 3. g} (iv) D = { f. g} (iii) C = {a. Law of double complementation : (A′ )′ = A 4. 2. 7. 4. 2. g. 2. Complement laws: 2. Find (i) A′ (ii) B′ (iii) (A ∪ C)′ (iv) (A ∪ B)′ (v) (A′)′ (vi) (B – C)′ If U = { a. These are named after the mathematician De Morgan. g. 5. 6. 5. These are called De Morgan’s laws. 9 }. EXERCISE 1. The shaded portion represents the complement of the set A. 4. f. e. 8 } and C = { 3. Laws of empty set and universal set φ′ = U and U′ = φ. 3. 6. c. what is A′? 2. 3. 3. The complement A′ of a set A can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. 8. 4. a} Taking the set of natural numbers as the universal set. A = {2. 6. B = { 2. 4}. d. 7}. h}. Some Properties of Complement Sets (i) A ∪ A′ = U 1. Verify that (i) (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following : (i) (A ∪ B)′. 7. 8. 9 }. 4. Let U = { 1.

(1) follows immediately. So. we get n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n [ ( A ∩ B ) ∩ (A ∩ C)] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n (A ∩ B ∩ C) Therefore n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n(A ∩ C)+n (A ∩B ∩C) This proves (3).SETS 21 7.. if A and B are finite sets.. 1. Therefore n ( A ∪ B) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( B – A ) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩B ) + n ( B – A ) + n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( A ∩ B) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B). A ∩ B and B – A are disjoint and their union is A ∪ B (Fig 1. intersection and difference of two sets. we will go through some practical problems related to our daily life. ... X has 28 elements and Y has 32 elements. . we have learnt union. In general. then (ii) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) . how many elements does X ∩ Y have ? . Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement : (i) A ∪ A′ = .11). which verifies (2) (iii) If A. . (3) In fact. Example 23 If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 50 elements. . (2) Note that the sets A – B.. In this Section. then (i) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) . we have n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ∪ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( B ∩ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] Since A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ). (iv) U′ ∩ A = . . Fig 1.The formulae derived in this Section will also be used in subsequent Chapter on Probability (Chapter 16).11 Let A and B be finite sets. then n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n (A ∩ C)+n (A ∩ B ∩ C) . (iii) A ∩ A′ = . .. . (ii) φ′ ∩ A = . (1) The elements in A ∪ B are either in A or in B but not in both as A ∩ B = φ. If A ∩ B = φ. B and C are finite sets.12 Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets In earlier Section. .

n (X ∩ Y) = ? By using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ).12 ) This gives 50 = n ( X ∪ Y ) = n (X – Y) + n (X ∩ Y) + n ( Y – X) = ( 28 – k ) + k + (32 – k ) Hence k = 10. Then X ∪ Y is the set of students who like to play at least one game. then n ( X – Y ) = 28 – k . suppose n ( X ∩ Y ) = k. Also. the word ‘or’ gives us a clue of union and the word ‘and’ gives us a clue of intersection. we obtain 20 = 12 + n ( P ) – 4 Thus n ( P ) = 12 Hence 12 teachers teach physics. 24 like to play cricket and 16 like to play football. Example 24 In a school there are 20 teachers who teach mathematics or physics. In the statement of the problem. n ( M ) = 12 and n ( M ∩ P ) = 4 We wish to determine n ( P ). have n ( M ∪ P ) = 20 . Example 25 In a class of 35 students. n ( Y ) = 16. Of these. therefore. We. n ( Y – X ) = 32 – k (by Venn diagram in Fig 1. How many students like to play both cricket and football ? Solution Let X be the set of students who like to play cricket and Y be the set of students who like to play football. 12 teach mathematics and 4 teach both physics and mathematics. n ( X ∪ Y ) = 35. Given n ( X) = 24. n ( Y ) = 32. we find that n(X∩Y) = n ( X ) + n(Y) – n ( X∪Y) Fig 1. n (X ∩ Y) = ? Using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ).12 = 28 + 32 – 50 = 10 Alternatively. we get 35 = 24 + 16 – n (X ∩ Y) . each student likes to play at least one of the two games.22 MATHEMATICS Solution Given that n ( X ∪ Y ) = 50. n ( X ) = 28. and X ∩ Y is the set of students who like to play both games. How many teach physics ? Solution Let M denote the set of teachers who teach mathematics and P denote the set of teachers who teach physics. Using the result n ( M ∪ P ) = n ( M ) + n ( P ) – n ( M ∩ P ).

i. n (X ∩ Y) = 5 5 students like to play both games. n (A) = 100.13 . n ( B ) = 50 and n ( A ∩ B ) = 30 (i) From the Venn diagram given in Fig 1. n ( A ) = 120.) or n ( B – A ) = n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 50 – 30 = 20 Fig 1.e. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C1 but not to chemical C2 is 90. Find the number of individuals exposed to (i) Chemical C1 but not chemical C2 (ii) Chemical C2 but not chemical C1 (iii) Chemical C1 or chemical C2 Solution Let U denote the universal set consisting of individuals suffering from the skin disorder. and so. n (A) = n( A – B ) + n( A ∩ B ) (Since A – B) and A ∩ B are disjoint. Solution Let U denote the set of surveyed students and A denote the set of students taking apple juice and B denote the set of students taking orange juice. 100 were listed as taking apple juice. Example 26 In a survey of 400 students in a school. Example 27 There are 200 individuals with a skin disorder.SETS 23 Thus. n (B) = 150 and n (A ∩ B) = 75. Then n (U) = 400. n (B) = n (B – A) + n ( A ∩ B) (Since B – A and A ∩B are disjoint. we have B = ( B – A) ∪ ( A ∩ B). 50 to chemical C2. Find how many students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice. 150 as taking orange juice and 75 were listed as taking both apple as well as orange juice.13. Here n ( U) = 200. A denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C1 and B denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C2.) or n ( A – B ) = n ( A ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 120 –30 = 90 Hence. we have A = ( A – B ) ∪ ( A ∩ B ).13. Now n (A′ ∩ B′) = n (A ∪ B )′ = n (U) – n (A ∪ B) = n (U) – n (A) – n (B) + n (A ∩ B) = 400 – 100 – 150 + 75 = 225 Hence 225 students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice. (ii) From the Fig 1.. and 30 to both the chemicals C1 and C2. 120 had been exposed to the chemical C1.

and S ∩ T has 11 elements.24 MATHEMATICS Thus. 4. How many people can speak both Hindi and English? If S and T are two sets such that S has 21 elements.6 1. 40 like cricket. The subset of A having no element is the empty set φ. A. 1 }. how many elements does X ∩ Y have? In a group of 400 people. 0. X ∪ Y has 60 elements and X ∩ Y has 10 elements. {1}. 52 like tea and each person likes at least one of the two drinks. How many people like both coffee and tea? In a group of 65 people. T has 32 elements. How many speak at least one of these two languages? Miscellaneous Examples Example 28 Show that the set of letters needed to spell “ CATARACT ” and the set of letters needed to spell “ TRACT” are equal. {0}. 5. n (A∪ B ) = n (A) + n ( B ) – n (A∩ B ) = 120 + 50 – 30 = 140. C. 1}. 8. 1} and {–1. {–1. n ( Y ) = 23 and n ( X ∪ Y ) = 38. Example 29 List all the subsets of the set { –1. 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. {–1}. . (iii) The number of individuals exposed either to chemical C1 or to chemical C2. The subset of A having three elements of A is A itself. 3. T } = { T. how many elements does Y have? In a group of 70 people. It follows that X = Y.e. Then Y = { T. 10 like both cricket and tennis. { 0 }. { 1 }. i. 0. {0. find n ( X ∩ Y ).. The subsets of A having one element are { –1 }. 0}. R } Let Y be the set of letters in “ TRACT”. If X and Y are two sets such that n ( X ) = 17. EXERCISE 1. Then X = { C. A. A. 50 people speak French. X has 8 elements and Y has 15 elements . Solution Let A = { –1. 20 speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish and French. all the subsets of A are φ. {–1. 0}. C } Since every element in X is in Y and every element in Y is in X. 1}.{0. 7. how many elements does S ∪ T have? If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements. 0. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C2 and not to chemical C1 is 20. The subsets of A having two elements are {–1. 1 }. So. How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis? In a committee. T. 37 like coffee. 1} . {–1. 1}. If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 18 elements. 6. Solution Let X be the set of letters in “CATARACT”. 2. R. R.

So. Is this data correct? Solution Let U be the set of car owners investigated. So. 50 owned both A and B cars. which implies Y ∈ P ( A ∩ B ). Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B . maximum values of n ( S ∪ T ) is 1000. Example 32 A market research group conducted a survey of 1000 consumers and reported that 720 consumers like product A and 450 consumers like product B. Therefore. Then Y ∈ P ( A) and Y ∈ P ( B ). Let Y ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). X ⊂ A and X ⊂ B. show that P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). n (M ) = 400. if b ∈ B. Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B. Y ⊂ A ∩ B. 15 in basketball and 20 in cricket. b ∈ A. then b ∈ A ∪ B. This gives P ( A ∩ B ) ⊂ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). B ⊂ A. Therefore. what is the least number that must have liked both products? Solution Let U be the set of consumers questioned. So. Therefore. M be the set of persons who owned car A and S be the set of persons who owned car B. A ⊂ B. Example 34 A college warded 38 medals in football. This gives P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ) ⊂ P ( A ∩ B) Hence P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). Thus. n ( S ) = 200 and n ( S ∩ M ) = 50. This is a contradiction. A = B Example 31 For any sets A and B. 400 owned car A and 200 owned car B. Given that n ( U ) = 1000. Therefore. how many received medals in exactly two of the three sports ? . But S ∪ T ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ T ) ≤ n ( U ) = 1000. Y ⊂ A and Y ⊂ B. So. S be the set of consumers who liked the product A and T be the set of consumers who like the product B. n ( S ) = 720. Hence. Given that n ( U ) = 500.SETS 25 Example 30 Show that A ∪ B = A ∩ B implies A = B Solution Let a ∈ A. If these medals went to a total of 58 men and only three men got medals in all the three sports. the given data is incorrect. Then n ( S ∪ M ) = n ( S ) + n ( M ) – n ( S ∩ M ) = 200 + 400 – 50 = 550 But S ∪ M ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ M ) ≤ n ( U ). So. Then X ⊂ A ∩ B. b ∈ A ∩ B. Then a ∈ A ∪ B. Solution Let X ∈ P ( A ∩ B ). Thus. Similarly. n ( S ∪ T ) is maximum when n ( S ∩ T ) is least. n ( T ) = 450 So n(S∪T)=n(S)+n(T)–n(S∩T) = 720 + 450 – n (S ∩ T) = 1170 – n ( S ∩ T ) Therefore. a ∈ A ∩ B. Example 33 Out of 500 car owners investigated. the least value of n ( S ∩ T ) is 170. So a ∈ B. the least number of consumers who liked both products is 170. X ∈ P ( A ) and X ∈ P ( B ) which implies X ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B).

B = { 2. which is the number of people who got medals in exactly two of the three sports. then x ∈ B (ii) If A ⊂ B and B ∈ C . n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( F ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n (F ∩ B ) – n (F ∩ C ) – n (B ∩ C ) + Fig 1. and C be the sets such that A ∪ B = A ∪ C and A ∩ B = A ∩ C. (i) If x ∈ A and A ∈ B . . 6 }. b denotes the number of men who got medals in football and cricket only. 2.26 MATHEMATICS Solution Let F. basketball and cricket. then x ∉ A Let A. Decide. among the following sets. a denotes the number of men who got medals in football and basketball only. B and C denote the set of men who received medals in football. 3. D = { 6 }. Assume that P ( A ) = P ( B ). 8. n ( C ) = 20 n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = 58 and n (F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 Therefore. Thus. In each of the following. determine whether the statement is true or false. respectively. C = { 2.14 Here. then A ∈ C (iii) If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C . then A ⊄ C (v) If x ∈ A and A ⊄ B . }. 7. If it is true. c denotes the number of men who got medals in basket ball and cricket only and d denotes the number of men who got medal in all the three. Then n ( F ) = 38. 6. 6. then A ⊂ C (iv) If A ⊄ B and B ⊄ C . 5. which sets are subsets of one and another: A = { x : x ∈ R and x satisfy x2 – 8x + 12 = 0 }. . prove it. . gives n ( F ∩ B ) + n ( F ∩ C ) + n ( B ∩ C ) = 18 Consider the Venn diagram as given in Fig 1. . 4. Show that A = B Is it true that for any sets A and B. Show that the following four conditions are equivalent : (i) A ⊂ B(ii) A – B = φ (iii) A ∪ B = B (iv) A ∩ B = A Show that if A ⊂ B. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. B. give an example.14 n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ). 4. P ( A ) ∪ P ( B ) = P ( A ∪ B )? Justify your answer. n ( B ) = 15. 4. d = n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 and a + d + b + d + c + d = 18 Therefore a + b + c = 9. If it is false. then x ∈ B (vi) If A ⊂ B and x ∉ B . Show that B = C. then C – B ⊂ C – A.

8 read both T and I. In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A.SETS 27 8. 26 liked product B and 29 liked product C. Intervals are subsets of R. If A ∩ X = B ∩ X = φ and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X. Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements. 14 people liked products B and C and 8 liked all the three products. Let A and B be sets. 12 people liked products C and A. . Find how many students were taking neither tea nor coffee? In a group of students. 13. B = B ∩ ( B ∪ X ) and use Distributive law ) Find sets A. 12. It is denoted by P(A). A power set of a set A is collection of all subsets of A. A set which consists of a definite number of elements is called finite set. Summary This chapter deals with some basic definitions and operations involving sets. 11 read both H and T. 11. it was found that 25 people read newspaper H. (ii) the number of people who read exactly one newspaper. Find: (i) the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers. 26 read newspaper T. A set A is said to be subset of a set B. 10. B and C such that A ∩ B. Show that A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C. Find how many liked product C only. show that (i) A ∪ ( A ∩ B ) = A (ii) A ∩ ( A ∪ B ) = A. How many students are there in the group? In a survey of 60 people. 150 students were found to be taking tea and 225 taking coffee. the set is called infinite set. 100 were taking both tea and coffee. These are summarised below: A set is a well-defined collection of objects. 3 read all three newspapers. show that A = B. otherwise. Each of the students knows either Hindi or English. 50 know English and 25 know both. B ∩ C and A ∩ C are non-empty sets and A ∩ B ∩ C = φ. Show that for any sets A and B. 26 read newspaper I. 100 students know Hindi. (Hints A = A ∩ ( A ∪ X ) . if every element of A is also an element of B. 16. A set which does not contain any element is called empty set. 9. A = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A – B ) and A ∪ ( B – A ) = ( A ∪ B ) Using properties of sets. 14. 9 read both H and I. In a survey of 600 students in a school. 15. If 14 people liked products A and B.

D.). The difference of two sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ and ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ If A and B are finite sets such that A ∩ B = φ. . The Russell’s Paradox was not the only one which arose in set theory. to 1897 A. he publishd several papers showing various properties of abstract sets.Halmos writes about it in his book ‘Naïve Set Theory’ that “nothing contains everything”. Another German mathematician Gottlob Frege.) castigated him for regarding infinite set the same way as finite sets. His papers on set theory appeared sometimes during 1874 A. that the assumption of existence of a set of all sets leads to a contradiction. For any two sets A and B. If A ∩ B ≠ φ.D..D. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B). that the set of real numbers could not be put into one-to-one correspondence wih the integers. He published in a paper in 1874 A. at the turn of the century.D. This led to the famous Russell’s Paradox.). His study of set theory came when he was studying trigonometric series of the form a1 sin x + a2 sin 2x + a3 sin 3x + . The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common.D.28 MATHEMATICS The union of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which are either in A or in B. The complement of a subset A of universal set U is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. But Kronecker (1810-1893 A. Paul R.D. Many paradoxes were produced later by several mathematicians and logicians. Cantor’s work was well received by another famous mathematician Richard Dedekind (1831-1916 A. presented the set theory as principles of logic. Till then the entire set theory was based on the assumption of the existence of the set of all sets. From 1879 onwards.D.. It was the famous Englih Philosopher Bertand Russell (1872-1970 A. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B) Historical Note The modern theory of sets is considered to have been originated largely by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918 A.) who showed in 1902 A.D.

by Ernst Zermelo. This was known as Von NeumannBernays (VNB) or Gödel-Bernays (GB) set theory. Paul Bernays gave a set of more satisfactory axiomatisation. these days most of the concepts and results in mathematics are expressed in the set theoretic language.SETS 29 As a consequence of all these paradoxes. Despite all these difficulties. In fact.D. Cantor’s set theory is used in present day mathematics. John Von Neumann in 1925 A. A modification of these axioms was done by Kurt Gödel in his monograph in 1940 A.D. Another one was proposed by Abraham Fraenkel in 1922 A. — — .D.D. Later in 1937 A.D. the first axiomatisation of set theory was published in 1908 A. introduced explicitly the axiom of regularity.

we come across many patterns that characterise relations such as brother and sister. respectively. In our daily life. Let us recall from our earlier classes that an ordered pair of elements taken from any two sets P and Q is a pair of elements written in small Fig 2. c). c). (blue. b). we notice that a relation involves pairs of objects in certain order. (blue. A = {red. set A is a subset of set B. coat and shirt. father and son. we can see that there will be 6 distinct pairs as given below: (red. c. line l is parallel to line m. teacher and student. we come across many relations such as number m is less than number n.1 . b). 2. (red. we will learn about G . (red. How many pairs of coloured objects can be made from these two sets? Proceeding in a very orderly manner. s).1).e. c and s represent a particular bag.. we will learn how to link pairs of objects from two sets and then introduce relations between the two objects in the pair. Leibnitz (1646–1716) special relations which will qualify to be functions. Finally. – BERTHELOT 2. (blue. i. blue}and B = {b.1 Introduction Much of mathematics is about finding a pattern – a recognisable link between quantities that change. W. The concept of function is very important in mathematics since it captures the idea of a mathematically precise correspondence between one quantity with the other. s}. In this Chapter.2 Cartesian Products of Sets Suppose A is a set of 2 colours and B is a set of 3 objects. In mathematics also. we get 6 distinct objects (Fig 2. s).Chapter 2 RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS Mathematics is the indispensable instrument of all physical research. In all these. Thus. where b.

b4)}.03). (MP. This gives us 9 possible codes.c).2 which are the pairs available from these sets and how many such pairs will there be (Fig 2. (KA. b3).03). with the DL MP KA restriction that the code begins with an element from set A.. b3). then P × Q will also be empty set. KA represent Delhi. (KA. As a final illustration. P × Q = φ From the illustration given above we note that A × B = {(red. (red. q ∈ Q } If either P or Q is the null set. (KA. (DL. the code (DL. b2. Delhi. (MP. (KA.03)}. i.01). For example.03) and the product of set A and set B is given by A × B = {(DL.02.b). Fig 2. DL). (DL. respectively and B = {01. (DL. (blue. a1). a2} and B = {b1. (KA.3). The cartesian product P × Q is the set of all ordered pairs of elements from P and Q.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 31 brackets and grouped together in a particular order.. i. (a1.03).. Again. consider the two sets A= {a1.2)? The available pairs are:(DL. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Also note that the order in which these elements are paired is crucial.01). This leads to the following definition: Definition 1 Given two non-empty sets P and Q.02). p ∈ P and q ∈ Q . (a2. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka were making codes for the licence plates of vehicles.s)}. It can easily be seen that there will be 9 such pairs in the Cartesian product. (DL. (blue.s). KA}. (MP. 01 If the three states.01). (blue. if and only if the corresponding first elements are equal and the second elements are also equal. A × B = {( a1.b). (a1. (a2.01). b2). b3. (a1. (red. MP. consider the two sets: A = {DL. Fig 2. . 01) will not be the same as the code (01.c).02). (a2.02). b4). P × Q = { (p.01). b1).e.02). b2). MP.e.q) : p ∈ P.02). (MP. b2) will be distinct from the point in the position (b2. (KA.02). 03 03}representing codes for the licence plates of vehicles issued 02 by DL. i.3 Remarks (i) Two ordered pairs are equal. (a2. (p.e.03). MP and KA . The 8 ordered pairs thus formed can represent the position of points in the plane if A and B are subsets of the set of real numbers and it is obvious that the point in the position (a1. since there are 3 elements in each of the sets A and B. b4} (Fig 2.q). b1). (MP. where DL.01). (MP.

Therefore. c) is called an ordered triplet.3). (3.4). (A × B) ∩ (A × C) = {(1.4)} and (A × C) = {(1. (3. P × Q = {(a. a). 4.3).e. b. However.4). (2. (b. (B ∪ C) = {3. (3.4). Therefore x + 1 = 3 and y – 2 = 1. 6}. y – 2) = (3.4). Solving we get x = 2 and y = 3. (r. (3. (3.6). find the values of x and y. c)} Since.4). (3. (3. (1. Find (ii) (A × B) ∩ (A × C) (i) A × (B ∩ C) (iii) A × (B ∪ C) (iv) (A × B) ∪ (A × C) Solution (i) By the definition of the intersection of two sets. Are these two products equal? Solution By the definition of the cartesian product.5). Example 3 Let A = {1. (iii) Since.3). a). b. B = {3. b.5). Example 2 If P = {a.4)}. (3. (iii) If A and B are non-empty sets and either A or B is an infinite set. (2. (1.4). i. (2. (1. (3.3).5)..5). (3. the number of elements in each set will be the same. (B ∩ C) = {4}. (3. (2.5). by the definition of equality of ordered pairs. r). 4)}. we conclude that P × Q ≠ Q × P.5). (1. b. (3.6)}.3). (1. 4). if n(A) = p and n(B) = q.5). (r. (3.5). we have A × (B ∪ C) = {(1. r) is not equal to the pair (r. Example 1 If (x + 1.4).1).3).3). b).6). r). then n(A × B) = pq.2.4} and C = {4. (3. then so is A × B.5. (2. (1. (c.4). Here (a. Now (A × B) = {(1.6}.3). (2.5).3). (2.6). (iv) A × A × A = {(a. c ∈ A}. c} and Q = {r}. (2. r)} and Q × P = {(r.6). (1. (2. (ii) (iv) Using the sets A × B and A × C from part (ii) above. form the sets P × Q and Q × P. A × (B ∩ C) = {(1.4). then there will be pq elements in A × B.32 MATHEMATICS (ii) If there are p elements in A and q elements in B. (2.6)} Therefore. (2. (1. (2. 4). . (2. (1.4). the pair (a. we obtain (A × B) ∪ (A × C) = {(1.6)}.3}.6).4). 5. (2. the corresponding elements are equal. Solution Since the ordered pairs are equal.4). (3. c) : a.4). (2.6).

where x. 4}.1. (1. If (x. (i) If P = {m. Let A = {1.1. 4. then find the number of elements in (A×B). Write A × B. (z. q). y – ⎟ = ⎜ .2)}. B = {1. 2.2. 2}.1). If A = {–1. Let A = {1. How many subsets will A × B have? List them. Example 6 If A × B ={(p. n} and Q = { n. r}. x).(p. P × P × P = {(1. form the set P × P × P.(n. If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3. y). 3. m}. If ⎜ + 1. 4}. (m. 8. (ii) If A and B are non-empty sets. 7.1). rewrite the given statement correctly. C = {5. Solution A = set of first elements = {p. 4. what do the cartesian products R × R and R × R × R represent? Solution The Cartesian product R × R represents the set R × R={(x. q).1).RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 33 Example 4 If P = {1. m)}. (y. Example 5 If R is the set of all real numbers. (1. (2. Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2. n). m} B = set of second elements = {q. State whether each of the following statements are true or false. r)}. then A × (B ∩ φ) = φ. y. y. 3⎠ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝3 2. x). Verify that (i) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C). 8} and H = {5. B = {3. find A and B. 6. y) : x.2). 2} and B = {3. 3. y ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in two dimensional space and the cartisian product R × R × R represents the set R × R × R ={(x.2. 4}. Solution We have. then A × B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs (x.2. (b. 2}. ⎟ . If G = {7. 5.1. (2. 2}. (iii) If A = {1.1. 4. then P × Q = {(m. If A × B = {(a. 9. 1). 6} and D = {5. 8}. find A and B.2). find the values of x and y.1 2⎞ ⎛5 1⎞ ⎛x 1.1). 6. (b. find G × H and H × G. 1) are in A × B. y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B. 7. find A × A × A. (m. r). 2}. y and z are distinct elements. If the statement is false. 5}. (ii) A × C is a subset of B × D.(a .2). EXERCISE 2. y)}. 1}. (2. 2). . z ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in three-dimensional space. (2.2. Find A and B. (1. z) : x.

(ii) An arrow diagram is a visual representation of a relation.. The second element is called the image of the first element.2). Then R = {(a. We can now obtain a subset of P × Q by introducing a relation R between the first element x and the Fig 2. 6}. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. y ∈ Q}. R = {(1. The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which are found (–1.y): x is the first letter of the name y.4 second element y of each ordered pair (x. 3. Example 7 Let A = {1.3 Relations Consider the two sets P = {a. Ali). 2. (c. (2. b. Solution (i) By the definition of the relation. 2. (a. (4. Divya}. (5.1). x ∈ P. (a. Bhanu). c} and Q = {Ali. y) as R= { (x. Note that range ⊆ codomain.Bhanu). 4.4). Chandra. Divya)}. The cartesian product of P and Q has 15 ordered pairs which can be listed as P × Q = {(a. (ii) Write down the domain. . 5. Definition 4 The set of all second elements in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the range of the relation R..6)}. 0) and (0.5).3). The whole set B is called the codomain of the relation R.. Bhanu. . The subset is derived by describing a relationship between the first element and the second element of the ordered pairs in A × B. Binoy. Remarks (i) A relation may be represented algebraically either by the Roster method or by the Set-builder method. y) : y = x + 1 } (i) Depict this relation using an arrow diagram. Binoy). Definition 2 A relation R from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B. Chandra)} A visual representation of this relation R (called an arrow diagram) is shown in Fig 2. Binoy).34 MATHEMATICS 10.4. (c. (b. codomain and range of R. (b. Definition 3 The set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the domain of the relation R. (3. Ali). Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A.

. (25. 3. the number of subsets of A×B is 24. Remark A relation R from A to A is also stated as a relation on A. where x. (4. Since n (A×B ) = 4. 3). –3. The range of this relation is {– 2. 4)}. R = {(9.. 5}. 6}. (1. 6} and the codomain = {1.. y) : 3x – y = 0. (ii) We can see that the domain ={1.5 Example 8 The Fig 2. the range = {2. –5. codomain and range. (4. (2. x ∈ P. 2. –5)} The domain of this relation is {4. Let A = {1. 3. 3). 2). (2. –2). 5. Fig 2. 4.14}. (25. 2. 3. Therefore. 5. Note The total number of relations that can be defined from a set A to a set B is the number of possible subsets of A × B. A × B = {(1.6 shows a relation between the sets P and Q. .. 4}. 9. Note that the element 1 is not related to any element in set P. 3). 4). Write down its domain. 4. y): x is the square of y. EXERCISE 2.} Similarly. 5). Solution We have. (ii) in roster form. If n(A ) = p and n(B) = q. Find the number of relations from A to B. 3. Fig 2. –3). y ∈ Q} (ii) In roster form. 2.2 1. 2. 5. The set Q is the codomain of this relation. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. 3. Write this relation (i) in set-builder form. 25}. 2} and B = {3. What is its domain and range? Solution It is obvious that the relation R is “x is the square of y”. Example 9 Let A = {1. 4. R = {(x. (i) In set-builder form. y ∈ A}.5.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 35 The corresponding arrow diagram is shown in Fig 2.6 (9. the number of relations from A into B will be 24. then n (A × B) = pq and the total number of relations is 2pq.

Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x. It is one of the most important concepts in mathematics. 9. 9}. 2. . 3.7 6. The Fig2. 2. Write down the domain and the range. a – b is an integer}. y ∈N}. x. 2.b): a. 3. Write this relation (i) in set-builder form (ii) roster form. visualise a function as a rule. What is its domain and range? Let A = {1. 8. (i) Write R in roster form (ii) Find the domain of R (iii) Find the range of R. 7. 1. Define a relation R on the set N of natural numbers by R = {(x. where b is called the image of a under f and a is called the preimage of b under f. A = {1. 2.36 MATHEMATICS 2. 5} and B = {4. Fig 2. Let R be the relation on A defined by {(a. y. y ∈ B}. Write R in roster form. Find the domain and range of R. y): the difference between x and y is odd. 3. There are many terms such as ‘map’ or ‘mapping’ used to denote a function. x + 5) : x ∈ {0. Depict this relationship using roster form. In other words. a function f is a relation from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B such that the domain of f is A and no two distinct ordered pairs in f have the same first element. Definition 5 A relation f from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if every element of set A has one and only one image in set B.7 shows a relationship between the sets P and Q. 5. 3. y) : y = x + 5. Let R be the relation on Z defined by R = {(a. z} and B = {1. x ∈ A.4 Functions In this Section. x is a natural number less than 4. b ∈ Z. 4. 6}. If f is a function from A to B and (a. 2}. 6. b ∈A. we study a special type of relation called function. 4. b is exactly divisible by a}. then f (a) = b. which produces new elements out of some given elements. 5}}. 4. b): a . Find the number of relations from A to B. x3) : x is a prime number less than 10} in roster form. Determine the domain and range of the relation R defined by R = {(x. b) ∈ f. We can. Write the relation R = {(x. Let A = {x.

f (6) = .(3.... Since every element has one and only one image. x. Solution The completed table is given by x 1 2 3 4 y f (1) = 3 f (2) = 5 f (3) = 7 5 6 7 f (4) = 9 f (5) = 11 f (6) = 13 f (7) =15 . Again.3).. f (4) = . giving reasons whether it is a function or not? (i) R = {(2. (4.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 37 The function f from A to B is denoted by f: A B..4)} (iii) R = {(1. the relation in Example 8 is not a function because the elements in the domain are connected to more than one images. we will see many more relations some of which are functions and others are not. it is called a real function.1).(2. 3...2)}. we can easily see that the relation in Example 7 is not a function because the element 6 has no image.2). f (7) = . 4 are the elements of domain of R having their unique images.7)} Solution (i) (ii) (iii) Since 2.4).. Example 11 Examine each of the following relations given below and state in each case. Example 12 Let N be the set of natural numbers... Using this definition.(3. f (2) = . (4. this relation is a function. Define a real valued function f:N x N by f (x) = 2x + 1. if its domain is also either R or a subset of R. y ∈ N}. (5. this relation is not a function. The codomain is also N.. The range is the set of even natural numbers. f (3) = ..(2. this relation is a function.1).3). Example 10 Let N be the set of natural numbers and the relation R be defined on N such that R = {(x. y) : y = 2x. this relation R is a function.(3. Looking at the previous examples. Since the same first element 2 corresponds to two different images 2 and 4. Similarly.4).. Since every natural number n has one and only one image. complete the table given below. f (5) = . (6. Further.2). (ii) R = {(2.5). the relation in Example 9 is also not a function. (Why?) In the examples given below. codomain and range of R? Is this relation a function? Solution The domain of R is the set of natural numbers N..6). What is the domain. (4. Definition 6 A function which has either R or one of its subsets as its range is called a real valued function. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y f (1) = .

Fig 2. Define the real valued function f : R → R by y = f(x) = x for each x ∈ R.4.8. Here the domain and range of f are R. Fig 2.8 (ii) Constant function Define the function f: R → R by y = f (x) = c.38 MATHEMATICS 2. Here domain of f is R and its range is {c}. It passes through the origin. Such a function is called the identity function.9 . The graph is a straight line as shown in Fig 2. x ∈ R where c is a constant and each x ∈ R.1 Some functions and their graphs (i) Identity function Let R be the set of real numbers.

whereas the function h defined by h(x) = x 3 + 2x is not a polynomial function. x y = f(x) = x 2 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 Solution The completed Table is given below: x y = f (x) = x2 –4 16 –3 9 –2 4 –1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 Domain of f = {x : x∈R}. The graph of f is given by Fig 2.10 Fig 2.+ an xn. then its graph will be a line as shown in the Fig 2. Range of f = {x : x ≥ 0.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 39 The graph is a line parallel to x-axis... x ∈ R.9.10 . x ∈ R}..(Why?) Example 13 Define the function f: R → R by y = f(x) = x2. y = f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + . and g(x) = x4 + of polynomial functions. Complete the Table given below by using this definition. a1. What is the domain and range of this function? Draw the graph of f. a2. 2 x are some examples 2 The functions defined by f(x) = x3 – x2 + 2. (iii) Polynomial function A function f : R → R is said to be polynomial function if for each x in R. if f(x)=3 for each x∈R.an∈R. where n is a non-negative integer and a0. For example....

x3): x∈R}. 1.. Solution We have f(0) = 0. –0.5 0. where g(x) ≠ 0. f = {(x. f(2) = 8.5 1 x – 0... f(–1) = –1..11 (iv) Rational functions are functions of the type f (x ) . .25 0.5 . etc.5 – 0.. x x ∈ R –{0}.25 4 0. f(3) = 27. f(–3) = –27.5 –1 –0.... Solution The completed Table is given by x y= –2 –1.5 .40 MATHEMATICS Example 14 Draw the graph of the function f :R → R defined by f (x) = x3.11.. The graph of f is given in Fig 2. 2 . Therefore.. Example 15 Define the real valued function f : R – {0} → R defined by f (x) = 1 . x∈R. Complete the Table given below using this definition.67 –1 – 2 . f(–2) = –8. 0. –1 ..67 2 0.. 1 ..5 0. where f(x) and g(x) are g (x) polynomial functions of x defined in a domain..5 . 1 x .5 .. Fig 2...5 2 1 1 1.. What is the domain and range of this function? x y = –2 –1. f(1) = 1.

if x = 0 ⎪−1. i.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 41 The domain is all real numbers except 0 and its range is also all real numbers except 0. the value of f(x) is the negative of the value of x. (vi) Signum function The function f:R→R defined by Fig 2.12 2. FigFig 2.12 (v) The Modulus function The function f: R→R defined by f(x) = |x| for each x ∈R is called modulus function..12.e. f(x) is equal to x. The domain of the signum function is R and the range is . But for negative values of x.x < 0 The graph of the modulus function is given in Fig 2.13. For each non-negative value of x.13 ⎧1. ⎧ x.if x > 0 ⎪ f (x ) = ⎨0. The graph of f is given in Fig 2.x ≥ 0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ − x.if x < 0 ⎩ is called the signum function.

we shall learn how to add two real functions. From the definition of [x].14 (vii) Greatest integer function The function f: R → R defined by f(x) = [x]. where X ⊂ R. (i) Addition of two real functions Let f : X → R and g : X → R be any two real functions. Fig 2. subtract a real function from another. The graph of the function is shown in Fig 2. we define (f + g): X → R by (f + g) (x) = f (x) + g (x). Fig 2.42 MATHEMATICS the set {–1. less than or equal to x. Such a function is called the greatest integer function. multiply a real function by a scalar (here by a scalar we mean a real number).2 Algebra of real functions In this Section. 1}.4. for all x ∈ X.15. 0.15 2. x ∈R assumes the value of the greatest integer. multiply two real functions and divide one real function by another.14. Then. we can see that [x] = –1 for –1 ≤ x < 0 [x] = 0 for 0 ≤ x < 1 [x] = 1 for 1 ≤ x < 2 [x] = 2 for 2 ≤ x < 3 and so on. . The graph of the signum function is given by the Fig 2.

⎛ f ⎞ x2 2 3 2 1 (fg) (x) = x (2x + 1) = 2x + x . x ∈X. (iv) Multiplication of two real functions The product (or multiplication) of two real functions f:X → R and g:X → R is a function fg:X → R defined by (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x). (f – g) (x) = x –x. (f –g) (x) = x – 2x – 1. (f – g) (x). we mean a real number. (iii) Multiplication by a scalar Let f : X→R be a real valued function and α be a scalar. Example 16 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = 2x + 1 be two real functions. Then. 1 3 ⎛ f ⎞ – x x( x ) = x 2 and ⎜ g ⎟ ( x ) = = x 2. (f –g) (x). The quotient of f by g denoted by ⎛ f ⎞ f ( x) . ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) = . ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) . provided g(x) ≠ 0. Here by scalar. where X ⊂ R. x ∈ X ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) ⎝g⎠ f g is a function defined by . we define (f – g) : X → R by (f–g) (x) = f(x) –g(x). Then the product α f is a function from X to R defined by (α f ) (x) = α f (x). Find (f + g) (x).x ≠ − 2x + 1 ⎝g⎠ 2 Example 17 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = x be two functions defined over the set of non- ⎛ f ⎞ negative real numbers. 2 2 (f + g) (x) = x + 2x + 1. This is also called pointwise multiplication. for all x ∈ X. ⎝g⎠ Solution We have (f + g) (x) = (fg) x = x + x. (v) Quotient of two real functions Let f and g be two real functions defined from X→R where X ⊂ R.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 43 (ii) Subtraction of a real function from another Let f : X → R and g: X → R be any two real functions. for all x ∈ X. ⎝g⎠ 2 Solution We have. (fg) (x). (fg) (x) and ⎜ ⎟ (x).x≠0 ⎝ ⎠ x .Find ⎛ f ⎞ (f + g) (x).

(ii) f(x) = 9 − x2 .1).3). (8. (14.3 1. (17.. (i) f (x) = 2 – 3x. x ∈ R. Above function is an example of a linear function.5). 4.1)} (ii) {(2.. etc.5)}. Remark The function f defined by f(x) = mx + c . (ii) f (7)..1). A function f is defined by f(x) = 2x –5.. Therefore.1)..44 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 2. (4. Solution Here f(0) = 10. x ∈ R. (ii) t(28) (iii) 9C + 32. 2. is called linear function. . (14.16 . (6. x is a real number. Write down the values of (i) f (0). f(1) = 11. Fig 2. (8. and f(–1) = 9. f(–10) = 0 and so on. 5 t(–10) (iv) The value of C. (i) {(2. Find the range of each of the following functions. Miscellaneous Examples Example 18 Let R be the set of real numbers.3). f(–2) = 8. x > 0. Find the domain and range of the following real functions: (i) f(x) = – x 3.16.. The function ‘t’ which maps temperature in degree Celsius into temperature in degree Fahrenheit is defined by t(C) = Find (i) t(0) 5.1). If it is a function. Define the real function f: R→R by f(x) = x + 10 and sketch the graph of this function. (iii) f (x) = x. determine its domain and range. f(10) = 20.7)} (iii) {(1. (5. when t(C) = 212. . (10. (ii) f (x) = x2 + 2.6). (11. x is a real number.4). (2. (1.1). shape of the graph of the given function assumes the form as shown in Fig 2. (12.5). f(2) = 12. Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. (iii) f (–3).2). where m and c are constants.1)..

This gives m = 2 and f(x) = 2x – 1. x < 0 ⎪ 1 . a – a = 0 ∈ Z. – 1) ∈ R.c) ∈ R Example 20 Let f = {(1. So. (–1. the function f (x) is defined for all real numbers except at x = 4 and x = 1.1).17 Fig 2.b) ∈ R implies that (b. f(x) = 1 – x. f (x) = mx + c. since (1. Find f(x). f(– 3) =1 – (– 3) = 4. Also. 1). (a. a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) ∈ Z. (b. a) ∈ R (iii) (a. if follows that (a. c) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. Example 22 The function f is defined by ⎧1− x. x=0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎪ x + 1. So. and f(1) = 2.a) ∈ R for all a ∈ Q (ii) (a. f (1) = m + c = 1 and f (0) = c = –1. b – a ∈ Z.b) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. b – c ∈ Z.c) ∈R Solution (i) Since.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 45 Example 19 Let R be a relation from Q to Q defined by R = {(a. –3)} be a linear function from Z into Z. Thus. f (3) = 4 f(4) = 5 and so on for f(x) = x + 1. (0. f(– 2) = 1 – (– 2) = 3 f(–1) = 1 – (–1) = 2. 4}.b) ∈ R and (b. b) and (b. Example 21 Find the domain of the function f (x) = 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 x2 – 5x + 4 Solution Since x –5x + 4 = (x – 4) (x –1).3). x > 0 ⎩ Draw the graph of f (x). (2. –1). Therefore. Solution Since f is a linear function. Therefore. (ii) (a. x > 0.17 . a) ∈ R.b): a. this gives f(– 4) = 1 – (– 4) = 5. (0. Solution Here. f (2) = 3.b ∈ Q and a – b ∈ Z}. x < 0. a) ∈ R (iii) (a. etc. Hence the domain of f is R – {1. Show that (i) (a. the graph of f is as shown in Fig 2.c) ∈ R implies that (a.

Determine the range 6.2. b) : a. Determine a. If f (x) = x .b) ∈ R. (1. b. for all a ∈ N (ii) (a.b) ∈ R.3).9). f – g and f g. (–1.11.11)} Are the following true? (i) f is a relation from A to B (ii) f is a function from A to B. B = {1. 2 ≤ x ≤ 10 ⎩ Show that f is a function and g is not a function. Let 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩⎝ 1 + x ⎠ ⎭ of f.15. Let f = {(1. (0. 4. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = x – 1 . 8. (3. Let A ={1.5). Justify your answer in each case. Find the domain of the function f (x) = x2 + 2 x + 1 . (4. ⎧⎛ ⎫ x2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ f = ⎨⎜ x.1). Let R be a relation from N to N defined by R = {(a. find 2 f (1.4}. 2 .0 ≤ x ≤ 3 ⎪ f (x) = ⎨ 1.1).46 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 ⎧ x2 . x 2 – 8 x + 12 ( x − 1) .3. –3)} be a function from Z to Z defined by f(x) = ax + b.c) ∈ R implies (a.1 – 1) 3. implies (b.16} and f = {(1. (2. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = 5. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 ⎪ g ( x) = ⎨ The relation g is defined by ⎪3x .1) – f (1) . (2. Let f. (b. Are the following true? (i) (a.c) ∈ R. 10. The relation f is defined by ⎪3 x. b ∈N and a = b }.5.9. 7.–1).5). 2. 9. g(x) = 2x – 3.a) ∈ R. Find f + g.3 ≤ x ≤10 ⎩ ⎧x2 . respectively by f(x) = x + 1. (2.a) ∈ R (iii) (a. b. for some integers a. g : R→R be defined. Justify your answer in each case. ⎟ : x ∈ R ⎬ be a function from R into R.

y. then a = x and b = y. b) = (x. y ∈ R} and R × R × R = (x.12.The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Ordered pair A pair of elements grouped together in a particular order. Summary In this Chapter. The range of the relation R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R. b): a ∈ A.13} and let f : A→N be defined by f (n) = the highest prime factor of n. b ∈ B} In particular R × R = {(x. b ∈ Z}. where (x.10. Cartesian product A × B of two sets A and B is given by A × B = {(a. A×φ=φ In general. where f(x) = y. y. The range of the function is the set of images. Let A = {9. y): x. z): x. Let f be the subset of Z × Z defined by f = {(ab. The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R. a + b) : a.11. . A × B ≠ B × A. y) ∈ R. Relation A relation R from a set A to a set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B obtained by describing a relationship between the first element x and the second element y of the ordered pairs in A × B. then n(A × B) = pq. z ∈ R} If (a. 12. We write f: A→B. Function A function f from a set A to a set B is a specific type of relation for which every element x of set A has one and only one image y in set B. If n(A) = p and n(B) = q. y). The image of an element x under a relation R is given by y. A is the domain and B is the codomain of f. we studied about relations and functions.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 47 11. Is f a function from Z to Z? Justify your answer. Find the range of f.

for the first time deliberately assigned a specialised use of the term function in the analytical sense. Leibnitz replied showing his approval. Algebra of functions For functions f : X → R and g : X → R. x ∈ X. Function is found in English in 1779 in Chambers’ Cylopaedia: “The term function is used in algebra. 1698. seu de fuctionibus” written by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) in 1673. g(x) ≠ 0. (f.48 MATHEMATICS A real function has the set of real numbers or one of its subsets both as its domain and as its range. for an analytical expression any way compounded of a variable quantity. x ∈ X. x ∈ X. we have (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x).g (x). x ∈ X. Johan Bernoulli. = k f (x) ). He considered a function in terms of “mathematical job” – the “employee” being just a curve. in a letter to Leibnitz. f f ( x) ( x) = g ( x) . On July 5.g) (x) (kf) (x) = f (x) . x ∈ X. — — . or constant quantities”. Leibnitz used the word in the non-analytical sense. g Historical Note The word FUNCTION first appears in a Latin manuscript “Methodus tangentium inversa. (f – g) (x) = f (x) – g(x). At the end of that month. and of numbers.

) angled triangle. trigonometry is used in many areas such as the science of seismology. It was studied by sea captains for navigation.2 Angles Angle is a measure of rotation of a given ray about its initial point. surveyor to map out the new lands. designing electric circuits. 3.Chapter 3 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS A mathematician knows how to solve a problem. he can not solve it. predicting the heights of tides in the ocean.1 . – MILNE 3. Currently. describing the state of an atom. we will generalise the concept of trigonometric ratios to trigonometric functions and study their properties.1 Introduction The word ‘trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘trigon’ and ‘metron’ and it means ‘measuring the sides of a triangle’. we have studied the trigonometric Arya Bhatt ratios of acute angles as the ratio of the sides of a right (476-550 B. The subject was originally developed to solve geometric problems involving triangles. We have also studied the trigonometric identities and application of trigonometric ratios in solving the problems related to heights and distances. In earlier classes.C. by engineers and others. analysing a musical tone and in many other areas. The original ray is Vertex Fig 3. In this Chapter.

1′ = 60″ Some of the angles whose measures are 360°. The definition of an angle suggests a unit. This is often convenient for large angles. the angle is said to be positive and if the direction of rotation is clockwise. viz. A degree is divided into 60 minutes. viz. th Fig 3. and a minute is divided into 60 seconds . The point of rotation is called the vertex. the angle is said to have a measure of one degree.3 . and one sixtieth of a minute is called a second. written as 1°.1). For example. 1° = 60′. written as 1′. We shall describe two other units of measurement of an angle which are most commonly used.2. written as 1″. – 30°. then the angle is negative (Fig 3. There are several units for Fig 3.2.50 MATHEMATICS called the initial side and the final position of the ray after rotation is called the terminal side of the angle. Thus. degree measure and radian measure. 420°. 270°. we can say that a rapidly spinning wheel is making an angle of say 15 revolution per second.3. – 420° are shown in Fig 3.2 measuring angles. ⎛ 1 ⎞ 3.180°. The measure of an angle is the amount of rotation performed to get the terminal side from the initial side. If the direction of rotation is anticlockwise. one complete revolution from the position of the initial side as indicated in Fig 3. One sixtieth of a degree is called a minute.1 Degree measure If a rotation from the initial side to terminal side is ⎜ ⎟ of ⎝ 360 ⎠ a revolution.

2 2 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig 3. The figures show the angles whose measures are 1 radian. It is well-known that equal arcs of a circle subtend equal angle at the centre. Since in a circle of radius r. Angle subtended at the centre by an arc of length 1 unit in a unit circle (circle of radius 1 unit) is said to have a measure of 1 radian. More generally. an arc of length l subtends an angle θ radian at the centre. OA is the initial side and OB is the terminal side. Thus.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 51 3. one complete revolution of the initial side subtends an angle of 2π radian. r . an arc of length r will subtend an angle of 1 radian. an arc of length l will subtend an angle whose measure is radian. –1 radian.2. In the Fig 3. called the radian measure.4(i) to (iv). Thus.4 (i) to (iv) We know that the circumference of a circle of radius 1 unit is 2π. 1 1 1 radian and –1 radian. in a circle of radius r.2 Radian measure There is another unit for measurement of an angle. if in r a circle of radius r. an arc of length r subtends an angle whose measure is 1 l radian. we have θ = l or l = r θ.

we have 7 1 radian = 180° = 57° 16′ approximately. radian measures and real numbers can be considered as one and the same. Then the length of an arc of the circle will give the radian measure of the angle which the arc will subtend at the centre of the circle.5 3.4 Relation between degree and radian Since a circle subtends at the centre an angle whose radian measure is 2π and its degree measure is 360°. If we rope the line AP in the anticlockwise direction along the circle.52 MATHEMATICS 3. then every real number will correspond to a radian measure and conversely.2. Using approximate value of π as 22 . Let the point A represent the real number zero. P 2 1 1 A 0 − −1 − −2 Q O Fig 3. and AQ in the clockwise direction. AP represents positive real number and AQ represents negative real numbers (Fig 3. Let A be any point on the circle. π Also 1° = π radian = 0.2. Thus.01746 radian approximately.3 Relation between radian and real numbers Consider the unit circle with centre O. Consider OA as initial side of an angle. Consider the line PAQ which is tangent to the circle at A. 180 The relation between degree measures and radian measure of some common angles are given in the following table: Degree Radian 30° 45° 60° 90° 180° π 270° 360° 2π π 6 π 4 π 3 π 2 3π 2 . it follows that 2π radian = 360° or π radian = 180° The above relation enables us to express a radian measure in terms of degree measure and a degree measure in terms of radian measure.5).

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 53 Notational Convention Since angles are measured either in degrees or in radians.4 cm (use π = 22 ). the word ‘radian’ is frequently π π = 45° are written with the understanding that π and 4 4 are radian measures. × 3 180 540 3 121π radian. 6 radians = 343° 38′ 11″ approximately. we mean the angle whose degree measure is θ and whenever we write angle β. Hence Therefore 40° 20′ = 40 121 1 π 121π degree = radian = radian. Thus. 7 . Hence 6 radians = 1080 × 7 180 degree × 6 degree = π 22 7 degree 11 = 343° + = 343 7 × 60 minute [as 1° = 60′] 11 [as 1′ = 60″] = 343° + 38′ + Hence 2 minute 11 = 343° + 38′ + 10. Note that when an angle is expressed in radians. 540 40° 20′ = Example 2 Convert 6 radians into degree measure. we mean the angle whose radian measure is β.9″ = 343°38′ 11″ approximately. we adopt the convention that whenever we write angle θ°. Example 3 Find the radius of the circle in which a central angle of 60° intercepts an arc of length 37. π = 180° and Radian measure = Degree measure = π Degree measure 180 × 180 × Radian measure π Example 1 Convert 40° 20′ into radian measure. Thus. Solution We know that π radian = 180°. Solution We know that 180° = π radian. we can say that omitted.

the minute hand turns through or 2 2 of a revolution.54 MATHEMATICS Solution Here l = 37. Given that θ1 = 65° = and π 13π × 65 = radian 180 36 π 22π × 110 = radian 180 36 θ2 = 110° = Let l be the length of each of the arc. by r = r= 60π π radian = 180 3 l .28 cm. Then l = r1θ1 = r2θ2.14 cm = 6. find the ratio of their radii. in 40 minutes. Solution Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the two circles.1 1.5 cm long.e. Find the radian measures corresponding to the following degree measures: (i) 25° (ii) – 47°30′ (iii) 240° (iv) 520° . we have θ 37. Therefore. 3 Example 5 If the arcs of the same lengths in two circles subtend angles 65°and 110° at the centre. Therefore.14).7 cm π 22 Example 4 The minute hand of a watch is 1. the minute hand of a watch completes one revolution.4×3×7 = = 35.. EXERCISE 3. How far does its tip move in 40 minutes? (Use π = 3. i. r = 36 36 13 2 Hence r1 : r2 = 22 : 13. Solution In 60 minutes. which gives r1 22 13π 22π × r1 = × r2 . the required distance travelled is given by 3 l = r θ = 1.5 × 4π cm = 2π cm = 2 × 3. θ = × 360° 3 3 4π radian. Hence.4×3 37.4 cm and θ = 60° = Hence.

5π 7π (iv) 3 6 A wheel makes 360 revolutions in one minute. 6.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 55 2. we have OM2 + MP2 = OP2 or a2 + b2 = 1 Thus. 2 Fig 3. for every point on the unit circle. arcs of the same length subtend angles 60° and 75° at the centre. 4.. find the ratio of their radii. we have a2 + b2 = 1 or cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 Since one complete revolution subtends an angle of 2π radian at the centre of the circle. Find the degree measures corresponding to the following radian measurs (Use π = (i) 22 ). ∠AOB = π . length of arc AP = x (Fig 3. 22 ). If in two circles. 7 In a circle of diameter 40 cm.3 Trigonometric Functions In earlier classes. We define cos x = a and sin x = b Since ∆OMP is a right triangle.6 . Consider a unit circle with centre at origin of the coordinate axes. b) be any point on the circle with angle AOP = x radian. we have studied trigonometric ratios for acute angles as the ratio of sides of a right angled triangle. the length of a chord is 20 cm. i. Let P (a.6). Through how many radians does it turn in one second? Find the degree measure of the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of radius 100 cm by an arc of length 22 cm (Use π = 11 16 5. Find the length of minor arc of the chord. Find the angle in radian through which a pendulum swings if its length is 75 cm and th e tip describes an arc of length (i) 10 cm (ii) 15 cm (iii) 21 cm 3. 7 (ii) – 4 (iii) 3.e. We will now extend the definition of trigonometric ratios to any angle in terms of radian measure and study them as trigonometric functions. 7.

sin (2nπ + x) = sin x . i. the values of sine and cosine functions do not change. ± 3π.± . where n is any integer π. Thus. if x = ± multiple of π 3π 5π . Thus 2 sin x = 0 implies x = nπ. where n is any integer. tan x = 2 cos x cos x cot x = .56 MATHEMATICS 3π π . . i.. sin x = 0. (1. respectively. 2 We now define other trigonometric functions in terms of sine and cosine functions: 1 .± . x ≠ nπ. –1). n ∈ Z Further. ± 2π . x ≠ (2n +1) . (–1. where n is any integer. . 0) and (0. x ≠ (2n + 1) . for quadrantal angles. Thus. n ∈ Z . where n is any integer... sin x cosec x = . if x = 0. where n is any integer. 1). π cos x = 0 implies x = (2n + 1) . cos x vanishes when x is an odd 2 2 2 π . we also observe that if x increases (or decreases) by any integral multiple of 2π. 2 cos x sin x π . Therefore.. if we take one complete revolution from the point P.. 0). C and D are. when x is an integral multiple of π cos and cos x = 0. cos (2nπ + x) = cos x . The coordinates of the points A. (0. sin π =0 2 cosπ = − 1 π =1 2 sinπ = 0 3π 3π =0 sin = –1 2 2 cos 2π = 1 sin 2π = 0 Now.. sin x 1 π sec x = . x ≠ n π.e. B. ± π. we again come back to same point P. All angles which are integral multiples of are called 2 2 quadrantal angles. we have ∠AOC = π and ∠AOD = cos 0° = 1 cos sin 0° = 0. where n is any integer..e.

sec x and cot x are the reciprocal of the values of sin x. 60° and 90°. we have the following table: 0° sin cos tan 0 1 0 π 6 π 4 1 2 1 2 π 3 3 2 π 2 1 0 not defined π 3π 2 –1 0 not defined 2π 1 2 3 2 1 3 0 –1 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 1 The values of cosec x. The values of trigonometric functions for these angles are same as that of trigonometric ratios studied in earlier classes. b) be a point on the unit circle with centre at the origin such that ∠AOP = x. 45°.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 57 We have shown that for all real x. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 It follows that 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x (why?) (why?) In earlier classes. If ∠AOQ = – x.3. b) on the unit circle. cos x and tan x.7 . Therefore cos (– x) = cos x and sin (– x) = – sin x Since for every point P (a.7). Thus.1 Sign of trigonometric functions Let P (a. then the coordinates of the point Q will be (a. 30°. –b) (Fig 3. we have discussed the values of trigonometric ratios for 0°. – 1 ≤ a ≤ 1 and Fig 3. respectively. 3.

Therefore.. negative for < x < and also 2 2 2 π < x < 2π. 1].3. we have the following table. we have – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 and –1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 for all x. Similarly. and negative for π π 3π . Further. . we observe that they are defined for all real numbers.e. – 1 ≤ y ≤ 1. i. in the 2 π < x <π) a is negative and b is positive. – 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 and – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 Thus. cos x is positive for 0 < x < positive for 3π < x < 2π. domain of y = sin x and y = cos x is the set of all real numbers and range is the interval [–1. we observe that for each real number x. we can find the signs of other trigonometric 2 functions in different quadrants. sin x is positive for 0 < x < π. We have learnt in previous classes that in the first quadrant (0 < x < second quadrant ( (π < x < π ) a and b are both positive. In fact. I sin x cos x tan x cosec x sec x cot x + + + + + + II + – – + – – III – – + – – + IV – + – – + – 3.2 Domain and range of trigonometric functions From the definition of sine and cosine functions. in the third quadrant 2 3π 3π ) a and b are both negative and in the fourth quadrant ( < x < 2π) a is 2 2 positive and b is negative.58 MATHEMATICS – 1 ≤ b ≤ 1. Likewise.

we can discuss the behaviour of other trigonometric functions.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 59 1 sin x . We further observe that in the first quadrant. n ∈ Z} and range is the set of all real numbers. 2 I quadrant sin cos tan cot sec increases from 0 to 1 II quadrant decreases from 1 to 0 III quadrant IV quadrant decreases from 0 to –1 increases from –1 to 0 decreases from 1 to 0 decreases from 0 to – 1 increases from –1 to 0 increases from 0 to 1 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0to –∞ increases from 1 to ∞ increases from –∞to–1 decreases from –1to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from –∞to–1 decreases from–1to–∞ cosec decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from 1 to ∞ Similarly. In the 2 π . sin x increases from –1 to 0 as x increases from to 2π. n ∈ Z} and range is the set {y : y ∈ R. n ∈ Z} and range is the set 2 {y : y ∈ R. y ≤ – 1or y ≥ 1}. The domain of y = tan x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2n + 1) π . The domain of 2 y = cot x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π. the domain of y = cosec x is the set { x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π. as x increases from π to π to π. we have the following table: Remark In the above table. Similarly. sin x decreases from 1 to 0. sin x decreases from 0 to –1and finally. In fact. the domain Since cosec x = of y = sec x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2n + 1) π . y ≥ 1 or y ≤ – 1}. n ∈ Z} and the range is the set of all real numbers. in 2 3π the fourth quadrant. the statement tan x increases from 0 to ∞ (infinity) for 0<x< π π simply means that tan x increases as x increases for 0 < x < and 2 2 . as x increases from third quadrant. sin x 2 3π . as x increases from 0 to increases from 0 to 1.

Hence. The symbols ∞ and – ∞ simply specify certain types of behaviour of functions and variables. 2π) and assumes arbitrarily large negative values as 2 x approaches to 2π.8 Fig 3. Similarly.9 Fig 3. We Fig 3.11 . values of cosec x and sec x will also repeat after an interval of 2π.60 MATHEMATICS assumes arbitraily large positive values as x approaches to π . We have already seen that values of sin x and cos x repeats after an interval of 2π.10 Fig 3. to say that 2 cosec x decreases from –1 to – ∞ (minus infinity) in the fourth quadrant means that cosec x decreases for x ∈ ( 3π .

x lies in the third quadrant.12 Fig 3. we have sec x = − 5 3 sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.e. values of tan x will repeat after an interval of π.13 shall see in the next section that tan (π + x) = tan x. The graph of these functions are given above: Example 6 If cos x = – 3 .. its values will also repeat after an interval of π. Hence. Using this knowledge and behaviour of trigonometic functions. sin2 x = 1 – cos2 x sin2 x = 1 – sin x = ± 16 9 = 25 25 4 5 Since x lies in third quadrant. Therefore sin x = – which also gives cosec x = – 4 5 5 4 . sin x is negative. i.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 61 Fig 3. Solution Since cos x = − Now or Hence 3 5 . we can sketch the graph of these functions. Since cot x is reciprocal of tan x. find the values of other five 5 trigonometric functions.

Therefore sec x = – which also gives cos x = − Further. we have sin x = tan x cos x = (– and cosec x = 1 13 = . 3 Example 8 Find the value of sin Solution We know that values of sin x repeats after an interval of 2π. we have tan x = – 5 12 144 169 = 25 25 sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + sec x = ± 13 5 13 . x lies in second quadrant.62 MATHEMATICS Further. we have tan x = sin x 4 cos x 3 = and cot x = = . 3 3 3 2 . sec x will be negative. 4 cos x 3 sin x 5 . Solution Now Hence Since cot x = – 12 5 . 5 5 13 12 5 12 ) × (– )= 5 13 13 Since x lies in second quadrant. find the values of other five 12 Example 7 If cot x = – trigonometric functions. sin x 12 31π . Therefore sin 31π π π 3 = sin (10π + ) = sin = .

5 5 5. 12 Find the values of the trigonometric functions in Exercises 6 to 10. x lies in second quadrant.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 63 Example 9 Find the value of cos (–1710°). Therefore. cot x = 4. cot (– 3. sin 765° 8. tan x = – . The basic results in this connection are called trigonometric identities. sin (– x) = – sin x 2. cos (–1710°) = cos (–1710° + 5 × 360°) = cos (–1710° + 1800°) = cos 90° = 0. cosec (– 1410°) sin (– 19π 3 15π ) 4 11π ) 3 10. cos (– x) = cos x We shall now prove some more results: . we shall derive expressions for trigonometric functions of the sum and difference of two numbers (angles) and related expressions. Solution We know that values of cos x repeats after an interval of 2π or 360°. x lies in fourth quadrant. 9. 5 3 . sec x = 1 . tan 7. sin x = 3.2 Find the values of other five trigonometric functions in Exercises 1 to 5. We have seen that 1. 4 13 . x lies in second quadrant. 6. 2 3 . EXERCISE 3. x lies in third quadrant. 1.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles In this Section. cos x = – 2. x lies in third quadrant.

Therefore. P1P3 and P2P4 are equal. P 2 . cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Consider the unit circle with centre at the origin. P 3 and P 4 will have the coordinates P 1 (cos x. sin x). sin (– y)] and P4 (1. Therefore. P 2 P 4 2 = [1 – cos (x + y)] 2 + [0 – sin (x + y)]2 = 1 – 2cos (x + y) + cos2 (x + y) + sin2 (x + y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y) . They are congruent (Why?). Fig 3.14). Then (x + y) is the angle P4OP2. 0) (Fig 3. Also let (– y) be the angle P4OP3. sin (x + y)]. Let x be the angle P4OP1and y be the angle P1OP2.14 Consider the triangles P1OP3 and P2OP4. By using distance formula.64 MATHEMATICS 3. P3 [cos (– y). P 1 . we get P 1 P 3 2 = [cos x – cos (– y)]2 + [sin x – sin(–y]2 = (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x + sin y)2 = cos2 + cos2 y – 2 cos x cos y + sin2 x + sin2 y + 2sin x sin y = 2 – 2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) (Why?) Also. P2 [cos (x + y).

we get the following results: = cos ( π cos ( + x ) = – sin x 2 cos (π – x) = – cos x π π sin ( + x ) = cos x 2 sin (π – x) = sin x π . we get the result. sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y We know that ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin (x + y) = cos ⎜ − (x + y ) ⎟ = cos ⎜ ( − x) − y ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π π − x ) cos y + sin ( − x) sin y 2 2 = sin x cos y + cos x sin y 8. we get cos (x + (– y)) = cos x cos (– y) – sin x sin (– y) or cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y 5. By taking suitable values of x and y in the identities 3. 4. 2 –2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y). in the Identity 7. 2 2 2 π – x ) = cos x 2 Using the Identity 5. sin ( π π π − x ) = cos cos x + sin sin x = sin x. 7 and 8.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 65 Since P 1 P 3 = P2P4. cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Replacing y by – y in identity 3. we get 2 If we replace x by cos ( 6. ⎠⎦ 2 ⎣2 ⎝ 2 7. 9. Therefore. cos ( π – x ) = sin x 2 π and y by x in Identity (4). we have sin ( ⎡π ⎛ π ⎞⎤ π − x ) = cos ⎢ − ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎥ = cos x. we have P1P32 = P2P42. sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y If we replace y by –y. Hence cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 4.

66

MATHEMATICS

π cos (π + x) = – cos x π cos (2π – x) = cos x

π sin (π + x) = – sin x π sin (2π – x) = – sin x

Similar results for tan x, cot x, sec x and cosec x can be obtianed from the results of sin x and cos x. 10. If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) =

π , then 2

**tan x + tan y 1 – tan x tan y
**

π , it follows that cos x, 2

Since none of the x, y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of cos y and cos (x + y) are non-zero. Now tan (x + y) =

sin( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = . cos( x + y ) cos x cos y − sin x sin y

Dividing numerator and denominator by cos x cos y, we have

sin x cos y cos x sin y + cos x cos y cos x cos y tan (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y − cos x cos y cos x cos y

tan x + tan y = 1 – tan x tan y

11. tan ( x – y) =

tan x – tan y 1 + tan x tan y

If we replace y by – y in Identity 10, we get tan (x – y) = tan [x + (– y)] =

tan x + tan (− y ) tan x − tan y = 1 − tan x tan ( − y ) 1+ tan x tan y

12. If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is a multiple of π, then cot ( x + y) =

cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

67

Since, none of the x, y and (x + y) is multiple of π, we find that sin x sin y and sin (x + y) are non-zero. Now, cot ( x + y) =

cos ( x + y ) cos x cos y – sin x sin y = sin ( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y

Dividing numerator and denominator by sin x sin y, we have cot (x + y) =

**cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x
**

cot x cot y + 1 cot y – cot x

13. cot (x – y) =

**If we replace y by –y in identity 12, we get the result
**

1 – tan 2 x 14. cos 2x = cos x – sin x = 2 cos x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin x = 1 + tan 2 x

2 2 2

2

We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Replacing y by x, we get cos 2x = cos2x – sin2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = cos2 x – (1 – cos2 x) = 2 cos2x – 1 Again, cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 1 – sin2 x – sin2 x = 1 – 2 sin2 x. We have

cos2 x − sin 2 x cos 2x = cos x – sin x = cos2 x + sin 2 x

2 2

**Dividing each term by cos2 x, we get cos 2x =
**

1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x

15. sin 2x = 2 sinx cos x = We have

2tan x 1 + tan 2 x

sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Replacing y by x, we get sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. Again sin 2x =

2sin x cos x cos2 x + sin 2 x

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MATHEMATICS

Dividing each term by cos2 x, we get sin 2x =

2tan x 1 +tan 2 x

16. tan 2x = We know that

2tan x 1 – tan 2 x

**tan x + tan y tan (x + y) = 1 – tan x tan y
**

Replacing y by x , we get tan 2 x =

2 tan x 1− tan 2 x

17. sin 3x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x We have, sin 3x = sin (2x + x) = sin 2x cos x + cos 2x sin x = 2 sin x cos x cos x + (1 – 2sin2 x) sin x = 2 sin x (1 – sin2 x) + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 2 sin x – 2 sin3 x + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x 18. cos 3x = 4 cos3 x – 3 cos x We have, cos 3x = cos (2x +x) = cos 2x cos x – sin 2x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2sin x cos x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2cos x (1 – cos2 x) = 2cos3 x – cos x – 2cos x + 2 cos3 x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x. 19. tan 3 x =

3 tan x – tan 3 x 1 – 3tan 2 x

**We have tan 3x =tan (2x + x)
**

2tan x + tan x 1 – tan 2 x tan 2 x + tan x = = 1 – tan 2 x tan x 1 – 2tan x . tan x 1 – tan 2 x

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

69

=

2tan x + tan x – tan 3 x 3 tan x – tan 3 x = 1 – tan 2 x – 2tan 2 x 1 – 3tan 2 x

20.

(i) cos x + cos y = 2cos

x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2

(ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos

x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2

... (1) ... (2) ... ... ... ... (3) (4) (5) (6)

We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y and cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Adding and subtracting (1) and (2), we get cos (x + y) + cos(x – y) = 2 cos x cos y and cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) = – 2 sin x sin y Further sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y Adding and subtracting (5) and (6), we get sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) = 2 sin x cos y sin (x + y) – sin (x – y) = 2cos x sin y Let x + y = θ and x – y = φ. Therefore

... (7) ... (8)

⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ x =⎜ ⎟ and y = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Substituting the values of x and y in (3), (4), (7) and (8), we get

**⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ −φ ⎞ cos θ + cos φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

⎛θ+φ⎞ ⎛θ – φ⎞ cos θ – cos φ = – 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ + sin φ = 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

70

MATHEMATICS

⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ – sin φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Since θ and φ can take any real values, we can replace θ by x and φ by y. Thus, we get

cos x + cos y = 2 cos sin x + sin y = 2 sin

x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin ; cos x – cos y = – 2 sin , 2 2 2 2

x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin ; sin x – sin y = 2 cos . 2 2 2 2

Remarks As a part of identities given in 20, we can prove the following results: 21. (i) 2 cos x cos y = cos (x + y) + cos (x – y) (ii) –2 sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2 sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y). Example 10 Prove that

**π π 5π π 3sin sec − 4sin cot =1 6 3 6 4 Solution We have π π 5π π L.H.S. = 3sin sec − 4sin cot 6 3 6 4
**

=3×

π⎞ ⎛ 1 π × 2 – 4 sin ⎜ π − ⎟ × 1 = 3 – 4 sin 6⎠ 2 6 ⎝

**1 = 1 = R.H.S. 2 Example 11 Find the value of sin 15°.
**

=3–4× Solution We have sin 15° = sin (45° – 30°) = sin 45° cos 30° – cos 45° sin 30° =

1 3 1 1 3 –1 × − × = . 2 2 2 2 2 2

Example 12 Find the value of tan

13 π . 12

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

71

Solution We have tan

13 π = tan 12

**π⎞ π ⎛ ⎛π π⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ π + ⎟ = tan 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝4 6⎠
**

1 3 = 3 −1 = 2 − 3 1 3 +1 3

**π π 1− tan − tan 4 6 = = π π 1 + tan tan 1+ 4 6
**

Example 13 Prove that

**sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y .
**

Solution We have L.H.S.

=

sin (x + y) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = sin (x − y) sin x cos y − cos x sin y

Dividing the numerator and denominator by cos x cos y, we get

**sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y .
**

Example 14 Show that tan 3 x tan 2 x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2 x – tan x Solution We know that 3x = 2x + x Therefore, tan 3x = tan (2x + x) or

tan 3x =

tan 2 x + tan x 1– tan 2 x tan x

or tan 3x – tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 2x + tan x or tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x = tan 3x tan 2x tan x or tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x. Example 15 Prove that

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = 2 cos x ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

Solution Using the Identity 20(i), we have

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MATHEMATICS

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ L.H.S. = cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

π π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 4 +x+ 4 −x⎟ ⎜ 4 + x – ( 4 − x) ⎟ = 2cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

= 2 cos

1 π cos x = 2 × cos x = 2 4

2 cos x = R.H.S.

Example 16 Prove that

cos 7 x + cos 5 x = cot x sin 7 x – sin 5 x

**Solution Using the Identities 20 (i) and 20 (iv), we get
**

7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x cos cos x 2 2 = cot x = R.H.S. = = 7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x sin x 2cos sin 2 2 2cos

L.H.S.

Example 17 Prove that = Solution We have L.H.S. =

sin 5 x − 2sin 3x + sin x = tan x cos5 x − cos x

sin 5 x + sin x − 2sin 3x sin 5 x − 2sin 3 x + sin x = cos5 x − cos x cos5 x − cos x 2sin 3 x cos 2 x − 2sin 3 x sin 3 x (cos 2 x − 1) =– – 2sin 3x sin 2x sin 3x sin 2x

1 − cos 2 x 2sin 2 x = = tan x = R.H.S. sin 2 x 2sin x cos x

=

=

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

73

EXERCISE 3.3

Prove that: 1. sin2

2 3. cot

π 1 π π + cos2 – tan2 = – 6 3 4 2

2. 2sin2

7π π 3 π cos 2 = + cosec2 6 3 2 6

**π 5π π π π 2 3π + cosec + 3tan 2 = 6 + 2cos 2 + 2sec 2 = 10 4. 2sin 6 6 6 4 4 3 5. Find the value of: (i) sin 75° (ii) tan 15°
**

6. Prove the following:

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ − x ⎟ cos ⎜ − y ⎟ − sin ⎜ − x ⎟ sin ⎜ − y ⎟ = sin ( x + y) ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ + x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ = ⎛ 1 + tan ⎜ ⎛π ⎞ ⎝ 1 − tan tan ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ x⎞ ⎟ x⎠

2

7.

8.

cos (π + x) cos ( − x ) = cot 2 x ⎛π ⎞ sin (π − x) cos ⎜ + x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠

⎡ ⎤ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ 9. cos ⎜ + x ⎟ cos (2π + x) ⎢ cot ⎜ − x ⎟ + cot (2π + x) ⎥ = 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 10. sin (n + 1)x sin (n + 2)x + cos (n + 1)x cos (n + 2)x = cos x

11.

**⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ − cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = − 2 sin x ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠
**

13. cos2 2x – cos2 6x = sin 4x sin 8x

12. sin2 6x – sin2 4x = sin 2x sin 10x

**14. sin2 x + 2 sin 4x + sin 6x = 4 cos2 x sin 4x 15. cot 4x (sin 5x + sin 3x) = cot x (sin 5x – sin 3x) 16. 18. 20.
**

cos 9 x − cos 5 x sin 17 x − sin 3 x =− sin 2 x cos 10 x sin 5x + sin 3 x cos 5x + cos 3 x sin x + sin 3 x cos x + cos 3 x

17. 19. 21.

= tan 4 x = tan 2 x

**sin x − sin y cos x + cos y
**

2 2

= tan

x− y 2

sin x − sin 3x sin x − cos x

= 2 sin x

cos 4 x + cos 3x + cos 2 x sin 4 x + sin 3x + sin 2 x

= cot 3x

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MATHEMATICS

**22. cot x cot 2x – cot 2x cot 3x – cot 3x cot x = 1 23.
**

tan 4 x = 4tan x (1 − tan 2 x) 1 − 6 tan 2 x + tan 4 x

24.

cos 4x = 1 – 8sin2 x cos2 x

25. cos 6x = 32 cos6 x – 48cos4 x + 18 cos2 x – 1

3.5 Trigonometric Equations

Equations involving trigonometric functions of a variable are called trigonometric equations. In this Section, we shall find the solutions of such equations. We have already learnt that the values of sin x and cos x repeat after an interval of 2π and the values of tan x repeat after an interval of π. The solutions of a trigonometric equation for which 0 ≤ x < 2π are called principal solutions. The expression involving integer ‘n’ which gives all solutions of a trigonometric equation is called the general solution. We shall use ‘Z’ to denote the set of integers. The following examples will be helpful in solving trigonometric equations: Example 18 Find the principal solutions of the equation sin x =

3 2

.

Solution We know that, sin

2π π⎞ π 3 ⎛ π 3 = sin ⎜ π − ⎟ = sin = = and sin . 3 3⎠ 3 2 3 2 ⎝

Therefore, principal solutions are x =

π 2π and . 3 3 1 3

.

**Example 19 Find the principal solutions of the equation tan x = − Solution We know that, tan
**

π = 6

π⎞ π 1 ⎛ 1 . Thus, tan ⎜ π – ⎟ = – tan = – 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝ 3

and Thus

π⎞ π 1 ⎛ tan ⎜ 2π − ⎟ = − tan = − 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝

tan

5π 11π 1 = tan =− . 6 6 3

Therefore, principal solutions are

5π 11π and . 6 6 We will now find the general solutions of trigonometric equations. We have already

Hence sin x+ y 2 =0 or x− y x− y 2 =0 x+ y 2 = nπ.e.e. where n ∈ Z 2 2 2 i. where n ∈ Z π . –2 sin sin x+ y 2 x− y 2 x+ y π x− y sin =0 Thus Therefore i. where n ∈ Z.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 75 seen that: sin x =0 gives x = nπ. where n ∈ Z. where n∈Z Hence x = (2n + 1)π + (–1)2n + 1 y or x = 2nπ +(–1)2n y. implies x = 2nπ ± y. where n ∈ Z 2 x = 2nπ – y or x = 2nπ + y. where n ∈ Z Theorem 3 Prove that if x and y are not odd mulitple of tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. Combining these two results. where n ∈ Z. = (2n + 1) or Theorem 2 For any real numbers x and y. x = (2n + 1) π – y or x = 2nπ + y. where n ∈ Z Proof If cos x = cos y. 2 We shall now prove the following results: cos x =0 gives x = (2n + 1) Theorem 1 For any real numbers x and y.. where n ∈ Z = nπ or x = 2nπ ± y. sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (–1)n y. where n ∈ Z π .e. we get x = nπ + (–1)n y. cos x = cos y. then 2 . then sin x – sin y = 0 or 2cos which gives Therefore cos x+ y 2 x+ y 2 sin x− y 2 =0 = 0 or sin x− y 2 =0 = nπ. then cos x – cos y = 0 i. where n ∈ Z Proof If sin x = sin y.

e. which gives 3 4π .. tan 2 x = − cot ⎛ x + π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + x + ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝2 3⎠ ⎝ . 3⎠ ⎝ π⎞ ⎛π Solution We have. Example 21 Solve cos x = Solution We have. Solution We have sin x = – Hence sin x = sin = − sin π π⎞ 4π ⎛ = sin ⎜ π + ⎟ = sin 3 3⎠ 3 ⎝ 4π . where n ∈ Z.76 MATHEMATICS Proof or If tan x = tan y. 3 π⎞ ⎛ Example 22 Solve tan 2 x = − cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . x = nπ + y. 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n Note 4π 3 is one such value of x for which sin x = − . where n ∈ Z. then tan x – tan y = 0 sin x cos y − cos x sin y cos x cos y =0 which gives Therefore sin (x – y) = 0 (Why?) x – y = nπ. cos x = Therefore 1 2 other value of x for which sin x = − . The solutions obtained will be the same 2 although these may apparently look different. i. where n ∈ Z 3 2 Example 20 Find the solution of sin x = – 3 2 . 1 π = cos 2 3 x = 2nπ ± π . One may take any 3 2 3 .

Solution The equation can be written as sin 6 x + sin 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 or 2 sin 4 x cos 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 i. 6 Example 23 Solve sin 2x – sin4 x + sin 6x = 0. where n∈Z 6 5π . Hence i.e. sin 4x = 0 or cos 2 x = 1 2 π 3 sin4 x = 0 or cos 2 x = cos 4 x = nπ or 2 x = 2nπ ± x= π . 2 6 sin x = − . where n∈Z.e. where n∈Z. where n∈Z 3 nπ π or x = nπ ± .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 77 or Therefore or 5π ⎞ ⎛ tan2 x = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x = nπ + x + x = nπ + 5π . sin 4 x (2 cos 2 x − 1) = 0 Therefore i.e. 4 6 Example 24 Solve 2 cos2 x + 3 sin x = 0 Solution The equation can be written as 2 ( 1 − sin 2 x ) + 3 sin x = 0 or or Hence But Therefore 2 sin x − 3 sin x − 2 = 0 2 (2sinx + 1) (sinx − 2) = 0 sin x = − 1 or sin x = 2 2 sin x = 2 is not possible (Why?) 1 7π = sin .

sec x = 2 4. 5 Since x lies in second quadrant. the solution is given by x = nπ + ( − 1) n 7π . hence sin y is positive. cos x and cos y in (1). cos 3x + cos x – cos 2x = 0 7. sec2 2x = 1– tan 2x 9. Hence Now i. where n ∈ Z. cot x = − 3 Find the general solution for each of the following equations: 5.78 MATHEMATICS Hence. Therefore. sin 2x + cos x = 0 8. (1) = 16 25 4 cos x = ± . cos y = − 12 13 . Substituting . cos x is negative. where x and y both lie in second quadrant. cos x = − 4 5 144 169 = 25 169 sin2y = 1 – cos2y = 1 – sin y = ± 5 13 . sin y.. cosec x = – 2 3. Solution We know that sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Now Therefore cos2 x = 1 – sin2 x = 1 – 9 25 .4 Find the principal and general solutions of the following equations: 1. tan x = 3 2. cos 4 x = cos 2 x 6. we get . Example 25 If sin x = 3 . 5 13 Since y lies in second quadrant.. sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 Miscellaneous Examples 5 find the value of sin (x + y). 6 EXERCISE 3. sin y = the values of sin x.e.

H. 65 65 65 Example 26 Prove that Solution x 9x 5x cos 2 x cos − cos 3 x cos = sin 5 x sin . 2 2 2 We have x 1 ⎡ 9x ⎤ ⎢ 2cos 2 x cos 2 − 2cos 2 cos 3x ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ ⎛ x⎞ x⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 9x ⎞ ⎛ 9x ⎞⎤ ⎢ cos ⎜ 2 x + 2 ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − 2 ⎟ − cos ⎜ 2 + 3x ⎟ − cos ⎜ 2 − 3x ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1⎡ 5x 3x 15x 3x ⎤ 1 ⎡ 5x 15x ⎤ ⎢ cos 2 + cos 2 − cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ = 2 ⎢ cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ 2⎣ L. ⎝ 2⎠ 2 Example 27 Find the value of tan Solution Let x = Now π . 8 4 2 tan x 1 − tan 2 x tan 2 x = or π 2tan π 8 tan = 4 1 − tan 2 π 8 2y π . 8 π π .S.S.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 79 sin( x + y ) = 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ 5 × ⎜ − ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟× 5 ⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 13 = − 36 20 56 − =− . = = = ⎡ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫⎤ ⎪ 2 + 2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 − 2 ⎪⎥ 1⎢ ⎢ −2sin ⎨ ⎬ sin ⎨ ⎬⎥ = 2⎢ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎥ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5x ⎛ 5x ⎞ = − sin 5x sin ⎜ − ⎟ = sin 5x sin = R. Then 1 = 1− y2 8 Let y = tan .H. Then 2 x = .

cos and tan . π < x < 4 2 2 2 2 Solution Since π < x < Also Therefore. Example 28 If tan x = . Hence 8 8 tan π = 2 −1 . find the value of sin . sin Now Therefore Now Therefore or Again Therefore x 2 3π .80 MATHEMATICS or Therefore Since y2 + 2y – 1 = 0 y= −2 ± 2 2 2 = − 1± 2 π π lies in the first quadrant. 9 16 = 25 16 sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + cos2 x = 16 25 or cos x = – 4 5 (Why?) 2 sin 2 sin2 sin x 2 x 2 x 4 9 = 1 – cos x = 1 + = . 2 2 4 is positive and cos x 2 is negative. cos x is negative. 8 x x x 3 3π . y = tan is positve. 2 π x 3π < < . 5 5 2 = 9 10 = x 2 3 10 (Why?) 4 5 = 1 5 2cos2 cos2 = 1+ cos x = 1 − = 1 10 x 2 .

S. = 1 + cos 2 x + 2 = 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x + ⎟ 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 3 ⎠ 3 ⎠ .H. 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 Prove that: 1.H. ⎝ ⎝ + 2 2 1⎡ 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎛ ⎢ 3 + cos 2 x + cos ⎜ 2 x + 3 ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = 1⎡ 2π ⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ π ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos ⎜ π − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = = = 1⎡ π⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x − 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1 3 [3 + cos 2 x − cos 2 x ] = = R. 2. 3⎠ 3⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ We have L.S.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 81 or cos x 2 x 2 =− sin 1 10 x 2 = x 2 (Why?) ⎛ − 10 ⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ = – 3. 10 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 Hence tan = cos 2 Example 29 Solution π⎞ π⎞ 3 ⎛ ⎛ Prove that cos x + cos2 ⎜ x + ⎟ + cos 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ = . 2 cos π 9π 3π 5π cos + cos + cos =0 13 13 13 13 (sin 3x + sin x) sin x + (cos 3x – cos x) cos x = 0 .

(cos x + cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 cos2 4. sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x + sin 7x = 4 cos x cos 2x sin 4x 6. x in quadrant II 4 Summary If in a circle of radius r. an arc of length l subtends and angle of θ radians. (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 sin2 x+ y 2 x− y 2 5. (sin 7 x + sin 5 x ) + (sin 9 x + sin 3 x) = tan 6 x (cos 7 x + cos 5 x ) + (cos 9 x + cos 3 x ) x 2 7.82 MATHEMATICS 3. cos x 2 and tan x 2 in each of the following : 1 9. then l=rθ Radian measure = Degree measure = cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x cos (2nπ + x) = cos x sin (2nπ + x) = sin x sin (– x) = – sin x cos (– x) = cos x π × Degree measure 180 180 × Radian measure π . tan x = − . x in quadrant II 3 10. x in quadrant III 3 4 8. sin 3x + sin 2x – sin x = 4sin x cos Find sin x 2 cos 3x 2 . sin x = 1 . cos x = − .

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 83 cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y cos ( sin ( π − x ) = sin x 2 π − x ) = cos x 2 sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ = – sin x ⎝2 ⎠ cos (π – x) = – cos x cos (π + x) = – cos x cos (2π – x) = cos x ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ + x ⎟ = cos x ⎝2 ⎠ sin (π – x) = sin x sin (π + x) = – sin x sin (2π – x) = – sin x If none of the angles x. y and (x ± y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) = π . then 2 tan x + tan y 1 − tan x tan y tan x − tan y 1 + tan x tan y tan (x – y) = If none of the angles x. y and (x ± y) is a multiple of π. then cot (x + y) = cot x cot y − 1 cot y + cot x cot x cot y + 1 cot (x – y) = cot y − cot x cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 2cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x = 1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x .

where n ∈ Z. sin x = 0 gives x = nπ. 2 sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (– 1)n y. . implies x = 2nπ ± y. cos x = cos y. cos x = 0 gives x = (2n + 1) π .84 MATHEMATICS sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2tanx 1 − tan 2 x 2 tan x 1 + tan 2 x tan 2x = sin 3x = 3sin x – 4sin3 x cos 3x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x 3tan x − tan 3 x tan 3x = 1− 3tan 2 x (i) cos x + cos y = 2cos (ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2 sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 (i) 2cos x cos y = cos ( x + y) + cos ( x – y) (ii) – 2sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y). tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z.

D.) and Bhaskara II (1114 A. known as the sine of an angle. Brahmagupta (598 A. for arc sin x.W.).D. arc cos x. cos–1 x. etc. All this knowledge first went from India to middle-east and from there to Europe. 54°. Exact expressin for sines or cosines of 18°. Bhaskara I (about 600 A. The symbols sin–1 x.) got important results.. 72°.) gave formulae to find the values of sine functions for angles more than 90°.D.C.).) The names of Thales (about 600 B.D.. The Greeks had also started the study of trigonometry but their approach was so clumsy that when the Indian approach became known. the predecessor of the modern trigonometric functions. are given by Bhaskara II..TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 85 Historical Note The study of trigonometry was first started in India. He is credited with the determination of the height of a great pyramid in Egypt by measuring shadows of the pyramid and an auxiliary staff (or gnomon) of known height. — — . and comparing the ratios: H h = = tan (sun’s altitude) S s Thales is also said to have calculated the distance of a ship at sea through the proportionality of sides of similar triangles. Aryabhatta (476A. were suggested by the astronomer Sir John F. Problems on height and distance using the similarity property are also found in ancient Indian works. etc.) is invariably associated with height and distance problems. Hersehel (1813 A. 36°. and the introduction of the sine function represents the main contribution of the siddhantas (Sanskrit astronomical works) to the history of mathematics.D. it was immediately adopted throughout the world. The ancient Indian Mathematicians. In India.D. A sixteenth century Malayalam work Yuktibhasa (period) contains a proof for the expansion of sin (A + B). etc. Bhaskara I (600 A.

then the truth of (c) is established. Peano (ii) Any number divisible by two is an even number. deduction is the application of a general case to a particular case. we can say the word induction means the generalisation from particular cases or facts. – LAPLACE 4. To make this simple mathematical example. borrowed from the study of logic. (iii) Eight is an even number. where collecting and analysing data is the norm. valid deductive steps are derived and a proof may or may not be established. G . Newton was indebted to it for his theorem of the binomial and the principle of universal gravity. . (b) All men are mortal. often called a conjecture or a theorem in mathematics. we could write: (i) Eight is divisible by two. deduction in a nutshell is given a statement to be proven. is an argument expressed in three statements: (a) Socrates is a man. Thus.1 Introduction One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning. In contrast to deduction. i. (1858-1932) therefore. and example of deductive reasoning. inductive reasoning depends on working with each case. and developing a conjecture by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case.Chapter 4 PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION Analysis and natural philosopy owe their most important discoveries to this fruitful means. which is called induction.. in simple language. An informal. It is frequently used in mathematics and is a key aspect of scientific reasoning. Thus. therefore.e. (c) Socrates is mortal. If statements (a) and (b) are true.

Illustration Suppose we wish to find the formula for the sum of positive integers 1.1 When the first tile is pushed in the indicated direction.. 3. we use a form of complete induction called mathematical induction... it is sufficient to know that (a) The first tile falls. To be absolutely sure that all the tiles will fall. when n = 4 and so on and suppose that in some manner we are led to believe that the formula 1 + 2 + 3+. What is needed is some kind of chain reaction which will .. it follows that any subset of R that is an inductive set must contain N.. In fact.+ n = n ( n + 1) is the correct one. there are certain results or statements that are formulated in terms of n. as shown in Fig 4. N is the smallest subset of R with the following property: A set S is said to be an inductive set if 1∈ S and x + 1 ∈ S whenever x ∈ S. is known as the principle of mathematical induction.2 Motivation In mathematics.PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 87 In algebra or in other discipline of mathematics. and (b) In the event that any tile falls its successor necessarily falls.n. Since N is the smallest subset of R which is an inductive set.1. the set of natural numbers N is a special ordered subset of the real numbers. We know. a formula which will give the value of 1 + 2 + 3 when n = 3. 2 How can this formula actually be proved? We can. of course. where n is a positive integer. all the tiles will fall. To understand the basic principles of mathematical induction.. the value 1 + 2 + 3 + 4. Fig 4. suppose a set of thin rectangular tiles are placed on one end. verify the statement for as many positive integral values of n as we like. that is. 4. 2. To prove such statements the well-suited principle that is used–based on the specific technique. This is the underlying principle of mathematical induction. but this process will not prove the formula for all values of n.

Property (i) is simply a statement of fact.e. etc.. For example.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction Suppose there is a given statement P(n) involving the natural number n such that (i) The statement is true for n = 1.. then it is also true for n = k + 1. i. It does not assert that the given statement is true for n = k.e. i. The assumption that the given statement is true for n = k in this inductive step is called the inductive hypothesis. So. the sum of the first n odd natural numbers is the square of n. sum of the first three odd natural numbers is the square of third natural number and so on. This step is called the basic step.e. P(1) is true. The first step in a proof that uses mathematical induction is to prove that P (1) is true. only prove that conditional proposition: If the statement is true for n = k.e. but only that if it is true for n = k. Obviously 1 = 12.88 MATHEMATICS have the effect that once the formula is proved for a particular positive integer the formula will automatically follow for the next positive integer and the next indefinitely.. + (2n – 1) = n2 . i. P(4). from this pattern it appears that 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . Property (ii) is a conditional property.Thus. This is sometimes referred to as the inductive step.. i. and (ii) If the statement is true for n = k (where k is some positive integer). to prove that the property holds . then it is also true for n = k +1. then the statement is also true for n = k + 1. Such a reaction may be considered as produced by the method of mathematical induction. Here. frequently in mathematics. Let us write P(n): 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . P(1) is true... It is worth to be noted that the sum of the first two odd natural numbers is the square of second natural number. There may be situations when a statement is true for all n ≥ 4. a formula will be discovered that appears to fit a pattern like 1 = 12 =1 4 = 22 = 1 + 3 9 = 32 = 1 + 3 + 5 16 = 42 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7.e.. + (2n – 1) = n2. i. We wish to prove that P(n) is true for all n.. In this case. step 1 will start from n = 4 and we shall verify the result for n = 4. we suppose that P (k) is true for some . The next step is called the inductive step. P(n) is true for all natural numbers n. truth of P(k) implies the truth of P (k + 1). 4. Then.

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 89 positive integer k and we need to prove that P (k + 1) is true. 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 Solution Let the given statement be P(n). i.. P(1): 1 = 1(1 + 1) (2 × 1 + 1) 1× 2× 3 =1 which is true.. Example 1 For all n ≥ 1. Hence P(n) is true for all natural numbers n.. from the principle of mathematical induction. Since P (k) is true. P(n) : 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 = For n = 1. + (2k – 1) + {2(k +1) – 1} . (1) Consider 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + .. i. Now.. (1) k (k + 1)(2k + 1) 6 We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is also true. + (2k – 1) = k2 .. whenever P (k) is true.. Hence.. we have 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ..e.. .e. we have (12 +22 +32 +42 +…+k2 ) + (k + 1) 2 = k (k + 1)(2k + 1) + ( k + 1)2 6 [Using (1)] k (k + 1) (2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)2 = 6 = = (k + 1) (2k 2 + 7 k + 6) 6 (k + 1)( k + 1 + 1){2( k + 1) + 1} 6 Thus P(k + 1) is true. prove that 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 = n (n + 1)(2 n + 1) . 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ k2 = . (2) 2 2 [Using (1)] = k + (2k + 1) = (k + 1) Therefore. the statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers N.. P (k + 1) is true and the inductive proof is now completed. = 6 6 Assume that P(k) is true for some positive integers k..

Hence. Example 3 For all n ≥ 1.2 2. i. 21 >1.2 2..4 k (k + 1) ( k + 1) (k + 2) ⎡ 1 1 1 1 ⎤ 1 + + .2 2 1 +1 We note that P(1): Assume that P(k) is true for some natural numbers k.2 2. Hence P(1) is true.3 3.4 k ( k + 1) ⎦ ( k + 1) ( k + 2) ⎣ . + = ⎢ + ⎥+ 1. Assume that P(k) is true for any positive integers k. we get 2. Thus. Solution Let P(n): 2n > n When n =1... + = 1. + = 1. prove that 1 1 1 1 n + + + . + = 1..e. (1) > 2k = k + k > k + 1 Therefore. by principle of mathematical induction..4 n( n + 1) n + 1 1 1 1 = = . which is true.. Multiplying both sides of (1) by 2.2 2..e... (1) We need to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. 1.4 n(n + 1) n + 1 .. 1 1 1 1 k + + + ... P(n) is true for n = 1. P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true....3 3. + + 1.3 3. 2k > k We shall now prove that P(k +1) is true whenever P(k) is true. P(n) is true for every positive integer n. i. Solution We can write P(n): 1 1 1 1 n + + + .90 MATHEMATICS Example 2 Prove that 2n > n for all positive integers n. 2k > 2k i. We have = k 1 + k + 1 (k + 1)( k + 2) [Using (1)] .e.2 2.3 3.3 3.4 k ( k + 1) k + 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + .. 2 k+1 ..

Hence. prove that 7n – 3n is divisible by 4. for x > – 1. by the principle of mathematical induction. Thus.. Therefore .. by princlple of mathematical induction the statement is true for every positive integer n..e. We can write 7k – 3k = 4d. Therefore.3k + 7. Now 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) = 7(k + 1) – 7. since ( 1+x) ≥ (1 + x) for x > –1 Assume that P(k): (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx). Solution We can write P(n) : 7n – 3n is divisible by 4.e. we have (1 + x) k + 1 ≥ (1 + kx)(1 + x) i. we see that 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) is divisible by 4. (1) . Thus P(n) is true for n = 1 Let P(k) be true for some natural number k. where d ∈ N. where x > – 1. P(n) is true for all natural numbers. by using (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx). Example 4 For every positive integer n.3k – 3(k + 1) = 7(7k – 3k) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + 4. (3) . P(k) : 7k – 3k is divisible by 4.. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx + kx2).. i. Now. (2) . P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true. .PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 91 (k 2 + 2k + 1) k +1 k +1 k (k + 2) + 1 ( k + 1)2 = = = = = (k + 1) ( k + 2) k + 2 ( k + 1) + 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) ( k + 1) ( k + 2 ) Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. i.. We note that P(1): 71 – 31 = 4 which is divisile by 4. P(n): (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx).e. so (1+x) > 0. for all natural number n.. We want to prove that P(k + 1) is true for x > –1 whenever P(k) is true. Example 5 Prove that (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx). we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.. Consider the identity (1 + x)k + 1 = (1 + x)k (1 + x) Given that x > –1.3k = 4(7d + 3k) From the last line. x > – 1 is true. We note that P(n) is true when n = 1. Solution Let P(n) be the given statement.

of (1) is divisible by 24. Solution Let the statement P(n) be defined as P(n) : 2.5n – 5 is divisible by 24. Hence.5k – 5 = 24q.5k + 35 + 15. Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.7k + 3.7k+1 + 3.S. the statement in (2) is established.e.5 – 5 = 24. when q ∈ N .7k + 3.5k – 5 – 3.5k + 30 = 7 × 24q – 6 (5k – 5) = 7 × 24q – 6 (4p) [(5k – 5) is a multiple of 4 (why?)] = 7 × 24q – 24p = 24 (7q – p) = 24 × r. is some natural number. Hence. 51 – 5 = 7 [2.5k + 5] + 3.92 MATHEMATICS Here k is a natural number and x2 ≥ 0 so that kx2 ≥ 0.5n – 5 is divisible by 24.5k –5 = 7 × 24q – 21.7k . P(n) is true for all natural numbers. for all n ∈ N.7n + 3.5k+1 – 5 = 2. P(n) is true for all n ∈ N. (1) Now.5k + 5] + 15. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1.. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ [1 + (1 + k)x] Thus.. .7n + 3. 2. (2) The expresion on the R.H.5k . We have 2. Example 6 Prove that 2.. Assume that P(k) is true i.5k – 5 = 7 × 24q – 6. since 2.7 + 3. by principle of mathematical induction. Therefore (1 + x + kx + kx2) ≥ (1 + x + kx). and so we obtain (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx) i.e.5k . 5 – 5 = 7 [24q – 3. . r = 7q – p. 71 + 3. we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.. which is divisible by 24. by the principle of mathematical induction.

(1) We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. n∈N 3 2 We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 1 > 13 3 Assume that P(k) is true i. i... + k 2 + ( k + 1) > 2 ( ) k3 2 + ( k + 1) 3 [by (1)] = = 1 3 [k + 3k2 + 6k + 3] 3 1 1 [(k + 1)3 + 3k + 2] > (k + 1)3 3 3 Therefore. P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true. (1) ......PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 93 Example 7 Prove that n3 ..e. + k2 > k3 3 .. We have 12 + 22 + 32 + . Solution Let P(n) be the given statement i. + n2 > i. 12 + 22 + . P(n) : 12 + 22 + .... P(k) : 12 + 22 + . Example 8 Prove the rule of exponents (ab)n = anbn by using principle of mathematical induction for every natural number. + n2 > n3 .e. + k2 + (k + 1)2 = 12 + 22 + . we have (ab)k + 1 = (ab)k (ab) . Let P(k) be true.e.n∈N 3 Solution Let P(n) be the given statement. by mathematical induction P(n) is true for all n ∈ N...e... (ab)k = akbk We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. P(n) : (ab)n = anbn. Now. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since (ab)1 = a1b1. Hence.

22 + 3.1 Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 1. 3 8..+ (1 + 2 + 3 + . + n = 1 − n .7 +…+ (2n–1) (2n+1) = n(4n 2 + 6n − 1) . Hence.n) = (n + 1) .3. 4... 3 ⎣ ⎦ 7. a1) (bk .3 + 3. + = 2. P(n) is true for all n ∈ N. b1) = ak+1 . 4 ⎡ n( n + 1) (n + 2) ⎤ 6.. 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ..3 + 2. P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true.4 +…+ n.22 + .33 +…+ n.+n.2n = (n–1) 2n + 1 + 2.(n+1) = ⎢ ⎥.4. 1+ (1 + 2) + (1 + 2 + 3) + . 1. . 4 (2n − 1)3n +1 + 3 .11 (3n − 1)(3n + 2) (6n + 4) .4 3. 1. EXERCISE 4.3 + 2.5 n( n + 1) ( n + 2) 4( n + 1) ( n + 2) .32 + 3.. 1 1 1 1 n + + + .2. 9..5 + 5. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 1 1 2n 3. 1 + 3 + 32 + ..5 5..94 MATHEMATICS = (ak bk) (ab) = (ak . 1.2 + 2.. + = 1. 2 4 8 2 2 10.3n = n( n + 1) (n + 2) ( n + 3) . 1 1 1 1 n(n + 3) + + + ..3.. 1.4 +…+ n(n+1) (n+2) = 5. + 3n – 1 = (3n − 1) . 1.8 8. bk+1 [by (1)] Therefore. by principle of mathematical induction.2.. 2 2 ⎛ n(n + 1) ⎞ 2.3 + 3.2 + 2. 13 + 23 + 33 + … +n3 = ⎜ ⎟ .. 11.3 2.

1.⎜ 1 + ⎟ = (n + 1) .. 18. 22. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎛ (2n + 1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ . inductive reasoning depends on working with different cases and developing a conjective by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case. 3 1 1 1 1 n 16. 20.7 + 7. In contrast to deduction.5 5.. 8 19.. ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ n⎠ 15. + (3n − 2)(3n + 1) = (3n + 1) . (2n + 7) < (n + 3)2. Summary One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning.. in simple language we can say the word ‘induction’ means the generalisation from particular cases or facts. 21. 12 + 32 + 52 + …+ (2n–1)2 = n(2n − 1)(2n + 1) . 102n – 1 + 1 is divisible by 11. a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn-1 = a (r n − 1) . for which the correctness . x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y.. Thus. 9⎠ ⎝ n2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ . 1 + 2 + 3 +…+ n < 1 (2n + 1)2.10 + . 23. 41n – 14n is a multiple of 27. 17. The principle of mathematical induction is one such tool which can be used to prove a wide variety of mathematical statements.. Each such statement is assumed as P(n) associated with positive integer n.7 7. n (n + 1) (n + 5) is a multiple of 3.4 + 4. 1 1 1 1 n + + + ..PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 95 12.9 (2n + 1)(2n + 3) 3(2n + 3) . 24. 32n+2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 8. r −1 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 13.. + = 3. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 14.⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ( n + 1) .

Peano undertook the task of deducing the properties of natural numbers from a set of explicitly stated assumptions.96 MATHEMATICS for the case n = 1 is examined. proof by mathematical induction is not the invention of a particular individual at a fixed moment. The name induction was used by the English mathematician John Wallis. now known as Peano’s axioms. The French mathematician Blaise Pascal is credited with the origin of the principle of mathematical induction. Then assuming the truth of P(k) for some positive integer k. the truth of P (k+1) is established.The principle of mathematical induction is a restatement of one of the Peano’s axioms. He was the first person to define and name “mathematical induction” and developed De Morgan’s rule to determine the convergence of a mathematical series. G. Later the principle was employed to provide a proof of the binomial theorem. Historical Note Unlike other concepts and methods. It is said that the principle of mathematical induction was known by the Phythagoreans. — — . De Morgan contributed many accomplishments in the field of mathematics on many different subjects.

For example. Then. the main objective is to solve the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Hamilton (1805-1865) Let us denote −1 by the symbol i.Chapter 5 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences and Arithmetic is the Queen of Mathematics. 4 + i ⎜ ⎟ are complex numbers. if z = 2 + i5. This means that i is a solution of the equation x2 + 1 = 0. In fact. – GAUSS 5. where D = b2 – 4ac < 0. So. Two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id are equal if a = c and b = d. where a and b are real numbers. (– 1) + i 3 . A number of the form a + ib. is defined to be a ⎛ −1 ⎞ complex number. We have seen that the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no real solution as x2 + 1 = 0 gives x2 = – 1 and square of every real number is non-negative. 2 + i3. a is called the real part. ⎝ 11 ⎠ For the complex number z = a + ib. .1 Introduction In earlier classes. we have i = −1 .2 Complex Numbers 2 W. we have studied linear equations in one and two variables and quadratic equations in one variable. R. denoted by Re z and b is called the imaginary part denoted by Im z of the complex number z. 5. For example. then Re z = 2 and Im z = 5. which is not possible in the system of real numbers. we need to extend the real number system to a larger system so that we can find the solution of the equation x2 = – 1.

called the additive identity or the zero complex number.. For example. 3x – y = – 6. (iv) The existence of additive identity There exists the complex number 0 + i 0 (denoted as 0). (6 + 3i) – (2 – i) = (6 + 3i) + (– 2 + i ) = 4 + 4i and (2 – i) – (6 + 3i) = (2 – i) + ( – 6 – 3i) = – 4 – 4i . we have the complex number – a + i(– b) (denoted as – z).. (2 + i3) + (– 6 +i5) = (2 – 6) + i (3 + 5) = – 4 + i 8 The addition of complex numbers satisfy the following properties: (i) The closure law The sum of two complex numbers is a complex number.98 MATHEMATICS Example 1 If 4x + i(3x – y) = 3 + i (– 6). z 3 .3. 5..3. (1) 3 33 and y = . z1 + z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2. Solution We have 4x + i (3x – y) = 3 + i (–6) Equating the real and the imaginary parts of (1).2 Difference of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2.1 Addition of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. which. 5. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z 1 and z 2 . For example.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers In this Section. z 2.e. 4 4 5. the difference z1 – z2 is defined as follows: z1 – z2 = z1 + (– z2). (v) The existence of additive inverse To every complex number z = a + ib. give x = . Then. We observe that z + (–z) = 0 (the additive identity). on solving simultaneously. where x and y are real numbers. then find the values of x and y. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3). we get 4x = 3. z + 0 = z. for every complex number z. i. the sum z1 + z2 is defined as follows: z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d). which is again a complex number. z 1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1. called the additive inverse or negative of z. such that. we shall develop the algebra of complex numbers.

z (vi) The distributive law For any three complex numbers z1. called the multiplicative identity such that z. (i) The closure law The product of two complex numbers is a complex number.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 99 5. let z1 = 6 + 3i and z2 = 2 – i Then z1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⎜ (6 + 3i) × ⎟ = 6 + 3i ) 2−i⎠ ( z2 ⎝ ⎛ − ( −1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ +i 2 2 ⎜ 22 + ( −1)2 2 + ( −1) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . the quotient z is defined by 2 z1 1 = z1 z2 z2 z1 For example. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1 .3. called the multiplicative inverse 2 2 (denoted by a +b a +b z of z such that 2 1 z. z 2 . where z2 ≠ 0 . z3. (a) z1 (z2 + z3) = z1 z2 + z1 z3 (b) (z1 + z2) z3 = z1 z3 + z2 z3 5. z 3 .3. which we state without proofs. we have the complex number a –b 1 +i 2 or z–1 ). Then. (z1 z2) z3 = z1 (z2 z3).1 = z. the product z1 z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2.3 Multiplication of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. for every complex number z. (iv) The existence of multiplicative identity There exists the complex number 1 + i 0 (denoted as 1). = 1 (the multiplicative identity). the product z1 z2 is defined as follows: z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc) For example. z1 z2 = z2 z1 . b ≠ 0).4 Division of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2. (3 + i5) (2 + i6) = (3 × 2 – 5 × 6) + i(3 × 6 + 5 × 2) = – 24 + i28 The multiplication of complex numbers possesses the following properties. z2. (v) The existence of multiplicative inverse For every non-zero complex number z = a + ib or a + bi(a ≠ 0.

Now. i5 = i 2 i4 = i2 ( ) 2 = ( −1) = 1 2 ( ) 2 i = ( −1) i = i . – i. the square roots of – 1 are i..100 MATHEMATICS ⎛ 2+i ⎞ 1 1 = ( 6 + 3i ) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎡12 − 3 + i ( 6 + 6 ) ⎤ = ( 9 + 12i ) ⎦ 5 5 ⎠ 5⎣ ⎝ 5. b < 0 or a < 0.3. we can see that i and –i both are the solutions of the equation x2 + 1 = 0 or x2 = –1. 2 −1 i 1 1 i i 1 1 = × = = i. if a is a positive real number.5 Power of i we know that i 3 = i 2 i = ( −1) i = −i . we would mean i only. 2 i6 = i2 ( ) 3 = ( − 1) = −1 .e.6 The square roots of a negative real number Note that i2 = –1 and ( – i)2 = i2 = – 1 Therefore. we have 1 i i = − i. i. 3i . for any integer k. the square roots of –3 are Again. a −1 = −3 is meant to represent −a = −3 = a i. i = 1. i = i. b > 0.3. Similarly ( 3 i) = ( 3) 2 2 2 i2 = 3 (– 1) = – 3 2 ( − 3 i) = (− 3 ) Therefore. by the symbol − . Note that . b < 0? Let us examine. the symbol i2 = – 3 3 i and − 3 i . However. 3 Also. i = –1. We already know that a × b = ab for all positive real number a and b. What if a < 0. etc. i =–i 5. 3 i only. i −1 = × = i i −1 i −3 = i− 2 = 1 1 = = − 1. This result also holds true when either a > 0. i −4 = 4 = = 1 3 −i i 1 1 i i 4k 4k + 1 4k + 2 4k + 3 In general. Generally.

we can prove the following identities: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ( z1 − z2 ) ( z1 − z2 ) 2 2 = z12 − 2 z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 + 3 z12 z2 + 3z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 − 3z12 z2 + 3 z1 z2 − z2 ( z1 + z2 ) 3 3 2 z12 – z 2 = ( z1 + z 2 ) ( z1 – z 2 ) In fact. Proof We have. (z1 + z2)2 = (z1 + z2) (z1 + z2). can be proved to be true for all complex numbers. Therefore. if any of a and b is zero. which is a contradiction to the fact that i = − . Further.7 Identities We prove the following identity ( z1 + z2 ) 2 2 2 = z1 + z2 + 2 z1 z2 . a × b = ab = 0. = (z1 + z2) z1 + (z1 + z2) z2 2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + z2 2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + z2 2 = z12 + 2 z1 z2 + z2 (Distributive law) (Distributive law) (Commutative law of multiplicatoin) Similarly.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 101 i 2 = −1 −1 = ( −1) ( −1) (by assuming a× b = ab for all real numbers) = 1 = 1. for all complex numbers z1 and z2. many other identities which are true for all real numbers. clearly. then.3. Example 2 Express the following in the form of a + bi: (i) ( −5i ) ⎛ ⎜ ( −5i ) ⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ i⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− i⎟ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 3 Solution (i) 1 ⎞ −5 2 −5 5 5 i⎟ = i = ( −1) = = + i0 8 ⎠ 8 8 8 8 ⎝ 3 1 1 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ × i5 = i (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎜ − i ⎟ = 2 × 8× 8×8 256 ⎝ 8 ⎠ ( ) 2 i= 1 i. 5. a × b ≠ ab if both a and b are negative real numbers. 256 .

denoted by | z |.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number Let z = a + ib be a complex number. | z | = a 2 + b 2 and the conjugate 2 − 5i = 22 + ( − 5)2 = 29 .102 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Express (5 – 3i)3 in the form a + ib. the following results can easily be derived. For example. denoted as z . the modulus of z.e.. −3i − 5 = 3i – 5 Observe that the multiplicative inverse of the non-zero complex number z is given by z–1 = or a −b a − ib 1 +i 2 = 2 = 2 2 = a +b a +b a 2 + b2 a + ib 2 z z 2 z z= z Furthermore. i. of z. i. Then. For any two compex numbers z1 and z2 . (5 – 3i)3 = 53 – 3 × 52 × (3i) + 3 × 5 (3i)2 – (3i)3 = 125 – 225i – 135 + 27i = – 10 – 198i. and 3 + i = 32 + 12 = 10 . − 3 + −2 ( )( ) ( ) (2 3 −i = −6 + 3i + 2 6i − ) = (− 3 + 2 i) (2 3 − i ) 2 i = ( −6 + 2 ) + 3 (1 + 2 2 ) i 2 5. Example 4 Express − 3 + −2 2 3 − i in the form of a + ib Solution We have. we have (i) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (ii) z z1 = 1 provided z ≠ 0 2 z2 z2 ⎛ z1 ⎞ z1 z1 ± z2 = z1 ± z2 (v) ⎜ z ⎟ = z provided z2 ≠ 0. is the complex number a – ib.. is defined to be the non-negative real number a 2 + b 2 .e. Solution We have. 3 + i = 3 − i . 2 − 5 i = 2 + 5 i . 2 ⎝ 2⎠ (iii) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (iv) . z = a – ib.

( 5i ) ⎛ − ⎜ 3 ⎞ i⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 2.1 Express each of the complex number given in the Exercises 1 to 10 in the form a + ib. = 5 + 5 2i + 2i − 2 1− ( 2i ) 2 = −35 (ii) i = 3 + 6 2i 3(1 + 2 2i) = = 1 + 2 2i . Solution Then Let z = 2 – 3i z = 2 + 3i and z 2 = 22 + ( − 3) 2 = 13 Therefore. the multiplicative inverse of 2 − 3i is given by z–1 = z z 2 = 2 + 3i 2 3 = + i 13 13 13 The above working can be reproduced in the following manner also. 1+ 2 3 1 i 35 = 1 (i ) 2 17 = i i 1 i × = 2 =i −i −i i EXERCISE 5. i + i 3. z–1 = 1 2 + 3i = 2 − 3i (2 − 3i )(2 + 3i) = 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 3 = = + i 2 13 13 13 2 − (3i) 2 Example 6 Express the following in the form a + ib (i) 5 + 2i 1 − 2i 5 + 2i 1 − 2i = (ii) i–35 5 + 2i 1 + 2i × 1 − 2i 1 + 2i Solution (i) We have. i − . 1.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 103 Example 5 Find the multiplicative inverse of 2 – 3i.

0). respectively in the Fig 5. 4). Express the following expression in the form of a + ib : 12. 0 + 1i. – 2). 1). E. y) in the XY-plane and vice-versa. have been represented geometrically by the points A.1 1 – 2i which correspond to the ordered pairs (2. y). – 5 –2i and Fig 5. ( – 2. (0. and F.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation We already know that corresponding to each ordered pair of real numbers (x. (1 – i) ⎛1 ⎞ 9. we get a unique point in the XYplane and vice-versa with reference to a set of mutually perpendicular lines known as the x-axis and the y-axis. C. 2 + 0i. –2). 4 – 3i 13. Some complex numbers such as 2 + 4i. ⎜ + 3i ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 10. ( –5. (3 + i 5 ) (3 − i 5 ) ( 3 + 2 i) − ( 3 − i 2 ) 5. The plane having a complex number assigned to each of its point is called the complex plane or the Argand plane.104 MATHEMATICS 4. B. 3). and (1. respectively. 11. D. . ⎜ −2 − i ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Find the multiplicative inverse of each of the complex numbers given in the Exercises 11 to 13. ⎡⎛ 1 7 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎢⎜ 3 + i 3 ⎟ + ⎜ 4 + i 3 ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ − 3 + i ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 5⎞ ⎛1 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ +i ⎟−⎜4+i ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ ⎝ 4 8. 5. – 2 + 3i. (1 – i) – ( –1 + i6) 7. 3(7 + i7) + i (7 + i7) 6. – i 5 + 3i 14.1. (2. The complex number x + iy which corresponds to the ordered pair (x. y) can be represented geometrically as the unique point P(x.

the modulus of the complex number x + iy = x 2 + y 2 is the distance between the point P(x. respectively. the points P (x. y) on the real axis (Fig 5. The points on the x-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form a + i 0 and the points on the y-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form Fig 5.3 . the point (x. in the Argand plane. The x-axis and y-axis in the Argand plane are called.3). the real axis and the imaginary axis. y) to the origin O (0. respectively. y) and Q (x. The representation of a complex number z = x + iy and its conjugate z = x – iy in the Argand plane are.2). 0) (Fig 5. – y).2 0 + i b.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 105 Obviously. Geometrically. – y) is the mirror image of the point (x. Fig 5.

We have. can be such an interval. for example – π < θ ≤ π.6) Fig 5. there corresponds only one value of θ in 0 ≤ θ < 2π. The latter is said to be the polar form of the complex number. Here r = x 2 + y 2 = z is the modus of z and θ is called the argument (or amplitude) of z which is denoted by arg z.4 direction of the x axis as the initial line.4). called the polar coordinates of the point P.6 (– π < θ ≤ π ) . y = r sin θ and therefore. For any complex number z ≠ 0.106 MATHEMATICS 5. However. unless specified otherwise. We may note that the point P is uniquely determined by the ordered pair of real numbers (r. We consider the origin as the pole and the positive Fig 5. θ).5 and 5.We shall take the value of θ such that – π < θ ≤ π. called principal argument of z and is denoted by arg z. Let the directed line segment OP be of length r and θ be the angle which OP makes with the positive direction of x-axis (Fig 5. z = r (cos θ + i sin θ). 5.1 Polar representation of a complex number Let the point P represent the nonzero complex number z = x + iy. (Figs. any other interval of length 2π. x = r cos θ.5.5 ( 0 ≤ θ < 2π ) Fig 5.

sin θ = Fig 5.8). we get r 2 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 4 ( ) i. r >0) cos θ = π 1 3 . 1+ i 3 is represented as shown in Fig 5. = r sin θ By squaring and adding.. we get ( ) which gives Hence r = 64. the required polar form is 8 ⎜ cos 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ . sin θ = .e. r = 8 cos θ = − . Solution Let 1 = r cos θ. required polar form is z = 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ The complex number z = + i −16 into polar form. which gives θ = 2 2 Fig 5. Therefore.7 π π⎞ ⎛ Therefore..e.7. i. = r sin θ Let – 4 = r cos θ.8 2 θ=π– π 2π = 3 3 2π 2π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin ⎟ Thus.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 107 Example 7 Represent the complex number z = 1 + i 3 in the polar form. Example 8 Convert the complex number Solution The given complex number −16 1+ i 3 = −16 1 − i 3 × 1+ i 3 1− i 3 −16 1 − i 3 = 2 ( ) = −16 (1 − i 3 ) =− ( 1+ 3 1 − (i 3 ) 16 + 48 = r 2 cos 2θ + sin 2θ −i )=− +i (Fig 5. r = = (conventionally. By squaring and adding.

“A polynomial equation has at least one root.2 Find the modulus and the arguments of each of the complex numbers in Exercises 1 to 2.108 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 5. Therefore. +i 8.. let us assume that the b2 – 4ac < 0.” As a consequence of this theorem. Now. b. x = ± −2 = ± 2 i Example 10 Solve x2 + x + 1= 0 Solution Here. – 1 + i 5. – 1 – i 6. i 5.6 Quadratic Equations We are already familiar with the quadratic equations and have solved them in the set of real numbers in the cases where discriminant is non-negative. the following theorem known as the Fundamental theorem of Algebra is stated below (without proof).. x2 + 2 = 0 or x2 = – 2 i. Also. which is of immense importance. – 3 7.” Example 9 Solve x2 + 2 = 0 Solution We have. the following result. c and a ≠ 0. is arrived at: “A polynomial equation of degree n has n roots. we know that we can find the square root of negative real numbers in the set of complex numbers. z = – 1 – i Convert each of the complex numbers given in Exercises 3 to 8 in the polar form: 3. 1 – i 4. some would be interested to know as to how many roots does an equation have? In this regard. 2. the solutions to the above equation are available in the set of complex numbers which are given by x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac −b ± 4ac − b 2 i = 2a 2a Note At this point of time. z = – +i 1. b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 × 1 × 1 = 1 – 4 = – 3 . i. ≥ 0. Let us consider the following quadratic equation: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 with real coefficients a.e.e.

3 Solve each of the following equations: 1. the discriminant of the equation is 12 − 4 × 5 × 5 = 1 – 20 = – 19 Therefore. the solutions are given by x = Example 11 Solve −1 ± −3 −1 ± 3i = 2 ×1 2 5 x2 + x + 5 = 0 Solution Here. 2 x2 + x + 2 = 0 3. x2 – x + 2 = 0 8. Solution We have . x2 + 3x + 9 = 0 6. the solutions are −1 ± −19 −1 ± 19i = . – x + x – 2 = 0 7. . x2 + 3 = 0 2.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 109 Therefore. 3 x2 − 2 x + 3 3 = 0 x2 + x +1 = 0 2 x2 + x + 1 =0 2 Miscellaneous Examples Example 12 Find the conjugate of (3 − 2i) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i ) (2 − i ) . conjugate of (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) 63 16 is + i (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) 25 25 . x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 4. 2x2 + x + 1 = 0 2 5. 10. 9. (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) = 6 + 9i − 4i + 6 12 + 5i 4 − 3i × = 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 2 − i + 4i + 2 63 16 48 − 36i + 20i + 15 63 −16i − i = = 25 25 16 + 9 25 = Therefore. 2 5 2 5 EXERCISE 5.

1− i 2 Hence. a + ib 2 2 a − ib . 1− i (ii) 1 1+ i Solution (i) We have. the modulus of Example 14 If x + iy = Solution We have. r = 1 i.e. 2 1+ i 4 Hence.. the modulus of (ii) We have 1 1− i 1− i 1 i = = = − 1 + i (1 + i) (1 − i) 1 + 1 2 2 Let 1 1 = r cos θ. sin θ = 1 Therefore. 2 Squaring and adding. argument is . we get r = Therefore θ = −π 4 1 1 −π is . sin θ = 2 2 2 Proceeding as in part (i) above.110 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find the modulus and argument of the complex numbers: (i) 1+ i . θ = π 2 1+ i π is 1 and the argument is . 1+ i 1 + i 1+ i 1 − 1+ 2i × = =i= 0 + i = 1 − i 1− i 1+ i 1+ 1 1 = r sin θ Now. – = r sin θ 2 2 1 1 −1 . (a + ib) (a + ib) a 2 − b 2 + 2abi a2 − b2 2 ab x + iy = ( a − ib) ( a + ib) = = 2 2 + 2 2i 2 2 a +b a +b a +b . let us put 0 = r cos θ. prove that x + y = 1. r = 1 so that cos θ = 0. cosθ = .

2 . Therefore 8sinθ = 0. cos + i sin 3 3 Example 16 Convert the complex number z = Solution We have. n ∈ Z. i.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 111 So that.. 3 + 2i sinθ (3 + 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) = (1 − 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) 1 − 2i sinθ 3+ 6i sinθ + 2i sinθ – 4sin 2θ 3 − 4sin 2θ 8i sinθ + = = 1+ 4sin 2θ 1 + 4sin 2 θ 1 + 4sin 2θ We are given the complex number to be real. Therefore. z = i −1 1 3 + i 2 2 = 2(i − 1) 1 − 3i 2 i + 3 − 1 + 3i × = = 1+ 3 1 + 3i 1 − 3i 3 +1 = r sin θ 2 ( ) 3 −1 + 2 3 +1 i 2 Now. put 3 −1 = r cosθ . sin θ = 0 1 + 4sin 2θ Thus θ = nπ. i −1 π π in the polar form. 1− 2i sinθ Solution We have. a 2 − b2 2ab x – iy = 2 2 − 2 2 i a +b a +b x2 + y2 = (x + iy) (x – iy) = ( a 2 − b 2 )2 4a 2b 2 (a 2 + b 2 ) 2 + 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 =1 2 2 2 (a + b ) (a + b ) (a + b ) Example 15 Find real θ such that 3 + 2i sinθ is purely real.e.

Convert the following in the polar form: 1 + 7i (i) ( 2 − i )2 . c − id c + d2 5.112 MATHEMATICS Squaring and adding. the polar form is 5π 5π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 ⎡ 18 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 25 ⎤ 1. θ = cosθ = 3 −1 3 +1 . 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3 − 4i ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 3. we obtain 2 2 ⎛ 3 −1⎞ ⎛ 3 +1⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ r =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ +⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎝ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ( 3) + 1⎞ ⎟ 2× 4 ⎠= =2 4 4 2 Hence. x2 − 2 x + 3 =0 2 8. prove that Re (z1 z2) = Re z1 Re z2 – Imz1 Imz2. If x − iy = a − ib a 2 + b2 x2 + y 2 = 2 prove that . Reduce ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ to the standard form . For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. sinθ = 2 2 2 2 π π 5π (Why?) + = 4 6 12 Hence. ⎝ 1 − 4i 1 + i ⎠ ⎝ 5 + i ⎠ 4. 20 =0 3 (ii) 1 + 3i 1 – 2i Solve each of the equation in Exercises 6 to 9. r = 2 which gives Therefore. Evaluate: ⎢ i + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ . 2 6. 3 x − 4 x + 7. 27 x 2 − 10 x + 1 = 0 . ⎝i⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2.

13. Find the number of non-zero integral solutions of the equation 1 – i 19. If z1 = 2 – i. If a + ib = . 2 x2 + 1 ( ) 12. z2 = 1 + i. ⎝1 – i ⎠ m . = 2x . z2 = –2 + i. If (x + iy)3 = u + iv. ⎛1+ i ⎞ 20. Find the modulus and argument of the complex number 15. then show that (a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) (e2 + f 2) (g2 + h2) = A2 + B2 x . then show that β–α 17. u v + = 4( x 2 – y 2 ) . then find the least integral value of m. If α and β are different complex numbers with β = 1 . Find the real numbers x and y if (x – iy) (3 + 5i) is the conjugate of –6 – 24i. ⎝ 1 ⎠ (ii) Im ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟. Let z1 = 2 – i.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 113 9. If ⎜ ⎟ = 1 . If (a + ib) (c + id) (e + if) (g + ih) = A + iB. Find the modulus of 1+ i 1− i − 1 − i 1+ i . prove that a + b = 2 x 2 + 1 2 . find z – z + i . Find ⎛ z1 z2 ⎞ (i) Re ⎜ z ⎟ . 1 − 3i 14. x y 16. ⎝ z1 z1 ⎠ 1+ 2i . 21x 2 − 28 x + 10 = 0 z1 + z2 +1 10. then find 1 – α β 18. 1 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x + i )2 2 2 11.

where a and b are real numbers. there exists the complex number a −b 1 +i 2 . Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id. called the 2 a +b a + b2 z 2 ⎛ a2 −b ⎞ +i 2 ⎟ = 1 + i0 =1 multiplicative inverse of z such that (a + ib) ⎜ 2 2 a + b2 ⎠ ⎝ a +b For any integer k. i4k + 3 = – i The conjugate of the complex number z = a + ib. i4k + 1 = i. r= x 2 + y 2 (the modulus of z) and cosθ = A polynomial equation of n degree has n roots. The solutions of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. such that – π < θ ≤ π. b2 – 4ac < 0. c ∈ R. are given by x = −b ± 4ac − b 2 i 2a . The value of θ. i4k = 1. is called a complex number. a is called the real part and b is called the imaginary part of the complex number. sinθ = . . b. a ≠ 0. where a. Then (i) z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d) (ii) z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc) For any non-zero complex number z = a + ib (a ≠ 0. is called the principal argument of z. The polar form of the complex number z = x + iy is r (cosθ + i sinθ). b ≠ 0). is given by z = a – ib. (θ is known as the r r argument of z. i4k + 2 = – 1.114 MATHEMATICS Summary A number of the form a + ib. denoted by or z –1. denoted by z . where x y .

b) thus giving it a purely mathematical definition and avoiding use of the so called ‘imaginary numbers’.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 115 Historical Note The fact that square root of a negative number does not exist in the real number system was recognised by the Greeks. But the credit goes to the Indian mathematician Mahavira (850 A. another Indian mathematician.D.” Cardan (1545 A. which was discarded by him by saying that these numbers are ‘useless’. Bhaskara.D. “He mentions in his work ‘Ganitasara Sangraha’ as in the nature of things a negative (quantity) is not a square (quantity)’. also writes in his work Bijaganita.D.) who first stated this difficulty clearly. A.R. He obtained x = 5 + −15 and y = 5 – −15 as the solution of it.D. Hamilton (about 1830 A.) regarded the complex number a + ib as an ordered pair of real numbers (a.) accepted square root of negative numbers and said that this will enable us to get as many roots as the degree of the polynomial equation.D.) considered the problem of solving x + y = 10. no square root”. — — . for it is not a square. “There is no square root of a negative quantity. therefore. xy = 40. Albert Girard (about 1625 A. written in 1150. Euler was the first to introduce the symbol i for −1 and W. it has.

then the total amount spent by her is Rs (40x + 20y) and we have 40x + 20y ≤ 120 .1 Introduction In earlier classes. if x denotes the number of registers and y. we have studied equations in one variable and two variables and also solved some statement problems by translating them in the form of equations. Your classroom can occupy atmost 60 tables or chairs or both. Now a natural question arises: ‘Is it always possible to translate a statement problem in the form of an equation? For example. statistics. optimisation problems.2 Inequalities Let us consider the following situations: (i) Ravi goes to market with Rs 200 to buy rice. If x denotes the number of packets of rice. (2) . we will study linear inequalities in one and two variables. then the total amount spent by him is Rs 30x. (ii) Reshma has Rs 120 and wants to buy some registers and pens.Chapter 6 LINEAR INEQUALITIES Mathematics is the art of saying many things in many different ways. The cost of one register is Rs 40 and that of a pen is Rs 20. In this Chapter. 6. – MAXWELL 6. The price of one packet of rice is Rs 30. the height of all the students in your class is less than 160 cm. economics. he may not be able to spend the entire amount of Rs 200. Since.. ‘>’ (greater than). Here we get certain statements involving a sign ‘<’ (less than). which he buys.. (Why?) Hence 30x < 200 . ‘≤’ (less than or equal) and ≥ (greater than or equal) which are known as inequalities. psychology. The study of inequalities is very useful in solving problems in the field of science.. (1) Clearly the statement (i) is not an equation as it does not involve the sign of equality. etc. the number of pens which Reshma buys.. In this case. which is available in packets of 1kg. mathematics. he has to buy rice in packets only.

.. it is an inequality while statement (4) is an equation. we shall confine ourselves to the study of linear inequalities in one and two variables only... (9) .. (6). (11). b ≠ 0. (3) .... (9). (8) .... (12). and (13) are slack inequalities.. Definition 1 Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbol ‘<’. (2) and (3) above are inequalities. (4) Statement (3) is not an equation.. (13) .. Inequalities (13) and (14) are not linear (in fact. 7 > 5 are the examples of numerical inequalities while x < 5. (11) . (12) . ‘≤’ or ‘≥’ form an inequality.. while inequalities from (9) to (12) are linear inequalities in two variables x and y when a ≠ 0. y > 2. (5) .. (8). (7) .. Inequalities from (5) to (8) are linear inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0.. (14) Inequalities (5)... y ≤ 4 are the examples of literal inequalities. these are quadratic inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0). In this Chapter. (10) and (14) are strict inequalities while inequalities (7).. Statements such as (1). Some more examples of inequalities are: ax + b < 0 ax + b > 0 ax + b ≤ 0 ax + b ≥ 0 ax + by < c ax + by > c ax + by ≤ c ax + by ≥ c ax2 + bx + c ≤ 0 ax + bx + c > 0 2 ..e.. i. 3 < x < 5 (read as x is greater than or equal to 3 and less than 5) and 2 < y < 4 are the examples of double inequalities. ‘>’. Note that the statement (2) consists of two statements and 40x + 20y < 120 40x + 20y = 120 .. x ≥ 3. 3 < 5. (6) . . 3 < 5 < 7 (read as 5 is greater than 3 and less than 7).LINEAR INEQUALITIES 117 Since in this case the total amount spent may be upto Rs 120.. (10) .

3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation Let us consider the inequality (1) of Section 6.H. are called solutions of inequality and the set {0.).e. 16 > 14. L. 30x < 200 Note that here x denotes the number of packets of rice.S. we have For x = 0.H.5. L. L. Rule 2 Both sides of an equation may be multiplied (or divided) by the same non-zero number.H. ≤’ becomes ‘≥’ and so on) whenever we multiply (or divide) both sides of an inequality by a negative number. In the above situation.2. we again follow the same rules except with a difference that in Rule 2. this method is time consuming and sometimes not feasible. ‘<‘ becomes ‘>’. which is true.H.S. we followed the following rules: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an equation. In the case of solving inequalities.S. = 30 (2) = 60 < 200. x cannot be a negative integer or a fraction.) of this inequality is 30x and right hand side (RHS) is 200.H. = 30 (1) = 30 < 200 (R.1.S. It is evident from the facts that 3 > 2 while – 3 < – 2. L.1.).S. which is false. Therefore.S. For x = 6.6. we find that the values of x. We have found the solutions of the above inequality by trial and error method which is not very efficient. which is true. For x = 4. – 8 < – 7 while (– 8) (– 2) > (– 7) (– 2) . which is true.4. which is true. For x = 5.3. Before that we should go through some more properties of numerical inequalities and follow them as rules while solving the inequalities. = 30 (3) = 90 < 200. L.6} is called its solution set.H. Obviously. Thus.H. For x = 1. Left hand side (L.S.e. = 30 (5) = 150 < 200.2. You will recall that while solving linear equations.H. L. For x = 7.3. which is true.. i. are 0.H.S.5.4.S.H. .H. These values of x. Obviously.S.2. For x = 3. L.118 MATHEMATICS 6. which make above inequality a true statement. the sign of inequality is reversed (i. = 30 (7) = 210 < 200.S. = 30 (4) = 120 < 200. For x = 2. which is true. = 30 (0) = 0 < 200 (R. We must have some better or systematic techniques for solving inequalities. any solution of an inequality in one variable is a value of the variable which makes it a true statement. L. which makes the above inequality a true statement. which is true. = 30 (6) = 180 < 200.. viz.

–2. the solutions of the given inequality are . 2. Henceforth.. set of integers and in the set of real numbers. 4. 5. 3. the solutions of the inequality are given by x < 2. 3. 5. the solution set of the inequality is x ∈ (– ∞.. 2). Now. . 5. –2.–3.. We have considered solutions of inequalities in the set of natural numbers. The solution set of the inequality is {1.e. 2. Rule 2 Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided) by the same positive number.6}... – 4. 4.. i.–1. Example 1 Solve 30 x < 200 when (i) x is a natural number. 4. But when both sides are multiplied or divided by a negative number.. unless stated otherwise. 3. the solutions of the given inequality are . 0. 0. 1. 1. 6 The solution set of the inequality is {. (ii) x is a real number. 2.3. – 1. i. x < 20 / 3. then the sign of inequality is reversed.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 119 Thus. –1...e. – 3. let us consider some examples. Therefore. Solution We are given 30 x < 200 (ii) x is an integer. 5x –3 < 3x + 1 or 5x –3 + 3 < 3x +1 +3 (Rule 1) or 5x < 3x +4 or 5x – 3x < 3x + 4 – 3x (Rule 1) or 2x < 4 or x < 2 (Rule 2) (i) When x is an integer.. (ii) When x is an integer.4. 0. we shall solve the inequalities in this Chapter in the set of real numbers. Solution We have. 30 30 (i) When x is a natural number. 6} or Example 2 Solve 5x – 3 < 3x +1 when (i) x is an integer. – 3. 1. all real numbers x which are less than 2.2. 30 x 200 < (Rule 2). in this case the following values of x make the statement true. 1 (ii) When x is a real number. we state the following rules for solving an inequality: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an inequality without affecting the sign of inequality. 6.5.. – 2.

Solution We have.1 Example 6 Solve Solution We have 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 .e.120 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Solve 4x + 3 < 6x +7. Show the graph of the solutions on number line. Solution We have 7x + 3 < 5x + 9 or 2x < 6 or x < 3 The graphical representation of the solutions are given in Fig 6. are the solutions of the given inequality.. Show the graph of the solutions on number line. Hence. x ≥ 8 Thus. i.. all real numbers x which are greater than or equal to 8 are the solutions of the given inequality. 2 4 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 2 4 or or 3x − 4 x − 3 ≥ 2 4 2 (3x – 4) ≥ (x – 3) . or 10 – 4x ≤ x – 30 or – 5x ≤ – 40.e.e. Example 4 Solve Solution We have 5 – 2x x ≤ –5. all the real numbers which are greater than –2. Fig 6. Example 5 Solve 7x + 3 < 5x + 9. i. 3 6 5 – 2x x ≤ –5 3 6 or 2 (5 – 2x) ≤ x – 30.. ∞). 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 or 4x – 6x < 6x + 4 – 6x or – 2x < 4 or x > – 2 i.1. x ∈ [8. ∞). the solution set is (–2.

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or or

6x – 8 ≥ x – 3 5x ≥ 5 or x ≥ 1

The graphical representation of solutions is given in Fig 6.2.

Fig 6.2

Example 7 The marks obtained by a student of Class XI in first and second terminal examination are 62 and 48, respectively. Find the number of minimum marks he should get in the annual examination to have an average of at least 60 marks. Solution Let x be the marks obtained by student in the annual examination. Then

62 + 48 + x ≥ 60 3 or 110 + x ≥ 180 or x ≥ 70 Thus, the student must obtain a minimum of 70 marks to get an average of at least 60 marks.

Example 8 Find all pairs of consecutive odd natural numbers, both of which are larger than 10, such that their sum is less than 40. Solution Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive odd natural number, so that the other one is x +2. Then, we should have x > 10 and x + ( x + 2) < 40 Solving (2), we get 2x + 2 < 40 i.e., x < 19 From (1) and (3), we get 10 < x < 19 ... (1) ... (2)

... (3)

Since x is an odd number, x can take the values 11, 13, 15, and 17. So, the required possible pairs will be (11, 13), (13, 15), (15, 17), (17, 19)

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EXERCISE 6.1

1. Solve 24x < 100, when (i) x is a natural number. 2. Solve – 12x > 30, when (i) x is a natural number. 3. Solve 5x – 3 < 7, when (i) x is an integer. 4. Solve 3x + 8 >2, when (i) x is an integer. (ii) x is an integer. (ii) x is an integer. (ii) x is a real number. (ii) x is a real number.

Solve the inequalities in Exercises 5 to 16 for real x. 5. 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 6. 3x – 7 > 5x – 1 7. 3(x – 1) ≤ 2 (x – 3) 8. 3 (2 – x) ≥ 2 (1 – x) 9.

x x x + + < 11 2 3

10.

x x > +1 3 2

3( x − 2) 5(2 − x) ≤ 5 3 13. 2 (2x + 3) – 10 < 6 (x – 2)

11. 15.

12.

1 ⎛ 3x ⎞ 1 ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ≥ ( x − 6) 2⎝ 5 ⎠ 3 14. 37 – (3x + 5) > 9x – 8 (x – 3)

x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 4 3 5

16.

(2 x −1) (3 x − 2) (2 − x) ≥ − 3 4 5

Solve the inequalities in Exercises 17 to 20 and show the graph of the solution in each case on number line 17. 3x – 2 < 2x + 1 19. 3 (1 – x) < 2 (x + 4) 21. 22. 18. 5x – 3 > 3x – 5 20.

23. 24.

x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 2 3 5 Ravi obtained 70 and 75 marks in first two unit test. Find the number if minimum marks he should get in the third test to have an average of at least 60 marks. To receive Grade ‘A’ in a course, one must obtain an average of 90 marks or more in five examinations (each of 100 marks). If Sunita’s marks in first four examinations are 87, 92, 94 and 95, find minimum marks that Sunita must obtain in fifth examination to get grade ‘A’ in the course. Find all pairs of consecutive odd positive integers both of which are smaller than 10 such that their sum is more than 11. Find all pairs of consecutive even positive integers, both of which are larger than 5 such that their sum is less than 23.

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25. The longest side of a triangle is 3 times the shortest side and the third side is 2 cm shorter than the longest side. If the perimeter of the triangle is at least 61 cm, find the minimum length of the shortest side. 26. A man wants to cut three lengths from a single piece of board of length 91cm. The second length is to be 3cm longer than the shortest and the third length is to be twice as long as the shortest. What are the possible lengths of the shortest board if the third piece is to be at least 5cm longer than the second? [Hint: If x is the length of the shortest board, then x , (x + 3) and 2x are the lengths of the second and third piece, respectively. Thus, x + (x + 3) + 2x ≤ 91 and 2x ≥ (x + 3) + 5].

**6.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
**

In earlier section, we have seen that a graph of an inequality in one variable is a visual representation and is a convenient way to represent the solutions of the inequality. Now, we will discuss graph of a linear inequality in two variables. We know that a line divides the Cartesian plane into two parts. Each part is known as a half plane. A vertical line will divide the plane in left and right half planes and a non-vertical line will divide the plane into lower and upper half planes (Figs. 6.3 and 6.4).

Fig 6.3

Fig 6.4

A point in the Cartesian plane will either lie on a line or will lie in either of the half planes I or II. We shall now examine the relationship, if any, of the points in the plane and the inequalities ax + by < c or ax + by > c. Let us consider the line ax + by = c, a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0 ... (1)

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There are three possibilities namely: (i) ax + by = c (ii) ax + by > c (iii) ax + by < c. In case (i), clearly, all points (x, y) satisfying (i) lie on the line it represents and conversely. Consider case (ii), let us first assume that b > 0. Consider a point P (α,β) on the line ax + by = c, b > 0, so that aα + bβ = c.Take an arbitrary point Q (α , γ) in the half plane II (Fig 6.5). Now, from Fig 6.5, we interpret, γ > β (Why?) or b γ > bβ or aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) or aα + b γ > c i.e., Q(α, γ ) satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. Fig 6.5 Thus, all the points lying in the half plane II above the line ax + by = c satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. Conversely, let (α, β) be a point on line ax + by = c and an arbitrary point Q(α, γ) satisfying ax + by > c so that aα + bγ > c aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) ⇒ γ>β (as b > 0) ⇒ This means that the point (α, γ ) lies in the half plane II. Thus, any point in the half plane II satisfies ax + by > c, and conversely any point satisfying the inequality ax + by > c lies in half plane II. In case b < 0, we can similarly prove that any point satisfying ax + by > c lies in the half plane I, and conversely. Hence, we deduce that all points satisfying ax + by > c lies in one of the half planes II or I according as b > 0 or b < 0, and conversely. Thus, graph of the inequality ax + by > c will be one of the half plane (called solution region) and represented by shading in the corresponding half plane. Note 1 The region containing all the solutions of an inequality is called the solution region. 2. In order to identify the half plane represented by an inequality, it is just sufficient to take any point (a, b) (not online) and check whether it satisfies the inequality or not. If it satisfies, then the inequality represents the half plane and shade the region

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which contains the point, otherwise, the inequality represents that half plane which does not contain the point within it. For convenience, the point (0, 0) is preferred. 3. If an inequality is of the type ax + by ≥ c or ax + by ≤ c, then the points on the line ax + by = c are also included in the solution region. So draw a dark line in the solution region. 4. If an inequality is of the form ax + by > c or ax + by < c, then the points on the line ax + by = c are not to be included in the solution region. So draw a broken or dotted line in the solution region. In Section 6.2, we obtained the following linear inequalities in two variables x and y: 40x + 20y ≤ 120 ... (1) while translating the word problem of purchasing of registers and pens by Reshma. Let us now solve this inequality keeping in mind that x and y can be only whole numbers, since the number of articles cannot be a fraction or a negative number. In this case, we find the pairs of values of x and y, which make the statement (1) true. In fact, the set of such pairs will be the solution set of the inequality (1). To start with, let x = 0. Then L.H.S. of (1) is 40x + 20y = 40 (0) + 20y = 20y. Thus, we have 20y ≤ 120 or y ≤ 6 ... (2) For x = 0, the corresponding values of y can be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only. In this case, the solutions of (1) are (0, 0), (0, 1), (0,2), (0,3), (0,4), (0, 5) and (0, 6). Similarly, other solutions of (1), when x = 1, 2 and 3 are: (1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0) This is shown in Fig 6.6. Let us now extend the domain of x and y from whole numbers to real numbers, and see what will be the solutions of (1) in this case. You will see that the graphical method of solution will be very convenient in this case. For this purpose, let us consider the (corresponding) equation and draw its graph. 40x + 20y = 120 ... (3) In order to draw the graph of the inequality (1), we take one point say (0, 0), in half plane I and check whether values of x and y satisfy the Fig 6.6 inequality or not.

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We observe that x = 0, y = 0 satisfy the inequality. Thus, we say that the half plane I is the graph (Fig 6.7) of the inequality. Since the points on the line also satisfy the inequality (1) above, the line is also a part of the graph. Thus, the graph of the given inequality is half plane I including the line itself. Clearly half plane II is not the part of the graph. Hence, solutions of inequality (1) will consist of all the points of its graph (half plane I including the line). We shall now consider some examples to explain the above procedure for solving a linear inequality involving two variables. Example 9 Solve 3x + 2y > 6 graphically.

Fig 6.7

Solution Graph of 3x + 2y = 6 is given as dotted line in the Fig 6.8. This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes I and II. We select a point (not on the line), say (0, 0), which lies in one of the half planes (Fig 6.8) and determine if this point satisfies the given inequality, we note that 3 (0) + 2 (0) > 6 or 0 > 6 , which is false. Hence, half plane I is not the solution region of the given inequality. Clearly, any point on the line does not satisfy the given strict inequality. In other words, the shaded half plane II Fig 6.8 excluding the points on the line is the solution region of the inequality. Example 10 Solve 3x – 6 ≥ 0 graphically in two dimensional plane. Solution Graph of 3x – 6 = 0 is given in the Fig 6.9. We select a point, say (0, 0) and substituting it in given inequality, we see that: 3 (0) – 6 ≥ 0 or – 6 ≥ 0 which is false. Thus, the solution region is the shaded region on the right hand side of the line x = 2.

Fig 6.9

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Example 11 Solve y < 2 graphically. Solution Graph of y = 2 is given in the Fig 6.10. Let us select a point, (0, 0) in lower half plane I and putting y = 0 in the given inequality, we see that 1 × 0 < 2 or 0 < 2 which is true. Thus, the solution region is the shaded region below the line y = 2. Hence, every point below the line (excluding all the points on the line) determines the solution of the given inequality.

Fig 6.10

EXERCISE 6.2

Solve the following inequalities graphically in two-dimensional plane: 1. x + y < 5 2. 2x + y ≥ 6 3. 3x + 4y ≤ 12 4. y + 8 ≥ 2x 5. x – y ≤ 2 6. 2x – 3y > 6 7. – 3x + 2y ≥ – 6 8. 3y – 5x < 30 9. y < – 2 10. x > – 3. 6.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables In previous Section, you have learnt how to solve linear inequality in one or two variables graphically. We will now illustrate the method for solving a system of linear inequalities in two variables graphically through some examples. Example 12 Solve the following system of linear inequalities graphically. x+y≥5 ... (1) x–y≤3 ... (2) Solution The graph of linear equation x+y=5 is drawn in Fig 6.11. We note that solution of inequality (1) is represented by the shaded region above the line x + y = 5, including the points on the line. On the same set of axes, we draw the graph of the equation x – y = 3 as Fig 6.11 shown in Fig 6.11. Then we note that inequality (2) represents the shaded region above

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the line x – y = 3, including the points on the line. Clearly, the double shaded region, common to the above two shaded regions is the required solution region of the given system of inequalities. Example 13 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically 5x + 4y ≤ 40 ... (1) x≥2 ... (2) y≥3 ... (3) Solution We first draw the graph of the line 5x + 4y = 40, x = 2 and y = 3 Then we note that the inequality (1) represents shaded region below the line 5x + 4y = 40 and inequality (2) represents the shaded region right of line x = 2 but inequality (3) represents the shaded region above the line y = 3. Hence, shaded region (Fig 6.12) including all the point on the lines are also the solution of the given system of the linear inequalities. In many practical situations involving system of inequalities the variable x and y often represent quantities that cannot have negative values, for example, number of units produced, number of articles purchased, number of hours worked, etc. Clearly, in such cases, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 and the solution region lies only in the first quadrant. Example 14 Solve the following system of inequalities 8x + 3y ≤ 100 ... (1) x≥0 ... (2) y≥0 ... (3) Solution We draw the graph of the line 8x + 3y = 100 The inequality 8x + 3y ≤ 100 represents the shaded region below the line, including the points on the line 8x +3y =100 (Fig 6.13).

Fig 6.12

Fig 6.13

LINEAR INEQUALITIES

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Since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant, including the points on the line and the axes, represents the solution of the given system of inequalities. Example 15 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically x + 2y ≤ 8 ... (1) 2x + y ≤ 8 ... (2) ... (3) x>0 ... (4) y>0 Solution We draw the graphs of the lines x + 2y = 8 and 2x + y = 8. The inequality (1) and (2) represent Fig 6.14 the region below the two lines, including the point on the respective lines. Since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant represent a solution of the given system of inequalities (Fig 6.14).

EXERCISE 6.3

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 1. x ≥ 3, y ≥ 2 3. 2x + y ≥ 6, 3x + 4y < 12 5. 2x – y >1, x – 2y < – 1 7. 2x + y ≥ 8, x + 2y ≥ 10 9. 5x + 4y ≤ 20, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2 10. 3x + 4y ≤ 60, x +3y ≤ 30, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 11. 2x + y ≥ 4, x + y ≤ 3, 2x – 3y ≤ 6 12. x – 2y ≤ 3, 3x + 4y ≥ 12, x ≥ 0 , y ≥ 1. 13. 4x + 3y ≤ 60, y ≥ 2x, x ≥ 3, x, y ≥ 0 14. 3x + 2y ≤ 150, x + 4y ≤ 80, x ≤ 15, y ≥ 0 15. x + 2y ≤ 10, x + y ≥ 1, x – y ≤ 0, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 2. 3x + 2y ≤ 12, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2 4. x + y > 4, 2x – y > 0 6. x + y ≤ 6, x + y ≥ 4 8. x + y ≤ 9, y > x, x ≥ 0

(2) Solution From inequality (1). (4) If we draw the graph of inequalities (3) and (4) on the number line. i. which are common to both.. (3) Also. are shown by bold line in Fig 6... 2 5 – 3x ≤8 2 or – 15 ≤ – 3x ≤ 11 11 3 which can be written as –11 ≤ x ≤5 3 Example 18 Solve the system of inequalities: 3x – 7 < 5 + x 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 and represent the solutions on the number line. 2≤x<6 . Solution In this case.15. we have 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 or – 5 x ≤ – 10 i. Fig 6. x ≥ 2 .15 Thus. ...e. from inequality (2). – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 and 5x – 3 < 7..130 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 Solve – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 < 7. we have 3x – 7 < 5 + x or x<6 . (1) . we see that the values of x...e. we have two inequalities. solution of the system are real numbers x lying between 2 and 6 including 2. We have – 8 ≤ 5x –3 < 7 or –5 ≤ 5x < 10 or –1 ≤ x < 2 Example 17 Solve – 5 ≤ Solution We have – 5 ≤ or or –10 ≤ 5 – 3x ≤ 16 5≥x≥– 5 – 3x ≤ 8.. which we will solve simultaneously..

we get 9 5 (F – 32) < 35. How many litres of a 30% acid solution must be added to it so that acid content in the resulting mixture will be more than 15% but less than 18%? Solution Let x litres of 30% acid solution is required to be added. Example 20 A manufacturer has 600 litres of a 12% solution of acid. the required range of temperature is between 86° F and 95° F. Then Total mixture = (x + 600) litres Therefore 30% x + 12% of 600 > 15% of (x + 600) and 30% x + 12% of 600 < 18% of (x + 600) or 30 x 12 15 + (600) > (x + 600) 100 100 100 30 x 12 18 + (600) < (x + 600) 100 100 100 30x + 7200 > 15x + 9000 30x + 7200 < 18x + 10800 15x > 1800 and 12x < 3600 x > 120 and x < 300. What is the range of temperature in degree Fahrenheit if conversion formula is given by C = 5 (F – 32). where C and F represent temperature in degree 9 Celsius and degree Fahrenheit. 9 9 9 × (30) < (F – 32) < × (35) 5 5 or 54 < (F – 32) < 63 or 86 < F < 95.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 131 Example 19 In an experiment. 120 < x < 300 and or and or or i. Thus. a solution of hydrochloric acid is to be kept between 30° and 35° Celsius. Putting C= 30 < or 5 (F – 32). .e. Solution It is given that 30 < C < 35. respectively.

6 – x > 11 – 2x 5 (2x – 7) – 3 (2x + 3) ≤ 0 . A solution is to be kept between 68° F and 77° F. The resulting mixture is to be more than 4% but less than 6% boric acid. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 1 to 6. 5x + 1 > – 24. how many litres of the 2% solution will have to be added? 13. 10. 5x – 1 < 24 2 (x – 1) < x + 5. –3≤4− −12 < 4 − 7x ≤ 18 2 3x ≤2 −5 −15 < 3( x − 2 ) ≤0 5 6. . 8. 5. 9. CA where MA is mental age and CA is chronological age. 1. What is the range in temperature in degree Celsius (C) if the Celsius / Fahrenheit (F) conversion formula is given by F= 9 C + 32 ? 5 12. A solution of 8% boric acid is to be diluted by adding a 2% boric acid solution to it. If we have 640 litres of the 8% solution. 7. find the range of their mental age. 6 ≤ – 3 (2x – 4) < 12 4. 3 (x + 2) > 2 – x 3x – 7 > 2 (x – 6) . IQ of a person is given by the formula IQ = MA × 100. 2x + 19 ≤ 6x + 47 . How many litres of water will have to be added to 1125 litres of the 45% solution of acid so that the resulting mixture will contain more than 25% but less than 30% acid content? 14. 2 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 7 to 11 and represent the solution graphically on number line. the number of litres of the 30% solution of acid will have to be more than 120 litres but less than 300 litres.132 MATHEMATICS Thus. If 80 ≤ IQ ≤ 140 for a group of 12 years old children. 11. 2 ≤ 3x – 4 ≤ 5 3. 7 ≤ ( 3x +11 ) ≤ 11 . 2.

LINEAR INEQUALITIES 133 Summary Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbols <. >. To represent x < a (or x > a) on a number line. If an inequality is having ≤ or ≥ symbol. If an inequality is having < or > symbol. — — . The values of x. then the inequality is reversed. The solution region of a system of inequalities is the region which satisfies all the given inequalities in the system simultaneously. then the points on the line are also included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the equality represented by dark line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. then the points on the line are not included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies to the left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the corresponding equality represented by dotted line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. To represent x ≤ a (or x ≥ a) on a number line. which make an inequality a true statement. But when both sides are multiplied (or divided) by a negative number. are called solutions of the inequality. put a dark circle on the number a and dark the line to the left (or right) of the number x. ≤ or ≥ form an inequality. Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided ) by the same positive number. Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from ) both sides of an inequality. put a circle on the number a and dark line to the left (or right) of the number a.

start listing all possible arrangements of 9 remaining digits taken 3 at a time. How many different pairs of a pant and a shirt. Some how. . 7. Here.Chapter 7 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS Every body of discovery is mathematical in form because there is no other guidance we can have – DARWIN 7. how many sequences of 3-digits you may have to check with? To answer this question. there are 2 choices of a shirt. You remember only the first digit which is 7. As a first step. In fact. these techniques will be useful in determining the number of different ways of arranging and selecting objects without actually listing them. we shall examine a principle which is most fundamental to the learning of these techniques. immediately. Therefore. In order to open the lock. The number lock has 4 wheels each labelled with 10 digits from 0 to 9. in this Chapter. For every choice of a pant.1 Introduction Suppose you have a suitcase with a number lock. Mohan has 3 pants and 2 shirts. Jacob Bernoulli this method will be tedious. you may. because there are 3 pants available.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting Let us consider the following problem. The lock can be opened if 4 specific digits are arranged in a particular sequence with no repetition. can he dress up with? There are 3 ways in which a pant can be chosen. Similarly. because the number of possible (1654-1705) sequences may be large. But. we shall learn some basic counting techniques which will enable us to answer this question without actually listing 3-digit arrangements. you have forgotten this specific sequence of digits. there are 3 × 2 = 6 pairs of a pant and a shirt. a shirt can be chosen in 2 ways.

7. T3 and the two water bottles as W1. After a school bag is chosen. W2. T2. a tiffin box can be chosen in 3 different ways. there are 2 × 3 = 6 pairs of school bag and a tiffin box. Fig 7.2 . Sabnam has 2 school bags. P2 .1 bottle can be chosen in 2 differnt ways. S2. there are 6 × 2 = 12 different ways in which. Sabnam can carry these items to school.2. the three tiffin boxes as T1. these six possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig. If we name the 2 school bags as B1.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 135 Let us name the three pants as P1. 7. In how many ways can she carry these items (choosing one each). For each of these pairs a water Fig 7. Hence.1. Hence. Then. Let us consider another problem of the same type. 3 tiffin boxes and 2 water bottles. A school bag can be chosen in 2 different ways. P3 and the two shirts as S1. B2. these possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig.

which can be formed out of the letters of the word ROSE. which states that “If an event can occur in m different ways. the problems of the above types are solved by applying the following principle known as the fundamental principle of counting. then the total number of occurrence to ‘the events in the given order is m × n × p. simply. But. following which another event can occur in n different ways. is 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24. Hence. with or without meaning.” In the first problem. Example 1 Find the number of 4 letter words. by the multiplication principle. or. the events in each problem could occur in various possible orders. In the second problem. the second place can be filled in by anyone of the remaining 3 letters in 3 different ways. the number of ways in which the 4 places can be filled. For example. keeping in mind that the repetition is not allowed. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. the principle is as follows: ‘If an event can occur in m different ways. for 3 events. Solution There are as many words as there are ways of filling in 4 vacant places by the 4 letters. . following which the third place can be filled in 2 different ways. the fourth place can be filled in 1 way.136 MATHEMATICS In fact.O. we have to choose any one of the possible orders and count the number of different ways of the occurence of the events in this chosen order. the required number of ways of wearing a pant and a shirt was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) the event of choosing a pant the event of choosing a shirt. then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m×n. following which a third event can occur in p different ways. Here.” The above principle can be generalised for any finite number of events. in both the cases.S. the required number of ways was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) (iii) the event of choosing a school bag the event of choosing a tiffin box the event of choosing a water bottle. The first place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 letters R. Thus.E. following which. the required number of words is 24. following which another event can occur in n different ways. Following which. the multiplication principle.

the required number of two digits even numbers is 2 × 5. 4. let us count the possible number of signals consisting of 2 flags.. The upper vacant place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 flags. 2. if five different flags are available. Example 4 Find the number of different signals that can be generated by arranging at least 2 flags in order (one below the other) on a vertical staff. there will be as many 3 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 3 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags. if a signal requires the use of 2 flags one below the other? Solution There will be as many signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 4 flags of different colours. Hence. because the options for this place are 2 and 4 only and this can be done in 2 ways. following which. the number of ways is 5 × 4 = 20. i. Example 3 How many 2 digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. how many different signals can be generated. we start filling in unit’s place. By Multiplication rule. the required number of signals = 4 × 3 = 12. by the multiplication principle. 3. 5 if the digits can be repeated? Solution There will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 2 vacant places in succession by the five given digits. 3 flags. Similarly. the required number of words = 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 = 256. There will be as many 2 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags available. 10. 4 flags and 5 flags separately and then add the respective numbers. 3 flags.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 137 Note If the repetition of the letters was allowed. Here.e. Example 2 Given 4 flags of different colours. how many words can be formed? One can easily understand that each of the 4 vacant places can be filled in succession in 4 different ways. 4 flags or 5 flags. Hence. following which the ten’s place can be filled by any of the 5 digits in 5 different ways as the digits can be repeated. . the lower vacant place can be filled in 3 different ways by anyone of the remaining 3 different flags. Now. by the multiplication principle. Solution A signal can consist of either 2 flags. in this case. Therefore.

EXERCISE 7. NUB. Each arrangement is called a permutation of 4 different letters taken all at a time. with or without meaning. NMU. we find that The number of 4 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 = 120 and the number of 5 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120 Therefore. 6. in this list. the required no of signals = 20 + 60 + 120 + 120 = 320. we are counting the permutations of 6 different letters taken 3 at a time. we are actually counting the different possible arrangements of the letters such as ROSE. 4. if no letter can be repeated? How many 5-digit telephone numbers can be constructed using the digits 0 to 9 if each number starts with 67 and no digit appears more than once? A coin is tossed 3 times and the outcomes are recorded. we need to count the arrangements NUM... If the repetition of the letters was allowed. 4. 5.3 Permutations In Example 1 of the previous Section. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 1. In other words. one below the other? 7. Here. the required number of words would be 6 × 6 × 6 = 216. 3. MUN. 6 if the digits can be repeated? How many 4-letter code can be formed using the first 10 letters of the English alphabet. How many possible outcomes are there? Given 5 flags of different colours. etc. . 2. The required number of words = 6 × 5 × 4 = 120 (by using multiplication principle). 3. if we have to determine the number of 3-letter words. Here..138 MATHEMATICS The number of ways is 5 × 4 × 3 = 60. Continuing the same way. repetition of the digits is allowed? repetition of the digits is not allowed? How many 3-digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. . the order of writing the letters is important. 5. 2.... how many different signals can be generated if each signal requires the use of 2 flags. REOS.1 1. etc. . 4 and 5 assuming that (i) (ii) 2. each arrangement is different from other. which can be formed out of the letters of the word NUMBER. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. Now. 3.

i. (n – r + 1) This expression for nPr is cumbersome and we need a notation which will help to reduce the size of this expression. . . for a natural number n n ! = n (n – 1) ! = n (n – 1) (n – 2) ! [provided (n ≥ 2)] = n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ! [provided (n ≥ 3)] and so on. . which is denoted by nPr. × (n – 1) × n = n ! 1=1! 1×2=2! 1× 2 × 3 = 3 ! 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 4 ! and so on. In the following text we will learn what actually n! means..3. . 7. × (n – 1) × n is denoted as n!. We read this symbol as ‘n factorial’. the second place can be filled in (n – 1) ways.... .e.( n – r + 1). In the following sub Section. ..3. The symbol n! (read as factorial n or n factorial ) comes to our rescue. Proof There will be as many permutations as there are ways of filling in r vacant places . following which the third place can be filled in (n – 2) ways. the product 1 × 2 × 3 × . 7. .. . the rth place can be filled in (n – (r – 1)) ways. . following which. where 0 < r ≤ n and the objects do not repeat is n ( n – 1) ( n – 2)..1 Permutations when all the objects are distinct Theorem 1 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time. (n – (r – 1)) or n ( n – 1) (n – 2) . We define 0 ! = 1 We can write 5 ! = 5 × 4 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1! Clearly. 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 . the number of ways of filling in r vacant places in succession is n(n – 1) (n – 2) .PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 139 Definition 1 A permutation is an arrangement in a definite order of a number of objects taken some or all at a time. The first place can be filled in n ways. ← r vacant places → by the n objects.. Thus.2 Factorial notation The notation n! represents the product of first n natural numbers.. Therefore. we shall obtain the formula needed to answer these questions immediately.

1+ 10 x = 9 10 × 9 EXERCISE 7. ( ) Solution 5! We have to evaluate 2! 5 − 2 ! (since n = 5. (10!) × ( 2 ) (10!) ( 2!) n! Example 7 Evaluate r ! n − r ! . r = 2. = 2 !( 5 − 2 )! 2! × 3! 2 We have Example 8 If 1 1 x + = 8! 9! 10! . when n = 5. find x.140 MATHEMATICS Example 5 Evaluate (i) 5 ! Solution and (ii) 7 ! (iii) 7 ! – 5! (i) 5 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 = 120 (ii) 7 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 ×7 = 5040 (iii) 7 ! – 5! = 5040 – 120 = 4920.2 1. r = 2) ( ) 5! 5! 4×5 = = 10 . Evaluate (i) 8 ! (ii) 4 ! – 3 ! . 1 1 x Solution We have 8! + 9 × 8! = 10 × 9 × 8! Therefore So 1 x = or 9 10 × 9 x = 100. Example 6 Compute (i) 7! 5! 12! (ii) 10! (2!) ( ) Solution (i) We have 7 × 6 × 5! 7! = = 7 × 6 = 42 5! 5! and (ii) 12 × 11 × (10!) 12! = = 6 × 11 = 66.

when ( ) 3. .3.3 Derivation of the formula for nPr n Pr = n! . Thus.. 3 × 2 × 1. ( n − r )( n − r − 1) . . we get n Pr = n ( n − 1) ( n − 2 ) . (n – r + 1) Multiplying numerator and denomirator by (n – r) (n – r – 1) . r = 2 (ii) n = 9.. .. we can have In particular.. n! = n! 0! Counting permutations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are rearranged.3 × 2 × 1 ( n − r )! n Thus Pr = n! ( n − r )! . .0≤r≤n ( n − r )! n Let us now go back to the stage where we had determined the following formula: Pr = n (n – 1) (n – 2) ...( n − r + 1)( n − r )( n − r − 1) . (1) Therefore. Compute 8! 6! × 2! 4. the formula (1) is applicable for r = 0 also.. If 1 1 x + = . where 0 < r ≤ n This is a much more convenient expression for nPr than the previous one. n Pn = n P0 = 1 = n! n! = n ! ( n − 0)! .0≤r ≤n . 7.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 141 2. Thus n Pr = n! . Is 3 ! + 4 ! = 7 ! ? n! Evaluate n − r ! .. find x 6! 7! 8! 5. (i) n = 6. when r = n. r = 5. ( n − r )! . Arranging no object at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so.3 × 2 × 1 n! = .

4! Therefore. in this case also.e. There are 2 Os. Permutations when O1. ROOT TOOR . the letters of the word are not all different.the required number of words would be 63 = 216. temporarily. The number of 3-letter words which can be formed by the letters of the word 6! 6 NUMBER = P3 = 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120. the 2 Os as different. the repetition is not allowed. RO 1O2T. O2 are the same O. taken all at a time is 4!. Proof is very similar to that of Theorem 1 and is left for the reader to arrive at. The number of permutations of 4-different letters.we have 2 ! permutations RO1O2T and RO2O1T which will be exactly the same permutation if O1 and O2 are not treated as different. the required number of permutations = 2! = 3 × 4 = 12 . the required number of words would be 44 = 256. we are solving some of the problems of the pervious Section using the formula for nPr to illustrate its usefulness. Corresponding to this permutation. 10! 7. which are of the same kind. Here. Here. If repeation is allowed. The number of ways in which a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman can be chosen from amongst a group of 12 persons assuming that one person can not hold more than one position. Let us treat. say.4 Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Suppose we have to find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word ROOT. In this case. O2 are different.142 MATHEMATICS Theorem 2 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time.. if O1 and O2 are the same O at both places. clearly 12 P2 = 12! = 11 × 12 = 132. is nr. If the repetition is allowed.3. in this case. O1 and O2. i. Consider one of these permutations say. Here repetition is not allowed. the required number of words = 4P4 = 4! = 24. In Example 1. where repetition is allowed. RO1O 2 T ⎤ RO 2 O1T ⎥ ⎦ T O1O 2 R ⎤ T O2 O1R ⎥ ⎦ Permutations when O1.

in this case. Consider one such permutation.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 143 R O1T O 2 ⎤ R O 2 T O1 ⎥ ⎦ ROTO T O1R O 2 ⎤ T O 2 R O1 ⎥ ⎦ R T O1 O 2 ⎤ R T O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ TORO RTOO T R O1 O 2 ⎤ T R O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 O 2 R T ⎤ O2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ TROO OORT O1 R O 2 T ⎤ O 2 R O1 T ⎥ ⎦ O1 T O 2 R ⎤ O 2 T O1 R ⎥ ⎦ OROT OTOR O1 R T O 2 ⎤ O 2 R T O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 T R O 2 ⎤ O 2 T R O1 ⎥ ⎦ ORTO OTRO O1 O 2 T R ⎤ O 2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ OOTR Let us now find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word INSTITUTE. I2 are not same . Temporarily. T2. I1 NT1 SI2 T2 U E T3. In this case there are 9 letters. The number of permutations of 9 different letters. Here if I1. T1. in which I appears 2 times and T appears 3 times. T3. taken all at a time is 9 !. say. I2. let us treat these letters different and name them as I1.

.144 MATHEMATICS and T1. 2 L’s and rest are all different. T3 are not same. pk! Example 9 Find the number of permutations of the letters of the word ALLAHABAD. 2! × 3! permutations will be just the same permutation corresponding to this chosen permutation I1NT1SI2T2UET3. I2 can be arranged in 2! ways and T1. .. 3. Therefore. where p objects are of the same kind and rest are all different = n! p! .. 9 Therefore. p1! p2! . T3 can be arranged in 3! ways. if the repetition of the digits is not allowed? Solution Every number between 100 and 1000 is a 3-digit number. 5. 2. In fact. if any. the required 4 digit numbers = P4 = 9! 9! = = 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 = 3024. We.. Therefore. there will be as many 4 digit numbers as there are permutations of 9 different digits taken 4 at a time. where p1 objects are of one kind. have to . T2. the required number of arrangements = 9! 5× 6× 7 ×8× 9 = = 7560 4! 2! 2 Example 10 How many 4-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if repetition of digits is not allowed? Solution Here order matters for example 1234 and 1324 are two different numbers. 1. there are 9 objects (letters) of which there are 4A’s. Theorem 4 The number of permutations of n objects. ( 9 – 4 )! 5! Example 11 How many numbers lying between 100 and 1000 can be formed with the digits 0. p2 are of second kind. total number of different permutations will be 9! 2! 3! We can state (without proof) the following theorems: Theorem 3 The number of permutations of n objects. T2. 4. first. Solution Here. Hence.. Therefore. we have a more general theorem. pk are of kth kind and the rest. are of different kind is n! . then I1.

n > 4] n = 10.. we get (n – 3 (n – 4) = 42 or or or n2 – 7n – 30 = 0 n2 – 10n + 3n – 30 (n – 10) (n + 3) = 0 or n – 10 = 0 or n + 3 = 0 or n = 10 or n = – 3 As n cannot be negative. . This number would be 6P3. etc are such numbers which are actually 2-digit numbers and hence the number of such numbers has to be subtracted from 6P3 to get the required number. . we fix 0 at the 100’s place and rearrange the remaining 5 digits taking 2 at a time. For example. so n = 10. 042. n (ii) Given that Therefore or or n –1 P4 5 = P4 3 3n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) = 5(n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) 3n = 5 (n – 4) [as (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ≠ 0. But. these permutations will include those also where 0 is at the 100’s place. This number is 5P2. 092. n > 4 (ii) n –1 P4 5 = . So The required number = 6 P3 − 5 P2 = 6! 5! − 3! 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 – 4 ×5 = 100 Example 12 Find the value of n such that n (i) n P5 = 42 n P3 .PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 145 count the permutations of 6 digits taken 3 at a time. by dividing both sides by n(n – 1) (n – 2).n>4 P4 3 Solution (i) Given that or Since P5 = 42 n P3 n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) = 42 n(n – 1) (n – 2) n n>4 so n(n – 1) (n – 2) ≠ 0 Therefore. . To get the number of such numbers. .

Then.146 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find r. 4 are of the first kind . 3. U and E. we have to subtract from this number. This number would be 6P6 = 6!. Then we count permutations of these 6 objects taken all at a time. (ii) If we have to count those permutations in which all vowels are never together. namely. the number of permutations in which the vowels are always together. if 5 4Pr = 6 5Pr–1 . we can for the time being. E taken all at a time . r = 8. Solution We have 5 4 Pr = 6 5 Pr −1 or 5× 4! 5! = 6× ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1)! or or or or or or Hence 5! 6 × 5! = ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1) ( 5 − r )( 5 − r − 1)! (6 – r) (5 – r) = 6 r2 – 11r + 24 = 0 r2 – 8r – 3r + 24 = 0 (r – 8) (r – 3) = 0 r = 8 or r = 3. Hence. Example 14 Find the number of different 8-letter arrangements that can be made from the letters of the word DAUGHTER so that (ii) all vowels do not occur together. A. Corresponding to each of these permutations. we shall have 3! permutations of the three vowels A. 3 yellow and 2 green discs be arranged in a row if the discs of the same colour are indistinguishable ? Solution Total number of discs are 4 + 3 + 2 = 9. which can be done in 8! ways. (i) all vowels occur together Solution (i) There are 8 different letters in the word DAUGHTER. Since the vowels have to occur together. we first have to find all possible arrangments of 8 letters taken all at a time. the required number 8 ! – 6 ! × 3 ! = 6 ! (7×8 – 6) = 2 × 6 ! (28 – 3) = 50 × 6 ! = 50 × 720 = 36000 Example 15 In how many ways can 4 red. assume them as a single object (AUE). in which there are 3 vowels. Therefore. This single object together with 5 remaining letters (objects) will be counted as 6 objects. Out of 9 discs. by the multiplication principle the required number of permutations = 6 ! × 3 ! = 4320. U.

then. we treat them as a single object being. (i) do the words start with P (ii) do all the vowels always occur together (iii) do the vowels never occur together (iv) do the words begin with I and end in P? Solution There are 12 letters. E. E. which are 4 Es and 1 I. Therefore. 3! 2! 4! for the time There are 5 vowels in the given word. Since. Therefore 12! The required number of arrangements = 3! 4! 2! = 1663200 (i) Let us fix P at the extreme left position. E and I can be rearranged in 5! ways. we. in which there are 3Ns and 2 Ds. These 8 objects. by multiplication principle the 4! required number of arrangements = 8! 5! × = 16800 3! 2! 4! (iii) The required number of arrangements = the total number of arrangements (without any restriction) – the number of arrangements where all the vowels occur together. Therefore. they have to always occur together. 4! 3! 2! Example 16 Find the number of arrangements of the letters of the word INDEPENDENCE. 3 are of the second kind (yellow) and 2 are of the third kind (green). Corresponding to each of these arrangements. the required of words starting with P are = (ii) 11! = 138600 . the 5 vowels E. In how many of these arrangements. count the arrangements of the remaining 11 letters. can be rearranged in 8! 3! 2! ways.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 147 (red). the number of arrangements 9! = 1260 . This single object together with 7 remaining objects will account for 8 objects. of which N appears 3 times. . Therefore. E appears 4 times and D appears 2 times and the rest are all different.

assuming that no letter is repeated. 4. can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION. (i) words start with P and end with S.4 Combinations Let us now assume that there is a group of 3 lawn tennis players X. 2. the required number of arrangements = 10! = 12600 3! 2! 4! EXERCISE 7. if no digit is repeated? 4. 7. In how many ways can we do so? Is the team of X and Y different from the team of Y and X ? Here. if. How many words. In how many of the distinct permutations of the letters in MISSISSIPPI do the four I’s not come together? 11. . In fact. How many 3-digit even numbers can be made using the digits 1. In how many ways can the letters of the word PERMUTATIONS be arranged if the (ii) vowels are all together. We are left with 10 letters. Z. 3. using each letter exactly once? 9. (iii) there are always 4 letters between P and S? 7. How many 4-digit numbers are there with no digit repeated? 3. 7. (i) 4 letters are used at a time. A team consisting of 2 players is to be formed.3 1. Find r if (i) 5 Pr = 2 6 Pr−1 (ii) 5 Pr = 6 Pr −1 . 2. Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 1. Y. (iii) all letters are used but first letter is a vowel? 10.148 MATHEMATICS (iv) = 1663200 – 16800 = 1646400 Let us fix I and P at the extreme ends (I at the left end and P at the right end). 4. (ii) all letters are used at a time. Hence. How many of these will be even? 5. 3. in how many ways can we choose a chairman and a vice chairman assuming one person can not hold more than one position? 6. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if no digit is repeated? 2. order is not important. with or without meaning. How many words. From a committee of 8 persons. 8. 6. Find n if n – 1P3 : nP4 = 1 : 9. 5 if no digit is repeated. there are only 3 possible ways in which the team could be constructed. with or without meaning can be made from the letters of the word MONDAY.

BD. ADE. YZ and ZX (Fig 7. B. This is why we have not included BA. these will be AB. BCD. Hence. the order is not important. the number of permutations of 4 different things taken 2 at a time = 4P2. Suppose we have 4 different objects A. ACE. ABD. X shaking hands with Y and Y with X will not be two different hand shakes. DB and DC in this list. each selection is called a combination of 3 different objects taken 2 at a time.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 149 Fig. There will be as many hand shakes as there are combinations of 12 different things taken 2 at a time. C and D. BDE. Corresponding to each of these 5C3 combinations. there are 3! permutations. D. 7. On the other hand.. AC. Taking 3 at a time.e. because. C. we can arrive at 2! permutations as 2 objects in each combination can be rearranged in 2! ways. CDE. order is not important. How do we determine the number of hand shakes.. How many chords can be drawn by joining these points pairwise? There will be as many chords as there are combinations of 7 different things taken 2 at a time. the number of permutations = 4C2 × 2!. Twelve persons meet in a room and each shakes hand with all the others. E. the three objects in each combination can be . BC. In a combination. Here. Now. Therefore 4 P2 = 4C2 × 2! or 4! = 4C2 ( 4 − 2 )! 2! Now. these will be ABC. Corresponding to each combination in the list. There are as many as 6 combinations of 4 different objects taken 2 at a time. i. ABE. B. Now consider some more illustrations. Seven points lie on a circle. AD. if we have to make combinations. denoted by nCr. CB. CA. we obtain the formula for finding the number of combinations of n different objects taken r at a time. CD. 4C2 = 6. Taking 2 at a time. DA.3 These are XY. let us suppose that we have 5 different objects A. Here. BCE.3). Here. ACD. if we have to make combinations. AB and BA are the same combination as order does not alter the combination.

i. n Cn− r = n! n! = n − r !r ! = n C r . 0 < r ≤ n. This way we define nC0 = 1. 4. r (n − r ) Hence n r = r (n − r ) .150 MATHEMATICS rearranged in 3 ! ways. On the other hand. the formula 0!( n − 0 )! n n r = n is applicable for r = 0 also. 0 ≤ r ≤ n. Hence. 0 < r ≤ n . Proof Corresponding to each combination of nCr we have r ! permutations. n! = 1.. if r = n . n In particular. n n! n Remarks 1. n! = 1 = n C0 . Selecting nothing at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so. From above ( n − r )! = C r × r! . Cn = Cr = n! r!( n − r )! . We define nC0 = 1. i. it is n n r . Therefore. the total number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is nCr × r!. Thus Pr = n C r × r! . Counting combinations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are selected. the total of permutations = 5 C3 × 3! Therefore 5 P3 = 5C3 × 3! or 5! = 5 C3 ( 5 − 3)! 3! These examples suggest the following theorem showing relationship between permutaion and combination: Theorem 5 n Pr = n C r r! . the number of combinations of n different things taken nothing at all is considered to be 1. because r objects in every combination can be rearranged in r ! ways. As 3. ( n − r )!( n − ( n − r ) )! ( ) . n! 0! 2..e.e.

selecting r objects out of n objects is same as rejecting (n – r) objects. we need to count combinations. In how many ways can this be done? How many of these committees would consist of 1 man and 2 women? Solution Here. 1 man can be selected from 2 men in 2C1 ways and 2 women can be selected from 3 women in 3C2 ways. n! n! = 9!( n − 9 )! ( n − 8 )! 8! or Therefore 1 1 = 9 n −8 n or n – 8 = 9 C17 = 1 .e. i. order does not matter. Hence.. 5. Therefore. There will be as many committees as there are combinations of 5 different persons 5 taken 3 at a time. Therefore..e. the required number of ways = C3 = 5! 4 × 5 = = 10 . n Ca = nCb ⇒ a = b or a = n – b. .PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 151 i. n = a + b n Theorem 6 C r + n C r −1 = n n +1 Cr Proof We have Cr + n Cr −1 = n! n! + r!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1)! = n! n! + r × ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1) ( n − r )! = 1 ⎤ n! ⎡1 ⎢ r + n − r + 1⎥ ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ⎣ ⎦ n! n − r +1+ r ( n + 1)! = n +1 C × = r ( r − 1)!( n − r )! r ( n − r + 1) r!( n + 1 − r )! n = Example 17 If n C9 = n C8 .e.. the required number of committees . 3! 2! 2 Now. or n = 17 C17 = 17 Example 18 A committee of 3 persons is to be constituted from a group of 2 men and 3 women. find Solution We have n C9 = n C8 i.

heart and there are 13 cards of each suit. there are 13C4 ways of choosing 4 diamonds. by multiplication principle. This can be done in 12C4 ways. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of clubs. Therefore. 1! 1! 2! 1! Example 19 What is the number of ways of choosing 4 cards from a pack of 52 playing cards? In how many of these (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) four cards are of the same suit. Therefore The required number of ways = 52 C4 = 52! 49 × 50 × 51× 52 = 4! 48! 2× 3× 4 = 270725 (i) There are four suits: diamond. club. are face cards. taken 4 at a time.152 MATHEMATICS 2 3 = C1 × C2 = 2! 3! × = 6. cards are of the same colour? Solution There will be as many ways of choosing 4 cards from 52 cards as there are combinations of 52 different things. there are 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of diamond. Similarly. Therefore The required number of ways = 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of spades. = 4× (ii) There are13 cards in each suit. Therefore. 13 C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of hearts. the required number of ways = 13! = 2860 4! 9! 12! = 495 . Hence. the required number of ways = 13C1 × 13C1 × 13C1× 13C1 = 134 (iii) There are 12 face cards and 4 are to be slected out of these 12 cards. 13C4 ways of choosing 4 spades and 13C4 ways of choosing 4 hearts. Therefore. there are 13 C4 ways of choosing 4 clubs. two are red cards and two are black cards. 4! 8! . four cards belong to four different suits. spade.

4 1. 9. each of 3 vowels and 2 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word INVOLUTE ? Solution In the word INVOLUTE.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 153 (iv) There are 26 red cards and 26 black cards. 2. Determine n if (ii) 2nC3 : nC3 = 11 : 1 (i) 2nC2 : nC2 = 12 : 1 How many chords can be drawn through 21 points on a circle? In how many ways can a team of 3 boys and 3 girls be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls? Find the number of ways of selecting 9 balls from 6 red balls. there are 4 vowels. with or without meaning.O. L and T. the required number of ways = 26C2 × 26C2 ⎛ 26! ⎞ 2 =⎜ ⎟ = ( 325) = 105625 2! 24! ⎠ ⎝ (v) 4 red cards can be selected out of 26 red cards on 4 black cards can be selected out of 26 black cards in 26C4ways. 5.E. 5 white balls and 5 blue balls if each selection consists of 3 balls of each colour. In how many ways can a student choose a programme of 5 courses if 9 courses are available and 2 specific courses are compulsory for every student? 8. 26 2 C 4 ways. Therefore. N. If nC8 = nC2. 7. namely. 4! 22! EXERCISE 7. . the required number of ways = 26C4 + 26C4 = 2× 26! = 29900. 4. Determine the number of ways in which 2 black and 3 red balls can be selected. Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 How many words. I. find nC2. namely.Uand 4 consonants. In how many ways can one select a cricket team of eleven from 17 players in which only 5 players can bowl if each cricket team of 11 must include exactly 4 bowlers? A bag contains 5 black and 6 red balls. 6. Therefore. 3. V. Determine the number of 5 card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if there is exactly one ace in each combination.

each of these 24 combinations has 5 letters which can be arranged among themselves in 5 ! ways. 4 boys and 1 girl can be selected in 7C4 × 4C1 ways. 3 girls and 2 boys can be selected in 4C3 × 7C2 ways. the group has only 4 girls. at least one boy and one girl are to be there in every team. only boys are to be selected. Note that the team cannot have all 5 girls. or (b) 4 girls and 1 boy. The number of ways of selecting 2 consonants out of 4 = 4C2 = 6. the team can consist of (a) 3 girls and 2 boys. because. Therefore. the team will not include any girl. the required number of ways (ii) 7! 6× 7 7 = C5 = 5! 2! = 2 = 21 Since. In how many ways can a team of 5 members be selected if the team has (i) no girl ? (ii) at least one boy and one girl ? (iii) at least 3 girls ? Solution (i) Since. 4 girls and 1 boy can be selected in 4C4 × 7C1 ways. the required number of ways = 4C3 × 7C2 + 4C4 × 7C1 = 84 + 7 = 91 . Therefore. Therefore. the team can consist of (a) 1 boy and 4 girls (c) 3 boys and 2 girls (b) 2 boys and 3 girls (d) 4 boys and 1 girl. Example 21 A group consists of 4 girls and 7 boys. Therefore. therefore. the number of combinations of 3 vowels and 2 consonants is 4 × 6 = 24. 5 boys out of 7 boys can be selected in 7C5 ways. the required number of ways = 7C1 × 4C4 + 7C2 × 4C3 + 7C3 × 4C2 + 7C4 × 4C1 = 7 + 84 + 210 + 140 = 441 (iii) Since.154 MATHEMATICS The number of ways of selecting 3 vowels out of 4 = 4C3 = 4. 2 boys and 3 girls can be selected in 7C2 × 4C3 ways. 1 boy and 4 girls can be selected in 7C1 × 4C4 ways. the required number of different words is 24 × 5 ! = 2880. Therefore. Therefore. Now. the team has to consist of at least 3 girls. 3 boys and 2 girls can be selected in 7C3 × 4C2 ways.

the number of words starting with A = 4! = 24. Example 23 How many numbers greater than 1000000 can be formed by using the digits 1. 4. there are 12 words starting with the next letter I. 2s and 2. 2 or 4. 4. 4. 2. 4? Solution Since. we then rearrange the remaining 4 letters taken all at a time. the required number of words = 5! = 60 . Hence. 0. Total numbers begining with 2 = 6! 3× 4 × 5 × 6 = = 180 2! 2! 2 6! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120 3! and total numbers begining with 4 = . 2. The 49th word is NAAGI. A. 4s. Then. 2. The 50th word is NAAIG. 2. Therefore. If these words are written as in a dictionary. Also. we are left with the letters A. 2! To get the number of words starting with A. so they can begin either with 1. the numbers to be counted will be 7-digit only. in which there are 3.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 155 Example 22 Find the number of words with or without meaning which can be made using all the letters of the word AGAIN. starting with G. I and N. There will be as many arrangements of these 4 letters taken 4 at a time as there are permutations of 4 different things taken 4 at a time. the numbers have to be greater than 1000000. 2. the number of words = 4! = 12 as after placing G 2! at the extreme left position. as when 1 is 3! 2! 2 fixed at the extreme left position. in which A appears 2 times. 2. what will be the 50th word? Solution There are 5 letters in the word AGAIN. The number of numbers beginning with 1 = 6! 4 × 5 × 6 = = 60. the remaining digits to be rearranged will be 0. Similarly. Total number of words so far obtained = 24 + 12 + 12 =48. Therefore. we fix the letter A at the extreme left position. 1000000 is a 7-digit number and the number of digits to be used is also 7.

There are 6 cross marked places and the three boys can be seated in 6P3 ways.. this will include those numbers also. How many words. But. × G × G × G × G × G ×. in the above example 1 and 0 can be used only once whereas 2 and 4 can be used 3 times and 2 times. How many words. it will be understood that in any number. Hence.156 MATHEMATICS Therefore. Note If one or more than one digits given in the list is repeated. The number of such 6! arrangements 3! 2! (by fixing 0 at the extreme left position) = 60. clearly. 3! 2! = 420 . Example 24 In how many ways can 5 girls and 3 boys be seated in a row so that no two boys are together? Solution Let us first seat the 5 girls. If the different permutations of all the letter of the word EXAMINATION are . the three boys can be seated only at the cross marked places. Therefore. the required number of numbers = 60 + 180 + 120 = 360. which have 0 at the extreme left position. can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION at a time so that the vowels and consonants occur together? 3. the digits can be used as many times as is given in the list. For each such arrangement. Alternative Method 7! The number of 7-digit arrangements. with or without meaning. with or without meaning. This can be done in 5! ways. the required number of numbers = 420 – 60 = 360. e. by multiplication principle. In how many ways can this be done when the committee consists of: (i) exactly 3 girls ? (ii) atleast 3 girls ? (iii) atmost 3 girls ? 4. each of 2 vowels and 3 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word DAUGHTER ? 2. = 5! × 6P3 = 5!× Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1.g. respectively. A committee of 7 has to be formed from 9 boys and 4 girls. the total number of ways 6! 3! = 4 × 5 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 14400.

where repetition is not allowed. There are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them will join.×n n! = n × (n – 1) ! The number of permutations of n different things. 8. 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party. listed as in a dictionary. following which another event can occur in n different ways. how many words are there in this list before the first word starting with E ? How many 6-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 0. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. respectively. 1. In how many ways can the excursion party be chosen ? In how many ways can the letters of the word ASSASSINATION be arranged so that all the S’s are together ? Summary Fundamental principle of counting If an event can occur in m different ways.e. In how many ways can a student select the questions ? Determine the number of 5-card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if each selection of 5 cards has exactly one king. containing 5 and 7 questions. A student is required to attempt 8 questions in all. The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time. taken r at a time. 6. The number of permutations of n objects taken all at a time. a question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts i. Part I and Part II. is denoted by nPr and is given by nPr = n! (n − r )! . 5. 10. 9. n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × . selecting at least 3 from each part...PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 157 5. where repeatition is allowed. 7. is nr. where p1 objects .. How many words with two different vowels and 2 different consonants can be formed from the alphabet ? In an examination. It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even places. 7 and 9 which are divisible by 10 and no digit is repeated ? The English alphabet has 5 vowels and 21 consonants. 3. 11. then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m × n. How many such arrangements are possible ? From a class of 25 students.

Some Arabic and Hebrew writers used the concepts of permutations and combinations in studying astronomy. Pingala. gives the method of determining the number of combinations of a given number of letters... This was around 1140 A.. if any. p2 objects are of the second kind. two at a time. for instance. however. Among the Jains. Greeks and later Latin writers also did some scattered work on the theory of permutations and combinations.C.D. Bhaskaracharya (born 1114 A. It is difficult to give the approximate time of this work. in his work Chhanda Sutra. etc. are all different is p ! p !. taken one at a time. (around 850 A. Mahavira. Bhaskaracharya gives several important theorems and results concerning the subject. in his medicinal work. pk objects are of the kth n! kind and rest.158 MATHEMATICS are of first kind. Historical Note The concepts of permutations and combinations can be traced back to the advent of Jainism in India and perhaps even earlier. asserts that 63 combinations can be made out of 6 different tastes.D.D. denoted by n Cr . is given by nCr = = n! r!( n − r )! . the emperor had ordered all books and manuscripts in the country to be burnt which fortunately was not completely carried out. Sushruta Samhita. 1 2 k The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time. 0 ≤ r ≤ n.) treated the subject matter of permutations and combinations under the name Anka Pasha in his famous work Lilavati. etc. Outside India. the subject matter of permutations and combinations had its humble beginnings in China in the famous book I–King (Book of changes). Rabbi ben Ezra. a Sanskrit scholar around third century B. taken one at a time.C. p ! . In the 6th century B. under the name Vikalpa.. The credit.. goes to the Jains who treated its subject matter as a self-contained topic in mathematics. since in 213 B. Sushruta.. In addition to the general formulae for nCr and nPr already provided by Mahavira.C. It appears that Rabbi ben Ezra did not . three at a time and so on. two at a time. determined the number of combinations of known planets taken two at a time...) is perhaps the world’s first mathematician credited with providing the general formulae for permutations and combinations. .

However. posthumously published in 1713 A. The first book which gives a complete treatment of the subject matter of permutations and combinations is Ars Conjectandi written by a Swiss. — — . Levi Ben Gerson.D.). he was aware that nCr = nCn–r for specific values n and r. nPn and the general formula for nCr. This book contains essentially the theory of permutations and combinations as is known today.D. another Hebrew writer came up with the formulae for nPr .D. Jacob Bernoulli (1654 – 1705 A.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 159 know the formula for nCr.. In 1321 A.

for higher powers like (98)5. we could evaluate the numerical values of numbers like (98)2 = (100 – 2)2. we have learnt how to find the squares and cubes of binomials like a + b and a – b. we observe that (i) The total number of terms in the expansion is one more than the index. where n is an integer or a rational number. However. etc.. It gives an easier way to expand (a + b)n. This difficulty was overcome by a theorem known as binomial theorem. For example. Using them.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Let us have a look at the following identities done earlier: (a+ b)0 = 1 a+b≠0 (a+ b)1 = a + b (a+ b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a+ b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a+ b)4 = (a + b)3 (a + b) = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4 In these expansions. the calculations become difficult by using repeated multiplication. (iii) In each term of the expansion. in the successive terms. (999)3 = (1000 – 1)3. in the expansion of (a + b)2 .Chapter 8 BINOMIAL THEOREM Mathematics is a most exact science and its conclusions are capable of absolute proofs. In this Chapter.1 Introduction In earlier classes. 8. . number of terms is 3 whereas the index of (a + b)2 is 2. etc. (101)6. (ii) Powers of the first quantity ‘a’ go on decreasing by 1 whereas the powers of the second quantity ‘b’ increase by 1. the sum of the indices of a and b is the same and is equal to the index of a + b. – C. we study binomial theorem for positive integral indices only. STEINMETZ 8.P.

Fig 8. we get (2x + 3y)5 = (2x)5 + 5(2x)4 (3y) + 10(2x)3 (3y)2 +10 (2x)2 (3y)3 + 5(2x)(3y)4 +(3y)5 = 32x5 + 240x4y + 720x3y2 + 1080x2y3 + 810xy4 + 243y5. The addition of 1. . (ii) and (iii).2 Pascal’s Triangle The structure given in Fig 8. Also.BINOMIAL THEOREM 161 We now arrange the coefficients in these expansions as follows (Fig 8. 1 in the row for index 2. 2 and 2.1): Fig 8.2 looks like a triangle with 1 at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides. It can be seen that the addition of 1’s in the row for index 1 gives rise to 2 in the row for index 2. 1 is present at the beginning and at the end of each row.2 by writing a few more rows.1 Do we observe any pattern in this table that will help us to write the next row? Yes we do. It is also known as Meru Prastara by Pingla. gives rise to 3 and 3 in the row for index 3 and so on. This array of numbers is known as Pascal’s triangle. We can extend the pattern given in Fig 8. after the name of French mathematician Blaise Pascal. The row for index 5 is 1 5 10 10 5 1 Using this row and our observations (i). Expansions for the higher powers of a binomial are also possible by using Pascal’s triangle. This can be continued till any index of our interest. Let us expand (2x + 3y)5 by using Pascal’s triangle.

We know that n Cr = n! r!(n – r )! . if we want to find the expansion of (2x + 3y)12.162 MATHEMATICS Now. that come before the row of the desired index.3 Pascal’s triangle Observing this pattern. We thus try to find a rule that will help us to find the expansion of the binomial for any power without writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle. using this row and the observations (i). Also. nC0 = 1 = nCn The Pascal’s triangle can now be rewritten as (Fig 8. Thus. for the index 7 the row would be 7 C0 7C1 7C2 7C3 7C4 7C5 7C6 7C7. we can now write the row of the Pascal’s triangle for any index without writing the earlier rows. if we need the expansions involving still larger powers. We are now in a position to write the expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index. we are first required to get the row for index 12. This can be done by writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle till index 12.3) Fig 8. For example. will become more difficult. as you observe. 0 ≤ r ≤ n and n is a non-negative integer. This is a slightly lengthy process. (ii) and (iii). we make use of the concept of combinations studied earlier to rewrite the numbers in the Pascal’s triangle. we have (a + b)7 = 7C0 a7 + 7C1a6b + 7C2a5b2 + 7C3a4b3 + 7C4a3b4 + 7C5a2b5 + 7C6ab6 + 7C7b7 An expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index say n can now be visualised using these observations. For this. The process. .

kCr + kCr–1 = k+1 Cr and k Ck = 1= k + 1Ck + 1) Thus..+ nCn – 1a.26.bn – 1 + nCnbn For n = 1.25 + 6C6. We illustrate this theorem by expanding (x + 2)6: (x + 2)6 = 6C0x6 + 6C1x5.. (1) C0 ak + 1 + k+1 C 1 ak b + k+1 C2 ak – 1b2 + .. ..bn–1 + nCnbn Proof The proof is obtained by applying principle of mathematical induction....+ k + 1Ckabk + k + 1Ck + 1 bk +1 C0=1.23 + 6C4x2.e..+ kCkbk We shall prove that P(k + 1) is also true....1 Binomial theorem for any positive integer n. (a + b)k + 1 = (a + b) (a + b)k = (a + b) (kC0 ak + kC1ak – 1 b + kC2 ak – 2 b2 +.. Suppose P (k) is true for some positive integer k.BINOMIAL THEOREM 163 8.2.+ nCn–1a. P (1) is true. we have P (1) : (a + b)1 = 1C0a1 + 1C1b1 = a + b Thus..+ k+1 Ck+1 bk + 1 Now. + (kCk+ kCk–1) abk + kCkbk + 1 (by using k+1 [grouping like terms] = k + 1C0a k + 1 + k + 1C1akb + k + 1C2 ak – 1b2 +. it has been proved that P (k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64 Thus (x + 2)6 = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64. (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an–1b + nC2an–2 b2 + ...+ kCk-1abk + kCkbk + 1 [by actual multiplication] = kC0ak + 1 + (kC1+ kC0) akb + (kC2 + kC1)ak – 1b2 + . (a + b)k = kC0ak + kC1ak – 1b + kC2ak – 2b2 + . Therefore. i..+ kCk – 1 a2bk – 1 + kCk abk + kC0 akb + kC1ak – 1b2 + kC2ak – 2b3+. (a + b)k + 1 = k+1 .. Let the given statement be P(n) : (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an – 1b + nC2an – 2b2 + ...+ kCk – 1 abk – 1 + kCk bk) [from (1)] = kC0 ak + 1 + kC1 akb + kC2ak – 1b2 +.. i. P(n) is true for every positive integer n. by principle of mathematical induction.e.2 + 6C2x422 + 6C3x3.24 + 6C5x..

the sum of the indices of a and b is n + 0 = n in the first term. starting with zero in the first term. k =0 n 2. 4..2 Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n. The notation n n 0 n ∑ k =0 n n C k a n− k b k stands for C0a b + C1an–1b1 + . + (–1)n nCn yn Using this. it can be seen that the sum of the indices of a and b is n in every term of the expansion.. Thus. and so on ending with zero in the last term.... we obtain (x – y)n = [x + (–y)]n = nC0xn + nC1xn – 1(–y) + nC2xn–2(–y)2 + nC3xn–3(–y)3 + .164 MATHEMATICS Observations 1. we obtain (1 + x)n = nC0(1)n + nC1(1)n – 1x + nC2(1)n – 2 x2 + .+nCnan–nbn. (n – 1) + 1 = n in the second term and so on 0 + n = n in the last term.. 3.. It is n in the first term. The coefficients nCr occuring in the binomial theorem are known as binomial coefficients. i. + nCn (–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1y + nC2xn – 2y2 – nC3xn – 3y3 + . one more than the index. 1 in the second and so on ending with n in the last term. we have (x–2y)5 = 5 5 C0x5 – 5C1x4 (2y) + 5C2x3 (2y)2 – 5C3x2 (2y)3 + C4 x(2y)4 – 5C5(2y)5 = x5 –10x4y + 40x3y2 – 80x2y3 + 80xy4 – 32y5.. b = x.. In the expansion of (a+b)n..2. (n–1) in the second term. where b0 = 1 = an–n. In the successive terms of the expansion the index of a goes on decreasing by unity. + nCnxn = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + . 5. There are (n+1) terms in the expansion of (a+b)n. Hence the theorem can also be stated as ( a + b) n = ∑ n C k a n − k b k . + nCnxn . + nCnxn Thus (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + . (ii) Taking a = 1.+ nC ran–rbr + ....e.... At the same time the index of b increases by unity. 8.. (i) Taking a = x and b = – y. + (–1)n nCn yn Thus (x–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1 y + nC2xn – 2 y2 + .

x6 ..x4 . b = – x. + (– 1)n nCnxn In particular.x2.. (98)5 = (100 – 2)5 = 5C0 (100)5 – 5C1 (100)4. we get 0 = nC0 – nC1 + nC2 – .01)1000000 or 10.01 and using binomial theorem to write the first few terms we have .. and then use Binomial Theorem. Solution We express 98 as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate.. (iii) Taking a = 1.. we obtain (1– x)n = nC0 – nC1x + nC2x2 – . 2 + 4. + nCn. for x = 1.BINOMIAL THEOREM 165 In particular.000? Solution Splitting 1. for x = 1. Example 3 Which is larger (1.2 + 5C2 (100)322 – 5C3 (100)2 (2)3 + 5C4 (100) (2)4 – 5C5 (2)5 = 10000000000 – 5 × 100000000 × 2 + 10 × 1000000 × 4 – 10 ×10000 × 8 + 5 × 100 × 16 – 32 = 10040008000 – 1000800032 = 9039207968.. we have 2n = nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + . 3 9 27 81 + 6. 3 + 4 x x x x 108 81 + . x x4 = x8 + 12x5 + 54x2 + Example 2 Compute (98)5. Write 98 = 100 – 2 Therefore. we have 4 ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 2 3⎞ 4 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎜ x + ⎟ = C0(x2)4 + 4C1(x2)3 ⎜ x ⎟ + 4C2(x2)2 ⎜ ⎟ + 4C3(x2) ⎜ ⎟ + 4C4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ 2 3 4 4 = x8 + 4. + (–1)n nCn ⎛ 2 3⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ x + ⎟ . x ≠ 0 x⎠ ⎝ Solution By using binomial theorem.

166

MATHEMATICS

(1.01)1000000 = (1 + 0.01)1000000 =

1000000

C0 +

1000000

C1(0.01) + other positive terms

= 1 + 1000000 × 0.01 + other positive terms = 1 + 10000 + other positive terms > 10000 Hence (1.01)1000000 > 10000

Example 4 Using binomial theorem, prove that 6n–5n always leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25. Solution For two numbers a and b if we can find numbers q and r such that a = bq + r, then we say that b divides a with q as quotient and r as remainder. Thus, in order to show that 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25, we prove that 6n – 5n = 25k + 1, where k is some natural number. We have (1 + a)n = nC0 + nC1a + nC2a2 + ... + nCnan For a = 5, we get (1 + 5)n = nC0 + nC15 + nC252 + ... + nCn5n i.e. i.e. or or (6)n = 1 + 5n + 52.nC2 + 53.nC3 + ... + 5n 6n – 5n = 1+52 (nC2 + nC35 + ... + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 1+ 25 (nC2 + 5 .nC3 + ... + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 25k+1 where k = nC2 + 5 .nC3 + ... + 5n–2.

This shows that when divided by 25, 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1.

EXERCISE 8.1

Expand each of the expressions in Exercises 1 to 5. 1. (1–2x)5

⎛2 x⎞ 2. ⎜ – ⎟ ⎝ x 2⎠

5

3. (2x – 3)6

BINOMIAL THEOREM

167

⎛x 1⎞ 4. ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝3 x⎠

5

1⎞ ⎛ 5. ⎜ x + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝

6

Using binomial theorem, evaluate each of the following: 7. (102)5 8. (101)4 6. (96)3 9. (99)5 10. Using Binomial Theorem, indicate which number is larger (1.1)10000 or 1000. 11. Find (a + b)4 – (a – b)4. Hence, evaluate ( 3 + 2)4 – ( 3 –

2 )4 .

12. Find (x + 1)6 + (x – 1)6. Hence or otherwise evaluate ( 2 + 1)6 + ( 2 – 1)6. 13. Show that 9n+1 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer. 14. Prove that

∑3

r=0

n

r n

C r = 4n .

8.3

1.

**General and Middle Terms
**

In the binomial expansion for (a + b)n, we observe that the first term is n C0an, the second term is nC1an–1b, the third term is nC2an–2b2, and so on. Looking at the pattern of the successive terms we can say that the (r + 1)th term is n Cran–rbr. The (r + 1)th term is also called the general term of the expansion (a + b)n. It is denoted by Tr+1. Thus Tr+1 = nCr an–rbr. Regarding the middle term in the expansion (a + b)n, we have (i) If n is even, then the number of terms in the expansion will be n + 1. Since

2.

**⎛ n +1+1⎞ ⎟ , i.e., n is even so n + 1 is odd. Therefore, the middle term is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th

**⎛n ⎞ ⎜ +1⎟ term. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛8 ⎞ For example, in the expansion of (x + 2y) , the middle term is ⎜ +1 ⎟ i.e., ⎝2 ⎠
**

8

th

th

5th term. (ii) If n is odd, then n +1 is even, so there will be two middle terms in the

168

MATHEMATICS

**⎛ n +1 ⎞ ⎛ n +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ term. So in the expansion ⎟ term and ⎜ expansion, namely, ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th

th

**⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ ⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ , i.e., 5th term. ⎟ , i.e., 4th and ⎜ (2x – y) , the middle terms are ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th th

7

3.

**1⎞ ⎛ In the expansion of ⎜ x + ⎟ , where x ≠ 0, the middle term is x⎠ ⎝
**

i.e., (n + 1)th term, as 2n is even.

2n

⎛ 2 n +1 + 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ , 2 ⎝ ⎠

th

**⎛1⎞ It is given by Cnx ⎜ ⎟ = 2nCn (constant). ⎝x⎠
**

2n n

n

This term is called the term independent of x or the constant term. Example 5 Find a if the 17th and 18th terms of the expansion (2 + a)50 are equal. Solution The (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + y)n is given by Tr + 1 = nCrxn–ryr. For the 17th term, we have, r + 1 = 17, i.e., r = 16 Therefore, T17 = T16 + 1 = 50C16 (2)50 – 16 a16 = 50C 16 234 a16. Similarly, Given that So

50

T18 = 50C 17 233 a17 T17 = T 18

**C 16 (2)34 a16 = 50C 17 (2)33 a17
**

50

C 16 . 2 34 C 17 . 2 33

=

Therefore

50

50

=

a 17 a 16

i.e.,

a=

C16 × 2

50

C17

50! 17! . 33! × × 2 =1 16!34! 50!

Example 6 Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1+x) 2n is

1.3.5...(2n − 1) 2n xn, where n is a positive integer. n!

BINOMIAL THEOREM

169

⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ , Solution As 2n is even, the middle term of the expansion (1 + x)2n is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ i.e., (n + 1)th term which is given by,

th

Tn+1 = 2nCn(1)2n – n(x)n = 2nCnxn =

(2n)! n x n! n!

=

2n (2n − 1) (2n − 2) ...4.3.2.1 n x n! n!

=

1.2.3.4...(2n − 2) (2n − 1) (2n) n x n!n! [1.3.5 ... (2n – 1)][2.4.6...( 2n)] n x n!n!

=

=

[1.3.5...(2n − 1)]2 n [1.2.3...n] n x n!n!

[1.3.5...(2n − 1)] n! n n 2 .x n! n!

=

=

1.3.5...( 2n − 1) n n 2 x n!

Example 7 Find the coefficient of x6y3 in the expansion of (x + 2y)9. Solution Suppose x6y3 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + 2y)9. Now Tr+1 = 9Cr x9 – r (2y)r = 9Cr 2 r . x9 – r . y r . Comparing the indices of x as well as y in x6y3 and in Tr + 1 , we get r = 3. Thus, the coefficient of x6y3 is

9

C3 2 3 =

9! 3 9.8.7 3 .2 = . 2 = 672. 3.2 3! 6!

Example 8 The second, third and fourth terms in the binomial expansion (x + a)n are 240, 720 and 1080, respectively. Find x, a and n. Solution Given that second term T2 = 240

170

MATHEMATICS

We have So Similarly

T2 = nC1xn – 1 . a

n n n

**C1xn–1 . a = 240 C2xn–2 a2 = 720
**

n–3 3

... (1) ... (2) ... (3)

**C3x a = 1080 and Dividing (2) by (1), we get
**

n

C 2 x n− 2 a 2 720 = i.e., n 240 C1 x n −1a

(n − 1)! a . =6 (n − 2)! x

... (4)

or

a 6 = x ( n − 1)

a 9 = x 2( n − 2)

Dividing (3) by (2), we have ... (5)

From (4) and (5),

6 9 = n −1 2 (n − 2) .

Hence, from (1), 5x4a = 240, and from (4),

Thus, n = 5

a 3 = x 2

Solving these equations for a and x, we get x = 2 and a = 3. Example 9 The coefficients of three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in the ratio1: 7 : 42. Find n. Solution Suppose the three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms. The (r – 1)th term is nCr – 2 ar – 2, and its coefficient is nCr – 2. Similarly, the coefficients of rth and (r + 1)th terms are nCr – 1 and nCr , respectively. Since the coefficients are in the ratio 1 : 7 : 42, so we have,

n n

Cr −2 1 = , i.e., n – 8r + 9 = 0 7 C r −1 C r −1 7 = , i.e., n – 7r + 1 = 0 42 Cr

... (1)

n

and

n

... (2)

Solving equations(1) and (2), we get, n = 55.

BINOMIAL THEOREM

171

EXERCISE 8.2

Find the coefficient of 1. x5 in (x + 3)8 2. a5b7 in (a – 2b)12 . 4. (x2 – yx)12, x ≠ 0.

Write the general term in the expansion of 3. (x2 – y)6 5.

**Find the 4th term in the expansion of (x – 2y)12.
**

⎛ 1 ⎞ Find the 13 term in the expansion of ⎜ 9 x − ⎟ , x ≠ 0. 3 x⎠ ⎝

th

18

6.

**Find the middle terms in the expansions of 7. 9.
**

⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎜3− ⎟ ⎜ 6 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

7

⎛x ⎞ 8. ⎜ + 9 y ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠

10

.

In the expansion of (1 + a)m+n, prove that coefficients of am and an are equal.

10. The coefficients of the (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of (x + 1)n are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5. Find n and r. 11. Prove that the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is twice the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. 12. Find a positive value of m for which the coefficient of x2 in the expansion (1 + x)m is 6.

Miscellaneous Examples

1 ⎞ ⎛3 2 Example 10 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x − ⎟ . 3x ⎠ ⎝2 ⎛3 2⎞ = Cr ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠

6 6−r 6

Solution We have Tr + 1

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ 3x ⎠

2 6−r

r

⎛3⎞ 6 = Cr ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠

6−r

(x )

( − 1)r

⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝3 ⎠

r

172

MATHEMATICS

r = ( − 1)

6

Cr

(3)6 − 2 r 12 − 3r x (2)6 − r

The term will be independent of x if the index of x is zero, i.e., 12 – 3r = 0. Thus, r = 4

**(3) 6−8 5 = . Hence 5 term is independent of x and is given by (– 1) C4 (2) 6− 4 12
**

th 4 6

Example 11 If the coefficients of ar – 1, ar and ar + 1 in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in arithmetic progression, prove that n2 – n(4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0. Solution The (r + 1)th term in the expansion is nCrar. Thus it can be seen that ar occurs in the (r + 1)th term, and its coefficient is nCr. Hence the coefficients of ar – 1, ar and ar + 1 are nCr – 1, nCr and nCr + 1, respectively. Since these coefficients are in arithmetic progression, so we have, nCr – 1+ nCr + 1 = 2.nCr. This gives

n! n! n! + =2× (r − 1)!(n − r + 1)! (r + 1)!(n − r − 1)! r!(n − r )!

i.e.

1 1 + (r − 1)!(n − r + 1) (n − r ) (n − r − 1)! (r + 1) (r ) (r − 1)!(n − r − 1)!

=2× 1 r ( r − 1)!(n − r ) ( n − r − 1)!

⎡ ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ ( n – r ) ( n − r + 1) + ( r + 1) (r ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

or

1 (r − 1)! (n − r − 1)!

= 2×

1 ( r − 1)! (n − r − 1)![r (n – r )]

i.e.

1 1 2 + = (n − r + 1) (n − r ) r (r + 1) r ( n − r ) , r (r + 1) + (n − r ) (n − r + 1) 2 = (n − r ) (n − r + 1)r (r + 1) r (n − r )

r(r + 1) + (n – r) (n – r + 1) = 2 (r + 1) (n – r + 1) r2 + r + n2 – nr + n – nr + r2 – r = 2(nr – r2 + r + n – r + 1)

or or or

BINOMIAL THEOREM

173

or i.e.,

n2 – 4nr – n + 4r2 – 2 = 0 n2 – n (4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0

Example 12 Show that the coefficient of the middle term in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is equal to the sum of the coefficients of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. Solution As 2n is even so the expansion (1 + x)2n has only one middle term which is

⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠

th

i.e., (n + 1)th term.

The (n + 1)th term is 2nCnxn. The coefficient of xn is 2nCn Similarly, (2n – 1) being odd, the other expansion has two middle terms,

⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ + 1⎟ i.e., nth and (n + 1)th terms. The coefficients of ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ these terms are 2n – 1Cn – 1 and 2n – 1Cn, respectively. Now

2n – 1

th

th

Cn – 1 +

2n – 1

Cn= 2nCn

[As nCr – 1+ nCr =

n+1

Cr]. as required.

Example 13 Find the coefficient of a4 in the product (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 using binomial theorem. Solution We first expand each of the factors of the given product using Binomial Theorem. We have (1 + 2a)4 = 4C0 + 4C1 (2a) + 4C2 (2a)2 + 4C3 (2a)3 + 4C4 (2a)4 = 1 + 4 (2a) + 6(4a2) + 4 (8a3) + 16a4. = 1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3 + 16a4 and (2 – a)5 = 5C0 (2)5 – 5C1 (2)4 (a) + 5C2 (2)3 (a)2 – 5C3 (2)2 (a)3 + 5C4 (2) (a)4 – 5C5 (a)5 = 32 – 80a + 80a2 – 40a3 + 10a4 – a5 Thus (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 = (1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3+ 16a4) (32 –80a + 80a2– 40a3 + 10a4– a5) The complete multiplication of the two brackets need not be carried out. We write only those terms which involve a4. This can be done if we note that ar. a4 – r = a4. The terms containing a4 are 1 (10a4) + (8a) (–40a3) + (24a2) (80a2) + (32a3) (– 80a) + (16a4) (32) = – 438a4

174

MATHEMATICS

Thus, the coefficient of a4 in the given product is – 438. Example 14 Find the rth term from the end in the expansion of (x + a)n. Solution There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of (x + a)n. Observing the terms we can say that the first term from the end is the last term, i.e., (n + 1)th term of the expansion and n + 1 = (n + 1) – (1 – 1). The second term from the end is the nth term of the expansion, and n = (n + 1) – (2 – 1). The third term from the end is the (n – 1)th term of the expansion and n – 1 = (n + 1) – (3 – 1) and so on. Thus rth term from the end will be term number (n + 1) – (r – 1) = (n – r + 2) of the expansion. And the (n – r + 2)th term is nCn – r + 1 xr – 1 an – r + 1.

⎛3 1 ⎞ Example 15 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x + 3 ⎟ , x > 0. 2 x⎠ ⎝

18

Solution We have Tr + 1 =

18

Cr

( x)

3

18 − r

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝2 x ⎠

r

=

18

Cr x

18 − r 3

. 2

r

1

r 3 .x

=

18

C2

1 .x 2r

18 − 2 r 3

Since we have to find a term independent of x, i.e., term not having x, so take We get r = 9. The required term is 18C9

18 − 2r =0. 3

1 . 29

**Example 16 The sum of the coefficients of the first three terms in the expansion of
**

3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ , x ≠ 0, m being a natural number, is 559. Find the term of the expansion x ⎠ ⎝ containing x3. 3 ⎞ ⎛ Solution The coefficients of the first three terms of ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ are mC0, (–3) mC1 x ⎠ ⎝ m and 9 C2. Therefore, by the given condition, we have

m

m

m

C0 –3 mC1+ 9 mC2 = 559, i.e., 1 – 3m +

9m (m − 1) = 559 2

– 5940 x3. 4. Since they are equal so 34Cr – 6 = 34C2r – 2 Therefore. prove that a – b is a factor of an – bn. 8. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1. respectively. [Hint write an = (a – b + b)n and expand] 5. Thus. Solution The coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms of the expansion (1 + x)34 are 34Cr – 6 and 34C2r – 2. 3. the required term is 12C3 (– 3)3 x3. 2. . so put 12 – 3r = 3 i. b and n in the expansion of (a + b)n if the first three terms of the expansion are 729.. Find the coefficient of x5 in the product (1 + 2x)6 (1 – x)7 using binomial theorem.e. x12 – 3r Since we need the term containing x3.e. r being a natural number. ) 4 7. So.99)5 using the first three terms of its expansion. 2 2 2 6. Find a. whenever n is a positive integer. r = 14. Find n. either r – 6 = 2r – 2 or r–6 = 34 – (2r – 2) [Using the fact that if nCr = nCp. Example 17 If the coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)34 are equal. r = 3. we get r = – 4 or r = 14.. if the ratio of the fifth term from the beginning to the fifth term from the ⎛4 1 ⎞ end in the expansion of ⎜ 2 + 4 ⎟ is 3⎠ ⎝ 6 :1 . 7290 and 30375. then either r = p or r = n – p] So.BINOMIAL THEOREM 175 which gives m = 12 (m being a natural number). i. Evaluate ( 3+ 2 ) −( 6 3− 2 4 ) 6 . Now Tr + 1 = 12 Cr x12 – r ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜− 2 ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ r 12 Cr (– 3)r . respectively. Find the value of a + a − 1 ( ) + (a n − a2 − 1 . If a and b are distinct integers. Find an approximation of (0. Find a if the coefficients of x2 and x3 in the expansion of (3 + ax)9 are equal. r = – 4 is not possible. find r.

bn – 1 + nCnbn. provided by Pingla in his book Chhanda shastra (200B..D. x ≠ 0 . Find the expansion of (3x – 2ax + 3a ) using binomial theorem.D.) also gave the coefficients in the expansion of (a + b)n. The term binomial coefficients was first introduced by the German mathematician. The arrangement of these coefficients was in the form of a diagram called Meru-Prastara. This triangular arrangement is also found in the work of Chinese mathematician Chu-shi-kie in 1303 A. 0 ≤ n ≤ 7. which is (a + b) n = n C 0 a n + n C 1 a n – 1b + n C 2 a n – 2b 2 + . br.. Expand using Binomial Theorem ⎜ 1 + − ⎟ .176 MATHEMATICS x 2⎞ ⎛ 9. for n = 1.D. 2.. The general term of an expansion (a + b)n is Tr + 1 = nCran – r. then the middle terms are ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th th th Historical Note The ancient Indian mathematicians knew about the coefficients in the expansions of (x + y)n.) in 1665. 4 Summary The expansion of a binomial for any positive integral n is given by Binomial Theorem. The arithmetic triangle.D.C.+ n Cn – 1a. term. The present form of the binomial theorem for integral values of n appeared in Trate du triange arithmetic... 2 x⎠ ⎝ 2 2 3 10.) in approximately 1544 A.. Bombelli (1572 A.7 and Oughtred (1631 A. The coefficients of the expansions are arranged in an array. Michael Stipel (1486-1567A.If n is odd. if n is even. — — .2 . ⎛n ⎞ In the expansion (a + b)n.).. then the middle term is the ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ n +1⎞ ⎛ n+1 ⎞ +1⎟ terms. popularly known as Pascal’s triangle and similar to the Meru-Prastara of Pingla was constructed by the French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 A. written by Pascal and published posthumously in 1665 A. 10.D.D..D. This array is called Pascal’s triangle..) gave them for n = 1.

P.Chapter 9 SEQUENCES AND SERIES Natural numbers are the product of human spirit.e. following specific patterns are called progressions. sum to n terms of squares of natural numbers and sum to n terms of cubes of natural numbers will also be studied.. parents. etc. relationship between A. we have studied about arithmetic progression (A. we usually mean that the collection is ordered in such a way that it has an identified first member. population of human beings or bacteria at different times form a sequence.1 Introduction In mathematics. third member and so on.M. The amount of money deposited in a bank. Depreciated values of certain commodity occur in a sequence. besides discussing more about A. In previous class. i. and G.2 Sequences Let us consider the following examples: Assume that there is a generation gap of 30 years. Sequences have important applications in several Fibonacci (1175-1250) spheres of human activities.. Sequences. that a person might have over 300 years. “sequence” is used in much the same way as it is in ordinary English. – DEDEKIND 9. special series in forms of sum to n terms of consecutive natural numbers. second member. we are asked to find the number of ancestors.P). the word. For example. arithmetic mean. When we say that a collection of objects is listed in a sequence. grandparents.M. the total number of generations = 300 = 10 30 . geometric mean. Here. over a number of years form a sequence. In this Chapter. great grandparents. 9..

….. 8. a24 = 48 = 2 × 24. we see that the nth term of this sequence can be written as an = 2n. a2 = 4. Similarly. 32. an = 2n – 1.. Consider the successive quotients that we obtain in the division of 10 by 3 at different steps of division... These numbers form what we call a sequence.. a2 = 3.... etc. where n is a natural number.. 16. the sequence of successive quotients mentioned above is an infinite sequence... a6 = 3.. the nth term is given by the formula. a23 = 46 = 2 × 23. The nth term is the number at the nth position of the sequence and is denoted by an. third. a2. Similarly.3. .178 MATHEMATICS The number of person’s ancestors for the first. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. second. and so on.. In fact.. an arrangement of numbers such as 1.33333. .... .... 1024. The nth term is also called the general term of the sequence. 8. which yields the various terms of a sequence in terms of algebraic formula... a10 = 1024.33.3. 4.. ... the terms of the sequence of person’s ancestors mentioned above are: a1 = 2.5. For example. the subscripts denote the position of the term.. a3. infinite in the sense that it never ends. We denote the terms of a sequence by a1. sequence of ancestors is a finite sequence since it contains 10 terms (a fixed number). . 2. in the sequence of odd natural numbers 1. 6..... . …. 4. A sequence is called infinite. etc.3. These quotients also form a sequence. … Here a1 = 2 = 2 × 1 a2 = 4 = 2 × 2 a3 = 6 = 2 × 3 . in the example of successive quotients a1 = 3. has no visible pattern. 1.3. .. .. For example. 3. In this process we get 3.3.. but the sequence is generated by the recurrence relation given by a1 = a 2 = 1 a 3 = a1 + a2 a n = a n – 2 + a n – 1. . a4 = 8 = 2 × 4 . tenth generations are 2. if it is not a finite sequence.... A sequence containing finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. 5. a3 = 8. and so on... the sequence of even natural numbers 2.. …. Thus.33..3. . n > 2 This sequence is called Fibonacci sequence. ….333. …. . Consider for instance. a3 = 3. it is possible to express the rule. …. an. . In some cases. where n is a natural number.. Often. ….

.an. we find that there is no formula for the nth prime. 3.…+ an + . a3.…. 9..3 Series Let a1.… in succession. 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 is a finite series with four terms. we should not expect that its terms will necessarily be given by a specific formula.…. be a given sequence. Series are often represented in compact form. We now consider some examples. In view of the above. 2.. a2 = 9. Thus. the required terms are 7. 2. the expression a1 + a2 + a3 +. we use the functional notation a(n) for an. For example.….an. a2 = − .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 179 In the sequence of primes 2. a1 = 4 4 2 4 . Sometimes.” we will mean the number that results from adding the terms. 3.7. k =1 n Remark When the series is used. 9 and 11. Then. Example 1 Write the first three terms in each of the following sequences defined by the following: (i) an = 2n + 5. we expect a theoretical scheme or a rule for generating the terms a1. called sigma notation. it refers to the indicated sum not to the sum itself.3. the series a1 + a2 + a3 + . When we use the phrase “sum of a series. the sum of the series is 16.The series is finite or infinite according as the given sequence is finite or infinite. a2.5. + an is abbreviated as ∑ ak . a sequence can be regarded as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subset of it of the type {1. Thus.. Such sequence can only be described by verbal description. a2. However. (ii) Here an = n−3 1− 3 1 1 = − . (ii) an = n−3 . a3 = 0 .. a3 = 11 Therefore. using the Greek letter ∑ (sigma) as means of indicating the summation involved.k}. a3. In every sequence. we get a1 = 2(1) + 5 = 7. is called the series associated with the given sequence . 4 Solution (i) Here an = 2n + 5 Substituting n = 1..

the first five terms of the sequence are 1.7 and 9.1 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 1 to 6 whose nth terms are: 1.. an = 2n . an = n (n + 2) 2. the first three terms are – 1 . a2 = a1 + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3. an = 2n n+1 2n − 3 4. a9 n2 8. a4 = a3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7. a17. 4 Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences in Exercises 7 to 10 whose nth terms are: 7. – 1 and 0.180 MATHEMATICS Hence. EXERCISE 9.. 10. Find first five terms and write corresponding series. we obtain a20 = (20 – 1) (2 – 20) (3 + 20) = 19 × (– 18) × (23) = – 7866. Hence. an = 6 5. a3 = a2 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5. a24 9. an = n n +1 n–1 3. a n = n n2 + 5 . a20 . Example 3 Let the sequence an be defined as follows: a1 = 1.3. an = (–1) 5 6. a5 = a4 + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9. an = (–1)n – 1n3. The corresponding series is 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 +. Solution We have a1 = 1. an = 4n – 3.5. 2 4 Example 2 What is the 20th term of the sequence defined by an = (n – 1) (2 – n) (3 + n) ? Solution Putting n = 20 . an = n+3 . an = an – 1 + 2 for n ≥ 2. a7 n(n – 2) .

P. a2. Find 12.P. a1 = 3. for n = 1.P.P. We can verify the following simple properties of an A. : (i) If a constant is added to each term of an A. an = an – 1–1. is multiplied by a constant.P. n > 2.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 181 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 11 to 13 and obtain the corresponding series: 11. a + 2d. i. n > 2 14.P. n ∈ N. (iii) If each term of an A. 4.P.P. d = common difference. a + 2d. (ii) If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A. then the resulting sequence is also an A. an . (iv) If each term of an A.P.P. ….n≥2 n an +1 an . a3.P. is an = a + (n – 1) d. the resulting sequence is also an A.. Let a. 2. . is divided by a non-zero constant then the resulting sequence is also an A. Let us consider an A.. (in its standard form) with first term a and common difference d.… is called arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression if an + 1 = an + d. Then l = a + (n – 1) d . a1 = a2 = 2. an = an −1 . Here. l = the last term. a + d.P. we shall use the following notations for an arithmetic progression: a = the first term.P.4 Arithmetic Progression (A. a. Then the nth term (general term) of the A. n = the number of terms.. an = 3an – 1 + 2 for all n > 1 13. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by 1 = a1 = a2 and an = an – 1 + an – 2. a1 = – 1.…. A sequence a1.P.e. 5 9. Sn= the sum to n terms of A. 3.) Let us recall some formulae and properties studied earlier. a + (n – 1) d be an A. a + d. where a1 is called the first term and the constant term d is called the common difference of the A.. the resulting sequence is also an A..P.

Then Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 +. find the common difference. (3) .. … an be the given A. Solution Let a1. or d = – 1. a2. find the pth term.. Solution We have am = a + (m – 1) d = n. and a= n+m–1 Therefore a p = a + (p – 1)d = n + m – 1 + ( p – 1) (–1) = n + m – p th Hence. the p term is n + m – p. a2 and d1. Find the ratio of their 12th terms. (2) ... we have Sum to n terms of first A. (1) . we get (m – n) d = n – m.+ an–1 + an = nP + .P. (4) 1 n(n – 1)Q . respectively. Sn = n [ 2a + (n −1)d ] 2 n [a + l ] 2 Let us consider some examples. is nP + are constants.182 MATHEMATICS Sn = We can also write.. the common difference is given by d = a2 – a1 = (P + Q) – P = Q..P. Example 4 In an A..P. Solution Let a1. where P and Q 2 1 n (n – 1) Q 2 Therefore S1 = a1 = P.. According to the given condition. 7 n + 15 .P.. Example 6 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio (3n + 8) : (7n + 15). and an = a + (n – 1) d = m Solving (1) and (2). Example 5 If the sum of n terms of an A. if mth term is n and the nth term is m. d2 be the first terms and common difference of the first and second arithmetic progression. 3n + 8 = Sum to n termsof second A. where m ≠ n.P.. S2 = a1 + a2 = 2P + Q So that a 2 = S2 – S 1 = P + Q Hence.

10.M. Example 7 The income of a person is Rs.P a2 +11d 2 . thus 2 constructed an A.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 183 or n [ 2a1 + ( n −1 )d1 ] 3n + 8 2 = n [ 2a2 + ( n −1 )d 2 ] 7n +15 2 or 2a1 + ( n − 1) d1 3n + 8 = 2a2 + ( n − 1) d 2 7n + 15 12th term of first A. with a = 3. Note that. we have A – a = b – A. The natural . 3. 79. we have an A. the required ratio is 7 : 16.P..P. i.4.M.e. We can insert a number A between them so that a. we get. For example. S20 = 9. Such a number A is called the arithmetic mean (A. a +11d1 = 1 th 12 term of second A. d = 10.00. in the first year and he receives an increase of Rs. and n = 20.P.000. (1) Now 2a1 + 22d1 3 × 23 + 8 = 2a2 + 22d 2 7 × 23 + 15 Therefore [By putting n = 23 in (1)] a1 + 11d1 12th term of first A.00.P. of two numbers 4 and 16 is 10.P. 16 by inserting a number 10 between 4 and 16.000 as the total amount at the end of 20 years.P. 7 = th = a2 + 11d 2 12 term of second A.000.000 to his income per year for the next 19 years.00. 20 [600000 + 19 × 10000] = 10 (790000) = 79. Using the sum formula. A = a+b 2 We may also interpret the A. A.1 Arithmetic mean Given two numbers a and b. the person received Rs. 10. Find the total amount.00. in this case.. he received in 20 years.M.. 16 Hence. b is an A.) of the numbers a and b. 2 Hence.000.000. 4. the A. We have. Solution Here. between two numbers a and b as their average a+b .

.. ... A3. Here...P..... A3. A2 = a + 2d = 3 + 2 × 3 = 9. we can insert as many numbers as we like between them such that the resulting sequence is an A. Hence. n +1 b−a n +1 2(b − a ) n +1 Thus. Let A1...P. n numbers between a and b are as follows: A1 = a + d = a + A2 = a + 2d = a + A3 = a + 3d = a + .. b is an A. …. i.P. n = 8. b is the (n + 2) th term. This gives d= b−a . …. ? Observe that two numbers 8 and 12 can be inserted between 4 and 16 so that the resulting sequence 4. . 15. ... 12.. 12. A1.P.. A2. 24 = 3 + (8 –1) d. . Here. A6.... Therefore. 18 and 21. a = 3. .. A1. six numbers between 3 and 24 are 6.. Thus A1 = a + d = 3 + 3 = 6. . A5 = a + 5d = 3 + 5 × 3 = 18.. A3.. Solution Let A1. A5. 24 are in A. 8. More generally. A4.. A3. b = 24. A2. A2. A2.. 9. A4.184 MATHEMATICS question now arises : Can we insert two or more numbers between given two numbers so that the resulting sequence comes out to be an A. An. given any two numbers a and b. A5 and A6 be six numbers between 3 and 24 such that 3. A4 = a + 4d = 3 + 4 × 3 = 15. An be n numbers between a and b such that a.. 16 becomes an A. so that d = 3. An = a + nd = a + n (b − a ) n +1 ..P. ..e. Example 8 Insert 6 numbers between 3 and 24 such that the resulting sequence is an A.. A3 = a + 3d = 3 + 3 × 3 = 12. b = a + [(n + 2) – 1]d = a + (n + 1) d.... A6 = a + 6d = 3 + 6 × 3 = 21. 3(b − a ) n +1 .P.

2 If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A. terms is Prove that a b c ( q − r ) + ( r − p ) + ( p − q) = 0 p q r 12.P. 15. 7. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)th numbers is 5 : 9. then find the sum of the first (p + q) terms. – 6. whose kth term is 5k + 1. P. where p and q are constants. is equal to the sum of the first q terms. respectively.P. the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next five terms. 4.P. q and r terms of an A. a.2 1. − 11 . Show that 20th term is –112. If the sum of n terms of an A. prove that the sum of first pq p q 6. … are needed to give the sum –25? 2 5. find the common difference. 19. 25. 22. If the sum of first p terms of an A. In an A. 13.P.P. Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001.P.P are. . between a and b. is m2 : n2. 14. – 5. which are multiples of 5. 2. The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A. a n −1 + b n−1 16.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 185 EXERCISE 9.. is 3n2 + 5n and its mth term is 164. 1 (pq +1). Find the value of m. 10. Show that the ratio of mth and nth term is (2m – 1) : (2n – 1). The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4 : 9n + 6.. then find the value of n. find the value of m. 11. Find the ratio of their 18th terms.P. if pth term is 1 1 and qth term is . Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A. 3.M. In an A. … is 116. Find the sum to n terms of the A. 8. m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting sequence is an A. Find the last term. 9. Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000. If a n + bn is the A. b and c.P. How many terms of the A. where p ≠ q.P. If the sum of n terms of an A.. Sum of the first p. is (pn + qn2).P. Between 1 and 31.

. The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°. 9 27 81 243 . where a is called the first term and r is called the common ratio of the G. this constant ratio is 2. ar2. respectively. (iii) . we obtain a geometric progression. ar. …. it is – and in (iii)..01. term immediately preceding a1 a2 a3 1 it. … is called geometric progression. In (i). In each of these sequences.4.01.…. If the smallest angle is 120° . to the 3 = 2. (ii) 1 –1 1 –1 .16. for k ≥ 1..0001. we observe. an.. 4 = 9 a1 3 a2 3 a3 3 Similarly.. the constant ratio is 0. l = the last term. find the number of the sides of the polygon.01..... 1 a –1 a –1 a –1 and so on. 3 = . (ii) and (iii) above are 2. r = the common ratio. what amount he will pay in the 30th instalment? 18. a. P.5 Geometric Progression (G. except the first progresses in a definite order. if each term is non-zero and ak + 1 ak = r (constant). 4 = 2 every term except the first term bears a constant ratio 2 = 2. we have and so on. 9. 3 Such sequences are called geometric sequence or geometric progression abbreviated as G.000001. a3. ... .8. A sequence a1. In (ii). a a a a1 = 2. a2. a1 = . A man starts repaying a loan as first instalment of Rs. By letting a1 = a. In (i).P. If he increases the instalment by Rs 5 every month.. ar3. We shall use the following notations with these formulae: a = the first term.186 MATHEMATICS 17.) Let us consider the following sequences: (i) 2. state how do the terms in (iii) progress? It is observed that in each case. 100. 3 As in case of arithmetic progression. geometric progression (i). Common ratio in 1 and 0. in (ii). 2 = . – . the problem of finding the nth term or sum of n terms of a geometric progression containing a large number of terms would be difficult without the use of the formulae which we shall develop in the next Section. how their terms progress? We note that each term.P.

a... Sn = the sum of n terms. (2) This gives Sn = a (1 − r n ) 1− r or Sn = Example10 Which term of the G. with first non-zero term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’. a10 = 5(5)10–1 = 5(5)9 = 510 and an = arn–1 = 5(5)n–1 = 5n . respectively. a. + arn–1 or a + ar + ar2 + .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 187 n = the numbers of terms.. thus a2 = ar.2. multiplying (1) by r.… . Hence. i. be a and the common ratio be r. 3rd term = a3 = ar2 = ar3–1 4th term = a4 = ar3 = ar4–1. + a (n terms) = na If r ≠ 1. ar.125.P.according as G. and so on. The second term is obtained by multiplying a by r... Let us consider a G. Then Sn = a + ar + ar2 +. Thus. n = 9. 9. respectively.P.. ar2..P. 5th term = a5 = ar4 = ar5–1 Do you see a pattern? What will be 16th term? a16 = ar16–1 = ar15 Therefore. ar3. we get (1 – r) Sn = a – arn = a(1 – rn) Case 2 a( r n −1) r −1 th th Example 9 Find the 10 and n terms of the G. The series a + ar + ar2 + . a3 = a2r = ar2. Let us denote by Sn the sum to first n terms of G.. ar2.5. + arn Subtracting (2) from (1).P. is given by an = ar n−1 . Here a = 2 and r = 4. third term is obtained by multiplying a2 by r.. . 131072 is the 9th term of the G...P. G.8. Write a few terms of it..e. up to n terms is 131072? Solution Let 131072 be the nth term of the given G.1 General term of a G . Let the first term of a G.P. Thus. we have Sn = a + a + a + . … arn – 1. Solution Here a = 5 and r = 5. 5....+ arn–1 .. is finite or infinite. + arn–1 +.are called finite or infinite geometric series.P.. We write below these and few more terms. the pattern suggests that the nth term of a G.. 2.arn – 1.. st 1 term = a1 = a = ar1–1.P. Therefore 131072 = an = 2(4)n – 1 or 65536 = 4n – 1 This gives 48 = 4n – 1... 2nd term = a2 = ar = ar2–1. 25. ar. .5.32. Sum to n terms of a G . Similarly.P... Thus. (1) Case 1 If r = 1. we have rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + .P..P.P. .. . So that n – 1 = 8. 9. can be written as a..

.Find the 10th term.P..P..... .. r = Since Sn = a (1 – r n ) 1− r 1 3069 and Sn = 2 512 Therefore 3069 = 512 3(1 − 1 ) 2n = 6 ⎛ 1− 1 ⎞ ⎜ n ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1− 2 . Example12 Find the sum of first n terms and the sum of first 5 terms of the geometric 2 4 series 1 + + + . we get a = 6. Solution Here. S5 = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 3 × 243 ⎢ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 211 . Hence a10 = 6 (2)9 = 3072. Given that a = 3. 3. the 3rd term is 24 and the 6th term is 192. are needed to give the 2 4 3069 sum 512 ? Solution Let n be the number of terms needed. Therefore 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞n ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ n ⎡ ⎤ a (1 − r n ) ⎢ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥ 3 ⎢1− ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜ ⎟ = Sn = = 2 ⎢ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎥ 1− r ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞5 ⎤ 211 In particular. (1) and a6 = ar = 192 . . (2) Dividing (2) by (1). 81 3 3 Example 13 How many terms of the G.188 MATHEMATICS Example11 In a G.. we get r = 2. a3 = ar = 24 2 5 . Substituting r = 2 in (1)... 3 9 Solution Here a = 1 and r = 2 .

77. Then r a 13 + ar + a = 12 r . is Find the common ratio and the terms. which gives n = 10.. 777. 3 4 4 4 3 3 Example15 Find the sum of the sequence 7. the three terms of G..P.. to n terms.P.. 7777. however.. This is a quadratic in r..P..P. 4 3 4 3 –3 3 4 –4 and .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 189 or or or 1 3069 = 1− n 3072 2 1 3069 3 1 1− = = n = 3072 3072 1024 2 2n = 1024 = 210. Solution Let 13 and their product is – 1.. a.. we can relate it to a G. Example 14 The sum of first three terms of a G. .. for r = . solving. to n terms = = 7 [9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + .to n term] 9 7 [(10 − 1) + (102 − 1) + (103 −1) + (104 − 1) + . we have .n terms] 9 . (1) ⎛a⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (a ) (ar ) = – 1 ⎝r⎠ From (2). by writing the terms as Sn = 7 + 77 + 777 + 7777 + . we get r = – Solution This is not a G. we get a3 = – 1... – 1. r 12 3 4 or – ..e.. a = – 1 (considering only real roots) and Substituting a = –1 in (1). – 1. for r = Thus. 12 a . are : . ar be the first three terms of the G.P. i. (2) 1 13 – –1 – r = or 12r2 + 25r + 12 = 0.

⎝a⎠ 3 3 1 Hence 2 ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G1 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ . 9.P.3 Geometric Mean (G .G2. the number of ancestors preceding the person is 2046. Find the number of his ancestors during the ten generations preceding his own. and so on.b is a G. Solution Let G1. Given any two positive numbers a and b..4. r=⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G 3 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ .G3 be three numbers between 1 and 256 such that 1. ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 2 G 2 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ . b being the (n + 2)th term.P..we have b = ar n + 1 .M.n terms)] 9 ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10 (10n − 1) ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10(10n − 1) − n⎥ = ⎢ − n⎥ .P.Gn. 8 great grandparents.P.) The geometric mean of two positive numbers a and b is the number ab .P.5. r = 2 and n = 10 Using the sum formula Sn = a (r n −1) r −1 We have S10 = 2(210 – 1) = 2046 Hence.G1. Gn be n numbers between positive numbers a and b such that a.256 is a G. G2. G2. ⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n +1 G n = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ n n Example17 Insert three numbers between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequence is a G. the geometric mean of 2 and 8 is 4. . ⎢ 9 ⎣ 10 − 1 9 ⎦ 9⎣ ⎦ Example 16 A person has 2 parents. G1..n terms) – (1+1+1+.G3 .190 MATHEMATICS = 7 [(10 + 102 + 103 + .G2. 4 grandparents. or 1 ⎛ b ⎞n + 1 . Therefore.….G3. This leads to a generalisation of the concept of geometric means of two numbers. Thus..…. We observe that the three numbers 2.8 are consecutive terms of a G. Let G1. we can insert as many numbers as we like between them to make the resulting sequence in a G. = Solution Here a = 2.

16. (4) 2 Putting the value of a and b from (3).. we get a + b = 20 .M.6 Relationship Between A.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 191 Therefore 256 = r4 giving r = ± 4 (Taking real roots only) For r = 4. = ( a− b ) 2 .M.M. 4 respectively. we obtain a = 4.P. –64. find the numbers. 16. respectively. (1) Example 18 If A. (5) Solving (3) and (5).. 4. = a+b =10 2 .M. between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequences are in G. Hence. = ab = 8 . G3 = ar3 = 64 Similarly. we obtain the relationship A ≥ G. b = 16 or a = 16. we have G1 = ar = 4. the numbers a and b are 4. numbers are – 4... and G.M. of two given positive real numbers a and b. we get (a – b)2 = 400 – 256 = 144 or a – b = ± 12 . we have a+b and G = ab 2 A–G= a +b a + b − 2 ab − ab = 2 2 ≥0 2 From (1). Then A= Thus.M. (4) in the identity (a – b) = (a + b)2 – 4ab. b = 4 Thus.. of two positive numbers a and b are 10 and 8. 9. (3) ab = 64 . Solution Given that and From (1) and (2). for r = – 4. (1) . and G..M. Let A and G be A.. A. (2) G. and G.M. respectively.16 and – 64. we can insert. 64 or – 4...... G2 = ar2 = 16. 16 or 16.

9.. 11. . 3. Determine the first term. is 128 ? (a) (c) (b) 3 .3 3 . q and s..3 1. 4. k =1 11 39 and their product is 1.015. n terms (if x ≠ ± 1). whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2. – a. The 5 th.P. Find a G.P. Show that q2 = ps.. Evaluate ∑ (2 + 3k ) .. x7. Which term of the following sequences: 2. .. 2. . . a2. … are needed to give the sum 120? 14.? 7 7 Find the sum to indicated number of terms in each of the geometric progressions in Exercises 7 to 10: 7.P.0015. respectively. – a3.. The sum of first three terms of a G. If the 4th. 3 7 .. 10th and 16th terms of a G.P.P. – are in G. 8 th and 11 th terms of a G. are p.P.. and the first term is – 3.3. is729 ? 1 1 1 1 . the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G. is square of its second term.. . 20 terms. the numbers – 8. is 10 common ratio and the terms.P.. is ? 3 9 27 19683 2 2 .. Determine its 7th term. Find the 12.. 7 . determine S7. 6. 1. 13. 10.P. are x. z are in G. 3. 0. x5. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128. y. 17.. with a = 729 and 7th term 64.P. How many terms of G. . 15. respectively. 5 5 5 .192 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 9. Find the 20th and nth terms of the G. 0.. 4. 21 . . x. y and z.P.. 33.. 0... 2 2 .P. n terms (if a ≠ – 1). 16. For what values of x. . The sum of first three terms of a G.P. x3.. .15.P. Prove that x. 5. . for which sum of the first two terms is – 4 and the fifth term is 4 times the third term. The 4th term of a G. 2 4 8 Find the 12th term of a G. Given a G. n terms. 32.

prove that the numbers are A ± ( A + G )( A − G ) . 1 .P. . show that numbers are in the ratio 3 + 2 2 : 3 − 2 2 . … ARn – 1 form a G.M. respectively.M. 19. Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G. b. 26. are a. then obtain the quadratic equation. how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour. 888.P. 4. 8888… . Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2. 22. Prove that aq – r br – pcP – q = 1. What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual interest rate of 10% compounded annually? 32. If the first and the nth term of a G.. show that (a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc + cd)2 .P. The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. 88. to the sum of terms from 16. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5. 8. qth and rth terms of a G. 2 Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences a. 29. and find the common ratio. Insert two number between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G. and if P is the product of n terms. If a. If A. If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture originally. ar. AR2. Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which the third term is greater than the first term by 9. and G.M. ar2. (n + 1)th to (2n)th term is 1 . The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric means. 23. 27. prove that P2 = (ab)n. and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18. If the pth.P. respectively. If A and G be A. 21. …arn – 1 and A. 32 and 128. a n+1 + b n+1 may be the geometric mean between a n + bn ( )( ) 30. b and c. 8. Find the value of n so that a and b.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 193 18. rn 25. AR. 8. 2. 20. respectively. c and d are in G. and G.M. 24.P. are a and b. respectively between two positive numbers. 28. 4th hour and nth hour ? 31. Find the sum to n terms of the sequence. 32.P.

.....194 MATHEMATICS 9.. then Sn = n (n + 1) 2 (See Section 9..+n3 We consider the identity. n3 – (n – 1)3 = 3 (n)2 – 3 (n) + 1 Adding both sides.. 3… n......... we know that n ∑ k =1 + 2 + 3 + ........ we obtain 13 – 03 = 3 (1)2 – 3 (1) + 1 23 – 13 = 3 (2)2 – 3 (2) + 1 33 – 23 = 3(3)2 – 3 (3) + 1 ............................... (i) 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n (sum of first n natural numbers) (ii) 12 + 22 + 32 +… + n2(sum of squares of the first n natural numbers) (iii) 13 + 23 + 33 +… + n3(sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers). 2.. .... Let us take them one by one........4) (ii) Here Sn= 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 We consider the identity k3 – (k – 1)3 = 3k2 – 3k + 1 Putting k = 1. + n = k =1 n n (n + 1) 2 1 ⎡ 3 3n (n + 1) ⎤ 1 2 − n ⎥ = (2n3 + 3n 2 + n) Hence Sn = ∑ k = ⎢ n + 3⎣ 2 ⎦ 6 k =1 n (n +1)(2n + 1) 6 (iii) Here Sn = 13 + 23 + ...... namely.... ...... + n) + n n3 = 3 ∑ k 2 – 3 ∑ k + n k –1 k –1 n n By (i)........... (i) Sn=1 + 2 + 3 + … + n....7 Sum to n Terms of Special Series We shall now find the sum of first n terms of some special series......... 2… successively. we get = ......... + n2) – 3 (1 + 2 + 3 + . we get n3 – 03 = 3 (12 + 22 + 32 + ...... (k + 1)4 – k4 = 4k3 + 6k2 + 4k + 1 Putting k = 1...........

.......... (1) From parts (i) and (ii)....... Example 19 Find the sum to n terms of the series: 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + 41… Solution Let us write or On subtraction. we know that k =1 ∑k = n n n (n + 1) 2 and k =1 ∑ k2 = n n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 6 Putting these values in equation (1)...................... + an–1 + an Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + .................. .........................+ n) + n = 4∑ k3 + 6∑ k2 + 4∑ k + n k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n .... we obtain 4 ∑ k 3 = n 4 + 4n 3 + 6n 2 + 4 n – k =1 6n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 4n (n + 1) – –n 6 2 or 4Sn = n4 + 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n – n (2n2 + 3n + 1) – 2n (n + 1) – n = n4 + 2n3 + n2 = n2(n + 1)2..........+ n3) + 6(12 + 22 + 32 + .. ............. + an–2 + an–1 + an ............................. we get Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + ....+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 + 3 +.......SEQUENCES AND SERIES 195 24 – 14 = 4(1)3 + 6(1)2 + 4(1) + 1 34 – 24 = 4(2)3 + 6(2)2 + 4(2) + 1 44 – 34 = 4(3)3 + 6(3)2 + 4(3) + 1 ... (n – 1)4 – (n – 2)4 = 4(n – 2)3 + 6(n – 2)2 + 4(n – 2) + 1 n4 – (n – 1)4 = 4(n – 1)3 + 6(n – 1)2 + 4(n – 1) + 1 (n + 1)4 – n4 = 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n + 1 Adding both sides.. n 2 (n + 1) 2 [ n (n + 1) ] Sn = = 4 4 2 Hence.......... we get (n + 1)4 – 14 = 4(13 + 23 + 33 +........

. 3 6 2 Example 20 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n (n+3). 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + . 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + . 5. the sum to n terms is given by 2 Sn = ∑ ak = ∑ k + 3∑ k k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 3n (n + 1) n(n + 1)(n + 5) + = . . n2 + 2n 2.. 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + .. 52 + 62 + 72 + ... 10. 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 +..196 MATHEMATICS 0 = 5 + [6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + . 1. Solution Given that an = n (n + 3) = n2 + 3n Thus. 3..(n – 1) terms] – an or an = 5 + (n – 1)[12 + (n − 2) × 2] 2 = 5 + (n – 1) (n + 4) = n2 + 3n + 1 Hence Sn = ∑ a = ∑ (k k =1 k k =1 n n 2 + 3k + 1) = ∑ k 2 + 3∑ k + n k =1 1 n n = n(n + 2)(n + 4) n(n +1)(2n + 1) 3n(n + 1) + +n = . 4. + 202 7. 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + . 1 1 1 + + + 1× 2 2 × 3 3× 4 . (2n – 1) 2 9. 6... Find the sum to n terms of the series in Exercises 8 to 10 whose nth terms is given by 8.4 Find the sum to n terms of each of the series in Exercises 1 to 7... n (n+1) (n+4)..... 6 2 3 EXERCISE 9..

and a x = b y = c z . b...P. qth.. b2 = ac Using (1) in (2). b = ky and c = kz. 1 x 1 y 1 cz . aq.P. r th and sth terms of an A. c and d are in G.. (3) . prove that x.P.. p – q.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 197 Miscellaneous Examples Example21 If pth. x. y and z are in A.. b. c are in G.. b.. (1) .. (q – r). c are in G. So aq ap = ar aq − ar q − r = = aq a p − aq p − q (why ?) .P.. d and p are different real numbers such that (a2 + b2 + c2)p2 – 2(ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0.. z are in A.P.P. (r – s) are also in G. (5) Similarly ar as ar − as r − s = = = aq ar aq − ar q − r (why ?) ... Hence..P. therefore. then show that a. which gives 2y = x + z.P. Since a.. = p–q q–r 1 1 1 Example 22 If a.. (1) . by (5) and (6) q – r r – s .P. y. b.e.. i. Solution Here ap = a + (p –1) d aq = a + (q –1) d ar = a + (r –1) d as = a + (s –1) d Given that ap.. are in G. then show that (p – q). (1) . Solution Given that (a2 + b2 + c2) p2 – 2 (ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0 ... ar and as are in G. Solution Let a = b = = k Then a = kx . c. (2) . q – r and r – s are in G. (2) Example 23 If a.P. (4) . we get k2y = kx + z.. (6) Hence.

H.. = (a2p2 – 2abp + b2) + (b2p2 – 2bcp + c2) + (c2p2 – 2cdp + d2).P.r are in G.q. .P. therefore. . q2 = pr. (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 = 0 or ap – b = 0. we have. and the equations.P. c and d are in G. we get 2e d f d 2e fp = + − + = 0. which gives (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 ≥ 0 . Example 24 If p.. or q p r p q pr Hence d e f . are in A. px2 + 2qx + r = 0 and dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root. p q r The equation px2 + 2qx + r = 0 has roots given by x= −2q ± 4q 2 − 4rp 2p Since p . r are in G. are in A. b. cp – d = 0 This implies that b c d = = =p a b c Hence a.q.S.198 MATHEMATICS But L. p q r . from (1) and (2). Thus x = dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 (Why ?). Therefore −q −q but is also root of p p ⎛ −q ⎞ ⎛ −q ⎞ d⎜ ⎟ + 2e ⎜ ⎟ + f = 0.. then show that Solution d e f . bp – c = 0. (1) Dividing (1) by pq2 and using q2 = pr.P.P. ⎝ p ⎠ ⎝ p ⎠ 2 or dq2 – 2eqp + fp2 = 0 . (2) Since the sum of squares of real numbers is non negative..

b. respectively. b. 12. d are in G. is 56. 2n.P. 5. 2. (bn + cn). respectively.P. 13. 3n terms of an A.P. then find the number of terms. y ∈ N such that f(1) = 3 and x =1 ∑ f (x) = 120 .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 199 Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 9 1.c ⎜ + ⎟ are in A. is 56. 18. respectively. show that S3 = 3(S2 – S1) 4. The sum of the first four terms of an A. c and d are in G. b.P. If f is a function satisfying f (x +y) = f(x) f(y) for all x. prove that (an + bn). then find its common ratio.P.P. The sum of the last four terms is 112. b. Prove that P2Rn = Sn. n 8. The sum of three numbers in G.P.P. 11. c.P. Prove that (q + p) : (q – p) = 17:15. The pth. Let the sum of n. is 1. If the sum of three numbers in A. 7. yields 1 as remainder.. P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G.P. If its first term is 11. A G. If a. 3.P. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum of terms occupying odd places.b ⎜ + ⎟ . Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7. Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A. (cn + dn) are in G. 6. If a + bx b + cx c + dx = = ( x ≠ 0) .P. Let S be the sum. Find the last term and the number of terms. find the numbers. are a. is equal to twice the mth term. S2 and S3. consists of an even number of terms. Show that (q – r )a + (r – p )b + (p – q )c = 0 ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ 16. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5.P. ⎝b c⎠ ⎝c a⎠ ⎝a b⎠ 17. The sum of some terms of G. be S1.P. Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4. b. If a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0 and c. Find the numbers.. c are in A. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and 2. prove that a. 9. . 10.P. Find the common ratio of G. then show that a. If a ⎜ + ⎟ . qth and rth terms of an A. where a. 21 from these numbers in that order.P. c. 15. is 24 and their product is 440. The first term of a G. find the value of n. d form a G. we obtain an arithmetic progression. d are roots of x2 – 12x + q = 0.P. If we subtract 1. 7. c. a − bx b − cx c − dx 14.

. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount. Show that 27.. 31. 4 more workers dropped out on third day and so on. their squares and their cubes. He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount. Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3+ 7 +13 +21 +31 +… 24. + n2 × (n + 1) 3n + 1 . c. The ratio of the A. 32. will depreciate each year by 20%. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: (i) 5 + 55 +555 + … (ii) . S2.. c. prove that a. 15625. 21..P. Find the amount in 15th year since he deposited the amount and also calculate the total amount after 20 years. A manufacturer reckons that the value of a machine. is m : n. and G.6 +.M.P. 30. 1 1+ 3 1+ 3 + 5 26. A man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest annually.200 MATHEMATICS 19. Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. 29. e c d e are in G. show that 9 S2 = S3 (1 + 8S1). 666+… th 22.. If S1. Find the 20 term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + . Find the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed. How much will the scooter cost him? A person writes a letter to four of his friends. 2 25. . + n terms. 4 workers dropped out on second day.P. which costs him Rs. A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000. 150 workers were engaged to finish a job in a certain number of days. He asks each one of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly. 66 +. 23. Show that a : b = m + m2 – n 2 : m – m2 – n 2 ( )( )..P. d are in G. b.. of two positive numbers a and b. If a. c are in A. and . Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: 13 13 + 22 13 + 23 + 33 + + + . 1 1 1 20.. S3 are the sum of first n natural numbers. . + n × (n + 1) 2 3n + 5 = 12 × 2 + 2 2 × 3 + . 1 × 22 + 2 × 32 + . Find the estimated value at the end of 5 years.. respectively. are in A.M. 28. How much will the tractor cost him? Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000. b.

a2.. 3.P. is given by . we denote the first term of a G.P. be the sequence.P. An arithmetic progression (A.P. A series is called finite series if it has got finite number of terms. This constant factor is called the common ratio. by a. is given by an = a + (n – 1) d. the common difference by d and the last term by l..P.P.. by a and its common ratio by r.. 2.P. we define a sequence as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subsets of the type {1.. The sum Sn of the first n terms of an A. Find the number of days in which the work was completed. A sequence containing a finite number of terms is called a finite sequence.) is a sequence in which terms increase or decrease regularly by the same constant. the 2 The arithmetic mean A of any two numbers a and b is given by sequence a. we mean an arrangement of a number in a definite order according to some rule. Also. is given by an= arn – 1.. is given by n n Sn = ⎡2a + ( n – 1) d ⎤ = ( a + l ) .P. Usually. we denote the first terms of A. b is in A.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 201 It took 8 more days to finish the work. ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 a+b i.P. The general term or the nth term of the A. Let a1.k).. a3. if the ratio of any term to its preceding term is same throughout. . The general or the nth term of G.. Usually. A. A sequence is said to be a geometric progression or G. then the sum expressed as a1 + a2 + a3 + . A sequence is called infinite if it is not a finite sequence.e. is called series. The sum Sn of the first n terms of G.P. This constant is called common difference of the A.. Summary By a sequence.

D. G. knew of arithmetic and geometric sequences. Among the Indian mathematician.P.D. Aryabhatta (476 A. the sequence a.D.e.D. b is G. It was only through the rigorous development of algebraic and set theoretic tools that the concepts related to sequence and series could be formulated suitably.) was the first to give the formula for the sum of squares and cubes of natural numbers in his famous work Aryabhatiyam.D.). He also gave the formula for finding the sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence starting with p th term. According to Boethius (510 A. — — . Another specific type of sequence having important applications in mathematics. Mahavira (850 A.D.) and Bhaskara (1114-1185 A. written around 499 A. some 4000 years ago.D. In 1671 A. called Fibonacci sequence.). was discovered by Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250 A. Seventeenth century witnessed the classification of series into specific forms.)..202 MATHEMATICS a rn – 1 Sn = r –1 ( ) or a (1– r ) . Noted Indian mathematicians Brahmgupta (598 A.D. Historical Note Evidence is found that Babylonians.) also considered the sum of squares and cubes. if r ≠ 1 n 1–r The geometric mean (G. arithmetic and geometric sequences were known to early Greek writers.M.) of any two positive numbers a and b is given by ab i. James Gregory used the term infinite series in connection with infinite sequence.

the point (3. distance between two points. FREUDENTHAL 10. 0) in the XY-plane is shown in Fig 10. Mainly. in his book ‘La Géométry. as a logical system. we initiated René Descartes the study of coordinate geometry. A systematic study of geometry by the use of algebra was first carried out by celebrated French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes.1 We also studied there following important formulae: . We may note that the point (6. All these concepts are the basics of coordinate geometry. Fig 10. is a means and even the most powerful means to make children feel the strength of the human spirit that is of their own spirit.1. Let us have a brief recall of coordinate geometry done in earlier classes. This book introduced the notion of the equation of a curve and related analytical methods into the study of geometry. it is a combination of algebra and geometry. 0) is at 3 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and has zero distance from the x-axis.1 Introduction We are familiar with two-dimensional coordinate geometry from earlier classes. To recapitulate. coordinate plane. – H. Similarly. published in 1637. etc. – 4) is at 6 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and at 4 units distance from the x-axis measured along the negative y-axis. plotting of points in a plane. – 4) and (3. where we studied about (1596 -1650) coordinate axes.Chapter 10 STRAIGHT LINES G eometry. section formule. In the earlier classes. The resulting combination of analysis and geometry is referred now as analytical geometry. the location of the points (6.

. m+n ⎟ ⎝ m+n ⎠ 1. Main focus is on representing the line algebraically. the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining A (1. (x2. (3. The coordinates of a point dividing the line segment joining the points (x1. In the this Chapter.e. 1+ 3 III. y1). y2) and (x3.(− 3) = 0. . for which slope is most essential. which are supplementary. – 4) and (3. y3) is 1 x1 ( y 2 − y 3 ) + x 2 ( y 3 − y 1 ) + x 3 ( y1 − y 2 ) . Distance between the points P (x1. Despite its simplicity. the coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining the points (x1. II. 16) is − 54 1 4( −2 − 16) + 3(16 − 4) + (−3)(4 + 2) = = 27. y2) internally.9 + 3. ⎟. –3) and B (–3. we shall continue the study of coordinate geometry to study properties of the simplest geometric figure – straight line. distance between the points (6. y1) and (x2. then three points A. in the ratio 1: 3 are given by x = and y = 1. 2 For example. In particular. – 2) and (– 3. . y2) is PQ = (x 2 – x1 ) + ( y2 – y1 ) 2 2 For example. the area of the triangle.( − 3) + 3. they are collinear. i. in the ratio m: n are ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ m x 2 + n x1 m y 2 + n y1 ⎞ ⎟. y2) are ⎜ ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y 2 ⎞ . 0) is ( 3 − 6 )2 + ( 0 + 4 )2 = 9 + 16 = 5 units. B and C lie on a line. 10.1 =0 1+ 3 For example. whose vertices are (4. the line is a vital concept of geometry and enters into our daily experiences in numerous interesting and useful ways. if m = n.2 Slope of a Line A line in a coordinate plane forms two angles with the x-axis.204 MATHEMATICS I. y1) and (x2. 2 2 Remark If the area of the triangle ABC is zero. Area of the triangle whose vertices are (x1. 4). y1) and Q (x2. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 IV. 9) internally.

But in ∆MPQ. or coinciding with x-axis. Let P(x 1. we proceed to find the slope of a line in terms of the coordinates of two points on the line.3 (i) and (ii). (1) MQ y2 − y1 . The inclination of the line l may be acute or obtuse. θ ≠ 90° It may be observed that the slope of x-axis is zero and slope of y-axis is not defined. Definition 1 If θ is the inclination of a line l.. = MP x2 − x1 . y 1 ) and Q(x 2. x1 ≠ x2. The inclination of a vertical line (parallel to or coinciding with y-axis) is 90°.. then tan θ is called the slope or gradient of Fig 10. 10.2 the line l.3 (i). have inclination of 0°. Obviously 0° ≤ θ ≤ 180° (Fig 10.STRAIGHT LINES 205 The angle (say) θ made by the line l with positive direction of x-axis and measured anti clockwise is called the inclination of the line. (2) . Case 1 When angle θ is acute: In Fig 10. Draw perpendicular QR to x-axis and PM perpendicular to RQ as shown in Figs. The slope of a line whose inclination is 90° is not defined. y 2 ) be two points on non-vertical line l whose inclination is θ. 10. 3 (i) . The slope of a line is denoted by m..2. Obviously. We observe that lines parallel to x-axis. m = tan θ. slope of line l = m = tan θ.1 Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given We know that a line is completely determined when we are given two points on it.2).. Therefore. Let us take these two cases. ∠MPQ = θ. Hence. otherwise the line will become perpendicular to x-axis and its slope will not be defined. we have tan θ = Fig 10. Thus.

i. θ = 180° – ∠MPQ. i. we have m= y2 − y1 . Then tan α = tan β. Let their inclinations be α and β.. If the line l1 is parallel to l2 (Fig 10. x2 − x1 Case II When angle θ is obtuse: In Fig 10. then their inclinations are equal. Conversely. i. x2 − x1 10.4). . y1) and (x2. α = β. the lines are parallel. Now. Therefore.2. 3 (ii) m = tan θ = tan ( 180° – ∠MPQ) = – tan ∠MPQ = − y2 − y1 MQ y −y . 4 By the property of tangent function (between 0° and 180°).206 MATHEMATICS From equations (1) and (2). we see that in both the cases the slope m of the line through the points (x1.2 Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes In a coordinate plane. respectively.. =− 2 1 = x2 − x1 x1 − x2 MP Consequently. m1 = m2. suppose that non-vertical lines l1 and l2 have slopes m1 and m2. α = β.e.. Therefore.e. respectively. Fig 10. their slopes are equal. if the slope of two lines l1 and l2 is same. we have ∠MPQ = 180° – θ. and hence. y2) is given by m = y2 − y1 . tan α = tan β Therefore m1 = m2.e.3 (ii). slope of the line l Fig 10.

two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. Thus.. i. lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular to each other.tan β = tan (α + 90°) = – cot α = − i. then β = α + 90°.STRAIGHT LINES 207 Hence. – 2) and (7. Passing through the points (3. Solution (a) The slope of the line through (3. α and β differ by 90°. 4) is m= 4 − ( −2) 6 3 = =− . Making inclination of 60° with the positive direction of x-axis. – 2) and (7. 5 Therefore. m1 Let us consider the following example.5). −1 − 3 −4 2 (b) The slope of the line through the points (3. Passing through the points (3. m2= − 1 or. If the lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular (Fig 10. 4).. Therefore. Example 1 Find the slope of the lines: (a) (b) (c) (d) Passing through the points (3.e. two non vertical lines l1 and l2 are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. – 2) and (–1.e.. i. – 2) is m= − 2 − ( − 2) 0 = = 0. 4).e. tan α tan β = – 1. – 2) and (– 1. 4) is . Hence. Then tan α = – cot β = tan (β + 90°) or tan (β – 90°) Fig 10. – 2). 7−3 4 (c) The slope of the line through the points (3. m1 m2 = – 1. 1 tan α m1 m2 = – 1 1 m2 = − m 1 or Conversely. if m1 m2 = – 1. – 2) and (3. – 2) and (3.

6). as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m2 Fig 10. Here we will discuss the angle between two lines in terms of their slopes. 10. there arise two cases: . α2 ≠ 90°.208 MATHEMATICS 4 − ( − 2) 6 = . If α1 and α2 are the inclinations of lines L1 and L2. We know that when two lines intersect each other. Let L1 and L2 be two non-vertical lines with slopes m1 and m2.3 Angle between two lines When we think about more than one line in a plane. Therefore. 6 Now. respectively. Then θ = α2 – α1 and α1. which is not defined. 3−3 0 (d) Here inclination of the line α = 60°. Therefore tan θ = tan (α2 – α1) = and φ = 180° – θ so that tan φ = tan (180° – θ ) = – tan θ = – tan α 2 − tan α1 m − m1 = 2 1 + tan α1 tan α 2 1 + m1m2 (as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0) m2 − m1 . Let θ and φ be the adjacent angles between the lines L1 and L2 (Fig10. respectively. then we find that these lines are either intersecting or parallel. they make two pairs of vertically opposite angles such that sum of any two adjacent angles is 180°.2. slope of the line is m= m = tan 60° = 3. Then m1 = tan α1 and m2 = tan α2 .

Example 2 If the angle between two lines is π 1 and slope of one of the lines is . Solution We know that the acute angle θ between two lines with slopes m1 and m2 is given by tan θ = m2 − m1 1 + m1m 2 . putting these values in (1).. Thus. (1) Let m1 = 1 π . Case II If which means that θ will be obtuse and φ will be acute. 1 + m1 m 2 which means θ will be acute and φ will be obtuse. find 4 2 the slope of the other line. (1) The obtuse angle (say φ) can be found by using φ =1800 – θ.. respectively.. is given by tan θ = m 2 − m1 . the acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2. m2 = m and θ = . as 1 + m1m 2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m 2 . 1 + m1 m 2 m 2 − m1 is negative. 4 2 Now. 3 . which gives 1 1 m− 2 = 1 or − 2 = –1. we get π tan = 4 m− 1 2 1 1+ m 2 or 1 = m− 1 2 1 1+ m 2 . then tan θ will be positive and tan φ will be negative. then tan θ will be negative and tan φ will be positive.STRAIGHT LINES 209 Case I If m 2 − m1 is positive.. 1 1 1+ m 1+ m 2 2 m− 1 Therefore m = 3 or m = − .

7 explains the 3 reason of two answers. 6) and (4. B and C are three points in the XY-plane. if A. 24) is 24 − 12 12 = x−8 x −8 Since two lines are perpendicular. which gives m2 = 1 12 × = −1 or x = 4 . Fig 10.2. i.. slope of the other line is 1 3 or − . Hence.4 Collinearity of three points We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. 24). three points are collinear (Fig 10. 3 x −8 10. 8 . 7 Example 3 Line through the points (–2.e. Solution Slope of the line through the points (– 2. Fig 10. 12) and (x. then they will lie on a line.8) if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC. 12) and (x. then two lines will coincide. m1 m2 = –1. If two lines having the same slope pass through a common point. Fig 10. 8) is perpendicular to the line through the points (8. 8) is m1 = 8−6 2 1 = = 4 − ( −2 ) 6 3 Slope of the line through the points (8. 6) and (4. Find the value of x.210 MATHEMATICS Hence.

4). Find a point on the x-axis. 3. whose vertices are (– 4. (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1). 7). k). The base of an equilateral triangle with side 2a lies along the y-axis such that the mid-point of the base is at the origin. Q and R are collinear. points (0. 6 (T − 3) = 3 (D − 8) EXERCISE 10. i. which passes through the origin. Show that (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1). D = 2 and when T = 3. we have Slope of PQ = Slope of QR. – 5) and (– 4. D = 8. Find vertices of the triangle. Find the distance between P (x1.e. how distance depends upon time. 5. where D denotes the distance at time T. i.e. y2) lie on a line.9. find law of motion. Therefore.. (3. Solution Since points P. D) are collinear so that Fig 10. Draw a quadrilateral in the Cartesian plane. 6) and (3. time and distance graph of a linear motion is given. 4. Using the concept of slope. y2) when : (i) PQ is parallel to the y-axis. (5. D) be any point on the line. Solution Let (T. – 4) and B (8.STRAIGHT LINES 211 Example 4 Three points P (h. Also. y1 − k y −y = 2 1 x1 − h x2 − x1 or or k − y1 y 2 − y1 = h − x1 x2 − x1 . Find the slope of a line. (ii) PQ is parallel to the x-axis. when T = 0. 2). which is equidistant from the points (7. 2. and the mid-point of the line segment joining the points P (0.. y1) and R (x2. (0.9 8 − 2 D −8 or = 3−0 T −3 or D = 2(T + 1). . –2). which is the required relation. y1) and Q (x2. 0). Example 5 In Fig 10. 5). Two positions of time and distance are recorded as.1 1. 8) and (T. find its area. Q (x1.

8.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line We know that every line in a plane contains infinitely many points on it. show that the points (4. (4. 10. find what will be the population in the year 2010? Fig 10. find the slopes of the lines. (3. 7. which makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of y-axis measured anticlockwise. 0). y1) and (h. – 1). This relationship between line and points leads us to find the solution of the following problem: . (a. –1) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. If three points (h. h k 14. If tangent of the angle between them is 1 .–2). A line passes through (x1. show that points (– 2. 11. Find the value of x for which the points (x. Without using the Pythagoras theorem. (3. 2) are the vertices of a parallelogram. find the slope of the line AB and using it. show that a b + = 1.212 MATHEMATICS 6. b) and (0.1) and (4. 9. Find the angle between the x-axis and the line joining the points (3. 5) and (–1. If slope of the line is m. 5) are collinear. k) lie on a line. 4). Find the slope of the line. – 1).10). 0).–1) and (4. k). show that k – y1 = m (h – x1). Without using distance formula. (2. 13.10 10. The slope of a line is double of the slope of another line. Consider the following population and year graph (Fig 10. 3 12. 3) and (–3.

Fig 10. Suppose P (x. 3). when P is on L. 10. otherwise false. equation of the line parallel to y-axis and passing through (– 2.3. For the equation of L. Therefore.STRAIGHT LINES 213 How can we say that a given point lies on the given line? Its answer may be that for a given line we should have a definite condition on the points lying on the line. Similarly. Similarly. Now.12. 3) is x = – 2.11(b)].1 Horizontal and vertical lines If a horizontal line L is at a distance a from the x-axis then ordinate of every point lying on the line is either a or – a [Fig 10. equation of the line parallel tox-axis and passing through (– 2. equation of the line L is either y = a or y = – a. The y-coordinate of every point on the line parallel to x-axis is 3.12 . y) is an arbitrary point in the XY-plane and L is the given line. Fig 10. the equation of a vertical line at a distance b from the x-axis is either x = b or x = – b [Fig 10. Choice of sign will depend upon the position of the line according as the line is above or below the y-axis. Of course the statement is merely an algebraic equation involving the variables x and y. therefore.11 Example 6 Find the equations of the lines parallel to axes and passing through (– 2. Solution Position of the lines is shown in the Fig 10.11 (a)]. we will discuss the equation of a line under different conditions. 3) is y = 3. we wish to construct a statement or condition for the point P that is true.

y) be an arbitrary point on L (Fig 10. y0). y0) along with all points (x.13 Thus. the slope of L is given by m= y − y0 .3. equation of the given line is y – 3 = – 4 (x + 2) or 4x + y + 5 = 0. the point (x.. y0) is (– 2. Fig 10. The three points P1.3. Let P (x. 3).214 MATHEMATICS 10.13). y1) and P2 (x2. x − x1 x 2 − x1 or y − y 1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1 ). y − y 0 = m ( x − x 0 ) x − x0 . whose slope is m. P2 and P are collinear. i. Solution Here m = – 4 and given point (x0 .14). Equation (1) is indeed the equation for the given line L..e. Let P (x.(1) Since the point P0 (x0 . which is the required equation. y) be a general point on L (Fig 10.2 Point-slope form Suppose that P0 (x0. y − y1 y 2 − y1 = . y) on L satisfies (1) and no other point in the plane satisfies (1). y) lies on the line with slope m through the fixed point (x0. by the definition. 3) with slope – 4.3 Two-point form Let the line L passes through two given points P1 (x1. we have slope of P1P = slope of P1P2 Fig 10.14 i. y2). 10. x 2 − x1 .. its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y0 = m (x – x0) Example 7 Find the equation of the line through (– 2. therefore. By slope-intercept form formula (1) above. Then.. if and only if. y0) is a fixed point on a non-vertical line L.e.

4 Slope-intercept form Sometimes a line is known to us with its slope and an intercept on one of the axes. which is the required equation. The distance c is called the yintercept of the line L. (4) Students may derive this equation themselves by the same method as in Case I. the equation of L is y − c = m ( x − 0 ) or y = mx + c Thus. Therefore. Example 9 Write the equation of the lines for which tan θ = inclination of the line and (i) y-intercept is – y = m( x − d ) 1 . Case I Suppose a line L with slope m cuts the y-axis at a distance c from the origin (Fig10.. y1) and (x2.STRAIGHT LINES 215 Thus. Obviously. y1 = – 1.. Solution Here x1 = 1. where θ is the 2 3 (ii) x-intercept is 4.. coordinates of the point where the line meet the y-axis are (0. 10. –1) and (3. Thus. c). Using two-point form (2) above for the equation of the line. 2 . L has slope m and passes through a fixed point (0. x2 = 3 and y2 = 5. (2) Example 8 Write the equation of the line through the points (1. We will now find equations of such lines. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1) x 2 − x1 . c). the point (x. 5)..15).15 m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c . equation of the line passing through the points (x1. y) on the line with slope Fig 10.. we have y − (− 1) = or 5 − (− 1) (x − 1) 3 −1 − 3 x + y + 4 = 0 .3. by point-slope form. Case II Suppose line L with slope m makes x-intercept d. Then equation of L is .(3) Note that the value of c will be positive or negative according as the intercept is made on the positive or negative side of the y-axis. respectively..

respectively. 2 (ii) Here.and y-axes respectively. 0) and y-axis at the point (0.10. By intercept form (5) above. equation of the line making intercepts a and b on x-and y-axis. 1 3 x − or 2 y − x + 3 = 0 . b) (Fig . By two-point form of the equation of the line. 0−a x y + = 1. 2 2 1 and d = 4. Solution Here a = –3 and b = 2. by slope-intercept form (4) above. is x y + =1 a b .16). which makes intercepts –3 and 2 on the x.5 Intercept . 2 2 Therefore. a b Fig 10. 10.216 MATHEMATICS Solution (i) Here. Obviously L meets x-axis at the point (a.3.intercept c = – . (5) Example 10 Find the equation of the line. slope of the line is m = tan θ = 1 3 and y . the equation of the line is y= 1 ( x − 4) or 2 y − x + 4 = 0 . 2 which is the required equation.e. b−0 (x − a) or ay = −bx + ab . equation of the line is x y + =1 −3 2 or 2x − 3 y + 6 = 0 .16 Thus.form Suppose a line L makes x-intercept a and y-intercept b on the axes... we have y−0= i. .. by slope-intercept form (3) above. we have m = tan θ = Therefore. the equation of the line is y= which is the required equation.

by sin ω point-slope form. (ii) Angle which normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis. The possible positions of line L in the Cartesian plane are shown in the Fig 10. the equation of the line L is . slope of OA tan ω sin ω cos ω and point A ( p cos ω. Therefore. the line L has slope − 1 1 cos ω =− =− .17 In each case. so that the coordinates of the point A are (p cos ω. Draw perpendicular AM on the x-axis in each case. p sin ω) on it. Fig 10. Now.17.3.STRAIGHT LINES 217 10. we have OM = p cos ω and MA = p sin ω. Let L be the line. p sin ω).6 Normal form Suppose a non-vertical line is known to us with following data: (i) Length of the perpendicular (normal) from origin to the line. whose perpendicular distance from origin O be OA = p and the angle between the positive x-axis and OA be ∠XOA = ω. our purpose is to find slope of L and a point on it. line L is perpendicular to OA. Therefore The slope of the line L = − Thus. Further.

. Hence.. we are given p = 4 and ω = 150 (Fig10.18). the point (F. Now cos 15° = 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 (Why?) 2 2 and sin 15º = By the normal form (6) above. Given that K = 273 when F = 32 and that K = 373 when F = 212. 273) and (212. when K = 0. the equation of the line having normal distance p from the origin and angle ω which the normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p . x cos 150 + y sin 150 = 4 or ( 3 +1 x + ) ( 3 − 1 y = 8 2. Solution Assuming F along x-axis and K along y-axis.. By two-point form. 373) in XY-plane. (1) 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 which is the required relation. we have two points (32. ) Example 12 The Fahrenheit temperature F and absolute temperature K satisfy a linear equation.218 MATHEMATICS y − p sin ω = − cos ω ( x − p cos ω ) or sin ω x cos ω + y sin ω = p (sin 2ω + cos 2ω) or x cos ω + y sin ω = p. (6) Example 11 Find the equation of the line whose perpendicular distance from the origin is 4 units and the angle which the normal makes with positive direction of x-axis is 15°. Solution Here. K= . K) satisfies the equation K − 273 = or 373 − 273 100 ( F − 32 ) or K − 273 = ( F − 32 ) 212 − 32 180 . Express K in terms of F and find the value of F. the equation of the line is Fig 10..18 3 +1 3 −1 x+ y = 4 or 2 2 2 2 This is the required equation.

Therefore 273 = 32m + c . In all the examples above.4 . For finding these two constants. Write the equations for the x-and y-axes... Alternate method We know that simplest form of the equation of a line is y = mx + c. Equation (1) gives 0= 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 or F − 32 = − 273 × 9 = − 491. we are given two conditions to determine the equation of the line..STRAIGHT LINES 219 When K = 0. 4.4. (1) Equation (1) is satisfied by (32. (4) gives F = – 459. m and c. 9 9 . Passing through the points (–1. 7. contains two constants. K= Note We know. – 4). (2) and 373 = 212m + c Solving (2) and (3). 2 3 and inclined with the x-axis at an angle of 75o. Intersecting the x-axis at a distance of 3 units to the left of origin with slope –2.2 In Exercises 1 to 8. 6. Intersecting the y-axis at a distance of 2 units above the origin and making an angle of 30o with positive direction of the x-axis. we need two conditions satisfied by the equation of line. EXERCISE 10. (3) 5 2297 and c = . Passing through 2. 273) and (212. (4) Putting the values of m and c in (1). 2. Passing through (0. 1 . that the equation y = mx + c.. find the equation of the line which satisfy the given conditions: 1.. 5.4 5 or F= − 459. we get m= . 373). 0) with slope m.. 1) and (2. 3) with slope 3. we can take equation in the form K = mF + c . Passing through the point (– 4.. When K = 0. Again assuming Falong x-axis and K along y-axis. namely. we get 5 2297 F+ 9 9 which is the required relation.. 2 ( ) .

3). 0). prove that the three points (3. Also.134 when C = 110. 2π with the 3 positive x-axis. b) is the mid-point of a line segment between axes. Find the equation of the line passing through (–3. A line perpendicular to the line segment joining the points (1. 3) and R (4. The perpendicular from the origin to a line meets it at the point (–2. 5). Graph of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is always a straight line. Find the equation of a line that cuts off equal intercepts on the coordinate axes and passes through the point (2. how many litres could he sell weekly at Rs 17/litre? P (a. 17. 18. B and C are real constants such that A and B are not zero simultaneously. 10. he can sell 980 litres of milk each week at Rs 14/litre and 1220 litres of milk each week at Rs 16/litre. we have studied general equation of first degree in two variables. (– 2. a b 19. find the equation of line parallel to it and crossing the y-axis at a distance of 2 units below the origin. The owner of a milk store finds that. 5) and perpendicular to the line through the points (2.4 General Equation of a Line In earlier classes. k) divides a line segment between the axes in the ratio 1: 2. where A. 9. if L = 124. In an experiment. Perpendicular distance from the origin is 5 units and the angle made by the perpendicular with the positive x-axis is 300. Find equation of the line. . 6). Find equation of the median through the vertex R.220 MATHEMATICS 8. 5) and (–3. Ax + By + C = 0. 2) and cutting off intercepts on the axes whose sum is 9. 11. find the equation of the line. Find equation of the line passing through the point (2. 14. 1). By using the concept of equation of a line. 10. 12. The vertices of ∆ PQR are P (2. 3) divides it in the ratio 1: n. 9). The length L (in centimetrs) of a copper rod is a linear function of its Celsius temperature C. – 2) and (8.942 when C = 20 and L= 125. 16. express L in terms of C. 20. 13. Show that equation Find equation of the line through the point (0. 0) and (2. Assuming a linear relationship between selling price and demand. 2) are collinear. Point R (h. 15. Q (–2. 2) making an angle of the line is x y + = 2. Find the equation of the line.

Thus. B B We know that Equation (1) is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line m=− A C . where A and B are not zero simultaneously is called general linear equation or general equation of a line. (1) A C and c = − .STRAIGHT LINES 221 Therefore. A B We know that equation (1) is intercept form of the equation of a line whose x-intercept is − C C and y-intercept is − . both the equations are same and therefore. 10... B B whose slope is − If B = 0. (c) Normal form Let x cos ω + y sin ω = p be the normal form of the line represented by the equation Ax + By + C = 0 or Ax + By = – C. has zero intercepts on the axes. A B C = =− p cos ω sin ω . any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. which is a line passing through the origin and.which is a vertical line whose slope is undefined and A C .4. by the following procedures: (a) Slope-intercept form If B ≠ 0. A (b) Intercept form If C ≠ 0.1 Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 The general equation of a line can be reduced into various forms of the equation of a line. then x = − x-intercept is − C . then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as x y x y + = 1 or + =1 C C a b − − A B where a= − C C and b = − . therefore. A B If C = 0. and y-intercept is − . then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as Ax + By = 0. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as y=− where A C x − or y = mx + c B B .

the normal form of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is x cos ω + y sin ω = p.. C C Now 2 sin ω + cos ω = − ( ) ( ) Ap C 2 + − Bp C 2 =1 or 2 p = C 2 2 A +B 2 or p = ± C 2 A +B 2 Therefore cosω = ± A A +B 2 2 and sinω = ± B 2 A +B 2 . where cos ω = ± A A +B 2 2 ..and y-intercepts. 2 . Proper choice of signs is made so that p should be positive. Find its (i) slope.. (2) Comparing (2) with y-intercept as b = x y 10 + = 1 . (ii) x . we have slope of the given line as m = (ii) Equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as 3 x − 4 y = −10 or x y + =1 10 5 − 3 2 3 . Example 13 Equation of a line is 3x – 4y + 10 = 0. Solution (i) Given equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as y= 3 5 x+ 4 2 . we have x-intercept as a = − and a b 3 5 .. Thus.222 MATHEMATICS which gives 2 cos ω = − Ap Bp and sin ω = − . 4 . sin ω = ± B A +B 2 2 and p = ± C 2 A +B 2 . (1) Comparing (1) with y = mx + c.

(3) Putting the values of m1 and m2 in (3). (2) 2 2 Comparing (2) with x cos ω + y sin ω = p.. (1) . (2) 3 y − x + 6 = 0 or y = 3 x − 2 3 1 Slope of line (1) is m1 = 3 and slope of line (2) is m2 = m 2 − m1 1 + m1 m 2 1 . angle between two lines is either 30° or 180° – 30° = 150°... 3 The acute angle (say) θ between two lines is given by tan θ = .... y − 3 x − 5 = 0 or y = 3 x + 5 and .. b2 ≠ 0 are: . Example15 Find the angle between the lines y − 3 x − 5 = 0 and Solution Given lines are 3y − x + 6 = 0 .STRAIGHT LINES 223 Example 14 Reduce the equation of p and ω. we get 3 1 x + y = 4 or cos 30° x + sin 30° y = 4 ... we get 1 − 3 3 tan θ = 1 1+ 3 × 3 = 1− 3 1 = 2 3 3 which gives θ = 30°.. Solution Given equation is 3 x + y − 8 = 0 into normal form. (1) ( 3) 2 + (1)2 = 2 . where b1. we get p = 4 and ω = 30°. Hence. Example 16 Show that two lines a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 and a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0 . Find the values 3x + y − 8 = 0 Dividing (1) by .

which is the required equation. (2) Slopes of the lines (1) and (2) are m1 = − a1 and m2 = − (i) Lines are parallel..m2 = – 1.. Solution Given line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 can be written as y= 1 3 x+ 2 2 .224 MATHEMATICS (i) Parallel if a1 b1 = a2 b2 . – 2) is y − ( − 2) = − 2(x − 1) or y = − 2 x . if m1. which gives a1 a2 . Now b2 − a1 a 2 a1 a = ..(1) Slope of the line (1) is m1 = 1 . Therefore. if m1 = m2. slope of the line perpendicular to line (1) is 2 m2 = − 1 = −2 m1 Equation of the line with slope – 2 and passing through the point (1. (1) y = − a2 x − c2 b2 b2 b1 . . = − 2 or b1 b2 b1 b2 (ii) Lines are perpendicular. which gives a 2 . = − 1 or a a + b b = 0 1 2 1 2 b1 b2 Example 17 Find the equation of a line perpendicular to the line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 and passing through the point (1. respectively.... Solution Given lines can be written as y = − a1 x − c1 b1 b1 and . – 2). and (ii) Perpendicular if a1 a 2 + b1 b 2 = 0 .

respectively.. Draw a perpendicular PM from the point P to the line L (Fig10. If Fig10.STRAIGHT LINES 225 10.. area (∆PQR) = 1 C ⎞ ⎛ C ⎞⎛ C ⎛ ⎞ x1 ⎜ 0 + ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − − y1 ⎟ + 0 ( y 1 − 0 ) 2 B ⎠ ⎝ A ⎠⎝ B ⎝ ⎠ = 1 C C C2 x1 + y 1 + 2 B A AB or 2 area (∆PQR) = 2 C .19 the line meets the x-and y-axes at the points Q and R. whose distance from the point P (x1.QR . y1) is d. (1) Also. Thus.5 Distance of a Point From a Line The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular drawn from the point to the line. A x1 + B y 1 + C . Let L : Ax + By + C = 0 be a line. which gives PM = 2 ⎛ C ⎞ Q ⎜ − . the area of the triangle PQR B⎠ ⎝ 2 area (∆PQR) QR . and AB ⎛ ⎞ QR = ⎜ 0 + C ⎟ + ⎝ A⎠ ( C − 0 B ) 2 = C AB 2 2 A +B Substituting the values of area (∆PQR) and QR in (1). we get . − ⎟ . 0 ⎟ and R ⎝ A ⎠ C⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0.19). Then. coordinates of the points are is given by 1 area (∆PQR) = PM.

distance between the lines (1) and (2) is ( −m) ⎛ − ⎜ c1 ⎞ ⎟ + ( −c2 ) ⎝ m⎠ 1 + m2 or d = c1 − c2 1 + m2 . 0 ⎟ as shown in Fig10.5. two parallel lines can be taken in the form y = mx + c1 .20 Distance between two lines is equal to the length of the perpendicular from point A to line (2). If lines are given in general form. . 2 2 A +B Thus.. the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. ⎝ ⎠ Fig10.1 Distance between two parallel lines We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal.20.. the distance d between two parallel lines y = mx + c1 and y = mx + c2 is given by d= c1 − c2 1 + m2 . (1) .. 10. (2) and y = mx + c2 Line (1) will intersect x-axis at the point ⎛ c1 ⎞ A ⎜ − m .e. Therefore. Therefore..226 MATHEMATICS PM = A x1 + B y 1 + C 2 2 A +B . i. Thus.. y1) is given by d= A x1 + B y1 + C 2 2 A +B or d= A x1 + B y1 + C . Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0.

– 5) from the line 3x – 4y –26 = 0. (iii) x – y = 4. 2. Reduce the following equations into normal form. Solution Given line is 3x – 4y –26 = 0 . 4. (iii) 3y + 2 = 0. Reduce the following equations into slope . (i) x – 3y + 8 = 0. (i) x + 7y = 0. (ii) 4x – 3y = 6. 5 EXERCISE 10. Reduce the following equations into intercept form and find their intercepts on the axes.. 5 Example 19 Find the distance between the parallel lines 3x – 4y +7 = 0 and 3x – 4y + 5 = 0 Solution Here A = 3. The distance of the given point from given line is d= Ax1 + By1 + C A +B 2 2 = 3.intercepts. B = –4. (ii) 6x + 3y – 5 = 0. Therefore. (iii) y = 0. Find the distance of the point (–1. 1) from the line 12(x + 6) = 5(y – 2). –5). whose distances from the line x y + = 1 are 4 units. . (ii) y – 2 = 0.intercept form and find their slopes and the y .. the required distance is d= 7–5 32 + ( –4 ) 2 2 = . Find their perpendicular distances from the origin and angle between perpendicular and the positive x-axis. (i) 3x + 2y – 12 = 0.3 1. 5. 3.STRAIGHT LINES 227 then above formula will take the form d = C1 − C 2 A 2 + B2 Students can derive it themselves. y1) = (3. (1) Comparing (1) with general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0. Example 18 Find the distance of the point (3. Given point is (x1. we get A = 3. 3 4 6. B = – 4 and C = – 26. Find the distance between parallel lines (i) 15x + 8y – 34 = 0 and 15x + 8y + 31 = 0 (ii) l (x + y) + p = 0 and l (x + y) – r = 0. Find the points on the x-axis. C1 = 7 and C2 = 5.3 + ( –4 )( –5 ) – 26 32 + ( –4 ) 2 3 = .

13. find equation of the other line.. If p and q are the lengths of perpendiculars from the origin to the lines x cos θ − y sin θ = k cos 2θ and x sec θ + y cosec θ = k. prove that p2 + 4q2 = k2. 5 x + ky − 3 = 0 and 3 x − y − 2 = 0 are concurrent. If p is the length of perpendicular from the origin to the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b. 3) to the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0.. Here given lines are 2x + y – 3 = 0 . Find equation of the line perpendicular to the line x – 7y + 5 = 0 and having x intercept 3. 1) intersects the line 7 x − 9 y − 19 = 0. 3). find the value of k. Find the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from the point (–1.. 16. 2). 3) intersects each other at an angle of 60o. i. point of intersection of any two lines lies on the third line. then show that 1 1 1 = 2 + 2. (1) 5x + ky – 3 = 0 . 11. 3). y1) and parallel to the line Ax + By + C = 0 is A (x –x1) + B (y – y1) = 0. Find the values of m and c. Find the value of h. 9. Find angles between the lines 3 x + y = 1and x + 3 y = 1. 17. 12. if they pass through a common point. Find the equation of the right bisector of the line segment joining the points (3. 2). 14. Prove that the line through the point (x1. 8. 10. The line through the points (h. Two lines passing through the point (2. B (4. 18. 2).e. respectively. In the triangle ABC with vertices A (2. find the equation and length of altitude from the vertex A. 2 p a b Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 If the lines 2 x + y − 3 = 0 . 15. –1) and C (1.. If slope of one line is 2. Solution Three lines are said to be concurrent. (2) ..228 MATHEMATICS 7. at right angle. 4) and (–1. 3) and (4. Find equation of the line parallel to the line 3 x − 4 y + 2 = 0 and passing through the point (–2. The perpendicular from the origin to the line y = mx + c meets it at the point (–1.

2) in the line x – 3y + 4 = 0 . Equation of the line with slope – 1 through the point P (4.. Since above three lines are concurrent. (1) . we get x = 1 and y = 4 so that point of intersection of the two lines is Q (1.. 1) will satisfy equation (3) so that 5. k) is the image of the point P (1. 2) in the line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 . distance of line (1) from the point P (4.. 1) measured along the line making an angle of 135° with the positive x-axis. For this purpose. Solution Let Q (h. 4). the point (1.1 + k . Now. (1) Fig 10. 1) and Q (1. −2−3 −9+ 4 −2−3 Therefore. (2) Solving (1) and (2). 1) is . 1). 4).21). Slope of second line is tan 135° = –1. Example 22 Assuming that straight lines work as the plane mirror for a point. (3) 1 x y = = or x = 1..21 y – 1 = – 1 (x – 4) or x + y – 5 = 0 . 1) along another line.. Solution Given line is 4x – y = 0 In order to find the distance of the line (1) from the point P (4. = (1 − 4 )2 + ( 4 − 1)2 = 3 2 units .1 – 3 = 0 or k = – 2. y = 1 . Example 21 Find the distance of the line 4x – y = 0 from the point P (4. find the image of the point (1. 1) along the line (2) = The distance between the points P (4. we will first find the equation of the second line (Fig 10.. we have to find the point of intersection of both the lines.STRAIGHT LINES 229 3x – y – 2 = 0 Solving (1) and (3) by cross-multiplication method. the point of intersection of two lines is (1.. we get ..

. 5 5 ⎛6 7⎞ Hence.. we get h = .22). ⎟ . point ⎜ ⎛ h +1 k + 2 ⎞ .230 MATHEMATICS Fig10. (2) or 3h + k = 5 and the mid-point of PQ. (3) 6 7 and k = .e. the line (1) is the perpendicular bisector of line segment PQ (Fig 10. i.. ⎟ will satisfy the equation (1) so that 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 h +1 ⎛ k + 2 ⎞ − 3⎜ ⎟ + 4 = 0 or h − 3k = −3 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Solving (2) and (3). Hence so that Slope of line PQ = k − 2 −1 = h −1 1 3 −1 . Slope of line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 .. y = m 2 x + c 2 (c –c ) and x = 0 is 1 2 2 2 m1 − m 2 . . the image of the point (1..22 Therefore. 2) in the line (1) is ⎜ . ⎝5 5⎠ Example 23 Show that the area of the triangle formed by the lines y = m1 x + c1 .

. β2).. (2) Let the required line intersects the lines (1) and (2) at the points . (1) y = m1 x + c1 ..24). Therefore. respectively (Fig10.. Obtain its equation.STRAIGHT LINES 231 Solution Given lines are . (1) 5x – y + 4 = 0 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 ... Third vertex can be obtained by solving equations (1) and (2). (3) We know that line y = mx + c meets the line x = 0 (y-axis) at the point (0. third vertex of the triangle is R ⎜ m − m .. Therefore 5α1 – β1 + 4 = 0 and 3 α2 + 4 β 2 – 4 = 0 Fig 10.23 ⎛ ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1c2 − m2 c1 ) ⎞ ⎟ Therefore. the area of the triangle is = ⎛ m c − m2 c1 ⎞ c −c ⎛ 1 m c − m2 c1 ⎞ − c2 ⎟ + 2 . 5). (α1. 23). β1) and (α2. 2) ⎝ 1 ⎠ Now. Solving (1) and (2). c).. we get x= ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) and y = ( m1c2 − m2c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) Fig 10.. Solution Given lines are .24 . (2) y = m2 x + c2 x=0 . c1) and Q (0. two vertices of the triangle formed by lines (1) to (3) are P (0. c2) (Fig 10.1 ( c2 − c1 ) + 0 ⎜ c1 − 1 2 0 ⎜ 1 2 ⎟= 2 m1 − m2 ⎠ 2 m1 − m 2 ⎝ m1 − m2 ⎠ m1 − m2 ⎝ ( c 2 − c1 ) 2 Example 24 A line is such that its segment between the lines 5x – y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 is bisected at the point (1.. ⎜( ( m1 − m2 ) ⎟ .

β1) is −5 β −5 ( x − 1) or y − 5 = 23 y −5 = 1 (x − 1) 26 α1 − 1 −1 23 or 107x – 3y – 92 = 0. whose distances from the lines (1) and (2) are equal.. we get α1 = 26 222 20 26 +4= and α 2 = and hence. 5). Example 25 Show that the path of a moving point such that its distances from two lines 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 are equal is a straight line. which gives 3h – 2k – 5 = 3h + 2k – 5 or – (3h – 2k – 5) = 3h + 2k – 5.. (3) or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 20 α1 − 3 α 2 = 20 Solving equations in (3) for α1 and α2. . 2 2 or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 5 α1 + 4 + 2 4 − 3α2 4 = 5. 23 23 23 23 223 Equation of the required line passing through (1. . 4 We are given that the mid point of the segment of the required line between (α1. . Therefore 3h − 2k − 5 9+4 = 3h + 2k − 5 9+4 or 3h − 2k − 5 = 3h + 2k − 5 . β2) is (1. Therefore or β1 = 5α1 + 4 and β 2 = β +β α1 + α 2 = 1 and 1 2 = 5 . which is the equation of required line. k) is any point.232 MATHEMATICS 4 – 3α 2 . 5) and (α1. β1 = 5. Solution Given lines are 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 … (1) … (2) Let (h. β1) and (α2.

Find the equation of a line drawn perpendicular to the line x y + = 1 through the 4 6 8. if the equation x cos θ + y sinθ = p is the normal form of the line 3 x + y + 2 = 0.STRAIGHT LINES 233 Solving these two relations we get k = 0 or h = equations y = 0 or x = 5 . Find the equation of the line parallel to y-axis and drawn through the point of intersection of the lines x – 7y + 5 = 0 and 3x + y = 0. then show that m1(c2 – c3) + m2 (c3 – c1) + m3 (c1 – c2) = 0. px + 2 y – 3 = 0 and 2x – y – 3 = 0 may intersect at one point. 3. path of the point 3 equidistant from the lines (1) and (2) is a straight line. 11. x + y = 0 and x – k = 0. (c) Passing through the origin. Find the equation of the line passing through the point of intersection of the lines 4x + 7y – 3 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 1 = 0 that has equal intercepts on the axes. . 4. 10. the point (h. k) satisfy the 3 5 . Find the equations of the lines. (b) Parallel to the y-axis. Find the equation of the lines through the point (3. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines y – x = 0. sin φ). Thus. 2. 6. sin θ) and (cos φ. Find the values of θ and p. which cut-off intercepts on the axes whose sum and product are 1 and – 6. 5. Find the values of k for which the line (k–3) x – (4 – k2) y + k2 –7k + 6 = 0 is (a) Parallel to the x-axis. What are the points on the y-axis whose distance from the line x y + = 1 is 3 4 4 units. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. where it meets the y-axis. 2) which make an angle of 45o with the line x – 2y = 3. 7. Find the value of p so that the three lines 3x + y – 2 = 0. y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3 are concurrent. Hence. 12. If three lines whose equations are y = m1x + c1. Find perpendicular distance from the origin of the line joining the points (cosθ. 9. which represent straight lines. point. respectively.

Show that the equation of the line passing through the origin and making an angle θ with the line y = mx + c is y m + tan θ = ± . y2) y 2 − y1 y1 − y 2 = .234 MATHEMATICS 13.0 and − a 2 − b2 . 8) with respect to the line x +3y = 7 assuming the line to be a plane mirror. 23. 2) reflects on the x-axis at point A and the reflected ray passes through the point (5. x 2 − x1 x1 − x 2 If a line makes an angle á with the positive direction of x-axis. A person standing at the junction (crossing) of two straight paths represented by the equations 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 5 = 0 wants to reach the path whose equation is 6x – 7y + 8 = 0 in the least time. 16. x 1 ≠ x 2. y) from the lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – 2y +7 = 0 is always 10. Find equation of the path that he should follow. If the lines y = 3x +1 and 2y = x + 3 are equally inclined to the line y = mx + 4. Find the equation of the legs (perpendicular sides) of the triangle. 2) along the line 2x – y = 0. Show that P must move on a line. 22. A ray of light passing through the point (1.0 to the line ) ( ) Summary Slope (m) of a non-vertical line passing through the points (x1. Find the image of the point (3. Slope of horizontal line is zero and slope of vertical line is undefined. the line joining (–1. 2) so that its point of intersection with the line x + y = 4 may be at a distance of 3 units from this point. α ≠ 90°. 19. 3). x 1 − m tan θ 14. 1) and (5. y1) and (x2. Prove that the product of the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the x y cosθ + sin θ = 1is b 2 . a b 24. then the slope of the line is given by m = tan α. points ( a 2 − b 2 . Find the distance of the line 4x + 7y + 5 = 0 from the point (1. 7) is divided by the line x + y = 4? 15. Find the coordinates of A. 3) and (– 4. 21. Find equation of the line which is equidistant from parallel lines 9x + 6y – 7 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 6 = 0. If sum of the perpendicular distances of a variable point P (x. 17. 1). Find the direction in which a straight line must be drawn through the point (–1. 20. 18. is given by m = . find the value of m. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle has its ends at the points (1. In what ratio.

Equation of the vertical line having distance b from the y-axis is either x = b or x = – b. with A and B are not zero. Equation of a line making intercepts a and b on the x-and y-axis. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1). The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. yo).1 + m1 m2 ≠ 0 . Three points A. x 2 − x1 The point (x. . 2 2 A +B Distance between the parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0. y) on the line with slope m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c . Equation of the horizontal line having distance a from the x-axis is either y = a or y = – a. is given by d = is given by d = Ax1 + B y1 + C C1 − C 2 2 2 A +B . y) lies on the line with slope m and through the fixed point (xo. if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC. The point (x. Then equation of the line is y = m (x – d).STRAIGHT LINES 235 An acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2 is m2 – m1 given by tanθ = 1 + m m . respectively. B and C are collinear. is x y + = 1. y1) and (x2. Two lines are perpendicular if and only if product of their slopes is –1. Any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. a b The equation of the line having normal distance from origin p and angle between normal and the positive x-axis ω is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p . y1) . is called the general linear equation or general equation of a line. 1 2 Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. if and only if its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y o = m (x – xo). Equation of the line passing through the points (x1. simultaneously. If a line with slope m makes x-intercept d.

ellipses. Then the surface generated is a double-napped right circular hollow cone herein after referred as Fig 11. 11.. viz.2 Sections of a Cone Let l be a fixed vertical line and m be another line intersecting it at a fixed point V and inclined to it at an angle α (Fig11. These curves have a very wide range of applications in fields such as planetary motion. The names parabola and hyperbola are given by Apollonius.Chapter 11 CONIC SECTIONS Let the relation of knowledge to real life be very visible to your pupils and let them understand how by knowledge the world could be transformed. Apollonius (262 B.C. we shall study about some other curves. -190 B. circles. Suppose we rotate the line m around the line l in such a way that the angle α remains constant. – BERTRAND RUSSELL 11. etc. These curves are in fact.1). known as conic sections or more commonly conics because they can be obtained as intersections of a plane with a double napped right circular cone. Now. parabolas and hyperbolas.) design of telescopes and antennas.C. in the subsequent sections we will see how the intersection of a plane with a double napped right circular cone results in different types of curves. In this Chapter. we have studied various forms of the equations of a line. 1 .1 Introduction In the preceding Chapter 10. reflectors in flashlights and automobile headlights.

(d) When 0 ≤ β < α. (b) When α < β < 90o. 11.5). we have the following situations: (a) When β = 90o. the plane cuts entirely across one nappe of the cone). The vertex separates the cone into two parts called nappes.2. the plane cuts through both the nappes and the curves of intersection is a hyperbola (Fig11. ellipse. the section so obtained is called a conic section.3). the line l is the axis of the cone.4). Thus.7). (c) When β = α. parabola and hyperbola When the plane cuts the nappe (other than the vertex) of the cone.6). If we take the intersection of a plane with a cone. the section is a parabola (Fig11. 3 cone and extending indefinitely far in both directions (Fig11. (In each of the above three situations.2). 2 Fig 11. We obtain different kinds of conic sections depending on the position of the intersecting plane with respect to the cone and by the angle made by it with the vertical axis of the cone. The intersection of the plane with the cone can take place either at the vertex of the cone or at any other part of the nappe either below or above the vertex. conic sections are the curves obtained by intersecting a right circular cone by a plane. Let β be the angle made by the intersecting plane with the vertical axis of the cone (Fig11. the section is a circle (Fig11. the section is an ellipse (Fig11. .CONIC SECTIONS 237 Fig 11. The rotating line m is called a generator of the cone.1 Circle. The point V is called the vertex.

2. It is the degenerated case of a hyperbola. 6 Fig 11. It is the degenerated case of a parabola.238 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.8).2 Degenerated conic sections When the plane cuts at the vertex of the cone. 5 Fig 11.9). we have the following different cases: (a) When α < β ≤ 90o. then the section is a point (Fig11. (b) When β = α. 4 Fig 11.10). 7 11. the section is a pair of intersecting straight lines (Fig11. the plane contains a generator of the cone and the section is a straight line (Fig11. (c) When 0 ≤ β < α. .

we shall obtain the equations of each of these conic sections in standard form by defining them based on geometric properties. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the distance from the centre to a point on the circle is called the radius of the circle (Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 239 In the following sections. 9 11.3 Circle Fig 11.11). 8 Fig 11. Fig 11. 10 Definition 1 A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. .

k = 2 and r = 4. {x – (– 4)}2 + {y – (–5)}2 = 72 Therefore. we derive below the equation of the circle with a given centre and radius (Fig 11. Then. Example 1 Find an equation of the circle with centre at (0. 12 The equation of the circle is simplest if the centre of the circle is at the origin. However.240 MATHEMATICS Fig 11. (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 This is the required equation of the circle with centre at (h. the equation of the required circle is (x + 3)2 + (y –2)2 = 16 Example 3 Find the centre and the radius of the circle x2 + y2 + 8x + 10y – 8 = 0 Solution The given equation is (x2 + 8x) + (y2 + 10y) = 8 Now. by the definition. –5) and radius 7. . (x + 4)2 + (y + 5)2 = 49 i.e. we get (x2 + 8x + 16) + (y2 + 10y + 25) = 8 + 16 + 25 i. Given C (h.k) and radius r . the given circle has centre at (– 4. Therefore. we have (x – h)2 + (y – k )2 = r i. k) be the centre and r the radius of circle. Solution Here h = k = 0. y) be any point on the circle (Fig11.12). the equation of the circle is x2 + y2 = r2.e. | CP | = r . Solution Here h = –3.12). By the distance formula.0) and radius r.e. Example 2 Find the equation of the circle with centre (–3. Therefore. Let P(x. 11 Fig 11. completing the squares within the parenthesis. 2) and radius 4.

4) and whose centre lies on the line x + y = 2.5) lie inside. (2) and (3).. Does the point (–2.1) and whose centre is on the line x – 3y – 11 = 0. (2) Also since the centre lies on the line x + y = 2. 11. centre (–2. Find the equation of the circle passing through (0. – 2).4). 3. Solution Let the equation of the circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. (1) 2 2 2 and (3 – h) + (4 – k) = r .3) and radius 4 4..3).3 and r2 = 12.5).2) and passes through the point (4. we get h = 0. 7. find the equation of the circle with 1.3)2 = 12. Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 whose centre lies on x-axis and passes through the point (2. x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0 9.3) and (–1. ) and radius 12 2 4 2 5. the equation of the required circle is (x – 0.1) and radius 1 1 1 . (3) Solving the equations (1). 13. 10. we have (2 – h)2 + (–2 – k)2 = r2 . x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0 a2 − b2 .1) and (6. Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (2.0) and making intercepts a and b on the coordinate axes.7. 2x2 + 2y2 – x = 0 In each of the following Exercises 6 to 9. 12.. find the centre and radius of the circles. – 2) and (3. centre (1..58 Hence. Since the circle passes through (2.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 5. –b) and radius 6. we have h+k=2 .CONIC SECTIONS 241 Example 4 Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points (2. Find the equation of a circle with centre (2. 14.5) and whose centre is on the line 4x + y = 16. outside or on the circle x2 + y2 = 25? ..2) and radius 2 3.58. Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (4. and (3. 15. centre ( 2. (x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36 8. centre (0.. EXERCISE 11. centre (–a.7)2 + (y – 1.5. k = 1.

13). then the set of points in the plane.4 Parabola Definition 2 A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point (not on the line) in the plane. which are equidistant from the fixed point and the fixed line is the straight line through the fixed point and perpendicular to the fixed line.1 Standard equations of parabola The Fig 11.14)..15 (a) to (d). Note If the fixed point lies on the fixed line. The point of intersection of parabola with the axis is called the vertex of the parabola (Fig11. A line through the focus and perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of the parabola. the shape described when you throw a ball in the air).4. 13 11.14 equation of a parabola is simplest if the vertex is at the origin and the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis or y-axis. i. The fixed line is called the directrix of the parabola and the fixed point F is called the focus (Fig 11. Fig 11.e. (‘Para’ means ‘for’ and ‘bola’ means ‘throwing’. The four possible such orientations of parabola are shown below in Fig11.242 MATHEMATICS 11. . We call this straight line as degenerate case of the parabola.

Let the distance from the directrix to the focus be 2a. The coordinates of B are (– a. 0) a > 0. the coordinates of the focus are (a. . Let FM be perpendicular to the directrix and bisect FM at the point O.15 (a) with focus at (a. y) be any point on the parabola such that PF = PB.e. (x – a)2 + y2 = (x + a)2 or x2 – 2ax + a2 + y2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 or y2 = 4ax ( a > 0).16.16 Let P(x. OX the x-axis and OY perpendicular to it as the y-axis. we have (x – a) 2 + y 2 and PB = Since PF = PB. and the equation of the directrix is x + a = 0 as in Fig11.. and directricx x = – a as below: Let F be the focus and l the directrix. Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 243 Fig 11.. . By the definition of parabola. we have PF = (x + a) 2 (x – a ) 2 + y 2 = (x + a )2 i. By the distance formula.15 (a) to (d) We will derive the equation for the parabola shown above in Fig 11. the mid-point O is on the parabola and is called the vertex of the parabola. Then. Take O as origin. (1) where PB is perpendicular to l. Produce MO to X. y). 0).

vertex at the origin and thereby the directrix is parallel to the other coordinate axis.15 (c) as x2 = 4ay. 3. focus at (a. Thus. then the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis. let P(x..y) lies on the parabola.15 (b) as y2 = – 4ax.. then the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis and if the equation has an x2 term. any point on the parabola satisfies y2 = 4ax. (2) = (x – a) 2 + 4ax (x + a) 2 = PB .. . we can derive the equations of the parabolas in: Fig 11.0) and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax.15 (d) as x2 = – 4ay. x can assume any positive value or zero but no negative value and the curve extends indefinitely far into the first and the fourth quadrants. Fig 11.If the equation has a y2 term. When the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis the parabola opens to the (a) right if the coefficient of x is positive. (3) and so P(x. (d) downwards if the coefficient of y is negative. These four equations are known as standard equations of parabolas. Discussion In equation (2). 2. The axis of the parabola is the positive x-axis. Similarly.. Parabola is symmetric with respect to the axis of the parabola. since a > 0. (b) left if the coefficient of x is negative. we have the following observations: 1. When the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis the parabola opens (c) upwards if the coefficient of y is positive. Fig 11. from (2) and (3) we have proved that the equation to the parabola with vertex at the origin.15. However. Fig11.244 MATHEMATICS Hence. From the standard equations of the parabolas. Note The standard equations of parabolas have focus on one of the coordinate axis. Conversely. the study of the equations of parabolas with focus at any point and any line as directrix is beyond the scope here. y) satisfy the equation (2) PF = = (x – a) 2 + y 2 .

17).17 Fig 11. Fig 11. Solution The given equation involves y2.18).18 Example 5 Find the coordinates of the focus. so the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis. the focus of the parabola is (2. Comparing with the given equation y2 = 4ax.2 Latus rectum Definition 3 Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola.19 Thus. through the focus and whose end points lie on the parabola (Fig11. Length of the latus rectum is 4a = 4 × 2 = 8. we find that a = 2. axis.19). AF = AC. 0) and the equation of the directrix of the parabola is x = – 2 (Fig 11. By the definition of the parabola. The coefficient of x is positive so the parabola opens to the right. To find the Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax (Fig 11.4. But Hence AC = FM = 2a AF = 2a.CONIC SECTIONS 245 11. . And since the parabola is symmetric with respect to x-axis AF = FB and so AB = Length of the latus rectum = 4a. Fig 11. the equation of the directrix and latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 8x.

we have x2 = 4(2)y. Solution Since the focus (2. Hence the required equation is y2 = 4(2)x = 8x Example 7 Find the equation of the parabola with vertex at (0.246 MATHEMATICS Example 6 Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2.2) which lies on y-axis. the x-axis itself is the axis of the parabola. x2 = 8y. Solution Since the vertex is at (0. y2 = – 8x x2 = – 9y In each of the Exercises 7 to 12. where the sign depends on whether the parabola opens upwards or downwards. and passes through the point (2.0) and the focus is at (0. Since the parabola passes through ( 2. find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the given conditions: . Thus the equation is of the form x2 = – 4ay.e. we have 22 = – 4a (–3).0) and directrix x = – 2. 3x2 = – 4y. the equation of the directrix and the length of the latus rectum. i. 0) and focus at (0.2 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 6. 2). i. x2 = 6y 5. 1.0) lies on the x-axis.0). it must open downwards. i. thus. Solution Since the parabola is symmetric about y-axis and has its vertex at the origin. Since the directrix is x = – 2 and the focus is (2.–3) which lies in the fourth quadrant. 6.. But the parabola passes through (2.–3). Hence the equation of the parabola is of the form either y2 = 4ax or y2 = – 4ax.e. the equation of the parabola is 1 3 ⎛1⎞ x2 = − 4 ⎜ ⎟ y. Example 8 Find the equation of the parabola which is symmetric about the y-axis. ⎝ 3⎠ EXERCISE 11. axis of the parabola.–3). Therefore.. x2 = – 16y 2. the equation is of the form x2 = 4ay or x2 = – 4ay. a = Therefore. find the coordinates of the focus. y2 = 10x 3. y2 = 12x 4. equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay.. the parabola is to be of the form y 2 = 4ax with a = 2.e. the y-axis is the axis of the parabola.

0) 8. 11.20).21 Fig 11. Fig 11. The end points of the major axis are called the vertices of the ellipse(Fig 11. the length of the semi major axis is a and semi-minor axis is b (Fig11. directrix x = – 6 9.21).0). Focus (6.20 The mid point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the ellipse. Vertex (0.3) and axis is along x-axis. 5 Ellipse Definition 4 An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. The two fixed points are called the foci (plural of ‘focus’) of the ellipse (Fig11. The line segment through the foci of the ellipse is called the major axis and the line segment through the centre and perpendicular to the major axis is called the minor axis. 12.22). Vertex (0. Thus.0). Focus (0. the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. Fig 11.0) 11. . focus (3.0).–3). Note The constant which is the sum of the distances of a point on the ellipse from the two fixed points is always greater than the distance between the two fixed points. the length of the minor axis by 2b and the distance between the foci by 2c. focus (–2.0). Vertex (0. Vertex (0.0) passing through (2.2) and symmetric with respect to y-axis. passing through (5.22 We denote the length of the major axis by 2a.CONIC SECTIONS 247 7. directrix y = 3 10.

the resulting ellipses will vary in shape. Case (ii) When c = a.1 Relationship between semi-major axis. a . Take a point P at one end of the major axis. if we keep a fixed and vary c from 0 to a. or a 2 = b2 + c2 ..23 b2 + c2 + b2 + c2 = 2 b2 + c 2 Since both P and Q lies on the ellipse.23). The ellipse reduces to the line segment F1F2 joining the two foci (Fig11.e.2 Special cases of an ellipse In the equation c2 = a2 – b2 obtained above.e. Thus.25). both foci merge together with the centre of the ellipse and a2 = b2. e = c . By the definition of ellipse.3 Eccentricity Fig 11.e. i. a = b.248 MATHEMATICS 11. i.. Fig 11.. circle is a special case of an ellipse which is dealt in Section 11.e. Case (i) When c = 0.24 11. Sum of the distances of the point P to the foci is F1 P + F2P = F1O + OP + F2P (Since.5. and so the ellipse becomes circle (Fig11. a = b2 + c 2 c= 11.5..5.25 Definition 5 The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse (eccentricity is denoted by e) i. semi-minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre of the ellipse (Fig 11. i.24). we have 2 b 2 + c 2 = 2a.3. a 2 − b2 . F1P = F1O + OP) = c + a + a – c = 2a Take a point Q at one end of the minor axis. Sum of the distances from the point Q to the foci is F1Q + F2Q = Fig 11. then b = 0.

. (1) PF1 + PF2 = 2a.27 Using the distance formula. the line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis.. Let P(x. Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c.CONIC SECTIONS 249 Then since the focus is at a distance of c from the centre.5. Fig 11.26 on the x-axis or y-axis.27).4 Standard equations of an ellipse The equation of an ellipse is simplest if the centre of the ellipse is at the origin and the foci are (a) Fig 11. 0) and F2 be (c.e. y) be any point on the ellipse such that the sum of the distances from P to the two x2 y 2 + =1 foci be 2a so given a 2 b2 .26. Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the midpoint of the line segment F1F2.26 (a) with foci on the x-axis.. ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = 2a ( x − c )2 + y 2 ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = 2a – . we have ( x + c) 2 + y 2 + i. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig 11. We will derive the equation for the ellipse shown above in Fig 11. in terms of the eccentricity the focus is at a distance of ae from the centre. Let. 0) (Fig 11. 11. Let O be the origin and the line from O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F1as the negative x-axis.

(2) Conversely. x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 b x2 y2 + 2 = 1. Then ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 1− 2 ⎟ y =b ⎜ a ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 Therefore. a2 b (Since c2 = a2 – b2) Hence any point on the ellipse satisfies . we get c x a x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 a − c2 i.. let P (x.250 MATHEMATICS Squaring both sides. y) satisfy the equation (2) with 0 < c < a. we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 – 4a which on simplification gives ( x − c) 2 + y 2 + ( x − c) 2 + y 2 ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = a − Squaring again and simplifying. PF1 = ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) 2 + b 2 ⎜ ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) + ( a − c ) ⎜ ⎟ (since b2 = a2 – c2) a2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 2 = cx ⎞ c ⎛ ⎜a+ ⎟ =a+ x a⎠ a ⎝ 2 Similarly PF2 = a − x a c ..e..

e. so – a ≤ x ≤ a. it follows that for every point P (x. we have x2 y2 = 1 − 2 ≤ 1. (3) So. a2 b Therefore. The foci always lie on the major axis. That is. –y) and (– x.26 (b) as These two equations are known as standard equations of the ellipses. Similarly. satisfies the geometric condition and so a2 b P(x. Similarly. From the standard equations of the ellipses (Fig11. we can derive the equation of the ellipse in Fig 11. Hence from (2) and (3). i. (x. y). y) on the ellipse. x2 ≤ a2.. major axis is along the x-axis if the coefficient of x2 has the larger denominator and it is along the y-axis if the coefficient of y2 has the larger denominator. the ellipse lies between the lines x = – a and x = a and touches these lines. y) is a point on the ellipse. However. –y) are also points on the ellipse.. Ellipse is symmetric with respect to both the coordinate axes since if (x.. y) lies on the ellipse. we have the following observations: 1.CONIC SECTIONS 251 Hence PF1 + PF2 = a + c c x + a – x = 2a a a . a 2 b2 Discussion From the equation of the ellipse obtained above. b2 a 2 . 2. and any line through the centre as major and the minor axes passing through the centre and perpendicular to major axis are beyond the scope here. then (– x. Note The standard equations of ellipses have centre at the origin and the major and minor axis are coordinate axes. the study of the ellipses with centre at any other point. any point that satisfies x2 y2 + 2 = 1. The major axis can be determined by finding the intercepts on the axes of symmetry. the ellipse lies between the lines y = – b and y = b and touches these lines. we proved that the equation of an ellipse with centre of the origin and major axis along the x-axis is x2 y 2 + = 1. x2 y2 + =1 .26).

the length of major axis.28).i..252 MATHEMATICS 11. the minor axis. 28 Let the length of AF2 be l.e. AF2 = F2B and so length of the latus rectum is 2b2 .5. the eccentricity and the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 Solution Since denominator of x2 y2 is larger than the denominator of .5 Latus rectum Definition 6 Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse (Fig 11. i.t.e. l ). Then the coordinates of A are (c. both the coordinate axes). the vertices. l ) x2 y 2 Since A lies on the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 . (ae.r. a Example 9 Find the coordinates of the foci. it is symmetric w. we have a b (ae) 2 l 2 – 2 =1 a2 b ⇒ l2 = b2 (1 – e2) But e2 = c2 a2 – b 2 b2 = =1 – 2 a2 a2 a b4 b2 . To find the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 a 2 b2 Fig 11.. l = a2 a Therefore l2 = Since the ellipse is symmetric with respect to y-axis (of course. the major 25 9 .

the coordinates of the foci are (– 4. Comparing the given equation with a = 5 and b = 3. the lengths of major and minor axes and the eccentricity of the ellipse 9x2 + 4y2 = 36. we have b = 2 and a = 3. Comparing the given equation with the standard equation x2 y2 + = 1 . the major axis is 9 4 along the y-axis. 5 a 5 Example 10 Find the coordinates of the foci. Solution Since the vertices are on x-axis.CONIC SECTIONS 253 axis is along the x-axis. 0). the length of the minor axis is 4 units and the eccentricity of the 5 . –3). 0) and foci are (± 5. where a is the semi-major axis. eccentricity is Solution The given equation of the ellipse can be written in standard form as x2 y2 + =1 4 9 y2 x2 Since the denominator of is larger than the denominator of . 0). length of the major axis is 6 units.3) and (0. 0) and (5. 3 Example 11 Find the equation of the ellipse whose vertices are (± 13. the vertices. we get a 2 b2 c = a 2 – b 2 = 25 – 9 = 4 Therefore. 5 ) and (0.0) and (4. a 2 b2 . vertices are (– 5. b2 a 2 Also and c= e= a2 – b2 c 5 = a 3 = 9–4= 5 Hence the foci are (0. Also x2 y 2 + = 1 . – 5 ). vertices are (0.0). Length of the major axis is 10 units length of the minor axis 2b is 6 units and the 2b 2 18 4 = and latus rectum is . the equation will be of the form ellipse is x2 y 2 + = 1 .

b = 12 x2 y2 + = 1. the major axis is along the y-axis. we have x2 y2 + 2 = 1... i. b2 = 75 Therefore. whose length of the major axis is 20 and foci are (0. Hence the equation of the ellipse is 169 144 Example 12 Find the equation of the ellipse. Solution The standard form of the ellipse is and (–1. we find that a = Hence the required equation is . So. the equation of the ellipse is x2 y2 + =1 75 100 Example 13 Find the equation of the ellipse. 3) and (– 1. Since the points (4.. ± 5). we get 25 = 169 – b2 .4). c = ± 5.(2) 2 Solving equations (1) and (2). (1) 16 9 + 2 =1 2 a b and 1 16 + 2 =1 2 a b 247 247 2 and b = .e. equation of the ellipse is of the form Given that a = semi-major axis = and the relation x2 y2 + =1. b2 a 2 20 = 10 2 c 2 = a2 – b2 gives 52 = 102 – b2 i. 7 15 …. Therefore. Solution Since the foci are on y-axis. with major axis along the x-axis and passing through the points (4. 4) lie on the ellipse.e.254 MATHEMATICS Given that a = 13. from the relation c2 = a2 – b2.. 3) a2 b .

CONIC SECTIONS 255 x2 y2 + = 1 .0). 19.6). 0) Vertices (0. the minor axis. 15. 0). Centre at (0. foci (± 4. the vertices. Major axis on the x-axis and passes through the points (4. foci (± 5. Foci (± 3. ± 13). 0) Length of major axis 26. ± 6). ends of minor axis (± 1. 11. foci (0. foci on a x axis. 18. 11. centre at the origin. x2 y2 + =1 4 25 x2 y 2 + =1 49 36 3. 7x2 + 15y2 = 247. 5. ± 5 ).e.2). 0) Length of minor axis 16. the length of major axis. c = 4. ends of minor axis (0. 0). 6. 16x2 + y2 = 16 9. 0) Ends of major axis (± 3.6 Hyperbola Definition 7 A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 In each of the following Exercises 10 to 20. foci (0. x2 y2 + =1 16 9 4. find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: 10. 13. 0). x2 y2 + =1 100 400 7. x2 y2 + =1 36 16 x2 y2 + =1 25 100 2. Vertices (± 5. 2) and (1. 14. the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. 12. ± 2) Ends of major axis (0. 17. find the coordinates of the foci. 20. i..3) and (6. foci (± 4. 1. 0). a = 4 b = 3. 36x2 + 4y2 = 144 8. major axis on the y-axis and passes through the points (3. the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse. . ⎛ 247 ⎞ 247 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7 ⎠ 15 EXERCISE 11. ± 5) Vertices (± 6.3 In each of the Exercises 1 to 9. 16.

29).. The line through the foci is called the transverse axis and the line through the centre and perpendicular to the transverse axis is called the conjugate axis.30.e. The points at which the hyperbola intersects the transverse axis are called the vertices of the hyperbola (Fig 11.256 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.30 Also 2b is the length of the conjugate axis (Fig 11.30). The mid-point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the hyperbola. we have BF1 – BF2 = AF2 – AF1 (by the definition of the hyperbola) BA +AF1– BF2 = AB + BF2– AF1 i.29 The term “difference” that is used in the definition means the distance to the further point minus the distance to the closer point. AF1 = BF2 So that. The two fixed points are called the foci of the hyperbola. the distance between two vertices (the length of the transverse axis) by 2a and we define the quantity b as b = c2 – a2 Fig 11. We denote the distance between the two foci by 2c. BF1 – BF2 = BA + AF1– BF2 = BA = 2a . To find the constant P1F2 – P1F1 : By taking the point P at A and B in the Fig 11.

2 Standard equation of Hyperbola The equation of a hyperbola is simplest if the centre of the hyperbola is at the origin and the foci are on the x-axis or y-axis.0) and F2 be (c. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig11.31 (b) We will derive the equation for the hyperbola shown in Fig 11. So given.0) (Fig 11. y) be any point on the hyperbola such that the difference of the distances from P to the farther point minus the closer point be 2a. the eccentricity is never less than one.32).31.6. the ratio e = c is called the eccentricity of the a hyperbola.6. (a) Fig 11. Let P(x. Since c ≥ a.1 Eccentricity Definition 8 Just like an ellipse.31(a) with foci on the x-axis.CONIC SECTIONS 257 11. Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c. Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the mid-point of the line segment F1F2. the foci are at a distance of ae from the centre.32 . PF1 – PF2 = 2a Fig 11. The line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis. Let O be the origin and the line through O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F 1 as the negative x-axis. 11. In terms of the eccentricity.

(x + c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a + (x – c) 2 + y 2 Squaring both side.. a a . PF1 = + = + (x + c ) 2 + y 2 ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ c (x + c )2 + b 2 ⎜ x ⎟ = a+ 2 a ⎝ a ⎠ Similarly. we get (x – c ) 2 + y 2 + (x – c)2 + y2 cx –a= a (x – c) 2 + y 2 On squaring again and further simplifying. and since P is to the right of the line x = a. x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 (Since c2 – a2 = b2) x2 y 2 Hence any point on the hyperbola satisfies 2 – 2 = 1 1. a– c c x becomes negative. let P(x.e.e. x > a. Therefore. PF2 = a – a x c c x > a. Thus. a b Conversely. Then ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ ⎟ y 2 = b2 ⎜ 2 ⎝ a ⎠ Therefore. we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 + 4a and on simplifying. we have (x + c ) 2 + y 2 – (x – c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a i. we get x2 y2 – 2 =1 2 a c – a2 i. PF2 = x – a..258 MATHEMATICS Using the distance formula. y) satisfy the above equation with 0 < a < c. a In hyperbola c > a.

PF2 = a – x . then (– x. we x2 y2 = 1 + 2 ≥ 1. there are hyperbolas with any two perpendicular lines as transverse and conjugate axes. So. then PF1 – PF2 = a + c ⎞ ⎛ c PF1 = – ⎜ a + x ⎟ . we can derive the equation of the hyperbola in Fig 11. Note The standard equations of hyperbolas have transverse and conjugate axes as the coordinate axes and the centre at the origin. However. a ⎠ a ⎝ In that case P F2 – PF1 = 2a. x ≤ – a or x ≥ a. no portion of the curve lies between the a lines x = + a and x = – a. y 2 x2 Similarly. (i. – y) are also points on the hyperbola. no real intercept on the conjugate axis). Thus.29). y).. any point that satisfies x2 y 2 – = 1 . – y) and (– x. Hyperbola is symmetric with respect to both the axes. since if (x.e. From the standard equations of hyperbolas (Fig11. but the study of such cases will be dealt in higher classes. x ≥ 1. i.e. y) on the hyperbola. lies on the a 2 b2 hyperbola. . we proved that the equation of hyperbola with origin (0. y) is a point on the hyperbola.e. 2 a b i. note that if P is to the left of the line x = – a.0) and transverse axis x2 y 2 along x-axis is 2 – 2 = 1 . Therefore. a b Note A hyperbola in which a = b is called an equilateral hyperbola.CONIC SECTIONS 259 Therefore c cx x – + a = 2a a a Also. (x. Discussion From the equation of the hyperbola we have obtained. have for every point (x. we have the following observations: 1.31 (b) as 2 − 2 = 1 a b These two equations are known as the standard equations of hyperbolas. it follows that.

the coordinates of the foci are (± 5. we find that a b a = 4. we have y 2 x2 Comparing the equation with the standard equation 2 – 2 = 1 . .Also. (ii) y2 – 16x2 = 1 9 16 x2 y 2 – = 1 with the standard equation Solution (i) Comparing the equation 9 16 x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 Here.3 Latus rectum Definition 9 Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. The eccentricity e = c 5 2b 2 32 = . has transverse axis along x-axis of length 6.260 MATHEMATICS 2. a Example 14 Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. It is the positive term whose denominator gives the transverse axis. the eccentricity. 0). x2 y 2 – =1 9 16 y 2 x2 – =1 25 16 11. b = 1 and c = a 2 + b2 = 16 + 1 = 17 . a = 3. 0) and that of vertices are (± 3. As in ellipse. The latus rectum = = a 3 a 3 y 2 x2 – =1 16 1 (ii) Dividing the equation by 16 on both sides.the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas: (i) x2 y2 – = 1 . b = 4 and c = a 2 + b 2 = 9 + 16 = 5 Therefore.6. For example. while has transverse axis along y-axis of length 10. it is easy to show that the length of the latus rectum in hyperbola is 2b 2 . The foci are always on the transverse axis.

the equation of the hyperbola is of the form y 2 x2 =1 – a 2 b2 Since vertices are (0. it follows that c = 12. Therefore Therefore. Solution Since foci are (0. 3y2 – x2 = 108 36 108 .e. since foci are (0. Also. ± 12). The latus rectum = 2 = . The eccentricity e = 17 ) and that of the vertices are 2b 2 1 17 c = .. we take a = 6 and so b2 = 108. Therefore. the coordinates of the foci are (0. ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Example 16 Find the equation of the hyperbola where foci are (0.. ± 4). ± 11 11 ).e. 100 y2 – 44 x2 = 275. ± 3). a = 2 2 Also. the equation of the required hyperbola is x2 y2 – = 1 . ± 3) and vertices (0. ± (0. gives 144 = a2 + 18a a2 + 18a – 144 = 0. the equation of the hyperbola is x2 y2 – = 1. c = 3 and b2 = c2 – a2 = 25/4.CONIC SECTIONS 261 Therefore. ±12) and the length of the latus rectum is 36. i. i. a = – 24. 2b 2 = 36 or b2 = 18a Length of the latus rectum = a c2 = a2 + b2. So Since a cannot be negative. i. 6.. 2 Solution Since the foci is on y-axis.e. 2 a 4 a Example 15 Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (0. ± 11 ).

e = 15.0). ± 10 ). passing through (2. Foci (0. If the origin is taken at the vertex and the axis of the mirror lies along the positive x-axis. ± 5) 10. Foci (± 5.33 is at a distance of 5 cm from its vertex. Solution Since the distance from the focus to the vertex is 5 cm. 0). the latus rectum is of length 8. the latus rectum is of length 12 14. vertices (± 7. 16 9 9 27 4. the conjugate axis is of length 24. Vertices (0. a = 5.4 In each of the Exercises 1 to 6. Foci (± 3 5 . ±13). foci (0. We have. find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. In each of the Exercises 7 to 15. 12. the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas. the transverse axis is of length 8. there . 11. 0). ± 5). Fig 11. Vertices (0. If the mirror is 45 cm deep.33). Since the load is concentrated at its centre. Thus y2 = 900 Therefore y = ± 30 Hence AB = 2y = 2 × 30 = 60 cm. 9y2 – 4x2 = 36 1. 0). foci (0. find the distance AB (Fig 11. foci (± 3. find the equations of the hyperbola satisfying the given conditions. Foci (± 4.262 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 11. 5y2 – 9x2 = 36 6. 7.3) 4 .33 Example 18 A beam is supported at its ends by supports which are 12 metres apart. 3. 49y2 – 16x2 = 784. Foci (0. 16x2 – 9y2 = 576 5. 3 Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 The focus of a parabolic mirror as shown in Fig 11. ± 8) 9. Vertices (± 2. x2 y2 y 2 x2 – =1 – =1 2. ± 3). 13. 0). the equation of the parabolic section is y2 = 4 (5) x = 20 x Note that x = 45. 0) 8.

e.35 . we have (6)2 = 4a ⎜ 12 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Let AB is the deflection of the beam which is Therefore i.CONIC SECTIONS 263 is a deflection of 3 cm at the centre and the deflected beam is in the shape of a parabola. a = ⎜ 6. respectively. Fig 11. x 2 = 4 × 300 × x= 1 2 m. Solution Let AB be the rod making an angle θ with OX as shown in Fig 11. Show that the locus of P is an ellipse. ⎟ . Coordinates of B are (x. Since AB = 15 cm.34 The equation of the parabola takes the form x2 = 4ay. Let the coordinate axis be chosen as shown in Fig 11. How far from the centre is the deflection 1 cm? Solution Let the vertex be at the lowest point and the axis vertical. Since it passes through 36 ×100 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ = 300 m ⎟ . Fig 11. From P draw PQ and PR perpendicular on y-axis and x-axis.35 and P (x. A point P(x.e. ). i. y) the point on it such that AP = 6 cm. 100 100 2 = 24 100 24 = 2 6 metres Example 19 A rod AB of length 15 cm rests in between two coordinate axes in such a way that the end point A lies on x-axis and end point B lies on y-axis. we have PB = 9 cm..34. y) is taken on the rod in such a way that AP = 6 cm.

5. Find the length of the side of the triangle. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines joining the vertex of the parabola x2 = 12y to the ends of its latus rectum. The arch is 10 m high and 5 m wide at the base. 7. Find the height of the arch at a point 1. It is 8 m wide and 2 m high at the centre. find the focus. the longest wire being 30 m and the shortest being 6 m. An arch is in the form of a semi-ellipse. sin θ = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ y⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝9⎠ ⎝6⎠ 2 2 x 9 From Since y 6 or x2 y2 + =1 81 36 Thus the locus of P is an ellipse. If a parabolic reflector is 20 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. Determine the equation of the locus of a point P on the rod. .264 MATHEMATICS From ∆ PBQ.5 m from one end. How wide is it 2 m from the vertex of the parabola? The cable of a uniformly loaded suspension bridge hangs in the form of a parabola. 4. An arch is in the form of a parabola with its axis vertical. 3. Find the equation of the posts traced by the man. which is 3 cm from the end in contact with the x-axis. A rod of length 12 cm moves with its ends always touching the coordinate axes. where one vertex is at the vertex of the parabola. A man running a racecourse notes that the sum of the distances from the two flag posts from him is always 10 m and the distance between the flag posts is 8 m. The roadway which is horizontal and 100 m long is supported by vertical wires attached to the cable. 6. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. 2. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4 ax. Find the length of a supporting wire attached to the roadway 18 m from the middle. cos θ = ∆ PRA. 8.

k) and the radius r is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. The equation of a circle with centre (h. A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. a b a The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio between the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse. through the focus and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. x2 y 2 2b 2 Length of the latus rectum of the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 is .CONIC SECTIONS 265 Summary In this Chapter the following concepts and generalisations are studied. the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. a b Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse. The equation of a hyperbola with foci on the x-axis is : x2 y 2 − =1 a 2 b2 . A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point in the plane. Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax is 4a. x2 y 2 The equations of an ellipse with foci on the x-axis is 2 + 2 = 1 . 0) a > 0 and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax. The equation of the parabola with focus at (a. A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane.

He also gave the intercept form of the linear equation. Descartes came to be regarded as the unique inventor of the analytical geometry. The synthetic approach to the subject of geometry as given by Euclid and in Sulbasutras. Modern analytic geometry is called ‘Cartesian’ after the name of Rene Descartes (1596-1650 A. Length of the latus rectum of the hyperbola : x2 y 2 2b2 − 2 = 1 is : .) was the first to give the distance formula although in clumsy form.C. Geometry as initially studied by the ancient Indians and Greeks. Leibnitz used the terms ‘abscissa’. Apollonius wrote a book called ‘The Conic’ which was all about conic sections with many important discoveries that have remained unsurpassed for eighteen centuries. who made essentially no use of the process of algebra.C. entitled Ad Locus Planos et So LIDOS Isagoge (Introduction to Plane and Solid Loci) was published only posthumously in 1679 A.266 MATHEMATICS Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. a2 b a The eccentricity of a hyperbola is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the hyperbola to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the hyperbola.) wrote an important textbook on analytical geometry. So. Newton used method of undetermined coefficients to find equations of curves.D. Clairaut (1729 A. Historical Note Geometry is one of the most ancient branches of mathematics. was continued for some 1300 years.D. ‘ordinate’ and ‘coordinate’. The Greek geometers investigated the properties of many curves that have theoretical and practical importance. L’ Hospital (about 1700 A. Cramer . Unfortunately..) whose relevant ‘La Geometrie’ was published in 1637. etc. But the fundamental principle and method of analytical geometry were already discovered by Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665 A.D. Euclid wrote his treatise on geometry around 300 B. Isaac Barrow avoided using cartesian method.D. He was the first who organised the geometric figures based on certain axioms suggested by physical considerations. He used several types of coordinates including polar and bipolar.D.. Fermats treatise on the subject.). In the 200 B.

C. S.D. It is. Monge (1781 A.F. a civil engineer. but his contributions to analytical geometry are found scattered. Lacroix (1765–1843 A. C. surprising that one has to wait for more than 150 years after the invention of analytical geometry before finding such essential basic formula. In 1818. have been linked to the conic sections. Many important discoveries. and the length of the perpendicular from (α. The Greeks particularly Archimedes (287–212 B. These curves are important tools for present day exploration of outer space and also for research into behaviour of atomic particles. — — . both in Mathematics and Science.D. Lame.D.) and Apollonius (200 B.CONIC SECTIONS 267 (1750 A. gave mE + m′E′ = 0 as the curve passing through the points of intersection of two loci E = 0 and E′ = 0. He gave the ‘two-point’ form of equation of a line as y –β= β′ – β (x – α) α′ – α (β – ax – b) 1 + a2 .) studied conic sections for their own beauty.) was a prolific textbook writer.C.) made formal use of the two axes and gave the equation of a circle as ( y – a)2 + (b – x)2 = r He gave the best exposition of the analytical geometry of his time. β) on y = ax + b as ⎛ a′ – a ⎞ His formula for finding angle between two lines was tan θ = ⎜ 1 + aa′ ⎟ .) gave the modern ‘point-slope’ form of equation of a line as y – y′ = a (x – x′) and the condition of perpendicularity of two lines as aa′ + 1 = 0. of ⎝ ⎠ course.

These lines are called the coordinate axes and the two numbers are called the coordinates of the point with respect to the axes.* * For various activities in three dimensional geometry one may refer to the Book. For example. 2005. NCERT. “A Hand Book for designing Mathematics Laboratory in Schools”. BELL 12. In actual life. we do not have to deal with points lying in a plane only. we shall study the basic concepts of geometry in three dimensional space.1 Introduction You may recall that to locate the position of a point in a plane. So. Similarly. namely the floor of the room and two adjacent walls of the room. we need not only two but three numbers representing the perpendicular distances of the point from three mutually perpendicular planes. The three numbers representing the three distances are called the coordinates of the point with reference to the three coordinate planes. a point in space has three coordinates. if we were to locate the position of the Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) lowest tip of an electric bulb hanging from the ceiling of a room or the position of the central tip of the ceiling fan in a room. consider the position of a ball thrown in space at different points of time or the position of an aeroplane as it flies from one place to another at different times during its flight. . we need two intersecting mutually perpendicular lines in the plane. Therefore. In this Chapter. we will not only require the perpendicular distances of the point to be located from two perpendicular walls of the room but also the height of the point from the floor of the room.T.Chapter 12 INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of all sciences – E.

then the line Z′OZ will be vertical. y.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space Consider three planes intersecting at a point O such that these three planes are mutually perpendicular to each other (Fig 12. Similarly. we associate with it three coordinates (x. These octants could be named as XOYZ.z) and conversely. 12. given a point in the space. called. X′OY′Z. we now explain. Then. the distance measured to the right of ZX-plane along OY are taken as positive. the signs of x. In Fig 12. respectively. respectively. called the x. y and z would change . XOY′Z. we draw a perpendicular ML to the x-axis.y. of the point P in the space. We take Fig 12. respectively. The distances measured from XY-plane upwards in the direction of OZ are taken as positive and those measured downwards in the direction of OZ′ are taken as negative.2 perpendicular PM on the XY-plane with M as the foot of this perpendicular (Fig 12. . we locate a point in the space. II. Let OL be x. respectively the XY-plane. z) lies in the octant XOYZ and so all x. are known as the three coordinate planes.2. given a triplet of three numbers (x.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 269 12.1). y.2). Y′OY and Z′OZ. we may note that the point P (x. YOZ and ZOX. y and z-axes. We may note that these lines are mutually perpendicular to each other. Then x. XOYZ′.. y.. YZ-plane and the ZX-plane. X′OYZ. X′OY′Z′ and XOY′Z′. z are positive. These lines constitute the rectangular coordinate system. in front of the YZ-plane along OX as positive and to the back of it along OX′ as negative. LM be y and MP be z. consisting of coordinate axes. and denoted by I. The point O is called the origin of the coordinate system. to the left of ZX-plane and along OY′ as negative. VIII .. y and z coordinates. coordinate planes and the origin.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space Having chosen a fixed coordinate system in the space. as to how. III. from the point M. meeting it at L. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. If P was in any other octant.y and z are called the x.1 the XOY plane as the plane of the paper and the line Z′OZ as perpendicular to the plane XOY. The planes XOY. These three planes intersect along the lines X′OX. X′OYZ′. If the plane of the paper is considered as horizontal. we drop a Fig 12. how. Given a point P in space. z).

then locate the point M in the XY-plane such that (x. we locate the three points A. Conversely. Note that LM is perpendicular to the x-axis or is parallel to the y-axis.0) and the coordinates of any point in the YZ-plane will be as (0. BDPE and CEPF is obviously the point P.1 s ant Oct nates rdi Coo I + + + II – + + III – – + IV + – + V + + – VI – + – VII – – – VIII + – – x y z . B and C we draw planes parallel to Fig 12.0). we would first fix the point L on the x-axis corresponding to x. We observe that if P (x.0. given x. z) of real numbers. The following table shows the signs of the coordinates in eight octants. z). z). there is a one to one correspondence between the points in space and ordered triplet (x.270 MATHEMATICS accordingly. meeting the x-axis. Thus. Then. y) are the coordinates of the point M in the XY-plane. y. Table 12. given any triplet (x. ADPF. we draw three planes parallel to the coordinate planes. The point P so obtained has then the coordinates (x. Note The coordinates of the origin O are (0. z). the point P will have the coordinates x. to each point P in the space there corresponds an ordered triplet (x. y. Having reached the point M. OB = y and OC = z. corresponding to the ordered triplet (x. ZX and XY planes. z) of real numbers. namely. we draw a perpendicular MP to the XY-plane and locate on it the point P corresponding to z. y. respectively (Fig 12. respectively. Remark The sign of the coordinates of a point determine the octant in which the point lies. y and z and we write P (x. Through the points A.3). ZX-plane and XY-plane. y. z) is any point in the space. The point of interesection of these three planes. Conversely. Thus.0. z). y. y. through the point P in the space. y and z. Alternatively. y-axis and z-axis in the points A. y. B and C. y and z are perpendicular distances from YZ. y. Let OA = x. B and C on the three coordinate axes. The coordinates of any point on the x-axis will be as (x.3 the YZ-plane. then x. z). respectively.

. 2. What are its y-coordinate and z-coordinates? A point is in the XZ-plane. – 2) lies in octant VI. 3). y2. 2.1. (– 4.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 271 Example 1 In Fig 12. 6) (2. –5). . find the coordinates of F.1. Let us now extend this study to three-dimensional system. (4. 2. A point is on the x -axis. the point (–3. Let P(x1.5).1. since ∠PAQ is a right angle...2) and (–3. – 4.4). OY and OZ. 5). 3. Fill in the blanks: (i) The x-axis and y-axis taken together determine a plane known as_______. (4. Now.– 2) lie. –2. it follows that.4 . Example 2 Find the octant in which the points (–3. Solution For the point F. Therefore. –1. (ii) The coordinates of points in the XY-plane are of the form _______. –5). y1. 3). (iii) Coordinate planes divide the space into ______ octants.4. 2. (–3. 1. What can you say about its y-coordinate? Name the octants in which the following points lie: (1. 2) lies in second octant and the point (–3.1 1. (1) Also.0. –2. the distance measured along OY is zero.1. Through the points P and Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes so as to form a rectangular parallelopiped with one diagonal PQ (Fig 12. (– 4. z1) and Q ( x2. if P is (2.3. the coordinates of F are (2.5). –5). EXERCISE 12. triangle ANQ is right angle triangle with ∠ANQ a right angle.4 Distance between Two Points We have studied about the distance between two points in two-dimensional coordinate system. 12. Solution From the Table 12. z2) be two points referred to a system of rectangular axes OX. 2. (4. in triangle PAQ. PQ2 = PA 2 + AQ2 Fig 12. –7). 4.

1. Example 3 Find the distance between the points P(1. Hence. 2) is PQ = = = (−4 − 1) 2 + (1 + 3) 2 + (2 − 4) 2 25 + 16 + 4 45 = 3 5 units Example 4 Show that the points P (–2.–3. 3) and R (7. y2. 5). –1) are collinear. 4) and Q (– 4. Q and R are collinear. 20. y1. point P is origin O. Example 5 Are the points A (3. 4) and Q (– 4. In particular. z2).. B (10. 1. AN = x2 – x1 and NQ = z2 – z1 PQ2 = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1) + (z2 – z1)2 PQ = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 +( y 2 − y1 ) 2 +( z2 − z1 ) 2 2 This gives us the distance between two points (x1. 6. which gives the distance between the origin O and any point Q (x2. 2. Q (1. we have PQ2 = PA2 + AN2 + NQ2 PA = y2 – y1. 9). i. 30) and C (25. –3. y2. – 41. if x1 = y1 = z1 = 0. PQ = QR = and PR = (1 + 2) 2 + ( 2 − 3) 2 + (3 − 5) 2 = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14 (7 − 1) 2 + (0 − 2) 2 + (−1− 3) 2 = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14 (7 + 2) 2 + (0 − 3) 2 + (−1− 5) 2 = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14 Thus. P.. 3. the vertices of a right angled triangle? Solution By the distance formula. PQ + QR = PR. z1) and (x2. (2) From Now Hence Therefore AQ2 = AN2 + NQ2 (1) and (2). Now. 0. Solution The distance PQ between the points P (1. 2). we have AB 2 = (10 – 3)2 + (20 – 6)2 + (30 – 9)2 = 49 + 196 + 441 = 686 BC 2 = (25 – 10)2 + (– 41 – 20)2 + (5 – 30)2 .e. Solution We know that points are said to be collinear if they lie on a line. then OQ = 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 .272 MATHEMATICS Therefore . z2). 5)..

y1. z) . 2. EXERCISE 12. Now.2 1. Let the point R (x. we have (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + (z – 5)2 + (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 = 2k2 i. (1. 1. where A and B are the points (3. 9. 4. Solution Let the coordinates of point P be (x. 4. 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram. 10). 3. –2.e. Verify the following: (i) (0. z1) and Q (x2. –1). –3. –1. (ii) (0. –10). 9. 12. 5). 0. (–1. respectively. 0) and B (– 4. 2. 2) and (2.. 3. 4) 3. 5) and (4. – 6) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 5) and (–1. 3. y. 3). 3. –3. we have learnt how to find the coordinates of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio internally. 2. 6. 0. 4. 2. Example 6 Find the equation of set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. 7. 8) and (2.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 273 = 225 + 3721 + 625 = 4571 CA 2 We find that = (3 – 25)2 + (6 + 41)2 + (9 – 5)2 = 484 + 2209 + 16 = 2709 CA2 + AB2 ≠ BC2. z2). 3) and (–2. z). (ii) (–3. 3. the sum of whose distances from A (4. Find the distance between the following pairs of points: (i) (2. the triangle ABC is not a right angled triangle. –7. 6) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. 6) and (– 4. 7. 3) and (7. 0. 6. 3) and (3. –7). y2. Hence. – 6) and (4. (4. 1) (iii) (–1. Find the equation of the set of points P. Show that the points (–2. y. 0) is equal to 10. (1. 5. (iii) (–1. –1) are collinear. (1. – 4) and (1.5 Section Formula In two dimensional geometry. Here PA2 = (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + ( z – 5)2 PB2 = (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 By the given condition PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. 7. 5). 2. 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 – 4x – 14y + 4z = 2k2 – 109. –1) (iv) (2. Find the equation of the set of points which are equidistant from the points (1. 1). we extend this to three dimensional geometry as follows: Let the two given points be P(x1.

Fig 12. then its coordinates are obtained by replacing n by – n so that coordinates of point R will be ⎛ mx2 − nx1 my2 − ny1 mz 2 − nz1 ⎞ . y2. we get y = my2 + ny1 mx2 + nx1 and x = m+n m+n Hence. M and N will lie on a line which is the intersection of the plane containing PL. Also note that quadrilaterals LNRS and NMTR are parallelograms. RN and QM with the XY-plane.274 MATHEMATICS divide PQ in the given ratio m : n internally. Draw PL. Through the point R draw a line ST parallel to the line LM. The triangles PSR and QTR are similar. 2 2 2 . as shown in Fig 12. ⎜ ⎟ m−n m−n ⎠ ⎝ m−n Case 1 Coordinates of the mid-point: In case R is the mid-point of PQ. Line ST will intersect the line LP externally at the point S and the line MQ at T. y1. m+n . z2) internally in the ratio m : n are ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ m+n . QM and RN perpendicular to the XY-plane. . z1) and Q (x2. then m : n = 1 : 1 so that x = x1 + x2 y + y2 z + z2 .5. Obviously PL || RN || QM and feet of these perpendiculars lie in a XY-plane. The points L. the coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1. by drawing perpendiculars to the XZ and YZ-planes.y = 1 and z = 1 .5 m PR SP SL − PL NR – PL z − z1 = = = = = n QR QT QM − TM QM – NR z2 − z This implies z= mz 2 +nz1 m+n Similarly. m+n ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If the point R divides PQ externally in the ratio m : n. Therefore.

19). 1+k ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Generally. 10). 3) and B (3. 0. Then Thus. the required point is (–3. Therefore x= 2(3) +3(1) 9 2(4) + 3( −2) 2 = . 3) and (3. –5) in the ratio 2 : 3 (i) internally. prove that the three points (– 4. –2. y2. . this result is used in solving problems involving a general point on the line passing through two given points. y. 4. . and (ii) externally. z) be the point which divides segment joining A (1. z = = 19 2 + (−3) 2 + ( −3) 2 + ( −3) Therefore. 6. –14. Solution Let A (– 4. Let the point P divides AB in the ratio k : 1. 4. z1) and Q (x2. y= = 2+3 5 2+3 5 . the point P coincides with point C. 3) and B (3. –2) are collinear. 4. 4. 6) and C(14. – 2. – 2) be the given points. Example 8 Using section formula. 6) and (14. –5) externally in the ratio 2 : 3. Solution (i) Let P (x. Example 7 Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (1. y1. 10). y = = − 14 . –2. 1+k . 4. . (2. Case 2 The coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k : 1 are obtained by taking k = m which are as given below: n ⎛ k x 2 + x1 ky2 + y1 kz 2 + z1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 1+k . z) be the point which divides line segment joining A(1. z2). Then coordinates of the point P are ⎛ 2 k − 4 4 k + 6 6 k + 10 ⎞ .INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 275 These are the coordinates of the mid point of the segment joining P (x1. –5) internally in the ratio 2 : 3. y. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Let us examine whether for some value of k. z= 2(−5) + 3(3) − 1 = 2+3 5 ⎛ 9 2 −1⎞ ⎜ . B (2. 6. 0. the required point is x = 2(3) + ( −3)(1) 2( 4) + ( −3)(−2) 2(−5) + ( −3)(3) = − 3. ⎟ ⎝5 5 5 ⎠ (ii) Let P (x.

10) and (6. C (14. the coordinates of G are ⎛ ⎛ x2 + x3 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ y2 + y3 ⎞ ⎛ z 2 + z3 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎜ ⎟ + x1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + y1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + z1 ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟ . . ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 Let G be the centroid of the triangle. 8. respectively. Hence coordinates of D are ⎛ x2 + x3 y 2 + y3 z2 + z3 ⎞ . y2. (x2. y3. z2) and (x3. Example 9 Find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (x1. we get k = − 3 k +1 2 3 4( − ) + 6 2 =0 3 − +1 2 When 4k + 6 3 = k = − . 0. –2) is a point which divides AB externally in the ratio 3 : 2 and is same as P. y. – 8) is divided by the YZ-plane. then k +1 2 and 3 6( − ) + 10 6k + 10 2 = = −2 3 k +1 − +1 2 Therefore. z) in the ratio k : 1. 8. Then the coordinates of P are . Solution Let ABC be the triangle. B. ⎜ ⎟ 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Example 10 Find the ratio in which the line segment joining the points (4. y3. y1. B. Let D be the mid-point of BC.Hence A. 10. z3).C be (x1. it divides the median AD in the ratio 2 : 1. z1). Solution Let YZ-plane divides the line segment joining A (4. y1. z2) and (x3. ⎝ 2 +1 2 +1 2 +1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + z3 ⎞ .276 MATHEMATICS On putting 2k − 4 =14 . 10. Let the coordinates of the vertices A. z3). z1). . ⎝ . Therefore. – 8) at P (x. (x2. 10) and B (6. C are collinear. y2. Hence.

Q (5. Solution To show ABCD is a parallelogram we need to show opposite side are equal Note that. –2.3 1. but it is not a rectangle. – 4). – 6) and R (9. (ii) 2 : 3 externally. –5. Given that P (3. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (– 2. B (–1. ⎛ 1 ⎞ C ⎜ 0 . YZ-plane divides AB externally in the ratio 2 : 3. – 6) and Q (10. . ⎝ 3 ⎠ Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4. i. Miscellaneous Examples Example 11 Show that the points A (1. 6) in the ratio (i) 2 : 3 internally. 3. 2. Find the ratio in which Q divides PR. 2) and D (4. –16. 6). 8). 7) and (3. 4. 2. 4. 1) and 5. 2. AB = BC = CD = DA = (−1 − 1) 2 +(−2 − 2) 2 +(−1 − 3) 2 = (2 + 1) 2 +(3 + 2) 2 +( 2 + 1) 2 = ( 4 − 2) 2 +(7 − 3) 2 +(6 − 2) 2 = (1 − 4) 2 +(2 − 7) 2 +(3 − 6) 2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 Since AB = CD and BC = AD.e. 2 ⎟ are collinear. 3). B (–1. 8. k =− EXERCISE 12.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 277 ⎛ 4 + 6k 8 + 10k 10 − 8k ⎞ . C (2. Using section formula. –3. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Since P lies on the YZ-plane. 3. –10) are collinear. 4). – 4. Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the points (–2. show that the points A (2. 7. . 4. or 4 + 6k =0 k +1 2 3 Therefore. 2.. its x-coordinate is zero. . 6) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. –1). 2. ABCD is a parallelogram. 3. 5) and (1.

Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. 2). i.e. z) and the coordinates of the centroid G be (1. 0. 2. 0. 3b. 2. z) be any point such that PA = PB. b and c. If the coordinates of A and B are (3. = 1.4. 2. i. Find the coordinates of the fourth vertex.e. Find the lengths of the medians of the triangle with vertices A (0. 4) are equal.e. We have AC BD = = ( 2 − 1) 2 +(3 − 2) 2 +(2 − 3) 2 = 1 + 1 + 1= 3 ( 4 + 1) 2 +(7 + 2) 2 +(6 + 1) 2 = 25 + 81 + 49 = 155 . Now or or ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 10 x + 6y – 18z – 29 = 0. y. Q (– 4. Three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD are A(3. 6). Example 12 Find the equation of the set of the points P such that its distances from the points A (3. it is required to prove that ABCD is not a rectangle.. 2c). 14. –5. using the property that diagonals AC and BD bisect each other. – 6). z = 2. – 1. Solution Let the coordinates of C be (x. 1.. For this. – 4) and C (– 1. –5) and B (– 2. 1. 1. y = 1. 3 3 3 Hence. Note We can also show that ABCD is a parallelogram. B (1. Since AC ≠ BD. 1. i. 0). If the origin is the centroid of the triangle PQR with vertices P (2a. Example 13 The centroid of a triangle ABC is at the point (1. = 1. 7. 1. 6). then find the values of a. x = 1. y. respectively. 2).278 MATHEMATICS Now. 4. B (0. 1). 3. 0) and (6. Solution If P (x. coordinates of C are (1. ABCD is not a rectangle.. find the coordinates of the point C. 2). 7) and (–1. –10) and R(8. Then x + 3−1 y −5+ 7 z+7−6 = 1. 1). . we show that diagonals AC and BD are unequal.

4) and Q (8. The coordinates of a point P in three dimensional geometry is always written in the form of triplet like (x. ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ m+ n m+n ⎠ m–n m–n ⎠ . Distance between two points P(x1. ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ 6. 3. y and z-axes. z). 10). y2. y1. z1) and Q (x2. –7). 5) and (–1. (i) Any point on x-axis is of the form (x. Here x. 0. called XY. ⎝ m+n ⎝ m–n respectively. 0. y and z are the distances from the YZ.If A and B be the points (3. . respectively. 0) (iii) Any point on z-axis is of the form (0. z2) internally and externally in the ratio m : n are given by ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎛ mx2 – nx1 my2 – ny1 mz2 – nz1 ⎞ . 4. the coordinate axes of a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system are three mutually perpendicular lines. where k is a constant. ⎟ ]. Summary In three dimensions. z2) is given by PQ = ( x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 + ( z2 − z1 )2 The coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1 y1 z1) and Q (x2. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. find the equation of the set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = k2. z). y2. y. . 0) (ii) Any point on y-axis is of the form (0. 5. YZ and ZX-planes. The coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points . ZX and XY-planes. A point R with x-coordinate 4 lies on the line segment joining the points P(2. 0. The coordinates of the point R are given ⎛ 8k + 2 − 3 10k + 4 ⎞ by ⎜ . Find the coordinates of the point R. The three planes determined by the pair of axes are the coordinate planes. 5). y. . The axes are called the x. –2. . Find the coordinates of a point on y-axis which are at a distance of 5 2 from the point P (3. –3.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 279 4. [Hint Suppose R divides PQ in the ratio k : 1.

3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Historical Note Rene’ Descartes (1596–1650 A. z2) are ⎜ ⎟. y2. y1.) and La Hire (1640-1718 A. Descartes had the idea of coordinates in three dimensions but did not develop it.D.D. z1) ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + x3 ⎞ . y1. — — .D.280 MATHEMATICS ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2 ⎞ . . (x2. z1) and Q(x2.D. the father of analytical geometry. The same is true of his co-inventor Pierre Fermat (1601-1665 A. who gave a systematic development of analytical solid geometry for the first time in a paper presented to the French Academy in 1700 A. y3. It was Antoinne Parent (1666-1716 A. z2) and (x3.).Euler (1707-1783 A.). It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that geometry was extended to more than three dimensions.) in a letter of 1715 A. 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The coordinates of the centroid of the triangle. are ⎜ ⎟.D. y2. to Leibnitz introduced the three coordinate planes which we use today.D. z3).D. in Chapter 5 of the appendix to the second volume of his “Introduction to Geometry” in 1748 A.D.) took up systematically the three dimensional coordinate geometry. L. P(x1.D. J. essentially dealt with plane geometry only in 1637 A. the well-known application of which is in the Space-Time Continuum of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. . whose vertices are (x1.).Bernoulli (1667-1748 A.D. Although suggestions for the three dimensional coordinate geometry can be found in their works but no details.

2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives Physical experiments have confirmed that the body dropped from a tall cliff covers a distance of 4.e. Mathematics can be successfully applied to the explanation of the course of Nature – WHITEHEAD 13. The objective is to find the veloctiy of the body at time t = 2 seconds from this data. 13. The adjoining Table 13. One way to approach this problem is to find the average velocity for various intervals of time ending at t = 2 seconds and hope that these throw some light on the velocity at t = 2 seconds. distance s in metres covered by the body as a function of time t in seconds is given by s = 4. we give an intuitive idea of derivative (without actually defining it).Chapter 13 LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES With the Calculus as a key.1 gives the distance travelled in metres at various intervals of time in seconds of a body dropped from a tall cliff. Then we give a naive definition of limit and study some algebra of limits. i.1 Introduction This chapter is an introduction to Calculus. Calculus is that branch of mathematics which mainly deals with the study of change in the value of a function as the points in the domain change. First. Then we come back to a definition of derivative and study some algebra of derivatives. We also obtain derivatives of certain standard functions. Average velocity between t = t1 and t = t2 equals distance travelled between t = t1 and t = t2 seconds divided by (t2 – t1).9t2 metres in t seconds.. Hence the average velocity in the first two seconds Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) .9t2.

2 t1 v 0 9.609 23.05 2.876 17. As before the average velocity v between t = 2 seconds and t = t2 seconds is = Distance travelled between 2 seconds and t2 seconds t2 − 2 Distance travelled in t2 seconds − Distance travelled in 2 seconds t2 − 2 = .1 (19.11 1.7 m/s ( 2 − 1) s Likewise we compute the average velocitiy between t = t1 and t = 2 for various t1.99 19. t = t1 seconds and t = 2 seconds.15 1.625 44.95 2 2. ( 2 − 0) s Similarly.5 17. The following Table 13. we observe that the average velocity is gradually increasing.282 MATHEMATICS Distance travelled between t2 = 2 and t1 = 0 = Time interval (t2 − t1 ) = Table 13.9 1.1 78.2.7 1.355 1.8 1.551 From Table 13.6 − 0 ) m = 9. t 0 1 1.9 ) m = 14.9 11. we see that we get a better idea of the velocity at t = 2. Compute the average velocities for various time intervals starting at t = 2 seconds.8 1 14.95 19.8 m / s .99 seconds and 2 seconds.025 15. As we make the time intervals ending at t = 2 smaller. Hoping that nothing really dramatic happens between 1. the average velocity between t = 1 and t = 2 is (19.6 – 4.5 1.4 Table 13.551m/s.689 18. we conclude that the average velocity at t = 2 seconds is just above 19. This conclusion is somewhat strengthened by the following set of computation.2 gives the average velocity (v).6 20.8 18.62 1.1 2.5 3 4 s 0 4.716 30.63225 19.9 19.2 2.59225 21.

Hence what we have accomplished is the following. As is well-known. An alternate way of viewing this limiting process is shown in Fig 13. We can safely conclude that the velocity of the body at t = 2 is between 19.9t2 at t = 2 is between 19. This is a plot of distance s of the body from the top of the cliff versus the time t elapsed.3 t2 v 4 3 2.5 22.09 19.2 2. we get better idea of the velocity at t = 2.649 m/s.1 sequence of ratios .. what we have done is to find average velocities in increasing time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just before t = 2.845 19. In the first set of computations.551 and 19. . Purely on the physical grounds. we say that the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 is between 19.6 t2 − 2 The following Table 13. we have found the average velocities decreasing in time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just after t = 2.05 2.58 20. From the given data of distance covered at various time instants we have estimated the rate of change of the distance at a given instant of time.. Technically. approaches zero. Table 13.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 283 = Distance travelled in t2 seconds − 19. In the limit as the sequence of time intervals h1.649.3 gives the average velocity v in metres per second between t = 2 seconds and t2 seconds.649 Here again we note that if we take smaller time intervals starting at t = 2.1.4 24.. the sequence of average velocities approaches the same limit as does the Fig 13. In the second set of computations.551m/s and 19. We say that the derivative of the distance function s = 4. velocity is the rate of change of distance.5 2.551 m/s and 19.649 m/s.01 29.05 20.1 2. both these sequences of average velocities must approach a common limit. h2.

Computing the value of g(x) for values of x very near to 0. AC1 AC2 AC3 where C1B1 = s1 – s0 is the distance travelled by the body in the time interval h1 = AC1. f (x) → l. 13.. In other words. x2 − 4 . We say lim f ( x ) = 0 x →0 (to be read as limit of f (x) as x tends to zero equals zero). This is intuitively x→0 clear from the graph of y = |x| for x ≠ 0.2 . we see that the value of g(x) moves towards 0. Consider the function f(x) = x2.2).1 it is safe to conclude that this latter sequence approaches the slope of the tangent to the curve at point A. . The limit of f (x) as x tends to zero is to be thought of as the value f (x) should assume at x = 0.9t2 at t = 2. the value of f(x) also moves towards 0 (See Fig 2. the instantaneous velocity v(t) of a body at time t = 2 is equal to the slope of the tangent of the curve s = 4. lim g(x) = 0. Convince yourself that all these values are near to 4. We study a few illustrative examples to gain some familiarity with the concept of limits. x≠2. then l is called limit of the function f (x) which is symbolically written as lim f ( x ) = l .3 Limits The above discussion clearly points towards the fact that we need to understand limiting process in greater clarity.284 MATHEMATICS C1B1 C2 B2 C3 B3 . Observe that as x takes values very close to 0. This is somewhat strengthened by considering the graph of the function y = h(x) given here (Fig 13. Consider the following function. .. So.10 Chapter 2). h( x) = Fig 13. From the Fig 13. x →a Consider the following function g(x) = |x|. (See Fig 2.13. In general as x → a. Chapter 2). . etc. x−2 Compute the value of h(x) for values of x very near to 2 (but not at 2). x ≠ 0. Observe that g(0) is not defined.

the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f (x) with x > 0 equals 2. . This naturally leads to two limits – the right hand limit and the left hand limit. .9. the left hand limit of f (x) at 0 is lim f ( x) =1 . x→0 Similarly.99. It is clear that the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f(x) with x ≤ 0 equals 1. We want to find the limit of this function at x = 5. x →a Illustration 1 Consider the function f(x) = x + 10. 4.95. the left hand limit.3 In this case the right and left hand limits are different. If the right and left hand limits coincide. . x > 0 Graph of this function is shown in the Fig 13. Similarly.3. we call that common value as the limit of f(x) at x = a and denote it by lim f(x). Fig 13.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 285 In all these illustrations the value which the function should assume at a given point x = a did not really depend on how is x tending to a. i.. Summary We say xlim– f(x) is the expected value of f at x = a given the values of f near →a x to the left of a. i..001.e. We say lim+ f ( x ) is the expected value f at x = a given the values of x→a f near x to the right of a. Values of the function at these points are tabulated below. the real number 5. all the values of x near a could be less than a or could be greater than a. 4. and hence we say that the limit of f (x) as x tends to zero does not exist (even though the function is defined at 0). To illustrate this. Some of the points near and to the left of 5 are 4. Right hand limit of a function f(x) is that value of f(x) which is dictated by the values of f(x) when x tends to a from the right. This value is called the right hand limit of f(x) at a. x ≤ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 2. i. the right hand limit of f (x) at 0 is x →0 + lim f ( x ) = 2 . 4. This value is called the left hand limit of f at a.e.995. Let us compute the value of the function f(x) for x very near to 5.. Similarly. etc... Note that there are essentially two ways x could approach a number a either from left or from right.e. consider the function ⎧ 1.

001 15.729 0.01 5.1 15. 15).95 14.9 4. Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 1.4 x f(x) 4.01 1.331 From this table.997002999 1.997002999 and less than 1. we tabulate the value of f(x) at x near 1.286 MATHEMATICS 5. Hence.003003001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between .9 0. f(x) should be taking value 15.1 are also points near and to the right of 5. Illustration 2 Consider the function f(x) = x3.030301 1. the graph of the function f(x) = x +10 approaches the point (5.995 and 5. Thus. Similarly.001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between x = 4. Chapter 2. Table 13.9 14.e.e. Value of the function at these points are also given in the Table 13.1 From the Table 13.95 4.970299 0.16. x →5 – lim f ( x ) = 15 .99 14.999 0. when x approaches 5 from the right. We observe that the value of the function at x = 2 also happens to be equal to 12. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 5 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 5 is 15. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 5 should be greater than 14. Table 13.5.4. we note that as x appraches 5 from either right or left. This is given in the Table 13.001 1. x →5 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 15 . Proceeding as in the previous case.01.995 5.995 14. i. 5. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 1 should be greater than 0.001 5.995 and less than 15.4..99 0. x →5+ lim f ( x ) = 15 .5 x f(x) 0.99 4..1 1.003003001 1. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 15. In this figure. x →5 x →5 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 15 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2.01 15.001. i.

Here again we note that the value of the function at x = 2 coincides with the limit at x = 2.. Similarly.003 2.9 5.11.001. This function being the constant function takes the same Fig 13.999 5.6 x f(x) 1. x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 ..3 As before we observe that as x approaches 2 from either left or right.001 6. In this figure. Illustration 4 Consider the constant function f(x) = 3.. Table 13. 1). Chapter 2. the graph of the function f(x) = x3 approaches the point (1.03 2.4 . i.1 6.7 1. again.999 and 1.6 is now self-explanatory. Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 2.4 strengthens this fact. We record this as x →2 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 6 x →2 x →2 Its graph shown in Fig 13.997 2. We observe. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 1. Thus. x →1+ Hence.01 6. Let us try to find its limit at x = 2.99 5.95 5. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 1 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 1 is 1. Illustration 3 Consider the function f(x) = 3x. x →1 x →1 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 1 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2. The following Table 13. lim f ( x ) = 1 .e. when x approaches 1 from the right. f(x) should be taking value 1. x →1− lim f ( x ) = 1 . that the value of the function at x = 1 also happens to be equal to 1. we note that as x approaches 1 from either right or left.97 1.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 287 x = 0. i.85 1.e. the value of f(x) seem to approach 6.

convince yourself of the following three facts: Fig 13. lim ( x + 1) = 1. i. in this case) everywhere.99 1.7 x f(x) 0.5.5 lim x 2 = 1.2 2. Table 13..71 0.2 = 2 = lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ .9. 2).64 From this it is reasonable to deduce that x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 2 . In fact. x →a Illustration 5 Consider the function f(x) = x2 + x. it is easily observed that lim f ( x ) = 3 for any real number a. lim x = 1 and lim x + 1 = 2 x →1 x →1 x →1 Then Also lim x 2 + lim x = 1 + 1 = 2 = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ .999 1. 3) and is shown in Fig 2.7.1 2.01 2. We x →1 tabulate the values of f(x) near x = 1 in Table 13.288 MATHEMATICS value (3. the graph approaches (1. ⎦ x →1 x →1 x →1 ⎣ lim x.9701 0. its value at points close to 2 is 3. Here. Chapter 2.31 1. Hence lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 x→2 x →2 x→2 Graph of f(x) = 3 is anyway the line parallel to x-axis passing through (0. + x →1 x →1 From the graph of f(x) = x2 + x shown in the Fig 13.0301 1. We want to find lim f ( x ) . again we observe that the lim f (x) = f (1) x→1 Now. From this also it is clear that the required limit is 3.997001 1.e.9 1. it is clear that as x approaches 1. ⎦ x →1 ⎣ ⎦ x →1 x→1 x →1 ⎣ .

01 2 0.9999 π + 0.9850 – 0.1 1. From 2 lim− f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 π 2 x→ π 2 x→ π 2 . Here.001 0. We want to find the lim f (x).9999 π + 0. We are interested in lim sin x .9. π x→ 2 where the angle is measured in radians. Further. we observe that lim sin x = 1.1 2 0. x→ π 2 Table 13.0009995 0. this is supported by the graph of f(x) = sin x which is given in the Fig 3.9950 Illustration 7 Consider the function f(x) = x + cos x.8 x f(x) π − 0. we may deduce that x→ π (Table 13. x→0 Here we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near 0 (Table 13.9). In this case too.9950 π − 0. Table 13.01 0.001 1.1 2 0. we observe that lim f (x) = f (0) = 1.1 0.0950 From the Table 13.8).01 2 0. we may deduce that x → 0− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 x→0 x →0 x→0 In this case too. we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near this.9 x f(x) – 0.8 (Chapter 3). can you convince yourself that lim [ x + cos x ] = lim x + lim cos x is indeed true? x →0 x →0 x→0 .01 1. Now.00995 0.98995 – 0.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 289 Illustration 6 Consider the function f(x) = sin x.9989995 0.

observe that the domain of the function is given to be all positive real numbers.01 0. we need to evaluate x + 2. x →0 − lim f ( x ) = −2 . x > 0 ⎩ As usual we make a table of x near 0 with f(x). we say 1 1 lim f ( x ) = + ∞ x →0 0. Below we tabulate the values of the function for positive x close to 0 (in this table n denotes any positive integer).1 100 0. Observe that for negative values of x we need to evaluate x – 2 and for positive values.10 given below. From the Table 13.01 10000 10–n 102n We also remark that we will not come across such limits in this course.001 0.01 – 2. x→0 x2 Here. We want to know lim f (x).001 0. where x →0 ⎧ x − 2. x = 0 ⎪ x + 2. we deduce that the value of the function is decreasing to –2 and hence.001 – 2.01 – 0. we see that as x tends to 0.1 2. Hence.1 – 2. f(x) becomes larger and larger.10 x f(x) Mathematically. it does not make sense to talk of x approaching 0 from the left.001 2. when we tabulate the values of f(x). What we mean here is that the value of f(x) may be made larger than any given number. Illustration 9 We want to find lim f ( x ) .1 – 0.1 From the first three entries of the Table 13.11.01 2. x < 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 0 . Table 13.290 MATHEMATICS 1 for x > 0 . Illustration 8 Consider the function f ( x ) = Table 13.11 x f(x) – 0.

9 2.7 strengthens our deduction about the limit. Illustration 10 As a final illustration. but the limit of the function at x = 0 is not even defined. x →1+ lim f ( x ) = 3 .001 3.6 x f(x) 0. Here. + x →1 x →1 x →1− Graph of function given in Fig 13.e.001 1. Here. From the values of f(x) for x less than 1.1 3.99 2. we remark that the value of the function at x = 0 is well defined and is. i.12 Fig 13. But then the left and right hand limits coincide and hence lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 .7 .e. equal to 0.01 3. i...999 1. x →1 where ⎧x + 2 x ≠ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ x =1 ⎩ 0 Table 13. Graph of this function is given in the Fig13.9 0.01 1. indeed.99 0. we Fig 13. it seems that the function should take value 3 at x = 1. Similarly.1 As usual we tabulate the values of f(x) for x near 1.999 2. we find lim f ( x ) . x →1− lim f ( x ) = 3 . we say that the limit of the function at 0 does not exist.6. the value of f(x) should be 3 as dictated by values of f(x) at x greater than 1.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 291 From the last three entires of the table we deduce that the value of the function is increasing from 2 and hence x → 0+ lim f ( x ) = 2 Since the left and right hand limits at 0 do not coincide.

This is not a coincidence. below we formalise these as a theorem without proof. We know that lim x = a.3. In fact. . for some real number λ . lim x →a g ( x) f ( x) = lim f ( x ) x →a lim g ( x ) x→ a Note In particular as a special case of (iii).2 Limits of polynomials and rational functions A function f is said to be a polynomial function if f(x) is zero function or if f(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 +. 13. at a given point the value of the function and its limit may be different (even when both are defined). x →a x →a Then (i) Limit of sum of two functions is sum of the limits of the functions. lim g(x). Hence x →a ..e. where ais are real numbers such that an ≠ 0 for some natural number n.lim f ( x ) . Theorem 1 Let f and g be two functions such that both lim f (x) and lim g(x) exist.. i..e.. g(x)] = lim f(x).e.e. we have lim ⎡( λ. . lim [f(x) + g (x)] = lim f(x) + lim g(x). ⎣ ⎦ x→a x →a In the next two subsections. subtraction. lim [f(x) – g(x)] = lim f(x) – lim g(x). we illustrate how to exploit this theorem to evaluate limits of special types of functions. i. multiplication and division as long as the limits and functions under consideration are well defined. x →a x →a x →a (iii) Limit of product of two functions is product of the limits of the functions. i. f ) ( x ) ⎤ = λ. + anxn. lim [f(x) . x →a x →a x →a (ii) Limit of difference of two functions is difference of the limits of the functions. i.3. x →a x →a x →a (iv) Limit of quotient of two functions is quotient of the limits of the functions (whenever the denominator is non zero). we have observed that the limiting process respects addition. 13. when g is the constant function such that g(x) = λ .292 MATHEMATICS note that in general.1 Algebra of limits In the above illustrations.

a2 x 2 . where g(x) and h(x) ( ) are polynomials such that h(x) ≠ 0. In the former case we say that the limit does not exist.. a = a 2 x→a x→ a x→a x→ a An easy exercise in induction on n tells us that lim x n = a n x →a Now. Now. there are two scenarios – (i) when g(a) ≠ 0 and (ii) when g(a) = 0. an x n as a function.. where k is the maximum of powers of (x – a) in g(x) Similarly. + an x n be a polynomial function... we have lim f ( x ) = x→a lim g ( x ) x→ a lim h ( x ) x →a = lim ( x − a ) g1 ( x ) k x→ a lim ( x − a ) h1 ( x ) l x →a .. Thinking of each of a0 . + lim an x x →a x→ a x→a x →a 2 n = a0 + a1 lim x + a2 lim x + . + an x n ⎤ ⎦ x →a ⎣ 2 n = lim a0 + lim a1 x + lim a2 x + . if h(a) = 0... we have lim f x→a ( x ) = lim ⎡a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 293 lim x 2 = lim ( x... if k ≥ l.. a1 x.. In the latter case we can write g(x) = (x – a)k g1 (x). if f(x) = h x .lim x = a. let f ( x ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + . + an lim x x →a x →a x→ a = a0 + a1a + a2 a 2 + . + an a n = f (a) (Make sure that you understand the justification for each step in the above!) g ( x) A function f is said to be a rational function.. h(x) = (x – a)l h1 (x) as h (a) = 0.. Then lim f ( x ) = lim x →a x→ a g ( x) h( x) = lim g ( x ) x →a lim h ( x ) x→ a = g (a) h ( a) However. x ) = lim x..

+ 1 = 1 . we first evaluate these functions at the prescribed points... Hence. + ( −1)10 ⎦ = 1 − 1 + 1. ⎦ Solution The required limits are all limits of some polynomial functions.294 MATHEMATICS lim ( x − a ) = x→a x →a ( k −l ) g1 ( x ) lim h1 ( x ) = 0... Hence the limits are the values of the function at the prescribed points... + x10 ⎤ = 1 + ( −1) + ( −1)2 + . Example 2 Find the limits: ⎡ x2 + 1 ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ (i) x →1 ⎣ x + 100 ⎦ ⎡ x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ (ii) x →2 x2 − 4 ⎣ ⎦ (iii) ⎡ ⎤ x2 − 4 lim ⎢ 3 ⎥ 2 x →2 x − 4 x + 4 x ⎣ ⎦ (iv) ⎡ x3 − 2 x2 ⎤ lim ⎢ 2 ⎥ x →2 x − 5 x + 6 ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ − 3 (v) lim ⎢ 2 . 3 2 Example 1 Find the limits: (i) lim ⎡ x − x + 1⎤ ⎦ x →1 ⎣ (ii) lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ ⎦ x →3 ⎣ (iii) x →−1 ⎣ lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + . If this is of the form 0 . we try to 0 rewrite the function cancelling the factors which are causing the limit to be of the form 0 . + x10 ⎤ . 0 . We have (i) lim [x3 – x2 + 1] = 13 – 12 + 1 = 1 x→1 ⎡ ⎤ (ii) lim ⎣ x ( x + 1)⎦ = 3 ( 3 + 1) = 3 ( 4 ) = 12 x →3 (iii) x →−1 ⎣ lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + . g1 ( a ) h1 ( a ) =0 If k < l. the limit is not defined.. 2 x →1 ⎣ x − x x − 3x + 2 x ⎥ ⎦ Solution All the functions under consideration are rational functions..

it is of the form 2 x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x Hence lim = lim x → 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x→2 x2 − 4 = lim x →2 x ( x − 2) ( x + 2) = as x ≠ 2 = 2 ( 2 − 2) 2+2 0 = 0. = lim x →2 ( x − 3 ) 2 − 3 −1 2 .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 295 (i) We have lim (ii) x2 + 1 12 + 1 2 = = x →1 x + 100 1 + 100 101 0 . 0 Hence lim ( 2) 4 x2 = = = −4. 0 Hence lim x →2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x2 − 4 2 = lim x→2 x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x ( x + 2) 2+2 4 = lim x x − 2 = 2 2 − 2 = 0 x →2 ( ) ( ) which is not defined. we get it of the form x2 ( x − 2) x3 − 2 x 2 lim = x →2 x→2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) 0 . 4 (iii) Evaluating the function at 2. we get it of the form 0 . 0 Evaluating the function at 2. (iv) Evaluating the function at 2.

0 Hence ⎡ x2 − 2 ⎤ x2 − 4x + 3 1 − 3 lim ⎢ 2 ⎥ = lim x →1 x − x x − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎦ x →1 x ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ⎣ ( x − 3)( x − 1) = lim x x − 1 x − 2 x →1 ( )( ) x−3 1− 3 = lim x x − 2 = 1 1 − 2 = 2. Theorem 2 For any positive integer n. x →1 ( ) ( ) We remark that we could cancel the term (x – 1) in the above evaluation because x ≠ 1.296 MATHEMATICS (v) First. we rewrite the function as a rational function. Evaluation of an important limit which will be used in the sequel is given as a theorem below. x →a x − a Remark The expression in the above theorem for the limit is true even if n is any rational number and a is positive. ⎡ 1 1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ ⎢ x−2 − ⎢ x 2 − x − x3 − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎥ = ⎢ x ( x − 1) x x 2 − 3 x + 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ( ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ x−2 ⎤ 1 = ⎢ x x −1 − x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ ) ( )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ x2 − 4x + 4 − 1 ⎤ = ⎢ x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ x2 − 4x + 3 = x x −1 x − 2 ( )( ) Evaluating the function at 1. lim xn − an = na n−1 . we get it of the form 0 . .

. we see that xn – an = (x–a) (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + . + x an–2 + an–1) Thus. ..+an–1 + an–1 (n terms) n −1 = na Example 3 Evaluate: x15 − 1 x →1 x10 − 1 Solution (i) We have (i) lim (ii) lim x →0 1+ x −1 x lim x →1 15 10 x15 − 1 lim ⎡ x − 1 ÷ x − 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = x →1 x −1 ⎦ x10 − 1 ⎣ x −1 ⎡ x15 − 1 ⎤ ⎡ x10 − 1 ⎤ ÷ lim ⎢ lim ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ = x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦ x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦ = 15 (1)14 ÷ 10(1)9 (by the theorem above) = 15 ÷ 10 = 3 2 (ii) Put y = 1 + x.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 297 Proof Dividing (xn – an) by (x – a)... Then lim x →0 y −1 1+ x −1 = lim y →1 y – 1 x 1 1 y 2 − 12 = lim y →1 y −1 = 1 1 1 2 −1 (1) (by the remark above) = 2 2 .. lim xn − an = lim (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + . + an–2 (a) +an–l = an–1 + an – 1 +... + x an–2 + an–1) x →a x − a x →a = an – l + a an–2 +. so that y → 1 as x → 0.

4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions The following facts (stated as theorems) about functions in general come in handy in calculating limits of some trigonometric functions.9 Given below is a beautiful geometric proof of the following important inequality relating trigonometric functions.9. if both lim f(x) and x →a lim g(x) exist. This is illustrated in Fig 13. For some a. Theorem 3 Let f and g be two real valued functions with the same domain such that f (x) ≤ g( x) for all x in the domain of definition. x →a x →a x →a Fig 13. then lim f(x) ≤ lim g(x). if lim f(x) = l = lim h(x). For some real number a. g and h be real functions such that f (x) ≤ g( x) ≤ h(x) for all x in the common domain of definition. cos x < sin x <1 x for 0 < x < π 2 (*) .298 MATHEMATICS 13. then lim g(x) = l.8. x→a x→a x→ a Fig 13.8 Theorem 4 (Sandwich Theorem) Let f. This is illustrated in Fig 13.

(i) lim sin x =1. Fig 13. the angle AOC is x radians and 0 < x < i.CD < . Then Area of ∆OAC < Area of sector OAC < Area of ∆ OAB.10. Thus OA sin x < OA.π. we have sin x < x < tan x.10 1 x 1 OA. Hence. we have 2 x 1 < . Proof (i) The inequality in (*) says that the function . Since length OA is positive. OA < AB. x < OA.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 299 Proof We know that sin (– x) = – sin x and cos( – x) = cos x.. cos x < Proposition 5 The following are two important limits.(OA) 2 < OA. Taking reciprocals throughout.AB . we have sin x cos x sin x <1 x which complete the proof. sin x = CD AB (since OC = OA) and hence CD = OA sin x.e. 2 In the Fig 13. tan x. Since 0 < x < 1< π . Also tan x = and OA OA hence AB = OA. O is the centre of the unit circle such that π . CD < x . Line segments B A and 2 CD are perpendiculars to OA. x →0 x sin x is sandwiched between the x function cos x and the constant function which takes value 1. From ∆ OCD. it is sufficient to prove the inequality for 0 < x < π . tan x. sinx is positive and thus by dividing throughout by sin x.e. 2 2π 2 i. join AC. x →0 x (ii) lim 1 − cos x =0. Further..

.1 = 2 (as x → 0. we recall the trigonometric identity 1 – cos x = 2 sin2 ⎜ ⎟ . since lim cos x = 1. we see that the proof of (i) of the theorem is x→0 complete by sandwich theorem. 4x → 0 and 2x → 0) .300 MATHEMATICS Further.lim ⎢ x→0 ⎣ 4 x ⎥ ⎢ 2 x ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ = 2. ⎛x⎞ To prove (ii).0 = 0 = lim ⎜2⎟ x x →0 x →0 ⎝ ⎠ 2 Observe that we have implicitly used the fact that x → 0 is equivalent to may be justified by putting y = x → 0 . 2 (ii) lim Example 4 Evaluate: (i) lim sin 4 x x →0 sin 2 x tan x x →0 x Solution (i) lim x →0 ⎡ sin 4 x 2 x ⎤ sin 4 x = lim ⎢ .1.lim sin ⎛ x ⎞ = 1.sin ⎛ x ⎞ ⎜2⎟ x →0 x x ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛x⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ . 4lim0 ⎢ ⎥ ÷ 2lim0 ⎢ 2 x ⎥ x→ ⎣ 4x ⎦ x→ ⎣ ⎦ = 2. ⎝2⎠ Then 1 − cos x lim = lim x →0 x →0 x ⎛x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 2sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = lim ⎝ 2 ⎠ . This 2 x .2⎥ x →0 ⎣ 4 x sin 2 x ⎦ sin 2 x ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ ÷ = 2.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

301

(ii) We have lim x →0

sin x sin x 1 tan x . lim = lim = lim = 1.1 = 1 x →0 x cos x x →0 x x →0 cos x x

A general rule that needs to be kept in mind while evaluating limits is the following.

f ( x) Say, given that the limit lim g x exists and we want to evaluate this. First we check x→a ( )

the value of f (a) and g(a). If both are 0, then we see if we can get the factor which is causing the terms to vanish, i.e., see if we can write f(x) = f1 (x) f2(x) so that f1 (a) = 0 and f2 (a) ≠ 0. Similarly, we write g(x) = g1 (x) g2(x), where g1(a) = 0 and g2(a) ≠ 0. Cancel out the common factors from f(x) and g(x) (if possible) and write

g ( x)

Then

f ( x)

=

q ( x ) , where q(x) ≠ 0. = q(a) . p(a)

p ( x)

lim

x →a

g ( x)

f ( x)

EXERCISE 13.1

Evaluate the following limits in Exercises 1 to 22. 1. lim x + 3 x →3 4. lim

**22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. lim ⎜ x − ⎟ x→π ⎝ 7 ⎠
**

5. lim

x10 + x 5 + 1 x −1

2 3. lim πr r →1

4x + 3 x →4 x − 2

3 x 2 − x − 10 x2 − 4

1

x → −1

6. lim

( x + 1)5 − 1

x

x→0

7. lim

x →2

8. lim

x →3

x 4 − 81 2 x2 − 5x − 3

9. lim

x →0

ax + b cx + 1

10. lim z →1

z3 −1

1 z6

11. lim

−1

ax 2 + bx + c ,a+b+c ≠ 0 x →1 cx 2 + bx + a

1 1 + 12. lim x 2 x →−2 x + 2

13. lim

x →0

sin ax bx

14. lim

x →0

sin ax , a, b ≠ 0 sin bx

302

MATHEMATICS

**sin ( π − x ) 15. lim π π − x x→π ( )
**

18. lim

16. lim

x →0

cos x π−x

17. lim

cos 2 x − 1 x →0 cos x − 1

x →0

**ax + x cos x b sin x sin ax + bx a, b, a + b ≠ 0 , ax + sin bx
**

tan 2 x π x− 2

19. lim x sec x x →0 21. lim (cosec x − cot x ) x →0

20. lim

x →0

22.

π x→ 2

lim

⎧ 2 x + 3, x ≤ 0 23. Find lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨3 x + 1 , x > 0 x →0 x →1 ) ⎩ (

**⎧ 2 ⎪ x − 1, x ≤ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 24. Find lim f ( x ) , where x →1 ⎪− x − 1, x > 1 ⎩
**

⎧| x | ⎪ , x≠0 25. Evaluate lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨ x x →0 ⎪ 0, x = 0 ⎩

**⎧ x ⎪ , x≠0 lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨ | x | 26. Find x →0 ⎪ 0, x = 0 ⎩
**

27. Find lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = | x | −5 x →5

⎧ a + bx , ⎪ 28. Suppose f ( x ) = ⎨4, ⎪ b − ax , ⎩

x→1

x <1 x =1 x >1

and if lim f (x) = f (1) what are possible values of a and b?

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

303

**29. Let a1, a2, . . ., an be fixed real numbers and define a function
**

f ( x ) = ( x − a1 ) ( x − a2 ) ... ( x − an ) .

**What is xlim (x) ? For some a ≠ a1, a2, ..., an, compute lim f (x). x→ a →a
**

1

⎧ x + 1, x < 0 ⎪ x=0 . 30. If f ( x ) = ⎨ 0, ⎪ x − 1, x > 0 ⎩

For what value (s) of a does lim f (x) exists? x →a 31. If the function f(x) satisfies lim

f ( x) − 2 x2 − 1

x →1

= π , evaluate lim f ( x ) . x →1

32.

⎧ mx 2 + n , x<0 ⎪ If f ( x ) = ⎨ nx + m , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . For what integers m and n does both lim f ( x ) x →0 ⎪ 3 x >1 ⎩ nx + m ,

and lim f ( x ) exist? x →1

13.5 Derivatives

We have seen in the Section 13.2, that by knowing the position of a body at various time intervals it is possible to find the rate at which the position of the body is changing. It is of very general interest to know a certain parameter at various instants of time and try to finding the rate at which it is changing. There are several real life situations where such a process needs to be carried out. For instance, people maintaining a reservoir need to know when will a reservoir overflow knowing the depth of the water at several instances of time, Rocket Scientists need to compute the precise velocity with which the satellite needs to be shot out from the rocket knowing the height of the rocket at various times. Financial institutions need to predict the changes in the value of a particular stock knowing its present value. In these, and many such cases it is desirable to know how a particular parameter is changing with respect to some other parameter. The heart of the matter is derivative of a function at a given point in its domain of definition.

304

MATHEMATICS

**Definition 1 Suppose f is a real valued function and a is a point in its domain of definition. The derivative of f at a is defined by
**

h provided this limit exists. Derivative of f (x) at a is denoted by f′(a). lim f ( a + h) − f (a )

h→0

Observe that f′ (a) quantifies the change in f(x) at a with respect to x.

**Example 5 Find the derivative at x = 2 of the function f(x) = 3x. Solution We have f′ (2) = lim
**

f ( 2 + h ) − f ( 2) h 3( 2 + h ) − 3( 2) h

h→0

= lim

h→0

= lim

h →0

6 + 3h − 6 3h = lim = lim 3 = 3 . h →0 h h →0 h

The derivative of the function 3x at x = 2 is 3. Example 6 Find the derivative of the function f(x) = 2x2 + 3x – 5 at x = –1. Also prove that f ′ (0) + 3f ′ ( –1) = 0. Solution We first find the derivatives of f(x) at x = –1 and at x = 0. We have

f ' ( −1) = lim

f ( −1 + h ) − f ( −1) h

h→0

⎡ 2 ( −1 + h )2 + 3 ( −1 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( −1)2 + 3 ( −1) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h

= lim

2h 2 − h = lim ( 2h − 1) = 2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 h→0 h f (0 + h ) − f (0) h

h→0

and

f ' ( 0 ) = lim

h→0

⎡ 2 ( 0 + h )2 + 3 ( 0 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( 0 )2 + 3 ( 0 ) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

305

= lim Clearly

2h 2 + 3h = lim ( 2h + 3) = 2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 h →0 h→0 h

f ' ( 0 ) + 3 f ' ( −1) = 0

Remark At this stage note that evaluating derivative at a point involves effective use of various rules, limits are subjected to. The following illustrates this. Example 7 Find the derivative of sin x at x = 0. Solution Let f(x) = sin x. Then f ′(0) = lim

f (0 + h) − f (0) h sin ( 0 + h ) − sin ( 0 ) h

h→0

= lim

h→0

= lim

sin h =1 h →0 h

Example 8 Find the derivative of f(x) = 3 at x = 0 and at x = 3. Solution Since the derivative measures the change in function, intuitively it is clear that the derivative of the constant function must be zero at every point. This is indeed, supported by the following computation.

f ' ( 0 ) = lim

f ( 0 + h ) − f (0) h f ( 3 + h ) − f ( 3) h

h→0

= lim = lim

h→0

3−3 0 = lim = 0 . h→0 h h 3−3 =0. h

Similarly

f ' ( 3) = lim

h→0

h→0

We now present a geometric interpretation of derivative of a function at a point. Let y = f(x) be a function and let P = (a, f(a)) and Q = (a + h, f(a + h) be two points close to each other on the graph of this function. The Fig 13.11 is now self explanatory.

Fig 13.11

306

MATHEMATICS

h From the triangle PQR, it is clear that the ratio whose limit we are taking is precisely equal to tan(QPR) which is the slope of the chord PQ. In the limiting process, as h tends to 0, the point Q tends to P and we have QR = lim Q → P PR h This is equivalent to the fact that the chord PQ tends to the tangent at P of the curve y = f(x). Thus the limit turns out to be equal to the slope of the tangent. Hence lim

h→0

We know that f ′ ( a ) = lim

f (a + h) − f (a)

h→0

f (a + h) − f (a)

f ′ ( a ) = tan ψ .

For a given function f we can find the derivative at every point. If the derivative exists at every point, it defines a new function called the derivative of f . Formally, we define derivative of a function as follows. Definition 2 Suppose f is a real valued function, the function defined by

h wherever the limit exists is defined to be the derivative of f at x and is denoted by f′(x). This definition of derivative is also called the first principle of derivative. lim f ( x + h) − f ( x)

h→0

Thus

h Clearly the domain of definition of f′ (x) is wherever the above limit exists. There are different notations for derivative of a function. Sometimes f′ (x) is denoted by

f ' ( x ) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x)

h→0

**d ( f ( x )) or if y = f(x), it is denoted by dy . This is referred to as derivative of f(x) dx dx or y with respect to x. It is also denoted by D (f (x) ). Further, derivative of f at x = a
**

is also denoted by

d f ( x) dx

a

or

df dx

a

⎛ df ⎞ or even ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝ dx ⎠ x = a

**Example 9 Find the derivative of f(x) = 10x. Solution Since f′ ( x) = lim
**

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

307

= lim = lim

10 ( x + h ) − 10 ( x ) h

h→0

h →0

10h = lim (10 ) = 10 . h→ 0 h

**Example 10 Find the derivative of f(x) = x2. Solution We have, f ′(x) = lim
**

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

=

( x + h )2 − ( x )2 lim

h→0

h

= lim ( h + 2 x ) = 2 x h →0

Example 11 Find the derivative of the constant function f (x) = a for a fixed real number a. Solution We have, f ′(x) = lim = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

h →0

a−a 0 = lim = 0 as h ≠ 0 h →0 h h

1 x

Example 12 Find the derivative of f(x) = Solution We have f ′(x) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

1 1 – = lim ( x + h) x h →0 h

1 ⎡ x − ( x + h) ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ h →0 )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦

−1 1 ⎡ −h ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ = lim x x + h h →0 ) ) ⎥ h →0 ( ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦

= −

1 x2

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MATHEMATICS

13.5.1 Algebra of derivative of functions Since the very definition of derivatives involve limits in a rather direct fashion, we expect the rules for derivatives to follow closely that of limits. We collect these in the following theorem. Theorem 5 Let f and g be two functions such that their derivatives are defined in a common domain. Then

**(i) Derivative of sum of two functions is sum of the derivatives of the functions.
**

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) + g ( x )⎤ = f ( x) + g ( x) . ⎣ ⎦ dx dx dx

(ii) Derivative of difference of two functions is difference of the derivatives of the functions.

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) − g ( x )⎤ = ⎦ dx f ( x) − dx g ( x ) . dx ⎣

(iii) Derivative of product of two functions is given by the following product rule.

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) . g ( x )⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ dx f ( x ) . g ( x) + f ( x) . dx g ( x) dx

(iv) Derivative of quotient of two functions is given by the following quotient rule (whenever the denominator is non–zero).

d d f ( x ) . g ( x) − f ( x) g ( x) d ⎛ f ( x ) ⎞ dx dx ⎜ ⎟= dx ⎝ g ( x ) ⎠ ( g ( x ) )2

The proofs of these follow essentially from the analogous theorem for limits. We will not prove these here. As in the case of limits this theorem tells us how to compute derivatives of special types of functions. The last two statements in the theorem may be restated in the following fashion which aids in recalling them easily: Let u = f ( x ) and v = g (x). Then

( uv )′

= u ′v + uv′

This is referred to a Leibnitz rule for differentiating product of functions or the product rule. Similarly, the quotient rule is

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

309

⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ ⎜ ⎟ = v2 ⎝v⎠

Now, let us tackle derivatives of some standard functions. It is easy to see that the derivative of the function f(x) = x is the constant function 1. This is because f’(x) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

= lim

h →0

x+h−x h

= lim1 = 1 . h→0 We use this and the above theorem to compute the derivative of f(x) = 10x = x + .... + x (ten terms). By (1) of the above theorem

df ( x ) d = dx dx

=

( x + ... + x )

(ten terms)

d d x +. . .+ x (ten terms) dx dx = 1 + ... + 1 (ten terms) = 10. We note that this limit may be evaluated using product rule too. Write f(x) = 10x = uv, where u is the constant function taking value 10 everywhere and v(x) = x. Here, f(x) = 10x = uv we know that the derivative of u equals 0. Also derivative of v(x) = x equals 1. Thus by the product rule we have

f ′ ( x ) = (10 x )′ = ( uv )′ = u ′v + uv′ = 0.x + 10.1 = 10

On similar lines the derivative of f(x) = x2 may be evaluated. We have f(x) = x2 = x .x and hence

d d d df ( x.x ) = ( x ) .x + x. ( x ) = dx dx dx dx

= 1. x + x.1 = 2 x . More generally, we have the following theorem. Theorem 6 Derivative of f(x) = xn is nxn – 1 for any positive integer n. Proof By definition of the derivative function, we have

f ' ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

= lim

h →0

( x + h )n − x n

h

.

Theorem 7 Let f(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + .x n−1 x = dx dx = ( ) ( ) ( ) ) d d ( x ) . Then.4. Solution A direct application of the above theorem tells that the derivative of the above function is 600 x99 − 55 x54 + 1 .2 Derivative of polynomials and trigonometric functions We start with the following theorem which tells us the derivative of a polynomial function.. i... Example 13 Compute the derivative of 6x100 – x55 + x. + a1 x + a0 be a polynomial function. we may also prove this by induction on n and the product rule as follows. We have d n d x.e.310 MATHEMATICS Binomial theorem tells that (x + h)n = ( n C0 x n + ) ( C )x n 1 n −1 h + . x n−1 (by product rule) dx dx n −1 ( ) ( = 1. + hn – 1). n can be any real number (but we will not prove it here)... + ( n C n h n and ) hence (x + h)n – xn = h(nxn – 1 +.. . which has been proved earlier. = nx n−1 ... + 2a2 x + a1 .. The result is true for n = 1. h →0 ( ) Alternatively.x + x. xn −1 + x. 13. ( n − 1) x n − 2 (by induction hypothesis) = x n −1 + ( n − 1) x n−1 = nx n−1 . Thus df ( x ) ( x + h) − xn = lim dx h →0 h n = lim h nx n −1 + . Remark The above theorem is true for all powers of x. the derivative function is given by df ( x ) = nan x n−1 + ( n − 1) an −1 x x − 2 + .. + h n−1 h ( ) h →0 n −1 n −1 = lim nx + ... dx Proof of this theorem is just putting together part (i) of Theorem 5 and Theorem 6.. + h .. where ai s are all real numbers and an ≠ 0..

+ 50 = ( 50 )( 51) 2 = 1275. . We use the quotient rule with u = x + 1 and v = x. x +1 x Solution Clearly this function is defined everywhere except at x = 0.. . Hence u′ = 1 and v′ = 1. Therefore Example 15 Find the derivative of f(x) = df ( x) d ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ d ⎛ u ⎞ u ′v − uv ′ 1( x ) − ( x + 1)1 1 = ⎜ = =− 2 ⎟ = dx ⎜ v ⎟ = 2 2 dx dx ⎝ x ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ v x x Example 16 Compute the derivative of sin x. Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) tan ( x + h ) − tan ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h 1 ⎡ sin ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ = lim h ⎢ cos x + h − cos x ⎥ h →0 ( ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . + 50(1)49 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . . .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 311 Example 14 Find the derivative of f(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +. + 50x49. At x = 1 the value of this function equals 1 + 2(1) + 3(1)2 + ..lim h →0 2 ⎠ h →0 h ⎝ 2 sin h 2 = cos x.1 = cos x = . + x50 at x = 1. Example 17 Compute the derivative of tan x. .. Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) sin ( x + h ) − sin ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h ⎛ 2x + h ⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ 2cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (using formula for sin A – sin B) = lim h →0 h h⎞ ⎛ lim cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . Solution Let f(x) = sin x. Solution A direct application of the above Theorem 7 tells that the derivative of the above function is 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . Solution Let f(x) = tan x.

Find the derivative of x2 – 2 at x = 10. 4.2 1.lim h h→0 cos ( x + h ) cos x 1 = sec 2 x .+ + x +1. Find the derivative of the following functions from first principle. 2 cos x Example 18 Compute the derivative of f(x) = sin2 x. sin h 1 . (i) (iii) x 3 − 27 (ii) (iv) ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) x +1 x −1 1 x2 5. Find the derivative of 99x at x = l00. 100 99 2 . For the function f ( x) = x100 x 99 x2 + +. 3. Solution We use the Leibnitz product rule to evaluate this. EXERCISE 13. . Find the derivative of x at x = 1. df ( x ) d = ( sin x sin x ) dx dx = ( sin x )′ sin x + sin x ( sin x )′ = ( cos x ) sin x + sin x ( cos x ) = 2sin x cos x = sin 2 x . 2. .312 MATHEMATICS ⎡ sin ( x + h ) cos x − cos ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ = h →0 h cos ( x + h ) cos x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ sin ( x + h − x ) = lim h cos x + h cos x (using formula for sin (A + B)) h →0 ( ) = lim h →0 = 1.

. 7. . Find the derivative of for some constant a. But. Find the derivative of x n + ax n −1 + a 2 x n− 2 + . Find the derivative of (i) 2 x − (iii) (v) 3 4 (ii) ( 5x 3 + 3x − 1 ) ( x − 1) x −3 ( 5 + 3 x ) x −4 3 − 4 x −5 5 −9 (iv) x 3 − 6 x ( ) ( ) (vi) 2 x2 − x + 1 3x − 1 10. For some constants a and b. + a n −1 x + a n for some fixed real number a. Find the derivative of the following functions: (i) sin x cos x (iv) cosec x (vi) 5sin x − 6 cos x + 7 (ii) sec x (v) 3cot x + 5cosec x (vii) 2 tan x − 7 sec x (iii) 5sec x + 4 cos x Miscellaneous Examples Example 19 Find the derivative of f from the first principles. where f is given by (i) f (x) = 2x + 3 x−2 (ii) f (x) = x + 1 x Solution (i) Note that function is not defined at x = 2. we have 2 ( x + h ) + 3 2x + 3 − f ( x + h) − f ( x) x+h−2 x−2 = lim f ′ ( x ) = lim h →0 h →0 h h . 6. 11.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 313 Prove that f ′ (1) = 100 f ′ ( 0 ) . x−a 9. Find the derivative of cos x from first principle. find the derivative of (i) ( x − a) ( x − b) (ii) ( ax 2 +b ) 2 (iii) x−a x −b xn − an 8.

we have (ii) f ′ ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h →0 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜x+h+ + ⎟−⎜x+ x h⎠ ⎝ = lim ⎝ h →0 h 1⎞ ⎟ x⎠ = lim h →0 1⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎢h + x + h − x ⎥ h⎣ ⎦ ⎞⎤ 1⎡ x − x−h⎤ 1⎡ ⎛ 1 = lim h ⎢ h + x ( x + h ) ⎥ = lim h ⎢ h ⎜ 1 − x ( x + h ) ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ h →0 ⎢ ⎥ h →0 ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 = lim ⎢1 − x x + h ⎥ = 1 − 2 h →0 x ( )⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Again. But. note that the function f ′ is also not defined at x = 2. note that the function f ′ is not defined at x = 0. The function is not defined at x = 0. where f(x) is (i) sin x + cos x (ii) x sin x Solution (i) we have f ' ( x ) = = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h sin ( x + h ) + cos ( x + h ) − sin x − cos x h h→0 = lim h →0 sin x cos h + cos x sin h + cos x cos h − sin x sin h − sin x − cos x h .314 MATHEMATICS = lim h →0 ( 2 x + 2h + 3)( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x + h − 2 ) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) + 2h ( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) − h ( 2 x + 3) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) = lim h →0 –7 7 lim =− 2 = h →0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + h − 2 ) ( x − 2) Again. Example 20 Find the derivative of f(x) from the first principles.

dg d d ⎛ cos x ⎞ = (cot x) = ⎜ dx dx dx ⎝ sin x ⎟ ⎠ . Thus df ( x ) d d ( 2sin x cos x ) = 2 ( sin x cos x ) = dx dx dx = 2 ⎡( sin x )′ cos x + sin x ( cos x )′ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 ⎡( cos x ) cos x + sin x ( − sin x ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 cos 2 x − sin 2 x ( ) (ii) By definition. g(x) = cot x = cos x .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 315 = lim sin h ( cos x − sin x ) + sin x ( cos h − 1) + cos x ( cos h − 1) h h →0 = lim ( cos h − 1) sin h ( cos h − 1) ( cos x − sin x ) + lim sin x + lim cos x h→0 h h→0 h→0 h h f ( x + h) − f ( x) h = lim = cos x − sin x (ii) f ' ( x ) = lim ( x + h ) sin ( x + h ) − x sin x h h→0 h→0 = lim ( x + h )( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) − x sin x h x sin x ( cos h − 1) + x cos x sin h + h ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h + lim h→0 x cos x sin h + lim ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h→0 h h→0 = lim h→0 = lim x sin x ( cos h − 1) h h→0 = x cos x + sin x Example 21 Compute derivative of (i) f(x) = sin 2x (ii) g(x) = cot x Solution (i) Recall the trigonometric formula sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. We use the quotient rule on this function sin x wherever it is defined.

Alternatively.316 MATHEMATICS = (cos x)′ (sin x) − (cos x) (sin x)′ (sin x )2 = ( − sin x )(sin x) − (cos x)(cos x) (sin x) 2 sin 2 x + cos2 x = − cosec 2 x 2 sin x = − 1 . Here. we use the fact tan x that the derivative of tan x is sec2 x which we saw in Example 17 and also that the derivative of the constant function is 0. h′( x) = x 5 − cos x . We use the quotient rule on this function wherever sin x ( x 5 − cos x)′ sin x − ( x 5 − cos x) (sin x )′ (sin x ) 2 . this may be computed by noting that cot x = d d ⎛ 1 ⎞ dg (cot x ) = = dx dx ⎜ tan x ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠ = (1)′ (tan x ) − (1) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (0) (tan x) − (sec x) 2 = (tan x) 2 = − sec 2 x = − cosec 2 x tan 2 x Example 22 Find the derivative of (i) x 5 − cos x sin x (ii) x + cos x tan x Solution (i) Let h( x ) = it is defined.

c. 8. (px + q) ⎜ + s ⎟ ⎝x ⎠ 1 x 6. (ax + b) n (cx + d ) m 16. Find the derivative of the following functions from first principles: π ) 8 Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a. cos x 1 + sin x . b. cosec x cot x 13. tan x ( x + cos x)′ tan x − ( x + cos x ) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (1 − sin x ) tan x − ( x + cos x) sec2 x (tan x) 2 = Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. 4 x − 2 14. cx + d ax + b px + qx + r 2 7. 10. a b − 2 + cos x 4 x x 11. sin (x + a) 12. p. r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (i) − x (ii) (− x) −1 (iii) sin (x + 1) (iv) cos (x – 2. (ax + b) n 15. 1 1− x 1+ 9.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 317 (5 x 4 + sin x) sin x − ( x5 − cos x) cos x = sin 2 x = − x 5 cos x + 5 x 4 sin x + 1 (sin x )2 (ii) We use quotient rule on the function h′( x) = x + cos x wherever it is defined. px 2 + qx + r ax + b 4. q. ( ax + b )( cx + d )2 1 ax + bx + c 2 ax + b 5. d. (x + a) ⎛r ⎞ 3.

one may be defined and not the other one). 23. 28. For functions f and g the following holds: lim [ f ( x ) ± g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x) x →a x →a x →a lim [ f ( x). 21. if they coincide. sin x + cos x sin x − cos x a + b sin x c + d cos x 18. 24. x sin n x 25. 20. lim f(x) and f (a) may not be same (In x →a fact. Limit of a function at a point is the common value of the left and right hand limits.318 MATHEMATICS 17. 3 x + 7cos x 29. ( x + cos x ) ( x − tan x ) x 1 + tan x 4 x + 5sin x 26. sin n x 22.lim g ( x ) x →a x→ a x→a ⎡ f ( x) ⎤ lim f ( x) x →a lim ⎢ ⎥= x → a g ( x) ⎣ ⎦ lim g ( x) x→ a Following are some of the standard limits lim xn − an = na n−1 x →a x − a . Similarly the right hand limit. ( x + sec x ) ( x − tan x ) Summary The expected value of the function as dictated by the points to the left of a point defines the left hand limit of the function at that point. g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ). x 4 (5sin x − 3cos x ) (x 2 + 1 cos x ) ( ax 2 + sin x ) ( p + q cos x ) ⎛π ⎞ x 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ 27. sec x − 1 sec x + 1 sin( x + a) cos x 19. For a function f and a real number a. sin x 30.

⎜v⎟ = v2 ⎝ ⎠ Following are some of the standard derivatives. After the advent of calculus many mathematicians contributed for further development of calculus. The rigorous concept is mainly attributed to the great . d n ( x ) = nx n −1 dx d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = − sin x dx Historical Note In the history of mathematics two names are prominent to share the credit for inventing calculus.W. Issac Newton (1642 – 1727) and G. Both of them independently invented calculus around the seventeenth century. Leibnitz (1646 – 1717).LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 319 lim sin x =1 x →0 x 1 − cos x =0 x →0 x The derivative of a function f at a is defined by lim f ( a + h) − f ( a) h →0 h Derivative of a function f at any point x is defined by f ′( a) = lim df ( x) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h →0 dx h For functions u and v the following holds: f ′( x) = (u ± v )′ = u ′ ± v′ (uv)′ = u ′v + uv′ ⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ provided all are defined.

Griffin. This was regarded as one of the most daring act in those days. Cauchy gave examples such as the limit of sin α α ∆ y f ( x + i ) − f ( x) . F. and called the limit for for α = 0.320 MATHEMATICS mathematicians. A.L. Before 1900. pioneered the teaching of calculus to first year students. So calculus became beyond the reach of youngsters. But just in 1900. Economics and Biological Sciences are enjoying the fruits of calculus. Cauchy used D’ Alembert’s limit concept to define the derivative of a function.Lagrange and Karl Weierstrass. Cauchy. John Perry and others in England started propagating the view that essential ideas and methods of calculus were simple and could be taught even in schools. it was thought that calculus is quite difficult to teach. He wrote ∆ x = i i → 0. y′ for f ′ (x)”. the “function derive’e. — — . Starting with definition of a limit. Cauchy gave the foundation of calculus as we have now generally accepted in our textbooks.L. Today not only the mathematics but many other subjects such as Physics. Chemistry.L. J.

we shall discuss the process of reasoning especially in the context of mathematics. George Boole (1815 .1864) 14. An elephant weighs more than a human being. How well this ability can be used depends on each person’s power of reasoning. the president of India was a woman. In this Chapter. we shall discuss about some basic ideas of Mathematical Reasoning. We have already discussed the inductive reasoning in the context of mathematical induction. – ARTHENBOT 14. . All of us know that human beings evolved from the lower species over many millennia. it is a sign that our knowledge of them is very small and confused and where a mathematical reasoning can be had. Let us start with two sentences: In 2003.1 Introduction In this Chapter.2 Statements The basic unit involved in mathematical reasoning is a mathematical statement. we shall discuss some fundamentals of deductive reasoning.Chapter 14 MATHEMATICAL REASONING There are few things which we know which are not capable of mathematical reasoning and when these can not. there are two kinds of reasoning – inductive and deductive. it is as great a folly to make use of another. The main asset that made humans “superior” to other species was the ability to reason. In mathematical language. How to develop this power? Here. as to grope for a thing in the dark when you have a candle stick standing by you.

Therefore. we immediately decide that the first sentence is false and the second is correct. But the sentence: For any natural numbers x and y. Therefore. For example. the first two are true and the third one is false. For example. All prime numbers are odd numbers. That means this sentence is ambiguous. Regarding this sentence we cannot say whether it is always true or false . Now. Can you think of an example of a sentence which is vague or ambiguous? Consider the sentence: The sum of x and y is greater than 0 Here. There is no ambiguity regarding these sentences. Whenever we mention a statement here. we come across many such sentences. On the other hand. Some people may think it is true while others may disagree. None of these is considered as a statement in mathematical language.322 MATHEMATICS When we read these sentences. While studying mathematics. unless we know what x and y are. Such a sentence is not acceptable as a statement in mathematics. Some examples are: Two plus two equals four. Sentences involving variable time such as “today”. the second an order and the third a question. The sum of two positive numbers is positive. y = –3 and true when x = 1 and y = 0. consider the sentence: Women are more intelligent than men. we are not in a position to determine whether it is true or false. In mathematics such sentences are called statements. because the first one is an exclamation. A sentence is called a mathematically acceptable statement if it is either true or false but not both. the sum of x and y is greater than 0 is a statement. it is a “mathematically acceptable” statement. “tomorrow” or “yesterday” are not statements. they are statements. There is no confusion regarding these. this sentence is not a statement. This is because it is not known what time is referred here. the sentence Tomorrow is Friday . Of these sentences. consider the following sentences : How beautiful! Open the door. Where are you going? Are they statements? No. it is false where x = 1.

the sentences She is a mathematics graduate. The sentence is correct (true) on a Thursday but not on other days. we denote the statement “Fire is always hot” by p. This is also written as p: Fire is always hot. this sentence is a statement. r. For example. we usually denote them by small letters p. (iii) The sun is a star. For example. (vi) How far is Chennai from here? Solution (i) This sentence is false because 8 is greater than 6. (v) There is no rain without clouds.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 323 is not a statement. (iii) It is a scientifically established fact that sun is a star and. . (iv) Mathematics is fun. Hence it is not a statement. (ii) This sentence is also false since there are sets which are not finite. While dealing with statements. therefore. (iv) This sentence is subjective in the sense that for those who like mathematics. Hence it is a statement.. Give reasons for your answer. (i) 8 is less than 6. (ii) Every set is a finite set. “there” etc. But we know that the sentence is always false (irrespective of the month) since the maximum number of days in a month can never exceed 31. Here is another sentence There are 40 days in a month. are not statements. Therefore. Example 1 Check whether the following sentences are statements.. Hence it is a statement. Would you call this a statement? Note that the period mentioned in the sentence above is a “variable time” that is any of 12 months. q. The same argument holds for sentences with pronouns unless a particular person is referred to and for variable places such as “here”. what makes a sentence a statement is the fact that the sentence is either true or false but not both. it may be fun but for others it may not be. So. this sentence is always true... This means that this sentence is not always true. Kashmir is far from here. Hence it is a statement.

Let us consider the statement: p: New Delhi is a city The negation of this statement is . we look at an important technique that we may use in order to deepen our understanding of mathematical statements. Here. An English mathematician. (vi) This is a question which also contains the word “Here”. (iv) The square of a number is an even number. Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer. (ix) Today is a windy day. (iii) The sum of 5 and 7 is greater than 10.324 MATHEMATICS (v) It is a scientifically established natural phenomenon that cloud is formed before it rains. (ii) Mathematics is difficult. (vii) The product of (–1) and 8 is 8. 2. “George Boole” discussed these methods in his book “The laws of Thought” in 1854. (vi) Answer this question. 14. Hence it is a statement. this sentence is always true. Give three examples of sentences which are not statements. Therefore. (v) The sides of a quadrilateral have equal length.1 Negation of a statement The denial of a statement is called the negation of the statement.3 New Statements from Old We now look into method for producing new statements from those that we already have. As a first step in our study of statements. (i) There are 35 days in a month. This technique is to ask not only what it means to say that a given statement is true but also what it would mean to say that the given statement is not true. This “why” of it is more important than the answer.1 1. (x) All real numbers are complex numbers. Give reasons for the answers. The above examples show that whenever we say that a sentence is a statement we should always say why it is so. EXERCISE 14. we shall discuss two techniques. (viii) The sum of all interior angles of a triangle is 180°.3. 14. Hence it is not a statement.

both the diagonals have the same length. . Let us consider the statement p: Everyone in Germany speaks German. We shall consider more examples. Definition 1 If p is a statement. (ii) 7 is rational. then the negation of p is also a statement and is denoted by ∼ p. (i) Both the diagonals of a rectangle have the same length. This can also be rewritten as 7 is not rational. Example 2 Write the negation of the following statements. This does not mean that no person in Germany speaks German. Solution (i) This statement says that in a rectangle.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 325 It is not the case that New Delhi is a city This can also be written as It is false that New Delhi is a city. then both the diagonals have the same length. Note While forming the negation of a statement. phrases like. and read as ‘not p’. The negation of this statement is It is false that both the diagonals in a rectangle have the same length This means the statement There is atleast one rectangle whose both diagonals do not have the same length. we may improve our understanding of it. This means that if you take any rectangle. (ii) The negation of the statement in (ii) may also be written as It is not the case that 7 is rational. “It is not the case” or “It is false that” are also used. by looking at the negation of a statement. It says merely that at least one person in Germany does not speak German. Here is an example to illustrate how. This can simply be expressed as New Delhi is not a city. The denial of this sentence tells us that not everyone in Germany speaks German.

“or”. Consider the following statement p: There is something wrong with the bulb or with the wiring. (iii) The negation of the statement is It is false that every natural number is greater than 0. (iii) Every natural number is greater than 0. This statement is true because we know that square is a quadrilaterial such that its four sides are equal. Solution (i) The negation of the statement is It is false that Australia is a continent. (iv) The sum of 3 and 4 is 9. This statement is true. This can also be rewritten as Australia is not a continent. etc. This statement tells us that there is something wrong with the bulb or there is . 14. (i) Australia is a continent. (ii) The negation of the statement is It is not the case that there does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. This can be rewritten as There exists a natural number which is not greater than 0.326 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Write the negation of the following statements and check whether the resulting statements are true. (ii) There does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal.2 Compound statements Many mathematical statements are obtained by combining one or more statements using some connecting words like “and”. We know that this statement is false. This is a false statement.3. This can be written as The sum of 3 and 4 is not equal to 9. This also means the following: There exists a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. (iv) The negation is It is false that the sum of 3 and 4 is 9.

q: It is cold. The connecting word is ‘and’. These two statements can be combined with “and” r: 7 is both odd and prime number. r: There is something wrong with the wiring. This is a compound statement. (iii) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are complex. q: All real numbers are complex. q: The grass is green. (iv) 0 is a positive number or a negative number. (iii)The component statements are p: All rational numbers are real. each statement is called a component statement. (iv)The component statements are . (i) The sky is blue and the grass is green. connected by “or” Now. q: 7 is a prime number. Let us consider some examples.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 327 something wrong with the wiring. The connecting word is ‘and’. (ii) The component statements are p: It is raining. In this case. The connecting word is ‘and’. This leads us to the following definition: Definition 2 A Compound Statement is a statement which is made up of two or more statements. Example 4 Find the component statements of the following compound statements. That means the given statement is actually made up of two smaller statements: q: There is something wrong with the bulb. suppose two statements are given as below: p: 7 is an odd number. (ii) It is raining and it is cold. Solution Let us consider one by one (i) The component statements are p: The sky is blue.

(iv) Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana and UP. q: 0 is a negative number. Example 5 Find the component statements of the following and check whether they are true or not. (v) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. The connecting word is ‘or’. Here the connecting word is ‘or’. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A square is a quadrilateral. We know that both these statements are true. (i) A square is a quadrilateral and its four sides equal. Here the connecting word is ‘and’.328 MATHEMATICS p: 0 is a positive number. (iv) The component statements are p: Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana. (iii) The component statements are p: A person who has taken Mathematics can go for MCA. q: A person who has taken computer science can go for MCA. Both these statements are true. Both these statements are false and the connecting word is ‘or’. q: A square has all its sides equal. (iii) A person who has taken Mathematics or Computer Science can go for MCA. 4 and 8. (v) The component statements are . q: Chandigarh is the capital of UP. (ii) All prime numbers are either even or odd. (vi) 24 is a multiple of 2. q: All prime numbers are even number. (ii) The component statements are p: All prime numbers are odd number. Here the connecting word is ‘and’. The first statement is true but the second is false.

3. All the three statements are true. 2 is an irrational number. “or”. 100 is divisible by 3. The number x is a rational number. (ii) 14. The number 2 is greater than 7. etc. (ii) (iii) All integers are positive or negative. Here the connecting word is ‘or’.2 1. The first statement is false and second is true. Thus. (vi) The component statements are p: 24 is a multiple of 2. The number x is not an irrational number. 2.4 Special Words/Phrases Some of the connecting words which are found in compound statements like “And”. Write the negation of the following statements: (i) Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu. The number x is an irrational number. r: 24 is a multiple of 8. Here the connecting words are ‘and’. Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false. (v) Every natural number is an integer. . 11 and 5.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 329 p: q: 2 is a rational number. EXERCISE 14. These words have special meaning in mathematics. We shall discuss this mattter in the following section. (i) Number 3 is prime or it is odd. q: 24 is a multiple of 4. (ii) (iii) (iv) 2 is not a complex number All triangles are not equilateral triangle. we observe that compound statements are actually made-up of two or more statements connected by the words like “and”. Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other: (i) The number x is not a rational number.

These are called connectives. r: 42 is divisible by 6. 2. Here. The component statement with ‘And’ is false if any of its component statements is false (this includes the case that some of its component statements are false or all of its component statements are false). r: Its location can be determined. Here. We have the following rules regarding the connective “And” 1. p: A point occupies a position and its location can be determined. are often used in Mathematical Statements. (i) A line is straight and extends indefinitely in both directions. Example 6 Write the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether the compound statement is true or false. s: 42 is divisible by 7. (iii) All living things have two legs and two eyes. it is necessary to understand the role of these words. When we use these compound statements. 14.4. 6 and 7. q: A line extends indefinitely in both directions. Let us look at another statement. This statement has following component statements q: 42 is divisible by 5.1 The word “And” Let us look at a compound statement with “And”. we know that the first is false while the other two are true. We discuss this below. The statement can be broken into two component statements as q: A point occupies a position.330 MATHEMATICS “Or”. The compound statement with ‘And’ is true if all its component statements are true. we observe that both statements are true. . p: 42 is divisible by 5. etc. (ii) 0 is less than every positive integer and every negative integer. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A line is straight.

the compound statement is true. This leads us to an important note. (iii) The two component statements are p: All living things have two legs. This sentence cannot be considered as a compound statement with “And”. q: All living things have two eyes. then they intersect at a point. Note Do not think that a statement with “And” is always a compound statement as shown in the above example. Here the word “And” refers to two things – alcohol and water. microbiology programme. the word “And” is not used as a conjunction. This means that a person who does not want ice cream can have a pepsi along with Thali or one does not want pepsi can have an ice cream along with Thali. 14. Here is another statement. We know that this is a true statement. A person cannot have both ice cream and pepsi. What does this mean? This means that if two lines in a plane intersect. (ii) The component statements are p: 0 is less than every positive integer. Here we mean that the students who have taken both biology and chemistry can apply for the microbiology programme.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 331 Both these statements are true. A student who has taken biology or chemistry can apply for M. then they are not parallel. Therefore.Sc. The second statement is false. Therefore. who do not want a pepsi can have an ice cream. q: 0 is less than every negative integer. This is called an exclusive “Or”. Both these statements are false. Let us first look at the following statement. Alternatively. Now. p: A mixture of alcohol and water can be separated by chemical methods. the compound statement is false. Therefore.4. consider the following statement. That is this statement is true in both the situations. In this case. It is important to note the difference between these two ways because we require this when we check whether the statement is true or not. as well as the students who have taken only one of these subjects. if the two lines are not parallel. . That is. In order to understand statements with “Or” we first notice that the word “Or” is used in two ways in English language. p: An ice cream or pepsi is available with a Thali in a restaurant. the compound statement is false. p: Two lines in a plane either intersect at one point or they are parallel. therefore. we are using inclusive “Or”.2 The word “Or” Let us look at the following statement.

(iv) Here also “Or” is exclusive because a student cannot take both French and Sanskrit. (iii) Two lines intersect at a point or are parallel. r: Two lines are parallel. when q is true r is false and when r is true q is false. p: Two lines intersect at a point or they are parallel The component statements are q: Two lines intersect at a point. you need a passport or a voter registration card. the compound statement p is false. (ii) The school is closed if it is a holiday or a Sunday. r: 125 is a multiple of 8. Both q and r are false. Solution (i) Here “Or” is inclusive since a person can have both a passport and a voter registration card to enter a country. Consider another statement. Then. (ii) Here also “Or” is inclusive since school is closed on holiday as well as on Sunday. (i) To enter a country. Rule for the compound statement with ‘Or’ 1. Example 7 For each of the following statements. the compound statement p is true. consider the following statement. Its component statements are q: 125 is a multiple of 7. 2. Therefore. For example. (iv) Students can take French or Sanskrit as their third language. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive because it is not possible for two lines to intersect and parallel together.332 MATHEMATICS Let us look at an example. p: 125 is a multiple of 7 or 8. A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is true when one component statement is true or both the component statements are true. Give reasons for your answer. Therefore. A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is false when both the component statements are false. determine whether an inclusive “Or” or exclusive “Or” is used. .

q: To get into a public library children need a letter from the school authorities.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 333 Again. (ii) To enter into a public library children need an identity card from the school or a letter from the school authorities. it is inclusive “Or” the compound statement is also true when children have both the card and the letter. The component statements are q: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata. Therefore. . as well as when they have both. the compound statement is false. Solution (i) The component statements are p: 2 is a rational number. the compound statement is true. therefore. (iii) A rectangle is a quadrilateral or a 5-sided polygon. if there is a holiday or Sunday. consider the following statement: p: The school is closed. q: 2 is an irrational number. r: Mumbai is the capital of Karnataka. (ii) The component statements are p: To get into a public library children need an identity card. Consider another statement. we get that the statement is true. Therefore. Therefore. The component statements are q: School is closed if there is a holiday. When we look at the component statements. Example 8 Identify the type of “Or” used in the following statements and check whether the statements are true or false: (i) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. Let us consider some examples. Here. an identity card or the letter. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive. we know that the first statement is false and the second is true and “Or” is exclusive. the compound statement is true. r: School is closed if there is a Sunday. p: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata or Karnataka. Children can enter the library if they have either of the two. Both q and r are true. Both these statements are false.

(i) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are not complex. they do not say the same thing. Thus. (iv) x = 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0. (iii) The sand heats up quickly in the Sun and does not cool down fast at night.4. p is an irrational number. . For every positive number x there exists a positive number y such that y < x.3 Quantifiers Quantifiers are phrases like.3 1. we have y < x. then for all the members p of the set S. Thus. p: There exists a rectangle whose all sides are equal. The words “And” and “Or” are called connectives and “There exists” and “For all” are called quantifiers.334 MATHEMATICS 14. In general. (ii) Square of an integer is positive or negative. For example. compare the following two sentences: 1. in order for a piece of mathematical writing to make sense. As a matter of fact. all of the symbols must be carefully introduced and each symbol must be introduced at precisely the right place – not too early and not too late. 2. p is an irrational number. p: For every prime number p. Consider a statement. a mathematical statement that says “for every” can be interpreted as saying that all the members of the given set S where the property applies must satisfy that property. we have seen that many mathematical statements contain some special words and it is important to know the meaning attached to them. For example. Another phrase which appears in mathematical statements is “there exists”. There exists a positive number y such that for every positive number x. For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements. Although these statements may look similar. (1) is true and (2) is false. We should also observe that it is important to know precisely where in the sentence a given connecting word is introduced. This means that there is atleast one rectangle whose all sides are equal. “There exists” and “For all”. EXERCISE 14. especially when we have to check the validity of different statements. consider the statement. This means that if S denotes the set of all prime numbers. A word closely connected with “there exists” is “for every” (or for all).

r: If a number is a multiple of 9. 3. you should have a ration card or a passport. (ii) (iii) To apply for a driving licence. For example. r: If you are born in some country. Then the sentence “if p then q” says that in the event if p is true. if you are not born in the country. Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements. Another point to be noted for the statement “if p then q” is that the statement does not imply that p happens. Check whether the following pair of statements are negation of each other. x is less than x + 1. Give reasons for your answer. we observe that it corresponds to two statements p and q given by p : you are born in some country. consider the statement. 4. then q must be true. One of the most important facts about the sentence “if p then q” is that it does not say any thing (or places no demand) on q when p is false. q : you are citizen of that country. “only if” and “if and only if ”. For example. . Let p and q denote the statements p : a number is a multiple of 9. State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. (i) There exists a number which is equal to its square. q: a number is a multiple of 3. then it is a multiple of 3. 14. All integers are positive or negative. then you are a citizen of that country. (i) Sun rises or Moon sets. then you cannot say anything about q. (iii) There exists a capital for every state in India. (ii) There exists real numbers x and y for which x + y = y + x. we shall discuss the implications of “if-then”. (ii) For every real number x. We shall illustrate these ways in the context of the following statement.5 Implications In this Section. Give reasons for your answer. To put it in other words” not happening of p has no effect on happening of q. There are several ways of understanding “if p then q” statements. (i) x + y = y + x is true for every real numbers x and y.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 335 2. When we look at this statement. The statements with “if-then” are very common in mathematics.

To understand this. Example 9 Write the contrapositive of the following statement: (i) If a number is divisible by 9. The converse of a given statement “if p. then you are a citizen of India. (iii) If a triangle is equilateral. then you were not born in India. (ii) If you are born in India. Note that both these statements convey the same meaning. p only if q. it is not divisible by 9. it is necessarily a multiple of 3. then it is divisible by 3. p is a sufficient condition for q.1 Contrapositive and converse Contrapositive and converse are certain other statements which can be formed from a given statement with “if-then”. p implies q is denoted by p ⇒ q. This says that knowing that a number as a multiple of 9 is sufficient to conclude that it is a multiple of 3. then it is not a multiple of 9. This says that if a number is not a multiple of 3. Solution The contrapositive of the these statements are (i) If a number is not divisible by 3. 14. (ii) If you are not a citizen of India. let us consider the following “if-then” statement. (iii) If a triangle is not isosceles. Next. 4. it is isosceles.336 MATHEMATICS Then. 5. ∼q implies ∼p. . Then the contrapositive of this statement is If the biological environment does not change. The above examples show the contrapositive of the statement if p. then it is not equilateral. q is a necessary condition for p. then p. we shall consider another term called converse. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 only if it is a multiple of 3.5. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 implies that it is a multiple of 3. then q” is if q. then the biological environment changes. 2. This says that when a number is a multiple of 9. then q is “if ∼q. then ∼p”. 3. then the physical environment does not change. if p then q is the same as the following: 1. If the physical environment changes. let us consider more examples. For example. The symbol ⇒ stands for implies.

(ii) If you get an A grade in the class. (i) If a triangle ABC is equilateral. (ii) If you do all the exercises in the book. (ii) If a and b are integers. it is divisible by 5 is q: If a number is divisible by 5. the compound statement is true. then a – b is always a positive integer. Solution The converse of these statements are (i) If a number n2 is even. first identify the corresponding component statements. Solution (i) The component statements are given by p : Triangle ABC is equilateral. q : ab is a rational number. Let us consider some more examples. since the product of two integers is an integer and therefore a rational number. (i) p if and only if q (ii) q if and only if p . (i) If a number n is even. (ii) The component statements are given by p : a and b are integers. ‘If and only if’. we infer that the given compound statement is true. then it is isosceles. you get an A grade in the class. then it is divisible by 10. then n is even. Then check whether the statements are true or not.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 337 For example. then you have done all the exercises of the book. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a > b. the converse of the statement p: If a number is divisible by 10. q : Triangle ABC is Isosceles. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a – b is always a positive integer. Example 10 Write the converse of the following statements. Example 11 For each of the following compound statements. then a > b. represented by the symbol ‘⇔‘ means the following equivalent forms for the given statements p and q. then n2 is even. Since an equilateral triangle is isosceles. then ab is a rational number.

then x is odd. Combine these two statements using “if and only if ”. EXERCISE 14. Example 12 Given below are two pairs of statements. If the two lines are parallel. (i) p: If a rectangle is a square. You cannot comprehend geometry if you do not know how to reason deductively. it is necessary that you do all the exercises of the book. Solution (i) A rectangle is a square if and only if all its four sides are equal. (ii) A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. then its square is also odd. Rewrite the following statement with “if-then” in five different ways conveying the same meaning. Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements. q: If a number is divisible by 3.4 1. then the rectangle is a square. then all its four sides are equal. (ii) p: If the sum of digits of a number is divisible by 3. q: If all the four sides of a rectangle are equal.338 MATHEMATICS (iii) p is necessary and sufficient condition for q and vice-versa (iv) p ⇔ q Consider an example. 3. then they do not intersect in the same plane. Something is cold implies that it has low temperature. then the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. If a natural number is odd. 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) If x is a prime number. x is an even number implies that x is divisible by 4. The Bannana trees will bloom if it stays warm for a month. then the number is divisible by 3. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other. . Write each of the following statements in the form “if-then” (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) You get a job implies that your credentials are good. To get an A+ in the class.

To answer this question. We shall list some general rules for checking whether a statement is true or not. Identify the statements given below as contrapositive or converse of each other.6 Validating Statements In this Section. Rule 2 Statements with “Or” If p and q are mathematical statements . one must consider the following. Given statements in (a) and (b). the following steps are followed. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral do not bisect each other. “there exists”. If you do not have winter clothes. Case 1 By assuming that p is false. show that q must be true.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 339 4. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. then the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram. show that p must be true. then in order to show that the statement “p or q” is true. Case 2 By assuming that q is false. appear in the given statement. Step-2 Show that the statement q is true. If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. then you live in Delhi. one must answer all the following questions. 14. we will discuss when a statement is true. and which of the quantifiers “for every”. If you have winter clothes. and which of the implications “if and only”. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) If you live in Delhi. then you do not live in Delhi. “or”. then it is a parallelogram. Here. then its diagonals bisect each other. then you have winter clothes. Rule 1 If p and q are mathematical statements. we shall discuss some techniques to find when a statement is valid. What does the statement mean? What would it mean to say that this statement is true and when this statement is not true? The answer to these questions depend upon which of the special words and phrases “and”. then in order to show that the statement “p and q” is true. Rule 3 Statements with “If-then” . Step-1 Show that the statement p is true. “if-then”.

y ∈ Z such that x and y are odd q : xy is odd To check the validity of the given statement. Therefore. y = 2n + 1. prove that p must be false. p is true means that x and y are odd integers. That is assume that if p is true. Example 13 Check whether the following statement is true or not. for some integer n. y ∈ Ζ such that xy is odd. Case 1 By assuming that p is true. If x. Solution Let p : x. then q is true. This implies that we need to consider the negation of the statement q. This is possible only if either x or y is even. then we will proceed as follows. we apply Case 1 of Rule 3. for some integer m. Suppose we want to check this by using Case 2 of Rule 3. Thus xy = (2m + 1) (2n + 1) = 2(2mn + m + n) + 1 This shows that xy is odd.340 MATHEMATICS In order to prove the statement “if p then q” we need to show that any one of the following case is true.(Contrapositive method) Rule 4 Statements with “if and only if ” In order to prove the statement “p if and only if q”. Then x = 2m + 1. Thus we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p Note The above example illustrates that to prove p ⇒ q. the given statement is true. then both x and y are odd. We assume that q is not true. it is enough to show ∼q ⇒ ∼p which is the contrapositive of the statement p ⇒ q. This shows that p is not true.(Direct method) Case 2 By assuming that q is false. then q is true and (ii) If q is true. (i) If p is true. we need to show. then p is true Now we consider some examples. Example 14 Check whether the following statement is true or false by proving its contrapositive. then xy is odd. y ∈ Z are such that x and y are odd. Solution Let us name the statements as below . If x. prove that q must be true. This gives the statement ∼q : Product xy is even.

e. Squaring the equation. This means that there exists positive integers a and b a 7 = . Now what happens when we combine an implication and its converse? Next. Then. Therefore. we assume that the given statement is false. Therefore. This shows that xy is even. then it is half empty. we discuss another method. Thus.e.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 341 p : xy is odd. we conclude that p is true. Now. q : A tumbler is half full. Let us consider the following statements. p: 7 is irrational Solution In this method. ∼p is true. We know that if the first statement happens. We combine these two statements and get the following: A tumbler is half empty if and only if it is half full.. That is we assume that such that 7 is rational. we arrive at some result which contradicts our assumption. We have to check whether the statement p ⇒ q is true or not. by checking its contrapositive statement i. then the first happens. Example 15 Verify by the method of contradiction. We can express this fact as If a tumbler is half empty. This implies that x (or y) is even.5. then the second happens and also if the second happens. where a and b have no common factors. That is ∼p is true. ∼q ⇒ ∼p Now ∼q : It is false that both x and y are odd. that is. we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p and hence the given statement is true. we shall discuss this. p : A tumbler is half empty. then it is half full. If a tumbler is half full. b . Then x = 2n for some integer n. 14. q : both x and y are odd. xy = 2ny for some integer n.1 By Contradiction Here to check whether a statement p is true. we assume that p is not true i.

we have discussed some techniques for checking whether a statement is true or not. Example 16 By giving a counter example. (i) p: If all the angles of a triangle are equal. generating examples in favour of a statement do not provide validity of the statement.342 MATHEMATICS a2 ⇒ a2 = 7b2 ⇒ 7 divides a. Next. the statement 7 is irrational is true. (ii) method of contradiction. (ii) q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2. Thus. a2 = b2 implies that a = b” is not true by giving a counter-example. then x is also even. 7b2 = 49c2 ⇒ b2 = 7c2 ⇒ 7 divides b. 3. To show this we look for an odd integer n which is not a prime number. Solution The given statement is in the form “if p then q” we have to show that this is false. (iii) method of contrapositive 2. we conclude that the given statement is false. Show that the statement “For any real numbers a and b. But we have already shown that 7 divides a. we shall discuss a method by which we may show that a statement is false. This shows that the we get 7 = assumption 7 is rational is wrong. 4. Therefore. If n is an odd integer. then n is prime. p: If x is an integer and x2 is even.5 1. EXERCISE 14. then x is 0” is true by (i) direct method. The name itself suggests that this is an example to counter the given statement. there exists an integer c such b2 that a = 7c. Such an example is called a counter example. So n = 9 is a counter example. Then a2 = 49c2 and a2 = 7b2 Hence. 9 is one such number. show that the following statements are not true. then the triangle is an obtuse angled triangle. However. Hence. The method involves giving an example of a situation where the statement is not valid. . In the above. counter examples are used to disprove the statement. Show that the statement p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0. Note In mathematics. show that the following statement is false. By giving a counter example. Show that the following statement is true by the method of contrapositive. For this purpose we need to show that if p then ∼q. This implies that 7 is a common factor of both of a and b which contradicts our earlier assumption that a and b have no common factors.

Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 Check whether “Or” used in the following compound statement is exclusive or inclusive? Write the component statements of the compound statements and use them to check whether the compound statement is true or not. x2 ≠ 2 (iii) The negation of the statement is ∼r: There exists a bird which have no wings. (ii) q: The centre of a circle bisects each chord of the circle. Solution (i) The negation of p is “It is false that p is” which means that the condition x2 > x does not hold for all real numbers. ∼q: There does not exist a rational number x such that x2 = 2. The component statements of the given statement are p : you are wet when it rains. t: you are wet when it rains or you are in a river. This can be expressed as ∼p: There exists a real number x such that x2 < x. q : You are wet when you are in a river. (ii) Negation of q is “it is false that q”. (ii) q: There exists a rational number x such that x2 = 2. Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so. Solution “Or” used in the given statement is inclusive because it is possible that it rains and you are in the river. This statement can be rewritten as ∼q: For all real numbers x. . (v) t : 11 is a rational number. (iii) r: Circle is a particular case of an ellipse. Justify your answer. (iv) s: All students study mathematics at the elementary level. Example 18 Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every real number x.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 343 5. Thus ∼q is the statement. then –x < – y. (i) p: Each radius of a circle is a chord of the circle. the compound statement is true. Here both the component statements are true and therefore. (iv) s: If x and y are integers such that x > y. x2 > x. (iii) r: All birds have wings.

t: If you drive over 80 km per hour. Example 20 For the given statements identify the necessary and sufficient conditions. then q also indicates that q is necessary for p. We have to check whether this statement is true. q : you will get a fine. then p If q. then p is the statement If n is an integer and n2 is odd. Example 19 Using the words “necessary and sufficient” rewrite the statement “The integer n is odd if and only if n2 is odd”. Case 2 If q. n2 is one more than an even number and hence is odd. then q If p. Let us assume that n is odd. then n is odd. To check the validity of “p if q”. Thus n2 = (2k + 1)2 = 4k2 + 4k + 1 Therefore. Therefore. then n2 is odd. then you will get a fine. Solution The necessary and sufficient condition that the integer n be odd is n2 must be odd. Also check whether the statement is true. then n2 is an even integer n is even implies that n = 2k for some k. we have to check whether “if p then q” and “if q then p” is true. That is driving over 80 km per hour is sufficient to get a fine. The contrapositive of the given statement is: If n is an even integer. Then n2 = 4k2. n2 is even. We have to check whether this statement is true. then q indicates that p is sufficient for q. We check this by contrapositive method. then q is the statement: If the integer n is odd. The implication if p. if p. That is . Case 1 If p. Then n = 2k + 1 when k is an integer.344 MATHEMATICS (iv) The negation of the given statement is ∼s: There exists a student who does not study mathematics at the elementary level. Let p and q denote the statements p : the integer n is odd. Here the sufficient condition is “driving over 80 km per hour”: Similarly. q : n2 is odd. Solution Let p and q denote the statements: p : you drive over 80 km per hour.

p: If a triangle is equiangular. (ii) q: For you to get an A grade. then n2 > 9 (by contradiction method). 3. (ii) q: I go to a beach whenever it is a sunny day. Write each of the statements in the form “if p. q : 25 is a multiple of 8. the number x – 1 is also positive. Write the following statement in five different ways. (iv) s: There exists a number x such that 0 < x < 1. 7. then you feel thirsty. Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it. (iii) r: For every real number x. then it is equiangular. In both cases check the validity of the compound statement. 5. then q” (i) p: It is necessary to have a password to log on to the server. Rewrite each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q” (i) p: If you watch television. (i) p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational (by contradiction method). (iii) r: If it is hot outside.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 345 When you drive over 80 km per hour. (ii) q: All cats scratch. . Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14 Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every positive real number x. Given below are two statements p : 25 is a multiple of 5. either x > 1 or x < 1. then it is an obtuse angled triangle. 1. (iii) r: You can access the website only if you pay a subsciption fee. (iii) r: If a quadrilateral is equiangular. then your mind is free and if your mind is free. 4. 2. it is necessary and sufficient that you do all the homework regularly. you will necessarily get a fine. 6. (ii) q: There is traffic jam whenever it rains. conveying the same meaning. Here the necessary condition is “getting a fine”. (ii) q: If n is a real number with n > 3. State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements: (i) p: A positive integer is prime only if it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. then you watch television. then it is a rectangle and if a quadrilateral is a rectangle. Write the compound statements connecting these two statements with “And” and “Or”.

“ if and only if ”.) . The following methods are used to check the validity of statements: (i) direct method (ii) contrapositive method (iii) method of contradiction (iv) using a counter example.D. “Or”. German mathematician G. in the seventeenth century.-322 B.D. .C. p implies q (denoted by p ⇒ q) p is a sufficient condition for q q is a necessary condition for p p only if q ∼q implies ∼p The contrapositive of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement ∼ q ⇒ ∼p .) and Augustus De Morgan (1806–1871 A.). It was a collection of rules for deductive reasoning which would serve as a basis for the study of every branch of knowledge. Later. – – – – – – – – – – Historical Note The first treatise on logic was written by Aristotle (384 B. “There exists” and “For every” in compound statements. The smaller statements are called component statements of the compound statement. The role of “And”.D. A sentence with if p.) conceived the idea of using symbols in logic to mechanise the process of deductive reasoning. then q can be written in the following ways. Explained the terms: Negation of a statement p: If p denote a statement. gives p if and only if q. The converse of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement q ⇒ p. Leibnitz (1646 – 1716 A. “only if ”. Compound statements and their related component statements: A statement is a compound statement if it is made up of two or more smaller statements. W.346 MATHEMATICS Summary A mathematically acceptable statement is a sentence which is either true or false.C. then the negation of p is denoted by ∼p. p ⇒ q together with its converse. The meaning of implications “If ”. who founded the modern subject of symbolic logic. His idea was realised in the nineteenth century by the English mathematician George Boole (1815–1864 A.

64. We have also studied the methods of finding a representative value for the given data.BOWLEY & A. Recall mean (arithmetic mean). Consider now the runs scored by two batsmen in their last ten matches as follows: Batsman A : 30. But.Chapter 15 STATISTICS “Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their estimates. 58. . 48. we should also have an idea how the data are scattered or how much they are bunched around a measure of central tendency. BODDINGTON 15..1 Introduction We know that statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. This representation reveals certain salient features or characteristics of the data. i. In earlier classes.” – A. 91. in order to make better interpretation from the data. 117. we calculate the mean of a data (denoted by x ) by dividing the sum of the observations by the number of observations. median and mode are three measures of central tendency. 52 Clearly. 5. we have studied methods of representing data graphically and in tabular form. 53. 42. 57. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it. 80. 30. the mean and median of the data are Batsman A Batsman B Mean 53 53 Median 53 53 Recall that.L.L. This value is called the measure of central tendency. A measure of central Karl Pearson tendency gives us a rough idea where data points are (1857-1936) centred. 53. 46. 50. 71 Batsman B : 53. 60.e. 0.

⎛ n + 1⎞ If the number of observations is odd.. then median is the mean of ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ th and ⎛n ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ observations. This single number is called a ‘measure of dispersion’. Like ‘measures of central tendency’ we want to have a single number to describe variability. 53. we shall learn some of the important measures of dispersion and their methods of calculation for ungrouped and grouped data.1 Fig 15.348 MATHEMATICS x= 1 n i =1 ∑ xi n Also.2 We can see that the dots corresponding to batsman B are close to each other and are clustering around the measure of central tendency (mean and median). Thus. . We find the following diagrams: For batsman A For batsman B Fig 15. while those corresponding to batsman A are scattered or more spread out. Whereas. th ⎛n⎞ If the number of observations is even. Let us now plot the above scores as dots on a number line.e. then the median is ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th observation. Can we say that the performance of two players is same? Clearly No. the range of the runs scored by batsman B is from 46 to 60. In this Chapter. because the variability in the scores of batsman A is from 0 (minimum) to 117 (maximum). the median is obtained by first arranging the data in ascending or descending order and applying the following rule. ⎝2 ⎠ We find that the mean and median of the runs scored by both the batsmen A and B are same i. the measures of central tendency are not sufficient to give complete information about a given data. Variability is another factor which is required to be studied under statistics.

4 Mean Deviation Recall that the deviation of an observation x from a fixed value ‘a’ is the difference x – a. 15. such measure must depend upon the difference (or deviation) of the values from the central tendency. Thus. (iii) Mean deviation. the scores are scattered or dispersed in case of A while for B these are close to each other. 15. . But. In case of batsman A. The range of data gives us a rough idea of variability or scatter but does not tell about the dispersion of the data from a measure of central tendency. Thus. some of the deviations will be negative and some positive. Moreover. To find the mean. Let us discuss them in detail. For this purpose. we need some other measure of variability. Therefore. we had some idea of variability in the scores on the basis of minimum and maximum runs in each series. Clearly. (ii) Quartile deviation. in the example of runs scored by two batsmen A and B. Also Mean of deviations = Sum of deviations 0 = =0 Number of observations n Thus. the sum of deviations may vanish. finding the mean of deviations about mean is not of any use for us. we find the deviations about a. we shall study all of these measures of dispersion except the quartile deviation. Range of a series = Maximum value – Minimum value. Range = 60 – 46 = 14.2 Measures of Dispersion The dispersion or scatter in a data is measured on the basis of the observations and the types of the measure of central tendency. An absolute measure of dispersion is the mean of these deviations. which depend upon the deviations of the observations from a central tendency are mean deviation and standard deviation. (iv) Standard deviation. Clearly. This difference is called the ‘Range’ of the data. In order to find the dispersion of values of x from a central value ‘a’ . Range = 117 – 0 = 117 and for batsman B. The important measures of dispersion. we know that a measure of central tendency lies between the maximum and the minimum values of the set of observations.STATISTICS 349 15. In this Chapter. To obtain a single number for this. Range of A > Range of B. the sum of the deviations from mean ( x ) is zero. used there. as far as the measure of dispersion is concerned. we must obtain the sum of the deviations. we find the difference of maximum and minimum values of each series.3 Range Recall that. Therefore. There are following measures of dispersion: (i) Range.

i. to find the measure of dispersion from a fixed number ‘a’ we may take the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from the central value. x3 − a . (M) = ∑ xi − x i =1 n i =1 n . mean deviation from mean and median are commonly used in statistical studies.... where M = Median . Let it be ‘a’. if it is there.e. Recall.. Let us now learn how to calculate mean deviation about mean and mean deviation about median for various types of data 15. . x1 – a.. drop the minus sign (–).1 Mean deviation for ungrouped data Let n observations be x1. we require the distance of each value from a central tendency or a fixed number ‘a’. Thus. Number of observations Remark Mean deviation may be obtained from any measure of central tendency. x2. M. x1 − a ..(a) = Thus ∑ xi − a i =1 n n 1 M. x3 – a. xn– a Step 3 Find the absolute values of the deviations..e. xn − a Step 4 Find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. x3. The following steps are involved in the calculation of mean deviation about mean or median: Step 1 Calculate the measure of central tendency about which we are to find the mean deviation.D.. Therefore.D. x2 – a. Thus mean deviation about a central value ‘a’ is the mean of the absolute values of the deviations of the observations from ‘a’. i.(a) = Sum of absolute values of deviations from 'a' .D. where x = Mean and 1 n ∑ xi − M . that the absolute value of the difference of two numbers gives the distance between the numbers when represented on a number line.e. .4. This mean is the mean deviation about a.e. . However. in finding a suitable measure of dispersion. i. (a). This mean is called the ‘mean deviation’... xn.D. M. x2 − a . i. The mean deviation from ‘a’ is denoted as M.. .350 MATHEMATICS Remember that.D. ( x ) = n M. Step 2 Find the deviation of each xi from a.. ..

9. –2..e.. i. i. 13 – 9. 7. 3. 1. 3. 4. 7. 8. we can carry on calculation. –1. 13. 1. 12. 0. 3 Step 3 The absolute values of the deviations. 1. 12 – 9. 5. 1. 16. 7. 4 – 9. 9. 18. we shall use the symbol M to denote median unless stated otherwise. Example 2 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data : 12. 8.STATISTICS 351 Note In this Chapter. 11. 7. 5 Solution We have to first find the mean ( x ) of the given data x = 1 20 200 ∑ xi = 20 = 10 20 i =1 The respective absolute values of the deviations from mean. 2. ( x ) = = ∑ xi − x i =1 8 8 3 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 1 + 3 22 = = 2. 1.e.. 17. 9. i. or –3. 3 Step 4 The required mean deviation about the mean is M. step-wise without referring to steps. 4. xi– x are 6 – 9. 10. 17. 4. 2. 8.e. 10. 17.75 8 8 Note Instead of carrying out the steps every time. 8 – 9. 15. 10 – 9. 7. 5 . 3.D. xi − x are 3. 5. 7. 19. 12 – 9. 20. 3. 6. 8. 6. –5. xi − x are 2.Let us now illustrate the steps of the above method in following examples. Example 1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data: 6. 7. 12 Solution We proceed step-wise and get the following: Step 1 Mean of the given data is x= 6 + 7 + 10 + 12 + 13 + 4 + 8 + 12 72 = = 9 8 8 Step 2 The deviations of the respective observations from the mean x . 10. 7 – 9. 4. 1. 2. 3.

xn f : f1 f2 f3 .2 20 Example 3 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: 3. 0. 12. 7. 12.. 21 Now ⎛ 11 + 1 ⎞ Median = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ th or 6th observation = 9 The absolute values of the respective deviations from the median. 4. 5. 10. Let us discuss the method of finding mean deviation for both types of the data.. Arranging the data into ascending order. fn respectively.. fn (i) Mean deviation about mean First of all we find the mean x of the given data by using the formula .27 11 i =1 15. 10. Solution Here the number of observations is 11 which is odd... xi − M are 6. (a) Discrete frequency distribution Let the given data consist of n distinct values x1. 1.D. i.D.352 MATHEMATICS Therefore and ∑ xi − x i =1 20 = 124 M. f2 . 19.. This data can be represented in the tabular form as given below. 21. 2.e. .. 6. .. 18.2 Mean deviation for grouped data We know that data can be grouped into two ways : (a) Discrete frequency distribution. 9. 10. xn occurring with frequencies f1. (b) Continuous frequency distribution.. we have 3. ( M ) = 1 11 1 ∑ xi − M = 11 × 58 = 5. and is called discrete frequency distribution: x : x1 x2 x3 . 3. 9. 3. 18. ( x ) = 124 = 6. 12 Therefore and ∑ xi − M = 58 i =1 11 M. 3.. 9. 7. 5..4. x2. 5. 4. 19. 4.

it is the required median. we find the median of the given discrete frequency distribution. This value of the observation lies in the middle of the data.D. where 2 N is the sum of frequencies. After this the cumulative frequencies are obtained.. i. For this the observations are arranged in ascending order. N M. we find the deviations of observations xi from the mean x and take their absolute values. . Then. i =1 n where ∑x f i =1 i n i denotes the sum of the products of observations xi with their respective frequencies fi and N = ∑f i =1 n i is the sum of the frequencies..STATISTICS 353 x= ∑ xi fi i =1 n n ∑ fi i =1 = 1 N ∑ xi fi . therefore.. n.D.. After this. which is the required mean deviation about the mean. we identify the observation whose cumulative frequency is equal to or just greater than .1 of the given data and append other columns after calculations. Then.e. we obtain the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from median.Thus. xi − x for all i =1. ( x ) = ∑f i =1 n i xi − x ∑f i =1 n = i 1 n ∑ f i xi − x N i =1 (ii) Mean deviation about median To find mean deviation about median. 2. After finding median.(M) = 1 N ∑f i =1 n i xi − M Example 4 Find mean deviation about the mean for the following data : xi 2 5 6 8 10 12 2 8 10 7 8 5 fi Solution Let us make a Table 15.. find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. Thus M.

( x ) = ∑ fi i =1 6 xi − x = 1 × 92 = 2.5 92 N = ∑ f i = 40 . 3 3 3 6 4 7 9 5 12 12 2 14 13 4 18 15 5 23 21 4 27 22 3 30 Now.3 40 Example 5 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: xi fi 3 3 6 4 9 5 12 2 13 4 15 5 21 4 22 3 Solution The given observations are already in ascending order.5 40 M.2 xi fi c. Table 15. ∑f i =1 6 i xi − x = 92 Therefore and x= 1 N ∑ i =1 6 fi xi = 1 N 1 × 300 = 7.5 1.5 2.1 xi 2 5 6 8 10 12 fi 2 8 10 7 8 5 40 fixi 4 40 60 56 80 60 300 xi − x 5.5 2.354 MATHEMATICS Table 15.5 4. N=30 which is even. i =1 6 ∑ i =1 6 f i xi = 300 .f.5 0. Adding a row corresponding to cumulative frequencies to the given data.5 20 22. we get (Table 15.2). .5 f i xi − x 11 20 15 3. D.

marks obtained by 100 students are presented in a continuous frequency distribution as follows : Marks obtained 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Number of Students 12 18 27 20 40-50 17 50-60 6 (i) Mean deviation about mean While calculating the mean of a continuous frequency distribution. i.. 30 (b) Continuous frequency distribution A continuous frequency distribution is a series in which the data are classified into different class-intervals without gaps alongwith their respective frequencies.3 xi − M 10 3 30 8 7 4 28 8 4 5 20 1 2 2 0 4 0 2 5 10 8 4 32 9 3 27 fi f i xi − M ∑ i =1 fi = 30 and 1 N ∑f i =1 i xi − M = 149 Therefore M. .97. we write the mid-point of each given class and proceed further as for a discrete frequency distribution to find the mean deviation.STATISTICS 355 Median is the mean of the 15th and 16th observations. absolute values of the deviations from median. Here also. (M) = ∑ fi i =1 8 xi − M = 1 × 149 = 4. Let us take the following example. Median M = 15th observation + 16th observation 2 = 13 + 13 2 = 13 Now. For example. Therefore. for which the corresponding observation is 13.e. xi − M are shown in Table 15.3. Both of these observations lie in the cummulative freqeuncy 18. Table 15. D. we had made the assumption that the frequency in each class is centred at its mid-point.

i =1 7 ∑ fi i =1 7 xi − x = 400 Therefore x= 1 7 1800 ∑ fi xi = 40 = 45 N i =1 and M.D. Recall that in this method. ∑ fi xi = 1800. we take an assumed mean which is in the middle or just close to it in the data. Then deviations of the observations (or mid-points of classes) are taken from the .4 from the given data : Table 15.356 MATHEMATICS Example 6 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data.4 Marks obtained Number of students fi Mid-points xi f ix i xi − x fi xi − x 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40 N = 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 30 75 280 630 440 195 150 1800 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400 Here ∑ fi i =1 7 = 40. Marks obtained Number of students 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 Solution We make the following Table 15. ( x ) = 1 7 1 ∑ fi xi − x = 40 × 400 = 10 N i =1 Shortcut method for calculating mean deviation about mean We can avoid the tedious calculations of computing x by following step-deviation method.

so that the computations viz. These are known as step-deviations. multiplication.4 Fig 15.3 Fig 15. we divide them by this common factor to further simplify the deviations. where ‘a’ is the assumed mean and h is the common factor. Then. etc.STATISTICS 357 assumed mean.4 The deviations and step-deviations reduce the size of the observations. the h n mean x by step-deviation method is given by ∑ f i di x = a + i =1 ×h N Let us take the data of Example 6 and find the mean deviation by using stepdeviation method. the new variable be denoted by d i = xi − a . The process of taking step-deviations is the change of scale on the number line as shown in Fig 15.. This is nothing but the shifting of origin from zero to the assumed mean on the number line. as shown in Fig 15. .3 If there is a common factor of all the deviations. Let. become simpler.

Let us recall the process of finding median for a continuous frequency distribution. and form the following Table 15. (ii) Mean deviation about median The process of finding the mean deviation about median for a continuous frequency distribution is similar as we did for mean deviation about the mean.5 Marks obtained 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 Number of Mid-points di = students fi 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40 xi 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 xi − 45 10 fi d i xi − x f i xi − x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –6 –6 –8 0 8 6 6 0 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400 Therefore 7 ∑ fi d i x = a + i=1 ×h N = 45 + 0 × 10 = 45 40 and M . Table 15. Then. Rest of the procedure is same. the median of continuous frequency distribution is obtained by first identifying the class in which median lies (median class) and then applying the formula . The data is first arranged in ascending order. (x ) = 1 N ∑ fi i =1 7 xi − x = 400 = 10 40 Note The step deviation method is applied to compute x .D.5. The only difference lies in the replacement of the mean by median while taking deviations.358 MATHEMATICS Take the assumed mean a = 45 and h = 10.

l.e.6 from the given data : Table 15.) 6 13 28 44 48 50 Mid-points xi 5 15 25 35 45 55 xi − Med. the frequency. xi − M are obtained.. respectively the lower 2 limit . 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 50 23 13 3 7 17 27 138 91 45 112 68 54 508 .f. h and C are. After finding the median. f.STATISTICS 359 N −C Median = l + 2 ×h f where median class is the class interval whose cumulative frequency is just greater N .6 Class Frequency fi Cummulative frequency (c. f i xi − Med.D. Then n ∑ fi xi − M N i =1 The process is illustrated in the following example: M. the absolute values than or equal to of the deviations of mid-point xi of each class from the median i. the width of the median class and C the cumulative frequency of the class just preceding the median class. N is the sum of frequencies. (M) = 1 Example 7 Calculate the mean deviation about median for the following data : Class Frequency 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 Solution Form the following Table 15.

51. 17 4. 12. 36. 5 8 15 3 7 6 21 5 9 2 27 6 10 2 30 7 12 2 35 8 15 6 . 1. 12. 7. 54. 3.D. 49 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 5 and 6. 17 2. f = 15. Mean deviation about median is given by Therefore. 46. 17. 20–30 is the median 2 th N −C ×h l+ 2 Median = f Here l = 20. C = 13. 60. 16. 10. 13. 9. 44 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 3 and 4.16 N i =1 EXERCISE 15. 13. x i fi 7 10 4 4 30 24 6 50 28 3 70 16 5 90 8 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 7 and 8. 13. 72. x i fi 6. 46. 45. Therefore. 42. Median = 20 + M. 16. x i fi 8. 5 10 15 20 25 5. 10. 55.1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 1 and 2. 48. 53. 14. 46. 8. 63. 4. 18. 40. 11.360 MATHEMATICS The class interval containing class. 70. h = 10 and N = 50 25 − 13 × 10 = 20 + 8 = 28 15 Thus. We know that N or 25th item is 20-30. x i fi 7. 11. (M) = 1 1 6 ∑ fi xi − M = 50 × 508 = 10. 42. 38.

cannot be subjected to further algebraic treatment. Obviously all these squares of deviations are . the mean deviation about the mean is not very scientific. The sum of the deviations from the mean (minus signs ignored) is more than the sum of the deviations from median. where the degree of variability is very high. the median is not a representative central tendency. Therefore. is to take squares of all the deviations.5 from the lower limit and adding 0. Also mean deviation is calculated on the basis of absolute values of the deviations and therefore. mean deviation may give unsatisfactory results. Income 0-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-600 600-700 700-800 per day 8 9 10 7 5 4 3 Number 4 of persons 10. Height 95-105 105-115 115-125 125-135 135-145 145-155 in cms Number of 9 13 26 30 12 10 boys 11. the absolute values of the deviations were taken. in many cases. 15. Calculate the mean deviation about median age for the age distribution of 100 persons given below: 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Age Number 5 6 12 14 26 12 16 9 [Hint Convert the given data into continuous frequency distribution by subtracting 0.STATISTICS 361 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 9 and 10. otherwise the deviations may cancel among themselves.5 to the upper limit of each class interval] 15.Thus. the mean deviation about median calculated for such series can not be fully relied. Find the mean deviation about median for the following data : 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Marks 0-10 Number of 6 8 14 16 4 2 Girls 12. This implies that we must have some other measure of dispersion. Another way to overcome this difficulty which arose due to the signs of deviations. The absolute values were taken to give meaning to the mean deviation.5 Variance and Standard Deviation Recall that while calculating mean deviation about mean or median. Thus. Standard deviation is such a measure of dispersion.3 Limitations of mean deviation In a series.4. 9.

+ (44–30)2 +(45–30)2 = (–15)2 +(–14)2 + . x2. 29. x3. 40.. 33. 30. 28.. 34.. 45.... 21. 20.. 39. 19. 24... 27.. Now. this indicates that the observations x1.. 23.. there is a lower degree of dispersion.. 18. 31. x2. The mean of these observations is y = 30 Note that both the sets A and B of observations have a mean of 30. then each ( xi − x ) has to be zero. + 12] = 2× 15 × (15 + 1) (30 + 1) = 5 × 16 × 31 = 2480 6 n (n + 1) (2n + 1) . 45. 25. 35. 32. Let x1. 38. there is a higher degree of dispersion of the observations from the mean x .362 MATHEMATICS non-negative.xn are close to the mean x and therefore. 41. This implies that there is no dispersion at all as all observations are equal to the mean x . The mean of the observations is x = 30. 35. 37..+ 142 + 152 = 2 [152 + 142 + . The sum of squares of deviations from x for this set is ∑ (x − x) i =1 i 6 2 = (5–30)2 + (15–30)2 + (25–30)2 + (35–30)2 + (45–30)2 +(55–30)2 = 625 + 225 + 25 + 25 + 225 + 625 = 1750 Let us now take another set B of 31 observations 15. On the contrary.... x3. 15. Then (x1 − x)2 + (x2 −x)2 + . If this sum is zero. If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is small . Can we thus say that the sum ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is a reasonable indicator of the degree of dispersion or scatter? Let us take the set A of six observations 5.. xn be n observations and x be their mean.+ (–1)2 + 02 + 12 + 22 + 32 + .. 17. .. 44. 42. if this sum is large. the sum of squares of deviations of observations for set B from the mean y is given by ∑(y i =1 31 i − y ) 2 = (15–30)2 +(16–30)2 + (17–30)2 + .+ (xn − x )2 = ∑(x − x) i =1 i n 2 . Here n = 15) 6 (Because sum of squares of first n natural numbers = .. 25. 16. 22. 36. 55. 43. 26.

Therefore. it is × 2480 = 80.67 and in case of the set B... 6 31 This indicates that the scatter or dispersion is more in set A than the scatter or dispersion in set B.e. x2.5 For the set B. we take ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 .STATISTICS 363 If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is simply our measure of dispersion or scatter about mean. Mean = Thus. This number. mean of the squares of the deviations from mean is called the variance and is denoted by σ 2 (read as sigma square). This is also clear from the following diagrams.. which confirms with the geometrical representation of the two sets. we can say that the sum of squares of deviations from the mean is not a proper measure of dispersion. we can take 1 ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 as a quantity which leads to a proper measure n of dispersion. we have Fig 15.. the variance of n observations x1.. xn is given by . we have Fig 15. For the set A. even though the observations in set A are more scattered from the mean (the range of deviations being from –25 to 25) than in the set B (where the range of deviations is from –15 to 15). In case of the set A. we have n i =1 1 1 × 1750 = 291. i. we will tend to say that the set A of six observations has a lesser dispersion about the mean than the set B of 31 observations.6 Thus.e.. i. To overcome this difficulty we take the mean of the squares of 1 n the deviations.

1 Standard Deviation In the calculation of variance. Example 8 Find the Variance of the following data: 6. 18. usually denoted by σ . 8..7 xi 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 di = xi − 14 2 Deviations from mean (x i– x ) –9 –7 –5 –3 –1 1 3 5 7 9 (x i– x ) 81 49 25 9 1 1 9 25 49 81 330 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 . 12. For this reason.. Therefore. 24 Solution From the given data we can form the following Table 15.5. 22. is given by σ= 1 n ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 . 16. since variance involves the sum of squares of (xi– x ). the standard deviation.364 MATHEMATICS 1 n σ = ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 2 15. 20. The number of observations is n = 10 Table 15. (1) Let us take the following example to illustrate the calculation of variance and hence. 10. standard deviation of ungrouped data. we find that the units of individual observations xi and the unit of their mean x are different from that of variance. 14.7. the proper measure of dispersion about the mean of a set of observations is expressed as positive square-root of the variance and is called standard deviation. The mean is calculated by step-deviation method taking 14 as assumed mean.

. i =1 n . fn 1 n ∑ fi (xi − x )2 N i =1 In this case standard deviation (σ ) = where N = ∑ fi .2 Standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution Let the given discrete frequency distribution be x: x1. f2.8)... . x2.STATISTICS 365 ∑d Therefore Mean x = assumed mean + Variance ( σ 2 ) = 1 n 10 i =1 n i n × h = 14 + 5 × 2 = 15 10 and 1 ∑ ( xi − x )2 = 10 × 330 = 33 i =1 Thus Standard deviation ( σ ) = 33 = 5. . f3 . Example 9 Find the variance and standard deviation for the following data: xi fi 4 3 8 5 11 9 17 5 20 4 24 3 32 1 Solution Presenting the data in tabular form (Table 15.8 xi 4 8 11 17 20 24 32 fi 3 5 9 5 4 3 1 30 fi x i 12 40 99 85 80 72 32 420 xi – x –10 –6 –3 3 6 10 18 ( xi − x ) 2 100 36 9 9 36 100 324 f i ( xi − x ) 2 300 180 81 45 144 300 324 1374 . x3 . . ..74 15. xn f: f1.. (2) Let us take up following example.5. we get Table 15. .

5.8 30 and Standard deviation (σ ) = 45 . ∑ fi ( xi − x ) i =1 i =1 7 7 2 = 1374 Therefore x= ∑ fi xi i =1 N 2 = 1 × 420 = 14 30 Hence 1 variance (σ ) = N = ∑ fi (xi − i =1 7 x )2 1 × 1374 = 45. If there is a frequency distribution of n classes each class defined by its mid-point xi with frequency fi. the standard deviation will be obtained by the formula σ = 1 N ∑ fi ( xi − i =1 n x)2 . n where x is the mean of the distribution and N = ∑ fi . the standard deviation is calculated by the technique adopted in the case of a discrete frequency distribution. 7 ∑ fi xi = 420. i =1 Another formula for standard deviation We know that 1 Variance (σ ) = N 2 ∑ i =1 n fi ( xi − x ) 2 = n n 1 N ∑ fi ( xi 2 + i =1 n x 2 − 2 x xi ) 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ ∑ fi xi 2 + ∑ x 2 fi − ∑ 2 x i =1 n i =1 i =1 n ⎤ fi xi ⎥ ⎦ n n ⎤ fi xi 2 + x 2 ∑ fi − 2 x ∑ xi fi ⎥ ∑ i =1 i =1 i =1 ⎦ . Then.366 MATHEMATICS N = 30.8 = 6.77 15.3 Standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution The given continuous frequency distribution can be represented as a discrete frequency distribution by replacing each class by its mid-point.

. standard deviation (σ ) = N ∑fx i i =1 n 2 i −⎜ ⎛ n ⎞ ∑ f i xi ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 .STATISTICS 367 n ⎤ 1 n ⎤ ⎡ 1⎡ n fi xi + x 2 N − 2 x .9. N x ⎥ ⎢ Here ∑ xi fi = x or ∑ xi fi = Nx ⎥ = ⎢∑ N i =1 N ⎣ i =1 i =1 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ = 1 N ∑ fi xi 2 + x 2 i =1 n − 2x 2 = 1 N ∑ fi xi 2 − i =1 n x 2 or ⎛ n ⎜ ∑ fi xi 1 n 2 ⎜ 2 = ∑ fi xi − ⎜ i =1N σ N i −1 ⎜ ⎝ 1 N ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎡ n ⎛ n ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ = 1 ⎢ N ∑ fi xi 2 − ⎜ ∑ fi xi ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ N 2 ⎢ i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Thus.. (3) Example 10 Calculate the mean. Table 15. variance and standard deviation for the following distribution : Class Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution From the given data. we construct the following Table 15.9 Class 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 Frequency Mid-point (f i ) (x i) 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 50 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 f ix i 105 315 660 975 600 255 190 3100 (x i– x ) 2 729 289 49 9 169 529 1089 f i (x i – x ) 2 2187 2023 588 135 1352 1587 2178 10050 .

368 MATHEMATICS Thus Mean x = 1 N ∑fx i =1 7 i i = 3100 = 62 50 Variance σ ( ) 2 1 = N ∑ f i (xi − x )2 i =1 7 = and 1 × 10050 = 201 50 Standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. we have fi 7 10 15 10 6 614 f ix i 21 80 195 180 138 x i2 9 64 169 324 529 f ix i2 63 640 2535 3240 3174 9652 σ = = = 1 N 1 48 N∑ fi xi − ( ∑ fi xi ) 2 2 48 × 9652 − (614) 2 1 463296 − 376996 48 .10 xi 3 8 13 18 23 48 Now.18 Example 11 Find the standard deviation for the following data : xi fi 3 7 8 10 13 15 18 10 23 6 Solution Let us form the following Table 15.10: Table 15. by formula (3).

(1) ∑fx i n i We know that x = i =1 N .12 48 Therefore.. (2) Replacing xi from (1) in (2). we get = ∑ f ( A + hy ) i i i =1 n x N n n ⎛ n ⎞ 1 ⎛ n ⎞ ∑ f i A + ∑ h f i yi ⎟ = N ⎜ A ∑ f i + h ∑ f i yi ⎟ = ⎜ N ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1 i =1 1 = A.12 = 15. it is possible to simplify the procedure. Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation Sometimes the values of xi in a discrete distribution or the mid points xi of different classes in a continuous distribution are large and so the calculation of mean and variance becomes tedious and time consuming. Let the step-deviations or the new values be yi. yi = xi − A h or xi = A + hyi .e. Let the assumed mean be ‘A’ and the scale be reduced to 1 times (h being the h width of class-intervals).4.. σ x = N .STATISTICS 369 1 × 293.77 = 6.. Standard deviation ( σ ) = 6.5. (3) 1 ∑ fi ( xi − x )2 i =1 n = 1 N ∑ fi (A + hyi − A − h y )2 i =1 n (Using (1) and (3)) .. By using step-deviation method.. i..N +h N Thus Now ∑ fi yi i =1 n N n ⎛ ⎞ because ∑ fi = N ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ i =1 x=A+h y 2 Variance of the variable x.

Classes Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution Let the assumed mean A = 65.e.11 Class Frequency fi Mid-point yi= xi 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 xi − 65 10 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y i2 fi yi f i y i2 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 9 0-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 N=50 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 –9 – 14 – 12 0 8 6 6 – 15 27 28 12 0 8 12 18 105 . (4) .11 from the given data : Table 15. (5) Let us solve Example 11 by the short-cut method and using formula (5) Examples 12 Calculate mean. we have n ⎛ n ⎞ h N ∑ fi yi 2 − ⎜ ∑ fi yi ⎟ σx = N i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 . Variance and Standard Deviation for the following distribution... Here h = 10 We obtain the following Table 15.. or 2 2 σ x2 = h σ y σ x = hσ y From (3) and (4)..370 MATHEMATICS 1 = N h2 = N ∑ fi h2 (yi − y )2 i =1 n n ∑ fi (yi − y )2 = h × variance of the variable y 2 i =1 i i.

1. 7. 6. 13.18 EXERCISE 15. 4. 10. Classes Frequencies 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180 180-210 2 3 5 10 3 5 2 . xi fi 6 2 92 3 10 4 93 2 14 7 97 3 18 12 98 2 24 8 102 6 28 4 104 3 30 3 109 3 6. xi fi 60 2 61 1 62 12 63 29 64 25 65 12 66 10 67 4 68 5 Find the mean and variance for the following frequency distributions in Exercises 7 and 8.STATISTICS 371 Therefore x= A+ ∑ fi yi × h = 65 − 15 × 10 = 62 50 50 Variance σ2 = h2 N2 ⎡ 2 ⎢ N ∑ fi yi − ( ∑ fi yi ⎣ 2 ) 2⎤ ⎥ ⎦ = (10 ) ⎡50 × 105 − (–15)2 ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎦ (50) ⎣ = 1 [5250 − 225] = 201 25 and standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. First 10 multiples of 3 4. First n natural numbers 3. Find the mean and standard deviation using short-cut method. xi fi 5. 7. 12. 12 2. 8.2 Find the mean and variance for each of the data in Exercies 1 to 5.

is said to be more consistent than the other.5 .V. we do not merely calculate the measures of dispersion but we require such measures which are independent of the units. which are measured in different units.5 . Find the mean.5. of circles 33-36 15 37-40 17 41-44 21 45-48 22 49-52 25 Calculate the standard deviation and mean diameter of the circles. The series having lesser C.V.5. 44.5-44. Whenever we want to compare the variability of two series with same mean. Classes Frequencies 0-10 5 10-20 8 20-30 15 30-40 16 40-50 6 9. we calculate the coefficient of variance for each series.5 and then proceed. 40.5. variance and standard deviation using short-cut method Height in cms No. we have studied about some types of measures of dispersion.V. . 36.5. = σ x × 100 .] 15. [ Hint First make the data continuous by making the classes as 32. The diameters of circles (in mm) drawn in a design are given below: Diameters No. x ≠ 0 . where σ and x are the standard deviation and mean of the data. of children 70-75 75-80 80-85 85-90 90-95 95-100 100-105 105-110 110-115 3 4 7 7 15 9 6 6 3 10. The mean deviation and the standard deviation have the same units in which the data are given.52.48. 48.5-40. For comparing the variability or dispersion of two series.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions In earlier sections.372 MATHEMATICS 8. The series having greater C.V.5-36. The measure of variability which is independent of units is called coefficient of variation (denoted as C.) The coefficient of variation is defined as C. is said to be more variable than the other.

and x2 and σ2 be the mean and standard deviation of the second distribution. (1) × 100 .V.STATISTICS 373 15.V. Let us now take following examples: Example 13 Two plants A and B of a factory show following results about the number of workers and the wages paid to them.Vs. the series with greater standard deviation (or variance) is called more variable or dispersed than the other. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 1 ) = 9 . (2nd distribution) = σ2 x2 × 100 Given x1 = x2 = x (say) Therefore and C..1 Comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean Let x1 and σ1 be the mean and standard deviation of the first distribution.. Thus.6. A B No. A or B is there greater variability in individual wages? Solution The variance of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 12 ) = 81 Therefore. of workers Average monthly wages Variance of distribution of wages 5000 Rs 2500 81 6000 Rs 2500 100 σ2 In which plant. (1st distribution) = C.V. (2) x It is clear from (1) and (2) that the two C. we say that for two series with equal means. (2nd distribution) = σ1 x × 100 . (1st distribution) = x × 100 1 σ and C.. Also.. can be compared on the basis of values of σ 1 and σ 2 only.V. Then 1 C. the series with lesser value of standard deviation (or variance) is said to be more consistent than the other.

69cm = 11. (1st distribution) = 60. the plant B has greater variability in the individual wages. (1st distribution) = Therefore 60 = σ1 x1 × 100 21 21 ×100 or x1 = × 100 = 35 x1 60 and i.V.V.V. (2nd distribution) = 70 = σ2 x2 ×100 16 16 × 100 or x2 = × 100 = 22. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ2 ) = 10 Since the average monthly wages in both the plants is same. Given Therefore Also Variance of height = 127.69cm2 Standard deviation of height = Variance of weight = 23. σ 1 = 21 C. C. respectively. Solution Given C. we have to calculate their coefficients of variation.85 x2 70 Example 15 The following values are calculated in respect of heights and weights of the students of a section of Class XI : Height Weight Mean Variance 162.2500. What are their arithmetic means.V. the plant with greater standard deviation will have more variability. Rs. Thus.1361 kg2 Can we say that the weights show greater variation than the heights? Solution To compare the variability. i.69 cm2 52.1361 kg 2 127. (2nd distribution) = 70.374 MATHEMATICS Also.36 kg 23. respectively..3 cm . and their standard deviations are 21 and 16. the variance of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ 2 2 ) = 100 Therefore. σ 2 = 16 Let x1 and x2 be the means of 1st and 2nd distribution. Then C.e. therefore. Example 14 Coefficient of variation of two distributions are 60 and 70.e.6 cm 127.

10-20 20-30 30-40 9 10 17 20 32 30 40-50 50-60 60-70 33 25 40 43 10 15 70-80 9 7 From the prices of shares X and Y below.18 Clearly C.) in heights = Standard Deviation Mean × 100 = and (C.3 1. in heights Therefore.V.V. shows greater variability in individual wages? 586 Rs 5253 100 Firm B 648 Rs 5253 121 . From the data given below state which group is more variable. find out which is more stable in value: X 35 54 107 52 105 53 105 56 106 58 107 52 104 50 103 51 104 49 101 Y 108 3.1361 kg = 4.) are given by (C.STATISTICS 375 Therefore Standard deviation of weight = 23.) in weights = 11. An analysis of monthly wages paid to workers in two firms A and B. belonging to the same industry. A or B? Marks Group A Group B 2. A or B. EXERCISE 15.81 kg Now. in weights is greater than the C.V.3 162.V. we can say that weights show more variability than heights.36 × 100 = 6.81 52.6 4. gives the following results: Firm A No. the coefficient of variations (C. of wage earners Mean of monthly wages Variance of the distribution of wages (i) Which firm A or B pays larger amount as monthly wages? (ii) Which firm.95 × 100 = 9.V.

6 i =1 50 Which is more varying. We know that Variance σ 2 = 20 ( ) 1 n ∑ (xi − x )2 ..e.25 goals.. mean number of goals scored per match was 2 with a standard deviation 1. If each observation is multiplied by 2. (1) or ∑ (xi − x )2 = 100 i =1 If each observation is multiplied by 2. . xi = y= 1 yi 2 Therefore 1 20 1 20 1 20 ∑ yi = 20 ∑ 2 xi = 2 . of goals scored No. we get .376 MATHEMATICS 4. For the team B.. Given that variance = 5 and n = 20. i =1 50 ∑ yi = 261 ... The following is the record of goals scored by team A in a football session: No. 5 = i =1 20 1 20 ∑ (xi − x )2 20 i =1 . x2. find the new variance of the resulting observations..e.. i =1 50 ∑ yi2 = 1457. x20 and x be their mean. the length or weight? Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 The variance of 20 observations is 5. i =1 50 ∑ xi2 = 902.e. Solution Let the observations be x1. and the new resulting observations are yi . y=2x or x= 1 y 2 Substituting the values of xi and x in (1). of matches 0 1 1 9 2 7 3 5 4 3 5. then yi = 2xi i.8 . i. 20 ∑ xi n i =1 i =1 i =1 i. Find which team may be considered more consistent? The sum and sum of squares corresponding to length x (in cm) and weight y (in gm) of 50 plant products are given below: ∑ xi = 212 .

x2.20 = 11. 8.4 and their variance is 8. (5) or x–y= ±5 So. (1) 1 5 2 variance = 8. y = 9 when x – y = – 5 Thus... y.e. Example 18 If each of the observation x1. find the other two observations. we get x2 + y2 – 2xy = 97 – 72 i..76 + 2. Example17 The mean of 5 observations is 4.24 = Mean x = 4..e.24. 6. (x – y)2 = 25 . we get x = 9.. Now or Therefore Also i. the remaining observations are 4 and 9..e.. we have . ⎠ i =1 ⎝ 20 2 ∑(y i =1 20 i − y ) 2 = 400 Thus the variance of new observations = 1 × 400 = 20 = 22 × 5 20 Note The reader may note that if each observation is multiplied by a constant k. Therefore. (4) Subtracting (4) from (2). y = 4 when x – y = 5 or x = 4..xn is increased by ‘a’. . (2) Therefore x2 + y2 = 97 But from (1)..STATISTICS 377 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ∑ ⎜ 2 yi − 2 y ⎟ = 100 . where a is a negative or positive number. the variance of the resulting observations becomes k2 times the original variance. 2 and 6.56 + x2 + y2 –8. x..4 = 1+ 2 + 6 + x + y 5 22 = 9 + x + y x + y = 13 .4 + 2. from (1) and (5).8 × 13 + 38.4 ) ⎤ ⎣( ) ( ) ( ) ⎦ 5 or 41. we have 2xy = 72 . show that the variance remains unchanged. If three of the observations are 1.56 + 5.4 + 1.72 .6 + x 2 + y 2 − 2 × 4... .. (3) x2 + y2 + 2xy = 169 From (2) and (3). 2.4 (x + y ) + 2 × ( 4. i. Solution Let the other two observations be x and y..24 = ∑ ( xi −x ) n i =1 1⎡ 2 2 2 2 3. the series is 1.

.1..xn .. . Then the variance is given by σ 12 = 1 n ∑ (xi − x ) i =1 n 2 If ‘a is added to each observation..378 MATHEMATICS Solution Let x be the mean of x1. respectively by a student who took by mistake 50 instead of 40 for one observation. (2) i.e. Example 19 The mean and standard deviation of 100 observations were calculated as 40 and 5.. Incorrect standard deviation (σ) = 5. the variance of the new observations is same as that of the original observations.. y = x+a Thus.1 We know that x= 1 n ∑ xi n i =1 1 100 ∑ xi or 100 i =1 i. (1) 1 n ∑ yi = n ∑ (xi + a) i =1 i =1 n 1 n n ⎤ 1⎡n 1 xi + ∑ a ⎥ = = n ⎢∑ n i =1 ⎦ ⎣ i =1 ∑x + i i =1 n na =x+a n . Then y= . Note We may note that adding (or subtracting) a positive number to (or from) each observation of a group does not affect the variance.e. 40 = ∑ xi = 4000 i =1 100 . the variance of the new observations σ2 2 1 = n 1 = n ∑ (yi − y ) 2 = i =1 n i =1 n 1 n ∑ ( xi + a − x − a) 2 n i =1 [Using (1) and (2)] ∑ (xi − x )2 = σ 12 Thus. the new observations will be yi = xi + a Let the mean of the new observations be y .. What are the correct mean and standard deviation? Solution Given that number of observations (n) = 100 Incorrect mean ( x ) = 40. x2.

01 + 1600) = 162601 i =1 n Now Correct ∑ xi 2 = Incorrect ∑ xi 2 – (50) i =1 i =1 n 2 + (40)2 = 162601 – 2500 + 1600 = 161701 Therefore Correct standard deviation Correct n = ∑x 2 i − (Correct mean) 2 = = 161701 100 − (39. Thus Incorrect sum of observations = 4000 the correct sum of observations = Incorrect sum – 50 + 40 = 4000 – 50 + 40 = 3990 Hence Correct mean = correct sum 3990 = = 39.e.9 100 100 1 n Also Standard deviation σ = ∑ xi i =1 n n 2 1⎛ n ⎞ − 2 ⎜ ∑ xi ⎟ n ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 2 2 = 1 100 1 n 1 n 2 ∑ x − (x ) i =1 i i.e.9) 2 1617. 5.STATISTICS 379 i.01 = × Incorrect 100 n 2 ∑x i =1 n 2 i – 1600 Incorrect ∑ xi = 100 (26.01 − 1592.1 = × Incorrect ∑ xi − (40) 2 i =1 or Therefore 26.01 = 25 =5 .

which of the three subjects shows the highest variability in marks and which shows the lowest? The mean and standard deviation of a group of 100 observations were found to be 20 and 3. . (a ≠ 0).9 20 4. find the remaining two observations. 3. If six of the observations are 6. it was found that an observation 8 was incorrect. standard deviation are measures of dispersion. The mean and standard deviation of marks obtained by 50 students of a class in three subjects. 12 and 13. 7. n M. 14. Summary Measures of dispersion Range.xn. 4.D. ax2. (M) = ∑ ( xi – M ) n .. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation in each of the following cases: (i) If wrong item is omitted.. mean deviation. 10. x2. 2. The mean and variance of 7 observations are 8 and 16. respectively. 6... respectively. Quartile deviation. On rechecking. (ii) If it is replaced by 12. Find the remaining two observations. The mean and variance of eight observations are 9 and 9. respectively. Later on it was found that three observations were incorrect. respectively. variance. Find the mean and standard deviation if the incorrect observations are omitted. Prove that the mean and variance of the observations ax1. respectively. . Mathematics. find the new mean and new standard deviation of the resulting observations. The mean and standard deviation of 20 observations are found to be 10 and 2. Range = Maximum Value – Minimum Value Mean deviation for ungrouped data M. (x ) = ∑ ( xi – x ) . Physics and Chemistry are given below: Subject Mean Standard deviation Mathematics 42 12 Physics 32 15 Chemistry 40. 21 and 18. If five of the observations are 2. 5. If each observation is multiplied by 3. 10. 12.D..25.. ax3. axn are a x and a2 σ2. 7. 12. which were recorded as 21. respectively. Given that x is the mean and σ2 is the variance of n observations x1..380 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 15 1. The mean and standard deviation of six observations are 8 and 4.

perhaps the first census was held in Egypt. we had an efficient system of collecting administrative statistics. ∑ ( xi – x ) n n Variance and standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution σ2 = 1 1 2 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) . (M) = ∑ fi ( xi – M ) . σ 2 ⎢ ∑ i i ⎥ ⎦ N ⎣ = h N N ∑ fi yi2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) .C. .C.D. σ = N ∑ fi ( xi − x ) N Variance and standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution σ2 = 2 1 1 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) . x For series with equal means. σ = N N∑ fi xi2 − ( ∑ fi xi ) N Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation.STATISTICS 381 Mean deviation for grouped data N N Variance and standard deviation for ungrouped data M. Coefficient of variation (C. In India also..). during the regime of Chandra Gupta Maurya (324-300 B. 2 where yi = xi − A h × 100.) = σ Historical Note ‘Statistics’ is derived from the Latin word ‘status’ which means a political state. M.) A detailed account of administrative surveys conducted during Akbar’s regime is given in Ain-I-Akbari written by Abul Fazl. The system of collecting data related to births and deaths is mentioned in Kautilya’s Arthshastra (around 300 B.D. x ≠ 0. ( x ) = ∑ fi ( xi – x ) . the series with lesser standard deviation is more consistent or less scattered. about 2000 years ago.V. σ2 = σ2 = 2 h2 ⎡ N f y 2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) ⎤ . In the year 3050 B.C. where N = ∑ f i 1 1 2 σ= ∑ (xi – x )2 . particularly. This suggests that statistics is as old as human civilisation.

etc. in the field of Biometry. — — .e. pioneered the use of statistical methods. Francis Galton (1822-1921). published in 1713. Biometry.. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) contributed a lot to the development of statistical studies with his discovery of Chi square test and foundation of statistical laboratory in England (1911). known as the Father of modern statistics. Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) stated the Law of Large numbers in his book “Ars Conjectandi’. Agriculture.382 MATHEMATICS Captain John Graunt of London (1620-1674) is known as father of vital statistics due to his studies on statistics of births and deaths. an Englishman. probability). Fisher (1890-1962). Education. applied it to various diversified fields such as Genetics. The theoretical development of statistics came during the mid seventeenth century and continued after that with the introduction of theory of games and chance (i. Sir Ronald A.

In classical theory we assume all the outcomes to be equally likely. in 1933. to obtain the probability of an event. . a Russian mathematician. it is as great a folly to make use of any other.N. This is called statistical approach of probability. The outcomes in favour of the event of ‘getting an even number’ are 2. these theories can not be applied to the activities/experiments which have infinite number of outcomes.5 and 6 (six in number). In general. Here the 6 2 total possible outcomes are 1.4. we used equally likely or equally probable outcomes. – JOHN ARBUTHNOT 16.e. we learnt to find the probability on the basis of observations and collected data. This is logically not a correct definition..1 Introduction In earlier classes.. For instance. we find the ratio of the number of outcomes favourable to the event. Kolmogorov.e. Recall that the outcomes are called equally likely when we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other. another theory of probability was developed by A. He . We have obtained the probability of getting an even number in throwing a die as 3 1 i.2. In other words.3. This theory of probability (1903-1987) is known as classical theory of probability. to define probability. Both the theories have some serious difficulties. we studied about the concept of probability as a measure of uncertainty of various phenomenon.4.Chapter 16 PROBABILITY Where a mathematical reasoning can be had.6 (i. when you have a candle in your hand. to the total Kolmogorove number of equally likely outcomes. Thus. three in number). In Class IX. as to grope for a thing in the dark. we assume that all outcomes have equal chance (probability) to occur. Thus.

The set of outcomes {1. 2. In other words. 5. In this Chapter.2. in what follows next. 3. 6} is called the sample space of the experiment. we can definitely say that the sum of measure of angles is 180°. An experiment is called random experiment if it satisfies the following two conditions: (i) It has more than one possible outcome. (ii) It is not possible to predict the outcome in advance. To understand this approach we must know about few basic terms viz. 5. For example given any triangle. Such experiments are called random experiments. 2. random experiment. each outcome of the random experiment is also called sample point. etc. events. if we are interested in the number of dots on the upper face of the die. Sample space is denoted by the symbol S. we will study about this approach called axiomatic approach of probability. the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called the sample space associated with the experiment. 3. 16. when a coin is tossed it may turn up a head or a tail. Thus. Find a sample space. but we are not sure which one of these results will actually be obtained. the possible outcomes may be . without knowing the three angles.2 Random Experiments In our day to day life. We also perform many experimental activities. in his book ‘Foundation of Probability’ published in 1933. we perform many activities which have a fixed result no matter any number of times they are repeated. The outcomes of this experiment are 1. Example 1 Two coins (a one rupee coin and a two rupee coin) are tossed once. Consider the experiment of rolling a die. 16. Let us now consider some examples. or 6. Solution Clearly the coins are distinguishable in the sense that we can speak of the first coin and the second coin. 4. we shall refer the random experiment by experiment only unless stated otherwise. sample space. when they are repeated under identical conditions. Check whether the experiment of tossing a die is random or not? In this chapter. For example. where the result may not be same. 4. Each element of the sample space is called a sample point.1 Outcomes and sample space A possible result of a random experiment is called its outcome.384 MATHEMATICS laid down some axioms to interpret probability. Since either coin can turn up Head (H) or Tail(T). Let us learn about these all.

5).1).3). The number of elements of this sample space is 6 × 6 = 36 and the sample space is given below: {(1. Therefore. Simlarly.5). (4.5). where x is the number appeared on the blue die and y is the number appeared on the red die. Solution Suppose 1 appears on blue die and 2 on the red die. So the result of two draws may be QH or QR. (5. the second draw may be Q or R.5). (2.3).1).2). (4. . the outcome is denoted by the ordered pair (3. if ‘3’ appears on blue die and ‘5’ on red.3). So.2). For the sake of simplicity the commas are omitted from the ordered pairs. (6.4). (1. (2. He takes out two coins out of his pocket. Lastly. (1.3). (6. corresponding to R. corresponding to H. (6. (3. (5.4).5). Similarly. (6.PROBABILITY 385 Heads on both coins = (H. the second draw may be H or R.6).2). (4. (1.2).3). Also. (5. (6. (2. the outcomes may be HQ or HR. H or R.4). (3. the outcomes may be RH or RQ.3).2). (6. (3. TH. H denotes a 2 rupee coin and R denotes a 5 rupee coin.6). (4. In general each outcome can be denoted by the ordered pair (x.H) = TH Tail on both coins = (T. Corresponding to Q. We denote this outcome by an ordered pair (1.T) = TT Thus. (5. y). (2. Therefore.1). A person is noting down the number of accidents along a busy highway during a year. HT. one after the other.T) = HT Tail on first coin and Head on the other = (T. (3.4).5). TT} Note The outcomes of this experiment are ordered pairs of H and T. the sample space is S = {HH. (1.6) (3. (2.2). Example 2 Find the sample space associated with the experiment of rolling a pair of dice (one is blue and the other red) once.H) = HH Head on first coin and Tail on the other = (H.1). (4. The first coin he takes out of his pocket may be any one of the three coins Q.5). Solution (i) Let Q denote a 1 rupee coin.4).1). this sample space is given by S = {(x. y): x is the number on the blue die and y is the number on the red die}. (2. the second draw may be H or Q.6). (5.2). (3. a 2 rupee coin and a 5 rupee coin in his pocket. find the number of elements of this sample space. (1.4).1). (4.6)} Example 3 In each of the following experiments specify appropriate sample space (i) (ii) A boy has a 1 rupee coin.6) (5.

. A coin is tossed four times. TTTTH. A die is thrown two times. W3. Hence. If it shows head.. W2. 3. A coin is tossed and a die is thrown. T2.. Here HBi means head on the coin and ball Bi is drawn. 6.. B3 and the white balls by W1. we draw a ball from a bag consisting of 3 blue and 4 white balls. if it shows tail we throw a die. T1. Solution In the experiment head may come up on the first toss. 8. RQ} (ii) The number of accidents along a busy highway during the year of observation can be either 0 (for no accident ) or 1 or 2.} EXERCISE 16. HWi means head on the coin and ball Wi is drawn.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 7. Describe the sample space. (i) What is the sample space if we are interested in knowing whether it is a boy or girl in the order of their births? . HW4. Describe the sample space of this experiment. A coin is tossed and then a die is rolled only in case a head is shown on the coin. Solution Let us denote blue balls by B1. one of white colour and one of blue colour are placed in a bag. a sample space associated with this experiment is S= {0. or the 2nd toss. HB2.} Example 4 A coin is tossed. W4.. Describe the sample space.2. T3. the desired sample space is S= {H. and 1 boy and 3 girls in Room Y. HB3. HW2. T4. HQ. 7. TH. Specify the sample space for the experiment in which a room is selected and then a person.1. 2. the sample space is S={QH. its colour and the number on its uppermost face is noted. An experiment consists of recording boy–girl composition of families with 2 children. RH. Ti means tail on the coin and the number i on the die. A coin is tossed three times. or the 3rd toss and so on till head is obtained.. Thus. HW1. QR. TTH. or some other positive integer. B2. T5. 2 boys and 2 girls are in Room X. T6}. Example 5 Consider the experiment in which a coin is tossed repeatedly until a head comes up. Then a sample space of the experiment is S = { HB1. Similarly. 5. HW3. 1. One die is selected at random and rolled. 4. HR.386 MATHEMATICS Thus. One die of red colour. describe the sample space for the indicated experiment. TTTH.

13. one after the other. What is the sample space for this experiment? 16. we draw a ball from a box which contains 2 red and 3 black balls. A coin is tossed. Find the sample space. If the number on the die is odd. HT. Write the sample space for this experiment. Two balls are drawn at random in succession without replacement. Write the sample space of this experiment. If it shows a tail.3 Event We have studied about random experiment and sample space associated with an experiment. We find that HT and TH are the only elements of S corresponding to the occurrence of this happening (event). Now suppose that we are interested in those outcomes which correspond to the occurrence of exactly one head. The slips are put in a box and mixed thoroughly. Write the sample space for this experiment. we throw a die. 2. 16. A coin is tossed. If it shows head. TT}. TH. without replacement. A die is thrown repeatedly untill a six comes up.PROBABILITY 387 (ii) 9. 12. Find the sample space for this experiment. Similarly. A person draws two slips from the box. These two elements form the set E = { HT. the coin is tossed twice. we find the following correspondence between events and subsets of S. Describe the sample space for the experiment. 14. What is the sample space if we are interested in the number of girls in the family? A box contains 1 red and 3 identical white balls. An experiment consists of tossing a coin and then throwing it second time if a head occurs. Suppose 3 bulbs are selected at random from a lot. . An experiment consists of rolling a die and then tossing a coin once if the number on the die is even. the die is thrown again. What is the sample space for the experiment? The numbers 1. If the out come is a head. 15. 10. If a tail occurs on the first toss. An associated sample space is S = {HH. 11. Consider the experiment of tossing a coin two times. then a die is rolled once. a die is thrown. 3 and 4 are written separatly on four slips of paper. TH} We know that the set E is a subset of the sample space S . The sample space serves as an universal set for all questions concerned with the experiment. If the die shows up an even number. Each bulb is tested and classified as defective (D) or non – defective(N).

Can you write the subset asociated with the event E? Clearly no outcome satisfies the condition given in the event. Thus. the whole sample space is called the sure event.388 MATHEMATICS Description of events Number of tails is exactly 2 Number of tails is atleast one Number of heads is atmost one Second toss is not head Number of tails is atmost two Number of tails is more than two Corresponding subset of ‘S’ A = {TT} B = {HT. TH. TH. Thus.e. 2. If the outcome ω is such that ω ∉ E. TT} S = {HH. HT. 3.. Definition Any subset E of a sample space S is called an event. Let E denotes the event “ a number less than 4 appears”. Clearly . Now let us take up another event F “the number turns up is odd or even”. no element of the sample space ensures the occurrence of the event E. The associated sample space is S = {1.e. In other words we can say that it is impossible to have a multiple of 7 on the upper face of the die. If actually ‘1’ had appeared on the die then we say that event E has occurred. TT} D = { HT. To understand these let us consider the experiment of rolling a die.2 Types of events Events can be classified into various types on the basis of the elements they have. 16. TH. i. 1. 4. i. As a matter of fact if outcomes are 2 or 3. 5. we say that event E has occurred Thus. In fact φ is called an impossible event and S. TT} φ The above discussion suggests that a subset of sample space is associated with an event and an event is associated with a subset of sample space. we say that the empty set only correspond to the event E. 6} Let E be the event “ the number appears on the die is a multiple of 7”. In the light of this we define an event as follows. the event E = φ is an impossible event.. TT} C = {HT. 16.3.3. the event E of a sample space S is said to have occurred if the outcome ω of the experiment is such that ω ∈ E.1 Occurrence of an event Consider the experiment of throwing a die. Impossible and Sure Events The empty set φ and the sample space S describe events. we say that the event E has not occurred.

B. TH. 3. TTH. Thus. take the experiment ‘of tossing three coins’.e. 4. These are E1= {HH}. An associated sample space is S = {HHH. But we may say that the event ‘not A’ has occurred. It is also called the event ‘not A’. C be events associated with an experiment whose sample space is S.3. it is called a Compound event. TTH.} = S. there are exactly n simple events. Compound Event If an event has more than one sample point. union. For example in the experiment of tossing two coins. 2. the event A has not occurred. HTT. Thus. HT.. Like-wise we can combine two or more events by using the analogous set notations. there corresponds another event A ′ called the complementary event to A. Simple Event If an event E has only one sample point of a sample space. 6.PROBABILITY 389 F = {1. in the experiment of “tossing a coin thrice” the events E: ‘Exactly one head appeared’ F: ‘Atleast one head appeared’ G: ‘Atmost one head appeared’ etc. THH. 5. 3. HTH. THH} be the event ‘only one tail appears’ Clearly for the outcome HTT. with every outcome which is not in A. viz. we have studied about different ways of combining two or more sets.THT. For example.THT. For example. E3= { TH} and E4={TT}. TT} There are four simple events corresponding to this sample space. we say that ‘not A’ occurs. a sample space is S={HH. HTT. In a sample space containing n distinct elements. HHH} G= {TTT. . Complementary Event For every event A. TTH} Each of the above subsets contain more than one sample point. the event F = S is a sure event. Let A. TTT} Let A={HTH. HHT. 16. HTH. complement of a set etc. The subsets of S associated with these events are E={HTT. HHT. intersection. 2. E2={HT}. hence they are all compound events.TTH} F={HTT. THT. it is called a simple (or elementary) event. are all compound events. HHT. 1. difference. all outcomes of the experiment ensure the occurrence of the event F. i. THT. THH.3 Algebra of events In the Chapter on Sets.

(6. Therefore 4. HTT.390 MATHEMATICS Thus the complementary event ‘not A’ to the event A is A′ = {HHH. then the set A ∩ B denotes the event ‘A and B’. 5} (ii) ‘A and B’ = A ∩ B = {3. 6}. which belong to both ‘A and B’.. (6. The Event ‘A but not B’ We know that A–B is the set of all those elements which are in A but not in B. 3. 4. 5} and B = {1.5). TTT} or A′ = {ω : ω ∈ S and ω ∉A} = S – A. 2.4. Therefore. then ‘A ∪ B’ is the event ‘either A or B or both’. The Event ‘A and B’ We know that intersection of two sets A ∩ B is the set of those elements which are common to both A and B.6)}. Let A be the event ‘getting a prime number’. A = {2. When the sets A and B are two events associated with a sample space.4). 2.6)} may represent the event ‘the score on the first throw is six and the sum of the scores is atleast 11’. TTH. 3. This event ‘A ∪ B’ is also called ‘A or B’.2}. Write the sets representing the events (i) Aor B (ii) A and B (iii) A but not B (iv) ‘not A’. Solution Here S = {1.5).6)} Note that the set A ∩ B = {(6. the set A–B may denote the event ‘A but not B’. For example. 3. (6.1). 5.We know that A – B = A ∩ B´ Example 6 Consider the experiment of rolling a die. (6. (6.3). 3.6} .5). If A and B are two events. in the experiment of ‘throwing a die twice’ Let A be the event ‘score on the first throw is six’ and B is the event ‘sum of two scores is atleast 11’ then A = {(6. (6.6). THT. i. A ∩ B = {ω : ω ∈ A and ω ∈ B} Thus. (6. 2. Event ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {ω : ω ∈ A or ω ∈ B} 3.e.5).5} (iii) ‘A but not B’ = A – B = {2} (iv) ‘not A’ = A′ = {1. The Event ‘A or B’ Recall that union of two sets A and B denoted by A ∪ B contains all those elements which are either in A or in B or in both. and B = {(5. B be the event ‘getting an odd number’. 5} Obviously (i) ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {1. (6. (6.6)} so A ∩ B = {(6.

. Again in the experiment of rolling a die. 2. 4..e.. We have S = {1. if Ei ∩ Ej = φ for i ≠ j i. A and B are not mutually exclusive events. 6}.PROBABILITY 391 16. . . We observe that A ∪ B ∪ C = {1. .. Then A = {1. 3}.e. i. In other words.3. A ‘an odd number appears’ and B ‘an even number appears’ Clearly the event A excludes the event B and vice versa. E2.4 Mutually exclusive events In the experiment of rolling a die. En are called mutually exclusive and exhaustive n events.. if they can not occur simultaneously. 6} Clearly A ∩ B = φ. In general. two events A and B are called mutually exclusive events if the occurrence of any one of them excludes the occurrence of the other event. 5} and B = {2.. then events E1... 5} and B = {1. 3} ∪ {3. Here A = {1. 2... E2. 2. Such events A.3. 3. 4. ... Remark Simple events of a sample space are always mutually exclusive. consider the events A ‘an odd number appears’ and event B ‘a number less than 4 appears’ Obviously A = {1. if E1. ∪ E n = ∪ E i = S i =1 n then E1. events Ei and Ej are pairwise disjoint and i =1 ∪ E i = S .. 3} Now 3 ∈ A as well as 3 ∈ B Therefore. In general.. A and B are disjoint sets.. B and C are called exhaustive events. 6}..5 Exhaustive events Consider the experiment of throwing a die.. 5. i. 2. En are n events of a sample space S and if E1 ∪ E 2 ∪ E 3 ∪ . 3.. events E1. 6}. a sample space is S = {1. . En are called exhaustive events. B = {3. 3. 2. Consider events. E2. B: ‘a number greater than 2 but less than 5 appears’ and C: ‘a number greater than 4 appears’. 3. 16.4} and C = {5.In other words. 5. In this case the sets A and B are disjoint. 6} = S. there is no outcome which ensures the occurrence of events A and B simultaneously.e. Further. Let us define the following events A: ‘a number less than 4 appears’. 4. 4} ∪ {5. En are said to be exhaustive if atleast one of them necessarily occurs whenever the experiment is performed. E2.

4). Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? Solution There are 36 elements in the sample space S = {(x. (5. (2. 1). 6)} ≠ φ Therefore. THT. i. (B. Example 7 Two dice are thrown and the sum of the numbers which come up on the dice is noted. 5). Also. HTT. D) are not mutually exclusive events. 1). (6. 1). (6. (4. C: ‘the sum is less than 4’. (5. (3. B and C form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. 5).392 MATHEMATICS We now consider some examples. HTH. (1. 2). 4). 1). 3). (4. (1. Let us consider the following events associated with this experiment A: ‘the sum is even’. B: ‘Exactly one head appears’ and C: ‘Atleast two heads appear’. 6). TTT} and A = {TTT}. HTT. D). A and B are not mutually exclusive events. A. . B ∩ C ≠ φ and B ∩ D ≠ φ. THH. (B. (1. 3). 3. B and C are exhaustive events. 2)} and D = {(6. 2).e. 6)} We find that A ∩ B = {(1. A. (6. (5. Do they form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events? Solution The sample space of the experiment is S = {HHH. (6. (4. (4. A ∩ B = φ. 2). Hence. TTH}. D: ‘the sum is greater than 11’. 6). (2. consider the following events. 5). (3. (2. (A. 1). Then A = {(1.. (4. 4). C). y = 1. TTH. Also C ∩ D = φ and so C and D are mutually exclusive events. (2. 3). y): x. 4. 3). 1). Similarly A ∩ C ≠ φ. HTH. (3. 6)} B = {(1. (3. 2. 5). TTH. A: ‘No head appears’. (2. THH. 4). (6. HHT. A ∩ D ≠ φ. 5. A ∩ C = φ and B ∩ C = φ Therefore. HHT. Example 8 A coin is tossed three times. 1). 6)} C = {(1. (3. (1. 4). B: ‘the sum is a multiple of 3’. (2. C = {HHT. 1). the events are pair-wise disjoint. they are mutually exclusive. 5). (5. 6}. THT. THT. HHH} Now A ∪ B ∪ C = {TTT. (4. 2). 2). (5. HTH. 5). 6). (2. THH. 3). the pairs. (5. (A. HHH} = S Therefore. C). Thus. 2). (6. (3. 4). 3). B = {HTT.

C: getting the sum of the numbers on the dice ≤ 5. (iii) Two events. Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? 4. D ∩ E. Three coins are tossed once. Describe the following events: (i) A: a number less than 7 (iii) C: a multiple of 3 (v) E: an even number greater than 4 (ii) (iv) (vi) B: a number greater than 7 D: a number less than 4 F: a number not less than 3 Also find A ∪ B. which are not mutually exclusive. state true or false: (give reason for your answer) (i) A and B are mutually exclusive (ii) A and B are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (iii) A = B′ . A ∩ B. Let E be the event “die shows 4” and F be the event “die shows even number”. 3. Two dice are thrown. (v) Three events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. (ii) Three events which are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. E ∩ F′. Let A denote the event ‘three heads show”. B: getting an odd number on the first die. The events A. Are E and F mutually exclusive? 2. 6. Describe the events (ii) not B (iii) A or B (i) A ′ (iv) A and B (v) A but not C (vi) B or C (vii) B and C (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ 7. Describe (i) Two events which are mutually exclusive. D – E. Which events are (ii) simple? (iii) Compound? (i) mutually exclusive? 5. An experiment involves rolling a pair of dice and recording the numbers that come up. Three coins are tossed.2 1. A die is thrown. (iv) Two events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. C denote the event” three tails show and D denote the event ‘a head shows on the first coin”. Describe the following events: A: the sum is greater than 8. Refer to question 6 above. B: 2 occurs on either die C: the sum is at least 7 and a multiple of 3. B and C are as follows: A: getting an even number on the first die. E ∪ F. F′. A – C.PROBABILITY 393 EXERCISE 16. B denote the event “two heads and one tail show”. A die is rolled.

Note It may be noted that the singleton {ωi} is called elementary event and for notational convenience.. ω2 . It follows from (iii) that P(φ) = 0. . from axiom (iii). we write P(ωi ) for P({ωi }).. P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ).. B′. i. + P (ωn) = 1 (iii) For any event A. For example. Axiomatic approach is another way of describing probability of an event.1] satisfying the following axioms (ii) P (S) = 1 (i) For any event E. then P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F). we have considered random experiments... P(H) = and P(T) = (1) to each Clearly this assignment satisfies both the conditions i. ωn} It follows from the axiomatic definition of probability that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 for each ωi ∈ S (ii) P (ω1) + P (ω2) + . Let S be a sample space containing outcomes ω1 . 16. sample space and events associated with these experiments. i. ω2..394 MATHEMATICS (iv) A and C are mutually exclusive (v) A and B′ are mutually exclusive. we take F = φ and note that E and φ are disjoint events.e. S = {ω1. Probability theory attempts to quantify these chances of occurrence or non occurrence of events.. we have studied some methods of assigning probability to an event associated with an experiment having known the number of total outcomes... (vi) A′. ωn .e. The probability P is a real valued function whose domain is the power set of S and range is the interval [0. In earlier classes. Let S be the sample space of a random experiment.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability In earlier sections. Therefore. each number is neither less than zero nor greater than 1 and . P (φ) = 0. C are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. we get P (E ∪ φ) = P (E) + P (φ) or P(E) = P(E) + P (φ) i.e. P (E) ≥ 0 (iii) If E and F are mutually exclusive events. in ‘a coin tossing’ experiment we can assign the number of the outcomes H and T. In this approach some axioms or rules are depicted to assign probabilities. In our day to day life we use many words about the chances of occurrence of events.e.. ωi ∈ A. To prove this..

We now consider some examples..PROBABILITY 395 P(H) + P(T) = 1 1 + =1 2 2 1 1 .4 1 6 0. satisfies both conditions of the axiomatic approach of probability. in this case we can say that probability of H = If we take P(H) = 1 3 and P(T) = .. and probability of T = 2 2 Therefore.. we can assign the numbers p and (1 – p) to both the outcomes such that 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 and P(H) + P(T) = p + (1 – p) = 1 This assignment.Which of the following assignments of probabilities to each outcome are valid? Outcomes ω 1 ω2 ω3 ω4 ω5 ω6 (a) (b) (c) 1 6 1 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 8 1 12 2 3 1 3 1 3 − 1 4 − 1 3 (d) (e) 1 12 0. ω6}.2 1 6 0. Condition (ii): Sum of probabilities = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + =1 6 6 6 6 6 6 .3 1 6 0. we can say that there are many ways (rather infinite) to assign probabilities to outcomes of an experiment. ω2.1 Solution (a) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is positive and less than one.... Example 9 Let a sample space be S = {ω1. In fact. (2) 4 4 Does this assignment satisfy the conditions of axiomatic approach? Yes. too. Hence. in this case. 4 We find that both the assignments (1) and (2) are valid for probability of H and T.6 0.5 3 2 0. probability of H = and probability of T = 3 .

GBB. GGB. GGG}.4 + 0.∀ωi ∈ A = P(BGG) + P(GBG) + P(GGB) = and P(B) = ∑ P(ωi ). BGB. GBG.6 = 2.1 Probability of an event Let S be a sample space associated with the experiment ‘examining three consecutive pens produced by a machine and classified as Good (non-defective) and bad (defective)’. BBG. the assignment is not valid 2 Since.396 MATHEMATICS Therefore.4. GBG. A sample space associated with this experiment is S = {BBB. TT} Let the following probabilities be assigned to the outcomes . GGB} and B = {BBG.3 + 0. 1. sum of probabilities = 0. BGB. 2 or 3 defective pens as result of this examination.1 + 0. the assignment is not valid (d) (e) 3 > 1.∀ ωi ∈ B 1 1 1 3 + + = 8 8 8 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Let us consider another experiment of ‘tossing a coin “twice” = P(BBG) + P(BGB) + P(GBB) + P(BBB) = The sample space of this experiment is S = {HH. We may get 0. BGG. TH.1. GBB. Since p(ω6) = 16.5 + 0. BBB} P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ). HT.2 + 0. the assignment is valid (c) Condition (i) Two of the probabilities p(ω5) and p(ω6) are negative. where B stands for a defective or bad pen and G for a non – defective or good pen. Let the probabilities assigned to the outcomes be as follows Sample point: Probability: BBB BBG BGB GBB BGG GBG GGB GGG 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 Let event A: there is exactly one defective pen and event B: there are atleast two defective pens. the assignment is not valid. Hence Now A = {BGG. Condition (ii) Sum of the probabilities = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 Therefore. the assignment is valid (b) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is either 0 or 1.

e... then it follows that P(E) = m n = Number of outcomes favourable to E Total possible outcomes 16.e.2 Probabilities of equally likely outcomes Let a sample space of an experiment be S = {ω1..4. ω2. p + p + .. P (A ∪ B) Let A = {HHT.. TT} Now P(E) = Σ P(wi). the chance of occurrence of each simple event must be same.. HHH} Now P (A ∪ B) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) .e. we have F = {HH} = P(HH) + P(TT) = and P(F) = P(HH) = 16. for all wi ∈ E 1 9 4 + = 4 28 7 For the event F: ‘exactly two heads’.3 Probability of the event ‘A or B’ Let us now find the probability of event ‘A or B’. for all ωi ∈ S where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 Since ∑ P(ωi ) =1 i. If each out come is equally likely. such that n(S) = n and n(E) = m. P(ωi) = p.. P(TH) = ... THH} and B = {HTH. HTH.e. i. HHH} be two events associated with ‘tossing of a coin thrice’ Clearly A ∪ B = {HHT. i. + p (n times) = 1 i=1 n or np = 1 i.PROBABILITY 397 P(HH) = 1 1 2 9 . i. THH.e. let us find the probability of the event E: ‘Both the tosses yield the same result’. Let all the outcomes are equally likely to occur.4. Here E = {HH. HTH. P(HT) = . THH. P(TT) = 4 7 7 28 Clearly this assignment satisfies the conditions of axiomatic approach. ωn}.. Now. p = 1 n Let S be a sample space and E be an event.

(1) [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B)] = P(A ∪ B) + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] = P(A ∪ B) + P(A ∩ B) . the elements of A ∩B are included twice. ∀ωi ∈ A ∩ B = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) Thus we observe that. then by the definition of probability of an event. In the computation of P(A) + P(B) the probabilities of points HTH and THH. Since we have P(A ∪ B) = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ (A–B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ B – A ] (because A–B. P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) − ∑ P(ωi ) .. Thus to get the probability P(A ∪ B) we have to subtract the probabilities of the sample points in A ∩ B from P(A) + P(B) i. then 1 1 1 1 4 1 P ( A ∪ B) = + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Also and Therefore P(A) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) = P(B) = P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) = P(A) + P(B) = 3 3 6 + = 8 8 8 3 8 3 8 It is clear that P(A ∪ B) ≠ P(A) + P(B) The points HTH and THH are common to both A and B . P( A ∪ B) = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) In general.e. A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclusive) Also P(A) + P(B) = [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ A ] + [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ B] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B – A) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A – B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B–A) ] + . if A and B are any two events associated with a random experiment. A ∪ B = (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ∪ (B–A) . i..398 MATHEMATICS If all the outcomes are equally likely. [using (1)] .. ∀ωi ∈ A ∪ B . we have P ( A ∪ B ) = ∑ p ( ωi ) .e.

. 16..4. 2.. and B = (A ∩ B) ∪ (B – A).1 If A and B are disjoint sets. for mutually exclusive events A and B. we get P (A ∪B) = P (A) + P (B – A) .10 are considered to be equally likely. where A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclsuive. 4. we have P( A ∪ B) = P ( A) + P (B) .10} If all the outcomes 1. 2. .e..4 Probability of event ‘not A’ Consider the event A = {2.1) Fig 16. i.. 6. where A and B – A are mutually exclusive. Alternatively. (2) and P(B) = P ( A ∩ B) + P (B – A) .. 8} associated with the experiment of drawing a card from a deck of ten cards numbered from 1 to 10. which is Axiom (iii) of probability.. Using Axiom (iii) of probability. 3. then A ∩ B = φ Therefore P(A ∩ B) = P (φ) = 0 Thus... they are mutually exclusive events. (3) Subtracting (3) from (2) gives P (A ∪ B) – P(B) = P(A) – P (A ∩ B) or P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P (B) – P (A ∩ B) The above result can further be verified by observing the Venn Diagram (Fig 16. then the probability of each outcome is 1 10 .PROBABILITY 399 Hence P(A ∪ B) = P (A) +P(B) – P(A ∩ B) .. . it can also be proved as follows: A ∪ B = A ∪ (B – A).. Clearly the sample space is S = {1.

Therefore.400 MATHEMATICS Now P(A) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6) + P(8) = 1 1 1 1 4 2 + + + = = 10 10 10 10 10 5 Also event ‘not A’ = A ′ = {1. P(A′) = 6 3 = 10 5 3 2 = 1 − = 1 − P ( A) 5 5 Also. the number of possible outcomes is 52. A ∩ A′ = φ and A ∪ A′ = S or P(A ∪ A′) = P(S) Now P(A) + P(A′) = 1. or P( A ′ ) = P(not A) = 1 – P(A) We now consider some examples and exercises having equally likely outcomes unless stated otherwise.. 3. P(A) = 13 1 = 52 4 i. Solution When a card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards.e. (i) Let A be the event 'the card drawn is a diamond' Clearly the number of elements in set A is 13.e. we know that A′ and A are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events i. a club or. a spade) (iv) not a diamond (v) not a black card. Probability of a diamond card = (ii) We assume that the event ‘Card drawn is an ace’ is B Therefore ‘Card drawn is not an ace’ should be B′. 9.e. 5. calculate the probability that the card will be (i) a diamond (ii) not an ace (iii) a black card (i. 7. 10} Now P(A′) = P(1) + P(3) + P(5) + P(7) + P(9) + P(10) = Thus. If each outcome is equally likely. We know that P(B′) = 1 – P(B) = 1 − 4 1 12 =1 − = 52 13 13 . by using axioms (ii) and (iii). Example 10 One card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards..

n (B) = 2 P(A) = 2 9 (iii) The number of blue discs = 3. (iii) blue. Probability of a black card = (iv) We assumed in (i) above that A is the event ‘card drawn is a diamond’.e..PROBABILITY 401 (iii) Let C denote the event ‘card drawn is black card’ Therefore. C be defined as A: ‘the disc drawn is red’ B: ‘the disc drawn is yellow’ C: ‘the disc drawn is blue’. Probability of not a black card = Example 11 A bag contains 9 discs of which 4 are red. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) = 1 − 1 1 = 2 2 1 2 Therefore. i.e. Let the events A.e. n (A) = 4 Hence 4 9 (ii) The number of yelow discs = 2. B. i. so the event ‘card drawn is not a diamond’ may be denoted as A' or ‘not A’ Now P(not A) = 1 – P(A) = 1 − (v) 1 3 = 4 4 The event ‘card drawn is not a black card’ may be denoted as C′ or ‘not C’.. (iv) not blue. (v) either red or yellow. n(C) = 3 Therefore. Calculate the probability that it will be (i) red. Solution There are 9 discs in all so the total number of possible outcomes is 9. (i) The number of red discs = 4. 2 Thus. number of elements in the set C = 26 i. i. A disc is drawn at random from the bag. P(C) = 26 1 = 52 2 1 .e. (ii) yellow. 3 are blue and 2 are yellow. P(B) = .. The discs are similar in shape and size.

(b) (c) Atleast one of them will not qualify the examination and Only one of them will qualify the examination. i. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) Therefore. Since.e.02 = 0. The probability that Anil will qualify the examination is 0..10 – 0.02. Solution Let E and F denote the events that Anil and Ashima will qualify the examination.98 . P(C) = 1 2 = 3 3 (v) The event ‘either red or yellow’ may be described by the set ‘A or C’ Since.13 Therefore P(E´ ∩ F´) = P(E ∪ F)´ = 1 – P(E ∪ F) = 1 – 0.05.02. P(F) = 0.05 and that Ashima will qualify the examination is 0. Find the probability that (a) Both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination. Given that P(E) = 0.13 = 0.87 (b) P (atleast one of them will not qualify) = 1 – P(both of them will qualify) = 1 – 0. E´ is ‘not E’. respectively. The probability that both will qualify the examination is 0.402 MATHEMATICS 3 1 = 9 3 (iv) Clearly the event ‘not blue’ is ‘not C’.10 and P(E ∩ F) = 0. A and C are mutually exclusive events. Anil will not qualify the examination and F´ is ‘not F’. i.. Also Now or E´ ∩ F´ = (E ∪ F)´ (by Demorgan's Law) P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E ∩ F) P(E ∪ F) = 0. Ashima will not qualify the examination.02 = 0.05 + 0.10.e. Then (a) The event ‘both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination’ may be expressed as E´ ∩ F´. we have Therefore P(not C) = 1 − P(A or C) = P (A ∪ C) = P(A) + P(C) = 4 1 7 + = 9 3 9 Example 12 Two students Anil and Ashima appeared in an examination.

Out of these four person. ω5 . Therefore. ω3 . two can be selected in 2 C 2 = 1 way.10 – 0.e. two can be selected in 4 C 2 ways. E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F. ω6 . Which of the following can not be valid assignment of probabilities for outcomes of sample Space S = {ω1 . ω4 . One man out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways and one woman out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways. Therefore (c) P ( One man ) = 2 C1 × 2 C1 2 × 2 2 = = 4 2×3 3 C2 Two men can be selected in 2 C 2 way. Together they can be selected in 2 C1 × 2 C1 ways.05 – 0.11 Example 13 A committee of two persons is selected from two men and two women. Out of two women. where E ∩ F´ and E´ ∩ F are mutually exclusive. ω7 } .02 + 0.3 1.. P ( Two men ) = 2 4 Hence C2 1 1 = 4 = C2 C2 6 EXERCISE 16. Therefore (b) P ( no man ) = 2 4 C 2 1× 2 × 1 1 = = 4×3 6 C2 One man in the committee means that there is one woman. P(only one of them will qualify) = P(E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F) = P(E ∩ F´) + P(E´ ∩ F) = P (E) – P(E ∩ F) + P(F) – P (E ∩ F) = 0.PROBABILITY 403 (c) The event only one of them will qualify the examination is same as the event either (Anil will qualify. What is the probability that the committee will have (a) no man? (b) one man? (c) two men? Solution The total number of persons = 2 + 2 = 4.02 = 0. ω2 . and Ashima will not qualify) or (Anil will not qualify and Ashima will qualify) i. (a) No men in the committee of two means there will be two women in the committee.

find the probability that the sum of numbers that turn up is (i) 3 (ii) 12 6.1 1 7 0. A fair coin is tossed four times.50 for each tail that turns up. (a) How many points are there in the sample space? (b) Calculate the probability that the card is an ace of spades.6 0. and a person win Re 1 for each head and lose Rs 1.1 0. There are four men and six women on the city council.2 0. A card is selected from a pack of 52 cards. From the sample space calculate how many different amounts of money you can have after four tosses and the probability of having each of these amounts.1 – 0. (v) A number less than 6 will appear. how likely is it that it is a woman? 7. A letter is chosen at random from the word ‘ASSASSINATION’. Find the probability of getting (ii) 2 heads (iii) atleast 2 heads (i) 3 heads (iv) atmost 2 heads (v) no head (vi) 3 tails (vii) exactly two tails (viii) no tail (ix) atmost two tails 2 is the probability of an event.2 0.4 1 7 0. 5. what is the probability that atleast one tail occurs? 3. Find the probability that letter is (i) a vowel (ii) a consonant 9.03 0. Three coins are tossed once. If .01 0. (ii) A number greater than or equal to 3 will appear. find the probability of following events: (i) A prime number will appear.404 MATHEMATICS Assignment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ω 1 ω 2 ω 3 ω 4 ω 5 ω 6 ω 7 0.6 1 7 0. 4.5 – 0. (iv) A number more than 6 will appear. If one council member is selected for a committee at random. A die is thrown. (c) Calculate the probability that the card is (i) an ace (ii) black card.3 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 2.01 0. (iii) A number less than or equal to one will appear.1 1 7 0.4 0. A coin is tossed twice.2 1 7 0.3 1 7 0.05 0. A fair coin with 1 marked on one face and 6 on the other and a fair die are both tossed. 8.2 1 7 0. what is the probability of the event ‘not A’. 11 10.7 0.

. 17. 10% of the class study both Mathematics and Biology. Events E and F are such that P(not E or not F) = 0. (ii) P(not B) and (iii) P(A or B) In Class XI of a school 40% of the students study Mathematics and 30% study Biology. a person choses six different natural numbers at random from 1 to 20..48 and P(A and B) = 0.25 .5 . 14. find the probability that he will be studying Mathematics or Biology.] 12. Determine (i) P(not A). the probability of a randomly chosen student passing the first examination is 0. P(B) = 0.25.7 0.PROBABILITY 405 11. P(F) = and P(E and F) = . Check whether the following probabilities P(A) and P(B) are consistently defined (i) P(A) = 0. If E and F are events such that P(E) = 16.7. 20. P(A ∪ B) = 0. Given P(A) = events. [Hint order of the numbers is not important. 0..16. In an entrance test that is graded on the basis of two examinations. In a lottery. find 4 2 8 15. 0.8 13. P(A ∩ B) = 0. and if these six numbers match with the six numbers already fixed by the lottery committee. Fill in the blanks in following table: P(A ∪ B) P(A ∩ B) P(A) P(B) (i) (ii) (iii) 1 3 1 5 1 15 .8 and the probability of passing the second examination is 0. 18. 19. State whether E and F are mutually exclusive. A and B are events such that P(A) = 0. P(B) = 0.5 and the probability of passing neither is 0. What is the probability of passing both? The probability that a student will pass the final examination in both English and Hindi is 0..75. 3 1 and P(B) = . What is the probability of Winning the prize in the game.. if A and B are mutually exclusive 5 5 1 1 1 .5. he wins the prize. what is the probability of passing the Hindi examination? . P(B) = 0.6 (ii) P(A) = 0.35 0.95.6 0. If the probability of passing the English examination is 0.1.42.4..35 0. (ii) P(not E and not F). If a student is selected at random from the class.7. The probability of passing atleast one of them is 0. (i) P(E or F).5. Find P(A or B).

CBAD.406 MATHEMATICS 21. The student has opted NSS but not NCC. ADCB BACD. Miscellaneous Examples Example 14 On her vacations Veena visits four cities (A. or D is 4! i. DACB. . CBDA. (iv) and (v). BCAD. DBCA. ABDC. ACDB. ABDC. C. C and D) in a random order. ADBC. CDBA DABC. Since the number of elements in the sample space of the experiment is 24 all of these outcomes are considered to be equally likely. CADB. In a class of 60 students. DABC. DBAC. BADC. 32 opted for NSS and 24 opted for both NCC and NSS. BDCA. ADCB} Thus (ii) P(E) = n(E) n ( S) = 12 1 = 24 2 Let the event ‘Veena visits A before B and B before C’ be denoted by F. Here F = {ABCD. What is the probability that she visits (i) (iii) (v) A before B? A first and B last? A just before B? (ii) (iv) A before B and B before C? A either first or second? Solution The number of arrangements (orders) in which Veena can visit four cities A. ADBC.e. P ( F) = n S = 24 = 6 ( ) Students are advised to find the probability in case of (iii). ACDB. find the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) The student opted for NCC or NSS. ABDC. A sample space for the experiment is S = {ABCD. ADBC} n ( F) 4 1 Therefore. DABC. The student has opted neither NCC nor NSS. ACBD. B. 24. BCDA CABD. CDAB. CABD.. n (S) = 24. DCAB. B. DCAB. DCBA} (i) Let the event ‘she visits A before B’ be denoted by E Therefore. E = {ABCD. BDAC. If one of these students is selected at random. CDAB. 30 opted for NCC. DACB ACBD.Therefore. CADB.

Solution Total number of possible hands = 52 C7 48 (i) Number of hands with 4 Kings = 4 C 4 × from the rest 48 cards) C3 (other 3 cards must be chosen 4 Hence P (a hand will have 4 Kings) = C 4 × 48 C3 1 = 52 7735 C7 (ii) Number of hands with 3 Kings and 4 non-King cards = 4 C3 × 48 C 4 4 Therefore P (3 Kings) = C3 × 48 C 4 9 = 52 1547 C7 (iii) P(atleast 3 King) = P(3 Kings or 4 Kings) = P(3 Kings) + P(4 Kings) = 9 1 46 + = 1547 7735 7735 Example 16 If A.. Thus P ( A ∩ E ) = P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P ⎡ ( A ∩ B) ∩ ( A ∩ C ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ .PROBABILITY 407 Example 15 Find the probability that when a hand of 7 cards is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. (2) Also A ∩ E = A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) [using distribution property of intersection of sets over the union]. (1) . C are three events associated with a random experiment... B.. prove that P ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) +P ( C ) − P ( A ∩ B ) − P ( A ∩ C ) – P ( B ∩ C) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C) Solution Consider E = B ∪ C so that P (A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P (A ∪ E ) = P ( A) + P ( E) − P ( A ∩ E ) Now P ( E ) = P ( B ∪ C) = P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) . it contains (i) all Kings (ii) 3 Kings (iii) atleast 3 Kings.

e. 3! 6 1 = = 60 60 10 Thus P(A. 1 . 5! = 5 × 4 × 3 = 60 sample points. second and third. i. the sample points corresponding to this event will be 3! in number. i. second and third. C. B and C finish first. What is the probability of obtaining 3 diamonds and one spade? . respectively. 4 cards are drawn from a well – shuffled deck of 52 cards. Therefore.. A box contains 10 red marbles.. B and C finish first. D and E. B and C are the first three finishers. each with ( 5 − 3 )! a probability of (a) 1 . B. what is the probability that (i) all will be blue? (ii) atleast one will be green? 2. What is the probability that A. B and C finish first. respectively.. There is only one finishing order for this. (a) (b) What is the probability that A. 60 A. (3) – P ( A ∩ B) − P ( A ∩ C ) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C ) Example 17 In a relay race there are five teams A. B and C. B and C are first three to finish (in any order) (Assume that all finishing orders are equally likely) Solution If we consider the sample space consisting of all finishing orders in the first three places. we get P [ A ∪ B ∪ C] = P ( A ) + P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) . ABC.408 MATHEMATICS = P ( A ∩ B) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P [ A ∩ B ∩ C] Using (2) and (3) in (1). B and C are first three to finish) = Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 1. we will have 5 P3 . 20 blue marbles and 30 green marbles. There will be 3! arrangements for A. 5 marbles are drawn from the box.. second and third respectively) = (b) So P (A.e. 60 A.

7. 5. 5 persons are selected to represent them in the managing committee of the company. What is the probability that the spokesperson will be either male or over 35 years? 9.69 and P(A ∩ B) = 0. If die is rolled once.000 are randomly formed from the digits 0. The lock opens with a sequence of four digits with no repeats. and 7. 3. In a certain lottery 10. 2. Out of 100 students.e. 1. If 4-digit numbers greater than 5.. three faces each with number ‘2’ and one face with number ‘3’. Find (i) P(A ∪ B) (ii) P(A´ ∩ B´) (iii) P(A ∩ B´) (iv) P(B ∩ A´) 8.PROBABILITY 409 3. what is the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when.35. determine (i) P(2) (ii) P(1 or 3) (iii) P(not 3) 4. The number lock of a suitcase has 4 wheels. each labelled with ten digits i. 3.000 tickets are sold and ten equal prizes are awarded. 1. two sections of 40 and 60 are formed. From the employees of a company. A die has two faces each with number ‘1’. P(B) = 0. Three letters are dictated to three persons and an evelope is addressed to each of them. If you and your friend are among the 100 students. 5.54. what is the probability that (a) you both enter the same section? (b) you both enter the different sections? 6. the letters are inserted into the envelopes at random so that each envelope contains exactly one letter. No. A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0. What is the probability of not getting a prize if you buy (a) one ticket (b) two tickets (c) 10 tickets. 4. 5. Find the probability that at least one letter is in its proper envelope. Name Harish Rohan Sheetal Alis Salim Sex M M F F M Age in years 30 33 46 28 41 A person is selected at random from this group to act as a spokesperson. from 0 to 9. Particulars of five persons are as follows: S. (i) the digits are repeated? (ii) the repetition of digits is not allowed? 10. What is the probability of a person getting the right sequence to open the suitcase? .

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) If A and B are mutually exclusive. En are mutually exclusive and exhaustive if E1 ∪ E2 ∪ .. E2.410 MATHEMATICS Summary In this Chapter. The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Sample space: The set of all possible outcomes Sample points: Elements of sample space Event: A subset of the sample space Impossible event : The empty set Sure event: The whole sample space Complementary event or ‘not event’ : The set A′ or S – A Event A or B: The set A ∪ B Event A and B: The set A ∩ B Event A and not B: The set A – B Mutually exclusive event: A and B are mutually exclusive if A ∩ B = φ Exhaustive and mutually exclusive events: Events E1. then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) If A is any event. then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) equivalently. n(S) = number of elements in the set S. The number P (ω ) is called probability of the outcome ωi..∪ En = S and Ei ∩ Ej = φ V i ≠ j Probability: Number P (ωi) associated with sample point ω i such that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 (iii) P(A) = i i (ii) ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ S = 1 i i i ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ A... then P(not A) = 1 – P(A) .. If A and B are any two events. Equally likely outcomes: All outcomes with equal probability Probability of an event: For a finite sample space with equally likely outcomes Probability of an event P(A) = n(A) . we studied about the axiomatic approach of probability. where n(A) = number of elements in n(S) the set A..

N Kolmogorove (1903–1987). In 1654. A. It had its origin in the 16th century when an Italian physician and mathematician Jerome Cardan (1501–1576) wrote the first book on the subject “Book on Games of Chance” (Biber de Ludo Aleae).L Chebyshev (1821–1897). evolved out of practical consideration. It was published in 1663 after his death. outstanding contributions to probability theory were also made by Christian Huygenes (1629–1665). De Moivre (1667–1754). — — . Kolmogorove is credited with the axiomatic theory of probability. A Markov (1856–1922) and A. His book ‘Foundations of Probability’ published in 1933. J. A Frenchman and the Russian P. Bernoulli (1654–1705). Besides. Both Pascal and Fermat solved the problem independently. a Frenchman Pierre Laplace (1749–1827). a gambler Chevalier de Metre approached the well known French Philosoher and Mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) for certain dice problem. Pascal became interested in these problems and discussed with famous French Mathematician Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). a Dutchman.PROBABILITY 411 Historical Note Probability theory like many other branches of mathematics. Pascal and Fermat. introduces probability as a set function and is considered a classic.

In this Section.. . n is non-negative integer. + n Cn xn Here.. i. a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1. Observe that if we replace index n by negative integer or a fraction. + an + . We now state (without proof). Theorem The formula m ( m − 1) 2 m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) 3 x + x + . a2. + an + .. .2 Binomial Theorem for any Index In Chapter 8.e. . an. . .2. called Binomial Series. a sequence a1. We illustrate few applications. A.1 Introduction As discussed in the Chapter 9 on Sequences and Series. i.3 (1 + x ) m = 1 + mx + holds whenever x < 1 . by examples. . we shall study about some special types of series which may be required in different problem situations. is called an infinte series associated with infinite sequence.e. . It gives us a particular type of infinite series. we state a more general form of the theorem in which the index is not necessarily a whole number.. then the combinations n C r do not make any sense. a 1 + a2 + a 3 + . the Binomial Theorem..1. having infinite number of terms is called infinite sequence and its indicated sum. giving an infinite series in which the index is negative or a fraction and not a whole number.. . we discussed the Binomial Theorem in which the index was a positive integer. ...1.2 1.. = ∑a k =1 ∞ k In this Chapter.. We know the formula (1 + x)n = n C0 + n C1 x + .Appendix 1 INFINITE SERIES A... This series can also be expressed in abbreviated form using the sigma notation.

.. . .. (1 – x) – 1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . ... ⎛ x⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 . This is not possible ( −2 )( −3) 1. when | x | < 2. 4.⎥ = a 1.. (1 + x) – 2 = 1 –2 x + 3x2 – 4x3 + . Note carefully the condition | x | < 1.r We give below certain particular cases of Binomial Theorem. This expansion is valid when b < 1 or equivalently when | b | < | a |. 3. 2..e. .2 ( −2 )2 + . we obtain (1 − 2 )−2 = 1 + ( −2 )( −2 ) + or 1= 1 + 4 + 12 + . Note that there are infinite number of terms in the expansion of (1+ x)m.3. (1 – x) – 2 = 1 +2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + . .2 ⎝a⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ m m −1 = a + ma b + m ( m − 1) 1. ...INFINITE SERIES 413 Remark 1. . when we assume x < 1 . these are left to students as exercises: 1. – 1< x < 1 is necessary when m is negative integer or a fraction. i.2. For example. . when m is a negative integer or a fraction Consider ( a + b) m ⎡ ⎛ b ⎞⎤ b⎞ m⎛ = ⎢ a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ = a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎣ ⎝ a ⎠⎦ m m 2 ⎡ ⎤ b m ( m − 1) ⎛ b ⎞ a m ⎢1 + m + ⎜ ⎟ + . . a The general term in the expansion of (a + b)m is m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) .2 a m − 2b 2 + . if we take x = – 2 and m = – 2. 2. (1 + x) – 1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + . .. ( m − r + 1) a m − r b r 1..

then the resulting sequence a. a sequence a 1 . the common ratio of G... a 3..414 MATHEMATICS Solution We have ⎛ x⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ 2 ⎜ − ⎟ −x ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − ⎟ = 1 + ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ − x ⎞ + ..P. . . We have 3 n ⎛2⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3 ⎡1 − ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤ Sn = ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎝3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 n .. + arn – 1 which is given by Sn = a 1− rn 1− r ( ).1. a n is called G. Section 9. if we take a1 = a. . 2. a 2. we have discussed the formula to find the sum of finite series a + ar + ar2 + . we state the formula to find the sum of infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . 2 4 ..3 Infinite Geometric Series From Chapter 9.. . In this section.3. Earlier. . ar.P.. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ = 1+ x 3x 2 + + . where a is first term and r. Let us consider the G... 4 32 A. . 3 9 Here a = 1. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1....P. 3. (1) ⎛ 2⎞ Let us study the behaviour of ⎜ ⎟ as n becomes larger and larger.. .. . r = 2 . n–1. 1. Particularly.. . and illustrate the same by examples. ar2. .. if ak +1 ak = r (constant) for k = 1. . ⎝ 3⎠ .+ arn – 1 +. arn–1 is taken as the standard form of G. . .. ..P.

01734152992 n 20 0. Thus.INFINITE SERIES 415 n ⎛2⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ n 1 0. as n → ∞. 1− r Symbolically. ⎜ ⎟ becomes ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ sufficiently small. Mathematically. In this case. we find that ⎝3⎠ n n the sum of infinitely many terms is given by S = 3. r n → 0 as n → ∞ since | r | <1 and then 1− r a as n → ∞ ... ar2. = =2 1 2 2 2 1− 2 1 1 1 + 2 − 3 + . if numerical value of common ratio r is less than 1. then a 1− rn Sn = ( ) 1− r = a ar n − 1− r 1− r ar n → 0 .. ar. = 2 2 2 1 1 2 = = 1 3 ⎛ 1⎞ 1− ⎜ − ⎟ 1+ 2 ⎝ 2⎠ S= a 1− r (ii) 1 − . Thus. sum to infinity of infinite geometric series is denoted by S.6667 5 0. ⎜ ⎟ → 0 .. for infinite geometric progression a.1316872428 10 0... Consequently.00030072866 ⎛2⎞ We observe that as n becomes larger and larger. . ⎜ ⎟ becomes closer and closer to ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ zero. Sn → we have For example (i) 1+ 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 + . Therefore. In other words.. we say that as n becomes sufficiently large.

.P. .. Also | r | <1 . + n−1 + . Consider the two sums 1+ 1 1 1 1 + + + . 4 16 64 Solution Here a = −5 1 and r = − ... which gives 8 4! 23 2 4! 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 4 = . Since every term of the series (1) is positive... which gives < 4 ... the great Swiss mathematician introduced the number e in his calculus text in 1748.. . it is clear that its sum is also positive.. the sum to infinity is 1 5 1+ 4 4 A.416 MATHEMATICS Example 2 Find the sum to infinity of the G.. + + .4 Exponential Series Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783)... 3! 4! 5! n! and Observe that 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 2 = . . 16 5! 2 2 5! 120 1 1 1 1 + 3 + 4 + .. 2 2 2 2 2 . Consider the following infinite series of numbers 1 1 1 1 + + + + ... which gives < 2 4 3! 2 2 3! 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 < = and 3 = .. 4 4 −5 −5 4 = 4 = −1 . (2) . (1) 1! 2! 3! 4! The sum of the series given in (1) is denoted by the number e Let us estimate the value of the number e. Hence. −5 5 −5 .... (3) ...1. The number e is useful in calculus as π in the study of the circle.

+ + . ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩ ⎝ 2 2 = 1+ 1 1 1− 2 =1+ 2 = 3 Left hand side of (5) represents the series (1). by analogy..... we get . Therefore 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3! + 4! + 5! + . + n−1 + . 1! 2! 3! replacing x by (2x + 3).. (5) ⎧ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ = ⎨1 + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + . ⎝ ⎠ . + n! ⎟ < ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + n−1 + ..⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜1 + 1! + 2! ⎟ on both sides of (4).. Remark The exponential series involving variable x can be expressed as ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + . Therefore e < 3 and also e > 2 and hence 2 < e < 3..⎟ n! ⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 3! 4! 5! ⎠ ⎧⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ < ⎨⎜ 1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + . Solution In the exponential series e = 1+ x x x 2 x3 + + + .. 1! 2! 3! n! Example 3 Find the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3 as a series in powers of x... + + .. we can say that 1 1 < n −1 .. ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 2 ...... we get.. + n−1 + ....INFINITE SERIES 417 Therefore. when n > 2 n! 2 We observe that each term in (2) is less than the corresponding term in (3).... (4) Adding 1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ + + + .

Thus 2e3 is the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3. the coefficient of x2 in the whole n! n− 2 ∑ ∞ n n =2 ∞ n ( n − 1) 3 C 2 3n − 2 22 2 = n! n! n= 2 ∑ ∑ ∞ = 2 3n –2 [using n! = n (n – 1) (n – 2)!] n = 2 ( n − 2 )! ⎡ 3 32 33 ⎤ = 2 ⎢1 + + + + . the coefficient of x in the expansion of e 2 2x+3 22 e 3 . + + . + ( 2 x ) ⎤ . the general term is Binomial Theorem as ( 2 x + 3) n n! = (3+ 2 x) n . = 2e 3 is 2! Example 4 Find the value of e2.. we have ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + . Solution Using the formula of exponential series involving x..⎥ ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ = 2e3 . ⎦ n! ⎣ n Here.. This can be expanded by the n! 1⎡ n n 2 n 3 + C1 3n −1 ( 2 x ) + n C2 3n− 2 ( 2 x ) + .⎥ e3 ⎢1 + = ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ Thus. 1+ 1! 2! Here. the coefficient of x2 is series is C 2 3n − 2 2 2 ... 1! 2! 3! n! ... Therefore.. rounded off to one decimal place..418 MATHEMATICS e 2 x+ 3 = ( 2 x + 3) + ( 2 x + 3) 2 + .... e2x ⎡ 2 x (2 x ) 2 (2 x)3 ⎤ + + + . Alternatively e2x+3 = e3 .

2 3 The series on the right hand side of the above is called the logarithmic series. 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! = 1+ 2 + 2 + 4 2 4 4 + + + + .. then x 2 x3 + − .. On the other hand. We state the following result without proof and illustrate its application with an example.. log e (1 + x ) = x − Note The expansion of loge (1+x) is valid for x = 1. ⎟ 6 ⎝ 1! 2! 3! 4! ⎠ 5! ⎝ 6 6 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎞ 4 ⎛ 1 ⎛1⎞ 4⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ⎟ = 7 + = 7... we get e2 = 1 + 2 2 2 23 2 4 25 2 6 + + + + + + . Theorem If | x | < 1.. is 7. rounded off to one decimal place. 2 3 4 . we get 1 1 1 log e 2 = 1 – + – + . Therefore.4..355 and 7. we have ⎛ 2 2 2 23 2 4 ⎞ 2 5 ⎛ 2 2 2 2 3 ⎞ e2 < ⎜1 + + + + ⎟ + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + . Substituting x = 1 in the expansion of loge (1+x).5 Logarithmic Series Another very important series is logarithmic series which is also in the form of infinite series..4.INFINITE SERIES 419 Putting x = 2. A.. = 7 + ⎜ 1 + + ⎜ ⎟ + . 3 3 15 45 ≥ the sum of first seven terms ≥ 7. the value of e2. ⎟ = 7 + ⎜ ⎟ 1⎟ 15 ⎜ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 15 ⎜ 1 − 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ Thus.1. e2 lies between 7..355...4 .

We know this from the given roots of the quadratic equation.. we have used the facts α + β = p and αβ = q ..⎥ Solution Right hand side = ⎢ αx − 2 3 2 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = log e (1 + α x ) + log (1 + β x ) 2 = log e 1 + ( α + β ) x + αβ x = log e ( (1 + px + qx ) 2 ) = Left hand side. — — ... prove that log e 1 + px + qx 2 = ( α − β ) x − ( ) α 2 + β 2 2 α 3 + β3 3 x + x − .. 2 3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ α 2 x 2 α 3 x3 β 2 x 2 β3 x 3 + − .420 MATHEMATICS Example 5 If α.. Here.⎥ + ⎢βx − + − . We have also assumed that both | α x | < 1 and | β x | < 1. β are the roots of the equation x 2 − px + q = 0 .

Appendix 2 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING A. .2 Preliminaries Mathematical modelling is an essential tool for understanding the world. Finance. Babylonians and Greeks indulged in understanding and predicting the natural phenomena through their knowledge of mathematics. The process of translation is called Mathematical Modelling. From his knowledge of trigonometry. the other option is to find out the factors that are useful to find the height. Egyptians. The architects. It is physically very difficult to measure the height using the measuring tape. both of which have facilitated the handling of lengthy and complicated problems. Indians. artisans and craftsmen based many of their works of art on geometric prinicples.1 Introduction Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fields – be it Science. A. Management etc. The process of translation of a real-life problem into a mathematical form can give a better representation and solution of certain problems.2. then he can calculate the height of the tower. The use of Mathematics in solving real-world problems has become widespread especially due to the increasing computational power of digital computers and computing methods. So. So. if he measures the angle of elevation as 40° and the distance as 450m. then the problem can be solved as given in Example 1. We shall first talk about what a mathematical model is. Both of which are easily measurable. then we discuss the steps involved in the process of modelling.2. his job is now simplified to find the angle of elevation to the top of the tower and the distance from the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. Suppose a surveyor wants to measure the height of a tower. Thus. In olden days the Chinese. he knows that if he has an angle of elevation and the distance of the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. Here we shall familiaries you with the steps involved in this process through examples.

We also know that the angle of elevation. Step 2 The three quantities mentioned in the problem are height. So we look for a relation connecting these three quantities. In step 1.422 MATHEMATICS Example 1 The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point O on the ground. in this step we formulated the problem mathematically. Then we have tan θ = h or h = d tan θ d . Step 1 We first try to understand the real problem. AB denotes the tower. ∠AOB is the angle of elevation. Then we get h = tan 40° × 450 = 450 × 0. distance and angle of elevation. Let h denote the height. Let us now look at the different steps used in solving the problem. It is given that the horizontal distance of the foot of the tower from a particular point O on the ground is 450 m. which is 450 m away from the foot of the tower. That means in this step we have studied the real-life problem and identified the parameters. is 40°. Step 3 We use Equation (1) to solve h. Solution We shall solve this in different steps. The real problem is to find the height h of the tower using the known distance d and the angle of elevation θ.. is 40°. and d = 450m. . distance and angle of elevation. Find the height of the tower.6m Step 4 Thus we got that the height of the tower approximately 378m. Then we used the trigonometric ratio for the “tangent” function and found the relation as h = d tan θ So. In the problem a tower is given and its height is to be measured. OA gives the horizontal distance from the point O to foot of the tower. we have studied the real problem and found that the problem involves three parameters height. we used some geometry and found that the problem can be represented geometrically as given in Fig 1.839 = 377. Let d denotes this distance.. Then d = 450m. (1) Fig 1 This is an equation connecting θ. That means we found an equation representing the real problem. denoted by θ. In the Step 2. We have θ = 40°. h and d. This is obtained by expressing it geometrically in the following way (Fig 1).

Mathematical equations are arrived at. wind speed. which are called the mathematical models. air pressure. hygrometers to measure humidity. Proper flow of blood is essential to transmit oxygen and other nutrients to various parts of the body in humanbeings as well as in all other animals. Scientists identify areas of rice cultivation and find the average yield per acre by cutting and weighing crops from some representative fields.” Here are some of the examples where mathematics is used effectively to study various situations. How do mathematicians help in solving such problems? They sit with experts in the area. Any constriction in the blood vessel or any change in the characteristics of blood vessels can change the flow and cause damages ranging from minor discomfort to sudden death. simulated.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 423 In Step 3. we solved the mathematical problem and got that h = 377. We call this as Interpreting the mathematical solution to the real situation In fact these are the steps mathematicians and others use to study various reallife situations. Department of Agriculture wants to estimate the yield of rice in India from the standing crops. This equivalent consists of one or more equations or inequalities etc. etc. That is we found Solution of the problem. Then . barometers to measure airpressure. In the last step. for example. The instruments are used to measure these parameters which include thermometers to measure temperature. we interpreted the solution of the problem and stated that the height of the tower is approximately 378m. 2. Once data are received from many stations around the country and feed into computers for further analysis and interpretation.6m. Based on some statistical techniques decisions are made on the average yield of rice. based on the known paths of balls before it hits the batsman’s leg. anemometers to measure wind speed. The problem is to find the relationship between blood flow and physiological characteristics of blood vessel. a physiologist in the first problem and work out a mathematical equivalent of the problem. 3. Meteorology department makes weather predictions based on mathematical models. Some of the parameters which affect change in weather conditions are temperature. humidity. In cricket a third umpire takes decision of a LBW by looking at the trajectory of a ball. We shall consider the question. 4. 1. “why is it necessary to use mathematics to solve different situations. assuming that the batsman is not there. This simulated model is used to take decision of LBW.

Within the town are two river islands that are connected to the banks with seven bridges as shown in (Fig 2). a Swiss Fig 2 mathematician in the service of the Russian empire Catherine the Great. and 3 join to riverbank B. Euler proved it could not be done because he worked out that. which in the 18th century was a German town. He proved this by inventing a kind of diagram called a network. Since there can only be one beginning and one end. People tried to walk around the town in a way that only crossed each bridge once. Remember that the problem was to travel around town crossing each bridge only once. A mathematical model is a representation which comprehends a situation. He used four dots (vertices) for the two river banks and the two islands. Before we explain the process. heard about the problem. You can see that 3 bridges (arcs) join to riverbank. we shall discuss what a mathematical model is. An interesting geometric model is illustrated in the following example. A. visiting all the vertices. On Euler’s network this meant tracing over each arc only once. This means that all the vertices have an odd number of arcs. there can only be two odd vertices if you are to trace over each arc only once. (Think about it). so Fig 3 they are called odd vertices (An even vertex would have to have an even number of arcs joining to it). to have an odd vertex you would have to begin or end the trip at that vertex. 5 bridges (arcs) join to island C. and 3 join to island D. B and C. Leonhard Euler. that is made up of vertices (dots where lines meet) and arcs (lines) (Fig3). D. Since the bridge problem has 4 odd vertices. Example 2 (Bridge Problem) Konigsberg is a town on the Pregel River. it just not possible to do! .424 MATHEMATICS solve the model and interpret the solution in terms of the original problem. but it proved to be difficult problem. The seven lines (arcs) are the seven bridges. In 1736 Euler proved that the walk was not possible to do. These have been marked A. but now is Russian.

Definition Mathematical modelling is an attempt to study some part (or form) of the real-life problem in mathematical terms. B and C still have odd degree. understanding the process involved in the motion of simple pendulum. we shall define what mathematical modelling is and illustrate the different processes involved in this through examples. All of us are familiar with the simple pendulum. Mathematical modelling is nothing but a technique and the pedagogy taken from fine arts and not from the basic sciences. So. Identifying the relevant factors In this. Conversion of physical situation into mathematics with some suitable conditions is known as mathematical modelling. So. Let us now understand the different processes involved in Mathematical Modelling. much water has flown under the bridges in Konigsberg.2. Four steps are involved in this process.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 425 After Euler proved his Theorem. including planning and mapping railway networks (Fig 4). After the addition of the new edge. The invention of networks began a new theory called graph theory which is now used in many ways. Based on this. A. using each bridge only once? Here the situation will be as in Fig 4. Understanding the problem This involves. Fig 4 However. Formulation Consists of two main steps. we give a precise statement of the problem as Statement How do we find the period of oscillation of the simple pendulum? The next step is formulation. it is possible for the Konigsbergians to go around the city using each bridge exactly once. 1. for example. We have studied that the motion of the simple pendulum is periodic. In 1875. joining the land areas A and D (Fig 4). Is it possible now for the Konigsbergians to go round the city. we consider the modelling done to study the motion of a simple pendulum. both the vertices A and D have become even degree vertices. This pendulum is simply a mass (known as bob) attached to one end of a string whose other end is fixed at a point. we find out what are the factors/ . As an illustrative example.3 What is Mathematical Modelling? Here. what we need to find is the period of oscillation. an extra bridge was built in Konigsberg. The period depends upon the length of the string and acceleration due to gravity.

We make the observation that there is no appreciable change of the period with mass. These values were plotted on a graph which resulted in a curve that resembled a parabola. (1) T = 2π l g . This gives the equation g . Here. 2. in the case of pendulum. we consider the length of string as effective length of the pendulum and acceleration due to gravity (g). . calculation or applying a theorem etc. This indicates that the mass m is not an essential parameter for finding period whereas the length l is an essential parameter. the mass of the bob (m).. Mathematical description This involves finding an equation. the factors are period of oscillation (T). we perform the same experiment on equal mass of balls but take strings of different lengths and observe that there is clear dependence of the period on the length of the pendulum. For this we need to understand what are the parameters that affect the period which can be done by performing a simple experiment. (2) Equation (2) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem.426 MATHEMATICS parameters involved in the problem.. effective length (l ) of the pendulum which is the distance between the point of suspension to the centre of mass of the bob. Now. So. experiments were conducted in which the values of period T were measured for different values of l. This process of searching the essential parameters is necessary before we go to the next step. We measure the period of oscillation. which is assumed to be constant at a place. Usually we have to do some operation which involves solving an equation. inequality or a geometric figure using the parameters already identified. For example. It implies that the relation between T and l could be expressed T2 = kl It was found that k = 4π 2 . Now. we have identified four parameters for studying the problem. In the case of simple pendulums the solution involves applying the formula given in Equation (2)... In the case of simple pendulum. We take two metal balls of two different masses and conduct experiment with each of them attached to two strings of equal lengths. Finding the solution The mathematical formulation rarely gives the answer directly. our purpose is to find T.

04 sec 275cm 3. In the case of simple pendulum. we measure the effectiveness of the model by comparing the results obtained from the mathematical model. T = 3. Many times model equations are obtained by assuming the situation in an idealised context. The difference in the observed values and calculated values gives the error.36 sec.04 sec and for l = 275 cm. Table 2 Periods obtained experimentally for four different pendulums Mass (gms) 385 230 Length (cms) 275 225 275 225 Time (secs) 3. then test it again. the essential characteristic of a real life problem.352 3. The model will be useful only if it explains all the facts that we would like it to explain.36 = 0.36 sec The table shows that for l = 225 cm.371 3. T = 3. for l = 275 cm. . Interpretation/Validation A mathematical model is an attempt to study. we conduct some experiments on the pendulum and find out period of oscillation. we can interpret the solution in the following way: (a) The period is directly proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum. The process of describing the solution in the context of the real situation is called interpretation of the model. In this case. This process is called validation of the model. we will reject it. error = 3. Otherwise. Once we accept the model. For example. or else. we have to interpret the model.371 – 3. we compare the measured values in Table 2 with the calculated values given in Table 1. with the known facts about the real problem. In other words. The results of the experiment are given in Table 2.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 427 The period of oscillation calculated for two different pendulums having different lengths is given in Table 1 Table 1 l T 225 cm 3.056 3.011 which is small and the model is accepted. improve it. and mass m = 385 gm.042 Now.

This is because we have neglected the mass of the string and resistance of the medium. Example 3 A farm house uses atleast 800 kg of special food daily. Now. Solution Step 1 Here the objective is to minimise the total daily cost of the food which is made up of corn and soyabean.02 . This leads us to an important observation. Our validation and interpretation of this model shows that the mathematical model is in good agreement with the practical (or observed) values.. we summarise the main process involved in the modelling as (a) Formulation (b) Solution (c) Interpretation/Validation The next example shows how modelling can be done using the techniques of finding graphical solution of inequality.09 . Determine the daily minimum cost of the food mix.06 Cost per Kg Rs 10 Rs 20 The dietary requirements of the special food stipulate atleast 30% protein and at most 5% fibre. The special food is a mixture of corn and soyabean with the following compositions Table 3 Material Corn Soyabean Nutrients present per Kg Protein .60 Nutrients present per Kg Fibre . x. But we found that there is some error in the calculated result and measured result. The real world is far too complex to understand and describe completely.. So the variables (factors) that are to be considered are x = the amount of corn y = the amount of soyabean z = the cost Step 2 The last column in Table 3 indicates that z. So. (1) The problem is to minimise z with the following constraints: . in such situation we look for a better model and this process continues.428 MATHEMATICS (b) It is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity. y are related by the equation z = 10x + 20y . Then try to obtain a simplified model which gives some information about the situation. We study the simple situation with this model expecting that we can obtain a better model of the situation. We just pick one or two main factors to be completely accurate that may influence the situation.

4 = 11294 This is the mathematical solution. Step 3 This can be solved graphically.09x + 0.4) i.01y ≥ 0 This gives the formulation of the model..3 (x + y) . The shaded region in Fig 5 gives the possible solution of the equations.6..6y ≥ 0. . y.. Then the problem can be restated in the following mathematical form. (3) and (4) by grouping all the coefficients of x. This gives 0. (3) (c) Similarly the food should have atmost 5% fibre in the proportion given in 2nd column of Table 3. (4) We simplify the constraints given in (2).03x – . This gives 0.329... (a) Fig 5 This gives the value of z as z = 10 × 470. Statement Minimise z subject to x + y ≥ 800 0.06 y ≤ 0..21x – .e.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 429 The farm used atleast 800 kg food consisting of corn and soyabean i.4. (2) (b) The food should have atleast 30% protein dietary requirement in the proportion as given in the first column of Table 3. From the graph it is clear that the minimum value is got at the point (470.02x + 0.30y ≤ 0 0.. x = 470.6 + 20 × 329..6 and y = 329.05 (x + y) .e. x + y ≥ 800 .

2005. 1. “The minimum cost of the special food with corn and soyabean having the required portion of nutrient contents.. There is no migration into or out of the population. D (t) P (t) is called the death rate for the time interval t to t + 1.4 kg of soyabean. 2. Likewise. for t ≥ 0.. let p (t) denote the population in that particular year.. This means that there is a constant b.6 kg of corn and 329. b= B (t ) P (t ) and d= D (t ) P (t ) . Let B(t) denote the number of births in the one year between t and t + 1 and D(t) denote the number of deaths between t and t + 1. Let t denote the time in years.” In the next example. As a result of assumptions 1 and 2. t = 0 stands for the present time. Suppose we want to find the population in a particular year. 2. Then we get the relation P (t + 1) = P (t) + B (t) – D (t) Now we make some assumptions and definitions 1. we shall discuss how modelling is used to study the population of a country at a particular time. the death rate is the same for all intervals. How will we do that. Add the number of births in that year and subtract the number of deaths in that year. t = 1 stands for the next year etc.. we deduce that. B (t ) P (t ) is called the birth rate for the time interval t to t + 1. 1st. Example 4 Suppose a population control unit wants to find out “how many people will be there in a certain country after 10 years” Step 1 Formulation We first observe that the population changes with time and it increases with birth and decreases with deaths. i. For any time t. the only source of population change is birth and death.. Then t takes values 0. . protein and fibre is Rs 11294 and we obtain this minimum cost if we use 470. and a constant d.430 MATHEMATICS Step 4 The solution can be interpreted as saying that. (1) 2. for all t ≥ 0. say t0 = 2006.e. We want to find the population at a particular time. called the death rate so that. .. called the birth rate. The birth rate is the same for all intervals. We find the population by Jan. Assumptions 1.

.. .155. this result is absurd.01. since one can’t have 0. in honor of Robert Malthus who first brought this model to popular attention. has built-in assumptions and approximations..000 and the rates are b = 0. the Malthusian parameter. The constant 1 + b – d is often abbreviated by r and called the growth rate or.. we calculate P(10).25 of a person.531 (approximately).104622125) (250. Equation (5) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem.000. t = 0.000.. The above examples show how modelling is done in variety of situations using different mathematical techniques. we are not getting the exact answer because of the assumptions that we have made in our mathematical model. we do some approximation and conclude that the population is 276. Obviously.02 and d = 0. . (5) P(t) = P(0)r t P(t) is an example of an exponential function. where c and r are constants.000) = (1. So..01)10 (250. Any function of the form cr t..155. Here. 2.000.. Step 2 – Solution Suppose the current population is 250. is an exponential function. 1. by its very nature.000) = 276. What will the population be in 10 years? Using the formula.531..MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 431 P (t + 1) = P(t) + B(t) – D(t) = P(t) + bP(t) – dP(t) = (1 + b – d) P(t) Setting t = 0 in (2) gives P(1) = (1 + b – d)P (0) Setting t = 1 in Equation (2) gives P(2) = (1 + b – d) P (1) = (1 + b – d) (1 + b – d) P (0) = (1 + b – d)2 P(0) Continuing this way. P(10) = (1. 2. In terms of r. 1. in more high-flown language. Equation (4) becomes . (4) for t = 0... Since a mathematical model is a simplified representation of a real problem. (3) (Using equation 3) .25 Step 3 Interpretation and Validation Naturally. (2) . we get P(t) = (1 + b – d)t P (0) ... the most important .

Thus mathematical modelling can be a cycle of the modelling process as shown in the flowchart given below: START ↓ < ASSUMPTIONS/AXIOMS ↓ FORMULATION ↓ SOLUTION ↓ INTERPRETATION < ↓ VALIDATION ↓ NO YES SATISFIED < < STOP — — .. It may happen that we need a new formulation.e. new mathematical manipulation and hence a new evaluation. when the obtained results are interpreted physically whether or not the model gives reasonable answers. If a model is not accurate enough. we try to identify the sources of the shortcomings.432 MATHEMATICS question is to decide whether our model is a good one or not i.

(vii) and (viii) are sets. 6 < x ≤ 12 } (iv) { x R : – 23 ≤ x < 5 } 9. Y. 2. 5} (iii) C = {17. 4. 0. O. 2.} (ii) { x : x = 2n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 } 4. T. R. h. (i) A = {–3. { 1 }. 5} (v) E = {T. 3 }. 2 }. 80} (iv) D = {2. 2. G. 2. 3. E. 1. (i) A = {1. (i) ∈ (ii) ∉ (iii) ∉ (vi) ∈ (v) ∈ (vi) ∉ 3. j } 6. { b } { a. 53. 26. R. c. (ii) φ. 44. E = G (v) Finite (v) Infinite EXERCISE 1. O. –2. 2. 6 ≤ x ≤ 12 } (iii) { x : x ∈ R. { 1. . April.3 1. (iv). 3. . A } (v) E = { February. 3. 3. . B= D. { 1. E.2 1. 0. 1. 3. f. – 3 < x < 0 } (ii) { x : x ∈ R. 3 } { 1. { a }. (i) { x : x = 3n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } n (iii) { x : x = 5 and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } (iv) { x : x is an even natural number} (v) { x : x = n2 and 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 } 5. –1. { 2. (ix). (i) ↔ (c) (ii) ↔ (a) (iii) ↔ (d) (iv) ↔ (b) EXERCISE 1. 6 } (ii) B = {1. (i). (viii). 3. 6. { 3 }. 5. September. 3 } (vi) ⊂ (vi) True (iv) φ (– 4. (vii). 5. 4 ] 7. d. I. { 2 }. (i) { x : x ∈ R. November } (vi) F = {b. 71. 2 } (iv) D = { L. (iii) . 4. 5. (iv) Finite (ii) Infinite (ii) Yes (ii) No (ii) Infinite (iii) Finite (iv) Infinite Finite (iii) Infinite (iv) Finite No (iii) Yes (iv) No Yes 6. g. 62. Y} (vi) F = {B. N. –1. b } φ. –10) (iii) [ 0. 2. 7 ) (iv) [ 3. (v).1 1. (xi) φ { a }. 5. } (ii) B = {0. (i) (vii) (i) (i). (i) (iii) 1 (i) ⊂ (ii) ⊄ (iii) ⊂ (iv) ⊄ (v) ⊄ ⊂ False (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) False (v). (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii). 4 } (iii) C = { –2. 2. 3. 6] (ii) (– 12. . (i). 35. 1. M. June. 4.ANSWERS EXERCISE 1. (vi). 4.

2. 2. 11 } 7. 7. 3. d } (iii) T (iv) T 10. 6. 6. 10. 3. 3. 3. 8. 20 ) (vii) {20 ) (x) { 5. 2. 11 } (ix) {7. o. 8. 15 } (iv) φ 8. 4. 3. b. 20 } (viii) { 4. Set of irrational numbers 12. 7. 16} (xii) {5. 9. 6. 8. c. 9. (i) (iv) 3. 10 ) (iii) { 3 } (iii) φ (vii) φ (x) { 7. 8. 5 } (iii) (ii) A ∪ B = { a. c. A B = { a. 5. i. 2. 6. (i) { 1.434 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 1. 8. 6. 11. 7. Yes. 5. 7. 4. 6. 9. 4 } (vi) { 1. 2. 8. 3. B (iv) A ∪ B = {x : 1 < x < 10. 10) (v) {1. 9. 7. 2. 14.5 1. c } (ii) {f. c. (i) X ∪ Y = {1. u } A ∪ B = {x : x = 1. 6. 3 } (ii) A ∩ B = { a } (i) { 7. 2. 21 } (i) {3. 15. f. 12. 4. 8. x ∈ N} (v) A ∪ B = {1. 9. 3. 6. d. 9. 9} (ii) {1. 10. 5. 13 } (vi) { 7. 5. 8 } (iv) {3. 7. 6. 15. 8. h} (ii) { a. 10. 9. 14. 7. 18. 11 } (vii) { 3. 5. 7. (i) { a. 4. 4. 9 } { 5. 9. 9 ) (v) { 1. 7. 12. e ) { x : x is an odd natural number } { x : x is an even natural number } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a multiple of 3 } { x : x is a positive composit number and x = 1 ] . 2. 9. 10} 5. 9. 15. 5. 6. 15 } (iii) {3. (i) (iv) 2. 9. 8. h } (iii) { b. 5 or a multiple of 3 } 3. 12. (iii) (iv) { 11 } (ii) C (iii) D { 2 } {vi){ x : x is an odd prime number } (ii) {3. 6. 6. d . 4. 8 } (vi) (1. 9 } (iii) {7. 6 } (ii) {1. 9. 5. 9 } { d. (i) F EXERCISE 1. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) { 5. 18. 5. c } 4. 4. g } 11. 14} (xi) {2. 4. 21} (iv) {4. 16. 10.4 1. 5. e. h } { b. 3 } 2. b. b. 16 } (ix) { 2. 20} (ii) F (iii) { b . 3.8 } (iii) {3. g. 6. 4. (i) B (v) (ii) { 11. e. 11 } (v) φ (viii) { 7. 4. 7. 16 } (vi) { 5. (i) X ∩ Y = { 1. 4. f. 21} (v) { 2. 18.

(1. 7). 52. 2). 50 7. (1. (– 1. 8)} 4. 1)} A × A × A = {(–1. (1. 42 8. n) (m. C = { 2 . y} 8. D ⊂ B. –1). We may take A = { 1. (–1. 1). (1. b}. (i) False P × Q = {(m. 8). 9. (4. 7). n). D ⊂ C 2. 1. y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B (iii) True 5. (8. 25. G × H = {(7. – 1). –1. 4). – 1). A ⊂ B. 11 EXERCISE 2. B = { 1. 4). (2. 7). 60 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. A = {x. 3). (2. 1). is the set of all equilateral triangles.ANSWERS 435 (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) { x : x is a positive integer which is not divisible by 3 or not divisible by 5} { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect square } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect cube } { x : x ∈ N and x = 3 } (ix) { x : x ∈ N and x = 2 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and x > (iii) φ (iv) φ (x) { x : x ∈ N and x < 7 } 6. (2. –1. –1). 2 }. (5. 8). 4). (–1. m) (n. (7. (1. 30 16. (1. 19 3.2} .6 1. x = 2 and y = 1 2. 3. 30 2. 1. m)} (ii) False A × B is a non empty set of ordered pairs (x. 3 }.1 1. 1. (7. 5 6. 35 4. (2. 5). (4. 1)} 6. (1. –1. y. (n. 2)} H × G = {(5. B ⊂ C. A × B = {(1. D ⊂ A. The number of elements in A × B is 9. 1. 4)} A × B will have 24 = 16 subsets. 5). 7. z} and B = {1. (i) False (ii) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) True 7. 3). –1). 1). (–1. False 12. A × A = {(– 1. (i) U (ii) A 9 } 2 EXERCISE 1. 1). (8. 3 } 13. A ⊂ C. 325 14. –1. 125 15. –1). B = {x. A = {a. 2 5. (8.

2) 412 (iii) 5 (ii) Range = [2. 4} Range of R = {3. (3. 3). 6). (3. (2. –1).3). 2. (3. (4. No. 10} 8. (3. ∞) . 1). A = {–1.2). 9). 3. R = {(1. 6). (6. 6} 7. 12} Co domain of R = {1. (1.. 1}. 3). 12)} Domain of R = {1. Range = {1. (2. 4. Domain of R = {5. 4. 5. (5.. (1. 6. (2 4). (1. 3. 8} 3. 6. 5. 10. 9). Domain of R = Z Range of R = Z 6. (7. 12. 2. (5. (4. 7} (ii) R = {(5. 4). Range = (– ∞. 6). 1. 2. 125). 0. (1. (i) R = {(x. 6. –1). 3} Range of R = {6. 2. 4. 0] (ii) Domain of Function = {x : –3 ≤ x ≤ 3} (iii) Range of Function = {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 3} (i) f (0) = –5 (i) t (0) = 32 (ii) f (7) = 9 (ii) t (28) = (iii) f (–3) = –11 t (–10) = 14 (iii) Range = R (iv) 100 2. (0. 1) EXERCISE 2. 0). 5. 27). 8)} Domain of R = {1. Domain = (2. 7).5)}. 5} (i) R = {(1. 8). (1. 7. 343)} 9. 4. (3. 8. R = {(1. (–1. 3. 6). 4). remaining elements of A × A are (–1. (2. 0). (2. 7}. 9. (3. Range = {1} (ii) yes. 3. (6. –1). 8. 1). 6. 14}. 8. 5. 14.} Range of R = {5. 6). 2. 5. (1. (3. 4).. 6). (1. . 2). 6.436 MATHEMATICS 10. y) : y = x – 2 for x = 5. (2. Domain = {2.4). 6)} (ii) Domain of R = {1. Range of R = {3. 17}. (i) yes. 4. (5. 4). 4. 14} 2. 3. 7} (iii) No. (i) Domain = R. Domian of R = {0.2 1. 2. 6} (iii) Range of R = {1. (7. 4. 2. 3). R = {(1. (0. of relations from A into B = 26 EXERCISE 2.3 1. 4). 7. 6. (1. 6)} 4. R = {(2. 9. 6). (i) Range = (– ∞. 3. 11.

cosec x = – . 7. 2. tan x = 3 . (ii) No 11.1 3. 13 } EXERCISE 3. (i) Yes.ANSWERS 437 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 2. cos x = . 5π 36 (i) 39° 22′ 30″ (i) 19π 72 (ii) –229° 5′ 29″ (ii) – 5. 2. 6. Domain of function is set of real numbers except 6 and 2. tan x = 5 4 5 3 3 4. 4π 3 (iii) 300° (iii) 26π 9 (iv) 210° (iv) 6. cot x = − 3 5 4 4 3 4 5 3 5 4 3. tan x = − . Domain = [1. sec x = −2. sec x = − . 11. 12° 36′ 20π 3 (iii) 2 15 (ii) 1 5 7 25 EXERCISE 3.2 3 2 1 . b = – 1 9. (i) 4. cos x = – . ∞) Domain = R. 5. cot x = − 13 12 13 5 12 . cosec x = – . ∞). (i) No (ii) No (iii) No (f – g) x = – x + 4 ⎛ f ⎞ x +1 3 . 5. tan x = − . No 12. sin x = − . 12π 7. a = 2. 4. sin x = − 5 4 5 3 4 2. cosec x = – . 5 : 4 3. cos x = − .1 1. sec x = − . cosec x = . sin x = − 12 13 5 12 5 . Range = non-negative real numbers Range = Any positive real number x such that 0 ≤ x < 1 (f + g) x = 3x – 2 8. Range of f = {3. cot x = 2 3 3 1. x≠ ⎜ ⎟x= 2x − 3 2 ⎝g⎠ 10. Range = [0.

3 9. n ∈ Z 3 3 3 7π 11π 7π . n ∈ Z 6 2 2. 2nπ ± . . (i) 3 +1 2 2 (ii) 2 – 3 EXERCISE 3. or 2nπ ± .– . 10. n ∈ Z 3 3 3 5π 11π 5π . cos x = − . . 8.4 1. 4 + 15 4 4 8.n ∈ Z 3 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 5 2 5 . 5. sin x = 6.2 5 5 6 3 . or n π ± .n∈Z 6 6 6 π π x = (2n + 1) . 1 EXERCISE 3.n∈Z 2 2 8 9. sec x = − . 7. 1 2 5 13 12 13 12 . n ∈ Z 4 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n x= nπ nπ 3π . 2 8.3 5. cosec x = . 6. nπ ± . π 5π π . . .n∈Z 6 6 6 x= nπ or x = nπ. 3. 9. nπ + (–1) n . n ∈ Z 3 7π π or (2n + 1) . 4. . 3 2 10. π 4π π . x= nπ π . . .– 2 3 3 8 + 2 15 8 − 2 15 . nπ + . cot x = − 13 5 13 12 5 7.438 MATHEMATICS 5. or + .

13. −1 ± (4− 2 ) i 2 10. cos + i sin 6 6⎠ 2 2 ⎝ EXERCISE 5. 3. 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 8 . .2 1 . 6. 12.1 1. –4 5 3 −i 14 14 − 19 21i − 5 10 7. –π –π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin 2 ⎜ cos ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4. 0 6. 3 5. 14 + 28 i 8. 17 5 =i 3 3 4 3 +i 25 25 9. ± 3i −3 ± 11 i 2 2. − 242 − 26i 10. 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 5. −1 ± 7 i 2 2 −1 ± 7 i 2 2 8. −3 ± 3 3 i 2 4. −22 107 −i 3 27 –7 2 i 2 11. 2 – 7 i 2. −2π 3 2 . 2. 9. 2. i EXERCISE 5. −1 ± 7 i 4 1± 7 i 2 3.3 1.ANSWERS 439 EXERCISE 5. 3 (cos π + i sin π) π π⎞ ⎛ π π 7 . −3π −3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 5π 6 3. 27 14. i 4. –1 ± 7i –2 2 ± 34 i 2 3 5. 7.

14 14 ± i 21 21 4 5 5 15. (5. 4 EXERCISE 6.} (ii) {. (–2. More than or equal to 35 23. (–∞. 1± 12.. 0. x ≥ –1. 4] 12. 4} (i) No Solution (i) {. y = – 3 20. – 2.4.440 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 1. x < – 2 . 2 10. (–∞. 307 + 599 i 442 5. – 1. 1. 0. x < 3.. 2] 5. 2) (ii) (–2. –6) 14.1 1.} 6. (–∞.. 6) 13. 18.10). ∞) 7. 3. 3. (10. 1 2 i 2 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8.. (–∞. . −2 . (– ∞. (6. – 3. ∞) 9. – 3} (ii) (–∞. (4.. (–∞. (i) 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ . 7 21.3. 2 – 2 i 3. (ii) 0 5 13. x = 3. ∞) 17. 9 cm 22. (– ∞. 2. 2. (4. 2] 15.9) 25. 1. 0. (8. 8. –3] 11.. (i) {1. 19.. – 4.12) 26. 0 14. – 2. 2 4 6.7).2. –3) 10.. Greater than or equal to 8 but less than or equal to 22 . 2] (ii) {. x > – 1. (ii) 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 7 . –1. 20. 2 4 ± i 3 3 9. (–∞. (i) 17. 3. 120] 16.8). 5 2 ± i 27 27 1 3π . ∞) 18. (7. 2. 1} (i) {–1. Greater than or equal to 82 24. (– ∞. 4.

3. 5.ANSWERS 441 EXERCISE 6.2 1. . 6. 2. 4.

8. 9. 2. EXERCISE 6. 10.3 1. .442 MATHEMATICS 7.

. 5. 8. 6. 7. 4.ANSWERS 443 3.

10.444 MATHEMATICS 9. 13. 14. 12. 11. .

14. 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 11. ⎛ – 80 – 10 ⎤ .6 but more than 16. (i) 125. Atleast 9. [2. 3] 4. (–5. EXERCISE 7. 20 3. 7) 9. 2) 7. 108 6. (5. 336 . 5. 11] 2. ⎜ ⎥ 3 ⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎢1. 13.8. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 1. Between 20°C and 25°C 12. [– 7. 2] 6.ANSWERS 445 15. More than 562. (ii) 60. 5040 4. More than 320 litres but less than 1280 litres. (0. 5.1 1. 1] 3. 5) 8. 8 2.5 litres but less than 900 litres. [– 4. (–1. ∞) 10. (– 23.

35 2. 8(a3b + ab3). 504 2. 5. 4536 3. 9 7. 120 9. 50400 7. 778320 3. (i) 504. 9509900499 8. 2880 3. (ii) 18 5. 210 7. 104060401 11. 48 8. 198 . 40 6 10. 11040808032 6. 45 5. 200 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1. 4 C 1× 48C 4 2. (ii) 4 (i) 360. 151200 EXERCISE 8. 60 56 6. 40 8. 120. C 7+ C 10 11. x 5 5 x 2 10 10 5 1 + + + 3+ 5 x+ 243 81 27 9 x 3x x x 6 + 6 x 4 + 15 x 2 + 20 + 15 6 1 + 4+ 6 2 x x x 7. (i) 5.2 1.1 1. (1. 5. 30. (i) 3. (iii) 25401600 4. (i) 30. (ii) 2419200. 3600 4. 28 4. 9.4 1. 11. 2000 9. (ii) 588. 420 22 22 10.446 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 7. 1–10x + 40x2 – 80x3 + 80x4 – 32x5 32 40 20 5 x5 − 3+ − 5 x + x3 − x 8 32 x5 x 6 5 4 3. 907200 8. (i) 40320. 1440 5. 4. No 3. (ii) 15120 2.3 1. 3960 4. (iii) 240 10. 40320 EXERCISE 7. (ii) 6 6. 2(x6 + 15x4 + 15x2 + 1). 64 EXERCISE 7. 64 x –576 x + 2160 x – 4320 x3 + 4860 x2 – 2916 x + 729 2.1)10000 > 1000 12. (iii) 1632 6. (ii) 720. 884736 9. 33810 (i) 1814400.

. 107. a = 3. n = 6 5. 1512 4. 25. . a= 9 7 6. x x 2 2 16 x x 10. –125. . 10. 360 23 3 + 11 + 35 + 107 + 323 + . n = 10 16 8 32 16 x 2 x3 x 4 + 2 − 3 + 4 − 4x + + + −5 9. . 323. 35 2. 14 3. . 24. 2a8 + 12a6 – 10a4 – 4a2 + 2 8.y r 5. 4.. 16 and 32 4. n = 7.y r ( −1)r 12 Cr . – 101376 3. 2. b = 5. m = 4 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1.x12−2 r . r = 3 −105 9 35 12 x . 18564 10. 2 3 4 5 6 3. −1.ANSWERS 447 EXERCISE 8. 7. 2. 27x6 – 54ax5 + 117a2x4 – 116a3x3 + 117a4x2 – 54a5x + 27a6 EXERCISE 9. n = 7. 1 1 1 5 7 − . 0. 3. 93 8. 8.. – 1+ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + . 65. 8. 15625 6.9510 2.. –3125. 396 6 7. . . 49 128 9.. 35. 2 6 24 120 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝ 120 ⎠ .2 1. 729 11. 7. 625. 11. – 1760 x9y3 8. ( −1) r 6 Cr . 61236 x5y5 6. x 8 48 12. 12. . 21 and 2 2 2 2 5. 3. −1 −1 −1 −1 ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ .. . 1 2 3 4 5 . and 6 6 2 6 6 3 9 21 75 .1 1. 15. .x24−r .

. 17. ( ) 1− x 2 11. and 2 3 5 EXERCISE 9. . r = or . 2 20 2n 2. − 32. 2. 0. 2 + 2 + 1 + 0 + (–1) + . 3 5 8 14. x2 –16x + 25 = 0 n= 31. (b) 12th.3 1. 496 20.or 4. 98450 8. 1. 14.1)10 EXERCISE 9. –1 30. 179 321 14. ± 1 7. 14 7. 22 + 3 11 3 −1 2 ( ) ( 5 2 2 5 5 2 12. 120. 6.. 18. 2059 80 8 −4 −8 −16 10n − 1 − n . . Rs 500 (1. 1 n ( 5n + 7 ) 2 13.. 3. 12. 16. –1. 2. 11. Rs 245 18. 1002001 2.1) ⎤ ⎦ 6⎣ x 3 1 − x 2n 8. rR 21.1. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 3) 4 . (c) 9th 1⎡ 20 1 − ( 0. 0 15. 27 16.1. 64. 2q 4. 14. ) 15. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 3 2. 20 and 23 17. or . –24 26. 3072 4. 1. 2. Terms are .2 1. − 8. 7 2 ( ⎛ n ⎞ 3 + 1 ⎜ 3 2 − 1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ) 9. 2 −1 7 7 13. – 2187 6...2. 5 or 20 9.4 1. –6. 2 5 5 2 2 5 16 16 n .. 4 16.448 MATHEMATICS 13. ⎡1 − ( − a )n ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 1+ a 10. . 9 EXERCISE 9. 5. 30 (2n) 2 32. 480. 5 5 .. 9 and 27 ( ) 27. (a) 13th . 3 3 3 81 9 19. 4 10.

– 3 ( ) ( 3a. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 12 8. 135° 8. (0. (i) y2 − y1 .5 Crores 2 . 1210 10. 1 . (i) 4. 3050 9. x = 1 11. 2840 2 6. 295000 EXERCISE 10. 2 2. 4 11. 0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ 10. or − and – 1 2 2 14. 1 and 2. – a) and − 3a. 8729 8. Rs 17000. 3n (n + 1) (n + 3) n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 23n + 34 12 7. 16. – a). or – 1 and –2. n n +1 5. 5. (0. 104. ( ) n ( n + 1) ( 2n + 1) + 2 2n − 1 6 ( ) 10. Rs 5120 28. or 1 1 and 1. n 2n2 + 9n + 13 24 ( ) 27.1 1. (0. 8.0 5. n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 5n + 1 6 ( ) 4. 11 5. ± 3 6. a). n 2 n + 3n + 5 3 ( ) 25. 11 7. 4 21. and 3.ANSWERS 449 3.0 or (0. Rs 43690 30. 8. Rs 16680 31. 6 12. 9. ⎜ . (ii) x2 − x1 7. 25 days 29. 121 square unit. Rs 39100 32. ) − 1 2 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 4. 1680 23. a). (ii) 81 9 3 27 ( ) ( ) 22. 160. n ( 2n + 1) ( 2n − 1) 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 9 2. 32 50 n 5n 2n 2 10 − 1 − 1 − 10− n − .

L= . . (i) x cos 120° + y sin 120° = 4. 5 units 5. 12. 2.192 ( C − 20 ) + 124. 0 7 7 3 3 x y 3 + =1. EXERCISE 10. 17 2 l 8.3 1.6. 6. 3 x + y − 2 = 0 and 3 x + y + 2 = 0 10. 0) 7. y = 0 and x = 0 4. (i) 1 1 5 5 y = − x + 0. 0. 90°. 120° (ii) x cos 90° + y sin 90° = 2. (– 2. 2. (ii) 4 6 2 2.942 90 17. 8. 4. x – 2y + 10 = 0 3. x y 3 −2 2 + = 1. (ii) units. 30° and 150° 22 9 ( 3 + 2 x + 2 3 – 1 y = 8 3 + 1 or ) ( ) ( 3 − 2 x + 1 + 2 3 y = –1 + 8 3 ) ( ) . y = mx 5.2 1. 2x – 9y + 85 = 0 19. 0. (i) (iii) 2 2 y = − . −2.450 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 10. x + 2y – 6 = 0. (ii) y = −2 x + . − . 5x – y + 20 = 0 12. x + y = 5 15. 3 3 3. 315° 4. 0) and (8. 2 2 . y + 7x = 21 9. 1340 litres. 2x + y + 6 = 0 7. 2x + y – 6 = 0 14. (i) 65 1 p+r units. intercept with y-axis = − and no intercept with x-axis. − 2 . . 16. 3x – 4y + 18 = 0 10. 5x + 3y + 2 = 0 ( 3 +1 x − ) ( 3 −1 y = 4 ) ( 3 –1 ) x − 3y + 2 3 = 0 9. (iii) y = 0x + 0. 4. 2kx + hy = 3kh. 3x – 4y + 8 = 0 3x + y = 10 11. (iii) x cos 315° + y sin 315° = 2 2 . 6. (1 + n)x + 3(1 + n)y = n +11 13.

line is parallel to x . ⎜ 0. x = 1. 23 5 units 18 8. ⎜ . ⎜ 0 . 2x – 3y + 18 = 0 11. (a) 3.1 1. x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 15 = 0 11. 2 x − 3 y = 6 . c(4. 18. r = 53 9. c(2. 18x + 12y + 11 = 0 ⎛ 13 ⎞ 22.c = 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. 3). r = 4 4 10. − ⎟ . (b) ± 2. – 4). y – x = 1. x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y = 0 5. x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by + 2b2 = 0 7. x + 3y = 9 15. y = 1. x=− 5 22 7.1 6 3. x2 + y2 – 7x + 5y – 14 = 0 12. ⎜ . − 3x + 2 y = 6 sin (φ – θ) φ–θ 2 sin 2 8 ⎞ ⎛ 32 ⎞ ⎛ 4. Slope of the line is zero i. c(–5. 13x + 13y = 6 9. (c) 6 or 1 2. c ( 1 1 . r = 6. (–1. m= 1 5 . 0 ⎟ ⎝5 ⎠ 24. x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y –3 = 0 2 2 3. 36x + 36y – 36x – 18y + 11 = 0 4. − ⎟ ⎝ 25 25 ⎠ 15. r = 6 65 8. 3x – y = 7. 2 ⎛ 68 49 ⎞ 14. 1± 5 2 7 21. 0) . k2 square units 12. 19. 2x + y = 5 17.ANSWERS 451 13. x2 + y2 + 4x – 21 = 0 & x2 + y2 – 12x + 11 = 0 .axis 17. 5 14. – 5). 7π . 5. ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6. x2 + y2 – 4y = 0 2. 1 : 2 16.e. 4). 119x + 102y = 205 EXERCISE 11.

axis . 0).axis. 0). V (0. ± 21 ). Minor axis = 8 . directrix x = – 3. directrix y = – . length of the Latus rectum = 6 2 2 3. Minor axis = 4 .452 MATHEMATICS 13.y . axis . EXERCISE 11. F (0. F (3.3 9.0). x2 + y2 – ax – by = 0 14. directrix y = . 5 2 5 . F ( .axis. Major axis = 12. V ( ± 4.2 1.axis. length of the Latus rectum = 8 4. axis . length of the Latus rectum = 16 5. 6 16 3 21 . y2 = –8x 8. e = Latus rectum = 9 2 . F ( ± 7 . 0) axis . F (0. since the distance of the point to the centre of the circle is less than the radius of the circle.x . y2 = 24x 10. F (± 20 . y2 = 12x 12. 0). F (0. 5 2. x2 = – 12y 11.y . e = Latus rectum = 20 . 3 3 ). F (0. x2 + y2 – 4x – 4y = 5 15. length of the Latus rectum = 10 2 –9 9 ) . 0). axis . length of the Latus rectum = 9 4 4 7. directrix y = 4.x . 4 3. 2x2 = 25y 1. ± 5). F (–2. –4). Major axis = 8. directrix x = – 6. directrix x = 2.y . Major axis = 10. length of the Latus rectum = 12 2.axis. Minor axis = 6 .axis. Inside the circle. 0). V (± 6.x . axis .axis. 2y2 = 9x EXERCISE 11. e = Latus rectum = 8 5 7 .

Major axis = 20. e = Latus rectum = 10. Major axis =12 . x2 y 2 + =1 36 20 x2 y2 + =1 169 144 x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 . Major axis = 8 . Minor axis = 20 . x2 y2 + =1 144 169 x2 y 2 + =1 1 5 x2 y 2 + =1 16 7 12. 13.0).± 15 . ± 75 ). V (0.0). e = Latus rectum = 3 . 0). Minor axis = 4 . V (0. e = Latus rectum = 8.± 6). 14.± 10).± 20). 2 2 2 . ± 4). Major axis =40 . x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 x2 y 2 + =1 9 4 x2 y 2 + =1 64 100 8 3 11. 17. V (0. ± 4 2 ). 16. F (0. 0). F (0. V ( ± 3. 7 72 7 3 . 3 9. Minor axis = 2 . e = Latus rectum = 10 7. 3 6. e = Latus rectum = 5 5.ANSWERS 453 4. F (0. 4 3 15 . 4 F 0. V (0. Minor axis = 10 . ± 10 3 ). Major axis =14 . V (± 7. F (± 13 . e = Latus rectum = ( ) 1 2 5 . Minor axis = 12 . Minor axis = 4 . F ( ± 5 . Major axis = 6 . 2 13 . 18. 15.

Vertices (± 4. Latus rectum = 2 4 9. 13.11 m (approx. ± 2). 0). 11. Vertices (0. ± 3). Foci (0 ± 6). Vertices (0. x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 6.23 m (approx.4 9 5 . e = 4. Foci (± 10. x2 y2 + =1 81 9 4. Foci (0.) 7. e = 2. Vertices (0. Latus rectum = 18 1. Foci (0. e = 3.) 3. ± 65 ). x2 y2 − =1 4 5 x2 y2 − =1 16 9 x2 y2 − =1 4 12 49 65 . ± 4). 14. e = .± ). y 2 x2 − =1 9 16 x2 y 2 − =1 25 20 x2 y2 − =1 5 5 8. y 2 x2 − =1 25 39 y 2 x2 − =1 25 144 x2 9 y2 − =1 49 343 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. 2. 12.56m (approx. 0). e = 7.± 6 14 4 5 ).) 5. ± 13 ). 8 3a . Latus rectum = 9 2 5 64 . Foci (± 5. 1. x + 4y = 52 or 2 2 x2 y 2 + =1 52 13 EXERCISE 11. Vertices (± 6.454 MATHEMATICS 19. e = 2 14 5 13 . 2. Focus is at the mid-point of the given diameter. Latus rectum = 5 3 3 6. Latus rectum = 3 3 5. 15. Latus rectum = 4 2 2. 10. Vertices (0. 18 sq units 8. 0). Foci (0. 0). 9. x2 y 2 + =1 10 40 20.

7 3. π 7. 6) 6. II. 12. – 2. . VIII. – 4. 5 10. y . IV. x – 2z = 05. (i) 2 5 (ii) 43 (iii) 2 26 (iv) 2 5 4.2 1.3) 2. 7 34 . b = − 16 .coordinate are zero 3. 16. 2 : 3 5. (i) ⎜ . 0) and (0. 11. (0. III. 2. 0) 5. 8.coordinate is zero (iii) Eight regions EXERCISE 12. I. V. (6. 2) Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. a = – 2. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 x − 7 y + 2 z = k 2 – 109 2 2. (ii) ( − 8. 22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. 1 4 a b a b 1 π . (8. 8) 4. (1. y. ⎟ . VII 4. ⎜ π − ⎟ 7 ⎠ ⎝ 3. 1 15. 1 : 2 ⎝ 5 5 5 ⎠ 3. 4.1 1. – 6. b 13. 6 5. 2 14. 19 2 108 7 − 1 π − 1 2 6.17 . (4.ANSWERS 455 EXERCISE 12. c=2 3 EXERCISE 13. – 2.3 ⎛ −4 1 27 ⎞ 1. 0) 2. 9x2 + 25y2 + 25z2 – 225 = 0 EXERCISE 12.plane (ii) (x. – 10. (i) XY . – 2). 11 4 9.1 1. y and z . VI.

(i) 2x − a − b (ii) 4ax ax 2 + b ( ) a −b (iii) ( x − b )2 8.. a +1 b 0 22. 25. nx n − anx n−1 − x n + a n ( x − a) 2 9 .. 29. 20 4.. x → a1 19. (i) 2 (ii) 20x3 – 15x2 + 6x – 4 (iii) −3 ( 5 + 2x ) x4 (iv) 15x4 + 24 x5 –2 x (3x – 2) –12 36 – + 10 (vi) 2 (v) 5 ( x + 1) (3 x – 1)2 x x 11. 2 32. b = 4 18. (a – a ) 1 2 x x →a lim f (x) exists for all a ≠ 0.. 2 Limit does not exist at x = 1 Limit does not exist at x = 0 0 28. 4 21.2 1. a = 0. For lim f (x) to exists. 24. 6 20. 1 (iii) −2 x3 −2 (iv) ( x − 1)2 nx n −1 + a (n − 1)x n − 2 + a 2 (n − 2)x n−3 + . 30. 2. lim f (x) exists for any integral value x→0 x→1 of m and n. (i) 3x2 6. we need m = n. 99 (ii) 2x – 3 3. 0 23. 1 26. x →a 31. 27. (i) (iii) (v) (vii) cos2 x 5sec x tan x – 4sin x – 3cosec2 x – 5 cosec x cot x 2sec2 x – 7sec x tan x 10.456 MATHEMATICS 17. – sin x (ii) sec x tan x (iv) – cosec x cot x (vi) 5cos x+ 6sin x . 3. Limit does not exist at x = 0 lim f (x) = 0 and lim f (x) = (a – a ) (a – a ) . + a n−1 7. EXERCISE 13.

−4a 2b + 3 − sin x x5 x 11.ANSWERS 457 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. (i) – 1 (ii) − qr + ps x2 1 x2 π⎞ ⎛ (iii) cos (x + 1) (vi) −sin ⎜ x − ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ 2. x ≠ 0. 1 3. – cosec3 x – cosec x cot2 x 17. cos (x+a) 15. 2 x 12. 13. x3 ( 5 x cos x + 3 x sin x + 20 sin x − 12cos x ) − x 2 sin x − sin x + 2 x cos x −q sin x ax 2 + sin x + ( p + q cos x )( 2 a x + cos x ) ( ) − tan 2 x ( x + cos x ) + ( x − tan x )(1 − sin x ) 35 + 15 x cos x + 28 cos x + 28 x sin x − 15sin x ( 3x + 7 cos x )2 . bc cos x + ad sin x + bd ( c + d cos x ) 2 21. −1 1 + sin x n–1 −2 ( sin x − cos x ) 2 18. ( cx + d )2 − apx 2 − 2bpx + ar − bq ( x – 1)2 . 2sec x tan x ( sec x + 1) cos α cos2 x 2 19. 24. 22. ( ax − ( 2ax + b ) 2 + bx + c ) 2 8. 2c (ax+b) (cx + d) + a (cx + d)2 ad − bc 5. n sin x cos x 20. ( px 2 + 2x + r ) 2 9.1 7. 25. 16. 4. 26. −2 6. 23. ⎡ ( ax + b )n −1 ( cx + d )m−1 ⎣ mc ( ax + b ) + na ( cx + d )⎤ ⎦ 14. apx 2 + 2bpx + bq − ar ( ax + b ) na ( ax + b ) n−1 2 10.

458 MATHEMATICS x cos 27. Therefore. For example. squares and rhombus have equal length whereas rectangles and trapezium have unequal length. (iv) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes not true. it is a statement. (ii) This is not a statement because for some people mathematics can be easy and for some others it can be difficult. This is not a statement because from the context it is not clear which room is reffered here and the term bold is not precisely defined. it is not a statement. (1 + tanx ) 2 ( x + sec x ) (1 − sec 2 x ) + ( x − tan x ) . (iii) “cos2θ is always greater than 1/2”. (v) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes false. The three examples can be: (i) Everyone in this room is bold. (vi) It is an order and therefore. (1 + sec x tan x ) sin x − n x cos x sin n +1 x EXERCISE 14. it is not a statement. we know what θ is. Therefore. (x) This is a true statement because all real numbers can be written in the form a + i × 0. π ( 2 sin x − x cos x ) 4 sin 2 x 1 + tanx − x sec 2 x 28. Unless. we cannot say whether the sentence is true or not. (iii) This sentence is always true because the sum is 12 and it is greater than 10. 2. 30. it is a statement. Therefore. For example the square of 2 is even number and the square of 3 is an odd number. it is not a statement. is not a statement. Therefore. (viii) This sentence is always true and therefore. it is a statement. 29. (ix) It is not clear from the context which day is referred and therefore. (vii) This sentence is false as the product is (–8). (i) This sentence is always false because the maximum number of days in a month is 31. . (ii) She is an engineering student.1 1. Therefore. it is a statement. This is also not a statement because who ‘she’ is.

it is a rational. All integers are positive.3 (i) “And”. number 3 is odd (True). The negation of the first statement is “x is an irrational number” which is the same as the second statement. (ii) “Or”. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. all integers are negative (False). The negation is There exists a real number x such that x is not less than x + 1. The negation of the first statement is “the number x is a rational number. (i) (ii) (iii) EXERCISE 14. (iii) “And”. Therefore.” which is the same as the second statement” This is because when a number is not irrational. the component statements are: The sand heats up quickily in the sun. 100 is divisible by 3. (i) “There exists”. The component statements are: All rational numbers are real. Square of an integer is negative. the pairs are negations of each other. (i) Chennai is not the capital of Tamil Nadu. Number 3 is prime. The negation is There exists a state in India which does not have a capital. (iii) “There exists”. (ii) “For every”. All real numbers are not complex. . The negation is There does not exist a number which is equal to its square. The component statements are: 2 x = 2 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2 x = 3 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2. the given pairs are negations of each other. The component statements are: Square of an integer is positive.100 is divisible by 11 and 100 is divisible by 5 (False). All triangles are equilateral tringles. (i) (ii) 3. The sand does not cool down fast at night. 2 is a complex number.ANSWERS 459 EXERCISES 14. Every natural number is not an integer.2 1. 1. The number 2 is not greater than 7. Therefore. (iv) “And”.

(i) (ii) . For the square of a natural number to be odd. A natural number is odd only if its square is odd. If x is divisible by 4. The contrapositive is. then they are not parallel The converse is If two lines do not interesect in the same plane. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. then x is not an even number. For a natural number to be odd it is necessary that its square is odd. 4.460 MATHEMATICS No. The contrapositive is If two lines intersect in the same plane. then x is not a prime number. This statement can be written as “If x is an even number. The converse is If you do not know how to reason deductively. then it is not cold The converse is If something is at low temperature. The converse is If a number x in odd. it is sufficient that the number is odd If the square of a natural number is not odd. then it will bloom. then your credentials are good. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 3. The contrapositive is If a number x is not odd. then it is cold The contrapositive is If you know how to reason deductively. The converse is. then the natural number is not odd.4 1. If the banana tree stays warm for a month. then you can not comprehend geometry. (i) A natural number is odd implies that its square is odd. If you get a job. instead of the statement given in (ii). then they are parallel The contrapositive is If something is not at low temperature. EXERCISE 14. then it is a prime number. If x is not divisible by 4. then x is divisible by 4”. then x is an even number. The negation of the statement in (i) is “There exists real number x and y for which x + y ≠ y + x”. (i) Exclusive (ii) Inclusive (iii) Exclusive 3. then you can comprehend geometry.

ANSWERS 461 (iii) (iv) 4. (ii) The given statement can be written as “If it is a sunny day. (i) 1. The contrapositive is If you do not feel thirsty. a (i) (ii) b (i) (ii) If diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. then it is a prime. then it is not hot outside. Since 11 is a prime number. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. If you get A+ in the class. In the equation of an ellipse if we put a = b. then it is a sunny day. (ii) False. There does not exist a number x such that 0 < x < 1. (iii) The converse is If you feel thirsty. Contrapositive Converse Contrapositive Converse EXERCISE 14. There exists a cat which does not scratch. then it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. then you do all the exercises in the book. . The converse of the statement is If I go to beach. There exists a real number x such that neither x > 1 nor x < 1. then I go to a beach. By definition of the chord. then it is not a sunny day. therefore 11 is irrational. (i) False. This can be shown by giving a counter example. The statement can be written as “If a positive integer is prime. it should intersect the circle in two points. by the rule of inequality (v) False. The contrapositive is If I do not go to a beach. then it is a parallelogram. (iii) True. The contrapositive of the statement is If positive integer has divisors other than 1 and itself then it is not prime. then it is a circle (Direct Method) (iv) True. A chord which is not a dimaeter gives the counter example. then it is hot outside.5 5. There exists a positive real number x such that x–1 is not positive. The converse of the statement is If a positive integer has no divisors other than 1 and itself.

2 1. Highest Chemistry and lowest Mathematics 7. 2276 10. 157. 16 10. 1. 7 8. 8 2.28 3. 3.34 4. 16.99 (ii) 10.1 12. 5. B 4. 132 5. 3 5. (iii) If you can access the website. 1.4 3. Weight 3. 93. 19.1. 43. then you have a password.35 EXERCISE 15. 7. 10.462 MATHEMATICS (i) If there is log on to the server. 4. 43.55. 11. 12 5. (iii) A quadrilateral is equiangular if and only if it is a rectangle. 74. 20. 5. 7. 105. 24.52. (ii) You get an A grade if and only you do all the homework regularly.32 9.4 8. 9. 9. EXERCISE 15.036 .5 4. 64. 8 3. 2. A 2. 5. 8.3 1.69 9.98 6. (ii) If it rains.33 7. 3. 6.2. Y 5. The compound statement with “Or” is 25 is a multiple of 5 or 8 This is true statement. 27. (ii) B Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 15 1.27 EXERCISE 15. 10. Same as Q1 in Exercise 14. 6.23 11. then you pay a subscription fee. 107. then there is traffic jam. (i) 10. (i) You watch television if and only if your mind in free.5. 29.25 n + 1 n2 − 1 .4 6.25 7. 4.92 2. The compound statement with “And” is 25 is a multiple of 5 and 8 This is a false statement. 2. 1. 2 12 3.1 1. 100.09 6. (i) B.

TB3.4).4). 13. 5. T5. 5HH. W6.6).3)} {1HH. H2. 8. H2.5).5. W4. or 3. (1. (2.6).. 4T. H46.5}. TTHH. THHT. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {3. T4.6).6).6). C and D (ii) A and C (iii) B and D (i) “Getting at least two heads”. } EXERCISE 16. H21. (2. 6}. HHT. (2. 6. 1HT.6). 5. y = 1. THTH. TR2. H23. T2.. 6}. H41. 1. (2.3.. (1.2. H4. 2). 3TT. 4). (5. 1).6). . YG5} {R1. (1. TTTH. GB.6)} A and B. H25. 4.3}. D – E = {1. TTH. 4.2 1. (2. 4.2). NDD. 4). B2. and “getting at least two tails” (ii) “Getting no heads”. H66} {(1. NND. 2.3). B and C are mutually exclusive.1). (3. R5. B and C.1. NDN. H3. (4. XG2.. (1. (3. (5. (5.6). W1.3). 3. T2. (5. B∪C = {3. T6} {DDD. 2} 3. (6. H62..5). HTHH. T3.2). WR. THH. H3. 6} (iv) {1. (3. 6H.ANSWERS 463 EXERCISE 16.6). R6. (5. R3. H5.6).6). (2. H1. 5TT.6). R4. XG1. 1TT. 9. (5. . (2.2). A and C. 3HT. (4. H64. (6. 4H. HHHT. 2.. 2. 15.4.. THTT. WW} [HH. D∩E = φ. (6. (4. W2. HHTH. (4.. B6} (i) {BB. (2. (1. (i) A and B.2. E∩F = {6}. (2.2). H3.5). 2} {RW. T4.. T6} {H1. 14. YG3. A – C = {1. THHH. No. HTT.5. (6. H65. H63.6)} B = {(1. H26. DND.6). 3HH. (6. H45. (6. TTTT} {H1.6). (4.. 5HT. (i) {1. H22.6). BG. 6T} {TR1. (2. 2).4. H4. 5. (5. E∩ F′ = φ. DNN.1). HTTH. B1.2). (1. 10..2).6). A∪B = {1. 2H. B4.6} {(1. T1. (2. H6} {6.2. (3. 12.6)} C ={(3. (6. TTHT. W3.. y) : x. B3. YG4. 16... HT. . R2. 6}. A∩B = φ. 2.2).6).5). HTH.6). 3} (v) {6} (vi) {3. H4.1 1. H5. DDN. H42. H6.2).6). (2. T} {XB1.2. (1. .4). H2. HTTT. (1.4). 1TH. H44. H24..2. B5. NNN} {T. (3. A = {(3.. 2. H5. (6. XB2. . (2. F′ = {1.2). TTT} {(x. T1. (2. (6. {HHH. (5.3).6)} {HHHH. H5.1. . YB3. (4. 2. (4. H1. H3. .3).. (4. W5.. 11.1). 4.5). T3.2). “getting exactly one head” and “getting at least two heads” . 7.1).1). .. 3TH. HHTT.. (6. (2. TB1. (2. 2T. 4. GG} (ii) {0.. (1. 3. H6. H43. 5. THT.. H61.5. T5.3).4).1).1.. TB2. 5TH. 5. HTHT.3).

3). (2. (4. (3. (4.2). (6. (3.1).5).4).1). (2. (6. (5.4).3). (6. (2. (1. (5. (1. (3. (4. (3.464 MATHEMATICS (iii) “Getting at most two tails”. (4. (1.3). (2.6). (1.6). (6. (2. (3. (3.6)} C = {(1. 1). (2. (4.5). (5.4).1).1).4).1).5). (6.2).6). (3. (1. (1. (1.1).2).5). (4. A = {(2. (1. (3.5).6).5).6).3).1).3). (3. (3. “getting exactly two tails”. 6. (5.4).3). (6. (6.6)} = S (iv) A ∩ B = φ (v) A – C = {(2.2). (6. (6. (4. (4.4). (5. (6.6)} = B (ii) B′ = {(2. (6.4). (1. (3.1). (5. (3.1). (2.4). (2. (5. (6.2). (1.4). (4.6).3).6).3).2).5).5).1). (2. (4.3).2).1). (5. (6.1).4). (5. (3. (2.3).1)} (i) A′ = {(1.6). (1.3).2).4). (4. and “getting exactly two tails” (iv) “Getting exactly one head” and “getting exactly two heads” (v) “Getting exactly one tail”. (5. (4.3). (5.2).6)} B = {(1. (4.4).5). (2.3). (1. (1.2). (3. (i) 5. (6. (2.1).5). (3. (6. (5.1).5).1).4).1). (a) Yes 3. (2. (6. (3. (2. (4. 4.3).2). (6.1). (1. (2. (6. (2.6). (6.4). (3.3). (2.2). (4. (3. (2. (4.6)} (vi) B ∪ C = {(1.5).2). (4. (3. 1). (1. (2. (3. (5.4). (a) 52 (b) 3 5 .4). (5.1).6).4). (5. (3. (4.1). (6. (4. (2.2).4).1).4). (5. (3.4). (4.1). (6. (5. (4.1). (1. (6. (5. (4.6).5). (5.2).2). (1.3). (1. (4. (4. and getting exactly three tails” Note There may be other events also as answer to the above question.2). 3 4 1 1 1 (ii) (c) (i) 52 13 2 1 2 1 5 (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 (v) 2 3 6 6 1 1 (ii) 12 12 6.6). (6. (1.2)} (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ = {(2. (4.1).6).2). (3.4). (4.3). (2.5). (2.6).4). (1.6). (5.3).6).2).5). (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) False EXERCISE 16. (6.4).5).6). (1. (4. (2.4).6)} = A (iii) A∪B = {(1.3).6)} 7. (5. (2. (6.4).2).5). (5.2). (6.5). (2. (5. (6.2).3).3).1). (1.2).6). (6.4). (6.2). (4. (1. (3.2).1).4).5).5). (3.3 1.2). (4.5).3). (3.5). (1.1).2).5).3).5).4).3).3).2). (6. (5.3).2).6). 1). (3. (3.5). (1.2).3). (i) (b) Yes (c) No (d) No (e) No 2.3).1).5).3). (1. (4.6)} (vii) B ∩ C = {(1.5).

(i) 15. 4 5 17. P (Losing Re.00) = P (Losing Rs 3.52 (iii) 0. (i) 60 C5 20 (ii) 1 − 30 C5 2.00 loss.00) = 16 4 8 1 1 . (i) 0. (a) 6. because P(A∩B) must be less than or equal to P(A) and P(B).00 gain.50) = 8.65 (ii) (iii) 2 15 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 C5 1. (i) 9 11 6 13 (ii) 7 13 11. 1. 1 5040 .58 (ii) 0. Rs 1. 0.55 14. Rs 3.00) = . (i) 7 15 5 8 19 30 (ii) 0. (i) 9. Rs 4. 60 C5 13 C3 .19 (iv) 0.34 9.50) = . 1 38760 12.6 21. (ii) Yes 13.ANSWERS 465 7. (i) 18. Re 1. (i) No. P(Winning Rs 1. No 19. (i) 0. 0.50 loss.50 gain. 7. 0. (a) 1 1 5 (ii) (iii) 2 2 6 17 33 (b) 16 33 4.74 20. (i) 4 5 2 5 (ii) 3 8 10. P (Losing Rs 6.12 (iii) 0. Rs 6.88 (ii) 0. 4 16 1 3 1 7 1 1 3 1 7 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) 8 8 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 10. 13 C1 52 C4 999 1000 (b) C2 10000 C2 9990 9990 3. (i) 5. (c) 10000 C10 C10 2 3 8. P ( Winning Rs 4.5 (iii) 0.15 (ii) 3 8 11 30 16.00 loss. 1 1 3 .

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