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Part I. Business Texts Unit 1 - English Banks Unit 2- The Banking System (1) Unit 3 – The Banking System (2) Unit 4 – Financial Markets Unit 5 – The Euro Unit 6 – Money Market Unit 7 – Euromarkets Unit 8 – Banking Risk Management Unit 9 – Securisation Unit 10 – Money Laundering Unit 11- What is Business ? Unit 12 – Organization of Business Unit 13 – What is a franchise? Unit 14 – Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Unit 15 – Two Basic Concepts in Finance: Assets and Liabilities Unit 16 – What is marketing ? Unit 17 – The Stock Exchange Market Unit 18 – Functions of Commerce Unit 19 – An Export Transaction Unit 20 – Methods of Payment in Foreign Trade
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Part II . English Grammar The Noun Exercises The Article Exercises The Adjective Exercises The Numeral Exercises The Verb Exercises The Adverb Exercises Part III. Commercial Correspondence Addressing envelopes Parts of a letter References Enquires and replies Quotations, estimates and tenders Orders and their fulfillment. Printed Order Forms. Letter order Invoices and adjustments Debit and credit notes Statement of accounts Methods of payment Complaints Contracts Special business letters Memorandums Report Leaflet Notice Minute Letter of application Curriculum Vitae Banking and Home Business Transport
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PART I I. BUSINESS TEXTS UNIT 1 ENGLISH - BANKS There are a lot of banks in our tows and villages and even the internet offers you the opportunity to do “on line banking” as you can pay for goods and services with a little smart card. Speaking about the UK, one has to go back in time, three hundred years ago, to find the beginning of the banking system. The banks were subject to the provisions of the various Acts of the Parliament. The Bank of England was established in 1694 and it was nationalized in 1946 due to the Bank of England Act and got legal powers to enforce its directives. After the second world war, many companies set themselves all over the country, called themselves banks, had freedom to develop themselves but some restrictions were also imposed. The financial markets developed very quickly. London became an important banking town and started to attract international banks. In 1987, the Banking Act was passed; it peplaced another Banking Act, that of 1979, which, at its turn, answered to the 19731974 banking crisis. This crisis was caused by the fringe banks which got into difficult situations because of their short term borrowing and long term lending. These banks were not subject to rigorous supervision, they operated speculatively with the funds owned by their customers. The Banking Act abolished a two-tier system of the recognized banks; it licensed deposit-takers. Its purpose is the introduction of a prudential supervision. But it does not regulate the day to day banking operations. All the institutions that are banks are under the control of the Banking Act; there are other institutions that have the right to take deposits and they are subjects to the Acts of Parliament which are relevant to their operations. Banks and insurance companies are allowed to own stock exchange subsidiaries. A new electronic system has been introduced bringing the old fashioned banking system up to date. 3
In fact the banks act as intermediaries between borrowers and lenders. credit) 4 . This is done in different ways. in scopul rezervarii acelui bun. care are valoare pentru posesorul sau) Bank (banca. tangibila sau intangibila. institutie comerciala autorizata sa atraga depozite) Borrower( persoana care face un imprumut ) Deposit (suma de bani. Text Comprehension 1.Banking vocabulary: • • • • • • • • • Asset (orice posesiune. suma de bani depozitata intr-o banca) Financial adviser (orice persoana care ofera consiliere pe plan financiar altei personae. obligatie) Loan(imprumut. Answer the following questions: When was the Bank of England founded? What acts control the banks? What happened in 1946? What happened after the Second World War? When was an important bank crisis and what happened? What did the Banking Act abolish and license? Does it regulate the every day operations? Who control the banks What o the acts of Parliament do? What are the banks? 2. in special in privinta investitiilor ) Interest(dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Intermediation(activitatea unei banci… care actioneaza ca intermediary intre doua parti ale unei tranzactii) Liabilities(datorie. platita in avans de catre un comparator. ca parte a pretului de vanzare a unui produs.
Payer(persoana sau organizatie care face o plata)
3. Topics for speaking and writing Write a short composition about the bank you are working with Build up a conversation about a bank; you are a bank clerk and try to convince somebody to become the bank customer UNIT 2 THE BANKING SYSTEM (1) Banking and financial market operations involve special institutions and financial markets; they act within a legislative framework and offer specialized services to individuals, companies, governments. Let’s present some of them. The Bank of England is the central bank of the kingdom. It acts as a banker to all the other banks and government; it issues the bank notes; it manages the national debt; it lends money to all the banking institutions; it regulates the monetary and credit conditions and supervises the banking system. The commercial banks are ruled by the Banking Act of 1987 and are allowed to take deposits and lend money on the retail and wholesale markets. They offer banking services. Retail banks offer their services to the individuals and medium sized businesses. They operate through branches which offer cash deposits, withdrawal facilities as well as possibilities of transferring funds. They provide facilities to different types of account such as current accounts, deposit accounts; they offer loans and different financial services. International banking is developing. Foreign banks have branches everywhere, especially in the large cities and important towns of the countries. London is famous for this. There are banks which operate mainly overseas and are specialized in particular areas of the world: Far East, Asia, South Africa, and South America. 5
Text Comprehension a) Answer the questions: 1. What do banking and financial markets involve? 2. What does the Bank of England do? 3. Do you know anything about the National Bank of Romania? 4. What do you know about the commercial banks? 5. What do the retail banks do? 6. Can you describe some Romanian banks? 7. What can you tell about international banking? 8. Are there international banks in Romania? 9. Are there Romanian banks abroad? Banking vocabulary:
Account (cont gestionat de o banca) Balance of payments (registrele care reflecta tranzactiile unei companii cu lumea din afara) • Bank deposit (deposit bancar) • Bank charge (comision bancar) • Bank draft (trata) • Current account (cont curent) • Drawer (persoana care semneaza o cambie) • Drawee (persoana careia i s-a tras o cambie) • Insurance (asigurare) • Liquidity (masura a lichiditatii activelor unei organizatii) • Market (piata) • Negotiable (negociabil) • Overdraft (plafon de creditare) • Penalty (penalizare) • Profitability (capacitatea de a face profit)) • Savings (economii) • Share (actiune, parte sociala) • Withdrawal (retragere ) 3.Topics for speaking and writing : 6
- Write a short composition (200 words), using the above given vocabulary
through Post Office branches.Do we have such banks in Romania? 3. foreign exchange dealings. pension funds. as an extension of their own trading.UNIT 3 BANKING SYSTEM (2) Merchant Banks have their roots in the banking activity the merchants were involved in. They are between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector. The National Savings. They receive the liquid money of the banking sector. they offer services including corporate finance. unit trusts. Some of them are: insurance companies. They offer loan finance and equity capital. leasing houses. at the very beginning. Who founded the merchant banks and why? 2. lend to the government for the weekly offer of Treasury Bills. Text Comprehension 1. Answer the questions: 1. offered deposit services to customers. Special financial institutions operate in the public sector and in the private one. They used to help foreign governments to get loans. Some of these are the fixed-interest and indexlinked Savings Certificates. investment trusts. venture capital companies. they invest them in securities and in different assets.What can you tell about the National Savings ? 4. insurance brokers. security trading. Discount Houses are specific to Britain and are an important element of the British monetary system.Does Romania have such a system and how does it act? 8 . to accept bills of exchange. It does not make loans. National Savings is a saving scheme supported by the government which aids government borrowing using a set of saving instruments. Investment institutions collect the savings from the persons and corporation sectors. they promote the orderly flow of funds between the authorities and the banks. The latter include finance houses. factoring companies. Nowadays. They trade on the wholesale money market.
spre a imprumuta debitori ) Finance house (societate de credit) Fund (fond comun de resurse monetare si de alt tip ) Funds transfer (transfer al fondului ) Home banking (sistem bancar national) Interest (dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Liability (datorie. persoana in numele careia actioneaza un mandatar) Solvency (suma cu care activele unei banci depasesc obligatiile) Unit banking (sistem bancar. in care o banca infiinteaza o companie unica. data maturitatii unei cambii) Financial intermediary ( o banca care detine fonduri imprumutate de la creditori . de ex.What are the investment institutions? 7. obligatie) Merger (fuziunea a doua sau mai multe firme) Principal (mandat.5. Topics for speaking and writing Build up sentences using the above given vocabulary Write a short composition (about 200 words) about Romanian banks 9 . How do discount houses act? 6. fara filiale ) Wholesale (banking imprumuturi interbancare sau imprumuturi acordate catre sau de catre alte mari institutii financiare) 3.Where do special finance institutions operate ? Banking vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acquisition accounting (proceduri contabile efectuate cand o companie este preluata de o alta ) Bill of exchange (un tip de cambie) Bill of lading (conosament) Charge (ipoteca legala asupra unui teren/ proprietate) Collateral (categorie de titluri de valoare) Commercial loan selling (tranzactie care implica doua banci si un client industrial) Due date ( scadenta de plata.
they are traded in a secondary market through exchange) 3) international equities The money markets are directed between buyers and sellers which are banks. oversea securities. A great number of people own shares directly and indirectly (through collective investment schemes . London has regional offices. automated dealing system. treasury bills. There is no physical market place. the negotiations are done by phone. financial institutions. Parallel markets are to be found and are known under names such as: 1) inter bank market (it lets the banks to deposit surplus cash with each other) 2) CDs market (it involves large companies. The security houses offer selling and buying prices for domestic securities. bills of exchange. private persons. the financial instruments being CDs. The market is coordinated electronically and operates in three markets: 1) domestic equities (they include listed securities of large corporations and unlisted securities for smaller and growing companies) 2) gilt-edged stock (gilts are issued by the Bank of England under the government control. it deposits large surplus sums for a given rate of interest) 10 .UNIT 4 FINANCIAL MARKETS One of the most important financial markets is represented by the stock exchange And the most famous one is the one existing in London. particularly in the cross border securities. the prices are displayed on the information screens all over the world. institutions. The exchange has a dominant position in international equity trading. bonds. insurance investments).pension funds.
What do the security houses offer? 3. How is the money directed? 7. este transferata dintr-un cont in altul) • Clearing house (sistem centralizat si computerizat de stabilire a sumelor datorate reciproc) • CD = Clearing deposits 11 . argint. How the money market managed and which is are its elements? 6. the brokers act as intermediaries. efectuata pe baza unui cec. Text comprehension Answer following questions: 1. London and Tokyo are famous for these dealings) The Foreign Exchange Market conducts transactions through the phone and data links between banks. Where is the most important financial market? 2. What do you know about the Free Market Exchange? Banking vocabulary: • Affiliate (afiliere) • Bank branch (filiala bancara) • Bond (obligatiune) • Bearer ( purtator al unui cec sau cambii) • Bearer bond (titlu de valoare) • Bullion (lingouri de aur. How are the prices displayed? 4. financial institutions. The quotes are given in many currencies for the buying and selling rates on a daily basis for all types of transactions. Do people own shares and how? 5.3) Commercial bills market (it deals with unsecured promissory notes. these are issued by the companies listed on the Stock market) 4) Euro currency market (it deals with currencies lent outside the domestic market place. metale pretioase) • Clearing cycle process (proces prin care. short term ones. Can you describe the parallel markets? 8. firms. o plata.
parte sociala) Stock(stoc de active. dupa ce u fost platiti toti creditorii) Financial instruments (ocumente financiare) Gilt edged security (itlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa. emis de guvernul britanic sub forma obligatiunilor guvernamentale sau a bonurilor de tezaur) To issue ( a emite) Margin (marja) Share ( actiune .• • • • • • • • • • Corporate bond (obligatiune sau titlu de valoare care reprezinta un imprumut obisnuit) Creditworthiness (evaluarea capacitatii unei persoane/firme de a achita bunurile/serviciile primite ) Equity (activele nete ale unei companii.) Writing Build up sentences using the above mentioned vocabulary 12 . sucursala. titlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa) Subsidiary (iliala.
The banks have completed the changeover and the national currencies have been withdrawn. For this.). The business has eliminated the exchange risk. the functioning of markets has been improved (i. marketing and organizational challenges. a. Banks have been confronted with the losing of revenue streams due to the introduction of the single currency. the impact of the new cross border payment systems. The Euro assures currency stability and an advance towards European integration. It has been set up a legal framework for the use of the euro which helps the market operators to have the legal security for contracts and obligations. The introduction of the single currency has three phases: 1. The trade between EU countries is done in Euro. tourists. the single currency (begins with 1 January 2002) Beginning with this date.o. Text comprehension Answer the questions: 13 . members of the European Union. an euro area has been created. 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2002 was the period when the euro coexisted with the national currency.s. the start of the EMU (1 January 1999) 3. The companies have faced important strategic. it was established the legal framework that ensured the legallyenforceable equivalence between the single currency (euro) and the national currency units. an easier flow of goods and services. It has brought about a change in the life of the Europeans (businessmen. the launch of the EMU (early 1998) 2. The major banks have made the technology changes which have been required for euro compliance as they need to minimize the euro impact to their customers.e. euro is used in the EU countries.UNIT 5 THE EURO It is a strategic and technical challenge for the European nations. new coins and banknotes have been issued. lower transactions costs. bankers.
currencies? 7. 5. 2. pe o perioada stabilita) Installment (o plata dintr-o serie. folosita ca referinta de catre banci. pt dobanzile percepute clientilor) Bridging loan (credit punte) Business credit (imprumut facut corporatiilor) Capital (valoarea totala a activelor unei persoane. 4. 3. mai ales la achizitionarea bunurilor in regim de vanzare in rate) Money market unit trust (fond de investitii finaciare care investeste in instrumentele pietei monetare. pentru a oferi investitorilor venit fara risc) Open market operations (cumpararea/vanzarea de catre guvern a obligatiunilor guvernamentale. care nu este o rata obisnuita) Base rate (rata a dobanzii. fara obligatiile aferente) Consumer credit (credit pentru bunuri de folosinta indelungata) Credit line (limita unui credit) EMU (European Monetary Union= Uniunea monetara europeana) EMS (European Monetary System= Sistemul monetary european) Exposure (riscul pe care il asuma clientul) Franchise (licenta acordata unui producator. in schimbul banilor ) 14 . rambursarea unui imprumut. What does the euro assure? Which is the currency used by the businessmen? What have the banks done? What has the introduction of the euro bring about? What did the companies face? Was it a coexistence of the euro with the national Can you mark the main EMU phases ? Vocabulary Ballon ( suma mare de bani platita pt. 6.1. distribuitor… care le permite acestora sa produca/vanda un anumit produs/serviciu. intr-o zona determinate.
Personal loan (credit pentru nevoi personale) Ratio analysis (utilizarea indicatorilor pentru evaluarea activitatii operationale si stabilitatii financiare a unei companii) Revolving credit (forma de credit bancar. negociat pentru o anumita perioada) Secured (denota un imprumut /garantat/ in care creditorul obtine active de vandut ca despagubire) 15 .
with borrowers and investors taking advantage of the arbitrage opportunities. commercial papers. brokers. using computers. e-mails. the dealer is doing this job. market? 4. 1. Deals are effected by phone or electronic system. The dealers are in constant communication with each other. Foreign exchange traders make markets. customers. treasury bills. banks. i. phones. Trade. The new market has facilitated the settlement of debts resulting from the international trade. it is a form of network. 5. For dealing on such markets. networks of dealers and institutional investors. banker’s acceptances. customers who can communicate easily. An inter bank foreign exchange market is created. in fact. Deals are transacted with a counter party. one may speak about a globalization of the economic activity of the European countries. 2.e. either directly or by means of a broker who gets a commission for this. production and investment have become more international. The capital flows from a country to another one easily because the fixes rates of exchange have been dropped and one currency is used in the EU. 6. London. financial institutions.UNIT 6 MONEY MARKETS In the last decades. central banks. Money markets can be defined as market places for short term lending and borrowings (it means less than 90 days) and are. between commercial banks. New York. Answer the following questions: Can you tell what the last decades look like? How are deals transacted? What do you know about bank foreign exchange What is a money market? What do you know about it? What do the dealers do? 16 . 3. speculate in different currencies. there are used short debt instruments which are financial instruments such as certificates of deposits. Tokyo are famous for their money markets.
Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arbitrage (transfer non speculative de fonduri. de la o piata la alta ) Asked price (pret solicitat) Bid (pret la care un market maker cumpara actiuni) Broker (agent care pune in legatura doua parti. la o anumita rata de schimb) Dealer (comerciant de orice fel) Financial market (piata financiara) Foreign exchange (schimb valutar) Hard currency (sistemul valutar al unei tari care are o economie puternica) Hedging (operatiune facuta de un comerciant/ dealer care doreste sa protejeze o pozitie vulnerabila) Investment securities ( active financiare folosite pentru investitii) Maturity date (data la care un document ajunge la maturitate) Money market (piata britanica a imprumuturilor pe termen scurt) Primary market (piata care vinde pentru prima data titlurile de valoare) Secondary market (piata secundara care comercializeaza titluri de valoare existente) Spread (diferenta intre pretul de vanzare si cel de cumparare) Trader (persoana care face negot) 17 . oferindu-le acestora posibilitatae de a incheia un contract intermediat de el) Capital market (piata de capital) Cross rate (rata de schimb intre doua sisteme valutare exprimata intr-un al treilea sistem valutar) Currency backing (aur sau valori care mentin puterea internationala a unui sistem valutar Currency future (contracte futures in care se cumpara/vinde.
governments. The bonds are payable to bearer without deduction of tax. it happens only for short interval of time. The corporations can borrow more cheaply than via bank loans. Euro notes are short term notes issued in US dollars. the rates do not diverge from the domestic lending ones. The international banks are the main operators. the market the Euro is used for. The market deals with US dollars as well and it can be named Euro dollar market. Theoretically. multinational corporations. municipal authorities). They are issued at a discount to the face value they have. Euro commercial papers. Currency is borrowed and lent by institutions located in different countries. so. the market forces dictate the lending rates. it cannot be a national control over this market. the company obtains a loan underwritten by banks which issue series of short term Eurocurrency notes used for replacing the already expired ones. Euro-notes. They are issued by bank consortia and are placed with investors (national industries. there is a capital flow which seems to be uncontrolled. Euro bonds. The Euro dollar market is complemented by Eurobond and makes longer term funds available. financial institutions are also allowed to enter the market. London and Luxemburg have developed a secondary market in bonds which has become a supranational market.UNIT 7 EUROMARKETS Euro is the currency used by the EU countries. it is not subject to normal domestic regulations but it is affected by the international events. It has in view all the transactions done by the banks in Euro currencies. they are purchased by investors. It is a market that has developed itself in Europe. Euro-notes are notes issued in bearer form and negotiable. Important sums of dollars have been deposited in banks which are outside the USA and many USA banks have branches overseas. A note issuance facility is a credit facility. the investors may 18 . Commercial papers relate to short term promissory notes issued by companies. From the practical point of view. can be named Euro market.
What is the Euro market? 2. What is a commercial paper? Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • Bond (obligatiune. document emis de debitor unui creditor) Ceiling (cantitatea cea mai mare de bani pe care o poate depune un client) Deficit financing (crearea unui deficit bugetar guvernamental) Direct investment (investitii in operatiile straine ale unei companii ) Eurobond (euro obligatiune ) Eurocurrency (valuta depozitata intr-o tara europeana. What happens to the currency? 3. alta decat tara de origine) Eurodollar (dolari depozitati in institutii financiare in afara SUA) Eurocredit (imprumut intr-o euro-valuta) Money supply (masa monetara emisa de autoritatile monetare ale unei tari) Treasury bill (bon de tezaur. What about the supranational markets? 6. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. cambia) Underwriting (a garanta o emisie de obligatiuni. What are Euronotes? 7. A bank usually undertakes the issuing of these papers either directly or through dealers.earn a higher return on their funds than it is available on bank deposits. actiune realizata de catre o banca) 19 . Which complements the Euro dollar market? 4. What do you know about Eurobond? 5.
environmental risk. Monetary authorities try to develop new and dynamic systems of controlling the banks’ money adapting them to the environment and seek to control the risks caused by new types of operations. Banks can also suffer because of the problems caused by the financial 20 . liquidity risk. So the banks are supposed to identify the risks which are associated with each business they are running. banks can get profits if they charge prices higher than the costs of delivering products/ services. while the latter have in view competitive threats. health and safety risk. Competition among banks exists but it can be tempered by a strict surveillance which prevents banks to take excessive risks. Risks can be caused by business transactions and processes of the banks with different customers. operational risk. Banking transactions are to take into account the following type of risks: credit risk. wars. interest rate risk. Risks can become excessive because of hostile reactions of the institutions already existing and acting in the new area banks have moved in. natural disasters. market risk. The companies face breakdowns in technology. The methods and instruments the banks use for carrying out this purpose are very different and are permanently changing and up dating. commercial failures of suppliers/ customers. The banks are supposed to manage the risks which arise from balance sheet business. banks have fee generating activities which do not appear directly on the balance sheet. the banks can move in other areas of higher profitability for them. legal and regulatory risks. the former are including different effects of recession. If competition reaches a very high peak. political interferences. currency risk.UNIT 8 BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT All the businesses are confronting themselves with macroeconomic and microeconomic risks. for example.
What are banks supposed to do under these circumstances? 7. corruption and other problems that can affect the prosperity of the area the work in. fraud. Is there competitions among banks? 6. What do monetary authorities try to do? 5. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. find out new procedures to diminish them or to get rid of them. Do banks manage risks? 3. economic bad management of the government.markets. Bank managers are supposed to analyze the risks. They must create effective risk management systems which can manage the risks the banks are exposed to because exposure to risks reduces the value of future cash flows they expect. What are managers supposed to do under these circumstances? • • • • • • • • • • Vocabulary Bankruptcy (faliment) Bank cash flow (Flux de fonduri reprezentand miscarea fondului monetar prin banca) Cash flow (plati in bani lichizi) Credit risk (riscul ca o posesiune sau imprumut sa devina de nerecuperat ) Forfaiting (forma de rabat) Gearing (efectul de levier ) Gearing ratios( indici care caracterizeaza intensitatea efectului de levier ) Insolvency (incapacitatea de a onora datoriile) Interest rate risk (risc provocat de rata dobanzii ) Market risk( risc provocat de piata) 21 . What are the businesses facing? 2. Which risks do banks face? 4.
• • • • • • • Payment risk (plata facuta de catre un partener inainte de asi primi proprii sai bani) Price risk (bancile suporta preturile pe instrumentele negociate pe pietele bine stabilite) Risk management (management de risc) Risk of global banking (diversificarea globala a activelor permite bancii sa –si imbunatateasca managemntul de risc marind profitabilitatea si valoarea adaugata actiunilor) Sovereign risk ( se refera la riscurile pe care un guvern nu le indeplineste cu privire la o datorie pe care o are la o banca private) Systematic risk (posibilitatea ca esecul unei banci de a regla platile cu alte banci sa provoace o reactie in lant privand alte banci de fonduri) Volatile (o piata/marfa/actiune etc. a carei valoare poate fluctua rapid si frecvent) 22 .
Securities offered for sale can be purchased by other depositary institutions. The note holders are protected from risks associated with the assets. Activity banks tend to act as sellers of assets rather than portfolio lenders who keep all the loans in their own portfolio. banks receivables are repackaged as bonds and other types of credit. the bank can sell assets and enhances its capital adequacy ratio retaining some of the servicing income. These arrangements are facilitated by an investment bank and involve a letter of credit guarantee from a foreign bank/ insurance company. The process merges the credit markets and the capital markets. it can grant new loans from security proceeds sold to investors. If the securisation is successful. An institution that transfers the assets continues to manage them as servicing agent. Securisation is the conversion of bank loans and assets into marketable securities for sale to investors. 24 . In the UK securisation loses popularity. in the USA it is more common and covers a greater variety of loans. The bankers consider the loan quality in terms of their marketability in the capital markets rather than the probability of their repayment by borrowers.UNIT 9 SECURISATION Securisation is a phenomenon according to which it is cheaper and more convenient for the borrowers to issue securities rather than to borrow money from the banks. The capital ratios are improved. It involves transfer of block of assets to a special purpose vehicle company (issuer) which finances its purchase by the issue of debt . Banks securitize and sell a broader base of loan receivables. non bank investors. Securisation turns traditional non marketed financial assets into marketable securities. Some of the bank’s borrowers raise money in securities markets. the mostly used form being the securisation of mortgages. The bank does not have to allocate loan loss reserves against these assets.
Text Comprehension Answer the questions: 1. What does this process merge? 7. What does it involve? 4. Who facilitate these arrangements? Vocabulary: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Borrower (persoana care imprumuta) Convertion (delictul echivalent al crimei sau furtului) Holder (persoana aflata in posesia unei cambia) Lender( persoana care imprumuta bani) Marketable securities (titluri de valoare ce pot fi vandute sau cumparate la o bursa de valori) Marketability (posibilitatea de a vinde ceva usor) Proceeds (bani primiti dintr-o vanzare dupa deducerea cheltuielilor ) Repack = to pack again (a reimpacheta ) Receivables (creante) Securities (gajuri/ ipoteci) Securisation (actiunea de transformare a imprumutului intrun gaj) Securitize( a trasforma un imprumut intr-o ipoteca/un gaj) Servicing agent (agent care achita dobanda unui imprumut) Servicing a loan (achitarea dobanzii unui imprumut) 25 . What conversion is it? 3. What happens if the securisation is successful? 5. How do the bankers consider this loan? 8. What can you tell about securisation in the UK. USA and Romania? 9. What is securisation? 2. What happens to note holders? 6.
they re-enter the financial system and seem to be normal business funds. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. involving numerous transactions of the launderers. Banks involved in such actions risk to lose their market reputation. Money laundering is accomplished in three stages. It allows them to maintain control over the proceeds and provide a legitimate cover for their source of income. placement – it means a physical disposal of cash proceeds got from illegal activity 2. What do the people involved in laundering 4. layering – it implies a separation of illicit proceeds from their source. integration – supposing that the laundering process was successful. How is money laundering accomplished? 26 do? . these proceeds are results of criminal activities. there are created complex layers of financial transactions meant to disguise the audit trail and they assure anonymity 3. The people who are involved in such an action exploit the facilities of the financial institutions of the world. What is money laundering? 2. Where does it come from? 3. the proceeds are placed back into the economy. The laundering of the proceeds that result from criminal activity is done through the financial system. Such an action is done easily under these conditions of free movement of capital. Here they are: 1.UNIT 10 MONEY LAUNDERING Money laundering is a process used by offenders who attempt to conceal the true origin and ownership of the proceeds.
7.5. 6. Which are the stages? Can you describe them? Is money laundering to be found in Romania? 27 .
Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accounting (contabilitate) Arrears (bani datorati dar care nu sunt platiti la scadenta) Audit (examinarea independenta a rapoartelor financiare ale unei organizatii si formularea ulterioara a unei opinii) Balance sheet (bilant) Book value (valoarea contabila a unui active) Capital gain/ loss (castig/ pierdere rezultat/a din operatiunile de capital) Depreciation (diminuarea valorii unui active imobilizat) Financial accounting (contabilitate financiara) Goodwill (diferenta dintre valoarea activelor nete separate ale unei companii si valoarea totala a acesteia) Gross margin (diferenta dintre incasarile din vanzari ale unei firme si costurile bunurilor vandute) Money laundering (spalarea banilor) Net interest (dobanda platita la un cont de economii sau la unul current. la o banca britanica) Net margin (marja neta/ bruta ) Outstanding (expirat. neachita)t Profit and loss account (cont de profit si pierderi) Reconcilement (reconciliere) Trial balance( balanta de verificare) Value data (data la care anumite fonduri devin disponibile pentru utilizare) 28 .
Defined as such. Text comprehension 1) Answer the following questions. After a period of 25 yeas following World War II in which these countries enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity. people no longer feel assured of the living standards their parents took for granted . business implies an enormous variety of tasks.market economic system ? 29 . Western countries have been going through major changes. some economic difficulties appeared in the 70's and early 80's .Besides these difficulties.Though some of these difficulties now seemed to have lessened. video recorders. a) How can you define profit? b) How can you define business? c) What are the goals of businesses? d) What are the benefits of competition in a free. More than ever. Managers have been forced to adopt new techniques. a speedy development of technological progress has brought forth some undreamed-of amusements and conveniences : robots. that flash information on displays in seconds.UNIT 11 WHAT IS BUSINESS? In recent years. These changes have affected to a great extent traditional ways of running business. people are wondering nowadays what the social responsibility of business is to the society it operates in. Is making profits the only goal of businesses? Should businesses strive for the achievement of some other goals as wellsuch as environmental protection or fairness to consumers? In a traditional and very broad sense. "smart" telephones" computers. to tighten financial controls and sometimes even to close plants or cut jobs. we can define business as all the work involved in providing people with goods and services for a profit.
a scadea supply = oferta demand = cerere business= afacere . Give synonyms for the following words : profit . firma (mica) profit and loss = profit si pierdere environment = mediu inconjurator to purchase = a cumpara. to strive . purchase foundation . entrepreneur. to lesssen .to demand Basic Vocabulary achievement = realizare to boost = a dezvolta rapid goal = tel. a achizitiona to run a business = a conduce o afacere to tighten = a strange labour market = piata fortei de munca Speaking and Writing Topics market 1) Speak about the advantages and disadvantages of a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • economy 2) Influences of the speedy technological development on the labour market 30 .e) How can demand and supply affect prices? 2. to supply . company. to boost. scop economic growth = crestere economica to lessen = a micsora.
In the UK. doctors and brokers usually work in partnership. When further capital or specialization is needed this generally leads to another type of organization. A company is a more complex business organization consisting of an associate: of people who both contribute capital and agree to share the resulting profit or loss. before any business starts. newspapers are in regular demand and where the market is local But there are also serious disadvantages since a sole trader's responsibility is great and the expansion of such a business is limited to the financial' resources of the owner. gas. by a special Act of Parliament (companies which are usually monopoly of public utility services such as railways. either in equal or in agreed proportion. the joint stock companies can be set up by Royal Charter of England). The amount and nature of capital. They may take an active part in the management of the business but the share the resulting profit or loss as well. capital must be obtained. sweets. 31 . methods of raising it as well as the manner of its control obviously depend on the type of business organization The simplest form of business organization is the oneman business or sole trader (sole proprietor) who has control of his capital with almost complete freedom from external interference. canal.Unit 12 ORGANISATION OF BUSINESS Legal and financial aspects are closely linked to business because. Registration is the most usual way and the companies in which the members are limited to the value of their shares are of two types: private companies and public limited companies. This business can succeed particularly where commodities such as foodstuffs tobacco. A partnership may consist of a small number of persons called partners that contribute the capital for the business. the partnership. The partners who play an active part in the management of the business a known as active partners as distinct from the other sleeping partner Accountants. water and by registration. solicitors.
the PLCs have limited liability but.00 Another form of business. i. The public limited companies have the letters PLC added to their name and consist of a number of members and they can offer their shares for sale. The partnership is dissolved after the venture is completed. Topic comprehension 1. Like the private . unlike the former. companies. temporary partnerships constituted for carrying out one particular trading objective are called joint ventures. The capital of the PLCs must amount a minimum of £50.e. Answer the following questions Vocabulary Topics for speaking and written essays 32 .The private limited companies have the letters LTD after their name and consist of a number of. The shares are held among their members companies are not allowed to invite public to subscribe shares or debenture. members (shareholders). the shareholder can sell their shares to people who wish to buy on the Stock Exchange. to transfer shares is only with the consent of the directors and this restriction implies a high degree of risk.
The franchisor unlike many independent proprietors has enough experience to estimate start-up costs realistically and therefore he will not grant the franchise unless the prospective franchisee has enough money for the start-up costs. motels. At present the fastest growing franchise operations in the areas of foodstuffs soft drinks. in exchange for an initial fee plus monthly royalty payments . because the large organization provides financial and managerial assistance. But if accepted. Some will even mortgage their homes to buy franchises.This: type of operation enables the company to establish outlets for its product o service without major capital in vestment. fast food establishments and even real estate dental care and video. Training. According to some experts.If the outlet does poorly. Franchising began in America already in the nineteenth century. five days a week for a large corporation. there are also some important drawbacks to be considered. the franchisee has the advantage of being able to buy supplies and to obtain credit and insurance at low costs. seven days a week for themselves than eight hours a day. during times of high unemployment people are more likely to buy franchises. as well as instructions in the routine day-to-day operations are also provided by the large company.The franchise operation brings a corporation with a famous product together with an individual desiring to start a small business. Still. The franchisor grants this franchisee the exclusive right to use the franchisor's name in a certain territory. Chief among the disadvantages is the monthly payment or royalty . taxes and other business matters.UNIT 13 WHAT IS A FRANCHISE? Although owning your own business has proved to be rather risky. many people prefer to work fourteen hours a day. Franchising helps to solve two major problems the small businesses are constantly faced with: lack of money and of knowhow. Therefore buying a franchise seems to be the perfect solution because it brings together independence and a measure of security . most of the profit 33 . hotels. At the same time the franchise faces less risks than an independent entrepreneur. advice on advertising.
start-up company 2. Another drawback of franchises is that they allow very little independence .Which is the perfect solution for independent businessmen without financial means? .managerial assistance . they should be carefully considered before every decision is made.Has franchising any advantages for a large company? . Text Comprehension 1.venture-capital .lack . feel like employees.advertising .royalty .Why do many people prefer to work on their own ? .What are the duties of a franchisee? .What is a franchisor? .grant .some franchises might in the end.franchise . Although franchises can offer the small business person a good way to set up a shop.small businesses .What kind of assistance does the large organization provide to the franchisee? -When did the first franchising businesses start in America? 34 .real estate .mortgage . Answer the following questions : . Read the text carefully and try to explain the following key words: .may end up going to the franchisor.If the business is so tightly controlled .
Prices of individual items are set at the "microeconomics" level . Correspondingly. the market places manage to establish a point of equilibrium where the ideal price of a product can be found. the supply of a product (i. the customers or the buyers are those who through their willingness to buy a certain product basically shape the allocation of resources and production of goods. By combining the demand and the supply.New factories and new companies came into being because the market price of a certain item signaled high profit potentials to managers and investors. it generates a greater demand. But the prices have a great influence not only on producers but on investors as well. Therefore. the production) increases following a rise of its price. Microeconomics refers to the study of costs and revenues of individual enterprises . UNIT 14 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS People involved in economic activities who want to start and run successfully their own businesses must understand both microeconomics and macroeconomics so that they may make sound economic decisions. If the price of a certain product declines. by means of the demand and supply curves.e. Topics for speaking and written essays a) The bright side and the dark side of franchising b) Possible franchise businesses in the town you live c) Advantages and disadvantages of small businesses as compared to large corporations.-Mention some drawbacks of franchising. These signals come largely from the behavior of 35 . Price affects the supply of a product by helping business people to decide which industries to invest in .
With this money businesses pay for raw materials and for the labor force which also comes from households. setting up taxes and duties to regulate business and making transfer payments. 36 .If one looks at an economy as a giant circulatory system. and purchase) depending on what goods and services are exchanged for money. The macroeconomic level helps us view a national economic system as a whole . they may make a go for it. as well as labor. the government is involved in the system as well. fire protection. in our modern society. Households. businesses are consumers of labor and producers alike.At the macroeconomic level. Every year thousands of hopeful entrepreneurs launch new businesses. then businesses and consumer households can be regarded as two vital organs: the heart and the lung.This flow is measured in terms of the gross national product (GNP) which indicates a nation's economic growth and provides a comparison with the output of other nations. pay. the economy carries goods and services on way and money the other . the government can use its power to change prices or change the way resources are allocated. Each needs the other to keep going just as the bloodstream carries in one direction and carbon dioxide in the other. which the free-market system cannot supply properly. which provide workers. Society needs things such as: police. It buys goods and services. if they manage to get enough financial aid to see them through the first difficult months or even years. households and governments . supplying public goods and services. This is where government intervenes. road building or satellite launching. the concept of circular flow illustrates the interrelationships among businesses.Consumer households pay money for the goods and services provided by businesses. If they come up with a good product or service. Whereas eighteenth century economists believed that all production and allocation decisions could be made by businesspeople on the basis of prices set by the free-market. The circular flow shows the interrelations between all the elements taking part in the economic activity . are producers and consumers at the same time. Meanwhile. Money in this pattern appears under different names (taxes.consumers.
to raise (ed) = a creste.How can you define microeconomics? .to launch = a lansa . a se inalta .customer = client -household = gospodarie .What does the concept of circular flow mean ? .What is the role of the market places ? -What does GDP indicate? .raw materials = materii prime . Answer the following questions . a se ridica.rose. How do supply and demand influence product prices? 37 . potrivita .to be involved = a fi implicat .output = productie 3.What are the effects of prices ? .flow = flux .risen = a creste.Text Comprehension 1. Vocabulary .What is the role of government in a market-oriented economy? 2.allocation of resources = alocare de resurse .Topics for speaking and written texts Should governments intervene in economic activities ? When and why ? Give examples of good/bad interventions at macroeconomic level .What does macroeconomics involve? .entrepreneur = intreprinzator .sound decision = decizie corecta.demand and supply curve = curba cererii si ofertei -to rise. a ridica .GNP (gross national product) = produsul national brut .cost and revenues =cheltuieli si venituri . a mari.
steel. or a warehouse of T-shirts ready to be dispatched to stores are all short-term assets. each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Assets' are the items 'of value that the company owns (including money itself). or a short-time debt.the total net income a company has earned over its life . 15 TWO BASIC CONCEPTS IN FINANCE . it knows exactly where it stands financially: the reminder is what belongs to the owner of the business . the higher its liquidity. If a company subtracts its liabilities from its assets . salaries. or shareholder's equity namely the portion of a company's assets that belongs to the owner after obligations to all other creditors have been fulfilled. Raw materials. Borrowed money that must be paid back within the year is a prime example of a short -time liability. like for instance. The faster any asset can be converted into cash.This is often called owner's equity. Other short-time liabilities include: rent. Managing a company's finances means thinking in terms of two opposite categories: assets and liabilities. Companies that may have excess cash on hand for short 39 . the money that is owned to the company for items or services it has sold. plus retained earnings. Cash itself is a short-term asset.ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Finance is the management function through which money is effectively obtained and used. cotton. i. Inmost corporations shareholders' equity consists of common stock shares of ownership of a business) sold to thousand of individual investors through a stock exchange . and unpaid bills for raw materials. Dividends are sums of money paid to shareholders of the corporation out of earnings. Others include a company's accounts receivable. the sums that the company owes to other businesses or individuals.minus the funds returned to shareholders as dividends.Liabilities are debts.UNIT NO. There are different kinds of assets and liabilities. The short-term assets are often termed current assets and are defined as the resources that can be turned back into cash within a year.e.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of long-term assets? Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • assets = active accounts receivable = sume de incasat liabilities = passiv. must place it in short-term investments.Why are current assets important for a company? .Give example of short –term assets? .Which are the short-term liabilities in a company? . The financial managers must be informed about interest rates as well as the overall economy in order to time borrowing to their best advantage.What does equity consist of? . datorii debt =datorie to own = a detine in proprietate ownership = proprietate equity = capital shareholder = actionar stock exchange = bursa de actiuni earnings = castiguri dividend = dividend interes rate = rata dobanzii short-term = pe termen scurt long-term = pe termen lung to substract = a scadea 40 . Text comprehension Answer the following questions .periods.How can you define assets? .
c) what 41 . Then came sales-oriented marketing and it emphasized selling....UNIT 16 WHAT IS MARKETING? The business environment has been continually changing and business people are worried about keeping up with it. however. prices and retail shops they prefer .. most firms were production-oriented and restricted marketing activities mainly to taking orders and shipping goods.. They must be able to identify consumer needs and to satisfy in a mutually beneficial manner. As a result business people’s attention focuses on customers and they try by means of polls.colours. Marketing has changed radically over the past halfcentury.. Consumer values change rapidly and competition in the market becomes fiercer. Essentially marketing research gets -. This concept relies heavily on marketing research activities .. because if he doesn't like what we have. Since World War II . b) what forms . interviews or questionnaires to win the customers over Even such conservative industries as 'railroads and utilities are courting consumers.The total marketing approach gives The buyer has a say in what goods or services the company sells... At one-time. packaging. Those people who want a given product and can buy it constitute its market." Many companies are learning that they need not only good products but also marketing skills in order to succeed.. he can go elsewhere . most large companies in the world have shifted to a consumer-oriented approach known as the total marketing concept. for as one marketing consultant pointed out: "The customer is the most important product .information about : a) what products or services the consumers want . Therefore the efforts of the company’s departments should be coordinated to produce what the consumer wants..
type of advertising. what they earn. dependability.How has marketing changed over the years and why? . The reasons why consumers decide to buy a product may be rational or\and emotional. public relations and selling practices are most likely to appeal to the consumer.Why do businesses today focus on customers? . Vocabulary to keep up with = a tine pasul cu business environment = mediu de afaceri consumer needs = nevoile consumatorului 42 . pride. Population statistics are a basic marketing tool. Emotional motives do not influence such buyers to a great extent .Which are the rational factors involved in buying decisions? . Answer the following questions . based on its usefulness to the buyer. how old they are. there are also industrial consumers and the marketer has to adopt a different marketing strategy for them . They can indicate with reasonable precision how many people there are.Moreover the business buyer possesses technical background and negotiating skills that ordinary consumers lack. Text comprehension 1. Emotional factors are satisfaction of the senses.For instance.What is marketing ? . a major banking institution wants to overhaul its entire computer system. sociability and emulation. The motivation for acquiring technical business equipment or services is usually rational. Businesses try to avoid investing in unnecessary services or products. fear. Besides individual consumers.In what way are the industrial customers different from the individual ones? • • • 2. Rational factors include cost. how they spend their money and where they live.Why do consumers decide to buy products? . usefulness.
talent to emphasize = a accentua approach = abordare to shift to = a se orienta spre retail shops = magazine cu vanzare en detail 3. Topics for speaking and writing Compare the different approaches used in marketing. 43 . a atrage skill= aptitudine. Ethical and unethical marketing strategies. Give examples of emotional motives used by marketing strategies to sell their products.• • • • • • • • • fierce competition = competitie stansa/ feroce to focus on= a se concentra asupra pollls = sondaj to win over = a castiga de partea sa. Give examples of your own .
The best known average is the Dow Jones industrial index which represents an average of thirty leading industrial stocks from the U.The second. they are merely a place for matching a buyer with a seller .This market consists of a network of registered stock and bond representatives scattered across a country who trade with each other by phone or teletype They provide stocks to their customers by holding stocks in inventory .Stock exchanges provide a key service : they organize all the information that exists at any one moment about the price at which investors are currently willing to buy and sell particular stocks.D. Jones (died in 1920). When it is declining. The name of this average comes from two American economists C. They operate amazingly fast .A. 45 . • The two kinds of securities markets are stock exchanges and over-the-counter (OTP) markets.They are also ready to purchase stock from their customers and thus they are said " to make a market " in that stock. we speak of a bear market.The New York Stock Exchange boasts that once the order to sell has been placed. along with various stock averages. very important kind of market place for stocks and other securities is the OTC market . it can take less than one minute to dispose of a stock such as IBM.S.H. When the stock market is rising.. Many important national newspapers print reports of daily tradings in specific stocks and bonds.Dow (died in 1902) and E. The origin of these terms is rather uncertain.UNIT 17 THE STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET Securities market provides a means whereby investors can buy and sell stocks. we speak of a bull market. but you can remember which by recalling that a bull tosses an attacked upward with its horns while a bear wrestles downward to the ground. A stock exchange is an organization whose "members join together and provide a trading room where members can meet to buy and sell securities for their customers . They do not hold an inventory of stocks for sale.
These raw materials. mutual funds diminish investment risks. including broad social trends and the state of the national and international economies. These markets operate just as the stock exchange market.). medie (subst. are traded on commodity exchange markets. They also offer liquidity to their customers that can turn their shares into cash whenever they want.Business people and investors also carefully follow other news that may have a bearing on the market. which are known as commodities.la vedere/pe tejghea) market = piata actiunilor necotate la bursa • Bearing = influenta • Average = mediu (adj. Vocabulary • Securities = hartii de valoare • Stocks = pachete de actiuni • Share = actiune individuala • Shareholder/ stockholder = actionar • Bonds= obligatiuni • OTC (over the counter. Many business people are interested in the prices of the raw materials they use to produce finished goods . Customers may also invest through a mutual fund or an investment company in which many investors pool their money to buy securities . These investment societies are especially useful for small investors who don't have time or experience to find investment opportunities .Due to their diversified portfolio.Each investor owns shares in the fund and the fund uses the pooled money to buy stocks or bonds issued by various companies. Text Comprehension 1.) • A bull market= pata bursiera in crestere • A bear market = piata bursera in scadere • Commodities = bunuri de larg consum 46 .
Give examples of the way in which such events (wars. Jones ? Who influence the increase and decrease of the stock What is the OTC market ? What do investment companies do ? Speaking and writing Stock exchanges all over the world react to various events whose nature may or may not be economic. Answer the following questions: exchange ? What are the functions of the stock exchange market? Who were C. . change in political regimes.) have influenced the stock exchange and the economic life as a whole. 47 . . earthquakes.H.2. D. rising prices. etc.Dow and E.
usually at the consumer's reach. without communications endless delays and hindrances occur in all stages of commerce. The main functions of commerce are as following. Also. their way from the producer to the consumer is a long and complicated one. etc. As the goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption. travelers. namely the exchange and distribution of goods and services. wholesaler or retailer until they are required.. people who altogether carry it out. This function not only enables goods to be supplied whenever they are wanted. Trade is essentially the general exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. Trade consists of Home Trade including Wholesale Trade and Retail Trade and Foreign Trade dealing with Imports and Exports. E-mail. Moreover. telephones. the consumer's requirements are almost unlimited in variety and it is the function of commerce to provide links between the stages of this process and the actual tools needed to make it work. Transport concerns the moving of goods by land. facsimile (fax). each producer makes use of numerous depots at specially arranged places. In this respect. trade representatives. but also wherever they are wanted. Warehousing is a major function in modern conditions as production is usually in advance of demand and goods have to be stored appropriately in the warehouses of the manufacturer.UNIT 1 8 FUNCTIONS OF COMMERCE Commerce as a human activity is essentially the moving of goods from the seller to the buyer. radio mobile systems and satellite. the goods are produced in large quantities but used in small ones. Communications are generally linked to the commercial activity as a whole since no transaction is possible without communications. Communications are made possible through the postal and telegraph system. 49 . sea or air as well as the work of agents. While the manufacturer has a limited production range. cables.
etc. The risk of loss or damage in a business is covered by insurance policies which render trade secure and stable.Write briefly on one of the following • • • • • • • • • • • • • • topics: • the function of trade. • the importance of the insurance functi 50 .Warehousing also provides a central pool for goods from where supplies may be taken at any time so that the wide fluctuation of prices caused by glut or short supplies can be avoided. Vocabulary Seller = vanzator Buyer =comparator Goods= marfa Production rang = gama de productie Requirement = cerinta To provide = a furniza Wholesale trade = comert en gross Retail trade = comert cu ridicata Foreign trade = comert exterior To deal with = a se ocupa de To carry out = a efectua Whare housing = activitatea de depozitare Damage = paguba Insurance policy = polita de asigurare 2. fire. shipwreck. Text comprehension 1. • means of communications used in the commercial activity. Written work . • the need of storing goods in adequate places. • services the banks provide their customers with. since it enables the businessman or businesswoman survive losses by damage. • transport function and requirements for an efficient transport activity.
the shipping company makes out the Freight Note which is sent to the exporting firm expected to pay the amount of freight to the company. i. The goods are sent to the port of embarkation either by truck or rail way and the superintendent at the docks is informed of the dispatch of the goods by a Shipping Note. while under C&F the insurance premium has to be paid by the importer. the insurance premium and the cost of the Bill of Lading. the marks. If the price and terms are satisfactory and the goods do exist in stock. make-up. etc. The staff in the exporting firm now has all the data required for making out the Invoice. insurance. FRANCO means a free of charge delivery to the customer's premises.l.UNIT 19 AN EXPORT TRANSACTION When an exporter receives an order from an old customer. The quotation F. they are packed and made ready for dispatch.O.B. the charge for the containers. The goods are packed in lined cases (containers) which are sent to a Shipping Firm. the exporter first acknowledges it. the freight and other shipping charges. A Customs Specification is sent to the Customs Office of the point of shipment within six days of the clearance of the ship. Then.e. packing.F. (cost. and numbers of the containers and the total value of the goods. If the Invoice is marked Loco it means that he importer has to pay all charges from the exporter's warehouse to his own. (free on board) means that the seller bears all the expenses until the goods are loaded on board the ship. C. freight) means that all charges from the warehouse to the port of destination are borne by the exporter. 51 . This specification gives all the particulars of the goods in compliance with the Official Export List. On the back of the Invoice is printed the Certificate of Origin certifying the origin of goods. marks. The shipping agents charge a commission and relieve the exporter of a lot of complicated formalities. the carriage to the port. When the indent may require goods from several manufacturers it has to be split up accordingly and separate orders are placed with the various firms which are given instructions as to time and place of delivery. This is usually made out in triplicate and gives all the necessary details of the goods.
F.B. Answer the following questions? .What is the difference between F.What are the duties seller after he acknowledges receipt of an order? .Who bears the shipping and insurance expenses in an export transaction ? .O. and Franco delivery terms ? 52 . C. . Vocabulary • Indent =comanda • To acknowledge = a confirma • Dispatch = expediere • To be split up = a fi impartita • Delivery = livrare • Make-up = structura • Shipping firm = firma de transport • To charge a commission = a incasa un comision • Amount =suma • In compliance with = in conformitate cu • To bear the expenses = a suporta cheltuielile • Invoice = factura comerciala 2.Text Comprehension 1.I.What is the function of the shipping company in an export transaction ? .
Depending on the arrangements between the importer and exporter. 53 . in case of urgency. In case of dishonour.UNIT 20 METHODS OF PAYMENT IN FOREIGN TRADE For the payment of debts and settlement of accounts in the foreign trade. the day when it is presented to the drawee.e. The oldest method of payment in foreign trade is the Foreign Bill of Exchange which differs from the Inland Bill in two important points: the payment method and the number of copies. or at a given period after sight(30. e. The due date of the Bill is determined by the number of days after sight.g. The Foreign Bill of Exchange is made payable either at sight. the payment can be made by Cable Transfer. The drawee accepts or pays the Bill and can either hold it until maturity or have it discounted in his bank. the documents which form the title to the goods can be handed over either against payment (D/P) or against acceptance of the Bill (D/A). Credit Cards also meet the same needs. both the organization and instruments are provided by the banks with their branches and correspondents all over the globe. 2. thus recovering the use of his capital. the Foreign Bill of Exchange must be protested in order to protect the creditor's rights in the Bill. i. 60. 30 days after sight. Insurance Policy and Invoice) are attached to the Bill of Exchange they create a Documentary Bill of Exchange and it is then sent to the bank for collection. 90 days after sight or even later) and it is drawn in sets of two or three copies. The banks provide an international system of Bank Transfers in place of the cheques system and. The specimen given is the original Bill which is called First of Exchange having two more copies. For bank notes and coins the banks issue Traveler’s Cheques which can be mainly used for traveling and personal expenses. When the Shipping Documents (the Bill of Lading. 1.
e. For contracts that imply a large amount of money and time a Letter of Credit (L/C) is preferred as a secure means of payment.The bank is generally instructed not to present the Bill before the merchandise has actually arrived.g. Vocabulary Payment =plata Bank note = bancnota Coin =moneda Payable at sight = platibil la vedere Drawee = tras. The Irrevocable means that the Letter of Credit cannot be changed or cancelled without the agreement of all parties. trata Merchandise = marfa Letter of credit = acreditiv To cancel= a anula Irrevocable = irevocabil 2. the importer consequently draws the Bill on the bank and not on his customer thus establishing an Irrevocable Documentary Credit which gives the exporter a complete protection. 30 days after sight. Answer the following questions? . Text Comprehension 1. The correspondent bank will be then prepared to accept the Bill on behalf of the exporter. Since the disadvantage of this method is that the exporter has to wait quite a lot before he receives the money. he often approaches his bank for an advance on the shipment which is generally granted on the signing of a Letter of Hypothecation. the importer can get possession of the documents by paying earlier. On the other hand. foaie de expeditie Bill of exchange = cambia . if a Bill is drawn 60 or 90 days after sight and the documents are to be released only against payment. platitor In case of dishonour = in caz de neplaa Bill of lading= conosament .Which payment methods are given in the text for 54 • • • • • • • • • • • • .
export /import transactions? .How does the Foreign Bill of Exchange differ from the Inland Bill of Exchange ? .Explain how the letter of credit works and what are the advantages of such a payment method? 55 .
Stem building morphemes: -er: worker. movement. cat b) derived nouns. 56 . boy. the rich / rich(adj. dis-agree-ment c) compound nouns: hand-bag. house b) derived nouns: work-er. predicative. ex. courage. darkness. object: My father is a teacher. -ship: friendship. table. obtained from different kinds of derivation: .affixation: work-er. He spoke about his invention. actions. chair. ill-ness. relationships. departure. On the derivational level: a) simple nouns : man. Syntactic functions: subject. qualities. -dom: freedom. fish.PART II ENGLISH GRAMMAR THE NOUN Definition: part of speech that denotes beings. fish. -ness: darkness Grammatical categories: number and case. friendship. things. conversion: (the) work / (to) work. snow-ball. car.ment:movement. abstract notions. penholder. Classification of nouns: On the morphemic level: a) simple or root nouns : man. sleep. rain. I see a man. lab/laboratory. room. phenomena. friend-ship. flower.) shortening and abbreviation: exam/ examination. states. beauty.
pencil –idea. the singular form connotes either a singular or a plural concept: family-families My family is here. Plural Plural formation: -(e)s added to Singular form Pronunciation : a) /s/ after voiceless consonants: lamps /lamps/ b) /z/ after voiced consonants: boys /boiz/ c) /iz/ after sibilants: classes /klasiz/ 57 . Italian. -tree. a native’s house.sound interchange: to feed –food. phenomena): sand. concrete-abstract: table. any part of speech may become a noun: a try. country.) Number: Singular. friendship 3. Substantivization of other parts of speech: by conversion. a somebody Classification of noun according to meaning: 1. (several fam. girl. c) compound nouns: composition of various stems: lamp-shade. pen-holder Substantivization of adjectives: a) wholly substantivized: native(adj)/ a native(noun). milk 3) collective nouns. animate-inanimate: boy.Bucharest.(family= a single unit) My family are here. qualities. book 2. to import-import. (all the members) Many families are here. Italy Classification of noun according to number 1) countable (denotes countable objects): a book-two books 2) uncountable (denoting materials.Italians… b) partially substantivized Substantivization of Participle II: the accused. common-proper: city. a go.
-es ending after sibilants and –o when the letter is preceded a consonant: potatoes. cargoes Not to be applied to the foreign nouns: by a) foreign nouns completely adopted into English: cantos. stratum – strata Greek: analysis – analyses. heroes.dice ox .oxen Foreign Plural kept in English: Latin: radius –radii.men child – children tooth – teeth goose – geese foot – feet mouse – mice louse – lice die .phenomena French: bureau – bureaux Italian: bambino – bambini Hebrew: seraph – seraphim Most of them have already an English plural form equivalent.countries b) -y ys : boy. phenomenon . concertos b) shortened forms of longer words: photos/ photographs Spelling peculiarities: a) –y ies: country.boys c) -f -ves: half halves d) -f -fs: cliff-cliffs e) -th -ths: bath-baths Irregular Plural Forms: woman – women man . 58 .
Frenchwomen.Agreement Problems 59 . d) add –s with apostrophe or not : M. b) give with apostrophe: Write two t’s.P.are the first. the plural ending is added to the last element: forget-me-nots.Plural Formation of Compound Nouns: a) the main element gets the Plural form fellow-workers. change these into Plural: Englishmen. editors-in-chief. Plural of Letters. -woman. c) when man-.’s e) –s is added to the end of the word or to the last word of the group. c) their pronunciation: Write two els. passers-by. merry-goesrounds.P. the spelling with apostrophe and without it varies: His life was full of ups and downs. then all of them get the plural : menservants. Abbreviations and Words which are not Nouns a) without apostrophe: Write two ls. woman. b) compounds with -man. I am tired of your ifs and buts.s / M. womenservants c) the compound does not contain a noun. mothers-in-law. Singular and Plural Nouns .
fruit Units of measure: foot. thousand. Two pairs of trousers are here. score get the plural form when used without any numerals. hundreds of people. Such examples are: 60 . verbs : advice = sfat. million. income = venit/venituri A number of nouns with non-countable content are found in the plural form. Uncountables are with Sg. dozen. Countables a) used with uncountable meaning as nouns of material. Lyons. I have goose for dinner. b) man used in the Sing. deer. trousers. colours = culori. 2) geographical names that usually get a plural form verb: The Hebrides are situated near the West costs of Scotland. spectacles. and it is used when the nouns are followed by numerals expressing their subdivisions: three foot/feet eleven high. two pound(s) tenHundred. have the plural form identical with that of the Sg.: sheep. pincers.. swine. but five thousand books Pluralia tantum nouns: scissors. verb Naples is a seaport. no article = human race: Man is mortal. pound etc. A pair of trousers is on the chair. c) used in the Plural with a non countable content to express an intensified concept: to stroll through fields and woods d) plurals of some countables : colour = culoare. no determinatives : a goose-two geese. The sheep is here/ the sheep are there. Naples get a Sg.1) town names as Brussels. tongs. furniture = mobilier. tens of books. steag/drapel e) have the same plural form identical with that of the sg.
a) nouns which take the plural verb : alms, ashes, mortal remains, alms ; Alms are distributed b) nouns that take the singular form: news, billiards, measles, mumps; News is very interesting. c) nouns which take the verb both in the singular and in the plural: wages, Middle Ages, contents d) names of sciences: Mathematics, Acoustics Collectives : a) nouns having two numbers: family, crew. The family is here. The family are here. The families are here. b) nouns expressing a plural concept: 1) denoting animals: poultry; cattle 2) denoting persons: police, cavalry Gender: a) Masculine gender: father, son, boy b) Feminine gender: mother, daughter, girl c) Neuter gender: chair, house Masculine and Feminine forms of nouns denoting living beings: 1) by adding –ess to the Masculine form: poet – poetess; exception are widow/widower; bride/bridegroom 2) feminine nouns are different from masculine ones: man –woman; son – daughter 3) combination with other words: he wolf- she wolf; landlord – landlady; billy-goat – nanny-goat Case Possessive case: ‘s added to the singular form of the noun the boy’s car; Kate’s book ‘ added to the plural forms of the nouns: the boys’ car(s) but ‘s after irregular plural nouns : children’s toys 61
group possessive case: Tom’s and Mary’s books(each has books); Tom and Mary’s room (they share the same room) of possessive : the book of Peter; the toys of the children ‘s /’ Genitive is used with names of human beings, but there are some exceptions, such as: a) nouns indicating space and time, value and weight: three miles ’ walk; two days ’ holiday; two dollars’ book; five pounds ’ box b) names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day c) nouns such as: country, city, town, wind, sun, moon d) proper nouns, designation of tradesmen; of various kinds –colleges, schools, hospitals, cinemas, churches: St. Paul’s (Cathedral); - business or places of business: tailor’s, butcher’s - home, the domestic circle or the house, guests are received in: You can have a drink at my mother’s. Exercises 1. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences: 1. The birds were eaten by a fox. 2. Have you observed the classifying criterion? 3. That knife should be handed in immediately.. 4. Last night a hostel was robbed by a thief. 5. The child in that family has bad manners. 6. The farmer has a hen, a goose, and a sheep. 7. My brother r-in-law is an acountant. 8. My cat never catches a mouse. 9. The businessman is considering the new taxes. 10. She has lost the key to her office. 11. The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal buyers of this product. 12.The inspector will speak to the witness who has seen the accident. 62
2. Choose the right word from the brackets: I. The scissors (was, were) here a few minutes ago. 2. His luggage (was, were) lost yesterday. 3. A (little, few) knowledge (is, are) a dangerous thing. 4. (much, many) people on the ship (was, were) getting seasick from the waves. 5. There (is, are) several means of accomplishing our aim. 6. Billiards (is, are) his favourite game. 7. The news printed in that paper (is, are) never objectively described . 8. We don't need to buy so (much, many) furniture, there (is, are) (much, many) chairs here. 9. How (much, many) information do you have about our new employee? 10. You didn't give me (much, many) ideas about the job, and very (little, few) advice. 3. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar, bit, item, piece, slice; 1. There are two interesting ... of news in today's paper. 2. Don't forget to buy a ... of soap on your way home. 3. She cut several ... of bread to make some sandwiches. 4. They have bought a new ... of furniture for their sitting-room. 5. Each passenger is allowed to take three ... of luggage. 6. With a ... of luck we can get rid of them. 7. You can have that ... of cold veal left over from yesterday's dinner. 8. This is a ... of good advice, why won't you take it? 4. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: I. He painted only one (wall, office ). 2. The (students, parents) were invited to the graduation. 3. Do you know the (earth, distance) from the moon? 4. We are not deceived by (that woman, words). 5. The Grand Canyon is one of the (world, natural wonders). 6. Your future depends on your (company, future). 7. When he reached the (bottom, the stairs) he heard a strange noise. 8. I'll always remember (the manager, words). 9. Have you seen (today, newspaper)? 10. John is trying to fix the (leg, the table). 5. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: 63
Cats are said to have a great deal of (curious) . The (advertise) . The (begin) .it indicates that the object denoted is one of the whole class. an ice cream.. an apple and is placed in front of the noun/noun equivalents: a table. 3. a boy. etc.. a red book Classification of Articles: I Definite Article II Indefinite Article Indefinite Article . was published in the evening paper. 5. 4.. / / book .... but also a good tennis (play) . was rather . but the (end) ... The neighbour gave the police a detailed (describe) . He couldn't give a satisfactory (explain) . He is a fantastic (football) .... There is a great (differ) .. are requested to sign their names in the book... an interesting book... (visit) . Definite Article .its form is the both for the Sing. 2. between the two educational systems. 7. and Plural :the girl(s)... for his (behave) .it pronounced differently /ti/ apple .it is used with nouns in the Singular only ...sometimes it takes the value of the demonstrative pronoun: 64 . 8.I... no specification of its individual features is given: Give me a pencil! (any will do) . of the novel was interesting. THE ARTICLE It is a form word and has a lexico grammatical meaning that of definiteness indefiniteness It has invariable forms: a /an : a book.a noun determined by it may get a descriptive attribute: a woman with the black hair..its forms are : a/an : a book. 6. .. the apple(s). of the accident. an apple .
dear Bob 5) names of persons used with Definite Article when theyare modified by a limiting attribute even if they are preceded by one of the above mentioned adjectives: the poor Bob of his youth.articles may be omitted for the sake of conciseness in newspaper headings. lazy. Absence of the Article . profession. or a permanent characteristic: NO Article when the attribute is expressed by one of the adjectives: young. old.Give me the book from the bed! (that one ) . dear. one of: He is a Forsyte 3) both articles are used in front of names of persons when they are used as common nouns: He has the humor of a Dickens. meaning a certain of. speciality. stage remarks. mood. Use of Articles with different Classes of Nouns Proper Names : NO Article is used :John.with the uncountable nouns it marks a limited quantity: The water in the glass is cool. honest pretty.the whole combination is preceded by Definite Article 65 . London BUT 1) names of persons accompanied by Indefinite Article. lazy Mary. silly : poor John. Smith. 3) names of persons in the Plural meaning the whole fam 4) names of persons used with Definite Article when preceded by an attribute expressing state. little. occupation not used as title. poor. telegrams. Smith whom I know 6)when a personal name is preceded by a noun denoting state. the Mr.
in (the) autumn. July Monday. during (the) winter. in(the) autumn WITH Definite Article 1) names of oceans. seas. the West Indies. they get an Indefinite Article: I went there on a Wednesday. the composer Mozart BUT most English titles and some foreign ones have NO Article Queen Ann. straits. Captain Scott. monuments.the girl Mary. the first part being a proper name: Hyde Park. 66 . the poet Byron. during : winter was coming. June. Monsieur Laporte Geographical Names NO Article with the following names: 1)names of countries: Romania. mostly with the preposition in. London. rivers. France BUT the USA. England. Tuesday when they get a descriptive attribute. the Lebanon. the United Kingdom of Great Britain the Netherlands. lakes. London Bridge. Chancery Lane BUT the Strand. the Congo. the Transvaal 2) names of towns: Bucharest. southern Paris 4) compound nouns of places. New York BUT the Hague 3) names of towns having a geographical or historical attribute: ancient Rome. Westminster Abbey 5) names of streets may/ may not get an article: Oxford Street. the Sudan. buildings. channels. King Richard. the Mall 6) names of months and days: May. the High Street. 7) names of seasons when the nature / season is expressed BUT with Article when a certain period of the year is marked.
the Channel 9) names of cardinal points: the North. the Tyrol 7) names of capes : the North Cape.when the Saxon Genitive is in the structure: St. the East NO Article . The City. the St.when the names of the river are part of a compound noun Stratford-on-Avon 2) name contains an of phrase: the City of London.when the words lake. monuments which do not contain proper names : the Tower. the English Channel. the Black Sea. buildings. the Cape of Good Hope NO Article . the Carpathians NO Article .when used adverbially: to sail north 10) proper name resulted from an adverbial phrase: the Argentina ( the Republic of Argentina) 67 . Loch Ness . the Straits of Dover. loch. the Suez Canal NO Article . NO Article . Helen’s Island. the Gobi 6) names of provinces: the Ruhr. lough precede the proper names: Lake Leman. the Canaries 5) names of deserts : the Sahara. Michel’s Mount 3) names of chains of mountains: the Alps. Cape Cod 8) names of places. the St. the Isle of Wight.the Atlantic Ocean. the Leman. St. Bernard.when the noun cape precedes the proper name: Cape Horn. the Gulf of Mexico. the Thames. the Riviera.with single mountain peaks: Mont Blanc BUT some exceptions: the Jungfrau. Gotthard 4) names of groups of islands: the Hebrides.
the Daily Worker BUT Punch (proper name). Life. cook may be used as proper names by family members or friends not preceded by Article and written with capital letters: Where is Father? What about Baby? Cook has gone to the market. the Iseeum (club) 2) names of newspapers. baby. 4) nouns denoting parts of the day :morning. The Star (countable) Common Nouns 1) Countable nouns in the Sing. night get the Definite Article when a particular morning/evening/night is meant and is used with the preposition in : It is seven o’clock in the evening. magazines= attribute + common name the Daily Telegraph. mother. generically (representing a whole class) both articles can be used: A lion (any lion) is a ferocious animal. hotels. my book. theatres: the Savoy (hotel). the Globe theatre. the Queen Mary(ship).the Tate (the Tate Gallery) Other Proper Names with Article: 1) names of ships. Time (uncountable) The Spectator. clubs. this book 2) countable nouns used in the Sing. NO Article 68 . aunt. 3) nouns denoting members of the family :father. must be preceded by one of the Articles if there is no determinative: a book. brother. The day is cold. evening. nurse. afternoon. The lion (the whole class) is a ferocious animal. dark and dreary. the book.
by at noon. nouns like: circumstances. by day. sort of + Indefinite Article (wavers) 69 6) hospital 7) of 8) 9) nouns 10) . to give a special dinner nouns school. market. kind of. He is the right man in the right place. right+ countable I took the wrong bus. matters. conditions. events. sea . things get NO Article : Conditions were abnormal. at night. Definite Article + adj. college. as. activities or the aim associated with them: to go school=to be a pupil to go to bed=to go to sleep BUT institute.. court. prison. The idea was a great success. in the Institute the noun town used with preposition in the meaning town life get NO Article : I’m going up to town. bed. lunch. jail. table.when they are used with the preposition at. from morning till night names of meals get NO Article : breakfast. It is a nice town. …the rush of events.are used without articles when treated as abstract nouns and denote state. wrong..5) dinner . when used in a general sense BUT both Articles are used when the content of a meal/ definite meals are meant: The day of the dinner has come. university are used with Definite Article: at the University. It gets the two articles when it has the concrete meaning: Arad is the town where I live. camp.
11) 12) Indefinite She was now engaged as (a) governess. Mrs.) are used with Article in exclamatory sentences and without article in interrogative ones: What books are you reading ? What an interesting book! NO Article is used with nouns in direct address: What is the matter. She took from the box tea-pot. little girl? NO Article + predicative noun(adjectival character) + enough :He is not fool enough to believe all these. rank. NO Article with homogenous parts of the sentence expressed by countable and connected by the conjunctions and. NO Article + predicative noun in adverbial clause 13) 14) 15) of 17) 18) concession when the noun is placed at the head of the clause: Child as he was. 16) NO Article + nouns denoting kinship used predicatively He was (the) son of a fisherman.nor: Both books and copy books are on the table. neither. She married Peter Smith. It is more usual to use the Definite Article in front of the 70 . son of late Professor Smith NO Article + nouns denoting title. X.. What kind of (a) woman is Mary? Indefinite Article may have a distributive value: Six lessons a day(per day) countable nouns ( in the Sing. sugar-bowl and milk-jug. either …or. is Rector of our University. he suffered much. both…and. state. dignity used predicatively or in apposition: He is President of the Academy..
when used in a general sense. . The wines of this region are excellent. The family is small.the nouns of multitude are used with the definite article: The cattle are grazing. 1) 2) shelf. they do not get articles: Where there is life. . The family are in the garden. Special Cases of Using the Article the + most + adjective: the most beautiful most+ nouns : Most of the books are on the 71 . Uncountables . The police are searching the house.the use of Articles depends on the general meaning of articles and on the aspect predominant in the given context: Mine is a small family.when they are narrowed in their meaning. to have a cold/ cough/headache/pain/ others with definite article: to have the toothache/ the measles/the mumps Collectives . pencils and copy books on the table. there is hope .first noun of the sequence: I put the books.both articles may be used with nouns of material when they denote various sorts of the substance or the objects made of the material: It is a very good wine.names of illness are a special category: some of them are used with an indefinite article: to catch a cold . they get definite articles: the life that was behind him .
.. night and told . to get the upper hand BUT some set expressions are without article: by land... elephants are used for carrying . cinema.. lions are ...both articles follow the words half.. 6. rather. 5..Indefinite Article after the adverbs: quite. Asia . so. and . 13.. too.. 8.. by train...its usual place is in front of the noun: a long way. He came to his room late at . article + adjective: the last. butter.... just. train. such a thing... article in set expressions: to play the piano/ /the fool/ to pass the time. .. evening at . children and elderly people. door.. How many rockets have been sent to . breakfast rather early. We often go to .... the new house . in view of to take place.. food in . rather lonely. 4) 5) 6) 7) violin article + numeral: She has not read the ten article + ordinal number: the third.. . moon? 11... and quite a child. . to catch sight Place of Article .. 3. restaurant near me is very good. bread. Exercises I. 9.. milk is good for . refrigerator. . . how so short a time.. Lizzie... young boy on her right is .. We have . Uncle Rick how he had spent .. 2. put ... eggs in . 4. 12. double: Half a minute ! We paid double the value. on shore... pronouns: both. house and locked ..Indefinite Article after the attribute expressed by an adjective preceded by one of the adverbs: as. Please.. He ran into . One of Mark Twain's well-known works is "Life on . In .. to take part.. as black a house inside as outside . goods... Mississippi". Insert the definite article or the zero article: I. the next. by car... the second article + pronouns: I’ll take the other book. English. 72 . 10...... wild animals. Manchester by ...3) books yet.. . 7. on board.
dinner is . 7... favour? 3. theatre to see some of .... 8.. We all like to eat . pair of .. 6.. . 12... 4. little town in .. 2.. .. mistake in his translation. very good advice.. The electric light was .. 5. genius is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration. 7..He made .. IV. I was told to stay at ..... 5.... . 15. What . courage that surprised me.. 2.. When I arrived in .. He speaks with .... .... Where there's .. Insert the indefinite article or the zero article: 1. church on . plays of .... . Dirty 73 . The bank manager gave his client . Stratford.. He is studying . . Meeting your family has been . genius of Edison is universally recognized... 6. difficult question... village go to .. beautiful river in which you can bathe and sail .. . bread has been called the staff of life.... 14...baby-sitter . authority on urban development. 11.. bread you baked is delicious.. day.... All the people in . II....... silver is used for money and jewelry.... black dress and . boats. there's . He showed . Would you do me ... auditor... ..... silver in this ring is of inferior quality. smoke. 9. .. . we must have . .. courage. good food. 8.. water... We all admire .. .. matching gloves.. 4... left . he lost . loyalty are .. water used in this beer comes from a special spring.. River Avon.. law.. dozen... great embarrassment of the event. Sunday. They asked him . 10.. 15. fire. Supply the required articles: I.. The architect is consulting with . sincerity with which the witness spoke.... England called . Exeter is .. 13. After several attempts.. fresh milk tastes good.. sincerity. city in England.milk which I bought yesterday should still be good. . Fill in the blanks with the required articles: Last year I stayed in . Browns three weeks ago... rare virtues these days... Shakespeare.. important invention. 3. In some houses . She bought . hotel called ". bad weather we are having today! 14.. great pleasure. Stratford-on-Avon. Everyone was impressed by .... biggest meal of ... III. In order to survive. Eggs are 50 p.. .. I wanted to go to ... theatre is near . She wants to become .... generosity and ..
cup of coffee. interesting. 10I can give you ...... indicating its qualities: big. foolish.. He needs ... That little town lies in ... name above . street near . 7. courageous. advice. but I can't do the work for you.. gender... door... -ive. furniture for their new penthouse. indefinite..... Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article a/an.. He laughed and told me that he knew it all right. before uncountable nouns or plural nouns: 1. people are fonof telling stories. -ic. They have bought . un-. policeman at . an heir apparent 74 . 8. I spoke to him and asked him if he knew ".. bread and .--ous. endless. It was called ". THE ADJECTIVE It . 5.Duck". Black Swan"! V. snow on the high mountain. corner of ... 2. . bottom of . 3...modifies a noun/ noun equivalent. young. -ish... I have ... terrible headache. in-. For breakfast I had only . lovely valley.. unimportant. great. I walked to . saw . Dirty Duck". but no one knew it... prewar. before singular countable nouns. I saw .. They are building ....has stem building morphemes: -ful.. .. -less.is associated with the following parts of speech: a) noun/noun equivalent: a beautiful girl. street. Could you give me .. nails to fix the picture on the wall. information about this university ? 6.. 9.. or the indefinite pronoun some. main street. hammer and ... historic. old .. careful. inventive. Plaza cinema. pre-. number.. It was just at . The only inflections are for the synthetic comparison short –shorter – the shortest . but I couldn't find it. bottom of . I asked many people where it was.has no inflections for case. 4... house in my street.. hotel and read ... There was .
great disyllabic adjectives ending in :-y. stronger.b) link verbs : to be clever. warm. strong. weekly Degrees of Comparison .-le happy. the most important a) b) Synthetical Comparison monosyllabic adjectives: big. to grow older c) adverbs: extremely difficult. Classification of adjectives A) According to their morphological structure: I. clever. The man was silent. big. Qualitative or descriptive (indicate various qualities): small. big. great. Adjectives on the morphemic level 1) simple adjectives :short. very interesting . dark. more important. Romanian. earthen 2) place/country: English. beautiful 3) compound adjectives: duty-bound B) According to their meaning : I. the strongest 2) analytically . dangerous 3) compound adjectives: snow-white II. Adjectives on the derivational level 1) simple adjectives: black. Relative or limiting (express qualities through their relation to some other objects): 1) material: woolen. large. 2) derived adjectives: beautiful. beautiful II.is an attribute or a predicative: a silent man. -er. interesting. the happiest clever. Italian 3) time :monthly. wooden. short.-ow. happier. the cleverest 75 . -est strong. cleverer. young 2) derived adjectives: unhappy.by using the words more. old. the most important.they are formed in two ways: 1) synthetically – by adding the suffixes: -er .
more proper. ignoble. the politest BUT . have different forms for comparative and superlative 76 . • adj. the completest polite. insecure Analytical Comparison all the adjectives which are not included in these groups Spelling Peculiarities . finest • single consonants are doubled after short stressed vowels hot. simpler. hotter.disyllabic adj. politer. narrower.they are required by the addition of the comparison degree suffixes .alive. ended in –e get only –r. happier. the narrowest simple. content. impolite. tenderer. the most eager c) disyllabic adjectives with stress on the last syllable complete. the tenderest • final –y is changed into –i when preceded by a consonant: happy. -st fine. the happiest Irregular Degrees of Comparison • some adj. ending in two consonants: abrupt.alone d) trisyllabic adjectives built with a negative prefix: unhappy. finer . bizarre. correct.foreign adjectives: antique.narrow. exact . burlesque . more eager. completer.with the prefix aafraid. the most proper eager. the simplest BUT proper.adj. the hottest BUT it does not happen when the doubling does not take place after an unstressed vowel: tender.
BUT adjectives of Latin origin: superior. older. Comparative of Inferiority: . John is less handsome than his friend. the most little. nearer. the farthest (it makes ref. • degree Emphasizing the Comparative by repeating the adjective in the comparative The days are longer and longer. the oldest elder. junior.it is formed by associating the positive degree of the adjective with less.it is expressed by the comparative degree followed by the conjunction than She was more frightened than hurt. the furthest (it makes ref. farther. later. the worst many/much.good.to time) near. the nearest the next( the following) late. better. 77 . more. have no other forms for comparative He was three years junior than me. the eldest Use of the Comparative Degree Comparative of Superiority .to space) further. less. the latest( the most recent) latter. the best bad/ill. Comparative of Equality: -it is expressed by means of the positive degree placed between the conjunctions as …as He is as tall as Peter. Peter is not so tall as Jim. the least • some have double forms for comparative/superlative far. worse. senior etc. the last (nothing comes after it) old. inferior.
imaginable Those are the best methods possible. among which there are those denoting age. a great deal earlier She is much better today than she was yesterday. • • Position and Order of Attributive Adjectives • it precedes the noun/noun equivalent a good book • adj. Superlative Degree .• by using such words as :much better.it can be used both attributively and predicatively . by means of the words possible. She is looking for a 78 . material. nationality come next to the noun modified He preferred the quiet little Belgian city to either of its more noisy capitals.it is followed by a prepositional phrase or clause She was the tallest of the four. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective: I. denoting age. far more intelligent. still worse. nationality. He is (hardworking) student in the class. color. 2. size. by far. material. their order is the following: (1)determinative (2)various (3)age (4)size (5)form (6) color (7)nationality (8)material (9)noun a high-backed old green leather chair a beautiful large white Turkish merino shawl Exercises I. I remember the smallest details of her dress. form. color. Emphasizing the Superlative by means of the words very. • if a noun is modified by adjs. These are my very earliest impressions.
9. She is . possible. anything she has done. (afraid/frightened) The little girl gave the stranger a . Although he is a famous man.. the most talented student in his group. 3. I'm proud . This is . look. The new teacher is rather impatient .. III. Supply the right preposition after each adjective: 1... 2. her husband. imaginable.. He always tries to be polite . your success.. Our old secretary is . 6. children. better than hers.. he is (modest) than most people. a good deal. The weather in California is (hot) than the weather in Montana. 5. tourist stopped by the well to drink some water. his employees.. Be very careful . Alice is very fond . 7. Why do you feel inferior . a great deal. (alone/lonely/solitary) Mr Wilder is a ... 4.. 5.... your schoolmates? 10... We had the greatest difficulty . higher price for it... 4.. for the comparative... his parents. 3. He told me he was very angry . I.. In the end he will pay a . The . We have all the equipment required .. My work is bad. 2.... Choose the adjective which best completes each sentence: 1.13. He had a word with a (little) personage in the police force. 3..... you. 15. travelling... 9. 4. and by far. Jamie is (good) cook I know... take (near) turning to the left. 11.. Practicing sports is .. The (far) house from the village is Tom’s... far.. 8.. Fill in the blanks with the intensifies: much.. IV. She earns much (little) money than her colleague does. 7. getting here in time.. 79 . what you say to the new head of department. You have found the best .. a lot. She is quite different . 8. He is much (familiar) with modern architecture than with modern music.. but yours is (bad). 10. I. 5. solution to my troubles. 12. "The Tempest" is Shakespeare's (late) play.. in the house. What are you afraid . 8. our experiment.. He was able to get (far) information at the police station. more experienced than the new one.? 12. Her (old) brother is five years (old) than my husband. He took a job because he no longer wanted to be dependent . 14.. If you want to get to the market..(big) car than the one she has now. old man. more interesting than watching TV. What is (late) news of him? 6. 2. She has never been successful . I think your interviews are . r II. Richard is . 6. the most serious problem facing families this winter. 7.
seventeen. college. 11.. (alive/living/live) Several witnesses to the accident are still . one may distinguish some specific suffixes used for numeral forming : -teen. 5. a man who looks good. expensive. delicate) figurines. a man with a simple mind. old) car. A (black. 13. THE NUMERAL The numeral is a part of speech that is characterized by the following features: • a lexico grammatical meaning...4.. When will you sell your (blue. a driver who is not taking care. the 80 ..7 I was given a (black. a story which breaks the heart..The were . Arrange the adjectives in brackets in the proper order: I.. I've bought a new set of (aluminum. 7. a moon red like blood. 8. 12. children moved him deeply. That (dark. a man who has courage. 4. insects. a day with much wind. 3.. a man with a red face. 10. little) puppy was lying on my door-step. a person who is giving help. fifty. 9. leather. when his parents returned from the meeting V. 5. He was . -ty. 4. a woman with a kind heart.. Frogs feed chiefly on . She greatly admired those (ivory. small) bag on my birthday. 6.a handmade carpet a play having success . according to this. -th. forty.. a tree which is a hundred years old. kitchen. thirteen. it indicates number.. (asleep/sleeping) The sight of the . 3. a blouse with long sleeves. VI. 6. quantity or order • structure. a gown which is cut well. creature can do that. 15. 14. nice. white) piano. Chinese..a successful play a student who works hard. No . 2. multi-purpose) utensils. You will practice on an (Steinway. Change the following into compound and derived adjectives: Example: a girl with green eyes a green-eyed girl a carpet made by hand . taking it into account. of what you might say. 3. 2. tall) girl is a friend of my brother's. terms which can be accepted.
no modification. • in most cases. WHOLE NUMBERS This group includes the numbers from 1 to 12 which get no suffixes: 1 one. The numerals may be classified according to their morphological structure into: simple numerals from one – twelve • derived numerals – are formed by means of suffixes. They attend the annual meeting. 6 six. some of them are turned into nouns and get -(e)s ending. i. 12 twelve The –teen numerals get the suffix to part of the above mentioned 81 • • . twenty –ninety) • compound numerals (from twenty-one – ninety-nine ) • composite numerals ( one hundred twenty one) Taking into account their meaning and function.7 seven.e. ty numerals (from thirteen –nineteen. 4 four.8 eight. it is an attribute The four days were exhausting.• tenth. the numerals may be classified into: • cardinal numerals (indicate numerical quantity) ordinal numerals (indicate numerical order) The cardinal numbers contain whole numbers. 5 five. 3 three. fractions and decimal fractions.11 eleven. 10 ten. the eleventh • grammatical invariability. 9 nine. the teen. Hundreds of books are in the library their place is between adjective and the noun: The five fine days have gone These four dolls are very expensive. 2 two.
40 forty. part of them are presented here: nought /no:t/ in Arithmetic zero measuring instruments use it /ou/ telephone numbers love. The numbers between 1000 and 2000 may be read in two different ways: 1984 nineteen eighty four one thousand nine hundred eighty four Commas are placed after each group of three numbers: 123. it corresponds to the Romanian variant 123.452. Millions of flowers are in the fields. 30 thirty. My phone number is two five /ou/ five ten six. fifteen. The tens. duck. all of the teen numerals have double stresses: one is placed on the first syllable (a main stress) and the other on the /t/ of the suffix (a secondary stress).122 The numbers ten.122. 80 eighty. 82 . nil in sports language Nought by ten is nought. hundred. 60 sixty.roots but bring about some phonetic and spelling peculiarities: thirteen. The temperature is below zero degrees. 70 seventy. 50 fifty. Cardinal numbers form the common fractions having two numbers: cardinal numbers for numerator and ordinal ones for denominator: one third= 1/3. have less modifications from the phonetic and spelling point of view: 20 twenty.452. eighteen besides these. million get no –s when they are part of a composite number: two thousand four hundred twenty four people but the –s suffix is added when these are transformed into nouns: Tens and tens of persons attended the conference. 90 ninety The 0 sign is read indifferent ways. from twenty to ninety.
nought is playing the part of the whole.68 (corresponding to the Romanian 3. four cars. the –th suffix is added only to the last element of the group: the twenty first.. the tenth. -y is changed into ie because of the consonant preceding it: the twentieth. the third have special roots. The decimal fractions contain a point after the whole number: 3. a quarter. five toys 83 . four times The numerals function as attributes. modifications of spelling appear. the fifty ninth Showing the proportion in which a quantity increases. the seventh. the twelfth If the tens are to be used. three times. frequentative numerals are to be used: once. the second.245. If the whole unit is less than one.68). ORDINAL NUMBERS The ordinal numbers indicate the order of objects. the thirtieth When the numeral is composite. the thirty fourth. the eighth. while the other ones use the existing cardinal numbers: the fourth. It is formed by means of the suffix –th placed after the cardinal: the first. a point is followed and then the rest of the numbers: 0. so they are placed in front of the nouns they determine: ten students. the ninth. one may use the so called multiplicative numerals formed of cardinal numbers and the word fold: double. the sixth.five sixth= 5/6 For ½ and ¼ besides one half and one fourth. the fifth. we may say a half. If one wants to know how many times an action is performed. persons have in a row. three fold. twice. four fold. the eleventh.
000.576. 389.264 2. 60. 1. the numerals may be: • subjects of sentences: The five told me the story. al saptelea cer) teen agers (Rom. chapter 5. 53. 35. Read the telephone numbers: 25-23-89. 56. 0212-23-67-90-89. American English places the months first and then the days: August. adolescenti) Exercises: 1. • predicative They were ten in the group. • objects You can’t forget the first of October. 90. 1. 10 August 1978. 10 th 1990 Modern writing uses cardinal numerals both for days and months. 15. 79. 12 100.There are situations when the numerals are placed after the nouns they determine: room 200. 89.0257-31-458 84 . one may choose between the following variants: the 10th of August 1978. August 10. 17. 23. a fi imbracat la patru ace) the seventh heaven( Rom. 54. Numerals may appear in patterns such as: last but not least( Rom.000. 103. 1978 Ordinal numbers are used for reading the days and cardinal ones for years. August 10th . 1978. 13. • adverbial modifier They came by twos at the party When reading the dates. 10. 23. 2. Besides this function. 18. Read the numbers: 3. 0257-23-67-89. though the reading of the days is done as if they were ordinal numerals.356.penultimul) to be dressed up to the nines (Rom.
Roni 3297. page 321. chapter 1 – the first chapter chapter 3. EU 25. level 45. waits a little then leaves. Past Tense has in opposition to it Past Perfect Tense (indicating a prior action) and Future in the PAST. chapter 34.963:3= 28-8= 15x6= 784-23= 20x10= 9x7= 570+24= 3x13= 570:2= 4. part 2. opposite to it. I spoke I had spoken(Past Perfect Tense) 85 . lesson 10. An action can be rendered in the present. Future and Future Perfect (express future actions) I write I have written (Present Perfect) (Present Tense) I will write (Future Tense) I will have written (Future Perfect Tense) Their auxiliary verb is in the present. and Past Tense Indicative is built. waited a little then left. room 23. lesson 23. on one side. $15. & 7.3. so Present Tense. He rang the bell. Do the sums: 17+6= 100:2= 105x 3= 3. there are: Present Perfect (a prior action). or in the past. on the other side. Change the numerals according to the example: ex.40. 10 p. He rings the bell. Let’s take Present Tense as reference. $45. page 40.80. and past tense. Read the money: &2.05 5. $ 5. lesson 25. $56. room 1012 THE VERB Indicative Mood English conjugation is built on two tenses: present tense. Indicative is used.789. Future Perfect in the Past which stand for future actions.
The great majority of the English verbs are regular ones. It is known that this form is used for building the simple forms. Here is the scheme of a simple conjugation. the auxiliary used for their building is in the past. of a regular verb: Active Voice to work Infinitive Present to work Perfect to have worked Participle Present working Past worked Perfect having worked Indicative Mood Present Tense Past Tense Present Perfect I work I worked I have worked he works he worked he has worked Past Perfect I had worked he had worked Future Tense Future Perfect I will work I will have worked he will work he will have worked Future in the Past Future Perfect in the Past I would work I would have worked he would work he would have worked Present Tense Subjunctive Mood Perfect Tense 86 . to have to + past participle. would. they use a form . to be + present/ past participle).(Past Tense) I would speak (Future in the Past) I would have spoken (Future Perfect in the Past) Being reported to the past. the compound ones are build by means of the auxiliary verbs (will.present infinitive -as background of the conjugation.
sure.) we speak.I worked he worked Present Tense I would work he would work I had worked he had worked Conditional Mood Perfect Tense I would have worked he would have worked Imperative Mood work INDICATIVE Mood presents an action.) I speak. they speak The 3rd person singular creates some problems of writing and spelling that are to be taken into account: • -s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless consonants /z/ after voiced consonants to look . except for the 3rd person singular which get the suffix (e)s. condition or existence expressed by the verb as being real. An import tense of it is PRESENT TENSE which indicates that the action of the verb is done in a present moment. (these two verbs indicate a temporary state) The table below indicates the values of the today’s currency The economists speak about increasing values of Euro. (sg. he/she/it speaks (pl.he looks /s/ 87 . They have their coffee in the dining room every morning. you speak. • She wants to buy a book I think you might be right. (the two verbs indicate a state that may persist for a longer time) • to describe present habitual behavior She gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. Present tense is unmarked morphologically. you speak.
/dg/. -sh.she takes /s/ to read . -ch get the –es which is pronounced –iz to dress – she dresses to mix he mixes to blitz – he blitzes to fizz he fizzes to push she pushes to reach he reaches • verbs ended in –y keep it if a vowel is preceding it. -x. s./s/. that is TO DO which is conjugated in the present and the proper verb is in the short infinitive: I go.she reads /z/ to taxi ./j/. Do I go? I do not go. pronounced /s/. most of the verbs need an auxiliary verb. (d)g. z./z/ to face –she faces to rouge – he rouges to pledge – he pledges to purse –he purses to freeze she freezes • verbs ended in –s. 88 .he tries • verbs ended in o preceded by a consonant get an – es to do – he does to go – she goes and add only –s when preceded by a vowel to haloo – he haloos to radio – he radios In interrogative and negative. but changes it into –ie if a consonant is there to pay – he pays to play – she plays to cry – she cries to try . -z.to take .he taxis /z/ • verbs ended in silent –e preceded by the letters c.
everyday. ever. Is she tired? Mary has left hands so she does not work very quickly. A friend in need is a friend indeed. We usually work in the morning She often sleeps in that hotel. Exception to this rule is for the modal verbs. They have a new house. Do we work? We don’t work. We work. Can I speak German? I can’t speak German. We are not in the garden. usually…) She always crosses the street there. When rendering a present time. to HAVE: I can speak German. to BE. an action or state that characterizes the subject: He is a good speaker of English. She cannot speak German. We are in the garden Are we in the garden. Two and two makes four. an action or a state that represents a habit or is repeated.• • • • She speaks.. it exists but is not going on then: She says lots of things. Does she speak? She does not speak. the Present tense expresses: a general or universal truth: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. she must not learn well. They like going to the theatre. Must she learn well? No. adverbs are placed by them (always. When is the Present tense used? Present Indicative is used for expressing both present time and past or future time depending on context. an action or state that takes place in the moment of speech. Have they a new house? They have not a new house. She must learn well. 89 . They study a lot. often.
and I come in and talk to her for a while but she seems not to listen to me and I am worried. introduces a quotation in a direct/ indirect way. takes the newspaper and reads it. in the moment of speech but has no continuous form: I see what you mean. the verb has a momentaneous character and does not express an action that is going on: She says the pupil is diligent boy.(Am uitat ce zi era. to hear (find out). Ben comes in. when the main clauses indicate future actions . is called Historic Present: Meg is in the sitting room. The exam is on 21 May. She remembers the story I told her long ago. is used in stage directions: There is a table there and Bob goes towards it.) I am told he is very busy. Peter tells us his story. We are happy that she is here with us. sits down. some verbs such as : to forget. to understand.• • • an action or a state. to be hold are used in the present tense instead of present perfect: I forget what day it was. When rendering a past action: it gives more vividness to the text. the two being simultaneous: I will go to the seaside when she is there too We will buy the house when we get enough money.(Mi s-a spus ca e foarte ocupat) • • When rendering a future action: it expresses a future expected or planned action: School begins in September. • 90 . • it is used in subordinate clauses.
read. exception is the verb TO BE and the irregular verbs. double the consonant before ed suffix: to rub.rubbed. no matter where the accent is placed to equal – equaled 91 . to cut. to speak. to read.) we worked. to drink. the final consonant is not doubled: to seat – seated. to bring. you were.PAST TENSE Past tense. wrote. one has to take into account some rules such as: • verbs ended in a consonant preceded by a single stressed vowel. to work (sg. to eat. he worked (pl. it was The irregular verbs have very different forms for their Past tense: to write. to hang-hanged.regretted In all the other cases. he. eaten. put. she. you worked. The suffix -ed is added to the short infinitive of the verb which is conjugated. cut. ended in –p obey the above mentioned rule. to knit-knitted to prefer –preferred to regret . to order – ordered. to pardon –pardoned Exception is to worship – worshipped Compound verbs. applied to the final word: to sideslip – sideslipped to kidnap. they worked The verb TO BE has two different forms for the singular persons: to be I was. spoke. brought Speaking about orthography. Indicative mood has one single form for all the persons. drank to put.kidnapped • final l is always doubled.) I worked. you worked.
is completely separated from the present through an interval of time. They asked for my help the day before. when we arrived. just now. done in a determined past moment or in a determined past period of time. In all the cases. As a boy. the day before. The time used for expressing the action may be rendered in the following ways: • adverb of time or adjective like :yesterday. at that time. this tense is used for narration. I used to play football. when or any adverb that indicates the time in the past: as soon as. I was there yesterday. last week/ month/year. then. the action or state the tense makes reference to. 92 . Hardly did we arrive at home. it suffers no change: to play – played to disobey – disobeyed • silent –e is dropped in front of –ed to dance – danced to dye –dyed Past Tense Indicative expresses a past action or a state completely finished.to rival – rivaled to compel – compelled Exception to the rule is: unparalleled • ic is changed into -ick to mimic – mimicked to traffic –trafficked • -y. when she rang at the door. in a final position is turned into –i if preceded by a consonant: to cry – cried to try .tried when a vowel is before it. two days/a week/ a month/ a year ago. the other day. • verb in the past: She was playing in the garden. We saw him ten minutes ago. Because of its meaning.
(A spus ca cartea este pe masa. Taking into account the rules of sequence of tenses. They used the books they found in the library.(Credeau ca descoperisera o noua tara de basm) • according to the sequence of tenses rules. it stands for a present tense. when the verb in the main clause is in the past: He said that the book was on the table.• the context when it expresses the speaker’s intention Did they work in the garden? Was she on duty yesterday? A new film was presented on the screen. Past tense Indicative may be translated by means of: 93 . Where did they go? Past tense Indicative may be used for replacing: • Past Perfect Tense They thought that they discovered(= had discovered) a new fairy land.(Ne-a intrebat cum suntem). Ben asked Bob to take care of his house until he was away(Ben i-a cerut lui Bob sa aiba grija de casa lui in timp ce era plecat.) He asked me how we were.) Past tense Indicative is translated into Romanian by means of: perfectul simplu. The first two tenses are used for expressing past events when the action expressed by the verb has a momentaneous character: We went to the theatre last week They called Peter and told him the truth. • according to the same sequence of tenses. The 3rd is used with verbs whose actions are lasting or repeated: She sat there waiting for her mother. it is used for expressing a future action as opposed to the past action of the main clause: I was told to wait until Mary came there( Mi s-a spus sa astempt pana va veni Maria). perfectul compus si imperfectul.
) 94 . they will occur after the moment of speech.• mai mult ca perfectul for rendering actions that took place before a past action • prezentul when the idea of present is rendered • viitorul when we speak about a future action as opposed to a past one I said that I would go in the mountains the coming week (First I told about the coming events. later.
you have cut. she has written. its interrogative form is obtained by the inversion of subject and auxiliary and the negative one. It is used in three main situations indicating: an action finished before a present one: In the mornings. no one is interested in the moment of its doing. I have told. he has worked. the result of an action done in the past. after he has finished reading the newspapers. it may go on during present unit of time and continue in the future 95 • • • . begun in the past that still goes on up/ during the present moment. you have spoken. it has cried we have walked. they have not worked.PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Present Perfect Tense is a compound tense formed of two elements – Present tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle of the verb which is conjugated. he drinks cup of tea. she has not been. you have not heard Present Perfect Tense expresses a past action or state that takes place before the present unit of time but very close to it and sometimes it is translated with prezentul. by placing the negative form NOT between the two verb components: Have I told? Has she been? Have they worked? Have you heard? I have not told. When he has watered the flowers. he likes watching them. that has effects in the present Who has broken the flower vase? What have you brought here? Why have you opened the window? I have seen a beautiful landscape? an action or state. they have understood Being a compound tense.
is expressed by a Past tense: Ben has been my friend ever since I was born. since Monday. is preceded by for and followed by an adverb: They have lived here for ten years. length of the action. these . of late. from childhood I have learned English since I was ten. expressed by a verb. minutes/hours/days/ We have just arrived. we have never heard about him. I haven’t seen you for ages. recently... From that day. during the … days/weeks/ months/ years. We have lived in this house since October 1997. never stress the idea: Have you ever been to the zoo? I have never traveled abroad. How long have you been with us? They have graduated for two years. since 20th June. The adverbs ever. lately. the unit of time the action takes place in is indicated by another verb at Present Perfect tense and indicates a parallel action: He has not stopped writing since he has sat down on 96 - - - - - . the beginning of the unit of time the action of the verb takes place in. the length of the action expressed by the verb is indicated by adverbs whose meaning is connected to the present: just. They have spent their vacation during these last two years in the mountains. Bob came here as a child and has been with us ever since. or from that day. She has visited all the museums of the town. the beginning of an action mentioned by the verb is expressed by adverb beginning with since: since 19.- no indication is given about the unit time length but it is supposed that it is up to the present moment: The pop concert has begun.. this last year.
important is the result) Peter wrote a novel last winter. It also expresses a continuation of the action in the present moment maybe in the future. Present Perfect Continuous which can be used with durative verbs and stresses the idea of continuity or duration of an action finished in the present or near past. not ended yet. ( not all the cakes are eaten. Peter has been writing a novel this year. it is last winter) Peter has written a novel this year. There is another form of the Present Perfect Tense. She has never disappointed me since I have met her. there still left) I have eaten your cakes waiting for you. (the action is begun and ended this year). A comparison of the already described tenses is necessary to see the difference between them: Peter has written a novel.that chair. (nobody is interested when this action happened. as opposed to the Present Perfect Tense that indicates an ended action in the present. I have been eating your cakes waiting for you. (the action is begun. ( nothing is left) Present Perfect Continuous may indicate repeated actions: They have been meeting each Saturday for years. ( he is still doing it in this very moment) They have been waiting for the exam results. it still goes on) PAST PERFECT TENSE 97 . Peter has been teaching for two years. I have been stopping each passer by to tell the great news. (the unit of time is mentioned.
lasts a time period up to that moment. its interrogative form is built by placing the subject between the two verbs: Had I written? Had you worked? Had he eaten? Had she cut? Had it cried? Had we translated? Had you put? Had they understood? and the negative form consists of introducing the negative word NO between the two verb components: I had not written. she had not cut. it had cried we had translated. in mai mult ca perfectul and expresses a past action or state ended before another past action. he had not eaten. he had eaten. it had not cried we had not translated. Past Perfect tense is used in the following cases: (A) it indicates that an action begun before a certain past moment. and it is translated by imperfect: He said that he had worked there for two weeks. they walked on . perfectul compus: I knew Peter but I had not met him since my graduation. she had cut. you had not put. I had written. they had not understood The English Past Perfect tense has an equivalent in Romanian. When they had said good bye. rendered by Past tense Indicative. perfectul simplu. formed of two elements: Past tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle form of the verb which is conjugated. you had not worked. 98 .Past Perfect tense is a compound tense of the past. they had understood Being a compound tense. it may be translated into Romanian by mai mult ca perfectul. you had worked. you had put.
you will eat. In Indirect Speech.(B) it replaces Perfect Future tense in a subordinate clause and is translated by viitorul anterior: The teacher promised he would bring the papers when he had corrected them. it will play we will cut. FUTURE TENSE Future tense presents an action or a state that will take place after the moment of speech: I know he will help you. She tells me she will come in time. (C) it is used with the adverbs just. “She told me the truth” Indirect Speech: He said that he had written the homework. The bus left/ had left before we arrived in the station. Nick told me that he had not cut the flowers yet. I will go. the interrogative form is 99 . Past Perfect tense may be replaced by Past tense in subordinate clauses introduced by before or in subordinate clauses which show anteriority : I carried the box with the shoes she had bought/ bought me. He said that she had told him the truth. they will understand Being a compound tense. she will translate. you will come. yet I had just written the letter when she entered the room. It is formed of the auxiliary verb will and the short Infinitive of the verb which is conjugated. Past Perfect tense replaces Present Perfect tense and Past tense of the Direct Speech when the main clause verb is in the past: Direct Speech He said: ”I have written the homework”. he will work.
He knows where she lives. please stop! If any of you has eaten the cakes. My boss plays tennis very well. They usually have lunch at one o'clock. They will come here next week. __ ? 10. he will not work. (E) probability of an action or state in the present or in the past: That will be Saint Paul’s cathedral. __ ? 9. She never drinks wine . You realize how much it costs. __ ? 11. He doesn't hire foreigners. __ ? 5. they will not understand It is used for expressing: (D) a future action or state towards a present moment: I will work on Saturday.It seems to me he isn't very rich. ____ ? 2. by introducing the negative word NO between the two verbs: I will not go. 8.I'm sure you know who sings that song. __ ? 3. This book belongs to you.You're not a certified accountant . I think I'm the right person for this job.built by placing the subject between the two verb components: Will I go? Will you come? Will she translate? Will he work? Will it play? Will we cut? Will you eat? Will they understand? and the negative one. that will be Peter! Exercises with the English Verb I Supply the suitable question tags for the following sentences: 1. she will not translate. __ ? 7.____? 6. you will not come. You look horrible in these shorts. __ ? 4. __ ? 100 . it will not play we will not cut. you will not eat. 12.
The police never catch any thieves... How often. What.? 5... __ 16.. He sells second-hand computers and hi-fi equipment.m. How. His mother still washes his shirts. . .They hardly ever talk to strangers.....? III... He teaches English and German 2. The porters carry heavy bags.You must think I'm a fool..? 6. __ ? Il. .He has to work rather hard.Write questions to the following statements: 1 . . They live together because she loves him.Inflation appears to be rising again.. __ ? 15.She thinks we are very rude.. 4. Where.. She agrees with you. 101 where possible and ....? 3. What time . We normally spend our weekends in the mountains Where.? 8.. . She visits her sister’s family at least twice a week. Who .? 4. __ ? 17. This bottle contains some kind of beverage. 5. __ 14.. __ 18.13. The gardener mows the grass.. What.. We want to settle down in Canada. The Browns usually have breakfast at 7 a.. He earns his living by playing the violin in the town square...? 2..We still have a lot of time.. Do you watch satellite television? 3.... Why. Use the Present Continuous translatre : 1. __ ? 19...? 7.. __ ? 20.They say she wears a wig.? 9.
. 18..Make dialogues as in the following example : Can you play tennis ? 102 . I suppose she wants a new opportunity .. Why. ' well. That music sounds good to me... The boys are bringing some wine and cookies.. How.. Do you recognize that man? 7. Where. 10..? b.. Who.. 20. Write questions to the following statements: 1. I hate this meat .. I'm afraid the child lies. 17. a....... Which.. Why do you drive so fast? 14. What.. What time.? 2. 19... a. IV. 11. Do you believe in reincarnation? 8..?b.... I think you remember them very . 12..? b. The boys are very quiet... Mary is coming to see us on Sunday.? 3. I think the Vienna orchestra is playing Mozart now.6.. I wonder what's wrong. The players are moving slowly today because of the heat a.? 5. Why do we always hurry to work? 9. It smells. 15.. 13. Our aunt bakes delicious cookies.. What. a.. He dances very well.? 4. My husband prefers to live in the country..?b. When...? THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE V . They only shoot birds.... " a. 16... I'm meeting the new sales manager at the 10 o’clock meeting. Who.? b. We have lunch at two o'clock..
103 . his grandfather / speak Arabic / the last war 13. 7. 7. you / kill a turkey / last Thanksgiving . I never (speak) to him since we were in highschool. 11. The little boy is weeping. your American friend / shoot an elephant / he returned from Africa 15. you / dive / many years VI. We (miss) the last tram. you /ride a bike/ 10 years old 3. You ever (ride) a pony ? 5. His father just (beat) him again. What shall we do ? 8. 4. she / bake a sponge cake / twenty years 18. your daughter / play the piano / five years 4. The concert just (begin). but I haven't played it for years. your cousin / sleep in the tent / he graduated from the university 10. 1. I suppose I can. The doctor (phone) yet? 10. his wife / prepared good traditional dishes / as long as I can remember 14. Where you (be)? 3. How long you (know) your employer ? 6. he / design a country cottage / his first skyscraper was built 16. your husband / mend a fuse / you moved to this house 6. Denise / ski / moved to Florida 11. you / ride a horse / years 9. John / take a good picture / he bought a Polaroid camera 5. I /drive a big lorry / I left the army 17. How much money you (spend) so far? 9. major Smith / fly a helicopter / he came back from Iraq 2. You ever (eat) a sushi ? 2. you /row a boat / ages 20. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Tense 1.Yes. they / speak English / they left America 8. It (not rain) here since last August . Jack / wash the dishes / he got married 19. Pete / paint a portrait / his college days 12.
I (see) the same shirt everywhere. Put the verb in brackets into the Simple Past Tense 1. People always (admire) her talent. I think she's wrong. Do they live in Romania ? 8. I (pass) several shops on my way home? 7.. 3. 3. Ralph never wakes up before 8 o' clock. till midnight. 14. Come to my office when you (finish ) your project. m. The shop assistant (say) it (be) reduced. . 7. She (wrap) it for me and (put) it in a bag 6. 15. 4. 8. 1 1 . I (pay) in cash. My dog never (bite) anyone. I feel embarrassed. Now that you (leave) school you should find a good job. 2. Why you (not bring) your girlfriend with you? 13. They live next door to my parents. She never (work ) an hour in her life. 16. The shirt (cost) $35. . VIII. Who sings that song ? 9. He never eats in the morning. You (read) any poetry recently? THE PAST TENSE VII Turn the following sentences into the Past Tense Simple 1. We never go to school on Sundays. He knows I work for your company. The children kept asking me silly questions. 4. She works from 5 p. 17. 104 . I (study) your plan carefully and I think it's rather unrealistic. I (buy) it yesterday. 5. 18.. 10. He studies linguistics. 5. 13. 2. They only play classical music 6.12. 19. They (be) $25. 12..
How much did you pay for your shoes? 105 . This T-shirt cost $4. He drove at 100 mph. 19. The first owner (die) in 1945. I began my work in this bank ten years ago. 20. We travelled by plane 6. I found these cheap shoes in a little shop in this village 3. We lost our way because it was dark.50 12. When he (see) me he (start) to scream. We heard an explosion. 18. 7. Answer the following questions: 1. She sent postcards to her friends in South Africa . When I (look) outside I (see) a guy dressed in pajamas. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences: 1. She (leave) a large fortune to her grandson IX. They chose 25 girls for the beauty contest. 12. 4. 16. I (take) a big knife from the kitchen and I (open) the front door. The cook used six eggs for the cake yesterday. The Defense Minister entered the room at 12 o'clock. I (wake) up and (get) out of bed. 15. I (hear) a strange noise last night 10. X. He (have) a big knife and a candle in his hand. 14. 2. 17. Mother said "No” 14. My brother showed me this trick. 15. When did you start to learn English? 2. We generally slept only 5 hours a day during the holiday 8. They (build) this house 70 years ago.9. Sam bought these trousers on the market. I liked his second novel best. 10. I went to the disco with my girlfriend Jane. 11. I (light) a candle and (walk) downstairs. She didn't come to the party because she was ill. She taught English to foreign students. 16. 11. 13.. 5. 9. 13. 18. Sergeant Briggs stood near the president 17.
3. How did you spend last summer? 4. What time did you get up this morning? 5. When did you last read the local newspaper ? XI. Put the verbs into the Past Tense Simple or Past Tense Continuous: 1. The ship (approach) the harbour when the storm (begin) 2. The bomb (go) off when the politician (give) a speech. 3. He (not hear) the bell because the radio (play). 4. When I (get) home everybody (sleep). 5. The plane (catch) fire when it (take) off. 6. Whenever I (come) to see them they always (quarrel). 7. Tim (crash) into a street light because he (drive) too fast. 8. Cindy (lay) the table while her husband (dry) the glasses. 9. She (cook ) dinner when the telephone (ring). 10. He (peep) through the keyhole when the door suddenly (open). 11. Father (shave) and (sing) a silly song at the same time. 12. What you (do) last night between 8 o'clock and midnight? 13. The teacher (write) something on the blackboard while the children (throw) paper balls at one another. 14. She (break) down when she (hear) the news. 15. I (think) about their proposal all night but I (not make) any decision. 16. I (see) that famous actress in the theatre last night. She (sit) in the first row. 17. We (fly) over the city center when the engine (stall). 18. They (work) very hard when the auditor (enter). 19. The tyre (blow) up when she (drive) on a crowded highway 20. She (take) a shower when the snake (creep) into the bathroom. XII. Fill in the sentences with the missing parts according to the example below : I..... when the telephone rang, (newspaper) I was reading a newspaper when the telephone rang. 1. Jane ..... when the gas stove exploded, (dinner) 106
2. The old housekeeper ... .while the kitten was playing with yarn, (sweater) 3. The nurse..... when the needle broke, (injection) 4. The boys ..... when it started to rain, (a dog) 5. Jill..... when she injured her wrist, (tennis) 6. Philip .. when he swallowed some toothpaste, (teeth) 7. They ..... when a bear attacked them, (herbs) 8. The mountaineer ..... when the rope snapped. (Mount Ben Nevis ) 9. The secretary ..... when the boss called her on the intercom, (letters) 10. The robbers ..... when the alarm went off. (safe) 11. We ..... when the war began. (Berlin) 12. Professor Taylor ..... when the students' riot began, (lecture) 13. The reporter ..... when the police put him under arrest, (pictures) 14. The lumbermen ..... when the accident happened, (tree) 15. The sergeant while the soldiers were carrying them out. (orders) XIII. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect : 1. When we (reach) the airport, we (find) that the flight (cancel). 2. She (tell) me that she only once (see) a kangaroo in her life. 3. When the police (enter) the bank the robbers already (leave) 4. He (wonder) where he (put) his glasses. 5. You really (think) that I (do) that? 6. By the time the ambulance (arrive) the wounded boy (die). 7. When I (get) on the train I (realize) that I (forget) my ticket . 8. They (bring) in a patient who (drink) some poison. 9. When I (see) you at the conference I (be) sure that we (meet) before. 10. They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on souvenirs in the airport. 11. Before he (join) the army he (work) already for the CIA and the FBI. 107
12. He (feel) awful in the morning because he (drink) too much that night. 13. Jackson (not be) afraid of Banks because he (beat) him twice before. 14. They (sell) two million copies of the novel before they (decide) to translate it into German as well. 15. He (not understand) a word until they (bring) an interpreter. . 16. She (know) about the accident because someone from the office (telephone) her before I (arrive). 17. She (watch) the film with interest because she (read) the book. j 18. When he (see) some blood on the stairs he (come) to the conclusion that the murderer (climb) onto the roof. 19. They (discover) a sack of gold jewelry which the previous owners apparently (hide) in the garden. 20. She (keep) looking at the boy wondering where she (see) him before. WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE XIV. Put the verbs in parentheses into the most suitable future for ( Infinitive, Present Continuous, or the be going to form): 1. Why are you putting on your overalls? Because I (fix) the car. 2. I have no idea how to use the new dishwasher. Don't worry. I (come) round in the evening and show you if you want . 3. Where are you taking the children, Sandy? We (play) baseball. 4. The phone's ringing. 5. Can I offer you something to drink? Yes, I (have) a Martini, please. 6. If you want me to talk to the boss, say so and I (talk) to him. No, you go back to work and I (handle) it myself. 7. I'm tired of hamburgers and chips. I (cook) something special ten 108
8. I've got my visa and my return ticket. I (leave) tomorrow. 9. This suitcase is too heavy for me to carry. You (give) me a hand? 10. We (not go) away for the weekend. We're expecting visitors Canada. 11. These plastic dolls you're making are rather nice. The question is, who (want) to buy them? I'm sure they (buy) them. One dollar isn't much, is it? 12. Where's uncle Sam? I think you (find) him in the garden. 13. You (go) to the cinema tonight? j No, Tom (take) me to the opera this time. We (see) "La Traviata. 14. These pineapples are fresh from Kenya, Mr. Smith ." In that case I (take) two, please. 15. I must leave you for a moment. I (be) right back.
Give or don't give permission to: 1. give somebody a lift 7. turn down the radio 2. have an early breakfast 14. use somebody's lighter 9. miss one lesson 12. paint the bathroom black 10. get something to drink 13. marry anyone you want 8. take a photograph of somebody 4. buy an electric typewriter 13. show the letter to the police 5. record the conversation 7. try these shoes on t II. ring somebody up 3.THE MODAL VERBS Can I. change the time of the meeting 2. have a tea break 6. take the book back to the library 6. borrow somebody's newspaper 10. have a party on Saturday 4. give up the job . Ask permission to: 1. have an interview on Monday 12. take the children to the beach 14. 9. use somebody's telephone 11. have lunch earlier than usual 11. have a nap after dinner 110 . take somebody for a drive 8. leave the window open 5. do the washing tomorrow 15. take somebody on a sightseeing tour 3. sell the old bicycle 15.
May III. keep your book for another week 6. park your car in front of his house 4. miss the next lesson 9. ask a personal question 5. turn down the radio a little 8. help him carry his luggage 9. Allow someone : 2. camp on the beach 10. When are you going to return the books to the library? 5. borrow his pen 2. When is he going to sell his old car? 7. read his newspaper 7. When are they going to study our report? 6. use your computer 3. have something to eat 3. stay at your place for a couple of weeks 4. Ask someone to let you : 1. When are you going to write your exercises? 2. take his daughter to a disco 6. have cornflakes for breakfast 8. When are you going to give up smoking? 111 . When is she going to see a doctor? 4. organize a party at the office 5. When are they going to give us an answer? 3. attend the meeting 7. accompany him to the station IV. invite everyone to barbecue Must V Give answers using must/ have to / have got to: 1.
Ask questions using either when or why 1. He must accept their invitation to dinner. 3. r i^ 11. 8. 2. have to file in complaint. You have to inform -* ^ 112 the police. .. They'll have to accept our suggestion.. When is he going to look through the papers? 16. The books will have to be bought very soon. 14. When are you going to wash up the dishes? 18. He had to attend the meeting. The new employee must see the boss. When are they going to take us to the manager? 20.».8. The tenants must leave their flat at once. They i be a made soon. When is she going to tidy her room? 19. 12. When is she going to tell her boss she is leaving? 13. She must change her attitude. When are we going to invite Roger to lunch? 9. She has to pay the gas bill. 13. When are you going to make arrangements for the trip? 15. She has to apologize to the director. 5.a 9. The final decision will have to -. When are we going to send out invitations? 17. When are you going to renew your driving license? 12. You must boil the water before you drink it. . When are they going to reply to our request? 14. They have to reconsider their decision 4.^:* 10. When are you going to repair your car? VI.•• . 6. When is he going to apply for a visa? 11. 7. When are they going to call a meeting? 10.
He (hear) our conversation. She needed his help so badly.15. 16. I remember his face very well. 3. Someone (help) Sue to write it 5. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany. The guests (eat) them all. 17. He will have to do military training. 13. 12. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. There are no cakes left. We went to Spain for our holidays. 6. I can lend you as much as you need. His car is German. She (get) good news. 15. Really? You (win) it in a lottery. I've got a lot of money. They (hear) about your relatives. 14. You (meet) him at the students’ meeting last week? 9. They (miss) their train. You (see) a lot of interesting things. She (be disappointed). The clock has stopped. 4. You are wearing a wonderful brooch . 20. She (have) an operation. She (be) to France several times. He (drive) it too fast again. Your husband (take) it by mistake. didn't you? Should 113 . I (forget) to wind it. It (cost) you a fortune. 2. they (live) there for a long time. I (leave) it at the bank. The car is out of order. This essay is written very well. Her French is excellent. She looks very happy. 7. 18. 11. VIIUse the form must have + Past Participle: 1. 10. 19. 8.. I don't know where my mobile phone is. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. The conference has to be organized by our company side. She spent more than a fortnight in hospital. I can't find my key. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. They promised to be here on time. They know London very well. Jack is angry with us. They (leave) for their holidays. 16.
I can't find my key. didn't you? VIII. The clock has stopped. You (meet) him at the reception last Sunday. 20. They (hear) about Antonescu. She needed his help so badly. they (live) there for a long time. We went to Spain for our holidays. I (forget) to wind it. 2. They (leave) for their holidays. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. You (see) a lot of interesting things. I only paid the phone bill. I remember his face very well. 14. This essay is written very well. It (cost) you a fortune. She spent more than a month in hospital. You are wearing a wonderful necklace. 10. 19. 6. My husband (take) it by mistake. Tom is angry with us. He (drive) it too fast again. He (hear) our conversation. She looks very happy. They know London very well. She (be) to France several times. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany.VII Use the form must have + Past Participle: 1. 12. 7. ? 9. 17. 8. 16. I can lend you as much as you need. His car is German. I don't know where my umbrella is. Someone (help) Mary to write it 5. I (leave) it at the office. The car is out of order. I've got a lot of money. She (get) good news. 11. 3. They promised to be here on time. Her French is excellent. 15. Give answers as in the example: Example: I only told Jane You shouldn't have told anyone 1. 18. They (miss) their train. She (be disappointed). There are no cakes left. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. 4. The children (eat) them all. She (have) an operation. 114 . 13. Really? You (win) it in a lottery.
You didn't give any tip to the bellboy! 3. She only argued with Tim! 10. You didn't send for help! 5. Express your surprise. You didn’t keep your word ! 10. I only woke the doorman ! 13. Brown ! 8. They only discussed it with Mary! 4. You didn't lock up the documents! Used to X. as in the example: Example: You didn't read the instructions! No. You didn't take her out to visit the city! 4. You didn't meet us at the railway station ! 7. She only gave the ticket to Jack ! 7. You didn't write down his phone number! 6. You didn't attend the course this week! 2. You didn't look up the time of your train 8. Give replies employing used to each time: Examples: a) Did Tom go to school on foot? 115 . I only lent the money to Pete ! 15. You didn't call in a plumber! 12. He only proposed to Jane. You didn't apologize for coming late! 13. should I have read them? 1. She only showed it to me! 14. He only invited his family ! 3.2. They only fired one employee! 12. She only spoke to her sister! 5. They only dismissed Frank! IX. I only apologized to Mrs. You didn't tell him about the auction! 14. You didn't look over what you've written! 9. You didn't give me a lift! 15. I only rang up Margaret! 6. We only thanked your uncle! 9. You didn't clean up the mess in your room! 11. 11.
Did he read many books during high school ? 10. What was he good at? 116 . Did Tom go to college? 2. What did he have for breakfast when he was on holidays? 6. How many lessons did he have e ach day when he was at school? 7. What did he enjoy doing when he was a student? 9. b) How did Tom go to school? He used to go to school on foot ' 1.Yes. Did he wear a uniform when he was at school? 5. Who took you for walks when he was little? 4. he used to go to school on foot. Did he like to play tennis as a boy? 3. Who helped him with his homework? 8.
They make these briefcases of leather. ^ . Has the mechanic fixed the car yet? 16. 6. They are building a new office building here. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: 1. 9. 5. 3. 3. They don't admit children under sixteen in this club. 10. II. 12. They have promised me a raise. A bee stung my daughter this morning. 17. The terrorists blew up the railroad tracks. 8. They offered her a better position in a subsidiary of the company. 2. 18. 5. A big lorry knocked him down last Monday. 14. Change the sentences into passive ones with the underlined word as a subject of the sentence. They will meet you at the annual meeting. 2. He didn't introduce me to his wife.The Passive Voice I. Everyone knows these figures very well. They make a new film every year in this studio. Smoke filled the auditorium. 117 . They didn't inform us about the change of plans. 1. They showed her into the new conference hall. 7. Somebody will tell you how to get there. 7. They locked the door and no one can open it now. 20. They are renovating our university at the moment. Burglars broke into our summer house. They will introduce some new subjects into the syllabus this year 13. 6. They will teach you two foreign languages in this college.„ 4. 15. They gave him a computer for his fifth birthday. 4. She looks after the children very well. Why didn't they repair the road? 19. People must wear ties in this club. You may not use dictionaries during this examination. 11.
If the wind hadn't stopped. 18. They have offered us excellent conditions in this resort. ' 14. 2. He ordered the soldiers to fire at the crowd. I (come) by bus if it hadn't been so late. They ought to pay you more for your work. Someone is following us. 9. we (clap) our hands much more vigorously 7. 3. 19. 15. They denied him admittance to the restaurant as he was too young. If I had arrived five minutes earlier I (get) a free ticket. 16. our boat (strike) the rocks near the shore. 4. They asked her very personal questions at the interview. 17. 12. If we had invested in that company we (make) a lot of money. A true patriot (not do ) it. We hoped the wind (stop) soon. We (arrive) on time if we hadn't lost our way. 11. They sent for a doctor immediately. Someone handed him a thick file. 5. If she had taken my advice she (not lie) in bed now. 6. Conditional Clauses I. One of the nurses gave me an injection. 9. The doctors prescribed him some tranquillizers. If you had told us they were making a film during the show. Put the verbs in the parentheses in the suitable tense: 1. The ovation wasn't too loud. 118 . 8. 10. They always laugh at this boy. . 13. 20. They showed the boy some tricks. They will send you an application form. The government has granted political autonomy to several provinces.8.
He is absolutely convinced that his programme (succeed). We (ski) in Chamonix today if we had bought that package vacation. a sentence or a part of sentence 119 • • • • . he (live) here for 90 years. The child (not burn) himself if you hadn't left the iron on the table. You (not scold) her like that. (noun) Practically everyone knew that story. 11. Had I known the microphone was broken. (verb) Mary’s marks are highly satisfactory. 18. ADVERB The adverb is that part of speech that characterizes a verb.10. She deserved a better treatment. 19. He (not suffer) from arthritis now if he had listened to his grandmother. I (bring) you some more strawberries if I had known you liked them. you (accept)? . If you had watered these trees regularly last spring they (be) 15. an Infinitive She wanted to begin immediately. I (speak) much louder 14. If you had come here three days ago you (see) the flowers in full bloom. If they had invited you last Saturday. 12. 13. (adj) They speak English very well. 17. 16. If he hadn't died last year.(indefinite pronoun) a Participle or Gerund Mary told them the story in well chosen words. (adv) An adverb may determine: a noun or a pronoun: Only Peter can tell you the truth. 20. an adjective or another adverb: We play volleyball this afternoon.
at large. bodily. so that. yesterday. Analyzing their forms. behind adjectives: aloud. supposedly. never • adverbs of place: here. the adverbs may be: • simple adverbs: late.Perhaps I will be the winner. far • derived adverbs formed of stem and affixes: along. easily. that is why Adverb formation The derived adverbs are formed of different parts of speech such as: nouns: daily. yesterday. between. • adverbs of cause: hence. asleep. monthly accounts. fast. yearly but there are situations when the –ly words are not adverbs. admittedly There are adverbs that are formed by adding an affix to the stem. first. The most frequently used suffix is –ly and it forms adverbs of mood and time: daily. they are adjectives namely those which have a noun as stem: a daily newspaper. a month ago. below. mostly numerals: once. there. behind. well. for that reason. Taking into account the meaning. at first. hence. participle: brokenly. twice. across pronouns: here. firstly. fast. The adverbs may be classified taking into account their form or meaning. • adverbial locutions are groups of words that get the value of adverbs: after all. for long. nowhere • adverbs of manner: badly. there. a lonely road 120 • • • • • . weekly. now. behind. the adverbs may be grouped into: • adverbs of time: daily. away. • compound adverbs formed of two or more parts: always. sometimes.
double the –l. no modification appears: palepalely. at a timely moment Adverbs may prefixes to the stem: a) suffixes: -long -ward sidelong forward s headlon outward be built by adding suffixes and -way sideward -wise -s lengthwis needs e straightwa likewise nowaday 121 . simple-simply but when the vowel is before it. BUT the following aspects are to be taken into account: • adjectives ended in –e keep it before the suffix: complete. true-trully • adjectives ended in double –l lose one before the suffix dull-dully.equally. full-fully • -y is changed into –ie no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: due-duly. sole-solely • adjectives ended in –ue lose the final vowel before the –ly suffix: dull-dully. pure-purely • adjectives ended in –l preceded by a vowel. the former being the final form of the adjective and the latter belong to the suffix: equal. gay-gaily • adjectives ended in –ly cannot form adverbs by adding another suffix of the same structure because of the phonic reasons and they get another word: in a friendly way.completely. full-fully • -y is changed into –i no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: day-daily.Orthography rules The –ly suffix is added to the words without modifying their form. general-generally • adjectives ended in –le preceded by a consonant lose this ending before the –ly suffix: probable-probably.
hardly last last. the –ly form is used when 122 . in compound words and in the comparative and superlative degree structures. midway • adverb + noun: outside. a fast train They walk fast. lastly late late. a long nose They stay long. some of them have the same form as the adjectives and nouns: Adjectives Adverbs an early train He arrives home early. somewhere • adverb + adverb: hereabouts. lately The simple form is used when the concrete meaning is meant. perhaps. Some adjectives have two adverbial forms. throughout • adverb + preposition: hereby. beforehand • adjective + adverb: everywhere. oftentimes • preposition + noun: indeed. one is identical with the adjective. therefrom • preposition + adverb: within • adverb + preposition + adverb: heretofore There are some special groups of adverbs. the other one is formed of an adjective by adding the –ly suffix: Adjective Adverb hard hard.g s y totoday together s b) prefixes: -a beagain before aflame beyond The compound adverbs may be formed of different parts of speech and the following combinations are to be taken into account: • adjective + noun: meantime. next door.
There are some adverbs whose meanings are so different that the two words are completely different. 2.the abstract meaning is meant. 6. He's doing very well in school. To sit close to the door. a)"Mary is a conscientious worker. . dearly beloved.(echitabil) His work is fairly good. newly married. The compound words use the simple adverb form: a quick growing plant. Exercises I. I appreciate your quick response to my query. fairly (destul de).(corect) He treated Mary fairly. When there are no differences of meaning between these forms. new laid eggs." —> "I agree. the simple forms are used though their positive degree forms are ended in –ly: You run quicker than I. I'm afraid to get into the car with my boss. The new director seems to be a responsible person. Answer the questions using a modal adverb: Ex. 4." 1. She works (very) conscientiously" b)"Your son has such good marks!" —» "I know. Michelle is such a slow typist! It takes her forever to type a page. a clear ringing voice. I think this is a good strategy. the –ly adverbs are generally used: deeply interested. For a fluent speaking. really. (very near to the door) Close my skirt but closer my skin. She's a perfectionist. It has worked in the past. He's an incredibly 123 . 3. Mary is a hard worker. We walk quickest from our house to school. (destul de) The following –ly adverbs have different meanings from the ones that have not this suffix: directly (imediat). Ann is such a wonderful dancer! You should go and see her in her latest show. I like him. 7. lately (recent). the –ly forms are used with a figurative meaning and are not so close to the corresponding adjectives: He always plays fair. 5.
Jeff is a fast runner. 2. II. 11.bad driver! 8. (light) vehicles can be very (dangerous). enable (elderly) people to ride (safe). As a sport. 3. Cynthia is an intelligent manager. That's why bicyclists and motorcyclists have to drive (careful) at all times. He often interviews English speakers on TV. (Technological) modern bicycles help riders move (fast) and (easy). Tricycles allow (small) children to get around. Motorcycles are (essential) motorized bicycles. too. Over 100 million Americans ride bicycles at least (occasional). A motorcycle is a (complete) different vehicle from a car. like motorcycles because they can maneuver them (quick) and (easy). built like bicycles. This particular anchor man is a fluent English speaker. (Touring) bikes can travel (long) distances over (uneven) roads. 5. I can never keep up with him. 8. 6. 7. 10. She's a problem solver. 10. Many (different) kinds of bicycles allow people of all ages to enjoy this sport. 124 . (Large) tricycles. Insert an adjective or an adverb: 1. In the event of an accident. 4. 9. 12. biking is an (enjoyable) form of exercise. In the rain they don't brake very (good) and (general) are not (visible) to other drivers. so motorcyclists have to pass a (driving) test in order to obtain a (special) motor cycle license. 9. Policemen.
clearness and good appearance. London.) Parts of a Letter Any letter has some parts that are to be present no matter how long or short the letter is. Envelope addressing should have some characteristics such as accuracy. envelopes should be of high-quality paper. not to weight too much. the latter is omitted only if the name of the town is well known (e.PART III COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE Addressing envelopes The envelope of a business letter should create a good impression on the receiver. from the left of the envelope). The inside address is copied correctly from the letter. because the contrast white-black allows a more comfortable reading. etc.g. Their sizes varies according to the length of the letter as well as to the number of enclosures that are to be sent. Because good impression is extremely important in business. They are the following: 126 . Madrid. The envelopes should be very tough if lots of papers are to be sent and very thin for the correspondence sent by air. including any "attention" or "confidential" indication. the post town is followed by the country name. an impression of carefulness and good taste. The address is typed in the lower part of the envelope towards the right (half way down and one-third in. The Secretary Percy Astins & Co. New York. Ltd 18-22 King's Avenue Richmond Surrey Ample space is given to stamps and postmarks. The most useful color is white. Paris.
.". AM/BB (i. address.e. Adams Mary/Brown Betty -the first person has written the letter while the second has typed it). The American companies have the word "Incorporated" or for short "Inc. . POB. such as -523/LO. All of them are arranged in a form established by the boss of the company. The reference may contain some numbers which are the codes of a department that is in charge with the solving of a problem.". 20. When a letter exchange begins.. Example: "23 April 2008 ". The American variant looks like: May 3rd. there are so many different ways of writing it such as: the 3rd of May. Ltd.• Heading .. codes. AM/BB 127 . the date is to be written keeping the following order: Day/Month/Year and this is typed in full. Date The next element that appears on the letter is the date. field of activity. But for avoiding any interpretation.letter heading / letter head • Date • Reference line • inside address (addressee's address) • Salutation • Subject line • Body of the letter • Complimentary close • Signature • Enclosures Now let's take separately each part and present it with all its characteristics. The British societies have in their names the words "Limited" or "Co. 3 May. References The references are groups of capital letters indicating the first letters of the names of the persons who are in charge with the writing and typing of the letters. Headline It should include the name of the company. the first letter that is sent contains: I Our reference. while the British one is 3rd May 20.. It means that the responsibilities of the society are limited. Example: Reference.
. country. institution. Dr.. Jackson It is better than being too formal by using "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam". it occupies the first place and then you avoid Mr. It looks like: General Manager Robert Smith Deputy Director George Brown without any formula and commas. the more formal salutation "Dear 128 . Courtland or Dear Mrs. It contains the full name of the person (no abbreviations are allowed. Miss. Mrs. The two couples of references indicate the two equivalents from the companies who are in charge with the solving of the problem. It is a matter of custom and a polite way of addressing to a known or unknown person.") or if an attention line has been used. and function is sometimes placed." or "Utility Furniture Co.. AM/BB. the name is written in the same way the person writes it.. The name is accompanied by Mr. in that situation. "Holmes and Hatton Co. Robert Brown. town. The American variant looks this: Mr. there is a pair of Ireferences such as: Our reference. AM/BB It means that the receiver has its own reference (Our reference.If you get an answer to this letter. as you have seen it on the visit card or on another address). if it is the case. If the letter is addressed to a partnership (e.g. JE/SH Your reference. JE/SH) and the addressee's one is mentioned as your reference. street. If you know the recipient's name (you have already mentioned it in theinside address) then you may begin your letter with: Dear Mr. Prof. They are generally placed on the left side of the paper or in the middle but always on the same level. etc. Inside address The inside address is in fact the addressee's address. then on this one. Managing Director Salutation The salutations or greeting formulas are written under the inner addressand depend on who are the persons you are addressing to.
129 . For Dear Sirs Yours faithfully Dear Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Sir or Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Mr. Complementary close The last part of a letter is the complementary close which is a matter of custom and polite way of closing a letter. X Yours sincerely Dear Jacqueline/ Dear Steven Yours sincerely Signature After leaving 4/5 blank lines for a signature. note that the title "Mr" is never shown when the writer is a man. a desire to buy goods (so you request for information).Sirs" is used. either with initial capitals or in upper case as preferred.e. If your letter is addressed to the head of a department or the head of an organization whose name is not known. The expression used for the complementary close must match the salutation. Examples: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely Kitty White (Miss) Chairman Routine letters Enquiries and Replies Any commercial transaction begins with an enquiry i. the name of the sender should be shown. in the following examples. but "Mrs" or "Miss" must always be added in brackets after a woman's name. as shown here. The writer's designation or department should be shown immediately beneath the name. a company is in the market for some sort of goods and looks up the firm's addresses in a trade directory-Prospective suppliers have been recommended to it by other customers with whom you are acquainted or have heard of them from our foreign agencies or from commercial offices or from advertisements in newspapers. then the salutation "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam" or "Dear Sir/Madam" would be used.
do not mention this. write a letter and take the opportunity to promote your products. There are general enquiries requesting for latest price lists. The requested items may be sent under cover of a "With compliments' slip". catalogues etc. otherwise the supplier will raise the quotation to the limit you mention • most suppliers state their terms of payment when replying so there is no need for you to ask for them unless you are seeking special rates • keep your enquiry brief and concise Enquiries mean potential business so they must be acknowledged promptly.reviews. There are printed Enquiry Forms which are filled in when you require general or specific information. samples • if there is a limit to the price list at which you are prepared to buy. . Unless the writer requests information not already included. Suppliers receive routine requests for catalogues and price lists. samples. a "With compliments' slip" is not possible or it is not enough. There are enquiries that suggest that large regular orders are possible. a). a written reply is often not necessary and a "With compliments' slip" may be sent instead. Yours faithfully The reply of this letter should sounds like this: 130 . a catalogue. Example: Dear Sir (or Madam) Will you please send me a copy of your catalogue and price list of portable disc players. Enquiry Dear Sir/Madam I have a large hardware store in Southampton and am interested in the electric heaters you are now advertising in the "West Gazette ". In following enquiries. patterns. So you are put in the situation to write for information about the goods you need. In this situation. specimens. Please send me your illustrated catalogue and a price list. catalogues. the written replies are not necessary. together with copies of any descriptive leaflets that I could pass to prospective customers. price list.general information. In a routine letter of enquiry you are obliged to observe these rules: • state clearly what you really want.
F heater. by mail. Yours sincerely All the letters that are making enquiries specify prices.. you have answered every query in the enquiry letter. We hope these will satisfy your requirements. We encourage you to test the samples provided.Dear Mr. For the purpose you mention. It would be helpful if you could send us samples showing your range of suitable coverings and. delivery details. a patterncard of the designs in which they are supplied. which is especially suitable for rough and uneven surfaces. so it says: Dear Mrs King Thank you for your enquiry for samples and the pattern-card of our floor coverings. You make an enquiry for office equipment: We need a model suitable for sending diagrams and printed messages mostly within the UK. Once you have done this. (you may give more details concerning the model or you may indicate the catalogue you are enclosing to offer the required information. we recommend quality number 5. we will arrange for our technical representative to call you for an appointment. our newest model. 131 . a range of samples selected for their hard-wearing qualities. so this is an excellent occasion to write your partner: We have received a number of enquiries for floor coverings suitable for use on the rough floors that seem to be a feature of the new building taking place here. Johnson We were pleased to receive your letter enquiring about electric heaters and are pleased to enclose a copy of our latest illustrated catalogue. but regret we have no patterns we can send you. terms of payment.) Before starring a business with a company. if you feel it would help to discuss the matter. We feel that you may be particularly interested in our model. our price list is enclosed which also shows details of our conditions and terms of trading. In the meantime. We have sent to you. The letter gets an answer. Replying them. you are interested to see some samples of goods. if one is available.
London.. Do the quoted prices include delivery or not? A reference to the General conditions of delivery should be attached to the enquiry. Seller is requested to state the terms of payment. details are omitted till they have a clear idea of their needs. You may begin your letters by telling the supplier how the name has been obtained and about the circumstances that have given raise the enquiry: Referring to your advertisement in the …of… .. we would inquire whether you could supply us. The reply letter announces you that: All the models illustrated can be supplied from the stock at competitive prices.. shown on the price list inside the catalogue. We shall be in the position to give you substantial orders if your quotations are reasonable. preference to insurance. there is a natural question. detailed description minimizes the chance of receiving unsuitable goods.Fax machines are the object of the demand. if. the seller identifies the goods required: prospective buyer's interests are not likely to be prejudiced when the figures are obtained from the catalogue. early shipment is necessary and we should welcome an immediate quotation fob London.. The next problem is the quotation of the price.. Size of orders may often be stressed by the customer to obtain a more favorable quotation or reductions to be made for large orders.. As we are in the market for chemical installations we should welcome your information. Goods are described in details if the buyers are quite clear on the subject of their needs. The receiver is also invited to go to the show room to see the way the fax machines work. transport. Sometimes buyers require catalogues. Letters are concluded with the hope that buyer will be able to place further orders as a result of the satisfaction with the goods 132 . Your quotation should be c. What would be your earlier delivery date? Please say whether you could guarantee the shipment by.. We are indebted for your address to … who has drawn our special attention to your China..
133 . All such types of letters begin with expressions of thanks for the enquiry and end with the assurance of interest in the addressee's requirements or expression of pleasure at entering into business relations with you. which was sent to you earlier in the month. Such replies need to be polite. of course. You wish to modernize your texture with the most upto-date upholstery system. kindly inform us how long you would require completing a considerable order. This is to inform you that we do a big business in toys. That is clear because you asked for our catalogue. you will receive our immediate and personal attention. raw material correspondence concerning consumer goods. Z. send us samples exactly representing the quality of your latest manufacture. we ask you to give us your lowest prices and best terms of your latest products. all the details are contained in the catalogues. This applies to food. You could test for yourself the wonderful fabrics we are manufacturing by sending us a trial order. Mr. enclosures. but if not. If possible. staff. clearly.supplied. The next step lies. Reply to the enquiry Dear Mr. It is not necessary to be detailed. direct and prompt. Enquiry Dear Mr. X. Replies to enquiries They are the most important letters of sale type. We look forward 10 placing our orders with you and trust that you will make every effort to satisfy our particular requirements. with you. You may be sure that whichever of our services you decide to use. X. Having been referred to you by our agent. The required information is given simply. You must have a demonstration of the upholstery system in your own theatre or see it in our show-rooms. We presume that you have the toys in stock.
date. mode of transport. carriage. etc. whether the order will be carriage paid or carriage forward etc.Quotations. Reference to these conditions must be made on the front. otherwise the supplier will not be legally bound to them. accuracy and clarity must be ensured by including: 1) an accurate and full description of goods required 2) catalogue numbers 3) quantities 4) prices 5) delivery requirements (place. Sending an order by letter. discounts and terms of payment clear indication of what the prices cover (packing.) 6) terms of payment agreed in preliminary negotiations 134 . estimates and tenders A quotation is a promise to supply goods on the stated terms. The quotation will include the following elements: an expression of thanks for the enquiry details of prices. The prospective buyer is under no obligation to buy the goods for which a quotation is requested and the supplier will not risk the reputation he has by quoting for goods they cannot or do not intend to supply.) Orders and their fulfillment Printed order forms Most companies have official printed forms which have the following advantages: • such forms are pre numbered and the reference to them is very easy • printing headings ensure that no information will be omitted • printed on the back of some forms are general conditions under which orders are placed. Letter order Smaller companies may not use printed forms but instead place orders in the form of a letter.
If the delivered goods are faulty. Where two or more items are included in an order they should be listed separately for ease of reference. Routine orders They may be short and formal but must include essential details describing the goods as well as delivery and terms of payment. the buyer can demand either a reduction of price. Please accept confirmation of the order we placed with you by phone this morning for the following: 3 "Excelda Studio" electronic typewriters each with 12 pitch daisy wheel Price: £ 490 each. both parties are legally bound to honor their agreement. less 40% trade discount. the buyer is required by law: • to accept the goods supplied. The arrangement is not legally binding until the supplier has accepted the offer. After that. or cancellation of the order. 7) buyer's obligations When a binding agreement comes into force. provided they comply with the terms of the order • to pay for the goods as soon as possible (failure to give prompt notice of faults to the supplier will be taken as acceptance of the goods) 8) supplier's obligations.Legal position of the parties The English. a replacement of goods. X. carriage forward These machines are urgently required and we understand that you are arranging for 135 . Damages may be claimed. The supplier is required by law: • to deliver the goods exactly as ordered at the agreed time • to guarantee the goods to be free from faults of which the buyer could not be aware at the time of purchase. Confirmation of telephone order: Dear Mr. law says that the buyer's order is only an offer to buy.
B. Yours sincerely Sometimes the orders may be presented in the form of tables.immediate delivery from stock. Here is a kind of tabulated order: Dear Mr. 136 . Please accept our order for the following books on our usual discount terms.
All these items are urgently required by our customer. 75 rice 7 P $ the letter) An order should be acknowledged immediately if it 137 . (Head of 1 July 2000 Order no 237 Nylon Fabrics Ltd 18 Brazenose Street Manchester M608As Please supply the following items Quantity 25 Items Bed sheets/ blue Catalogue no. so we hope you will send them immediately. all essential details will be shown on the form and any additional explanations are given in the covering letter. of copies 0 4 title Accounting author Taylor price $ 9x40=360 0 5 Modern Business Brown 5x50=250 $ We look forward to prompt delivery. Yours sincerely. Covering letter with order form When a covering letter is sent with an order form.No. We thank you for your quotation of 5 July and enclose our order number 237 for 4 of the items.
When goods cannot be delivered immediately. We are making every effort to resume production and fully expect to be able to deliver the shavers by the end of this 138 . carriage forward. a letter should apologize for the delay and give an explanation. As you may not be aware of the wide range of goods we have available. If goods cannot be supplied at all. We were very pleased to receive your order of 18 June for cotton prints and welcome you as one of our customers. and express the hope that the customer is not inconvenienced unduly. We feel confident that you will be completely satisfied with these goods and that you will find them of exceptional value for money. We hope you will find these goods satisfactory. We hope that our handling of your first order with us will lead to further business between us and mark the beginning of a happy working relationship. they have been dispatched to you today by passenger train. Reason for delay: breakdown in production Dear Mr. Z.V. Also state when delivery may be expected. There is formal acknowledgement of routine orders. Yours sincerely First orders from new customers should be acknowledged by a letter: Dear Mr. X. Dear Mr. we are enclosing a copy of our catalogue. but regret that we cannot supply them immediately owingto afire in our factory. We thank you for your order of 15 May for electric shavers. you should write explaining why you offer suitable substitutes if they are available. As all items were in stock. if possible. and that we may have the pleasure of further orders from you. We confirm supply of the prints at the prices stated in your letter and are arranging /or dispatch by our own delivery vehicles early next week.cannot be fulfilled straight away. Thank you for your order no 217 for bed coverings.
then the supplier should show a desire to help customers in difficulty. but very much regret that we cannot accept it. then the reasons should be given. Yours sincerely Other reasons for the delay may be stocks not available. There may be times when a supplier will not accept a buyer's order: • he is not satisfied with the buyer's terms and conditions • the buyer's credit is suspect • the goods are not available Greatest care should be taken when writing to reject an order so that good will and future business are not affected. We shall always be happy to consider carefully any proposal likely to lead to business between us. We hope you will give further information regarding this mailer. Supplier refuses price reduction There are situations when a supplier cannot grant a request for a lower price. Dear Mr. is bound to be appreciated and will help to build goodwill.month. transport strikes etc. 139 . The prices quoted in our letter of 13 August leave us with only the smallest of margins and are in fact lower than those of our competitors for goods of similar quality.V. We can find some situations when delivery terms cannot be met. We have carefully considered our counter proposal of 15 August to our offer of woolen underwear. The wool used in the manufacturing of our THERMAUNE range undergoes a special patented process which prevents shrinkage and increases durability. We apologize for the delay and trust it will not cause you serious inconvenience. In this letter the suggestion that the customer should try another supplier who is named. but if you then still feel you cannot accept our offer we hope it will not prevent you from approaching us on some future occasion. The fact is that we are large suppliers of woolen underwear in this country and this is itself a good evidence of the good value of our products.
I understand from our telephone conversation this morning that your customers are willing to consider other makes. If a previous counter remains unpaid. the utmost tact is necessary when rejecting another order. we should be grateful if you could send us your cheque for say half the amount owed.Dear Mr. Since you state the firm condition of delivery before Christmas. We could then arrange to supply the goods now requested and charge them to your account. Only in this way can we met our own commitments. We placed an order for 24 sets one month ago. but were informed that all orders were being met in strict rotation. Nothing is more likely to offend a customer than the suggestion that they may not be trustworthy. Careful judgment will be required since there is the risk that the customer may be annoyed to receive 140 . The manufacturers of these goods are finding it impossible to meet current demand for this popular television set. They usually carry large stocks and may be able to help you. In the circumstances I hope you will be able to meet your requirements from some other source. Johnson YOUR ORDER NUMBER R 2514 We were pleased to receive your order of 2 November for 6 TV sets. Our own order will not be met before the end of January.C. In the circumstances. The suggestions of mistrust are avoided tactfully and internal difficulties as the reason for refusing further credit are given: Dear Mr. any of the following options are available: • send a substitute. We hope to hear from you soon When a supplier receives an order which cannot be met for some reasons. At present the balance of your account stands at over £800 and we hope that you will be able to reduce it before we grant credit for further supply. we deeply regret that we cannot supply you on this occasion. Due to the current difficult conditions we have had to try and ensure that your main customers keep their accounts within reasonable limits. We are pleased to receive your order of 15 April for a further supply of radio sets. May 1 suggest that you try Television Services Ltd of Leicester.
The large number of repeated orders we regularly receive from leading distributors and dress manufacturers is clear evidence of the wide spread popularity of this brand. Dear Mr. this rayon is much cheaper than silk and its appearance is just as attractive. Yours sincerely Supplier sends a substitute article: Dear Mr. All these cloths are selling well in many countries and can be supplied from stock If as we hope. The buyer is offered something that has not been asked for. Such substitutes should be sent "on approval" with the supplier accepting such responsibility for carriage charges both ways. It is advisable to send a substitute if a customer is well known or if there is a clear need for urgency.something different from what was ordered. We regret to say that we can no longer supply this silk. It is important that the suggested substitute provides an article which is at least as good as the one ordered.20 per meter. • make a counter offer • decline the order Supplier makes a counter offer For making a counter offer. we could meet it within one week We hope to hear from you soon. the supplier must exercise a great deal of skill to bring out a sale. Fashions constantly change and in recent years the demand for watered silk has fallen to such an extend that we have ceased to produce them. This is a finely woven. Thank you for your letter of 12 May ordering 800 meters of 100 cm wide watered silk. hard wearing. At the low price of only £ 2. All the items ordered are in stock except 141 . and are sending a complete range of patterns by parcel post. In their place we can offer our new GOSSAMER brand of rayon. non-creasable material with a most attractive luster. We were pleased to receive your letter of 17 April together with your order for a number of items included in our quotation reference RS341. you decide to place an order. We also manufacture other clothes in which you may be interested. Z. X.
when it was sent and the means of transport used. Unless the terms of the sale include delivery. We are pleased to confirm that the 12 Olivetti KX R 193 electronic typewriters which you ordered on 15 October are now ready for dispatch. We shall be glad either to exchange them or to arrange credit. Yours sincerely Packing and dispatch When goods are dispatched. All items will be delivered by our own vehicles tomorrow. Yours sincerely Advice of goods ready for dispatch as well as notification of goods dispatched can be easily formulated. We now await your shipping instructions. and the manufacturing units inform us that it will be another 4 weeks before they can send replacements. They are attractive and rich looking and very popular with our customers. it is the legal duty of the buyer to collect any purchases from the supplier. The customer knows that the goods are on the way and can make the necessary arrangements to receive them.for the 25 cushion covers in strawberry pink Stocks of these have been sold out since we quoted for them. Request for forwarding instructions: Dear Mr. and immediately we receive them we will send you our advice of dispatch. hope you will be pleased with them. We hope you will find them satisfactory but if not please return them at our expenses. the railway or the 142 . When placing your order you stressed the importance of prompt delivery and 1 am glad to say that by making a special effort we have been able to improve by a few days on the delivery date agreed upon. As you state that delivery of all items is a matter of urgency we have substituted covers in a deep orange identical in design and quality with those ordered. W. We. the buyer should be notified either by an advice note or by a letter stating what has been sent.
As the goods have not reached us. The waterproof lining was badly torn and will be necessary to send seven of the rugs for cleaning before we can offer them for sale. avoid the tendency to blame the supplier as it may not be their fault. delay which may affect the goods after the carrier has taken over. ORDER NUMBER Z 423 You wrote to us on 3 January informing us that the mohair rugs supplied to the above order were being dispatched. it must contain no suggestion of the annoyance that is naturally felt but also it should be confirmed to the facts and ask for an immediate enquiry into the circumstances. Yours sincerely When the goods do not arrive when they are promised to arrive. addressed to Whart & Co. the supplier should at once take up the matter with carriers. promised immediately to be delivered to a number of our customers. The buyer is responsible for any loss.. If a letter is sent. Dear Mr J. making our own enquiries at this end.. and have already taken up the matter of compensation with the railway authorities. and on the faith of your notification of dispatch. Your letter should be restricted to a statement of the facts and a request for information. either by phone or by letter.other carrier is considered the agent of the buyer. damage. Delivery of the rugs is now a matter of urgency. We expected these goods a week ago. we naturally feel our customers have been let down. Will you therefore please arrange to send replacements immediately and we charge them to our account. one was delivered damaged. We are also. We regret to report that a consignment of mohair rugs. Will you please find out from British Rail what has happened to the consignment and let us know when we may expect delivery. 25-30 Gordon Avenue. ORDER NUMBER S 524 We regret to inform you that of the four cases of mohair rugs which were dispatched on 28 January. 143 . Yours sincerely Upon receiving the foregoing letter. of course. We realize that the responsibility for damage is ours.
We hold your carrier's receipt number 2436. In the latter case. Please treat this matter as one of extreme urgency. invoices being charged to their accounts. Here is an invoice: JOHN G. GARTSIDE & CO. As our customer is now urgently in need of these goods. These cases were collected by our carrier on 28 January for I February. Yours sincerely Payment for the goods supplied or services rendered is the final stage in a business transaction.Werrington. Albion Works. Invoices and adjustments When goods are supplied on credit. The buyer who is not a regular customer is supposed to pay at once while the regular ones may get credit. not only against the goods supplied but also for the accuracy of both prices and calculation. but usually they are posted separately. Invoices may be sent together with the goods. an invoice should be checked carefully. the credit is in practice. transactions are for cash while for the wholesale and foreign trade. Thomas Street Manchester M60IQA Phone 061-943-1234 INVOICE Quantity 10 21 12 Total Items Polyester shirts Cotton blouses Cotton shirts 3 7 8 Unit price $ $ $ Total 30 47 6 $ $1 $9 $ 144 . has not yet reached them. we must ask you to make enquiries and let us know the cause of the delay and when delivery will be made. the supplier sends an invoice to the buyer in order: • to inform him about the amount due • to enable the buyer check the goods delivered • to enable entry in the buyer's purchases day book When received. the payment will be made later on the basis of a statement of an account sent by the supplier monthly or at any other interval of time. In the case of the retail trade. LTD.
60.where the value of goods exported is required for These invoices are not entered in the books of accounts and are not charged to the accounts of the persons whom they are sent to. the letter may look like this: Our invoice number… is enclosed covering the polyester shirts ordered on 10 August.serving as a formal quotation serving as a request for payment in advance for goods ordered by an unknown customer or a doubtful payer . They should reach you within few days. YOUR ORDER NUMBER A W25 We are pleased to enclose our invoice number B 253 for the polyester shirts ordered on 13 August.6 7. These shirts have been packed ready for dispatch and are being sent to you. Debit and credit notes 145 . It is used for: . it should look like this: Dear Mr. carriage paid. namely $ 310.V. Covering letter with invoice Such a letter is not compulsory but if the invoice is sent separately it may be sent by post.6 $2 $2 $ Pro forma invoices "For form's sake" or” pro forma invoice” is an ordinary invoice but has this label "Pro forma". it should be short and polite.customs purposes covering goods sent 'on approval' or ' on consignment' .276 VAT 10% One case back Big total 305. To a non regular customer. by rail. These goods are available from stock and will be sent to you immediately we receive the amount due. To a regular customer.
24 High Streethite Street Manchester M6940a Telephone 072-980-2132 STATEMENT Date Details Debit Credit Balance Account 1. Credit notes are printed in red to be distinguished from the others. 146 20. it needs only be short and formal.81 Cheque no.28 427.86 A covering letter should look like this: We enclose our statement of account for all the transactions during August.. or to acknowledge and allow credit for goods returned by the buyer. here is a statement: George Brown & Co. thereafter.. If payment is made within 14 days you may reduce the customary cash discount of 2 '/i %. usually one month. then a credit note is sent.8. a debit note may be sent for the amount of the undercharge. It starts with the balance owing to the beginning of the period.8. 100. 22.8. The closing balance shows the amount owing the date of the statement. amounts of invoices and debit notes issued are listed and amounts of any credit notes issued and payments made by the buyer are deducted. 25.. . If the supplier has overcharged the buyer.If the supplier has undercharged the buyer. Invoice no 312.25 330.81 Debit note 6..11 Credit note 3.53 rendered 12.00 327. A debit note is a supplementary invoice.8.. If a covering letter is sent.8. Credit notes are issued to buyers when they return either goods (as they are not suitable) or packing materials on which there is a rebate.30 334. A debit note is sent by the supplier to a buyer who has been undercharged in the original invoice. Statements are sent without a covering letter. Statement of accounts It is a demand for payment. It is a summary of the transactions between buyer and supplier during the period it covers. $ $ $ 115.
Sometimes the supplier reports the unpaid statement: We are enclosing our September statement. Money orders are used for amounts up to £ 50 for the payment abroad.) POSTAL ORDERS and MONEY ORDERS (the latter for foreign payments only). cash (coins and notes) 2. The cheque received from you. Payment is made in the currency of the country of payment at the current rate of exchange. Postal orders are used for small sums of money. totaling £ 820. We should appreciate early settlement of the total amount now due. 27 only. there are many methods of payment: 1. leaving the unpaid balance of £ 60 now brought forward. This is used by senders who have no bank account or giro.57. We sincerely hope that in future dealings you will be able to keep to pure terms of payment. Upon payment of the charge for a telegram. was drawn for £ 500. money orders may be telegraphed. Net cash for payment within one month. British postal orders and money and money orders are issued and paid in many countries abroad.% discount for payment within 10 days. We grant this request as an exceptional measure only because of the promptness with which you have settled your accounts in the past. payment through the POST OFFICE a. The opening balance brought forward is the amount left uncovered by the cheque received from you against our August statement. The supplier replies: Having carefully considered your letter of 8 August. which totaled £ 560. A person sending a money order should ask the payee for a receipt since there is no evidence of payment. Giro is the term used to the postal cheque system run by post in most Western European 147 .) GIRO TRANSFER. we take this opportunity to remind you that they are as follows: 2 '/.27. b. we have decided to allow you to defer payment of your account to the end of August. As you do not seem to have been clear about them. Methods of payment In settling the accounts.
the buyer pays for the goods at the time they are handed over by the carrier (this includes the postal system).countries and Japan.e. 148 . c.) COD system. Anyone can receive or make a deposit of money whether or not they should hold a giro account. Apart from cash transaction giro transfer or postal cheque is a means of payment. It means cash on delivery. i.
storage and insurance is another source of complainment. Keep in mind the indispensable you attitude and see the matter from the customer's side in addition to your own. suspicion. The seller may complain because of unreasonable amounts claimed from them by the buyers and also when the latter fail to open a L/C in time or place a vessel under loading. Non observance of the buyer's instructions for the transportation. date of shipment etc. courtesy and reasonableness are the compulsory elements. sarcasm. non-delivery or short shipments of goods or delivery of wrong or damaged goods. Make clear what is wrong and how you 149 . packing. When writing complaints. conciseness. Clarity.) • a reference to former satisfactory dealings between the two parties or to the firm's high reputation in the world market • a request for a careful investigation of the matter and reasonable remedy of the mistake or a suggestion how the complaint should be adjusted satisfactorily • a warning or a threat to cancel the order or the contract if there are constant and prolonged delays or frequent errors in carrying out the order. or inadvertencies in the documents. A letter of complaint should contain: • a writer's regret of being obliged to make a complaint • a clear and concise account of what is wrong with the goods supplied • the data necessary to identify the commodity in question (number of contract.Complaints Concerning delivery quality It may happen that one of the parties (the buyer or the seller) does not respect certain clauses of the contract so the dissatisfied party sends the other one a letter of complaint containing a demand for something which the sender of the letter has a right to claim for (damage or for a reduction in the price). The buyers complain because of late delivery. or goods not up to the sample or description. irritation. avoid any expressions indicating anger. Warnings or cancellation the order and getting supplies from elsewhere should not be used too liberally as they will only create bad feelings and in any cases would be quite unnecessary.
please phone us and we shall see what we can do to this end to expedite delivery to our premises. types of containers. We remain yours sincerely. Make sure of your facts and get them down accurately. Everyday delay means loss and inconvenience for us. shapes. If all these are made clear. Use such closing formulae as: We are sure you will give this matter your prompt attention. indicate that you expect a reasonable attitude on the part of the firm. In any event we shall expect a call from you on Monday..../ We are sure you won't disappoint us in meeting this reasonable request. then you make easy the task of your partner to verify the claims and make the just adjustments. Be courteous! Be concise in order to make me presentation as clear as possible! It is important to be reasonable in demands for an adjustment. trade names or numbers of models. sizes.B Re: Inferior Quality It is with great regret that we have to inform you that your 150 . If this shipment is on route.X. Be specific in setting forth the nature of loss or inconvenience you have suffered. methods of shipment. we shall expect you to ship it rush. Dear Mr. Be precise about the dates. Most firms want to be fair if only to maintain a good reputation and they will react favorably to a reasonable approach. These goods were offered for the pre holdery sales period now in full swing. Awaiting your call. please cancel the entire order.want it adjusted. If the orders have been held up because you are unable to ship certain items immediately. Unfair demands may arouse suspicion of your claims. Re: Delay in Delivery In your acknowledgement of our order given to you on 19 September. prolong investigations and delay adjustments. If the order has not been shipped yet. Dear Mrs. In closing. quantities. you stated that the consignment would be dispatched within a week and we are therefore very surprised that the merchandise has not arrived yet. please phone us and we shall instruct you as to what items we can wait for and what items we may have to cancel. If you do not get in touch with us before Tuesday.
P. wrong goods received We received the documents and took delivery of the goods on arrival of the SS "M" at P. As we need the articles we ordered to complete deliveries to our own customers. also one from cloth of an early consignment. Ref. so that you can compare the two and see the difference in texture. Everything appears to be correct and in good condition except in case no. We are much obliged to you for the prompt execution of this order. 10 and you shall be glad if you will check this with our order and the copy of your invoice. Yours sincerely Dear Mr. We have always been able to rely on the high quality of the materials you sent us and we are all disappointed in this case because we supplied the cloth to new customers. The material seems to be too loosely woven and is inclined to put out of shape. Please let us know what you wish to do with it Yours sincerely Contracts A contract is an agreement between two partners that will act according to the law. 1O Unfortunately when we opened this case we found it contained completely different articles. As we shall have to take it back. and we can only presume that a mistake was made and the contents of this case were for another order. the small companies are to use the written ones. The companies use these agreements for the guarantee they offer regarding all the important elements of the business. We attach a list of the contents of case nr. By separate mail we have sent you a cutting from this material. we must ask you to arrange for the dispatch of replacements at once.last delivery is not up to your usual standard. we must ask you to let us know. without delay what discount you are prepared to allow us to get over this difficulty. Though the oral agreements are applied according to the Romanian laws. The written form of an agreement makes clear everything and each 151 . In the meantime we are holding the a/m case at your disposal.
Final form of the agreement The present agreement is the only one between X and Y. either oral or written. . has no compulsory force but the clauses included in the present agreement.partner has in mind his obligations and responsibilities. This agreement may be modified only if the modification is done in a written form and is signed by X and Y. Clauses necessary for complex agreements. These fundamental agreements may require different modifications according to the topics debated. The written contract may be used for the interpretation of the way this law is applied.Giving up the rights The fact that X or Y does not insist on an exact fulfillment and according to the present agreement must to practice any options he (or she) has. Though we must underline a fact: not always the shortest agreement is the best. If the partners do not use a certain clause and the Romanian law has no special reference to it. General clauses Standard clauses required for any type of agreement Any type of agreement requires the following standard clauses such as: . in certain transactions. 152 . Any other previous declaration or agreement. Romanian firms prefer short contracts no matter how complex the transactions are. does not mean that the respective partner gives up to the rights he (or she) has according to any of the clauses of the present agreement • Partial invalidation If the courts declare or establish that a part (or clause) of the present agreement is repealed or may be put into practice the parts (or clauses) that were not put into debate keep their compulsory character between X and Y (each agreement should make reference to the registration number of the firm in the Register of Commerce). the courts may refer to the general principles of the commercial law.
but turns it into a very expensive one. the consequences of this event for putting into practice the respective agreement. The transfer should be done according to the law. made very expensive the fulfilling of one of the partners. Exceptions are the cases when the agreements have foreseen such clauses.TRANSFER OF THE AGREEMENT It is frequently used. It does not stop the agreement. Such unforeseeable events are considered war. legal restrictions. and any other event that is not under the control of the partner. None of the partners of the present agreement should transfer the rights and obligations of this agreement to the other partner. The partner that gives up is "cedent" and the one who gets is "cedar". It is advisable to add: the provisions of the present article are not applicable in the case when\ an event. each partner has the right to announce the other one that the respective agreement ceases to exist without having the right to claim damages. without stopping the achieving of the agreement. one partner offers (transfers) the rights to a third partner. the conditions that may be called upon. notification procedure for producing it.There are certain clauses that are included in the commercial agreements. If in due time. • Typical clauses: Force majeure It is the force majeure clause (that includes the casual or fortuitous case). Romanian Civil Law admits the transfer of rights but due to its "silence" we may understand that it accepts the transfer of obligation too. natural calamities. It means that an unforeseeable event may appear in the moment when the agreement is signed. either partially or totally. The partner that makes reference to this event is obliged to let the other partner know about it as well as all the measures used for limiting it. the respective event does not cease to exist. one of the types described. The written agreement should be offered to the ''cedent" in maximum …days since the date the "cedent" required the "cedat" 's acknowledgement In the case the "cedat" does not answer in the already 153 . The legislation of some countries knows the "unforeseeable" event. They are presented in this chapter. . strikes.
In such cases. In the meaning of the present agreement. In the case the communications is by mail. establishing modifications of the initial agreement or ways of solving controversies without writing them.CEASING OF AN AGREEMENT 154 . the communication is in the form of a fax or telex. The oral communications are not taken into consideration by either of the partners if they are not confirmed by one of the already mentioned ways from the present article. it is considered to be received by the addressee in the first -working day following the one used for sending it. .(to avoid the risk of a possible abusive attitude of the debtor. the partners may foresee cases when the cedat' s denial is considered non relevant for "cedent").given interval of time. in many cases.NOTIFICATION CLAUSE This clause is important as. In the situation that a clause or a part of the agreement is considered null. . the clauses that are still valid will continue to act. The main obligations of the present agreement are considered to be the fallowing ones: (and they are presented) . In the case. exception is the case when the cancelled clause (or act) contains the main obligation. it is considered that the "cedent" agrees with the transfer of the agreement . we come to the situations when no written form exists. the partners of an agreement inform themselves orally.AGREEMENT DIVIDING The Romanian jurisdiction has a principle according to which cancelling a part of a juristic fact does not bring about the nullity of the whole fact but the activity has demonstrated that cancelling certain clauses makes impossible the continuation of the respective agreement. any notification or communication addressed by a partner to the other is considered fulfilled if it is transmitted to the latter at the above mentioned address at the beginning of the agreement. it should be done in the form of a registered letter that is considered to be received by the addressee in x days since the sending of the post office.
in the moment when any of the parts: . insolvency or brings about the winding up before beginning the fulfillment of the agreement (in the case of physical persons.or transfers the right and obligations after he (or she) has been announced that any situation of this kind will bring about the cancelling of the agreement in maximum x days. the partner does not execute or executes the obligations. There are two variants: either the obligations of two parts are fulfilled at once or cancelling an agreement implies that the obligations of at least one partner are fulfilled step by step (gradually). It makes reference to the specific of the commercial law of offering the partners the right of real agreement clauses: The modification of the present agreement may be only 155 . winding up means the death of a partner or being under an interdiction) .does not fulfill an obligation considered to be essential for the present agreement (see the dividing clause) or it is considered to be in the incapacity of paying. The present agreement ceases to exist without the intervention of the courts.FINAL PROVISIONS IN the present situation. since the date of the non fulfillment of the obligations. the third paragraph contains a note less frequent in our law. The cancelling won 't have any effect on the obligations that are already developed between partners. one of the partners demonstrates that he has not fulfilled the obligations while the other one has already done or is ready to do it. in a suitable way. . In both cases. The provisions of this article do not reject the responsibility of the partner that has brought about the ceasing of the agreement. The partner that requires the cancelling of the agreement will announce the partner about this fact with minimum x days in advance.The ceasing of an agreement implies the appearance of a clause that makes impossible the fulfillment of the agreement or its cancelling.
either before or after the agreement signing. The present agreement. having the agreement of the partners. . in four copies. located at _____ (address). (A) signs the present agreement in order to keep confidential the received information. This fact imposes the partner to behave accordingly so the two partners are obliged to keep secret the information under discussion. . This information should have a strict confidential character. Having in view this. Part one Part two (the name of the partners. (A) binds itself to 156 . the name and quality of the man who signs are presented in the contract) PROVISIONS REGARDING THE CONFIDENTIAL CHARACTER There is a practice to ask your partner some information concerning the business you want to have together. In the case when one of the partners. does not respect an obligation.Object of agreement (F) wants a conclusion (or settlement) with (B) and (A) wants certain information about (B) which the latter has (or possesses). . (G) wants (A) to keep all the information secret. two of them have been given to … _ . the non.Confidential information The information regarding (B).in a written form. represent the wishes of the partners and reject any oral agreement between them.practising of the right of fulfilling accordingly or by agreement of the respective obligation by the injured partner does not mean that the latter has given up the respective right The present agreement has been drawn today.GENERAL STATEMENT This agreement is made on (date) between (A) located at (address) and _ _ (B). together with modifications and schedules.
in a written form. (A).keep secret.the information was revealed after (B) has got the written approval for receiving it or information was already known by everybody 157 . its products.Interdiction of discussing the information (B) will present confidential information only to the persons that are involved in the negotiation and/or presentation of its commercial reports with (A).Penalties for the case of the non corresponding use of the information or of its revealing If (A) infringes any obligations foreseen in Articles 4 & 5. administrators. means of manufacturing.Exoneration of responsibilities (A) will be exonerated of the responsibilities for revealing information about (B) if: . administrators. lawyer. The information contains the following documents (B) will offer to (A).Interdiction of using the information (A). data concerning. its aims of doing business.Duration The present agreement comes into force till…exception is the case when any of the two parts informs the other. lawyer. .the information was already known by (A) before being got by (B) or . patents any other information concerning (B) and has importance for its position on the market. of the agreement. . It contains the financial situation of (B). managers. it ix obliged to pay (B) a damage in value of . its managers. solicitors. the canceling in advance. . representatives. accountants won't reveal the confidential information to any other partner but in the case (B) approves it in a written form. solicitors. representatives.(A) has got the information from a non confidential source from (B) or . accountants. . employees will use the information got from (B) only for deciding the conclusion of a commercial report with (B) and will not even use either of the information in any occasion.
indicating the name if you know it • create the impression of personal interest by using you never our clients.no one has time to read long stories • make the letters as personal as they can be (address each letter to a particular person. it is important to suggest an interest in the recipient by giving a personal touch. Address yourself directly to someone using formulas such as: You will appreciate.. customers. We are pleased to inform you. It may get some more information such as names. A circular letter is written once. 158 . As evidenced by signatures below. addresses and individual salutations so it gets a more personal character..before or (A) was legally obliged to reveal the information . These kind of letters are used when sales campaigns are developing. The next rules are to be taken into consideration: • it must be brief . at the request of (B).Restoring the information At the date when the present agreement has ceased to exist. when there are important developments in business such as extensions. this agreement has been signed today A B name name position position SPECIAL BUSINESS LETTERS Circular Letters Circular letters are frequently used to offer the same information to different people. re organizations. (A) will return all the confidential information (B) has given to (A) together with all the copies.. Circulars are sent to many people. everyone. changes of addresses etc. then it is duplicated in order to be distributed to the customers. all customers..
. and a special celebration offer of 10% discount will be allowed on all purchases made by the first 50 customers. The content is already written but you have to introduce the name of your customer in order to give the personal touch to the letter.We hope you will visit our new department during opening week and give us the opportunity to show you that it maintains the reputation enjoyed by our other departments for giving sound value for money. Our new department will carry an extensive range of hardware and other domestic goods at prices which compare very favorably with those charged by other suppliers. Expansion of business takes place in your company. Xt To meet the growing demand for hardware and general store in this area..You will be interested to learn. so write a circular. Opening a new business you have to let the others know about it: We are pleased to announce the opening of our new retail store at the above mentioned address on Monday 1 September. 10 June. We hope we may look forward to your being one of them. The official opening of our new department will take place on the following Monday. Our new store will open at 8 am on Monday 1 September. we have decided to extend our business by opening a new department.. You are to have a new branch in another town (or country).. Inform everybody about it: Owing to a large increase in the volume of our trade 159 . and are therefore arranging a special window display during the week beginning 3 June. you have to inform your customers about them. Mrs Victoria Chadwick has been appointed Manager. and with her experience of the trade. If you visit our new showroom you will see. we are sure that the goods supplied will be of sound quality and reasonably priced. Dear Mr. If some changes take place in your business. announce it to everybody. We would like to demonstrate our new merchandise to you.
X Manager Tyler & Co Ltd 18 Hussein Avenue Amman We take the opportunity to express our thanks for your custom in the past. and hope these new arrangements will lead to even higher standards in the service we provide. enabling deliveries to be made promptly. It also provides scope for higher methods of production which will increase output and also improve even further the quality of our goods. and from that date all orders and enquiries should be sent to: Mr. possibilities of arriving there. and from 1 March our new address will be the following: Unit 15 Chorley Industrial Stale Grange Road Chorley Lines CH 2 4W Phone 3521689 Fax 3421768 This new site is served by excellent transport facilities both by road and rail.with the Kingdom of Jordan. This new branch will open on I May. with Mr. Because of different reasons you are supposed to change the address of your offices. write a circular indicating the new address. We have much appreciated your custom in the past and confidently expect to be able to offer you improvements in service when the new factory moves into full production. -we have decided to open a branch in Amman. You already know that circulars are used to announce the changes that take place in the membership of a partnership. We look forward to a continuing good business relationship with you. 160 . Although we hope we have provided you with an efficient service in thepast. We have been fortunate in acquiring a good site on the new industrial estate at Chorley.l The steady growth of our business has made necessary an early move to| new and larger premises. this new branch in your country will result in your orders and enquiries being dealt with more promptly. X.
If they are in a printed form. they should maintain your attitude and avoid clichés. Harold West. to request an information or to supply it. All the other changes are to be announced to the partners you have. Often the person who gets a memo knows everything about a situation but the position the boss has adopted towards it for that moment. and the amount of the firm's capital will therefore remain unchanged We will continue to trade under the name of West. have small words. but also for debts contracted with old creditors in retirement. Retirement of a partner is announced like this: Dear X. this is particularly important since they remain liable not only for debts contracted by the firm during membership. Their target is to confirm a conversation. Webb & Co. We regret to inform you that our senior partner. We trust that the confidence you have shown in our company in the past will continue and that we may rely on your continued custom . has decided to retire on 31 May due to recent extended ill-health. MEMORANDUMS Memorandums are part of the correspondence. For a retiring partner. The memo does not give any 161 . and there will be no change in policy. to transmit documents. to announce changes in a company's policy. The withdrawal of West's capital will be made by contributions from the remaining partners.We shall certainly do everything possible to ensure that our present standards of service are maintained. they are a kind of letters that are carrying messages inside an organization (from an office to another one). they should have some paragraphs presented in a clear and well organized way. to report meetings. short sentences. The correct signature on such letters is that of the name of the firm. Mr.suppliers and customers. without the addition of any partner's name. to clarify a previous message. to congratulate someone.
Southolt SJ4 7DB. Tell David that if he wants to discuss anything. Could you find out what's going on? Write a memo under my name. A memo has an introductory part that is to be presented: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager. says to you: We 've got problems with our delivery dates. and I'll be away for a week. write a memo on the following subject: Europart Ltd. Peter Henig. only the capital letters of the writer's name are added. sometimes even a week to get here. the Warehouse Manager at Southolt.000 different parts.. Hanover) Date: 2. it comes directly to the point. See if there are any problems at his end that he 's sorting out or if there's anything we can do to help.the customer gets 20% discount. Tell him what problem we have and ask him what he's going to do about it.there's a plenty of competition if our want to look elsewhere.and 1 know it's not easy to handle about 50. But be tactful. That's one of our main selling points. We're not the only people distributing vehicle parts . He is usually very good . distributes parts for motor vehicles from its branches through Europe. But get him to say when we 're going to get a normal service. You work in the Hanover branch. Send it by fax to David Walsh.2007\ TO: David Walsh (Warehouse Manager. Having in mind these general rules. Well we 've been having to offer a lot too many discounts on parts we have got from Southolt . Southold) SUBJECT: delayed deliveries Number of pages: I The memo has the paragraphs and has no salutation formulas.11. I’m off to a conference today.they often take 3 days. You know we guarantee delivery of any vehicle part to the shop here within 48 hours of a customer placing an order . Is our ordering clear enough? Or perhaps he should charge his express courier. Frilford Industrial Estate. of Unit 26. It's not too good enough. or he can wait until I get back 162 . Your manager. he can talk to you.explanation.
Decide on the correct tone of the memo. Make a list of the points that are going to be present in the memo.So this is the text that is to be changed into a memo and sent to David. Decide what relevant. Read the questions twice at least: get the general idea what it is about. neatly cross it out the point when you have finished referring to it. Order the points logically in paragraphs. do the following 1. The sender is quite angry but a tactful memo will produce a better impression than an aggressive one. Check your work for accurate English! If you discover any errors. What exactly are you asked to do? WRITE A TACTFUL MEMO TO A MEMBER OF THE STAFF 2.AT THE BOTTOM. 5. ON THE TOP.2007 163 . 4. 6. a memo. you may put the sender's initials but NEVER a signature. neatly cross them out and add the correction. He wants the problem be solved but he doesn't want to hurt Peter. you are supposed to write: FROM: (sender's name and/or position in the company) TO: (addressee's name and/or position in company) DATE: (the date the memo is written) SUBJECT: (very briefly. Relevant material should be included in a memo. we may have the following memo: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager. you should also indicate the number of pages . Layout. what the memo is about) If you are sending the memo by fax. Obeying all these rules. Peter Henig is not satisfied with David's work. If you use your answer book to make your list. Hanover) Date: 2. leave out all the unnecessary elements is. take into account all the points that appear in the question. Read your memo right through! Make sure that you have included all the problems 8.11. Before writing it. 3. Write your answer 7. correctly. study it into details.
some take a week to get here.Otherwise. some other exercises are offered.In fact.finally.1 know it is not a simple thing to stock so many parts. and your warehouse usually performs very well indeed. all the headings required in a memo b) content and effectiveness: . Here they are: 1. Southolt) SUBJECT: Delayed deliveries I am sending this by fax because I am off to a conference today and will not be able to call you before I go. without wasting the words. 164 .TO:David Walsh (Warehouse Manager.it is tactful (Walsh is not responsible for late. Henig suggests a talk on his return from the conference Once the problem of Peter Henig is solved. and cigarette ash and paper wrappings are left on the floor and tablecloths. Henig praises his normal performance) logical order of the points the opening paragraph explains.possible reasons for late deliveries are given . The problem is this: many of our orders from Southolt are arriving late . why Henig is writing to Walsh and not trying to call him MAIN POINT OF THE MEMO: late delivery . I will be happy to talk things after my return. under my name to staff. arrival of parts. That means we are having to give our 20% discount to a large number of customers . But we need to sort this out Are there any problems at your end at present? Is your courier working normally ?Or is there anything we can do to help? Do please contact (write your own name here) if there are any points you wish to raise this week. PH Comments on the model: a) layout.and some of them may soon start looking elsewhere. I have received complaints from the Canteen Supervisor about the way the staff leave the canteen after lunch break Many of them do not return their trays to the canteen staff. Your Office Manager says to you: I want you to write a Memo.
giving the organization of the necessary information which you base decisions on. If order is important. Any report should tell how a project is going. allow a triple space above headings and above and below lists. clear in meaning. presents facts. no double space is allowed between paragraphs.obviously caused by a cigarette . how 165 . there was a large burn in a tablecloth .Don't write long paragraphs (about 100 words). underlining capital letters. If it is typed double space. . How do we lay out such a report? We must maintain one inch margin all around when typing. Enclose graphics in boxes. The subject should be readable. Type single space but allow a double space between paragraphs. It makes you think in terms of the purpose or function. staff must report to the Canteen Supervisor. above and below. 1 hope 1 do not have to remind them about this again.. You may catch your reader's attention by using italics. If you put it in a binder.Last Friday. simple ones. graphics. phrases stand out. Reports carry information to those who want it and need it. avoid all the unnecessary words. is the language accepted by a specific group. use Arabic numbers (1. REPORT Writing reports is an important part of your work. There are periodic reports which record the work over a specific period of time. Keep all these in mind when you are planning to write a report. The canteen staff are grumbling about this -1 sympathize with them. Tel! staff that must keep their canteen clean: it doesn 't take much time. they should be put vertically on the page. Sentences must be short. if there are any accidents in the canteen. use bullets (■) or dashes (-). A report informs and analyses. leave 5 cm of margins on the left hand side. The language the report is written in. By the way.but nobody reported it. If the sequence of a list is random or arbitrary. long quotations.2.).. Use typographical elements to make words. It gets to know your audience and their needs. inform you what you have found out including little or no commentary and interpretation.
arranged in a logical order. The table of contents presents the content of a report and the list of figures and tables present the location of graphics and tables. Here it is an example: you work for a department store. The body is the longest part of the report. audience. gives an overall appraisal of the progress to date. the work that had been planned. lists of figures. content. footnotes. So you are 166 . subheads. The report has an introduction that explains the period of work covered by it. There are no strict rules that are to be obeyed for its writing. The final part stresses the most important ideas. it assesses the progress to date. The conclusions explain what work is planned for the future. summarize the major points and state the conclusions and recommendations. its author. preface. LEAFLET It is a document that informs people about different important things. subject. it is folded and free of charge advertising/ providing information about something. coverage etc. condensed and state the most important ideas of the report(not more than 150-200 words). quotations. explaining the subject. tables.much has been completed and how much is left. the authority to do the work. graphics. you are planning the summer sale which will last from 2nd till 20th July and are supposed to write a leaflet announcing all the merchandises for sale. purpose scope. 20-24 rue Babilon. name position and the date you submitted the report. It has a body which provides a detailed account of what has been accomplished and how. uses heads. The abstracts are brief. The preface is identical to the letter of transmittal and has statement about purposes. COTY. appendices. Pages are numbered in small roman numbers and the title page shows the title of a report. But it should catch the reader’s attention and must contain an address and date. it has a detailed message. date.The introduction contains the general idea of the report topic in a few paragraphs. abstracts – identify the report. plan and order of the presentation. acknowledgement of assistance received. letter of transmittal. table of contents.The preparatory elements: title page. The reports may have supplemental elements such as: lists of references / bibliographies. scope. located in 67894 Paris.
it is formal and impersonal. The shop address is presented. open 10-7. but it must be dated and include the name of the person who wrote it. date of the sales and even a map can be added. 67894 Paris (phone 0023456789). An example may be this one: The BEST of Paris is at COTY… It is a price any can afford! Treat yourself at this summer sale.6 from Place Pigale or tram no. Take Bus no. 20-24 rue Babylon. It is closed for the national holiday – 14July. place. date. easy to read. no particular layout is required. the leaflet should attract the readers. It tells you very important things. The notice should apologize and suggest alternatives. It should be simple. six days/week. NOTICE A notice is a simple letter that offers an information about something that happens and all customers should know.12 from Louvre.supposed to inform the people about all the products ready for sale during this interval of time. 2nd – 20th of July inclusive Our English speaking staff helps you to find what you want… a very good price 30% off brads of perfume 40% of leather bags 50% off men’s and women’s summer fashions There a re a lot of goods anybody needs. phone number. It must catch the people’s attention. address. COTY. 2-20 May 2008 167 . The writer may take a large place so that all the information is spread all over in order to catch the reader’s eye. Decide the order you present the material. even tram/ bus numbers are to be indicated. Here is an example: HOTEL RESTAURANT Closure.
and impersonal. Write out the minutes fully from your notes. Breakfast will be served as usual in the bar area. the name of the person making the motions. secretary…) • time the meeting was open • action of the group. Max Smith Manager 20 April 2008 The notice has a clear heading at the top. A cold buffet lunch will be served in the bar area on these days. seconding the motions. the name and the position of the person who wrote it. quite formal. A minute is a record of what was done. but dinner will not be served during this period. It should contain the following ideas: • name of the group holding the meeting • kind of meeting(special. It is written by the secretary who is supposed to record the meeting as well as she can. give them to the chairman for distribution. What you write should be written objectively and factually without your opinions being reflected. the members and how each voted 168 . MINUTE The minute is an official record of the actions taken by a group. stating exactly what motions were made and their position.20th of May because of repairs to the floor. We apologize to guests for any inconvenience caused to you. It contains all the necessary information. The tone is correct. the date. Guests will find a number of restaurants close to the hotel. with the necessary apology for the inconvenience caused to the guests. regular) • date and place of the meeting • subject of the meeting • names of the persons attending the meeting(chairperson.We regret that the hotel restaurant will be closed from 2 .
• the minutes of the previous meeting were accepted • • • • as read A. summarized the status of work…. chairman S. V. believes that….B. 169 .P.P. S.• • time of adjournment and the time of the next meeting signature of the secretary and of the chairman Here is an example: Hilton & Hilton Minute of a regular meeting of the committee on new construction April. secretary S.. the next regular meeting is scheduled for 20th May at 2p. • There being no other business.. secretary LETTERS OF APPLICATION A letter of application is a letter that sells yourself. reported that …. b y presenting your past records and testimonials. V.. you must convince the employer about your capacity of doing the job and you must reach the target: get an interview and then get the job. By applying for a job. chairman S.O.K. 2nd 2008 Subject: review of items of work on the X Hotel Attendees: A. says that… L. L. A.m.. you must arouse interest in your qualifications.V.m.m.B. the chairman closed the meeting at 3p. Agenda: • the meeting was opened by the chairman at 1p..O.V.V.K..
First. Ensure that your application is well typed. give a lot of information in as few words as possible. do not state the figures you expect. you must get the interview. but take the originals along with you to the interview.Job application letter is difficult to be written as it is not always known whom are you writing to. you can get much information about the adviser. just indicate the number of years and indicate the company you worked for. Read the requirements for the post carefully and in the reply you must state clearly which are you able to fulfill. The letter should be brief. do so. Write sincerely. Avoid generalizing. DO NOT DUPLICATE this information in your letter. read it carefully and ask yourself the following questions: • Does it look like a good business letter? • Is the opening paragraph in the position to interest the employer enough to make him read the whole letter? • Does it suggest that I am interested in that kind of work that is advertised? Send the letter only if the answer to these questions are 170 . If your main interest is the salary. show a proper appreciation of your abilities. From it. Do not send original documents. If you are asked to state the salary you expect to get. The purpose of your letter is to get the job. Answer the advertisement fully. write an application as short as possible and state that your curriculum vitae is enclosed. do not omit any element. qualifications. Do not suggest that you are looking for a new job because you are bored of the one you already have. education. send just copies with your application. in a friendly tone but not familiar. neatly presented and make your application stand for the rest. Your curriculum vitae must give all the details of your personal background. Study the advertisement carefully. As the employers are busy and have little time for long correspondence. experience. but first. The tone of the letter must show keenness for the post. try to offer them the most concise of what is important no matter how important that information seems to be for you. mention just you are earning now. Do not make exaggerated claims. After having written the letter.
Bob Smith Personnel Manager Leyland& Bailey Nelson Works Southampton 23EF Dear Mr. I have a wide range of responsibilities. In this kind of letter. indicating all kind of information in very brief sentences) In my present job of Private Secretary to the General Manager at a manufacturing factory. the writer’s address is placed on the top right corner of the letter. (the next paragraph must contain a reference to what the applicant is doing for the time being. Smith Ref. Place the date at the right. dealing with callers and correspondence in my employer’s absence. to Private Secretary to Managing Director I was interested to see your advertisement in today’s DAILY TELEGRAPH. Here is an example: 23 Oxford Street 8 April 2008 London ER 34 Mr. These include attending and taking minutes of meetings and interviews. Your letter is an answer to a newspaper advertisement or journal.YES (for this you must put yourself in the position of the employer). so the name of it must be mentioned in the opening paragraph or in the subject heading. These are only some pieces of advice that are to be taken into account before writing an application letter. as well as the 171 . all the details are written at the left. supervising junior staff. in fully blocked style. and I would like to be considered for the job.
(the motivation is given. The letter may have a paragraph that indicates some names of persons who can be contacted in order to give references for the new employer .usual secretarial duties. (the letter is ended in a very polite way) I hope to hear from you soon. no reference to income is made as nothing was mentioned in the advertisement. together with copies of my testimonials. education. which are not used in my present post. and I would welcome the opportunity that would afford me to use my language abilities. The letter is supposed to be accompanied by a curriculum vitae and testimonials. qualifications and working experience. My present employer will be pleased to furnish you with any further information you may require. you are obliged to mention the documents you are enclosing for supporting your ideas) A copy of my curriculum vitae is enclosed giving further details. and will confirm that I am leaving his employ reluctantly and with the sole desire to improve my present knowledge of foreign languages. It should be presented in an attractive form so that all the information can be seen at a glance. and to be given the opportunity to present myself at an interview. All the details are to be presented on two pages not more. The former should present all the personal details. particularly interests me. Here is a pattern: CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Christian Name: Johnson Thomas 172 . (you have to make reference to the job you are intending to get) The kind of work in which your company is engaged.
London Interests Published books Referees 1. these are addressed TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. Principal. As far as the testimonials.Address: Telephone.X. They should contain the following details of the employee: 173 . e-mail Date of birth Nationality Marital status 24 Main Road Middleford Essex Education School from…to College from…to University from…to Results obtained Degrees and/ or other post school qualifications Postgraduate qualifications Special awards Working experience September 2000 to … Hoyle. Dr. the originals are retained. only copies are given. Redford College February 18. 2000 signature engineer Bains. They are given by the previous employer if they are requested.V.
used her best endeavors at all times to perform her work consciously and expeditiously.• Duration of employment • Post(s) held • Duties carried out • Work attitude • Personal qualities • A recommendation TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Miss X. meticulous in the layout.B. Miss X. sociable and quick to share in a joke. an accurate and quick shorthand typist. I can recommend her highly and may be contacted for further information. BANKING / HOME BUSINESS Commercial banks offer four main services: • Accept customers’ deposits 174 . was employed as Shorthand Typist in this company. which did not in any way detract from very high standards she set for herself. presentation and accuracy of her work. friendly. and supervising and advising junior secretaries. (Recommendation). She was an excellent secretary. I cannot overstress her exceptional work rate.B. she has the necessary character. She was very personable. (working attitude) She enjoyed good health and was a good time keeper. transcribing minutes. (personal qualities) In my opinion. as well as attending meetings. dedication and approach to be suitable for the position of personal secretary or to enter the teaching profession. when she left the secretarial college in June 20… She was promoted to my Personal Secretary in…(duration of employment) Her responsibilities included the usual secretarial duties involved in such a post.
One of the signatures must be that of the Chairman or secretary and the other one that of any member of the Board. it was decided that cheques drawn on the Company’s account must bear two signatures instead of one as formerly. The bank requires a copy of the board’s resolution. Overdrafts are allowed to customer only by previous arrangement and as I noticed that your account has recently been running on a very small balance. yesterday. Dear Mr. perhaps 175 . Dear Mr… At the meeting of the Board yesterday. with specimen of their signature. it is a polite.• Pay cheques drawn on them by their customers • Grant advances to customers • Provide a payment mechanism for the transfer of funds between its customers and those of the other banks Correspondence between banks and customers is quite formal and standardized. This change takes place as today’s date. There have been no changes in the membership of the Board since specimen signatures were issued to you in September. On a number of occasions recently your account has been withdrawn. The bank manager sends a letter to a customer who has drawn too much from his account. was… and I should be glad if you would arrange for the credits necessary to clear this balance to be paid in as soon as possible. courteous letter indicating him the seriousness of an unauthorized overdraft. allowing the opening of an account and stating the manner in which cheques are to be signed. A certified copy of the Board’s resolution is enclosed. The amount overdrawn at close of business. Only the persons authorized by a company’s board of directors may sign cheques for the company. If so. it occurs to me that you may wish to come to some arrangement for overdraft facilities.
The bank replies: Dear Mr… Thank you for your letter of yesterday.you will call to discuss the matter. Perhaps you will suggest a day and time when it would be convenient for me to call on you. When the payment of a cheque is stopped because of different reasons. the suppliers must approach their own bank not the buyer’s bank and ask them to make the necessary enquiries. Dear Mr… I am writing to confirm our telegram of this morning to ask you to stop payment of cheque number… for the sum of… drawn payable to the… This cheque appears to have been lost in the post and the further cheque has not been drawn to replace it. I am afraid it will not be possible to honor future cheques drawn against insufficient balances. I realize that this leaves only a small balance to my credit and as I am likely to be faced with fairly heavy payments in the coming months. When a buyer in seeking credit from a supplier gives the bank as a reference. As a rule. Please confirm receipt of this authority to stop payment. I am really in need of overdraft facilities up to about… for 6 months or so. payment is said to be countermanded. In the absence of such arrangement. It is contrary to banking custom to give information to private enquirer about its customers. I have recently entered into a number of very favorable contracts but they involve the early purchase of raw materials and as payments under the contracts will not be made until the work is completed. I should like to discuss arrangements for overdraft facilities. I have paid into my account cheques totaling…. Only the drawer of the cheque can countermand the payment and it is done by notifying the bank in writing. the information 176 .
When granting an advance to a personal customer. I now require a further loan to enable me to proceed with work under a contract with the… for building an extension to their King’s Road School. loan: The bank does not require security for the offered In… you were good enough to grant me a credit of… which was repaid within the agreed period. the bank may require some form of acceptable security. 10 Albert Street. shares. Would you be good enough to make enquiries and let us know whether the reputation and financial standing of the firm justify a credit of the above amount? The bank replies: As requested in your letter of… we have made enquiries as to the reputation and standing of the Sheffield firm mentioned. This information is supplied free from all responsibilities on our part. Normally a bank will not require security from a customer to support a personal loan. Interest on draft is charged on a daily basis. The supplier requests information from the bank: We have received an order for… from… of 19 Drake Street. mortgages of land and guarantees. The most common types of security accepted are life policies. while interest on a personal loan is calculated on the full amount borrowed. Sheffield as a reference.supplied in answer to such request is brief and formal and less personal than the obtainable through a trade reference. They ask for credit and have given the Commonwealth Bank. easy for a bank to obtain a good legal title and it should be readily marketable. I need the loan to purchase building materials at a cost 177 . The security should be easy to value. The directors are reported to be efficient and reliable and a credit of… is considered sound. London. The firm was established in 1956 and its commitments have been met regularly.
The request may be with security: I am considering a large extension of business with several firms in Japan and as the terms of dealings will entail additional working capital. I should be glad if you could grant me a loan of… for a period of…months. I have already taken steps forward to prepare for the repayment. sufficient cover for the loan. I have been faced with heavy unexpected payments. they should provide. At current market prices. I should be glad if you would arrange to grant me a loan of… for a period of. You would be able to rely upon repayment of the loan at maturity as apart from other income. but as my claim is unlikely to be settled before the end of the next month. a week ago. I have arranged to take into the business a partner. I will bring me evidence for supporting the above statement. I enclose a copy of my latest audited balance sheet and shall be glad to call at the bank at your convenience to discuss the matter.of about… The contract price is… payable immediately upon satisfactory completion of the work on or before 30 August next. who.. under the terms of partnership agreement. will introduce…. due to a fire at my warehouse. You already hold for safe keeping on my behalf….capital at or before time when I may call on you to discuss my request. you granted me a loan of… which is due for repayment at the end of this month. I should be glad if the period of loan could be extended until …. These I am willing to pledge as security. but unfortunately. I presume. I am sure you will realize that the fire has created serious problems and that repayment of the loan before settlement of my claim could be made only with the greatest difficulty. Damage from the fire is thought to be about… and is fully covered by insurance. months. The customer may require an extension of the loan: On …. TRANSPORT 178 .
while buyers have to contact agents or carriers in their own country when goods are to be collected from a harbor. A lot of letter writing concerning transport is between firms in the same country. These letters can get replies that sound like these ones: We have received your enquiry of… and can inform you that our current freight rate for … is $. during the next . but in other cases he will have to make enquiries: Please quote us your freight rate for cased cycles for shipment from … to…. We will sail once a week. The seller or the buyer has to know how much it will cost to have the goods delivered.. and is expected to commence loading on. at streamer’s option. by air and by land. and in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. The agent replies the second letter: In reply to your letter of…. per metric tone or 10 cubic meters.. it requires a lot of paperwork. the consignment has to be shipped by… at the latest. We are about to make up an order for a customer in… for .. and our shipping instructions form. to. airport or railway station.. Please inform us whether your ship will be able to meet our requirements and kindly quote us a rate for the voyage..months.. and as … is our first port of call. and let us know when you will be sailing to. We see no reason why your 179 . inclusive. he knows the normal freight rates and will keep informed of changes. If he is doing this regularly between two ports. we are pleased to inform you that the… will be receiving cargo from.. We would appreciate if you would complete and return the letter as soon as possible.Transporting goods can be done by sea. seller makes arrangements with forwarding agents or ship owners. Carriage by sea can be a complicated business since the buyer and seller are to observe a set of rules and regulations which have been made over the years. the voyage takes about …days. We will enclose our sailing card for … which loads at the …Docks.
/ of…. . If the rates are acceptable. have been handed to X Bank. When arrangements have been made for shipping the goods. and are making arrangements for our cycles to be delivered to the Docks.. both in triplicate. We are sure you will be more than satisfied with the cycles. shipped on board Bs/L2 in complete set.... Clean.. the consignor will send an advice note to the ship owner or agent. X Bank has have paid the sum. Airlines themselves complete the waybills on the basis of information provided by consignors. in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit opened with them. in a box. We have noted that your…is receiving cargo for. The document used for transport by air is called air way bill. of this month.goods should not be on board by this date. We are enclosing your shipping instructions form. The consignment is arriving at.. Thank you for your letter of. together with a commercial invoice and insurance certificate.. on the …. duly completed. on. We are pleased to inform you that the cycles ordered under the above number have been dispatched as arranged The cycles are packed in …cases. together with our sight draft for $. and look forward to hearing from you again. and are numbered 1-6. which sailed from …yesterday. the senders will write to the buyers to inform them that the merchandise is on the way... Details of the rates are enclosed. The cases are marked CVB in square. This communication is known as an advice of dispatch and the information is written instead. Shipping instructions are sent to the shipping company. it is like a B/L but it cannot be used to pass on the right of ownership to the goods. The consignor is required to prepare an airway bill giving particulars 180 .. on the. a form is sent together with a covering note: YOUR ORDER No…. but suggest that the cases should be delivered to the ship on the opening date.
insurance and our commission. Your consignment should be in our hands by 10 am on the morning of departure day.. 181 . Three copies of certificated commercial invoice and certificate of origin will also be necessary. we can then prepare to receive it and deal with it promptly. We shall have a consignment of… . It gets the following reply: Thank you for your enquiry regarding your consignment to… All our charges. are shown on the attached schedule. airways bill fee. To enable us to prepare our airway bill we shall need the information requested in the enclosed form.of the consignment. including freight.. Air cargo is charged by weight except the bulky commodities which are charged by volume. The airline or its agents prepare the airway bills from the details supplied by the consignor on a special form provided by the airline or by the forwarding agents. Please phone me when you are ready to deliver the consignment to our office at the airport. which we wish to send by air from… Please send us details of cost and any formalities to be observed. It consists of a number of copies. We hope to receive instructions from you. Valuables are subject to surcharge to cover extra handling costs. The invoice value of the consignment is… and we wish to get the insurance cover for this amount plus the costs of sending the consignment. for a customer in. Alternatively we can make arrangements to collect the goods. weighing about … kg.
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