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Vast Us Lateral is Oxygenation

Vast Us Lateral is Oxygenation

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Clin Physiol Funct Imaging (2005) 25, pp203–208

Vastus lateralis oxygenation and blood volume measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during whole body vibration
Eiji Yamada1, Takashi Kusaka2, Kensaku Miyamoto3, Satoshi Tanaka1, Shin Morita1, Shouichi Tanaka1, Shintarou Tsuji4, Satoshi Mori3, Hiromichi Norimatsu3 and Susumu Itoh5
Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, Japan, 2Maternal and Perinatal Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, Japan, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Shirotori Hospital, Kagawa, Japan and 5Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
1

Summary
Correspondence
Eiji Yamada, Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan E-mail: yamada@kms.ac.jp

Accepted for publication
Received 9 November 2004; accepted 5 April 2005

Key words
deoxygenated haemoglobin and myoglobin; vastus lateralis muscle; tonic vibration reflex; training; squatting

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on oxygenation of vastus lateralis muscle during squatting exercise. Eighteen male subjects [mean age, 27Æ3 ± 6Æ0 (SD) years; mean height, 171Æ8 ± 4Æ9 cm; mean weight, 64Æ4 ± 6Æ1 kg] performed squatting exercise on a vibration platform for 3 min with and without vibration, and changes in oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. The muscle oxygenation levels and total haemoglobin and myoglobin levels (total Hb/Mb) decreased during squatting exercise with and without vibration. After exercise, the muscle oxygenation level and total Hb/Mb rapidly increased from the minimum value during exercise and remained constant for latter 10 min. The muscle oxygenation levels with vibration from 90 to 180 s after the start of squatting exercise were significantly lower than those without vibration. Total Hb/Mb with vibration from 90 s after the squatting exercise to 540 s were significantly higher than those without vibration. This study demonstrated that WBV exercise affects the oxygenation level of vastus lateralis muscle and reduces muscle oxygenation level compared to that with no WBV. Therefore, WBV exercise may be an efficient training stimulus for muscle deoxygenation.

Introduction
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a new neuromuscular training method using physiological response to vibration stimuli and has been tested in several fields (Bosco et al., 1998, 1999, 2000; Rittweger et al., 2000; Rubin et al., 2001). It has been hypothesized that mechanical stimulation in the form of vibration to the human body is an efficient way to improve muscle strength, body balance and the mechanical component of bone. As for short-term effects of WBV exercise on muscle performance, previous studies have shown significant increases in isometric leg extension strength and in power and jump height after a single training session (Bosco et al., 1999, 2000) and also after 10 days of training (Bosco et al., 1998). As for the long-term effects on muscle performance, Torvinen et al. (2002, 2003) reported significant increases in jump height after 4 and 8 months of WBV training. It has been suggested that the effects of WBV on muscle performance are elicited via reflex muscle activation (Rittweger et al., 2000). This neuromuscular response has been named

‘tonic vibration reflex (TVR)’ and is able to cause an increase in recruitment of motor units through activation of muscle spindle and polysynaptic pathways (De Gail et al., 1966; Matthews et al., 1966; Seidel et al., 1998). A significantly higher level of electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis muscle was found in a half squat position during WBV than that in a nonvibrating condition (Cardinale et al., 2003). An increase in the level of muscle activity caused by WBV affects the cardiovascular system. Rittweger et al. (2001) reported that oxygen uptake during standing and squatting exercise with WBV was greater than that without WBV. Therefore, it is important to clarify the effects of WBV on muscle oxygen metabolism. The study of human muscle energetics has undergone radical change in recent years due to the development of non-invasive measurement techniques, including near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In NIRS, the differential absorption properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), especially wavelengths of 760 and 840 nm, are used to evaluate muscle oxygen content (Chance et al., 1992; Hamaoka et al., 1992; Shiga et al., 1997). NIRS detects the
203

Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25, 4, 203–208

k1¢. OMRON Inc. vibrating loading was carried out on a WBV platform (Galileo 900. E. The protocol was accepted by the local ethics committee. A pair of where K¼ DOD760 ¼ k2D½HbO2 Š þ k20 D½HbŠ. and none of them had chronic exposure to WBV as a result of their occupation. changes in total amount of haemoglobin.. two-wavelength light-emitting diodes. The vibration frequency was set to 15 Hz. k10 DOD840 ¼ in deoxy. The study protocols for the two conditions were the same except that the vibration platform vibrated during the squatting exercise with WBV. 171Æ8 ± 4Æ9 (SD) cm. 64Æ4 ± 6Æ1 kg] volunteered for this study. All of the subjects were fully informed about the nature of the experiments... Measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation by using NIRS might. k2 ð3Þ ð4Þ ðk1=k20 Þ k20 1=k2 ¼ : À ðk10 =k2Þ ðk1=k2Þ À ðk10 =k20 Þ D BV. 1997). 203–208 . Kyoto. was used as the light source. Thus. and the feet were placed 25 cm apart.. capillaries and intracellular sites (Chance et al.e. balance between oxygen supply and oxygen utilization in human skeletal muscle and enables measurement of muscle oxygenation in vessels. k1¢/k2¢ and k2/k2¢ can be experimentally determined by measuring the ratios of optical density changes in a fully muscle oxygenated state (oxy) and a fully muscle deoxygenated state (deoxy). 1995. i. Novotech. Japan). k2 and k2¢ are assumed to be constant. Measurements with and without vibration were performed at random. Tissue oximetry using NIRS is based on the modified Beer– Lambert law. The probe was placed over the belly of right vastus lateralis muscle. since WBV causes an increase in oxygen consumption due to an increase in the level of muscle activity. k2 DOD760 ð6Þ ð7Þ Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25. (1997) as follows. However. The following equations are used as basic equations: DOD840 ¼ k1D½HbO2 Š þ k10 D½HbŠ. there has been no study on changes in muscle oxygenation during WBV. although they are dependent upon absorption and scattering when the concentrations vary greatly. Squatting exercise was performed from almost complete extension of the knees to an angle of 60 ° for 3 min. It was hypothesized that WBV would result in greater muscle oxygenation decrease than that without WBV. Pforzheim. including possible risks and gave written informed consent for participation in the study. Shiga et al. 1992). The depth of penetration of the light from the surface of the skin was 1Æ5–2 cm (Okada et al. vibration loading was carried out during squatting exercise. The coefficients k1. 4. Germany) in the standing position. Each subject stood on the platform in bare feet and was instructed to move down over a period of 1 s. for estimation of the effects of WBV. The following equations are obtained from Eqs. ð1Þ Methods Subjects Eighteen males aged 20–39 years [mean height. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of WBV on oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle during and after squatting exercise in healthy males using NIRS. the amplitude of vibration was 2Æ5 mm (5 mm from top to bottom). and then move up over a period of 1 s.204 Effects of low frequency vibration. None of them were engaged in regular organized physical activities or in sports or strength training. (1) and (2):   0  k1 D½HbO2 Š ¼ K DOD840 À DOD760 . mean weight. keep a steady state for 1 s. Next. The distance from base of the patella to the centre of the probe was 11Æ5 ± 1Æ1 cm. be an indication of localized muscle activities. Procedure First.. k20 k2 D½HbŠ ¼ K k20     k1 DOD760 À DOD840 . respectively. therefore. and D [HbO2] and D [Hb] denote changes in the concentrations of oxy Hb and deoxy Hb. Near-infrared spectroscopy Changes in muscle oxygenation were measured using a nearinfrared spectrometer (HEO-200. 1992. is obtained as the sum of D [HbO2] and D [Hb]: DBV ¼ D½HbO2 Š þ D½HbŠ      k2 k2 k1 k10 DOD840 þ À 0 DOD760 : ¼K 1À k20 k20 k2 k2 ð5Þ The ratios k1/k2. The NIRS probe consisted of a light source and an optical detector. which indicates changes in blood volume. with a distance of 3Æ0 cm between the light source and detector providing sensory input for the unit. ð2Þ where DOD840 and D OD760 indicate changes in optical density at 840 and 760 nm. respectively. with wavelengths of 760 and 840 nm. Yamada et al. k20 DOD760 k1 DOD840 ¼ in oxy. Changes in deoxygenated Hb and Mb (D deoxy Hb/Mb) and in total Hb and Mb (D total Hb/Mb) were calculated according to the method of Shiga et al. Hamaoka et al..

Discussion Recent developments in optical instrumentation using nearinfrared light have made it possible to directly and noninvasively measure changes in relative oxygenation in Mb and Hb (Hamaoka et al. 1992. There was no difference between changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with and without vibration (Fig. Hamaoka et al. 4. 205 k2 DOD760 in oxy : ¼ 0 k2 DOD760 in deoxy K is tentatively considered to be 1. and Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25.. NIRS has been utilized to evaluate tissue oxygenation and function in resting and exercising skeletal muscle (Chance et al. and comparisons with and without vibration were made using Student’s paired t-test. The value at rest when measurement started was standardized as 100%. Yokogawa Medical Inc. The values of muscle oxygenation level and D total Hb/Mb were averaged by a unit of 30 s. 120. Tokyo. Muscle oxygenation (OD) with vibration was significantly higher than that without vibration. Statistical analysis was performed using StatView for Windows (Version 5Æ0. California. the arteries in the right leg were occluded by inflating a cuff on the thigh to a pressure of 300 mmHg until a minimum level of deoxy Hb/Mb was reached for calibration in the standing position (Chance et al.Effects of low frequency vibration. Dtotal Hb=Mb ¼ 0 Á 41DOD840 þ 0 Á 14DOD760 : The mean thickness of the fat layer at the NIRS measurement sites determined by using a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus fitted with a 5-MHz linear array transducer (LOGIQ a100. Squatting exercise was started after the changes in Hb and Mb signals obtained by NIRS were stable for 30 s without WBV. respectively. 4). Total Hb/Mb indicated a raw value (OD).. Heart rate was measured using a telemetry electrocardiograph (Ds-2202. Blood pressure was measured by non-invasive measurements in the left upper arm (HR-500.. Yamada et al. Japan). The significance level was set at less than 5% in statistical tests. The deoxy Hb/Mb signal measured by this device does not indicate the absolute values of tissue oxygenation. and squatting exercise was continued for 3 min with and without WBV. and the differences were 5Æ9 ± 9Æ6. and did not show a significant difference. Since there was no difference between fat layers in the subjects. Shiga et al. blood pressure and arterial oxygenation were measured under the two conditions in 9 of the 18 subjects. Total Hb/Mb with vibration from 90 s after squatting exercise to 540 s were significantly higher than those without vibration (P<0Æ05) (Fig. the average coefficients k1/ k2. the muscle oxygenation level and total Hb/Mb rapidly increased and remained constant for latter 10 min. Muscle oxygenation (OD) with and without vibration were 0Æ017 ± 0Æ007 and 0Æ002 ± 0Æ005. 1997). we did not correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer on measurement. respectively (P<0Æ05) (Fig. Fukuda Densi. 3). SAS Institute Inc. The muscle oxygenation levels with vibration were significantly lower than those without vibration at 90. 1996. Japan) was 5Æ5 ± 0Æ9 mm. heart rate. respectively. Average oxygen saturation rates with and without vibration were maintained at 98Æ2 ± 0Æ2 and 98Æ4 ± 0Æ2%. Results We measured oxygenation of the right vastus lateralis muscle in a state in which the leg was lightly placed on the platform in the standing position with and without vibration to investigate the effect of the NIRS reading due to movements of the optical probe. Hamaoka et al. Ohmeda. We judged visually on the display connected to the NIRS device whether a minimal level of deoxy Hb/Mb had been reached.. Physiological measurements Changes in heart rate. Fukuda Densi). 1992. USA) from the tip of the right index finger. k1¢/k2¢ and k2/k2¢ were 1Æ35. 1997). 203–208 . 2). 1992. All measurements were performed during squatting exercise and continued for 10 min after exercise in the standing position by a unit of 1 min. respectively. 6Æ6 ± 7Æ7. USA).. 1992). The period between the two conditions was sufficiently long to allow adequate rest so that all measurement values returned to premeasurement values. Then the cuff was released. blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were analysed. and the subject remained in a resting state. (1997).. Rundell et al. After exercise. Heart rate with vibration at only 30 s after squatting exercise was higher than that without vibration (P<0Æ05) (Fig. 1). According to Shiga et al. Changes in muscle oxygenation level.. total Hb/Mb. Before the squatting exercise.. We therefore normalized the muscle oxygenation level using the arterial occlusion method at rest (Hamaoka et al. Analysis A value reflecting the baseline of the amount of change in deoxy Hb/Mb was defined as the muscle oxygenation level. Tokyo. Arterial oxygenation was monitored using a pulse oxymeter (Biox 3740 Pulse Oxymeter. Changes in deoxy Hb/Mb and total Hb/Mb were measured throughout the experimental period. 150 and 180 s after the start of squatting exercise. Thus.. The muscle oxygenation level and total Hb/Mb decreased in both conditions during the squatting exercise. 1992). 0Æ661 and 0Æ587.. the following equations were obtained. and the minimum value recorded during arterial occlusion was 0%. Ddeoxy Hb=Mb ¼ 0 Á 80DOD760 À 0 Á 59DOD840 . 5Æ0 ± 9Æ4 and 6Æ1 ± 9Æ7%. although this coefficient can be determined if a differential path length involved in k2 is available. The measurements were continued for 10 min after exercise in the standing position. E.

Therefore. tendon or whole body had been shown to elicit a TVR (De Gail et al. E. oxygen utilization was stable and oxygen supply decreased. Student’s paired t-test) from those at the same time with vibration. Recovery 5 6 7 Time (min) 8 9 10 11 12 13 120 110 Heart rate (beat min–1) 100 90 80 70 Exercise 60 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time (min) * With vibration Without vibration Recovery 8 9 10 11 12 13 Figure 3 Changes in heart rate (mean ± SD) during squat exercise with and without vibration and recovery. 1992). Muscle oxygenation level is affected by the balance between oxygen utilization and oxygen supply in human skeletal muscle (Chance et al.. 1998). 1992. 1966. It has been suggested that TVR is Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25. Seidel et al. Mechanical vibration applied to the muscle belly. * * * * Total haemoglobin and myoglobin (O. Student’s paired t-test) from those at the same time with vibration... statistically significant difference (P<0Æ05. there has been no study on changes in muscle oxygenation during WBV. Matthews et al. statistically significant difference (P<0Æ05. *.. We therefore investigated the changes in muscle oxygenation during WBV. In this study. Hagbarth & Eklund. 4. the oxygenation level in the vastus lateralis muscle with vibration showed a significant decrease compared with that without vibration. 1985. the reason for the decrease in muscle oxygenation was one of the following three patterns: oxygen supply was stable and oxygen utilization increased. Student’s paired t-test) from those at the same time with vibration. 1966. or oxygen utilization increased and oxygen supply decreased.) 0·06 0·04 0·02 0 –0·02 –0·04 –0·06 –0·08 –0·1 –0·12 –0·14 0 Exercise 1 2 3 4 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * With vibration Without vibration Figure 2 Changes in D total haemoglobin and myoglobin (mean ± SD) during squat exercise with and without vibration and recovery. D. statistically significant difference (P<0Æ05.206 Effects of low frequency vibration. Hamaoka et al. *. However.. *. Muscle spindle Ia afferents have been indicated to be the major determinant of this vibration-induced neuromuscular activation leading to TVR. it has been found to be useful for examining muscle oxygenation continuously. 203–208 . Yamada et al. 120 Muscle oxygenation level (%) 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 0 Exercise 1 2 3 4 5 Recovery 6 7 Time (min) 8 9 10 11 12 13 With vibration Without vibration Figure 1 Changes in D muscle oxygenation level (mean ± SD) during squat exercise with and without vibration and recovery.

1966). von Duvillard SP. Chance B. Introini E. Bonifani M. 1998). 4. Tihanyi J. Imhof H. there was no difference between changes in total Hb/Mb with and without vibration during squatting exercise. Okada E. 14770571. pp. Electromyography activity of vustus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibration of different frequency. Hamaoka T. 262: C766–C775. Clin Physiol (2001). and encourage- Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25. More research on WBV is needed to clarify the mechanisms of muscle metabolism. In conclusion. Colli R. (2003) reported that a significantly higher level of activity of the vastus lateralis muscle was found in a half squat position during WBV than in a non-vibrating condition. (2003) also reported that time to exhaustion during squatting exercise was significantly shorter with vibration than without vibration. Hamaoka T. (1985). Firbank M. Kerschan-Schindle K. 81: 1410–1417. Preisinger E. De Lorenzo A. Phys Med Biol (1995). but WBV does not affect peripheral circulation during squatting exercise. Lim J. Resch H. Kurosawa Y. 40: 2093–2108. Recovery from exercise induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscle of elite competitive rowers. Indeed. Osada T. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry (1966). Eur J Appl Physiol (2000). Delpy DT. Therefore. Systolic BP without vibration Diastolic BP with vibration Diastolic BP without vibration Exercise 40 0 1 2 3 4 Recovery 5 6 7 Time (min) 8 9 10 11 12 13 elicited by WBV at a frequency of 1–30 Hz (Seidel et al. Kerschan-Schindle et al. Hagbarth K. Tihanyi J. J Appl Physiol (1996). Lance J.. Noninvasive measures of oxidative metabolism on walking human muscles by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cardinale et al. Stockholm. lacovelli M. 207 Systolic BP with vibration 180 160 Blood pressure (mmHg) 140 120 100 80 60 Figure 4 Changes in blood pressure (mean ± SD) during squat exercise with and without vibration and recovery. suggesting that WBV imposes more stress on neuromuscular structures. Culture. 15591158 and 15591159. References Bosco C. no. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grants-in-aid for scientific research (C). Madella A. Eklund G. Chance B. Med Sport Sci (1992). Yamada et al. 19: 183–187. Matthews PBC. Tsarpela O. J Physiol (1966). Dait M. In: Proceedings of First Symposium on Muscular Afferents and Motor Control (ed. Almqvist and Wiksell. Cardinale M. Nishio S. Hamaoka T. 14571051. but total Hb/Mb with vibration were significantly higher than those without vibration from 90 s after the squatting exercise to 540 s. ment of young scientists. Viru A. Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume. De Gail P. The TVR response may increase recruitment of motor units via activation of muscle spindles and polysynaptic pathways. Cardinale M. Nielson P. and the mismatching between oxygen delivery and demand during WBV was larger than that without WBV. FialkaMoser V. 81: 449–454. Cardinale M. R). Granit. the effect of which is seen as a temporary increase in the level of muscle activity (De Gail et al. Bosco C. Therefore. Cardinale M. this study demonstrated the effects of WBV exercise on oxygenation level of the vastus lateralis muscle and showed that muscle oxygenation level decrease during a vibration condition. Murase N. The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy. Differential effects on tonic and phasic reflex mechanisms produced by vibration of muscle in man. Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Tihanyi J. E. The reflex excitation of the soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat caused by vibration applied to its tendon. Hagerman F. Clin Physiol (1999).. Viru M. Zhang C. Rittweger et al. 15: 157–164. Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. Bosco C. Iwase H. Science and Technology of Japan. Viru A. 21: 377–382. Colli R. Katsumura T. 184: 450–472. no. The influence of whole body vibration on jumping performance. from the Ministry of Education. Am J Physiol (1992). oxygen delivery did not meet the oxygen demand in the muscles. Iwane H. Viru A. J Strength Cond Res (2003). the reason for the decrease in muscle oxygenation with WBV was thought to be increase in oxygen utilization. Rittweger et al. Grammp S. 17: 621–624. 177–186. Sports. 203–208 . Motor effects of ventiratory stimuli. Shimomitsu T. These results suggest that WBV causes an increase in blood volume after squatting exercise. Henk C. Albani C. A new method for the evaluation of muscle aerobic capacity in relation to physical activity measured by near infrared spectroscopy.Effects of low frequency vibration. In the present study. 29: 1–11. (2001) reported that oxygen uptake during standing and squatting in a vibrating condition was greater than that in a non-vibration condition. Biol Sport (1998). 37: 421–429. Chance B. (2001) reported that muscular blood circulation in the calf and thigh significantly increased after one bout of WBV exercise. von Duvillard SP.

Jarvinen T. Koutulainen S. Jarvinen TA. 29: 248–258. Jarvinen TL. Nenonen A. Kannus P. 4. Rittweger J. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging (2003). Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone. Beller G. Vuori I. Bain S. Koutulainen S. muscle performance and body balance. Rittweger J. 57: 558–562. J Bone Miner Res (2003). Nioka S. Vuori I. Torvinen S. Mallinckrodt C. Mutschelknauss M. Shiga T. Paakkala T. Study of an algorithm based on model experiments and diffusion theory for a portable tissue oximeter. Clin Physiol (2000). Felsenberg D. 23: 81–86. Schiessl H. Nenonen A. Hemoglobin/myoglobin desaturation during speed skating. Chance B. 34: 1523–1528. Yamada et al. Nakase Y. Pasanen M. Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Tanabe K. Pasanen M. 86: 169–173. Med Sci Sport Exerc (2002). Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise. J Biomed Opt (1997). Jarvinen TL. Rittweger J. Rundell KW. Jarvinen M. Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole body vibration exercise in man. Jarvinen M. Eur J Appl Physiol (2001). E. 18: 876–884. Felsenberg D. Chance B. McLeod K. Eur J Appl Physiol (1998). Torvinen S. Rubin C. Kannus P. Sievanen H. 20: 134–142.208 Effects of low frequency vibration. Shiba T. Nature (2001). Myoelectrical reactions to ultra-low frequency and lowfrequency whole body vibration. 203–208 . Yamamoto K. Sievanen H. Oxygen uptake during whole body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement. Seidel H. Low mechanical signals strengthen long bone. Turner S. 412: 603–604. Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd • Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 25. Paakkala T. 2: 154–161. Felsenberg D. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1997). A randomized control study.

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