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By Chris Bell, Mel Bayliss and Richard Warburton

PILOTITECHNICIANS

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US Disttibutor : MECCO Tel : (206)7884522 Fax : (206)7880639

Catt us now for further details. Tritech International Ltd' 224 744111 Tel: ++44 224741771 Fax : ++44

US Distributor : MECCO Tel : (206) 7884522 Fax : (206) 788 0639

Handbookfor ROVPilot/Technicians

@ Copyright

Handbook for ROV PilotvTechnicians, is the exclusivecopyright of the publishers and may not be reproduced in whole or part without the written permission of Oilfield Publications Limited.

Re-ordering

Additional copies of Handbook for ROV Pilot/Iechnicians nray be obtained by contacting OPL direct at thc address, telephone and fax numbers given at the foot of this page.

Frcilt co|er picture: 5lurysb! Engineeting Lttl's MRV is the latest :etterution of ROV and has an outstanding raLk recortl irt high speed survey, .nt\tnrctiotr, intervention and many other '-truriottt. M RV is of molulur r rtntrrut tiott :)tr offers simple configuration for depth .;:utgs of 2000 metres, up to 200HP atd a 5 :ttre through frame lift capacity. S.ngsbl Engineerhg Lttl !,: z s Larte. Kir kbymoors itle \;:rk YO6 6EZ !; ic p hon e: 075 I 13 175I TeleJiu : 075 I 13 I 388

This Book has been carefully preparetl from the best eri.^titrg sources of ittformation avai[able at the time of prepatution but O PL do trot guarantee lhe accuracy of the book nor of the limits, exteilt or position of aill cartographicreprcsentation delineated thercitl nor do OPL assume any responsibility or liability Jbr any relianu thereiin.

Homend House, PO Box 11,L.edburyHerefordshireHR8 1BN,England Tel: (01531)64563 Fax: (01531)634239

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We mAke y our pi cture g,'#";; fi*T,'Ht"#"r.T complet
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we As perfectionists are well awareof how importantit is to when we get all the piecesof the puzzleinto place,especially are talking aboutdifferent typesof cables.

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Foreword Over the last 20 years or so, ROV Pilots and Technicianshave had to master more and more trades and skills. In these days of small operationsteams, working with ever more complex systems,usually far from home and 'the beach', they are expected to keep all of their equipment at I00"/" availability as well as use their special skills in navigating their vehicles safely and surely around all the hazards of thesea. All ROV businesses have been built upon the professionalismof their Pilots and Technicians.As new successful operationsgeneratenew skills, this in turn prompts advances vehicle technology, and this continuouscycle of changemakes the life in demanding and challenging.If there were any limits to the progressof ROV activitiesthey would be, in the end, set by the people who actually know and drive them. In this refreshing handbook, the authors have skilfully brought together a great wealth of practicalknowledgeand experienceof ROV operations,addressing of all the technical,operationaland managementdisciplinesin a clear and comprehensive manner, as well as including plenty of 'hard to find' technicalreferencedata. No matter whether you are a shore-based manager, operationssupervisor,system designer,interestedbystanderor actuallyat the sharpend "hands on the sticks", it should be kept closeby.

About Marcus Cardew MarcusCardewspent9 yearsat seaasa Navigator.He then spent2 years working with mannedsubmersibles 8 yearsastechnical directorof Sub then and operations SeaSurveys beforemovingto Slingsby Engineering technical as director.For the 'systemTechnologies' past10yearshe hasbeenrunninghis own business in Ulverston designing manufacturing range underwater vehicle and a and systems. of ,

About The Authors

ChrisBellisaCharteredEngineerwll!twelveyearsexperienceaSanRoV of thepresentlv

Heh;$;";";il;;;ili.; superintendenr.

i"i tr'Jdevelopment

schemes' ROV training recosnised uet-naytissisaMernberofthelnstituteofNon-destructiveTestingwithextensive on Heleaches cswlP

in experienceinrp""itJ"^oi'tuir.aaitl*;;nbn;rpectionat courses all levels' approved FhiaseT

with ElectronicsandHydraulic systems in Richardwarburton is a specialist ROV offshoreexPerience' extensive

Acknowledgements The Authors are glad to acknowledgeand offer their appreciationto the following companies; of whom haveofferedassistance all preparation this handbook. with t1re of AshteadTechnolog5. Bowtech ProductsLtd BT (Marine) Ltd De Regt SpecialCableBV Hawke CableGlandsLtd. GrahamMills, Oceaneering Ltd. MacArtney UnderwaterTechnologyA/S SlingsbyEngineering Ltd Systems Technologies TeesideValve and Fittings Co. Ltd. TSS (UK) Ltd.

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DEDICATION

TheAuthorswouldliketodedicatethishandbookto:SueHamiliton SueJones Marion Else not have been this without who'Shard work and timely assistance manualwould wives:and to their Produced Pam Maria Belinda without which this book would not have and.patience encouragement for their Support, beenwritten.

\

Bibliography
Underwater Inspection

D Shon, Bayliss M E & FN SponLtd. r sBN 0- 419- 13540- 5 D Gallimore, Madson A OPL rsBN 1 870945 X 59 G Last,P Williams OPL rsBN | 810945 9 23 E W McAllister Gulf Publishing Co r sBN 0- 88415- 094- 1

Remotely OperatedVehiclesof the World

An Introduction to ROV Operations

PipelineRulesof Thumb Handbook

SUT UnderwaterTechnologyVol18 No 2 On-site Testsfor UnderwaterVideo PictureQuality SUT UnderwaterTechnologyVol 6 No 2 Snorrl Subsea Control System SUT Underwater Technology Vol 15 No 4 Advancesin UnderwaterInspectionand maintenance SUT UnderwaterTechnologyVol 17 No 2 Application of a Remotely Operated ConstructionVehicle SUT An Introduction to Remoteiy OperatedVehicles Two Day Course 23-24February1994 BT (Marine)QualityManual ImplementingQuality ThroughBS5750

RW Barrett,M Clarke, B Rav

D P Jackson, Ashton Kogan PageLtd

r sBN 074940797 2
The Quality Management Manual

J Waller,D Allen,A Burns KoganPage Ltd rsBN 0 7 49409037 D C Green BooksLtd Pitman rsBN 027301827 2 R L Tucker Heinemann Newnes rsBN 0 43491978 0

ElectronicsTEC Level II

OptoelectronicLine Transmis sion

Vol I Electronics Servicing

K J Bohlman Dickson Price Publishers

rsBN0-85380-166-5
for MTS Ooerational Guidelines ROVs

r r r other useful reference books on underwater working from the offshore specialists
Remotely Operated Vehicles of the World
This new book provides for the first time a complete and 'what's 'who's definitrve illustrated relerence to what' and who' in this hiqhly specialsed lield of underwater activity. l n a d d r t r o n1 oo r v r n g u p t o d a t e ' d n d h r g h l y d e t a i l e d lniormatrononevery ROV, including subseaploughs and other towed vehicles, it provrdes firll editonal listings of manufacturers, operators and vehicle development compilies too. Other sections cover equipmenvsystems manufacturing companies and thetr worldwide agents, product listings covering lights, cmeras, manipulators handlirg equipment, buoyancy, flotation umbilicals cables and connectors, motors, thrusters, nav/tracking, sonar and acoustics and ROV support vessels. There are also full dfectory listings of all compmies involved in ROV operations and underwater contracting including engineering and consultingr firms. 'vessels If you ae already familiar with our of the world' series books then you'll know that we take their comprlalion ver\, senously Thrs book rs no exceptron. so if you are interested in subsea operalions and rn particular ROV's and thef related systems order you copy today. Paqes: 296 approximately Price: S95 (inc p&p) Product Order N": ROV,/W/ I

An Introduction to ROVOperations
Thrsbook hasproved sopopularthatwe have recently had to commission first reprint, to its satlsfythe steadydemand from readers who appreciateits clear easyto read formatand the substantial amountof informationit Much of lts contents. contarns. becausethe book's authorshave ltrst hand prrctrcal experienceinthe field, is simplynotavailable elsewhere,so if the factson ROVoperations ne rmportant to you order your copy now you won'tbe drsappornted. Pages:300 Price:i65 (inc p&p) Produa Order N": ROV/OPS

An Introduction to Diving Operations Offshore
A comlete overuiew of today's offshore industry drving technrques, equipment and operahons. Pages:300 Price:965 (inc p&p) Product Order N": DIV/OPS

Ordering
Ii you would hke to order any of thesebooksor would like a FfiEE copy of the OPL Catalogue listing over 400maps,books, dtrectorresand databases contactus at the addressgiven on the title page

10

HANDBOOK FOR ROV PILOT/TECHNICIANS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ChapterL tChapter2 Chapter3 lChapter 4 "ehapter 5 uChapter6 tChap|erT 8 Chapter Chapter9 'Chapterl0 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 "Chapter13 thapter14 Chapter15 Chapter16 {hapter17 Chapter L8 -Chapter19 Chapter20

Introduction.. OffshoreSafety Typesof ROVOiishoreStructures R o v A p p l i c a t i o n s. . . Systems ROV Ele-ctrical of TestEquipment Use ROV HydraulicSystems HydraulicF-ittings... High Pressure Dive Checks ... ROV Hook-Up, Pre/Post Maintenance Electrical Maintenance. Mechanical Procedures Emergency Comriuniiations Video Underwater Photography Underwater S e a ma n sh i... p . y D r a g ,B u o y a n c& N a v i g a t i o n. a fifofing St<ltts tne Use of Sonar Quality Assurance APPENDICES

... 13 ..- l7 ... 31 ...... 39 ...47 .--... 79 Il7 131 167 l7I I75 I87 197 203 ..--. .. 207 .....- 213 - .- - .- 237 . . . . . . ;... . . . . . 2 6 9 . 299

information& Datasheets containusefultechnical The appendices

.. 301

11

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The [lnderwater World Comesto Houston, Texas January 16-78,1995

Man& Machine
Smtrurtion ts$trcgtisn hstallalion FiFclines HScs Hdfirms
D^n7n;7^;+- More than 1OO underwater contractors, industry and LXILLUI.L) suppliers equipment organizations will display the latest in new underwater services, products and capabilities.

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The combined annucrl conference of the Association of Diving Contractors and the ROV Committee of the Marine kchnology Society

Underwater

advari-cin g tec h nol o gy, ope rational experie nce, safety, regulations, commercial concerns and policy issues. Tl, -,- L- A Dinner Dance, Exhibitor's Reception and gala Lyen6 cocktail Party offer relaxed settinss to exchange information and review new ideas. Intervention is the nation's leading Underwater conference devoted to underwater technology. Over 3 , O O Oi n d u s t r y p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d t h e i r c u s t o m e r s w i l l b e there....Will you?

ProgramI;,:? f ff:J:? ?",:i :J: :fl? n:: Ttr1 ili="

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at: Gummittee contact Is reseiue inflmation tltcUl'$5 lnlrg

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(713) e874808
Fax (713)987-4809 P.O. Box130937 TX USA Houston, 77219-0937

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0.1 This ROV pilotflechnician Handbookhas beenwritten to compliment the 'the Associationof Underwgte-r Engineering.contractors (known as AODC) recognised RoV Pilotflechnician Inductidn and s[ills course,und ir the product or sJ"erar"years experience. running__such courses. It is intendedto be the first'in a seriesby the same authorsto include Handbooksfor: ROV Inspectors, ROV Systems/Survey E"gi"irii and ROV Managersto include Offshore Superintendents.in addition to"being for the, now well established courses, this handbookis likely to lggliredreading becomea ref'erence_ bookfor ROV SystemsOperators offshore and others suih as Sub and Manufacturerswho may hdve an interestin the work of an ROV !9.a EnSineers Pilotfechnician. The aim of this handbookis to presentconciselythe essential informationrequired py ROV Pilot/Technicians their everyday'workthat "*b1", in thern to work both.to.fuly and effectively in the offshore induitri6s, in particutar,ttre petroleumand cable laying industries,but also the growth industriesof mine counter (MCM), anti-terrorismand drug interveniion. Much of the technologyof 1t911urys ROV design is_common all typgl whidh is reflectedin this handbookbylrre lrseor to genericexamplesrarherthansp.ecific Boy types,where appropriut","-pllusising common featuresand the enablingtechnologiis. Practicaltixeicisesare.included to allow the readerto practicethe mEthods desiribed in circumstances where suitable equipment and supervision available.This enables handbook are the also to be used tor the structuredtraining of personnelwho startedworking in this industry prior to the establishment the presenttraining programme. of 1.0.2 A programme training.modules assessment now established clearly of and is and, in Figure l. The first hurdlethatmust be negotiated foi trreptoifeaiue is $Pyn "*lttr ROV operatorto becomea Technicianor Engineer at,ititiesin Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Mechanics and Hydraulics. It is not normalin the UK for students receivethis breadthof training and it is thereforemore usual for them to to havespecificskills,and rely on-theIndirctionand Skills course(Module l) to to introducethem to the essentials the otherdisciplines.Thoroughcrosstrainingis of then achieved throughexperience attendancsof and furthernrodlles of traininsas careers pro.gress. the time of writing it is expected At that the AODC will beeina process introduce 'Certificate Conrpetenie'for ROV Operators to a of basJ"on both training. experience, will enablea'register competent and this of operators be to established, may well prompt nrodificati-ons this coursestructure.It is and to bglieye{' however,that thi.s proiesswill takea significantti-. ""J-th"t'ttrisianouoot wtll ttnd a placeas essential reading this scheme. funhermodulebeinsa for A condensed versionof Modulesl, 7-and8 containing essential -.f.;t i;i"rmu?Jn rnuy then be offered for the experienced requiriig updatecl safeiy inrormaiion as -operator an essential c.omponent.of 'certifiaateof competeice' scheme. There are anumber the ot recognised routesto becominga Technician Engineer or and full detailsshouldbe the.Engineg.r^r.ng Council or other recogni"sed body, but ttrey inCfuOe tfre ::,Yqll,ft9p tollowrng_ technical,cpalific.ations:Degrees, HNCor HND, city and Guilds and NationalVocationalQualifications le-vel at 3'or above. Cornplirirent.y pi*1ir.f experience, suchas apprenticeships, be requiredin acldition these may to qualifications wheresufficienirelevantexpiriencehasbeenobtained, but this alone ..oy.bq acceptable enrol for the ROV Pilot/Technician to InductionanOStitti Courrr, which is the first srepto comperency to which this Hanclbook and applies

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Ttre aims of the ROV Pilot/TechnicianInduction and skills courseand this book are srmilar and are to ensurethat the TraineePilotflechnician has the essential knowledge and skills to enablehim to work both safelyand effectively from his very first offshore tour of duty. This is essential the modernROV industry as the in requirementfor lower costshasreducedthe crew sizesto the minimum, often only F^,oor three,and there is rarely an opportunityfor extra-numerary traineesto be included. In addition we lay the foundationsfor future learningby explaining the 'O'rings, video principlesof the enablingtechnologies suchas; cameras, telemetry and hydraulics. Our industry is practically basedand in this respectthis Handbook actsas a guide to practicalexercises and an identificationof the skills required,these exerciseshould be adaptedto the training environmentand equipmentavailable. 1.0.4 The subjectsthat this handbookcover are wide ranging and diversemaking it necessary the readerto have a graspof scientific fundamentals for such as electricity, hydraulics,and photographyprior to readingit. There are many books available explaining thesefundamentals and the readeris recommended familiarise himself to with thesebeforetaking up this courseof study. 1.0.5 The technicallevelsdescribed equivalent the NationalVocationalQualification are to (NVQ) at level 3. The specificqualification is recommended the Engineering Training Authority (EnTra)NVQ Level 3 in Engineering Maintenance, Electromechanical option,adapted ROV equipment.In additionto technical for information, this handbook informationon Offshoresafety,ROVs and their containsvaluable applications, photography, systems, seiunanship many other and Quality Assurance subjects for essential successful ROV operations. 1.1.0 Backgr<lund The Industry To 1.1.1 As early as 1953in the USA, the development a diver propulsion vehicleby a of companycalledRebikoff produced ROV calledPoodlewhich was usedto locate an shipwrecks.In 1966CURV a US Navy vehicleassisted with the recoveryof a numberof hydrogenbombsinadvertently into the Atlantic droppedby the Americans off Spain. The potentialof thesesystems was dramatically demonstrated 1973 in when CURV 3 assisted the rescue a Pisces in in of classmannedsubmersible 1575ft of wateroff Ireland. The years1973to 1978wheredominated fully autonomous by batterypoweredmannedsubmersibles in operating eitherdiver lock-outor observation mode. In observation mode thesemannedsubmersibles whereusedfor general intervention work and surveys much as ROVs are today,and in diver lock-out mode they whereusedas a means carryingand supporting of diversin saturation. The years1973to 1977saw a remendousdevelopnrent computersystems of and technologies enablingthe boom in ROV manufacture use after 1977. The TROV and (ISE) and as a resultof US Navy backingthe SCORPIO(AMETEK) and RCV 225 were introduced the commercialsectors.The SCORPIOwas initially intendedas a to mine recoveryvehicleand the RCV 225 was designed be 21 inchesin diameterso to that it could be deployedthougha torpedotube. The 'classic' configuration these of vehicleshas sincebeenreproduced with lessexpensive alternatives suchas the HydrovisionDiablo and Hyball ROV systems.Therewere around20 ROVs in operation 1974,mainly in military or scientificapplications, had risento 100 by this by 1978and is estimated be over 2000 in 1994with over 150 differenttypes to available from over 60 differentmanufacturers. The development ROVs has of

15

of criticisms manyrecent slowedsincetheoil pricefall of 1985andtherehavebeen muchof Although future developments' itrr .Uifity of the offitoi. indutt.V 1o-{und criticismsarenot completelyfoundedas to all ROVs these is ifr. i"rtrn"ofogy ,o**on of pafiicularlyin theareas fibre optic telemetry' are new deuelop"-ents underway, andotherancillary.euuil,menl. Sens6rs rrlgn OenniiiontV sysrems, -1\:t l" interdictionandfor anti-terrorism,-drug measures, in "*ffunaingmarkets minecounter Vehicles). Underwater AUVs (Autonomous t.L.2 classROV, The of threemainclasses ROV; The smallobservation Therearebasically havebeensub-divided These vehicles/ploughs. Work classROV lna ttreTracked into Low CostROVs(LCROVs)andHeavy,MediumandLight-workROVsTany built ROVsfor particular are opiion._Ther6 custom U"in[proulAiAwittr a'survey For but applicitions, ROVsateoftdnmodifiedto produce'hybrids'. example and vehictefor intervention drill suppo:t Sii";;bt E"gineerlngprovideda TR_OJAN R"!{IplatformInspection ioi"i u'-oaltieA.,"riiloknown asCHALLENGERfo-r work 5n9*l asROV for version cableiepair andMaintenance finMl, anda tracked vehiclethatis designed no* providea state-of-the-art compuny 128. This same flexibility knownastheMRV (Multi-RoleVehicle). Moredetailed . arouna to ili: follow in later:.hapigrs: tY_f.f,tlient a"i.riptt""i of {OVi andtheirapplications whichhas industry, multi-disciplined i t"V fii". itt.t theROV industry.is fascinating for of rapidgrowitrin a relaiivelyshortperi-od time,and.!p thepotential enioved toindustry to Central theabilityof the "dhiii"".fi"u.R.tt to openup asit-matures. It is hoped and 6. meerfururechallenges'*itt theknowledge skillsof its personnel. to will 6e ableto makea smallcontribution these. thatthis book

t6

CHAPTER 2

OFFSHORE SAFETY

2.0 Introduction The variousoperators the North Seataketheir responsibilities in underthe variousActs of Parliament and Governmentlegislation very seriously. Before an individual is allowed onto any offshore worksite that worker must be medically fit and must hold a valid offshore survival certificate issuedby an approvedcenffe. Safe working practices are encouraged and it is mandatoryto wear the specifiedprotectiveclothing and equipment.Failure to comply would resultin dismissal. All new personnel given a are platform safety briefing on arrival which is specific to that platform or worksite. The operatorsrecognisethat offshore worksites can be dangerousplacesand thereforedo all they reasonably can to eliminatethe dangers.As part of this safetyphilosophya permit to work scheme adoptedgenerallythroughoutthe North Sea.,This scheme is is outlined later in the handbookin more detail but in essence intention is to ensurethat the alY work which is not of a routine natureis only undertaken with written permission. This ensuresthat all safety considerations made before work commenCes. are The Health and Safetyat Work Act alsoplacesan onusonto individualsto be safe themselves not to endanger and work mates. It is most importantthat offshore personnel take note of thesesafetyrequirements. 2.0.1 Legislation, Codes of Practice and Guidance Notes in the UK. Acts of Parliament: 1. Healthand Safetyat Work etc.Act I974Pwt l 2. Offshore Safety Act 1992 3. MineralWorkings(Offshore Installations) 1971 Act 4. TerritorialSeaAct 1987 5. Petroleum Act 1982 6. Oil andGas(Enterprise) 1982 Act 7. OffshoreSafety(Protection AgainstVicrimisation) Act 1992 Statutory Instruments:

SI 289 SI 308 SI 399 S I4 1 9 SI 486 SI 608 SI611

sr 680
SI 702 SI 703 S I7 1 I SI 835 SI 840 SI9lO SI 923

SI 679

(Construction Survey) The OffshoreInstallations and Regulations 1974 Well Control(Amendntent) 1991 (Diving Operations) Work Health and Saf'ety at Application Statutory of Insrruments (Life-saving The OffshoreInstallations Appliances) Regulations 1977 The Diving Operations Work (Amendnrent) at Regulations 1992 The OffshoreInstallations (FireFightingEquiprnent) Regulations 1978 (Amendment) The Offshore Installations Regulations The Submarine (lnspectors Sifety) (Amendment) Pipe-lines and Regulations The OffshoreInstallations (Registrarion) Regulation 1912 s (Amended SI by 679) The OffshoreInstallations (Managers) ReguIatiorr l9l2 (Amendedby SI 679) (Prohibitions)(Amendment) Asbestos Inspectors, etc. The Health and Safetyat Work etc. Act 1974(Application outsideGreat Britain) Order 1989 Asbestos(Prohibitions) Diving Operations Revoked SI 1823) by

17

SI971 SI 978 SI 996 SI 1019 SI 1029 SI 1106 S I IZyZ S I 1248 S I 1289 S I 1331 S I 1333 S I 1398 SI 1443 SI 1513 SI I53l S I 1542

S I 1542 S I 167| S I 1672 SI tisg SI 1823 SI lB42
SI 1890 SI 1985 SI 2002 SI 2040

sr 2051 1 sI21 5 sr2292

and (SafetyRepresentatives Safety The OffshoreInstallations i989 Regulations Comnrittees) or IncludedApparatus Works at Work (AmendmenQ ^ Diving Operations (Operational Safety,Health and ttre OffshoreInstallations 1976 Wetfare)Regulations EmergencyPiPe-line\alve of Prevention Oil Pollution The Health and SafetyarWork etc. Act 1974(ApplicationoutsideGreat Britain) Order l9ll Control of Lead at Work Insurance) Liability (Compulsory Employer's SafetyZones Ionising Radiations Preventionof Pollution CompulsoryInsurance SafetY PiPelines Subnrarine Control of Explosives of (Logbooksand Registration Death) The Offshoreinstallations s Regulation 1972 (Amendedby SI 679) 1976 Regglations. (Emergency Procedures) ttr[ OffsnoreInstaliations and The OffshoreInstallarions PipelineWorks (First-Aid) Regulattons 1989 Safety,Health andWelfare and Life-SavingAppliances. Operational (Well Control) Regulations1980(Amended The OffshoreInsiailations by SI 308) and Modifications)Regu.latiols1993 OffshoreSafety(Repeals Regulations1973 (lnspectors and Casualties) The OffshoreInstallations (Amended SI679) bY (Safety Convention) FreightContainers PipelinesSafety (Amendntent) Subnrarine (Prevention Oil Pollution)(Amendment) of Shipping The Merchant Order (Amendment) (Prevention Oil Polltrtion) of Shipping The Merchant Regulations 1992 of ThEManagement Healthand Safetyat Work Regulations at Control of Asbestos Work of The MerchantShipping(Prevention Pollutionby Garbage) Resulations

and referto fixed installations applyon or within SI lZ32 and SI 1019specifically shouldbe usedas and The otherregulations Codesof Practice these. 500m of failure to follow an legalrequirements guidelines and althoughnotln themselves of a coulcl6. .onrtru"d b_y_court-asfaiiure to meet the recluirements the ippi"""O "ode outsidethe UK will be govgrry{ Py ,lt. laws of that country fiSnWn. Operations Codesof Practice British Standards, *fti.fr -uy not be the sameas UK law. If in d=.oubt working practice. good guide to saf'e and UK legislationare a AODC Guidance Notes: AODC 016 AODC 032 AODC 036 AODC 033 AODC 051 AODC 060 CraneHooks Vehicle/Diver Involvement RemotelyOperated ROV Handling Systems(UK) Responsibilityfor UnderwaterInspection^ of Noie on the SafeandEfficient Operation Remotely Guibance Vehicles Operated Equipment for Sifety Procedures working on High Voltage

18

N

AODC 061 AODC 062 AODC 063 AODC 064 DMAC 06

Bell BallastRelease Systems and BuoyantAscentin OffshoreDiving Operations Use of BatteryOperated Equipmentin HyperbaricConditions UnderwaterAir Lift Baes Ingressof Water into U"nderwater Cylinders Chargedby Means of a Manifold System Code of Practicefor the SafeUse of Electricity Under Water Recommendations The Effect of SonarTransmissionon Commercial Divins Activities

Safety Notice 2193 CraneSling Hooks Used to Deploy EquipmentSub Sea AODC/DMAC Publicationsmav be obtainedfrom: AODC, 177AHigh Street, Beckenham, Kent,

UK, BR3lAH
Governmentlegislationand StatutoryInstruments from: HMSO 2.0.2 Medical Fitness. The Offshoreoperators requiretheir personnel be medicallyexaminedby an to approveddoctor. Thereis a prescribed form to the medicaland it is valid for:5 yearsfor workers under40 yearsof age. 3 yearsfor workers40 to 50 yearsof age. 1 year for workersover 50 yearsofage. The medicalincludesa dentalfitnessinspection. 2.0.3 Offshore Survival Courses There are variousapprovedoffshoresurvivalcentreswhich are authorised issue to survival certificates.The centres offer 3 and 5 dav survivalcourses desisnedto teach offshorepersonnel basicsof fire fighting, survival in the sea,helicopiersafetyand the evacuation and generalfirst aid includingEAR and CCM. The 5 day coursecertificate is valid for 5 years. The 3 day courseis a refresher which lastsfor 3 or 4 years depending the individualoperator's on recluiremenrs. Addresses UK Centres: of For generalinformation: CentralTrainingRegister, OffshorePetroleumIndustryTraining Board, Forties Road, Montrose, Angus, DD1O9 ET. RGIT, SurvivalCentreLtd., Aberdeen

19

2.L Responsibilities Under the Health and Safety at Work Ac(HSAWA) and the Offshore Installations (SI) 1019. StatutoryInstruments (Operationai Safety,Healtti and Welfare Regulations); Th^e employer has a responsibilityto ensurethe health,safetyand welfare of his "...suchinformation,instruction,ffaining and suPervision as employeesand to provide The employer are to are^necessary..." ensuretheseresponsibilities properly dischargedof must provid6 a written statement his safetypolicies and procedureswhich must be is freely available to employees.This statement usually known as the Safety Manual. Empioyers also have a Orityto protect personsnot in their employlnent a1d;9lf; emptoyeapersonswho may be affectedby their operations.The Control of Substances Ha2ardous Health Regulations1988(COSHH) requiresemployersto take the steps to These substances. to minimise the risks arisingfrom the useof dangerous necessary alsoplace a duty on the employeeto look after the health,safetyand regulations "...full and proper welfare of himself and othershe may be working with and to make protectiveequipmentor other thing of facilitypersonal nreasure, useof any control and if he discoversany defectstherein,he shall provided-pursuant theseregulations to his employer...". The responsibilityof the employeefor safetyis ieport it forthwith to of awareness importance and evidenceof the employee's to considered be of paramount period of prinrary training. during the trainee's this must be demonstrated 2.2 Attitudes will only happen towardssafetyusuallycomefrom a belief that accidents Poor attitudes witnessed who have operators to other peopleand not to oneself. Experienced can offshoreareawarethat accidents and do happenand oi accidents, nearaccidents A to to"minimisetherisk of accidents thenrselves. traineemust adjusttheir attitudes imaginebeingin the samesituationand be particularlycarefulto allow for any for or inexperience, asking wherenecessary assistance instnlctions. The traineemust posingthequestion, for in imaginethe worstcasescenario all situations, example, "Wliat happens that lifting wire parts?"and taking appropriate safeaction. if 2.3 Operational Safety Many factorscombinewhen operatingROVs which makethe potentialfor accidents The major onesare listed below. greaierthan for most other forms of employment.

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11

Electric:al Saf'ety. (Hazardous Areas). ExplosiveEnvironments Sources. Explosiveand Radioactive Devices. Mechanical High Pressure HydraulicSystems. Lifting and Deployingthe ROV. Welding. Gas Cylinders. Areas. Restricted HelicopterOperations. ProtectiveClothing.

20

\

2.3.12 2.3.13 2.3.t4 2.3.15 2.3.16

Use of Tools. Good Housekeeping. Working with Divers. The Natureof the Sealtself. EmergencyProcedures.

Thesefactorswill be examined more detail in the following paragraphs. in 2.4. Electrical Safety ROVs usually operatewith high voltagesto reducethe current down the umbilical and hencethe umbilical size. This fact coupledwith the natureof the offshorework environment dictatesclosescrutinyof materials usedin electricalinstallations order in to avoid possibletoxic effectsin confinedspaces shouldan electricalfire occur and the harshconditionslequire that a high degreeof skill and safeworking practices into go the installations.It is obviousthat if we are to operatewith high voltagesin a wet environment thereis a very real risk of electricshockand that precautions againstthis must be taken. Theseprecautions into threecategories: fall peisonalprecauiions; passiveprotection_and activeprotection. Personal precautions consistof applying good work practicesand housekeeping methds and usingcorrecrprorective ctoitiirig anO tools- Passive protectioncan be providedin 5 ways-.Active protectionmay bd providedby eithera residualcurrbntdevice(RCDior a line in.sulation moniior(LlM). 2.4.1 Personal Precautions

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

only work on electrical systems you aresureyou know what you aredoing. if Be absolutely surethatthe groundconnection madethroughthe umbilicalto is theROV. Connectan additionalexternalgroundsnap when the ROV is on deck. Wear rubberglovesif handling umbilicalduringoperations. the Ma]<e surethat inexperienced personnel standwell clearduring operational and maintenance procedures. Do_notallow personnel and tools to becomedisorganised during maintenance and repair procedures take shon cuts due to operational or pressures. Wheneverpossiblestandon a rubbermat. Know the first aid for shocktreatment and the medicalevacuiition procedures of the vessel. All meters nrustbe suitably rared e.g.l0tn V a.c.or 5000V a.c.

2.4.2 Passive Protection insulation;providing a fixed Piq fo"l of protectionis providedby the useof: adequate barrierusingprotective clothing;usingshielding and suitabre earrhing. 2.4.2.I Insulation The primary meansof providing passive protectionagainstshockis by insulationof the power systemand the appliance serves.Insulationis lesseffectiveunderwater it than on dry land because defectat any point might allow currentto flow in the water and a part of this currentnray be intercepted the submersible say a diver. The by or effectiveness insulationas a meansof protectionmay be improvedby using two of layersof insulationwith a conductingscrben betweeh.Two defectsire the-n in needed to constitutea risk. The first defectcan be detected continuouslymonitoringthe by

21

and the and screen theload,andbetween screen the levelbetween conducting insulation failureof both simultaneous cause theoutercasing.Entry of watercould-however 'O'ringsand such arrangements as sealing of sections insilation,consequently is if shouidbeinCorporated doubleinsulation to be more pressure terminations balance effectivethansingleinsulation.

, t' | - _ - l

Earth Isolated

c t
I

Figure 2.I IsolatingTransformer Insulationshouldbe further improvedby supplyingthe load via an isolating transformer. This electricaldevice isolatesthe supply current from the load therefore making it impossiblefor a fault to eafih in the supplycausinga problemon the load winding side. The w6ole of the electricalsystemincludingthe transfonnersecondary are and all the appliances thusinsulatedfrom eafih. It is thenpossibleto makecontact for circuit without receivinga shock. This prevents, with any point on the secondary platform or a the example,tontactwith a cranewire from the surface, leg of a stee.l ship'shull from fornting an earthreturn path and therebycreatinga hazard. a first .If defectmay of defectis not rectified,contactwith the circuit or the occurrence a second causecurrentto flow througheitherthe ROV or a diver. This can be avoidedby incorporating activeproiectiondevicefor detectingthe fir.stdefect. The whole of the an cableand the load shouldhave a winding; connected secbndary circuit: transformer; resistance earth. to high insulation

22

Current Carrying Conductors

Figare2.2 Double Insulation with a Conductins Screen 2.4.2.2 Fixed Barrier When electricalequipment require^s directcontactwith seawaterto functioncorrectly e..8. impre-ssed an curent anodea fixed barriercan be installedto keep the ROV or diver a specificsafedistance away from it. This barriershouldbe non-metallicand non-conducting possible.In additionto suchequipment, if high-power fixed installations cables e.g. andnrotors can feedlargecuirentsinto the waterif a fault occurs. Again fixed barrierscan be usedto keep the ROV or a diver at a safedistance. The safedistance can be reduced incorporating impedance the starpoint to by an in earthline of the supplyto limit the fault curent. Careshouldbe takento en.sure all that protective deviceswill function at the low level. A fault currentlimit of 1 amp is recommended the AODC Codeof Practice the SafeUse of Electricity by for L-nderwater. 2.1.2.3 Protective Clothing An1'practicewhich limits the flow of currentthroughthe body is beneficial.Rubber gJoves shouldbe worn and shouldhavea cuff to give the wriit areasomedegreeof protection.Whenever handling ROV umbilicalthese the typesof gloveshouldbe $orn. 2.1.2.4 Shielding equipmentmay be enclosed within a conductingshieldto preventcurrent Jhe el_ectrical frromflowing into the water. Where a shieldis fitted it shouldbe suitablvconnected to canh. to preventa dangerous voltageby an internalfault. Protectivescrbens shouldbe sonsrructed flom high conductivitymaterialand havelow resistance joints, otherwisea fault current-flowingin the screen producea dangerous can voltagegradientover its external surface.However,thisdeficiency can be gr.eatly reduced the useof a by

LJ

systems in the double screen.The conductingscreen, externalscreen double screened should also be in contactwith the water to restrict the voltage difference betweenthe screenand the surroundingwater. 2.4.2.5 Suitability of Earthing safelimit On any unit which operatesat a voltagewhich is higherthan the unprotected the conductive stmctureor frame shouldbe connectedto earth to dissipateany fault to current. The connectionshouldhave a low impedance minimise any rise of voltage on the conductive structureor frame, and sufficient mechanicalstrengthto prevent is within the statedlimits. The when the equipment operated accidental breakage in conductors the power cables. The connectionshouldbe throughpurposedesigned return path can be augmented an areaof baremetal, even corrodedsteelwill by earth do, in contactwith the water; such an ilrangement can be many times more effective than normal earth leads. 2.4.3 Active Protection devicesinto the circuit which cut off the supply This form of protectionincorporates would a shortcircuit situationoccur. 2.4.3.L Residual Current Devices (RCDs) Commonly usedRCDs have a typical operatingtime of 15 to 25 ms. The trip currents with freedomfrom to of RCDs shouldbe selected be as low as possibleconsistent and can be dangerous.A trip currentof 30 tripping which is inconvenient accidental mA at 20 ms. hasbeenfound to be suitable.

Figure 2.3 ResidualCurrentCircuit Breaker Any imbalancein the curents flowing in the positiveand neutralwindings trips the is breaker.In a real devicethereis oftenonly one turn as shown.The breaker held'on'

24

by magnetic forces. The magnetic circuitis designed thatonly a smallcurrent so is needed diverttheflux to analternative andrelease armature. to path the
Gonsumer's Load

Test Resistor Current

Test Button

-l-

Transformer

Trip Mechanism

Ph SuPPIY

N

Figure 2.4 ResidualCurrentCircuit Breaker Type2 This type works in a similar mannerbut illustrates situationwhen an earthis the included. 2.4.3.2 Line Insulation Monitors(LlM) A line insulationmonitor (LIM) may be usedto monitor the insulationlevel of an umbilical cableas it enters leaves waterand any developing or the electricalleakage will be detected.A readout of insulationlevel shouldbeprovided with warningsof iow levelsif appropriate.In order to usean LIM as part oi an activeprotectiondeviceit shouldbe connected a circuit breaker give suitable to to overall systenloperating characteristics. 2.4.3.3 Toxicity of Materiats In the eventof a fire or even serious overheating, many commonly usedelectrical materialsgive off noxious and toxic fumes. aiit is oiten necessary work in to -cables confinedsp€c_es offshoreit is importantalwaysto uselow-toxicity and other materials.Full guidance the selection suchmaterialsis given in the AODC Code on of of Practicefor the SafeUse of Electricity Underwater.

25

2.5 Installation Practice portable and fixed electrical To maintain the integrity of all fomls of protection, should staff

should equipment b8;'s"j;ii i;;il';;d 9v'ory4tll:l:f.i onlvsuchusedshould equipment electrioal or rewrrng,anoanytemporary #"il;il.tuli;;" Safe the usl ofElectricitv ihecode'oinittl.Jror #;6 #;;;;Jil;Gal"

should equipment Con,.u.io.rr"$."SUfe ioiuna"t*ater electrical Underwater. staff functions.Comrietent should toispecifii staff authorise in writingascompetent and of and proceduies beaware thehazards TniiatLatibn *itt prope, befamiliar for be should made work' Frequentilt!::"-,ont to particular underwater problems of^equipment. and on cabres foiany gen^eral.deterioration ;;G; iiens of mechanicar test i-;orporatedwith the6 minthly insulation of the if;J#;;ffi;;;;-b" requirements' to Ir uiuully completed fulfil insurance il;iii;;i;tri.tr 2.6 Batteries As to considered beelectricallv'safe'' in many been haveusually In thepastbatteries or reserve back-up' as as theyarenot used ?-nrim* p";;; t;;;.", Uutrather apractice. cases can batteries ln ti"m el6aricalsafetyassessments. it"quently r*t*O ;il;; usingthem' when be care'should taken ;;;G;"".y r"at irur*as andconsiderable a limited life andwhendischarged are hav-e primarycetts(non-iect batteriei) arg"uUf" prinrary cellscanbe of ror nororious proouJ'i"n;;?;;;;ilp*d"cts. Short-circuitin'I bepiovided' ptot..tionino'ld tfton-.itcuii and hazardous adequat. potentially primary are r"rrr-t...t uigeaute'batte.ies)nomiallyofhigherpowerthan is an |;;;"dfi there however, qpplyiIn additlon, b;;ffr;;;;*nJuiiont cells,sothesame and discharge recharging' dutit'tg ptod^uced gar"s from hydrogen ;;;i;r*; hazard in iifrorfA iormitty 5. t..i'tutg"dout on thesurface a properly $iil;""ff area. ventilated 2 . 6 . t Su b m e r ge dB a tte r ie s the facilities' charge recharging to are If fixedinstallations required havesubmerged may a' a"'etilt, extrac-ells be be should limitedto a levelbelowthegassing,roTtug., devices capacitv'Where batterv thirequii6d tfr. to '"il required attain *otf.tng uottage-inO be careshould taken o^tioen. anO pt""r!J'i;;;h;,".;mUiiation"of ft* htd-''ten andmalfunction prevenr ou.r.nu.iii;;iri;h ;t;y f"uat".'^"y?uet of thee'iectrolyte gasmixture ro or toxic an conrpafiment, explosive a ;ii;; i."ii.. If wa-terinters baitery wa.tertight' be should conrpletely compartntents Battery .Fuses *uV t. proOuced. and to as as compartment close possible thebatteries battery be should fittedin the be should encapsuLrr.Jio;iru.niublownfusefrom igniting,h"_p?.1:r-b^l,.P91ottn equrpment in of Thestate batteries battery-powered ;;;;ph;r; in iire.ontpu.ttn"nt. a with be should handled caution'Since Batteries be should checki;;iG;r;. and shock a state,.a, evenin alow-charge U" cannot turn"i tii it tonttitutes' battery or sqtilage carryby metaltools.Electrolyte itrort-circuited Uu-,1tt, if accideniaiy is there any Where overcanutroproUOJ;i.;6g;puttt ftoniu highpotenti.al,te'rrinal' connections flexibleelectrical *ou"*Enibetweenbatte-riei, p"r.iuiiirv oi ietatiue be should used. 2 . 7 E x p l o si veE n vi ro n m e n ts complyrvith should of systems ROV'semployed.offshore the In UK waters, handling 1976 Regulations Welfare) Hedlth'and rnstatialions fbli"*tional Safety, theOffshore of' from, by means or on, anoffshore SI 1019which.dll-; ily'activity (asdefined) in located hazardous to o, ;'...r;y installation Utfii,1aiadiusof 50bm. Thisrelates equipment of itt"te is likely to bedanger in p;Jof theinsiutluion which as; defined areas liquid.""' of vapour volatile of frc,-itie ignition gas, Ft. o. explosion

26

The Pilotffechnician must thereforebe awareif he is working in a hazardousareaand suitableprecautions must be takenwhich might includethe following: 2.7 .I No smokingor nakedflames. 2.7 .2 Hot work permit may be requiredwhen working on the ROV 2.7 .3 Control and workshopcontainers may needto be approvedfor electrically hazardouslocation by being configured to meet the requirementsfor purged enclosures.Altematively explosionproof components intrinsically safe and devicescan be usedinside thesecontainers, the former is preferred. but For further infomration on the requirements purgedcontainersrefer to the AODC of OperationalGuidelinesfor ROV's page 126. 2.7 .4 Winch slip ring, junction boxesand terminations may needthe following modifications: i) explosionproof boxes,rigid metal conduit. ii) pressurise electricalsystemwith safegas. the iii) fill the existing sysremwith oil. 2 .7 .5 Use explosion proof electricmotorsfor winchesand cranes. 2.7 .6 Deck cablesmay not meetthe requirements steelarmouringtherefore cage for a deployedsystemmay be required,altemativelythe vehiclenray only be operatedwhen a hot work pemrit hasbeenissued. 2.8 Explosive Handling Explosivesare usedextensively during someROV operations.It is imperativethat the personalsafetyprecautions handlingexplosives adhered The work itself will for are to. be under the direct control of a qualifiedexplosives technicianwho will follow a written procedure and apply safeworking practices.The role of the ROV must be fully understood and the work itself must be detailedin writine. A common safetv requirement this typeof work is to inrpose radio silince as it is possible radio for a for transmissions trigger sontetypesof detonator. to 2.9 Mechanical Devices Thrusters and manipulators ROVs can be very powerful and may not behaveas on expected.An electricalfault, for examplecancausea normallyplacid manipulator to oscillateviolently due to a phenomena known as positivefeedback, causingimmense damage. It is importantto standclear of theseduring pre/postdive checksor whenever the vehicleis operated deck. For exampleit is importantto be surethat the systemis on powere{ down beforeputting a handinto thrusters clear obstnrctions for any other to or work of this nature. 2.10 Hydraulic Systems. ROV hydraulicsystems operate typicallyat 200 Bar (3000p.s.i.)and,shoulda loose fitting causea leak for example,seriousinjuriesmay be caused.It is important thereforethat all personnel working on the hydraulicsystemshouldbe qualified and have attended relevantsafetyseminars, that non-essential the and personnel standwell clear of ROVs wheneverthe hydraulicsystemis underpressure. The work areashould be isolatedwith signsin lettersat least5 cm high stating;"DANGER HIGH PRESSURETESTING''.

),7

2.11. Lifting and Deploying the ROV loadswith sea haveno experience_at nor3j lifting h.eavy Many ROV Pilot/technicians of first time. The procedures lifting prior to goingoffshorefor the or cranes ruggers a and of anddeployii! tfre-nOVarEcrucialto the success theoperation canrepresent Procedures andconscientiously. correctly if ""iy gi.uit aietyhazard not implemented in are methods covered the seamanship and toriifting equipment ROV deployment of aware thepilot/technician hereis to make oT secrion thisirandbook.Theobj6ctive him to procedures enables to assist during[aunch/recovery ih. tirkr that areinherent tiirirsglfor othersto danger.At thetime exposing procedures safelywi-thout with these the to authorities determine mostsuitable by of writing itudiesareundenway relevant out as.laid in AODC 036 (Revl) Curreltpractisg test system procedures. deploymEnr "Theinitial andPeriodiiExamination, of TestingandCertification ROV Handling is: Systems"
a Initial and period examinationand test of ROV launch and recovery systems. i) As New/Installed: Codeof Standard' to Manufacture a recognised or s B uild to Manufacturer' Standard Specification. and with NationalRegulations. Verify compliance load braketest at 1.5 x SWL. 2. Static Functiontestat 1.25x SWL. 3. 4.Bothteststoincludeanyadditionalequiprilentwhich rnay be fitted to the ROV. NDT to be carried out on critical items. In Service: and 1. Visualexamination functiontestat SWL' 2. Staticload brakeresrat 1.5x the weight at be lifted in air. NDT to be carriedout on critical items. 1.

ii)

b.

andTestof ROV Lifting Cable/TVire Initial and PeriodExamination Rope and Terminations. i) 1. Z. As New/Installed: with NationalRegulations. Verify compliance Load testto 1.5x SWL. In Service: Functiontestat SWL as an integralpart of the Lifting andvisualexamination System Staticload testat 1.5x SWL. umbilicalsshouldbe testedas above Electro-mechanical at and re-terminated leastonceevery 12 months.

ii)
1. 2. 3.

(DnV, Lloyds etc.)on each Theseshouldbe verified with the relevantauthorities vary. mobilisationas standards 2,ll.l Precautions i) ii) Be awareof rigging safetyin generaland wear the appropriatesafety clothing i.e. safetybootsand hard hats. Do notitand behihdtuggersetc.Thete havebeenmaly nastyaccidents havecaughtthe offshorewherebythe wlres havepartedand personnel fit whiplash.If necessary guardsto tuggers.

28

iii) iv)

v) vi)

Practicelaunch/recovery proceduresfrom a fixed platfbrrn before involved are attempting them at seaand make surethat all the personnel fully awareof their roles. ROV's can weigh typicallyaround1 Tonne. When this weightis lifted from a moving platform it represents significanthazardtherefore; keep a the lifting pennantas shortas possible, not standbetweenthe ROV do and any fixed structure, and handlethe ROV at arrnslengthto avoid it trappingany pafi of the personif the lifting mechanism shouldbreakor sliP. Do not leanover the sideof the ship and be awareof the locationof life savingequipment.It is wise to practicethe man overboardprocedure in fine weatherconditions. Tie all the equipmentdown and stow it correctlyduring periodsof heavy weather.

2.L2 Diver Observation ROV's have sufficient power to crushdivers or to dras them fror.r.r their worksite shouldthe umbilicalsbeconre Therefore following precautions mustbe entangled. th! takenwhen working with divers. 2.I2.1 Precautions i) iD iii) iv) Establishcommunications with the diving superuisor and be prepared to turn off the ROV power immediatelyon his instruction. Fit guardsto the thrusters. Whereverpossiblework down currentof the diver and take careto keep the umbilicalsapart. Use rlinimal thiustercontrols.

Reference: AODC Guidance Note RemotelvOoerated VehicleiDiver Involvement. (AODC 32) 2.13 The Nature of the Sea The hazards the seaarecoveredin the chapteron seamanship sufficeit to sayhere of so do not underestimate inherentdangers wind, wavesand tides. the of 2.14 Teamwork and Communications Efficient and effectiveteamworkandclearand concise if comnrunications essential are ROV operations to be safeand competent.Theseskills are emphasised are throughout the industryand theirinrportance cannotbe over-sffessed. Effectivecommunications must extendto the ship'sor platform's crew or any othergroupconcerned any in offshoreoperation. It is importantthat everyoneconcerned knows when the ROV goes into the water,when it comesout and whatit is doing. Similarlyit is essential ROV the crew all know their taskand what is requiredto conlpleteit. Finally it shouldbe noted "core that Safetyis a theme"throughoutthis book and will be found to be so on any recognised training course.

29

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Thrsnew book provrdesfor the first time a completeand

An lntroduction to ROVOperations
Thrs book has proved so popular that we have recently had to commission its first reprint, to satisly the steady demand from readers who appreciate rts clea easy to read format and the substantial amount of informahon rt eonlalns. Much of its contents, because the book's authors have first hand prrctical erperience in the field, is simply not available elsewhere, so if the facts on ROV operations are important to you order your copy now you won l be dsappoinled. Pages:300 Price: f,65 (inc p&p) Product Order N": ROV/OPS

An Introduction to Diving Operations Offshore
A comlete overview of today's offshore industrydrvrng techmques equrpmentand operations. Pages:300 Price: S65 (inc p&p) Product Order No: DIV/OPS

Ordering
Il you would like to order any of these books or would irke a FBEEcopy of the O P I C a l a l o g u cl i s t i n g o v c r 4 0 0 m o p s .b o o k s , directories and databases contact us at the address given on the title page.

30

CHAPTER 3 TYPES OF ROV 3.0.0 Introduction 3.0.1 For the purposeof this book the term ROV shall meanan unmannedvehicle with a communication power link to the surface meansof a tetheror umbilical. and by ROVs are classifiedin the "Guidancenote on the safeand efficient operationof remotelyoperated vehicles"(AODC 051 February1989)into five classes:-Class1 PureObservation Vehicles,Class2 Observation with Payloadoption Vehicles,Class 3 Work classvehicles, Class4 Towed or bottomcrawlingvehiiles, and class5 Prototypeor Developmentvehicles. In fact ROVs are a continuumof types and capabilitiesfrom simple video camerasto 'flying bedsteads' with any number of options, highly sophisticated work and surveyvehicles,bottom crawling vehiclesand special one-offs. Any attemptto classifyall thesepossibilities leadsto confusionat the boundaries however,in this chapterwe will list and describesomewell known exampleswithin theseAODC classifications.Due to the ever growing number of typesand manufacturers list is by no meansexhaustive serves demonstrate this but to the rangethat is available. J.0.2 Figure3.1 showsthe systemcomponents a RCV 225 system. The basicsystem for components will vary in their physicaldimensions are comrnonto all ROV but systems. They are;the PowerPackor PowerDistributionUnit (PDU), the control consulor operatorcontrol Unit (oCU), the SonarControlunit (SCU), the winch ('A'Frame),the launcher, and FiandlingSystenr Garage, TetherManagernent or System(TMS), and the vehicleitself.
Handling System

Power Pack

Figure3.1 Components ROV System

Figure 3.1 ROV SystemComponents Engineering The DeepOcean include; vehicles 3.1.0 Class1 PureObservation physicallylimited to phantomand the BenthosMiniROVER. Theseare theoretically rasksalthoughtheyhavemore recentlybeenmodified.with pure video observation CathodicProtection(CP) ih. fit-"nt of grabbersto accompliJhretrieval tasksor calTy. 300. and Figure3.3 a Phantom probes. FigurJ3.2 showsa MiniROVER

MiniROVER Mk II Figure3.2 Benthos,

300 Phantom Engineering, Figure3.3 DeepOcean

3.2.0 Class2 Observation Vehicleswith a PayloadOption include;the Hydrovision OffshoreHyball, the Seaeye Surveyor, PerryTritech Sprint,and the Bofors the Underwater Systems/Sutec Owl. Thesearevehiclescapable carrying Sea of additionalsensors suchas stills cameras, cathodicprotection(CP) measurement systems, additionalvideo cameras, sonarsystems and wall thickness flooded or memberdetectionsystem. A class2 systemshouldbe capable operating without of lossof its originalfunction when carryingat leasttwo additionalsensors. Figure3.4 showsan OffshoreHvball and Fieure3.5 showsa Seaeve Survevor.

Figure 3.4 Hydrovision,Hyball

Figure3.5Seaeye, Surveyor
-') -')

3.3.0 Super the Dia.blo' PenyTritech the include; Hydrovision Vehicles 3 Class Workclass Trojan Engineering's slingstv and OfT;h;;;;;pioneer ;;il;;;,;nd SubSea Scorpio, etioulttto befittedwith (MRV). fn.r"*fticfes aielarge andMulti RoleVehicle Class toot,fot"int"*tntionind manlpulatiye special and/or 3^s$'. sensors additional and sensors toolsto ufn*i"g add.itionil .upu'Uiiii' will 3 vehicles havea multiplexing The umbilicalwill alsohavespare ihe through uehicle be operated -sVste* have "q"igpg* workclassvehicles to allow ;;;i;;ii'^.yr""o conductors in at leastonethruster Hp) power(typicallyut f"u'it'SO to op€rate propulsive sufficient additional ".ttiiui iii..tiont ylilst carrying , eachof the longituOiirf rri#f-a 3'8 showtheSuper eig"i" :'Oifto*t" niuUfo-'figyt9t.3.'7,& Trojanincluding packages. tooling a the ,1'f including pii"it'.""t"r, iig"i"tl.rO-A 3J.1show shows MRV' Scorpio the 3'13 ,h-"'Pi;.;; andFigure Fi';"i;3.it;h";t drawing, detailed

3.6 Figure rllgg:"':lglPhP*

SCORPIS

figure :7-F...y Tritech Inc, SuperScorpio

ww{wfrffafn,irl{;i&

Figure3.tl Perry Tritech Inc, SuperScorpioPilotsC<lnsul

?ROIAil

Trojan Figure3.9 Slingsb,v Engineering,

35

${*nipul*ttlrs TlX,*l5t*f*.i, H-r.draulis* RlecirieallX l**t:xrries l.:nrliliL'lti Tsriiii:l* l:.lilast ..,r,,,.,'''

Figure 3.10 Slingsby Engineering Ltd' Trojan Detailed Schematic

Figure3.1I Subsea OffshoreLtd, Pioneer

Figure3.12 Slingsby Engineering, Multi Role Vehicle(MRV)

36

3.4.0 Dynamics(SMD) include;Soil Machine Class4 Towedor BottomCrawlingVehicles ROV 128and SMD'sModular Engineering's Vehicle,Slingsby Eureka Tracked power off the seabed and are Plough. Towed Vehicleshaveno or little propulsive generally They travelthroughthe waterby the capable limited manoeuvrability. of haulingactionof a surface craft or winch. Bottom crawling vehiclesmove primarily by exertingtractionforceson the seafloor via a wheelor track systemalthoughsome 'swim' Figure3.14 Figure3.l3 showstheEureka, limiteddistances. may be ableto s h o w s h eR O V 1 2 8 . t

CableBurial ROV Crarvling Ltd, Bott<lm Dynamics Figure3.13 SoilMachine

System Figure3.14 Slingsby Engineering, ROV 12tt CableBurial/Retrieval 3. 5. 0 here vehicles not featured astheyarebeyond are Class Prototype Development 5 or Operated is recornmendedread'Remotely to thescope his book. Thereader of ROV's. Vehicles theWorld'(OPL)for a full listing description availlable of and of

37

CHAPTER 4

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

4.0 Introduction Offshore oil and gas are the most important naturalresources be discoveredin Britain to this century. They are a vital commodityproviding energyand chemicalsto industry and providing revenueto the exchequer.Therehasbeenan enorrnous financial incentivefor the oil companies ventureoffshore,accepting high risks involved, to the in order to exploit thesereserves.Sincethe first licencesfor North Seaexploration were issuedtn 1964over 112productionplatformshavebeeninstalled;which demonstrates growth of the industryin this geographical the region. World-wide there has beensimilar gowth in regionswhich have similar deposits oil and gas. of 4.0.1 Exploitation of Reserves In the searchfor oil the usualprocedure follows a setpattern. Initial surveysare undertaken using seismictechniques which producedatafor interpretation expert by geologists.When a likely areais pinpointedwildcat explorationrigs aredispatched to the areato testif thereare any reserves drilling deepinto the seabed. If oil or gas by reserves found further pre-production are to drilling is undertaken determinethe extent of the reserves and provewhetherfull productionis viable. Oncecommercialviability is provenproductionfacilitieseredesigned and installedalong with all the infrastructure pipelines, that goeswith offshoreoil field development sub-sea suchas,for exanrple, underwater manifold centres and offshoreloadinefacilities. 4.1 Offshore Structures Structures offshorecome in a variety of shapes and sizesand in a variety of materials. Productionplatformscan be of steelconstruction of concreteand someof the steel or platformsfloat and are tethered placeby cables. Thereare underwater in constructions manifoldcentres, suchas wellheads, emergency shutdown valveigloosand linear pipelines. block manifolds.Therearemany hundreds kilonretres sub-sea of of 4.1.1 Steel Platfornrs It shouldbe remembered production that offshorework is expensive and therefore platformsare designed with a view to doing all the fabricationashoreand minimising the work involvedin installation repairandmaintenance. the main,production In and platformsare of steelconstruction and aredesigned be easilyinstalledand to maintained.Thereare several variationsof designfor this type of installationbut the majority areof the piled structural leg type. Someof the variationsare;tensioned platforms(TLP),jack-upplatformsand semi-submersible production anchored facilities. 4.1.1.1 Piled Steel Production Platforms An example this typeof structure the BrentA Platfomrin ShellExpro'sBrent of is Field. Somefacts aboutthe nlatform are of interest. a) Substructure Waterdepth. Productioncapacity Jackettype Numberof legs Numberof piles Weightof jacket 14m gas 100,00b/d oil and 2OOmmscfd Self floating steelconstruction 6 32 skirtpiles 14,225tonnes

39

Weightof piles b)

7 ,316 tonnes

superstructure Height of deck above sealevel Deck area Deck construction Deck Weights: Facilitieson deck ModulesandequiP.

21.7m 2,300m2 Plategirder tonnes 1,507 2,354tonnes tonnes. 14,762

^-*

Figure 4.1 BrentA

40

4.1.2 Concrete Gravity Platforms An exampleof this type of platform is CormorantA in Shell Expro'sCormorantfield. Thesestructuresare more massivethan the steelplatforms and are not piled into the sea -1,. " l. Hence the genericterrn gravity" for this type of structure.Again somefacts are of interest.

a)

Substructure Waterdepth 150m
Productioncapacity 60,000b/d oil and 30 mmscfd gas 1,000,000bbls Storage capacity Caissonshape Square height 57m Caisson 4 Number of legs Weightin air 294,655tonnes

b)

Superstructure Heiehtof deckabove water
Area of deck Deck construction Weights: Deck Ecluipment within deck Modules andequip.

23m
4.200m 2 Box girder 5,834tonnes 3,593tonnes 19,011 tonnes

Fig u r e 4.2 Cormorant A

41

4.1.3 Single Buoy Moorings World-wide there are a number of different variationson this type of loading facility. An exampleof an offshoreSBM which was initially usedby Shell Expro in the Auk Location SingleBuoy Mooring) and when in useit oil field was the ELSBM (Exposed 1 nautical mile from the Auk A platform. It was kept in was located approximately place by 8 anchors, eachweighing 15 tonnesplacedin a 3000 foot diametercircle. The anchorcablewas 3" stud chain. The mooring hawsersand the hoseswhich carriedthe of oil to the tankerswere carried on large reels in the superstructure the buoy.

Figure 4.3 Auk FieldELSBM

42

4.1.4 Pipelines There are thousandsof kilometres of pipeline laid on the seabed world-wide and although at first glancethesestructuresappearto be simple they are in fact just as carefully designedas all other types of offshore structureas the diagram, figure 4.4, of a typical field joint indicates.

SheetMetalCladding

Concrete Weight Coat Re-inforcement

FieldWeld

Circumferential cuts in concreteto minimisedamage when pipe bends duringlaying

BitumenWrap or Dope Coating

FieldWeld is covered with Black Bitumen underthe Sheet MetalCladding

PipeDiameter to 36" up 5/a" WallThickness - 11/q"

Figure 4.4 Typical Pipe Joint 4.2 Loading of Offshore Structures Whatevertype of offshorestructure considered mannerof its reactionto the is the loadingimposedon it in servicewill be similar. The reactiondepends the properties on of the materialsusedfor any particularstmctureand as an illustrationa brief descriptionof the properties elasticmaterials shouldprove helpful. of 4.2.1 Yield Stress When any component loaded,the materialinitially behaves is elastically. This means that when the load is removed,the component returnsto its original size and shape. This will continue while thecomponent in use,unless yield load is exceeded. is the Yield stress therefore stress which the materialwill no longerbehavewholly is the at elastically. If the loadingis continuedbeyondthe yield point, the materialwill deform and someof that defbrmationwill be pemranent.Therefore,if a structure part of it is or dentedo'r bent,it has beenloadedabovethe yield stress. 4.2.2 Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) If loadingis continuedwell into this region,it reaches maximum value known as the a ultimatetensilestrength(o urs ) . Attemptsto load beyondthis value will resultin the materialfailing by ductile fracture. Ductile fracturecan be identifiedby a largeamount of local deformationin the region of the fracture.

43

4.2.3 Brittle Fracture Brittte or fatigue fracture is by crack propagationwithout noticeablelocal deformation in the region of the fracture. Becauseof this lack of visible deformation, allY technique which cin assistin making it easierto detectcracks needsto be considered,and this needhas beenone of the riain driving forces behind the developmentof the science of for testins.For tensileteit characteristics ductile and brittle fracturesee non-destructive Figure 4.5
-2 Fracture600 MN m i.0olo strail Glassfibre

UTS+00 MN m

Fracture30% strain

Stress o MN m-2

Strarn

Figure 4,5 for TensileTest Characteristics Ductile and Brittle Fracture 4.3 Stress Concentration just underload wherethereis a changein shape It hasbeenfound that in a contponent in is stress very much higherthan elsewhere the locally at that changein shape,^the factor (K1 ) which is concentration is This eTfect quantifiedby the strbss co-ponent. stress.This was at the rltio of maximunt stress the changein sectionto the average the causeof the formation of cracks Inglis when studying first developedby Professor from the .oinert of hatchcoveri in the decksof merchantshipsat the beginningof this the cenrury. The effect of this is bestshownby considering simpleexampleof an elliptiial hole in a flat plate. The flat plateis loadedin tensionin one directiononly o, with a stress, and in theplateis an ellipticalhole as shownin Figure4.6. The plate is so large that the loss of areadue to the cut-outcan be neglected.At the edgeof the o stress by an amountgiven will be higherthan the average cut-out at point A the stress factor K1 suchthat the stlessat A = omax.= K1X O . The concentration by the Stress valueof K1 for this caseis given by the equation: K1=la2a b

44

Figure 4.6 Load on a Flat Plate with an Elliptical Hole It is worth examiningthis equationis a little more detail.Fig.5.7 showsthe variation of K1 with the shape the hole. It will be noticedthat the shapeof the cut-outand its of positionin the stress fleld is important. The longer and thinnerthe cut-out (or defect) the largerthe stress concentration factor K1 and hencethe higherthe maximum stress at the tip of the defect. The positionof the cut-outor defectin the stress field is important. the long sideof the cut-outis at right angles the maximum stress, If to the stress concentration factor is higherthan if it runs in the directionof maximum stress. An awareness the fact that stresses higherat changes shapealertsthe inspector of are of to areasmost at risk from crackingby fatigue. As thereis seldomsufficienttime to inspectthe whole sffucture, this knowledgeleadsto a more effectiveinspection programme. Someof the changes shapethat will give rise to stress in concentrations and hencelead to increase stresses the strictureare: in in a b d e f
g D

Nodejoints; in Cut-outs members; Holesin drilling templates; Weld profiles(unless groundflush with the parent metal); Weld defects; Corrosionpits; Marks on the surface the materialcaused accidental of bv damaseor bad workmanship.

i3o

Figure 4.7 concentration Variationof Stress this the Because value alb increases, is As a crack grows, the value of K1 will increase. engineering. the iefened to as sharpening crack.One of the standard sometimes is whln a crack hasbeendiscovered, to drill a hole at remedialproceduies emergency The crack,oflen referredto as crack blunting of -stopping.. ryasonfor this itre tlfi of ine at the because stress the tip of the crack will be high. Furthel cun be understood the gio*tfr of the crack will increase valueof K1 to an even highervalue (for a long thin J1ipr., this can be greaterthan 10). The drilling.of thehole.atthe tip.of the clack at redirceithe high lodal stress the tip of the crack,making the crack lesslikely to i.e. propagate, grinding out cracksreducesthe a/b ratio.

46

\

CHAPTER 5 ROV APPLICATIONS 5.0.1 Introduction The last ten yeiushavewitnessed slow demise the offshorediving indus0ry a in put broughtabout,at leastin part,because theresearch development into and of makingsafer,morereliable,bettertooledandcosteffectiveRemote Operated Vehicles(ROVs). CunentlyROVs areemployed manysub-sea on taskswhich were formally undertaken divers,suchasgeneral platforminspections seabed scour by and humaninterventionon manyunderwater risk surveys.Reducing tasksalsoreduces of injury or worseto personnel is a furthercompelling reason reducingthe for this policy to numberof diversoffshoreandcountries suchasNorwayhavea government legislateagainst diving on newprojects all It withoutdispensation. is the intentionof this chapter discuss mostcommontaskscarriedout by ROV'stheseinclude:to the / PipelineInspection '/ Drill Support r PlatformInspection Intervention I CableLaying I Construction ROTV Mine CounterMeasures Anti-tenorism/Drug enforcement
l

5.1.0 PipelineInspection The annualinspection pipelines theNorth Seaformsthe bulk of ROV operations of in months. CurrentlyROVs operate periodsof up to 70 hours during the summer for virtually non-stop the latestacoustic and technology records detailsof thepipeline's integrity with greataccuracy.These factors,alongwith improvements subsea in video cameras meanthat ROVs aretheprimepipelinesurveymethod. 5.1.1 Normal VehicleFitment A standard'Work class'ROVwill normallyhavethefollowing equipment and sensors: Thrusters Front andBack SIT Cameras Lights RangingSonar Manipulator

47

PanandTilt Mechanism AcousticTransPonder Emergency Light High IntensityFlashing Emergency Gyro Compass Power,Control,Instrumentation HydraulicPowerPack VehicleDepthSensors Vehicle Altimeter 5.1.2 Additional Fitment Specificto PipelineSurvey In additionto the abovea'surveypackage'willbefitted specificallyto enablethe r6quirements a Pipelinesurveycontract. This of vehicleto meetthe specification package will usuallyinclude: lighting Twin boomswith full colourvideoandadditional Still camera camera Possiblystereo/photogrammetic Strobelights for still c:uneras SidescanSonar Pipetracker SubBottom Profiler CP CurrentDensityMeter/Contact Probe and Temperature SalinitySensors AcousticResponder Odometer in is This surveyequipment explained the following paragraphs. 5.2.1 Twin Booms pipelinesurveywork an ROV will be fitted with twin booms, Prior to undertaking andadjusted, thesearefitted to eachsideof thevehicle. Theseboomsaredeployed andon thepipeline. Colour usuallyhydraulically,oncethevehicleis at theworksite -czuireras to lights will be attached eachboom. Thesecanbe andthe associated video the to individualtypositioned achieve bestview of eachsideof t!9 pipe._!he type in will vary andthese described Chapter15 are andmodelbf video camera Video. The lights will be of variableintensity. The maximumpower Underwater on will depend a numberof factorswhich areoutlinedin Chapter15 also. As a.guide, however,at least1000Wattsof poweroutputwill normallybe requiredto obtainthe of correctlighting from a distance 1 meterfrom thepipe.

48

Responder

Transponder

0.25metres

l-

0.6metres

( Responder 0 m , 0 m )
BathyUnit

Flower Pot

0.72metres

I

I

/
\
Transponder

-ptpETRACKER

\Additional

Equipmenr

* Bathy Unit

Lights -+

ColourCamera

,/
Survey Sled

-rrditionalEquipment='ont and RearSit Cameras S--:lls Stereoor Photogrammatic S:ob€

Figure5.1

49

PROTIIER D.H.SS.

DIYE OOI DATE I.I.92 Tlill 59-59-23 I43O YEI.OCITY M/S SOUND ttP HORTZ SEP VTRT l.2M ,OsM

AN9TE 035DEG START ANGTE I45 DEG STOP .|.8 gTtPslzl DEG AUTOilAnC 00 SEc ON HEAD PORT 'TBDHEADON

SilIDHIAD HIGHER

looolNo oFF

L

L

6
t

'.

?

k
a
,

s rl
lD

9 r.
o

'T

!

,

'

J

.l

"":-"''"

n"'
\

i

i

"ir. .-:. '.rLC-r

i.
I l..r*irp4r.r

irr.

:.r

,l

gl,d.ilr*,
,6r.';;$ r. a r .o *q;-1 .;1:r!-tr;'!!rrl'l.

Figure 5.2

50

nigry."5.1 illustrates varioussurveykit anached an ROV during a typical the to pipelinesurvey. 5.2.2 Stills Camera The stills camera will usuallybe fitted to thepan andtilt mechanism, may be and eithera mono,stercoorphotogrammetic type-.These cameras explainedinthe are C..hapte1 l6.Underwater Photogqphy. Wiitr tfrestills camera attached the pan and to tilt mechanlsqphotographs 6e takenfrom variousangles the Rov is' can as manoeuvred alongandaroundthepipe andan indicationof *re field of view will be obtained from the video ciunera tfie same on mechanism. 5.2.3 SideScanSonar Sidescansonaris a.particulartypeof sonar thattransmits a sideways in direction enablilg.aplal 9f tle seabedtopography be plottedasrheROV nivels alongthe to pipe. This enables positionof topogaphicalfeatures debrissuchasbou-lders the and or trawlergearto be recorded relativeto tlie pipe. 5.2.4 Pipetracker Pipetrackers usuallyoperateon principlesof magnetism, the hence, they areusually known as 'magnetic pipetrackers'. exdmple th-is theTSS 340 wtrictris in An of is commonuseoffshore Thesearefitted to ROVs to locateandtack ferromagnetic pipg 9rd cables. They usea passive sensing technique give the operator to irelative positionof thepipeor cable. somemodels havea'SEARCH'and'StctgAtuRe ANALYSIS'mode which_allows field anomaly be pinpointed, a full any to and signature analysis madeifrequired. Pipetackers havea p^arti^cularly usefulrole in trackingpipe thatis buriedandtherefoie cannotbe foilo*ed visualiv andversionsare in useto follow andlocatefaultsin buriedtelecommunications cabl6. 5.2.5 sub Bottom Profiler and rrenching Profiler (DHSSprofiter) The Dual Headed Scanning Sonar(DHSS)Profileris an acoustic devicethat enables a profile of the seabedto beobtained.It accomplishes by stepping this two (one transducers positioned eachsideof thev:ehicle; on fromihe ddtwira horizontal to the verticaldownwards position. Thedistances from eachheadto the seabedor otherfeatureis recorded a sonar as return. The DHSSProfileris essential for determining the^'Depth Burial' of a pipeline,thedepthof a Eenchor the lengthof a of 'Free-span'. 'free-span' A is an unsuppbrted lengthof pipelinewhich may be citical if thereis ?ny Possibilityof movemen[ thepipe. figtird 5.2 illustratesa cross of sectional view of-p1pe seabedrecorded anq from a profiler system.Modernprofiling sonarcanbe usedfor both subbottomandtenching applicaiions areavailableiri and both singleheaded dual headed and models. 5.2.6 Current DensityMeter/Contact probe Cp A CurrentDensityMeter andContact (Cathodic CP Potential) Probeare usually attached the manipulator useon exposed to for areas pipelineor anodes.Thb of principlesof operation these that they monitorthepotentialto corrodeof any of is glposeametalon the pipelineandtheeffdctiveness anodes.The CurrentDeniity of Metermeasures CurrentDensitywhich indicates CP coverandthe Contact'Cp the the Probemeasures potentialof theexposed the metalwith reference the silver/silver to chloridehalf cell in mv andis expected be within the following ranges: to Unprotected iron andsteel Cathodically protected iron andsteel -500to -650mV -800to -900mV

5t

Zinc (Anodes)

-1000 -1050 mV to

to it The contactCP probeis usedbecause is inconvenient maintainan earth as with conne,ction the pipe on a movingvessel is requiredwith the Proximityprobe which is normallyusedfor platforminspections. but The aboveinformationis to enable Pilot to havea basicunderstanding full the is informationincludingcalibrationmethods includedin the CSWIP3.3uROV inspectors courseandhandbook. 5.2.7 Temp and Salinity Sensors Thesemeasure temperature salinityof the waterduringoperations.Often the and to with an accurate depthfiansducer form a Bathymetricsystem. thesearecombined 5.2.8 Acoustic Responderffransponder/Pinger An acoustic to devicewill be attached the top of thevehicle. Therearethreegeneric types:Pinger- This repeatedly of energyat a set emitsshortpulses acoustic frequency.This canbecontinuous throughout dive or canbe initiatedin the the the eventof a powerfailureto thevehicleto enable crewto locateit and recovery. effect an emergency from the Transponder This emitsshortpulses response interrogation in to will vesselor othertransponders. Eachtransponder haveits own codeand manytransponders operate together eachresponding its own code to can receivedacoustically beingdisplayed individualsymbolson the and by (HPR) System. Reference Positioning surface displayof the Hydro-acoustic Responder This is similarto theTransponder to exceptthat it responds an thanthe elecffonicsignalsentthroughtheumbilical. This is'moreaccurate transponder because thereis only a oneway propagation acoustic of energy is throughthe water. Calculation throughwaterrangeandbearings subject of in in to errorsdue to variations sound velocities to variations the waters due density,temperature otherbathymetric and conditions. Thesedeviceswill allow the surface vessel trackthe vehicleandrecordthe position to progresses. of the ROV relativeto thevessel the survey as 5.2.9 Odometer pusharound The Odometer a devicemuchlike thewheeled is that Surveyors devices For to measure distances. ROV applications the these typically usedto measure are from thenearest distance an areaof damage of Fieldjoint andto measure depth the produce andextentof the damage itself. Potentiometers signals tansmittedthrough the umbilical to the surface indicatethenumberof turnsof thewheelandits to displacement. 5.3.0Additional Instrumentation Required for PipelineSurvey. In additionto the equipment fitted to thevehicleit is necessary navigationand for controlpurposes haveadditional to systems otherthanthosealreadyoutlinedabove.

52

5.3.1 SurfaceNavigationSystem The surface vesselwill constantly fack its positionwith the aid of radio beacons or satellitenavigationsystems.Examples radio systems Decca,Sylledis,and of are; Pulse8. Theserequireland or platformbased ffansmitters accuately (Usuallywell to position shipusually termsof 'Northings'and'Eastings'.is within I meter) the in It morecommonrecentlyto positionthe surface becoming vesselwith GPS(Global PositioningSystem) Satellites.These updating quickerandbecoming are more accurate.Depending the Globalareathe surface on vesselis in, the particularsystem in useandthe numberof satellites usethe accuracy be between 50m at in +/can worse+/- 10masthe norm and+/- 2m at best. 5.3.2 Telemetry System This system enables conffol,instrumentation, sensor, possible and video signalsto be communicated between surface the vessel thevehicle. Eitherelectrical and conductors opticalfibresareusedto carrythe signals digital form. Fibre Optic or in 'HardWired' telemetry:telemetryhasthe following advantages conventional over a) b) c) (Baud)rate A higherupdate No electrical interference Negligiblesignallossthroughthelengttrof the umbilical

Fibre opticshavethe disadvantage thefibresmaypart andmay consequently that be moredifficult to join or re-terminate the field. Thepaft of the telemetrysystem in that switches informationonto theline in sequence known asthe multiplexer. It the is is preferable usea fibre optic telemebry to system pipelinesurveywork due for particularlyto the very largevolumeof datathat is required be ransmittedto the to surface and the enhanced videoqualitythat is possible. 5.4.0 Drill Support This sectionoutlinesthe variousstages thedrilling prograrnme indicates of and the areas wherethe vehiclecanprovidevaluable Beforethe programme assistance. commences operations the controllershouldadvise drilling supervisor the the of capabilities the vehicleandwhereit canassist drilling operation.Thereis a of the tendency underestimate assistance an ROV canprovideto a dritling to the that operation.For this reason overviewof the taskshasbeengiven,thesewill be an laterin the chapter. explained 5.4.1 OverviewTasks Generaltasksto assist with the overalloperation include: will a) b) c) d) e) f) Surveysiteand seabedprior to spudding-in. Acousticbeacon placement recovery. and Guidance packages tools. of and Observation guidance and duringcritical drilling sequences. A-X ring replacement. Emergency BOP or package release.

53

g) h) D j) k)

Debrisremoval. ofdroppedobjects. Recovery charges. SettingWellhead Guidewire cuttingandreplacement. change. cuttingshaped Settingguidepost

5.4.2 Drilling Programme of At The following sectionoutlinesa typicaldrilling prograrnme. eachstage the is assistance given. of a drilling operation brief description thevehicles Drilling Programme 1) 2) 3) Rig on site Drilling to set30" casing stab-in 30" casing Vehicle Programme Surveysiteand seabed prior to'spudding-in'. Placemarkerbuoys to assistin well relocation. relativepositionof Observe casingto hole. Adviserequired directionto move. Use sonarto providedistance casingto of markerbuoy andadvisewhen readyto stab-in. and Monitor cementoperation checkbulls eyeon guidebase. enffy to guidebaseand Observe assist pushingif required. by entryto guidebaseand Observe by assist pushingif required. BOP latching Observe operation.Checkbulls eye and on ball joint inclinometer stack. of Carryout full inspection stack, and lower marineriser package riser/conductor. At this point in the programme from an thevehiclechanges role. It is activeto passive that recorrrmended regularchecks on the stackare carriedout and the distanceanddirection of the to beacon the stackcrossby checked sonar. Othertask will dependlargely requirements problems encountered on the during the drilling progranrme andcouldvary from locatingand objectsto recovering dropped

4) 5) 6)

cementing 30" casing Drilling to set18 5/8" casmg 18 5/8" casingentry

7)

Drilling to set 13 318" 7" 9 518" conductors

54

ffi" ;ilTf:ff I'*ii:,l',*"'ffi
The programme outlinemayvary depending thetype of well, or rig andthe depth on will in beingdrilled. A copy of the actualwell programme be available the drill supervisors office. 5.4.3. Liaison with Drilting Staff It is preferable beforemobilisation drilling supervisor(s) sub-sea and that the engineer(s) contacted.Not only to outlinethe assistance vehiclecanprovide are the installation, typeof stackin useetc. A greatdeal but alsoto verify the equipment the problemareas of time canbe saved this stage possible ironedout. Also, it is at and panel worthwhilepresenting stackrelease optionalequipment suchastheemergency andA-X ring replacement system that fitting requirements, configuration and so positioningcanall be verifiedin advance.A very usefulpreparation to paint tools is andequipment that areto be usedunderwater with white markingsto enablethemto videocameras. be moreeasilyseen the vehicles by 5.5.0 Blow Out Preventer(BOP) This is a safetydeviceinstalledat the top of the well thatcantypically be 10 metres in heightandweigharound150Tonnes. 5.5.1 Functionsof BOP Shoulda drill stringreachan areaof pressure is higherthanthe hydraulicheadof that pressure exertedby thedrill mud thena blow out or'kick' will occur. This resultsin an unconfolled blow out of mud followedby oil or gas. The BOP allowsthe well to be shutoff whilst heaviermud is pumped downtherebybringingthe well under control. 5.5.2 Operationof the BOP The BOP contains or morepairsof ramsmadeof steelor toughrubber. Shoulda one blow out occurthenthe ramsarehydraulically closed.Therearetwo kinds of rams (kill). The kill ramscut throughthedrill pipe andsealoff the Pipe(choke)andshear well. Chokeramscloseandsealaround drill pipe. Both ramsareheld in place, the heavier onceactivated, hydraulicpressure. by Oncethis taskhasbeencompleted mud is pumpeddownthe flow andchokelinesto the drill stringbelow therams whilst the drilling operations BOPareshutdown until thepressure to the and due headof mud is greater from the gasor oil in the formationthereby thanthe pressure stabilising situation the 5.5.3 Taskson a Blow Out Preventer a) b) c) d) e) 0 Checkkill line connector Inspectslip joint, flex joint andhoses Guideline replacements Align riserinto BOP Checkconnection production of conffol systems Manuallyover-ridinghydraulicconnector lifting BOP for

55

g) h) D

housing gasket BOP andconnector between Changing GuidingBOP into placein wellhead of Deployment replacement transponders and

5.6.0 DetailedTasksDuring Drilling Operations for procedures the varioustasksthe set The following area possible of detailed outlinedabove. vehiclemay be requiredto cary out duringthe drilling operations do in a.re Drilling suiport Task Procedures described detail herebecause.they not Tasks of whereas, o,nlygqoleryi_ey inspection appearlnany of our otherHandbooks, is includedastheyareincludedin detailin the CSWIP3.3uROV Inspectors Handbook 5.6.1 Seabed Survey a) t9 Locatethecentreof the ar-ea F lury.I"d. This is normallydone Positioning and usinga mini beacon therig/shipHydro-acoustic (HPR). Reference System and Carryout a 3600sonarsearch enterthe relativepositionof any (seeFig. 5.3). on targets thelog sheet and targets.Notethe dimensions Locateandidentify any significant composluon. (see Pass informationto thedrilling supervisor. chartFig. 5.3) the

b) c) d)

5.6.2 PlaceMarker Buoys of for buoysis to allow easyre-location the hole after the The reason placingthese for reduce time required the 30" casingstab-in. 36" bit is withdrawnandconsequently a) Make up two markers.Theseshouldbe singleanddoublewhite weightsby approximately paintedGrimsbyfloatsattached suitable to line. (one200 mm dia...metalGrimsbyfloat givesabout4 kg 5 ft of uplift). launchthe vehicleandplace Prior to the field stringbeingrecovered positions indicated.SeeFigure at the markerbuoysusingsonar the 5.4 The doublebuoy shouldbe placeddueNorth of the stringandthe of singlebuoydueSouthfor ease orientation. Ensure video hookup with the bridgeandthedrill floor is a the functioning. Recover vehicle.

b)

NOTE: c)

56

Date: Vessel:

DiveNo:

Tape No: Location:

Seabed Survey

Note: The Centre Axis is the Soud-in Location

t

Figure 5.3
DrillString

-/

- t t -

t l
l

t ll t
Seabed

I t
57

t l

L_J

(

Figure5.4

5.6.330" CasingStab-in 1) 2) 3) NOTE:
Whenthe 30" casingis 2 to 3 joints from the seabedlaunchthe vehicle. Descend the casingandwhenat the basecarryout a sonarscanfor on the Grimsbyfloats. to Pass relevantdirections thebridge. the hereand it is on It is betterto agrcebeforehand the procedure aregiven. i.e. movethe casing30 to" that-"go directions suggested of2700. feeton a heading with Oncevisualcontactis established boththe buoysandthe baseof the casingin view the vehicleshouldremainon a constalt hga{ingeitherto lhe North or Southof thecasing.This will enablethe bridge and to work from a knownorientation makethe final adjusfinents the to necessary bring the casingbetween 2 buoys. the Whenthe casingis between buoysthevehicleshouldcloseup on requiredto andindicatetheNorth or Southmovement onesetof buoys notedthat while not usuallyobvious the centralise iasing. It shouldbe 6 ai the holediameter the seabedis approximately ft andprovidingthe orderto stab-inis givenwhenthecasingis abovethe hole it will is_possible. feet gravitate into thehble (a hundred of peneffation vehicleto puqh,the. for iryithout therebeinga hole). It is possible the thanmovingthe wholerig casingover the hole andthis is ofteneasier this anchortensions.In orderto accomplish the vehicle by adjusting and havd s6oul-<l a locatingframeattached the casingshouldbe marked to cameras observe with white ringsto allow thecarefullypositioned the penetration. on While the casingis beingfed in thevehiclecanstandby the seabed until the guidebaseis inposition (normally5 ft abovethe seabed). it to The baseshouldbe checked ensure is level and,if required,the bull's eyecanberecovered. .an To allow removalof the unit on oneoccasion old A-X ring was and weldedto a guidebase thebull'seyefitted to this After checkingthe guidebasemonitorthe stringto casingunlatching and operation recoverthevehicle.

4)

5)

6)

NOTES: 7)

Cementing 5.6.430" Casing 1) 2) 3)
NOTE:

time. the to Liaisewith thedrill supervisor determine launch
on The vehicleshoulddescend the riserandtakeup a positionup of currentof the guidebaseto preventtheobscuring the visibility. is Checkthe cement over spillingaroundthe guidebase.Usuallythe is volumeallowed 100- I507o. excess video is used, whereonly monochrome It is quitedifficult, especially mud,in filland cementhoweverwith practise between to diflerentiate it is possible.

58

4)

When-the supervisor satisfied is with thecementing operation recover the vehicle.

5.6.5 Drilling to setthe 18 5/8" Casing 1) 2) 3) NOTE: Whenthe 30" casinghasbeencemented bit will be loweredto drill the for the 18 5/8" casing, joints off the guidebaselaunchthe vehicle. 3-4 Monitor thepositionof the stringto guidebaseanddirect asnecessary. Assistby pushingthe stringinto the guidebase required. if The deeper seayater depththeeasier is for the vehicleto push the it the stringinto position,but thePilot shouldbe wary during strong currents. Whenthe sning is in positionrecoverthevehicle.

4)

5.6.6 l8 5/8" CasingEntry The procedure hereis similarto thatoutlinedfor the30" casingstab-in. 1) 2) Whenthe casingis within 3 joints of the guidebaselaunchthevehicle. Assistir.tgujdilg thecasingto theguidebase, pushingif required. by The casingis fed in until it is approximately te€tabovethe b6ttomof 4 the.permanent_guide Monitor the sring beingdetached base. from the casing( a left handthread connects two). the It is normalto fit the stackat this stage.Checkwith the supervisor on the time spanaq{ based this it maybe worthwhilekeepingthe on vehicleon standby the seabed. on Monitor the stacklatchingoperation.Depending how modern on the rig is thiswill be an 18_ 10,000 unit or 20 3/4" 2000psi psi 3/4" stack. In thelattercasea 30 5/8" 10,000 unit is fitted at a later psi stage. Verify the degree tilt on the bullseyes. of Checkthe angleometer(s) theball joint (wherethe lower marine on joins the BOp). riserpackage Cany out a full inspection the stack. Ensuresonar of reflectorand beacon armsarein thecorrectpositionandthatno oil leaksor damage is apparent. Ascendon theriser/conductor inspectthis andhoselinesfor and damage security attachment. and of

3)

4)

5) 6) 7)

8)

5.7.0 Possible TasksRequirements The following-tasks occurlraphazardly duringthecourse drilling operations of and may be carriedout only infrequently.

59

(Hydraulicallyoperatedunits only) 5.7.1 A-)VV-X Ring Replacement and the which seals between guidebase theBOP is usuallycalled The metalgasket between BOP andtheLower Marine Riser the that seals the V-X ring andthe gasket fail are is Package usuallyknown asthe A-X ring. If these two choices oPe! to the or out supervisor:roundtrip the stackandeffectthechange on surface lift the stack A-X ring andhavethevehicleplacea newring in the guidebase. The clear,ejectthe the will largelydepend thedepthof seawaterandconsequently on methodchosen procedure a vehicle for roundtrip time for the stack. Howevertherecommended out change is listedbelow. 1) 2) 3) 4) with Fit the A-X ring carryingframein accordance the instruction supplied. fit Checkout the system, the A-X ring in positionandlaunchthe vehicle. Descend theriserandmoveinto thepositionover the guide on baselBOP. that Exactpositioningof thering in the guidebaseis critical so ensure the self centringframeis levelprior to ejectingthering. When the that thepositioningof thevehicleis correctoperate satisfied pot the of verticalthruster to give60Vo down thrustandactuate A-X ring tool. Ascend and clearof theguidebase videotheunit in position. while it is latched. Monitor the stackreplacement standby and and Liaisewith the drilling supervisor recoverthevehiclewhen appropnate.

5) 6) 7)

Release 5.7.2 EmergencyBOP or Package cannotbe if This taskwill only be required the stackor marineriserpackage fail. hydraulicsystems i.e. released if theprimaryandsecondary conventionally weather conditionsto one However,it only needs suchfailurewith worsening which canbe independently back-up system, validatethe needto havea separate panelsmustbe prerelease stackrelease lowerpackage and operated.The emergency mounted the stackandplumbedinto theexistingsystem.The following procedure on could be usedwhenthis taskis undertaken.
1) 2) Fit the emergencystackreleasepanel tool to the manipulator. "hot line" to the quick connect and fit this Fit the rig supplied to the tool. Allow a reasonableamount of slack to allow for the manipulator rotation before taping the hose to the vehicle. (NB ensure the tape can be broken after hose is connectedto panel). Launch the vehicle and descendon the riser. Once at the stack go to the appropriatepanel and turn off the valve Insert the quick connect into the guide cone and ensurea positive lock before releasingthe hose.

3) 4)

6L)

5)

Oncethe hoseis connected advisethedrilling supervisor, breakfree of the tapeholdingthehoseto thevehicleframeandstandby monitor to the unlatching. Whenhe stackis unlatched recoverthevehicle.

6)

5.7.3 Debris Removal Smallitemsof debrisor transponders beremoved thevehiclewithout may by assistance simply by takinghold of it with the manipulator however, wherelarge, heavyobjectssuchasdropped lengths drill stringrequiremovingassistance from of the drill floor will be required. 5.7.4 Recoveryof Large Dropped Objects This taskmay crop up from time to time andthe item canvary from a drill stringto a completestack. As thevehicle's capabilityusingthe manipulator in the orderof lift is kg it will often be necessary attackhooksor slings. This is a common-sense 90 to taskandthe following guidelines presented a guideonly. are as 1) 2) Liaisewith the necessary personnel determine exactshape the to the of its points. object(s), approximate weightandsuitable attachment lift Basedon the informationsupplied decideon the methodof recovery, i.e. slings,singlehook,net,multiplehooksor stringdeployed retrieval tool. While the slings,wire ropes,hooksor stringdeployed retrievaltools arebeingfashioned loweredlaunchthe vehicleandlocatethe and object. Mark thepositionrelativeto the well headandstandby for toolsto be lowered. Attachthe recoverytool andensure objectis lifted clearof the the seabedbeforerecovering vehicle. the It is goodpractise ensure thevehiclealwaysremainsabovethe to that objectbeinglifted in case lifting deviceshoulddisengage the the and objectfall ontothevehicle,the speed lift shouldbe variedif of difficulty in achieving is experienced. this Clearthis point with the rigger/charge handprior to thelift commencing.

3)

4) NOTE:

5.7.4 SettingWellheadChargm This will normallybe caniedout from a shipafterthe well hasbeenpluggedand abandoned therig hasmovedlocation. The primarytaskof the teamwould be to and locateandmark theWellheadthenfollow theexplosive experts directionfor placing the charge.It is recommended theROV Supervisor awareof all the necessary that is precautions handlingexplosives thattheexplosives for and expertgivesa safetytalk to the teamprior to mobilisation.This talk shouldcoverthe methodandprocedures for placinganddetonating charge. the 5.7.5 Guide Wire Cutting/Replacement Wherea guidewire system usedthevehiclemay berequiredto cut andreplacea is wire. It shouldbe notedthatthe standard equipment normallycarry out this rig can taskwithout assistance usingthe remaining wires. However,whereequipment by 3

6l

5)

Oncethe hoseis connected advise drilling supervisor, the breakfree of the tapeholdingthehoseto thevehicleframeand standby monitor to the unlatching. Whenhe stackis unlatched recoverthevehicle.

6)

5.7.3 Debris Removal Smallitemsof debrisor transponders beremoved thevehiclewithout may by assistance simply by takinghold of it with the manipulator however, wherelarge, heavyobjectssuchasdropped lengthsof drill stringrequiremovingassistance from the drill floor will be required. 5.7.4 Recoveryof Large Dropped Objects This task may crop up from time to time andthe item canvary from a drill string to a completestack. As the vehicle's capabilityusingthe manipulator in the orderof lift is 90 kg it will oftenbe necessary attackhooksor slings. This is a cornmon-sense to taskandthe following guidelines presented a guideonly. are as 1) 2) Liaisewith thenecessary personnel determine exactshape the to the of object(s), approximate its points. weightandsuitable attachment lift Basedon the informationsupplied decideon the methodof recovery, i.e. slings,singlehook,net,multiplehooksor stringdeployed retrieval tool. While the slings,wire ropes,hooksor stringdeployed retrievaltools arebeingfashioned loweredlaunchthe vehicleandlocatethe and object. Mark thepositionrelativeto thewell headandstandby for toolsto be lowered. Attachtherecoverytool andensure objectis lifted clearof the the seabedbeforerecovering vehicle. ttre It is goodpractise ensure the vehiclealwaysremainsabovethe to that objectbeinglifted in casethe lifting deviceshoulddisengage the and objectfall ontothevehicle,the speed lift shouldbe variedif of difficulty in achieving is experienced. this Clearthis point with the rigger/charge handprior to the lift commencing.

3)

4) NOTE:

5.7.4 SettingWellheadCharges This will normallybe carriedout from a shipafterthe well hasbeenpluggedand abandoned therig hasmovedlocation. Theprimarytaskof the teamwould be to and locateandmark theWellheadthenfollow the explosive experts directionfor placing the charge.It is recommended the ROV Supervisor awareof all the necessary that is precautions handlingexplosives thatthe explosives for and expertgivesa safetytalk to the teamprior to mobilisation.This talk shouldcoverthe methodandprocedures for placinganddetonating charge. the 5.7.5 Guide Wire Cutting/Replacement Wherea guidewire system usedthevehiclemay berequiredto cut andreplacea is wire. It shouldbe notedthatthe standard equipment normallycarry out this rig can taskwithout assistance usingtheremaining wires. However,whereequipment by 3

6l

guidelines necessitates useof thevehiclepossible the failure or othercircumstances for this taskarelistedbelow. 1) 2) to Launchthe vehicleanddescend theguidebase. from the post. This shouldbe cut Cut anyremainingwire protruding to ascloseaspossible thepostandthe stubfed insidethe post. Placelatchrelease overexistinglatchandlift unit clear. tool Locatethe new wire and grip immediatelyabovethe latch, the closer the better. Manoeuvre vehicleinto positionabovethe postandplacethe cone the of the latchover thepost. and Release wire, maintainposition,raisethe manipulator bring it the to ontothe latch. This is necessary force down quickly andsharply loaded clip which holdsthe latchto the guidepost. backthe spring to Whensatisfied latchis in positionandconnected the guidepost the guidewire. checkthis by tuggingon the andwhen is Monitor thelatchwhile tension appliedfrom the surface recoverthevehicle. this hasbeencompleted,

3) 4)
5) 6)

7) 8)

5.7.6 SettingGuide PostCutting Charge if This may be necessary a posthasbeenbadlybentanddoesnot allow re-installation charges carriedthefirst actionwill be to contactthe are of the stack. As no shaped and expertto be sent. Checkwith baseand iurangefor the charge(s) an explosives On are the drilling supervisor theleadtimesquotedby base acceptable. receipt that the of the charge(s) actionto be takenis asfollows: 1) Discuss with the explosives expertthe procedure be followed for to placlp thecharge.Usevideopreviously takgnto-highlight any. him to decidethe bestposition of to significantareas damage enable for thecharge. is ensure eachmanis aware Whentheprocedure settled satisfactorily of his role andlaunchthevehicle. Locatethe bentpostandplacethecharge.Video the placement and havetheexplosives expertverify it is correctlypositioned. Recover vehicleanddetonate charge. the the

2) 3) 4)

5.7.7 Drilling Support (General) The abovesectionis by no means exhaustive will not be relevantto every and situation. It is true,however, thatROVs arethe normalmethodof providing It for underwater supportfor drilling operations. is goodpractice at leastone member of the ROV crew (usuallythe Supervisor) remainon thedrilling rig for a number to in familiar with particularmethods, practised, as of wells to allow him to become what is, undoubtedly, specialised of ROV operations. a area

oz

5.8 Platform Inspection Legislationrequiresall offshoresfuctureshavea valid certificationof fitness renewed onceevery5 years. Oil companies havetheir sffuctures may inspected an on annualbasis,eachyearlyinspection collatedin orderto applyfor the 5 year is 'Certificateof Fitness'.It is not theintentionof this sectioniodiscuss plaform inspection detailasit is a specialised thatis described detailin the CSWIP in area in f.:g.$OJ Inspectors Handbook/Course is normallyrequiredto be carriedout by and qualifiedpersonnel.The intentionis to highlightthe areas whereROVs play a key role. 5.8.1 GeneralVisual Inspection (GVI) is normallyundertaken platformsannuallyby on 9eneralYisual In_spectign ROVs. The ROVs usedfor platforminspection be observation will classcompleie with tetherqanqgeqentsystems operating from eithera dive support vesseloi from itself. _Typical typesof ROV usedfor this purpose include;the Seaeye {e^nlatform 600, the OffshoreHyball andthe Sprint. The itemsthat will be inspected includetherisersandconductors which areof particularco_ngern theycarrytheHydrocarbons as from thewells andawayfrom the platforms. Otherkey itemsto be inspected includethe anodes, members, will the welds,the mudmats otheritemssuchasclampsandpile guides. and The ins_pection beplanned will from the'Workscope'provided theclientandwill by normallyincludethefollowingtasks:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Assessing amount marine growthdeposits of Locating debris Locatingareas general of damage structural to components Coating condition potentialmeasurements Cathodic usingthe proximity silver/silver chlorideprobe(CPP)ar anodes otherarbas inierest. and of The conditionandintegrityof clamps Relativemovement between clampsandrisers Floodedmember detection Mudmatsurveys Inspection the spool of pieceandsealine flange Anode condition

Resultsare loggedeitherby computer systems on datasheets thesetogether or and with video tapesform the inspection reportrequiredby the client. Oncethe leneral has.been completed thena closevisualinspection may be required. Islal inspection This is normally.carried-out diversbut ROVs arebeingd-eveloped arec'apable by tliat of carryingout these tasks.

63

5.8.2 CloseVisual Inspection havebeenhighlightedby the is Closevisual inspection carriedout whendefects general visual inspection asrequiredby the workscope.Work classvehiclesmay or in involvedin this part of the inspection thefollowing ways: become 1) Cleaningof weldsandremovalof marinegowth usingrotatingwire (HP) or or brushes waterjets. Waterjets canbe eitherhigh pressure (LP) andmay be sandentained. It is extremely Low Pressure wherehigh importantto adhere anypeftinentsafetyregulations to water low pressure waterjetting is beingutilised. In general pressure jetting will be sufficientto removelooseor soft marinegrowthprior to measurement. floodedmember or detection wall thickness ultrasonic waterjets will be usedwherea baremetalfinish is High pressure or requiredprior to weld inspection crackdetection. If are Photography anomalies. the anomalies largethey may be of photography photographed duringtheGVI but closeusing'stand-off will be cameras NDT or Photo$ammetic up photography usingspecial requiredfor weld or crackphotography.

2)

Testing(NDT) involvesthetestingof weldsand The practiceof Non Desffuctive methods.Thesetasksare members ultrasonic, elecffo-magnetic radioactive and by adapted tooling packages normallyca:riedout by diversbut morerecentlyspecially tasks. haveallowedwork classROVsto carryout these 1) 2) 3) testingof a Floodedmember or testing- The ultrasonic radiographic if has member determine wateringress takenplace. to measurement The ultrasonic testingof a memberto Wall thickness determine wall thickness. the (MPI) - Theinspection a weldsfor Inspection of Magnetic Particle ink. This utilisingmagnetising or prodsandfluorescent coils defects by methodis usuallyundertaken diversbut hasbeenaccomplished by ROV. more ACFM andACPD aretwo methods finding weld defects of probes smallerthanthe equipment are suitedto ROVs astheelectronic methods requiredfor MPI. The probes electronically sophisticated use that arebeyondthe scope this book. of to detectdefects

4)

is increasing it is and The involvement ROVsin platforminspection constantly of programme becarriedout by ROVs in quitefeasiblethat the wholeinspection will lessfrequent are the nearfuture. This is particularlysoasweld inspections becoming betterunderstood ROVs andthere and asweld defectpredictabilitybecomes morecapable.This is dueto technical advances and are operators becoming ROV Inspectors improvedoperator standards the emergence theCSWIP3.3u with of and raining courses qualification. 5.9.0 Interventiontools The main impetusfor ROV Intervention hascomefrom the fact that a fully (ROVSV)will costbetween ROV support vessel 1/3rdand 1/10thof the equipped is vessel(DSV), ROV intervention therefore considerably costof a dive support Projects Development cheaper.In Norway,NorskHydroisTOGI andOseberg for represent importantmilestones remoteintervention.Thesewerethe first projects which were installations in which therewereprimary operations the subsea on

o4

carriedout solely by RoV. Until this point, ROV underwaterinterventionon pennanentinstallationshad beenrestrictedto back-upand override tasksin casethe prime actuationsystemsfailed. With the increased reliability and availability of ROV systems, suchoperationscould be much more cost effective. Typically such operationsinclude opening and closing valveswhere the operationcan be planned some time in advanceand are not part of the installation control system operated automaticallyor via the seabed umbilical. 5.9.1 Norway Norway has taken a lead in remote intervention becauseexploration and production operations are occurring in ever increasingwater depths and are already at and beyond the reasonably practicaland economicdepthsfor manneddiving (around350 to 400 metresor 1150to 1310feet). In addition ii is considered socially unacceptable in Norway for people to be taking the risks associated with deepdivingoperatiohs. 5.9.2 Other Areas Of The World Other parts of the world are also making progresswith the developmentof diverless interventiontechniques.Theseinclude areasof the world where explorationand p:oduction are moving into water depthsbeyond the capacityof saturationdiving. Operatorsin the Gulf of Mexico have set many recordsfor suchactivities. In particular,Shell have drilled in 2,292 metres(7 5I7 ft) of water from the drill ship 'Discoverer SevenSeas'with underwater interventionsupportprovided by an Oceaneering HYDRA 2500 ROV. Shell are also bringing theii Auger leg platform (TLP) on streamin 872 metres(2,860ft) of water. In Brazil, Pero6ras aie operating subsea completion'stied back to productionsystemsin over 1,000metresdepth. 5.9.3 Methods of Interventions There are threemain methodsof carrying out remote intervention:the Remoterv QperatedTool (ROT), the Remotelybpirated Vehicle (ROV) and the Remoteiy OperatedMaintenanceVehicle (ROMV). 5.9.3.1 The Remotely Operated Tool System(ROT) This is a developmentof existing drilling interventiontechniques where tools are deployed,via guide wfes, lowered from the surface. Once landedat the work site, the_tool can carry out its specific tasks. Usually suchtools are controlled by separate umbilical cablesfrom their topsidecontrol station. ROTs can deploy and operate larger and heaviertool systemsthan would be considered using ROV methods. Also the tool is securelylocked into the installation,providing a firm basefor precise operations. The tools can be usedto recoverand replacelarge components, suchas c.ontrolpods and valve inserts. ROTs havehigh reliability and are very task specific, they are also designedto requirevery little operator'skillt. Rors are limited by water depthfor guide wire operation,the needfor a more sophisti^cated supportvesselwith theIncreased associated costs. Also thereis always a risk of the tool 'dropping',and damagingthe subsea intervention. 5.9.3.2 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) ROV operationsare normally low-force, or more correctly, low mass. This is not to say that high forcescannotbe generated, only that the ROV tools are individually smaller. Typically a rangeof interventiontools could include; a subsea ROV winch, an interfacesystemto a valve, a seriesof tool to remove covers,access valve inserts, 'elevator' an to recoverthe removedcomponents, tools to inspectand clean inside valve insert bodies,sealsurfaceinspection,cleaningand refacing tools etc. The tools

65

basket, canbe fitted to the ROV or canbe loweredto seabedin a sepiuate $ey are handledin turn and their in-water^weighi then materialto reduce fittea wittr buoyancy [OV. ttt" t6ols areusuallyjob specific,but often.ianbe usedto address LVG giving costsavings. similar tasksin differentlocations several vessel support the to is The ROV tool spread oftencheaper build and^operate, surface cfeaper ofteirmakingtlg.o.pglatignl vessel, ROV DP sripport r* GJorril"rdil.ty to designwith guidesandlatches eitablishthe tools in the thanwith ROTs. Car6fU can ;Ai did-;niuna i*olving-automad'coperationsthereafter be usedto minimise repeatability. and skill requirement ensure thl operator 5.9.3.3 RemotelyOperatedMaintenanceVehicle (ROMV) installation, into a subsea The third methodis whereeffectivelyan ROT is deployed tasksandis known out several wherethe tool canmovewithin the itructureandcarry of vehicle(ROlVlV). An_example. this is the asi remotely operatedmaintenance the figg: 5.5 shows Snorre sys-tem. Production Subsea Sugnf"roleirm'Snone iu6r.u productionsystem.Figure5.6 showi the manifoldcontrolmoduleandROMV conEol system all end eff6cterwhich ii usedto rlcover andreplace typesof subsea modules.

'@*
't/.-2-

'V"i ''/,'

3 '

, 4

'

,e
Umbilical Porches

Figure5.5 production system subsea Snorre

66

ROMV End EffectorNo. 2 ExternalCan \

\
PressureComoensator

ROMV Guide Sleeves and Latch Receptacles

Clamp Halves

<
Hex Drivel-:-

z \

- --G
Torque Wrench

HydraulicCouplers InductiveCouplers Mounting Base --'

Figure5.6 Manifold conffolmoduleandROMV endeffector 5.9.5 Typical intervention tasks by ROV a) Pull-in andconnection usingan ROV asthe solemeans operating of the Pull-in connection(PIC)tool andotherpull-in methods.see Figure5.7 b)
c)

Inspection cleaning ROV tools. SeeFigure5.8 and by ROV support Blmote Operated for Tool Packages. Figure5.9 see which showsan MRV with purpose built intervention pac[ageadded at therearfor Mobil. Electricalandhydraulicconnector cleaning customRov toors. by Electricalcableinstallation tooling. Controlsystem a series ROTs for of ROV in_tervenliol panels hydraulic"hot stab"operations.See for FigIIg 5.I0_which showsa Tronic mini c-E conneitorandreceptacre andFigure5.11whichshows subsea with stab-in a tree panel. Remote crackdetection sizingby ROV. and ROV based welding. SeeFigure5.12 ROV based dredging.SeeFigure5.13

d) e) f)

s)
h) i) j)

o/

tasks,andis-notintended The aboveserveto illustratethe rangeof ROV intervention of areaof work with teams tool design as to be exhaustive this is a speciauied majorROV Contractors' by employed all the specialists

Figure5.7 ROV Flow line Pull-in

TRITON

5.8 Figure Cleaning ROVStructural

Figure 5.9 MRV With ToolingPackage

Figure5.10a TronicC-EMini Connect

.T'BAR PLUG ROV RECEPTACLE MOUNTED BULKHEAD

Figure510b To Tolerance Misalignment TronicC-E Mini Connedtor

Fig u r e .ll 5 Panel TreeWith Stab-In Subsea

71

FrictionWeldingTool

Figure5.12 ROV Based Welding

Dump ...;1/ Alternative Line to Surface ..iJ"

:i

Line Dump
to Seabed

ii

\:.

Figure5.13 ROV Based Dredging

72

5.10.0Telecommunications CableLaying Telecommunications Cablelaying is a world wide operation carriedout by companies suchasBT (Marine)andCableandWireless (Marine) whichis increasing in frequency the telecommunications as revolutiongathers pace. Similar methods are usedin the offshoreoil industryfor layingcontrolumbilicals,flow linesand pipelines. 5.10.1GeneralOperations In general operations work classROV may be requiredto cruryout the following a duringthecablelayingoperarion: 1 2 Prelay survey - The surveycarriedout beforethe cableis laid to assess reliefof the seabed. the Touchdown monitoring- The ROV is requiredto observe point at the whichthecablemakes contact with theseabed. This enables engineers determine the tension thecableis correct to if of duringthe lay downprocedure. Postlay survey - The surveying thecableoncelaid,this task of resembles of a pipeline that survey is to ensure thecableis and that laid correctlv the seabed on

3

5.10.2Burial Oftenthecableor controlumbilicalis required be buried.This is likely to be to required shallowareas in wherethereis a likelihoodof trawlingor similaractivities d.utrugilgthecable. This is achieved oneof two ways; a ploughis towedbehind in a shipwhichploughs ffenchandpositions cablein it, or a Trencher a the whichis a jets andlaysthecablein it. In bothcases tracked ROV creates trench a with water afterthecableis placed thetrench in normalseabedactionis lift to fill thetrench. 5.f03 EurekaTrenchingSystem the trenching system a SMD ploughareshownin chapter and f1r exampl^e_of Eureka 3; Types ROV. of 5.10.4Modular PloughSystem a of takenfrom theBT ligury 5.14shows description theModularPloughSystem (Marine)datasheet. 5.10.5Submersible TrenchingSystem Figure5.f 5 s_hsys description the Submersible a of trenching system similarly operated BT(Marine) takenfrom theirdatasheet. by and 5.10.6Summary here as of lh9-information_presented is intended an overview cablelayingequipment. ' laying_is, however, specialised andalthough technologyis a area the !ab]e fundamentally similarto all ROVs,dueto theirlargesize(oftenseveri[Tonnes) they tend.to operated_by be large_r crewsof typically7 men for 24 hourcoverage. They will be; a teamleader,two Senioroperatbrs shift supervisors two o=perators oi and per shift..P]oqgh.s trenchers operated and are from dedicafed support vessels with heavy launch facilitiessuchas'A' frames thestern thevessel.in bothcases at of profiling

73

and bathymerricsonar(seechapter19) are usedto ensurethat the cable is being laid in the trench and is entering the machine at the correct angle due to the very poor each during theseoperations.Detectioncoils are positioned-on visibility experienced side to aid location of buried cable and responderbeaconsare attachedto enable the 'track' the plough or trencherwith its' HPR system. surfacevesselto 5.11.0 Construction have been Specially adaptedtrencherssimilar to the one describedin 5.10 prev^io-up bed construction work. A good example of this was the adiaptedio undertake sea platform building of a round concretebarrier wall around the central concrete_storag.e Phillips Petroleum (Norway). A full description of in the E-kofiskfield operatedby this project is describedin the SocietyOf UnderwaterTechnology(SUT) joumal 'Undlerwater Technology'Volume 17 No.2 1991. It is sufficient to statehere that such with suchthings as; seabed levelling projectsare possibleby adaptingtrenchers tools, debris collection rakesand scrapercollection tool. 5.11.1 General Construction Work Generalconstructionwork usually involves the installationof steeljackets. Theseare floated off a bargeand lifted into position on the seabed by a Derrick Barge. Typical ROV taskson suchinstallationsinclude the following:i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Pre installationseabed survey Placing transponders positioningthejacket and Checkingthe mud mats Monitoring the pile driving and depthof penetration Monitoring the cementreturnsat seabed for pile cementing Diver Observation Postinstallation survey

Particularcare must be taken with regardto safetywhen undertakingthesekinds of constructionoperations.Care must not only be takennot to harm divers that may be operations in the water but deck work must be done with careas many dangerous place. suchas heavy lifting, welding and cutting will be taking 5.12.0 Remotely Operated Television(ROTV) A good exampleof an ROTV systemis the FOCUS (Fibre Optic Controlled UnderwaterSystem)400Inspector. This is a versatile,stable,controllable,towed sensorplatform. The modular designapproach permitsdesignsto depthsof 6000m 'box kite' design with cable lengthsof up to 10000m. The innovative hydrodynamic lends itself to carrying a multitude of sensors.Theseare commonly fitted with video side scansonar,soundvelocity probe, still cameras, obstacleavoidancesonar's, Everything in fact that a pipeline lights, pan and tilt units and transponders. cameras, survey ROV might carry except the thrusters. ROTVs can offer a cost effective answerto pipeline surveywork. ROTV Pilots, however,needfast reactionsas ROTV surveys are often faster (around 2 knots) than normal ROV survey (around U4 - U2 knot). Control is accomplished throughcontrol foils at the sternof the vehicle. Figure 5.16 showsthe FOCUS 400 performance curves. 5.-13.0Other applications

74

Other applicationsinclude the military useof ROVs for Mine CounterMeasures. This is a specialised areawhere the ROVs in use are requiredto be; reliable,quiet with a minimal magneticsignature. ROVs are being widely usedby customsofficials and the police to counterterrorismand drug smugglingwhere attachments may be found on the undersideof vessels.Headlinegrabbingapplicationsinclude the survey of the Titanic and the MV Derbyshire. Other more romantic applicationsinclude the dredging for gold off South Africa and the harvesting of Pearls off Japan. There are as many applicationsof ROVs as man can imagine,and it has to be true that there will be many more in the future as the explorations of the oceansis still considered to be in its infancy.

.aut.,iauii,u:3t iut::a::

MPS Cable Plough

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77

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Chapter 6 Electricalprinciptes
6.1 Introduction In order to be able appreciatethe Rov Electrical systemthoroughly, a basic understanding the of The first iption of this chapter Flectrical principles is essential. concentrates revising theseprinciples so they can be applied when carrying out on maintenance any system. on 6.1.1 Voltage and Current In order to understand natureof electricity and the basic electricalpropertiesof the materials,a knowledge of the structureof atoms is required. All materialsare madeup of atomsand all atomscontajn tiny particlescalled electrons which orbit a centralnucleus.

+

electron

c
@/ Fig u r e 6.1

+nucleus

I

Electronshave.anegative chargewhile the nucleushasa positivecharge. Like charges repel while unlike charges attracteachother,therefore negativeeleitronsare the attracted the positive nucleusand are held in orbit. to In conductors,electronsare not tightly held to their atomsand may break free and move from one atom to another.TheseTree'electrons normally move aroundrandomlv.

,/

t

,/

metal

-{ electrons 'e--Vg

'free'

t @ +
of
Figure 6.2

^r@

If thesefree electrons madeto flow in the samedirection,the resultis an electric are curTent.

19

metal 'free' electrons

@+

@+ @+ @+

Figure 6.3 Insulatorsare materialsin which electronsare strongly bound to their atoms and there may be few free elecftons.It is thereforedifficult for current to flow. (For example, glassand rubber.) Free electronscan be made to flow in one direction in a conductor by applying a positive chargeto one end and a negativechargeto the other. The positive chargeat one end will attractfree electronswhile the negativelychargedend will repel electrons. passingany one point in a conductorin one second. Currentis the numberof electrons In other words applying a potential difference (or voltage) acrossa circuit will causea a current to flow. The PotentialDifference creates force, known as Electro-Motive Force which gives rise to current flow. The size of the current will dependon the size of the voltage and also the amount of resistance the circuit. in in The symbol for currentis I, it is measured amps. The symbol for voltageis V, it is measured volts. in in The symbol for resistance R, it is measured ohms. is 6.1.2 Resistance and power and Resistance an oppositionto currentflow that givesrise to power being dissipated is in work being done.The power may be dissipated the form of light, heator motion. Figure 6.4 illustrates simpleelectricalcircuit involving the basicelectricalprinciples. a

Directionof Current
Power Distribution ,/

VoltageSource

istance

Figur e 6.4 the of source develops potential charge, unitsof whichare a In this situation current the the across that calledvolts.It followstherefore therewill be a dropin potential light or motion. to energy beingconverted heat, resistance to some theelectrical of due

80

6.1.2.1 Relationship between voltage, current, resistancerand power Thereis a mathematical relationship between voltage, curent andresistance. OHM's Law states thecurreniin a circuit is dlrectlyproportional thevoltage that to andinv.ersely proportional theresistance. to quantities linkedby the These are following equation. VOLTAGE = CURRENT x RESISTANCE (V=IR) Poweris the amount work thatcanbedonein a standard of time (1 second). of unit Electricalpoweris expressed unitsknown aswatts. Onewatt represents power in the usedwhenoneampere currentflows dueto anElectromotive of Forie (EMF) of'1 volt. Poweris related Voltage, to Current Resistance thefollowingequation. and by POWER= (CURRENT x RESISTANCE ;z P=I2R POWER= VOLTAGE2 RESISTANCE / P=V2lR 6.1.3 Electromagnetism Figure- shows electric 64 an culrentflowingthrough conductor a produces magnetic a around conductor, directionof whichdepends thedireciionof current-flow. the the on

conductor+
direction of magneticfield

-+
I

conductor+
direction of magneticfield Fig ur e 6.5

<!I

If theconductor formedinto a coil anda currentis passed is throughit, a magnetic produced which is similarto rhatof a barmagnet. &F p This is knownasanelectromagnet.

8l

bar magnet

Figur e 6.6 field is increased by:The magnetic I 2 3 of the increasing number loopsin thecoil the the increasing currentthrough coil usinga ferrouscore

6.L.4 Electric motors

Direction Rotation of Figure 6.7 the Figure6.7 shows basicactionof anelectricmotor.If a current9?:ryingconductor directionthatis will field theconductor movein a rotational is placed a magnetic in a uponthedirectionof currentflow. In practice motoris made!p_gf dependent field and magnetic between of thousands coils woundon a former.The interaction torque. a allowingthemotorto develop greater curent is stronger electrical 6.1.5 Direct current the voltageandtime.In this situation between Figure6.8 illusratestherelationship magnitude direction. and currenthasconstant

82

Fig ur e 6.8 6.1.6 Alternating current Figure6.9illustrates relationship the between voltage time.In thissituation and the curent variesin magnitude direction. and Thecurrent variesbetween positivelevel a anda negative leveloyera periodof time.Thetime takenfor onecomplete cycleis knownasthe periodictime, andthenumber cyclesthatoccurin onesecond of is termedthe frequency. It followstherefore that:

I T where1= periodictime The advantage altematingcurrent over direct currentis that it is possibleto of transformalternatingcurrent by meansof either a 'stepup' or 'stepdown' transformer.

FREQUENCY=

+V max+V

time

max-V

Fig u r e 6.9

83

it'cuts'the As how AC. current generated. thecoil rotates is Figure6.10illustrates This is into theconductor. induced linesof magnetic flux resulting currentb-eing in supply. knownas singlephaseAC current andis commonlyusedfor domestic
Direction of induced

powersource External to coupled coil mechanically provides rotation

Directionof Rotation Figur e 6.f0 6.1.7 Transformer action without from onecircuitto another is A transformer a devicethat transfersAC energy contact between two circuits. the therebeinganyelectrical If in 6.1.3. anAC Transformers according theprinciples to discussed section operate field will build up and magnetic thentheresulting cwrentis applied a conductor to is If in with thevaryingmagnitude thecurrent. thisconductor of collapse sympathy fieldwill induce a placed close proximitywith another conductor themagnetic then in up are into thisconductor. practice conductors made of coilsof In the current secondary wire knownas primary andsecondarycoils . Figure6.11 illustrates action thetransformer. the of

PFIMAfr ! SECONOAFY COILS WOUNOON THE SAME CORE

Figur e 6.11 Therelationship voltageis dependent on between primaryvoltageandthe secondary the thenumber turnson thecoils.Figure6.10illustrates stepup andstepdown of the transformer. outputvoltageis directlyproportional thenumber turnsin the The of to coil. Theexample shows inputvoltage 115VACto a coil with 1000turns. an of The secondary has2000turnsandanoutputof 230VAC. coil

84

Example: RATIO OF PRIMARY COL TURNSTO SECONDARy= I : 2 INPUT VOLTAGE =200 VOLTS.
Therefore

2x.200 =400VAC SecondaryVoltage l ' 6 . 1 . 8 R e l a ys switches operate theprincipleof electromagnetism. that on Figure $q!y-q areelectrical 6.12illustrates simple a relaycircuii. The diagramshowsthecontacts whentherelayis in its de-energised In state. this state tley.arereferred asbein_g to normallyopenor irormallyclosed. Whencrrrent is applied via thecontrollingcircuittherelaybecomes energised thecontacts and change th'e to opposite state. Thisin turnconnects highvoltage the source themotor. to
HIGH.VOLTAGE HIGH-CURRENT POWER SOURCE

RELAYCONTACT

MOVING ARMATURE

N.C.

220 VAC

I

I n.o.

CONTROLLED CIRCUIT

6VDC
I

CONTROLLING CIRCUIT
I

REI-AY

J
RELAYCONTAST MOTOR

LOW.VOLTAGE LOW-CURRENT POWER SOURCE

F ig u r e 6.12 6.1.9 3-Phase electricity the betweensingle phase curent andrime.The ftgult 6.8illustrated relationship disadvantage single of phase curreni thatit is noi suitable situations is in where high a powerfactoris required. Figure 6.13illustrates principles generating the of 3-phase electricity. Three coilsare >e . 120.de_grees resulting threeseparate t apart in phaiesof currentU6ing induced into each coil. It canbe seen therefore thephases alsooffsetfrom eich otherby 120 that are

85

this of turns, beingoneof up coil is made of man^y.thousands each In degtees. practice current. of themagnitude thegenerated thjmain faitors thatinfluences

tI
I

A

, Red,Yellow and Blue coils Figure 6.13 6.1.10 Transformer configurations in are 3 Phasetransformers normally connected either Star or Delta configuration Figure 6.14 illustratesthe two modesof dependingon their specificrequirements. connectlon. Phase1

Conductors

Neutral

2 Phase Phase 3
Star Configuration Figure 6.14 that the threewindings have a common It can be seenthat in the starconfiguration With star whereno return is present. return line as opposeto the deltaconnection Delta Confi

86

transformersthe line insulation is only required to withstand the phasevoltage and not the full outputvoltage.Also two choicesof load voltageare availablebetweJnthe windings if the neutralline is used. The main disadvantage the star configuration is the transformersbehaviourwhen of harmonicsof the fundamentalfrequency exist in the secondarywindings. The_delta configuration doesnot suffer the samedisadvantages the star as configuration. In this situation the closed form of the delta piovides a path for the harmonicsto circulate and preventsthem flowing into the power system. The most commonconfiguration ROV systems a star/delta on is SivitchingMechanism. In the delta mode the output is ungrounded, groundingof one phasewill not the seriouslyeffect the operationof the power systemas the fault cunent hasno direct return path to supply. If the output was in star then a fault current would have a direct seareturnpath to the supply.Another advantage this configuration is that any of unwantedharmonicsareprevented from propagating throughthe power system.It is usual practice to employ a srar/ deltaconfiguraiion in the power supply. tnitially star configurationprovidesa low startup currentfor the electricmotor, oncerunning at operatingspeedthe systemswitchesto deltaconfigurationwhich runs more effiiiently. 6.1.11 Power supplies The mainparts of-a power supply unit (PSU) are a transformer, rectifier, smoothing circuit and a stabilising circuit(seefigure6.15).

rectifier
rnput Figure 6.f5 a) The transformer

smoothing

tabilising d.c . output

The transformer tak€san ac input voltage(e.g.mains)and 'steps' (converts) it to the.required voltage. transformeimaylherefore step-up'or'stepA be dg*L'dependingon the turnsratio between secondary the primary the and windings. b) The rectifier The transformer outputis an ac. voltage.This is then convertedto a dc voltageby the rectifier,howeverthis is not a steadydc voltageand as suchis not suitablefor many applications. c) The smoothingcircuit Most equipmentandelectroniccircuitry requirea constant and steady supplyvoltagein orderto operate. This circuit smoothes rectifiei the output to give a steadydc voltage. d) The stabilizingcircuit Because internalresistance, dc outputof a PSU or batterydecreases of the from a maximum as the currentdrawn increases. The greater this decrease. the worseis saidto be the regulation of the supply.

87

the Figure6.16illustrates effectof currentloadingon a powersupply.

d.c. output voltage REGULATION CURVES

load current Fig ur e 6.16 remains voltage the ensuring output this circuitovercomes problem Thestabilising constant.
RESISTANCE

t-

)

F D

z

Circuit Action. the As the culrent drawn by the load increases current voltageacross and throughthe diode decreases a constant R1 is maintained. Figure 6.17 into the how a deviceknown as aZ.enerDiode is incorporated Figure 6.17 illustrates 'clamps ' the output voltage at the de.sired level of the circuit. The diode oufrut stage loading. It is not ihe intention of this sectionto dwell on the regirdlesiof the external ciicuit theory of theseelectricaldevicesas there are mlny text books availablethat cover the subject{uite adequately,but to provide sufficient information to cross-traina an itilotflechnician to be ableto assist Engineerwith electricaltasks. mechanical

88

Aux 240 V

Deployment

UMBILICAL Figure 6.18.

89

6,2 Introduction To The System It layoutof atypicalRqy s_ys!gq. canbe the In chapter figure3.1illustrates basic 3 winch,umbilical, Tether unit, is of seen thatthe system comprised a surface the to of It and System vehicle. is theintention thissection discuss basic Management individual units. of principles operation these of 6.2.1 Surface Unit ROy (SELMulti Roll unit the Figure6.18illustrates surface of a typicalworkclass or from thevessel Thereis onemainpowerinput whichmay be supplied VJtricte). provided generator.An auxiliaryinputof 24AVis also installation from a customised or supply. asa domestic The maininput,typically440VAC,is fed via a junctionbox to themainPower to Poweris thendistributed thefollowingmainunits. DistributionUnit.
a) PurgeSystem. b) DeploymentCrane. c) Winch PowerPack. d) Stepup Transformer. e) ControlConsole.

6 . 2 . 1 . 1 P u rg e System
safeareathus enablingthe us of non-zone The purge systemprovidesa pressurised relatedequipmentin the control cabin and winch junction box. the When the systemstartsup a fan pressurises cabin to 0.75 milli Bar, this is monitoredby the PurgePanelfor a period of twenty minutes.After this period, should no problemsoccur then the vehicle systemwill be switchedon. During operations, fall shouldcabin pressure below 0.25 milli Bar then the Purgesystemwill that if the vesselor installation It down the system. follows therefore automaticallyshut insidethe cabin the is in a situationwhereinflammablegasis present positivepressure falls then the power will be cut off will preventthe gasintruding,if the pressure preventingany electricalarcingoccurringand causingan explosion. 6.2.1.2 Deployment Crane electricmotor, the power for of The cranehydraulicpower pack consists a 3-Phase which is takenfrom the PDU. 6.2.1.3 Winch Power Pack Electric The winch power pack operates the sameprincipleas the crane.A 3-Phase on motor is directly coupledto a hydraulicpump. The motor receivesits'power from the PDU 6.2.1.4 Step Up Transformer to is The stepup transformer suppliedwith 440VAC which is converted a suitablelevel in as to overcomeline losses the umbilical. voltagesfor ROVs are as follows: Typical surface

90

a) RECONIV I60VAC

b)scoRPro 1100vAC
c) HYDRA 1800VAC d) RCV 1s0950VAC e) MRV 33OOVAC 6 . 2 . 1 . 5 C o n tro l C o n so te Thecontrolconsole houses surface the elecronicscontrolinstrumentation displays and thevehiclesensor information. a) Surface electronicsand control instrumentation Thesurface electronics processes signals the received from thevehicles primary joy-stick,manipulator (e.g. controls master control). Theprimarycontrols a producg varyingdc voltagethatmayvary proportionallybetwebn t5v depending thesystem. on These signals algititized multiplexed ari: and before beingtransmitted downtheumbilical thevehicle to electronics. Section in 6.3 thischapter looksat multiplexing moredetail. in Figure6.19illustrates basic process controlandinstrumentation. the of

Analogue Signal Umbilical \ Surface Interface

overswitch DigitalSignal Fig u r e 6. 19 Theremote is a replication theprimary box of flying controls enables deck and the officerto steer ROV awayfrom thevessej installation the oi duringthelaunch procedure a safedivingposition. into Oncein position controlisreverted the backto themaincontrols thecontrol in cabin. Thejoy stickpotentiometer simplya variable is resisror produces proportional that a analogue voltage. There.is porenriometer each one joy-siicli. for plane rhe bf The surface interface amplifies analogue unit the signaf a suitable to t6vetto beapplied to themultiplexer (mux)unit. b) Sensorinformation Chapter section 5, 5.2.2 discusses various the sensors mavbefoundon a that typical$OV. Thevehicle electronics incorporates a'two way iata link'which allowsdatato betransmitted thevehicle-from surface, is thecase to the as for

"

9l

the control information,and from the vehicle to the surface,as the information from the sensors.

is the casefor

(e'g' that consistof transducers convertsone form ofenergy The sensors The electrical energy is in energ.y. o. pressure,rcmperature u"our,ir; i"iii.tti.ul in the the form or ri *ui.gue signal trriii converte{ tg &-gitatand tranqmitted is displayed to the signat.rn" r"nror infoniation samemann"; u;ih;;;ntifi pilot on the control console. 6.2.1.6 Switch On Procedure It is important when switching the systemon to follow the correct procedure' a) ConsolePower b) Vehicle Power c) HYdraulicPower telemetrycan occur' with the systems is If this procedure not followed complications the Master / Slave^princip.l9, surfaceelectronics The telemetry systemworks on the on being rhe masterand thevehicle being the slave.tf ttrev6trict: tly:l:t^:Yll:l* ariseswhereby the slave is enabledand before the consolepo*"t then the sitiation and can receiving no ro*-und f.o* the surfacemaster.This is an undesirableeffect When powering down the systemthe damageof the telemetry sy{em.. fruJto p-ossible procedureshould be followed in Reverse Order' 6.2.I.7 Display Unit unitis rel"u{1!^t1{3laf As well as housingthe vehiclecontrol systemthe surface a numberof vtdeo monltors information.The systemincorporates uiO.o unOsensor and sensors-asrequired' -circuit. ;[i"h ;r; capableoib.ing switchedvideo cameras boardsin S.if niugnostics Programm.e.All the ROV sysre;; h;;; Some computer then a surface the systemare continuallymonitored,Ihoulda fault occur which will locatethe relevantcircuit allows the operato.;;G througha programme board. 6.2.2 Winch SYstems

requirea systemto-deploythe vehicleto the work site' Most winches All ROV systems tocontrol the lengthof umbilical as opposeto ar. "i..tt"-ttydraulic and are designed depth,and the ohvsicallvliftine the vehicle.When submerged vehiclecontrolsits own

iliffi"fr^iir.;';ilil;

a There."-r*" i,i.eptionsto thisin whichcase morepowerfulwinchis thewater. lifting umbilical' designed fittedwith a specially winch'. the 6.18shows mainunitson a typical Figure by together sliprings' junctionboiesconnected two ffr? iyrrc. incorporates 6 . 2 . 2 . 1F ixe d Ju n ctio n B ox

out lifts vehicle of to crane the atiachedthe il;-fis meChanism

to Thefixedjunctionbox is a two wayjunctionboxthatpasses.powertheumbilical' in and from theumbilical datasignal bothdirections. uia"o rtgnlut

92

6.2.2.2 Rotating Junction Box junctionbox,asthe name Therotating impliesis attached themaindrumof the to function thefixedjunctionbox. winchandcarries thesame out as On systems wherefibre opticsareused(seesection 6.4) therotatingjunction box may when caused house fibre optic transmitters receivers. This overcomes problems the and junctionbox.The transmining light energyfrom a fixedjunctionbox to a rotating junctionboxes with whichis morecompatible remains signalpassing between electrical theslip ring assembly. 6.2 . 2. 3 S l i p R i n g s The slip ringsprovidetheinterface between fixedjunctionbox andtherotating the junctionbox. Figure6.20illustrates operation theslipring. the of

_ WINCH MOUNIING

Qr?-,!qA-I irr \rlv!!3

OqrC PASSI5 ?f PQ!E& S|GN{ & FrBER
OFTIONAI PRESSURT CCMPTNSAiOR'

IO ROIATINC JUNCIION 8OX

M O D E L? 6 I ELECTRICAL SUP

I sEt oFllrL

l

Figure 6.20 The unit consistsof a numberof contactsknown as brushes(one brushper conductor) to mountedon a centralcore which is staticand directly connected the fixed junction box. The core is mountedin a cylinder which is free to rotateand is directly coupledto that make physical the winch drum. Insidethe cylinder thereis anothersetof contacts that electricalcontinuity contactwith the brushes the staticcore.It follows therefore on is maintained all timesduring the rotationof the winch drum. The slip ring in Figure at a 6.20 alsoincorporates fibre optic rotaryjoint which allows light signalfrom the static junction box to passthrougha prism network which in turn directsthe light onto a lens. The lens then convergesthe light onto a receptorin the rotary sectionof the joint before it is sentdown the umbilical. It becomes obviousthat the efficient functioningof the on whole systemis dependent the integrity of the slip rings and for this reasonthey are is manufactured a high degree quality. Correctmaintenance crucial,an outline of of to which is referredto ln chapter11.

93

6.2.3 Umbilicals and the link the The umbilicalprovides electrical between surface theROV Umbilicals to tlreyarerequired lift thevehicleout of the on depending whether -uy U" armouied is The o"peration. fifling streirgth providedby a steelwire *ui", duringtherec6very ttrerlmhtical.Umbilicalsof this natureareheavyandrequire *iup tttit srirrounds winches. dedicated vehicle. for a Figure6.21illustrates typicalumbilical a workclass

Fibre Optic Bundle

Amrour

Power Conductors Coaxial Quads

r Figu e 6.21 6 . 2 . 3 . 1T yp e s o f co n d u ctor of consists thefollowingconductors: Thisumbilical 4 In over4 conductors. thiscase beingspread each a) 16Powerconductors, phase line. act conductors asneutral paircarry The pairs'. twisted of A b) 4 Quads. quadconsists two wirescalled'twisted pairsare the For theteiemerysilnalsanddataup from thesensors. thisreason twisted interference. to screened profectthe signalfrom extemal fibresmay be usedto carryvideoor anyform of digital These c) I FibreOpticbundle. signalasrequired. from the to used carryvideosignal is cable normally Coaxial Cables. d) 2 Coaxial unit. to vehicle thesurface

o,l

The Quadsand coaxialsare shielded a copperbraiding.If this was not the casethe by interference comrption high voltagesin the power conductors and would leadto severe of the data signals. It should be noted that if fibre optic bundlesare incorporatedin the umbilical, because of their delicate structure,they are usually placedin the centreto minimise breakagedue to bendingof the umbilical. The conductors enclosed a plasticsheathing are in which providesinsulationand protection. This would be a standardumbilical and would not be suitableto lift the vehicle.By coveringin armourthe umbilical is then given its lifting capabilities. 6.2.3.2 Safety Factors During launchand recoveryoperations umbilical is often waveringat headheight.If the extremecare and attentionis not exercisedat all times then severeinjury or even death personnel. is the responsibility the ROV teamto make can occur to careless It of everyone awareof thesedangersduring the launch / recoveryperiod. 6.2.3.3 Umbilical Breakdown twisting Conductors within the umbilical can breakdue to excessive tensionor severe or bending.Faultsof this naturecan lead to long periodsof down time and the pilot shouldalwaysbe awareof the umbilicalsstateduring diving operations. The maintenance repairof umbilicalsis coveredin chapter11. and 6.2.4 Garages And Cages Many ROV systems the employ a Earage cagewhich houses vehicleduring the or launch/ recoveryprocess. this situationthe vehiclewill be protected from possible In 'splashzone'. damagewhilst passing throughthe Small ROVs are limited at what depththey can work due to the drag factor of long lengthsof umbilical. This problemis overcomeby deployingthe vehicle in a garage, 'swim' in orderto onceat the working depththe vehicleonly hasa shortdistance to reachthe work site.By working from the garagethe largedrag factor hasbeen eliminated. The garageemployswhat is known as a Tether Management System (TMS). The TMS controlsthe paying out and reelingin of the umbilical during the diving operation. The TMS is controlledby the pilot from the control cabin.The TMS control signals passdown an armouredlifting umbilical in the sameformat as the ROV control signals. They are then processed the TMS electronicsbonle and usedto control the in appropriate hydraulicvalve.The ROV umbilical is housed a hydraulicallycontrolled on drum. From this the umbilical passes througha systemof guidesand rollers that maintainthe correcttensionon the umbilical whilst paying out and reelingin. A pan and tilt camerais alsofitted to the systemto aid the pilot when latchingand unlatchingthe ROV.

95

YDRAULIC power

PORT FLOAT TANK
control umbilical

OPTICS ruNCTION BOX

PRESSURE SENSOR

power control

STARBOARD FLOAT TANK

SONAR SCANNING I.JNIT

UMBILICAL TERMINATION Figur e 6.23

96

6.2.5 Vehicle Electrical System Figure6.23illustrates basic rhe electrical unitsof theROV 6 . 2 . 5 . 1 U m b i l i ca l T e rm in a ti on The umbilicalis terminated anoil filled junctionboxwhichis compensated in (see chapter The signals routedthrough 8). are iedicatedsubsea connectors therelevant to unrts. 6.2.5.2 Hydraulic Power Unit (HpU) powel is supplied anelectricmotorwhichis directlycoupled the to to P{* phase hydraulic pump.on some. sysrems powersignal the maypass through stepdown d transformer prior to-reaching motor.Whentfrehydrduiic the powerii switcliedon at thesurface controlsignalis sentvia the systems communication an activates a daia link a relayandapplies powerto theelectriimotor. the 6.2.5.3Port float tank Theactuallayoutof theelectronics ROVsvariesfrom vehicleto vehicledepending for on.itsworkscope. example ROV thatis intended mainlysurvey For an for operations" will possibly have.an extrapressure vessel incorporated its d6sign ho'use into to the necessily electronics. This particular example ROV incorporates float tanks. of two The telemetry circuits alongwith theporv-er supplies sensor cards, gyrowill be housed this tank.The and in port ?.nd starboard float tanksareelectrically coni.ected themainsystem as power supplies supplytheequipment thesiarboard tank. also in float 6.2.5.4Starboard float tank Thestarboard mayhouse electronic tank the circuits controlthesurvey that equipment. Thisexample illusrates sona-r assembly the scan powerbeingderived frorirthe starboard tank.TheremayalsobepowerJuiplieshousEd hereto drivevarious float in otherpieces survey of equipment suchasprofileis, pipetracker sidescan or units. 6 . 2 . 5 . 5O p t i cs j un cti o n b o x junc_tion is a unit thatis common mostworkclass Theoptic.s box to /largeinspection class vehicles. is simplyanoil filledjunctionbox thatmaydistribute It ioweito the vehicle,lights, compass othersensors. diagram and The illuitrates typicalsituation the in whichthepowerfor each light.comes on a common in cable(typicatiy tZOVeCper light),it is thendistributed various to lampssituated around ttre'vetricte. 6 . 2 . 5 . 6 V e h i cl e li g h ts Thenumber lightson ROVsvaries of consrderably depends thenumber and on of cameras fittedandthetaskto becarried Theoperation standard consists a out. is and of relayor Powgr controlmodule dedicated each to dmp. Therelays 'switched are by controlsignals from thesurface once and energised po*e. to therelevanr cbnnect iamp. 6 , 2 . 5 . 7T h r u st e r co n tro l u n it Thehydraulic operation thethruster of controlunit (TCU)hasbeen discussed in Chapter Theunitreceives varying 8. a analogue signal fiom theServoDriver Cards housed themainelectronics in bottleor in thJcase figu.e6.7. theportfloat tank.The 5f servo drivercardconsist groupofamplifiers of.a thatbdost contrblsignal the to a suitable levelto drivetheservb valveiin theTCU.

91

6.2.5.8 Hydraulic control valves (HCU) in The hydraulic operationof this unit hasalsobeendiscussed chapter8. This unit receiGs analoguesignal of a positive or negativepolarity dependingon the direction that the manipulator limb or pan and tilt unit is required to move. 6.2.6 Auto control functions The task of flying the ROV is made easierby the inclusion of Auto Control functions Thesefunctions normally include Auto Heading and Auto into the vehicie efectronics. Depth. 6.2.6.1 Gyrocompass The auto headingfunction operateson a similar principle to a shipsauto pilot in the headingso long as the function remains sensethat it willremain on a pre-determined selected. 'mass' spinningon an axis. If The ROV is fitted with a Gyroscopewhich is basicallya then the unit will ry to.exertan eqtraland a right angleforce is appliedto a gyroscope oppbsitefbrce in ordei ihat it may ieturn io its cenral axis. In practice the gyro is pbweredby an electric motor an<iit is imperativethat i1sspeedis sufficient in order that it doesnotiopple.It is alsoimportantthaf the gyro is alignedwith the earth'smagnetic field, this is achievedby incorporatingwhat is known as Flux Gate. The with one primary winding and two secondaries. A flux gateis a transformer -opposition, in the inducedfields will therefore secondirywindings are connected with the earth'smagneticfield in coil canceleachother out. Each secondary interacts sucha way rhatit is in addition with one field and in oppositionwith the other.This windings.As the flux gateis givesriseio a voltagebeing inducedinto the secondary in iotated the magnitudeand phaseof theseinducedvoltageschanges sympathywith changingearth'smagneticfield. the It follows thereforethat the difference betweenthe phaseof the primary and secondary voltageis proportionalto the magneticheadingof the flux gate.The signalthat is gyro thuspermanently coupled.toth_e prodricedUy ttrisphasedifferenceis mechanically ^aligning 'slaved'to the flux g1te. and its north. In generalthe gyro is it io magnetic when the magneticfield. This situationis undesirable ouiput ls conrolied by the earth's the magneticfield may become whereby ROV is in closeproximity of steelstructures distorted.To overcomethis the gyro may be decoupledfrom the flux gate and allowed 'free drift' mode. to run in into a voltagewhich is is The output from the threesynchrophases converted This voltageis theninput to the vehiclemultiplexer proportibnalto the vehicleheading^sysiem headingat the control compass eithera digital or analogue and produces console. 6.2.6.2 Auto heading monitored the gyro the On selecting auroheadingfunction the outputof 'error' is constantly and signalis processed fed to voltage.The resultant and comparid to a reference act the thrusiercontrol circuits.The thrusters in suchaway as to reducethe error signal and thus maintainthe vehicleon a fixed heading. 6.2.6.3 Auto depth The autodepthfunction works on a similar principleto the auto headingin that a signal.The is sensor comparedto a reference voltagethafis derivedfrom a pressure

98

resulting'error'signalis appliedto the vertical thrusterwhich actsin sucha way as to counteract changein depth. the Auto functions in their simplestform require the pilot to switch the device on at the surface. The vehicle.istotallycontrolled-by auto functionin this stateand the pilot the has to physically switch the device off to iegain control. More complex systemsillo* the pilot to make fine adjustmentusing trim confols. 6.2.6.4 Trim controls

Trim controls allows the pilot to apply a control signal to the ROV from a sourceother ,h.T ltt jgystick. The sourcesare usually in the form of a single turn potentiometer which maintain a fixed control signal to ihe vehicle as oppose-to pilot determined the signal from the joystick. The commonesttrim controls arb: a) Forward / Reversetrim. (cruise control) b) VerticalUp /Down trim c) Lateral Port lStarboard trim 'add'a The principleof operationis the samefor eachtrim in that the potentiometers signalto th9 main input gonrol signal.They are usefulwhen flying the vehicle into a currentor if the vehicleis being subjectto a crosscurrent.fne pilot can usethese controlsto make the flying operationlessstrenuous poq: systems haveheadingtrims which can be usedin conjunctionwith the auto headingand enables pilot to makefine adjustment the-direction the vehicle. the to of 6.2.7 Sensor functions It is essential that the vehiclesoverallconditionof operationis constantly monitoredin order to minimise unnecessary breakdowntime. The following items are monitored. a) Oil Temperature. b) Oil Pressure. c) Oil level. d) Water ingress. e) Water ingressto connectors. The sensors operateon a similar plnciple in that a transducermonitors the pressureor temperatureand convertsthis to a DC voltage.Thesesignalsare multiplexed and travel on the vehicles'up'datalink. The water ingresssensors locatedin the pressure are vessels and usuallyconsistof two contacts locatedat the-lowest point of the veisel. Any water ingresswili shortthese contactstogetherand form an electricalcircuit. The resistance between the conductors all that areattached the relevantsubsea to connectors also monitored.If wateringression is takesplaceat the connectorthen the resistance fall and provide a readoutat the surface will unit. The resistances mav be displayed alq charton the surface displayand arecommonly termedIRs. fhey 9n may be AC or DC depending the circuit b6ingmonitored. on

99

6.3 6.3.1

Telemetry Introduction

Section 6.2 of this chapterdiscussedthe basic electrical units and various sensorsthat the are found on ROV systems.It alsodiscussed methodby which the vehicle is controlled from the surfaceunit. to It is now necessary look at how control and sensorinformation is transmitted surfaie unit and the vehicle. The systemthat carriesout this task is betweenthe commonly known as the Telementry System. 6.3.2 Analogue Signals

Analogue signalsvary continuously with time and assumeany amplitude level within the limitations of the electroniccircuitry. It is thesetypes of signalsthat are produced in by the potenriometers thejoystick control. Figure 6.24 showsa typical o-utput form from a controljoystick. It follows that the output from the signal,in analogue joystick potentiometermust be transmittedvia the umbilical to the thrustercontrol -circuitryon this signalwould be subject!g ling losses the ROV. During this process in of and disiortiondue to the physicalproperties the conductors the umbilical.
+5V SIGNAL. ALOGUE

l]*- + U I
l I
-5V

I

Y

\ JOYSTICK POTENTIOMETER.

Fig ur e 6.24 6 . 3 . 3 D i g i ta l S ig n a l s levels, one they as Digitalsignals not continuous areanalogue havetwo discreet are an positive voltage theotheris zerovolts. Figure6.10 shows and levelis a constant will still be on/offsignal It that of example a digitalsignal. followstherefore, a simple it to be but and to susceptible lihe losses distortion will however, easier re-shape'once is signal converted the hastravelled through umbilical.For thisreason analogue the levelat the outputvoltage knownasa 'word',a particular into a 'train'of digitalpulses joystickwill havea dedicated digitalcode:
ATOD CONVERTER.
ANALOGUE SIGNAL IN.

rLnr
SIGNAL DIGITAL OUT.

Fig ur e 6.25

100

6.3.4

Line losses

Line lossesis a condition that effectselectrical signalswhen they are transmitted through conductors. Physical propertiesof metal conductorsare such that they will absorbsomeof the signalbeing passed throughthem, thusresultingin line loss. 6.3.5 Time Division Multiplexing

So far we have discussed use of digital signalsto transmit the control information the for the ROV. In practice however, the transferof information for all thrustersand sensors a continuousprocess. is Ideally eachthrusterand sensorwould require an individual conductorin the umbilical thus allowing a constantstreamof data passing betweenthe vehicle and the surfaceunit. However, this would lead to the overall diameterof the umbilical being large and thereforeimpractical. To overcomethis problem the telemetry systemmakesuse of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Insteadof eachfunction having a dedicatedconductor,they in fact sharetwo conductors known as a 'twistedpair'. In order to overcomethis problem the analogue signalsareconverted digital signalsprior to being transmitted to throughthe umbilical. Figure 6.26 illustratesa very simpletelemery system.

fL
,lFo

Shielded Twisted pair Word I in Cards Surface Unit - PowerSupplies l. MotherBoard 2. ND Converter Board 3. Timing/Program Board 4. MIIX Board Word2

MF Sync

ch3-16

Fig u r e 6.26 6.3.6 Twisted Pair
Two wires twisted together, one wire is dataup link, the other a datadown link. The wires are protectedby a shieldknown as a screen.

t0l

6.3.7

Programme MicroProcessor

circuit controls the switching operationof the The programmemicroprocessor 'rn

MUX 1 rvrUxCtrannetgpgnifirst,followed.by words ;;ldpi"?;; rttunn"ri. other 'words', wordcontaining each in on. 2, cttanief andro Thiswill result a trainof
on from differentfunctions the system' digital information Circuit 6.3.E Main Frame Synchronising 'receive'circuits distribute eachword to therelevant can In orderthatthetelemetry to-qcfr glounof words' pulsehasto be added a ;"ltipl.;;; cttannet iyictrionisation Main Frame of thegioupandtheqn-d-py-lh" at This is added thebeginning will contain64 F# r*u-pi" a'64"hannelMUX syqlgm Cir;?;. S;;.-i;i;i"g many will The system transmit a'frame'. known^as aie *"oiar; these collectively flow of controland This givesrise to a constant of thousands framesLurryi"rond. in alongthetwistedP-arr theform of a is Information ransm'itted rinioi information. 'frame'. a "timeslot"in thisfiamethusallowmg is function allocated Datafrom each a 'frame' Figure6.11 shows from all functions. ttr" .onrtuntt ansfeiti information from I particular information oi i *ords, eachword containsdigital ;;;fiG allowing thereby of thoisand timesa second out firlr pto""rr it Ging carried function: is there onewordperchannel. In practice time. uit"n.same -uny functionito "f.* 6 . 3 . 9 M u l t ip l e xe r C ir cu it ( Mu x Cir cuit) 'channels' knownas switches of circuitis simplya collection electronic Themultiplexer operate on to information pass to theline. The switches conrrol thatallow^data thattheoutputfrom the Itfollows by 3r. i"qi*rii"ffy unO controtteO a microprocessor. control j;y-;iirfp"ientiomerer mustbe trinsmittedviatheumbilicalto thethruster losses subjectt-o.Jing thi^s "#*iii"g on the ROV.Duringthisprocess signalwouldbe in theumbilical. of properties theconductors anddistortiondueto thephysical of n_umber i6, Multiplexe.,yrt"-i *uy "6ntuin'8, 32 or 64channels {epelding9l l!: lnto a incorporated and into beirigincorpoiated thesystem arevery often functibns IC. single 6 . 4 F i b r e Op ti cs 6 . 4 . 1 In t r od u cti o n has improved.Thelasttwentyyears steadily has, Line transmission overtheyears dramatically- and asdigitalisatibn optoelectronics such innovations revolutionary seen ROV that^the Ifisonly recently of uii"i p"6nologyind cosreffective datitransmission. of in datatransmission thetransmission i;d"rrty trastiiae useof OpticalFibre and telemetry videosignals. 6 . 4 . 2 T h e o ry known that use makes of theories havebeen of Theprinciples opticalfibretransmission from whenit passes behaves how .Fig 6,27illustrates a light beam to manfor centuriel of thatwhena beam light 6f to onemedium unoih"r diffrr.nt densities.It danbe seen back the (glass), s^ome-of light is reflected although ut is directed u tru"tp**t medium into that will pass of p.oponion thelight (air),a h-igh i;t" rh" &ginatlng medium medium.

102

IncidentRav

nl (air) q = Angleof refraction 0 = Angleof Incidence
Figure 6.27 6.4.3 Refractive Index

n2 (glass)

Refractive index refers to the optical density of a material. It is a direct proportion betweenthe velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in the material. Velocity of light in vacuum Refractiveindex = Velocity of light in medium. The refractive index is given the symbol n. 6.4.4 Snells Law =n

Willebrord Snell put forward a theory that claimed that the sine of the angle of upon the sineof the angleof incidence(0 ). He claimedthat refraction(0 ) depended ratio of the sineof angleof incidenceto the sineof the angleof refractionis a the constant.

Sin0=n! Sind=n2 whichthelight is indices thematerial through of nl Where andn2 aretherefractive passing. block. ugh a glass ho trig O.Za shows

n2(glass) nl(air)

Fig u r e 6 .2 8

103

are then( 01 ) mustbeequalto ( 02). Because glass/air boundaries parallel the

n2 (glass)
Light source

Figur e 6.29

to from a dense a lessdense in the Figure6.29shows situation whichlight is passing of the thann1 andtherefore angle n2 to m#ium i.e.glass air.Inthis situation is greater (0 refraction ) is greater thantheangleof incidence(0 ). the is still If theangleof incidence increased furtherthenwe canseein figure6.29_that At thispointthelight will 90 will eventually exceed degrees. angle ofiefracrion Totally Internally Reflected. become

cri tical angle

:

nl (air) Figure 6.30

of It is the principlesof Total InternalReflectionthat is madeuseof in the transmission glasstube actsas a guide for the light beam,as the light throughan optical fibre. The light is rapped iniide the glass,then any bendsthat occur in the glassare insignificant. howeverto surroundthe glassin a cladding,the refractiveindex of Itls necessary which is slightly lessthan the glass,in order to minimise dispersionand thereforeany significantlosses. Note: The angle of incidencethat causesthe angle of refraction to be greaterthan 90 for degreesis known as the critical angle and is roughly 42 degrees glass,with a refractiveindex of 1.5.

104

n1 (cladding)

n2 (fibre)

n1 (cladding)
Figure 6.31 Fig 6.31 showsa situationin which the light beamis totally internallyreflectedthrough cladded fibre. 6.4.5 Light Transmitters In order to convert electricalenergyto light energyan Optoelectronicsemi conductor suchas a Light Emitting Diode (LED) or laserdiode is used. Note: Light that is emittedfrom an LED is quite safeto the nakedeye, howeverlight emitted from a laserdiode is potentially lethal and greatcare must be exercisedwhen using suchdevices. Fibre

Active Reeion

GG +p

n contact n typeGaAs typezinc(diffused GaAs)

Silicon Dioxide Gold Heatsink

Figure 6.32 Figure 6.32 showsthe typical construction an LED of The applied electrical signal gives rise to the Gallium Arsenideprod'ucing"excited" electronsthat travel from the p type to the n type material.During this processthey producelight energy,a processknown as SpontaneousEmission. 6.4.6 Advantages and Disadvantagesof LED and Laser Diode 1) LED's are cheaper manufacture to than laserdiodes. 2) Laser diodes have a greateroptical power and can work at higher temperatures than LED's. 3) Laserdiodesare sensitive overloadcurrents, to when they are requiredto operate continuouslythey can produceunfavourable thermalcharacteristics.

105

6.4.6 Receiversand Photodiodes A photodiodeconverts light energy backto electrical energy.Theyaresimilarto (light energy) giveriseto theflow of currentbetween LED's in the fact thatthephotons theP-Njunction. 6.4.7 Types of Fibre index indexandGraded Therearetwo typesof fibre commonlyavailable, Stepped fibre. 6.4.7.1 SteppedIndex Fibre propagation As previouslystated, oncethe incidentray has alongpathsis possible givesrise reached criticalangle,(approximately degrees). Howeverthis situation 42 the in to anincrease attenuation dispersion losses. and By makingthefibre coreextremely narrow(approximately micrometres), 50 and enclosing in a cladding refractive it indexwhichis only slightlylessthanthatof of glass, cannot only reduce criticalanglebutalsoreduce we the losses. A fibreconstructed thismanner knownasstepindexfibreandis suitable short in is for distance transmissions foundin ROV umbilicals. as

106

Outerl-ayer

Cladding

Buffer Protective Coating

Figure 6.33 Steppedindex Fibre 6.4.7.2 Graded Index Fibre rn.9aiy$vantage sJgp indexfibreis thatthebandwidth transmission limiteddue of is 9f to thedifferent opticallengths ca,usg$ thevarious by lengths whichrigrrtis piopagare. at This canbeovercome usiig graded inoi:xriure. Gil;ii;jex fibre dif?ers fi.Lmstep indexfibre in thefact thattfiJcores refractive indexa.r*ui"r paraboticatt/*iirriaaiar distance. Themainadvantage using.graded of indexfibre is thelow refractive indexat thecenrre of thefibre. Thisis usefur tinl" ."rpiing ttresharpiti*r*o beam anLED with of thefibre.

t07

Figure 6.34 Graded index Fibre 6.4.8 Fibre Optic Connectors That available. to of It is nottheintention thischapter list all thefibreopticconnectors section. in covered theappendix is adequately an for that Howeverit is essential theconectprocedure re-terminating opticalfibre time. breakdown is connection followedin orderto minimiseunnecessary SS430-01 a for lays Thefollowingsection downtheprocedure assemblingSTRATOS in is Thistypeof connector incorporated manyof Slingsby bundle. fibreopti-c to a Ltd Engineering ROV fibre optic systems. 6.4.9 Umbilical Optical Termination - Vehicle opticalfibre SS430-01 of relates theassembly theStratos to Thefollowingprocedure coated jacketfibre opticbundle 900mmsecondary containing to connector a figtrt will berequired: followingequipment cable.-The fibres, withinanumbilical controlled); a Heatcuringjig (temperature

r 08

b Stratos kiu tool c Micropolishec d OpticalCableFaultl,ocator(OTDR); e Connectors, leadsandsplices required; as f Hot air gun; g Disposable syringes, and lml; 5ml h Stratos syringeneedle; g I9g syringe needle; h Scalpel; It will alsobe necessary havethefollowingmaterials: to a ConnectorStratos S5430-011.0 b Heatshrink sleevingRaychem 3/1,612, Atum I2/4 and1/16"RNF 100or similar: (isopropyl c Solvents2-propanol alcohol) (or Dichloromethane paintstripper) White spiritor trichloroethylene d EpoxyResinEpo-tek 360 e SpiralCableWrap3mm f Abrasive Paper360 wet anddry grit g Abrasive Film30mm, 12mm 3mm and 6 . 4 . 9 . 1 P r o cess In str u ctio n s
a Switch on the heatcuring jig and serro 95 deg. C. b Prepare Epo-tec360 resin as follows: i. Draw up the requiredvolume of resin (part A), into the 5 nrl syringe (allow 0.5 ml per plug) noting that the calibrationdoesnot includethe volume containedin the nozzle.Withdraw the plunger further to leave an equal volume of airspaceabovethe resin. ii. Draw up the corresponding (part B), (mix ratio 10:1 volume of hardener by volume) into the 1 ml syringewith the 19 g needle,ensuringthat there are no air bubblesand that the needleis full when making the measurement. iii. Inject the hardener into the resinby enteringthe needleinto the syringe through the nozzle.Mix the resin and hardenerby blocking the nozzle and shakingthe syringeuntil an evencolour is achieved. Pay particular attentionto the material which may becometrappedin the nozzle. iv. Degqsthe material by holding the syringe nozzleupwardsand expel all the air abovethe resin. Cover the nozzleand draw a vacuum by withdrawingthe plunger.Repeatthis operationuntil only a few large

t09

v. vi. vii. viii.

viii. ix.

x.

xi.

xii.

xii.

xiii.

xiv.

bubblesform. Wipe the syringe nozzleand fit the Stratosneedle.Leave the resin to standfor ten minutesbeforeuse. eight hoursat room The pot life of the mixture is approximately temperature. Strii, 500 mm of sheathfrom the fibre optic bundle and remove the tape wrap and filler compound. Cut the centrestrengthmemberapproximately50 mm from the cut end of the sheath. Place 100 mm length of l2/4 heatshrinkon the bundle and temporarily positionout of the way, by sliding along the cable. Placeonto eachfibre in the following order: (a) 50 mm length of Atum 6/2; (b) 100mm lengthof Atum 3/1; (d) 150mm lengthof RNF 100-1/16" (e) Stratosnut (female threadtowards end of fibre); (0 end first if applicable); Crimp sleeve(shouldered 'No-Nik' tool (or similar) Strip 50 mm of coatingfrom the fibre using to avoidingdamage the fibre. to fibres in dichloromethane remove the remaining Immers6the ex--posed wipe the fibre with a cleandry tissue'(,If qsing If necessary buffer. paint stripper,rembveiesidueby wiping with tissuesoakedwith 2propanol). do to Thd barefibre is very susceptible damageand contamination, not longer than necessary. for touch or leaveexposed any Checkthat the plug is clear by sightingthrough,if not, removewhite plasticcap andthen replacethe cap and re-check,luppo1 the crimp the at sleeue ihe end of the coatingand assemble plug, guiding it up sleeve, to the shoulder. carefullyover the fibre and onto the crimp Crimp flug in position:Placethe plug in the smalljaws. Operaqqte lever-tohotd ttie plug (do not crimp yet). Pushthe crimp sleevefully into the plug. Crihp the plug without moving the plug.,sleeveor fibre. it Oncethe crimping operationhasstarted, cannotbe aborted. Using the cleavingtool, touchthe fibre flush with the face of the fibre by bendingit away from the mountingcap and removethe excess scratch. the force when scratching fibre will displaceor damagethe Excessive fibre inside the piug. Using the back of Cscalpelbladeand the thumb as a lever,carefully removethe white plasticcap.Removethe cap without twisting. between Examinethe end of the plug to checkthat the fibre is centralized the balls,then fit the mouldedsiliconereservoircap. Do not attemptto refit the mountingcap afterremoval.If the fibre is one trappedbetwbena pair of balls,or outsidethem,carefully depress of llie balls with the tip of a scalpelto allow the fibre to return to the centre.Do not touch the fibre. Expel the air and a few drops of resin from the syringe to ensurethe noizle is clear. Hold the plug assemblyvertical with the reservoir upwardsand drop 2-3 dropsinto the reservoir,taking carenot to touch the fibre. Cleanthe needleand insertit into the injectionhole in the plug body. Withdraw the plungerto suckthe resin into the noseof the plug, if -.y air entersthe stringe remove the needlefrom the plug and expel the air the beforecontinuing.Inject resin slowly into the plug until it reaches with no top of the reservoir,tip out resin andrepeatuntil threecycles have beenobierved. Removethe needlefrom the injection port bubUtes and sealthe hole with the plasticplug. Wipe away any tracesof resin from the plug body.

110

xv.

xvi.

xvii.

xviii.

Check the temperature the curingjig is 95 deg. C. +/- 5 deg. C. of Clamp the plug(s) in the heatingblotk.-Take care to avoid trapping the plasticplug. Do not move the reservoir,which, if moved, will-allow resin to contaminate noseof the plug. Allow the resin to cure until the 1.5 to 2 mm of curedresin is visible abovethe plug (curedresin is a red/brown colour). Remove the plug and allow to cool to room temperature. Carefully twist and pull off the reservoir.Wipe away the remaining liquid resin. The cured resin should not be allowed io extend furthEr than 3 mm nor should it be left for more than eight hours before removing the reservoir,otherwise,difficulty will be experiencedin removing the reservoir without causingdamageto the potting in the plug nose. If the reservoir appearsto be stuck, cut through with side cutting pliers 2-3 ryy abovethe plug nose,and peel off the-remaining silicone moulding.Do not exert any sidewaysforce on the resin, which could resultin damageto rhe fibre within the plug. Removetheplasticplug.

6.4.9.2 Potishing a Using 360 grit paper,sandoff the proruding resin until the 3 balls arejust visible. b Polish the plugs using Stratgstools with 3M abrasive films in the following order: i. Tool number 491with 30mm film (green) ii. Tool number 492with l2mm film (yellow) iii. Tool number 493 with 3mm film (pink) c Thoroughlywash the plug to removedebrisfrom previousoperations and rinse throughthe polishing lool. Blow off excess water and assembl6 plug into the tool the and secure with the collar nut. Wet the glassplateand abrasive film ind-placethe film ol th9 plate..Flood surfacewith water and polish the plug using a figure of eight or the circular motion progressing.across film suih that the abrlsiue i-susei for one pass the only. Keep the film wet during polishing. d Light pressure.only requiredon the tool; when cutting is completea decrease is in resistance motion will be apparent to and no track will be left on the abrasive. Rinsethe tool underrunning water and removethe plug. e Removeabrasivefilm and rinse off debris,storefor further use,(an A4 sheetof abrasivehas sufficienrareafor the polishingof 6 plugs). f Repeatthe operationusing the tools and abrasives the order listed in 6.4.9.1. in To avoid damageto other plugs,ensurethat the final polish with the pink film is complete. g Dismantleandrinse the tool and,plugin waterthenre-assemble polish againwith and the final tool until no further material is removed.Dry the plug using a bleanpiper ' towel payingparticularattention waterremainingih the nut and fii the white to protectivecap.

ill

6.4.9.3 Finat Assembly and Testing a Test eachplug using the OTDR with at least50 m launchlength.Typical loss betweentheiwdtypeJof fibre will be 2 dB to 4 dB althoughthe systemwill operate with higher losses. recordsshouldbe kept of test b When using light-source/power-meter instruments re-terminating,allowancefor measuredvaliesTor referenfe when fault finding and of shortening the cable shouldbe madeat 3 dB&m (850 nm) or 1 dB/km (1300 nm)' up c Slide the 1/16" heatshrink to the backof the plug and shrink doyn tu\ing carenot ovefthe crimpedend of the plug allowing to overheatthe fibre. Slide the'3/1heatshrink onto the the 1 to 2 mm for Stratosnut movementand shrink down. Slid-e 6/2 heatshrink plug over the previouslayer to the sameposition and shrink down. over the plug body, ensuringthat thenumben d Identify fibres with numbersleeves to both rop and bottomof the umbilical by reference the wiring diagramor co-incide"at umbilical end. discarded with the 3 mm Spirawrap onto the large heatshrink, e Wrap the fibres,from the sheath as far as the plug body. over the f Lay the fibres backinto the helix of the bundleand positionthe heatshrink projecting mm beyondthe end and shrinkdown. 50 the sheath end of are plugsand couplers clean.If dirty, cleanwith a ensure Beforemakingconnectioni, papertowel soakedin 2-propanol. 'O'ring on the outboardsideonly. This is to are ini couplers fitted with an internal allow thi connectorfacesto free flood with oil thusavoidingcollapseunderpressure. 'O' mountedinsidejunction boxesshouldhaveboth internal ringsremoved. Couplers 6.4.10 Umbilical Optical Termination ' Surface to of relatesto the assembly StratosST optical fibre connector The following procedure an coated 900mmsecondary a tightjacketfibre optic bundlecontaining llres, within as will be required laid out in 6.4.9with the equipment cable.The'same umb-ilical no with the micropolisher; 1 ml is a following differences: rubber-mat recluired to alsobe necessary have It is nor syringe,lgg syringeneedle, scalpel, required. will thefollowingmaterials: includingwhite nylon crimp sleeve; ST-MC-128(or ST-LC-121t) a ConnecrorSrratos RNF 1fi)or sinrilar Atum 612and 1214,1116" sleevingRaychem b Heatshrink (isopropyl alcohol) c Solvents2-propanol (or Dichloromethane paint stripper) White spirit or trichloroethylene 353 d Epoxy ResinEpo-tek ND e SpiralCableWrap3 mm f AbrasiveFilml2 ntm, 3 ntnt, and 1 mm

t12

6.4.10.1ProcessInstructions
a Switch on the heatcuring jig and set ro 90 deg. C. b Prepare Epo-tek 353 ND resin as follows: i. Open the sealedsachetand remove the 'squish Pack'.Inspectfor damage. ii. Remove the dividing sealbetweenresin and hardenerby pulling the pack on either side,do not attemptto slide it as this may puncture the pack. mix the two componentsby kneadingrhe pack gently with the fingers until the colour is uniform and no streaksremain. iii. Removethe plungerfrom the syringe,cut the corneroff the squishpack and transferthe resin into the syringe, avoiding trapping air. iv. Degasthe material by holding the syringe nozzleupwardsand expel all the air abovethe resin. Cover the nozzle and draw a vacuum by withdrawingthe plunger.Repeatthis operationuntil only a few large bubblesform. Wipe the syringe nozzleand fit the Stratosneedle.Gave the resin to standfor ten minutesbeforeuse. The pot life of the mixture is approximately four hoursat room temperature. v. Strip 500 mm of sheathfrom the fibre optic bundle and remove the tape wrap and filler compouni,. vi. Cut the centrestrength memberapproximately mm from the cut end 50 of the sheath. vii. Place 100 mm lengthof l2l4 heatshrink the bundleand temporarily on positionout of the way, by slidingalongthe cable. viii. Placeonto eachfibre to be terminated the order shown): (in (a) 50 mm length of Atum 6/2 b) 100mm lengthof Atum 3/l (c) 150mm lengthof RNF 100-1/16" (in oil filled junction boxesonly - in dry boxesuseboot supplied with plug trimmedto suit coatingdiameter) ix. x. (d) Crimp sleeve(for ST-LC-128- white end first) Strip 50 mm of coatingfrom the fibre using 'No-Nik' tool (or similar) avoidingdamageto the fibre. Immersethe exposed fibre in dichloromethane removethe remaining to buffer. If necessary wipe the fibre with a cleandry tissue.(If using paint stripper,removeresidueby wiping tissuesoakedwith 2propanol). The bare fibre is very susceptible damageand contamination,do not to touch or leaveexposed any longer than necessary. for Check that the plug is clearby sightingthrough,thenfully insertthe syringeneedleinto the backof the plug and inject until a beadof resin aPPears throughthe otherend of the plug. Removethe syringewhilst still injectingto leaveresinin the backof the plug - approximately half fill the receplacle. Supportthe crimp sleeveat the end of the coatingand assemble the plug, guiding it carefullyover the fibre and onto the crimp sleeve, far as as it will go without forcing it. Maintain light pressure until any excess resin flows out; carefully wipe resin off without moving the plug. Crimp plug in position:placethe plug in the smalljaws. Opeiatethe lever to hold the plug (do not crimp yet). Pushthe crimp sl-eeve fully into the plug. Crimp the plug without moving the plug or sleeve. -Ue Once the crimping operationhasstarted, cannot aUorteO. it

xi.

x.

xi.

113

xii.

xiii.

of check the temperature the curingjig is 90 deg. c. +/- 5 deg. c. ettow the resin to cure until the plu!(s) in the heatingUtoct<. Clamp the plug is a red/browncolour' beadbf resin on the end of the upon ambienttemperature). (Approximately20 - 30 minutei depending room temp€rature. Remove the plug and allow to cool to tool, touch the fibre flush with the beadof resin and Using the cleavi-ng remo..re excessfibre bv bending it away from the scratch' the Excessiveforce when scratchingtlie fibre will damagethe fibre inside the Plug.

6.4.L0.2 Polishing lightly polish with a Examine the end of the plug for exposedfibre and, if necessary, dry 12 mm film to removethe glassonly. b Fit the plug into the polishingtool. c Placethe rubbermat on the glassplate.Wet the mat and12 mm film and placeon the mat. Flood the surfacewith witer anOtlgtrttypolish the plug using a figurg of eight or is the across film iuctr that the abrasive usedfor one pass circular motion progressing polishing.Regularlyexaminethe plug face until only a only. Keep the film-wet du-ring thin film of resin in the centreof the face remains. d Removethe mat from the glass.Wet the glassand 3 mm film and continuepolishing. only is requirddon the tool. Regularlyexaminethe plug face until no Light pressure is visible on the ceramicfaceof the plug. resin e Repeatthe operationfor the remainingplugs. To avoid damageto the otherplugs,ensulethat the final polish is complete. 6.4.10.3 Final Assembly and Testing a Test eachplug using the OTDR with at least50 m launchlength.Typical loss betweenthe two typesof fibre will be 1 dB to 2 dB althoughthe systemwill operate with higher losses. recordsshouldbe kept of test b When using light-source/power-meter instruments allowancefor when fault finding and re-terminating, valies-for reference measured (850 nm) or I db/km (1300 nm). of shortening the cableshouldbe madeat 3 db&m up c Slide the l/16" heatshrink to the back of the plug and shrink down ta\ing carenot up to overheatthe fibre. Slide the-3/1heatshrink to the back of the plug and shrink onto the plug over the previouslayer and shrink down. down. Slide the 6/2 heatshrink Ensurethe final layer doesnot foul the sprungsleeveof the plug. that.thenumbers over the plug body, ensuring. d Identify fibres with numbersleeves at borh top and bottom of the umbilical by referenceto the wiring diagram correspond or discardedumbilical end. with the 3 mm onto the heatshrink e Wrap the individual tubesfrom the sheath far as the plug body. Spirawrapas f Lay the fibres back into the helix of the bundle and position the I2l4 heatshrinkover projecting50 mm beyondthe end and shrink down. the end of the sheath ensureplugs and couplersare clean.If dirty, clean with a Before making conne^ctions, papertowel soakedin 2-ProPanol.

u4

6.4.1J Optical Time Domain Reflector (OTDR) The OTDR is probably mostcommon pieceof testequipment the usedin the maintenance ROV opticalfibre systems. of (i.e. This instrument used measuring is for performance, attenuation loss transmission verses distance) situations in wherefibreshavebeenrepaired. Theoperation OTDRsmakes of theprinciplethatthetime takenfor a pulseof of use possible light beingtransmitted thusreflected be measured. is therefore It to and can locatefaultsover a knownlengthof fibre. Figure6.12illustrates principle operation. the of

115

6.5 Fibre Optic Safety Guidlines a which contains Laser system a includes fibre optictransmission This ROV system not visibleto thehumaneye. The at r.p"Ut" "f iititting harmfulradiation a wavelength the to mustbe understood ensure safetyof all personnel. foitowing guideliries fitting or a fibre tail 1) Never Look Directly Into a Laser Beam from a bulkhead shouldbe used coversand/orshielding on. whenthelaseris switcheb Protective this to necessary prevent possibility. where checking. 2) Never Use Optical Viewing Instruments(ie microscopes).when suitable and meters light sources will ROV systEm havepower 6r opticalpower.'The the for checking continuityof anopticalfibre link. 3) Never Inspect Polished Connectorsor Terminations beforeensuring^that off the laseris switched andthe ROV OCU Power is IsolatedandLocked Off at PDU. the shouldbeunderstood fibre opticcablethefollowing safetyinformation Whenhandling by all personnel. Safe" usethe "Sharp 1) Never CasuallyDiscardGlassFibre Shardsalways for proper disposal. with eachsystem box supplied fibres or that spare disused ensure 2) Never LeaveSpareFibre Loose,always with heatshrink. and aresealed protected endsof tetherandumbilical the whenhandling exposed 3) Wear SafetyGlasses fibres. optical containing cables and on 4) Ensure"Laser Warning" Labelsaredisplayed all junctionboxes S. s and connection termination g containin fibre-optic enclosures

l16

CHAPTER 7 USE OF TEST EQUIPMENT 7.0 Introduction It cannot emphasised be enough theROV Pilotflechnician how importanr is just to it to havea thorough understanding the basictestequipment of ivailable. hi general, thevastarray settings a multimeter beoff iutting to thenovicetedhnician of on can andconfusion tends arisewhenthenewoperator to iails tdappreciate basictheory the behind various the electrical quantities beingmeasured. 7.1 ElectricalQuantities Thequantitiesandqualities areof interest thetechnician that to are: 7.1.I 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.t.5 VOLTAGE AC/DC CURRENTACDC RESISTANCE CONTINUITY INSULATION

The theoryof those various electrical quantities aremeasurable discussed that is in chapter 6. 7.2 Measuring Voltage The unit Volt refersto thepotential electrical of charge a givenpointin a circuit at with respecl 0v or ground it is commonly tg as knovin. Dep"ending the iystem on being.tested voltagemay.be or DC. T[rediagram the AC btilowsh?ws iyp'i"ur u situation wherevoltage b-eing is measured:
+10V

10kohms

5V with respect to ground

10k ohms

uv (grouno)

Figure7.1

t17

7.3 Measuring Current As with voltage, curent may be AC or DC and care must be taken to ensurethat the meter is at thJcorrect settin!. tt may be necessaryto re-insert the positive meter lead is a movement of electrical (red) in another socket for cirrent rneasurement.Current'broken' and the meter a circuit and therefore the circuit must be iharge through in s&ies to obtain the correct measurement. The diagram below shows an inseied example of current measuring:

/s\

Meter inserted in seriesinto circuit

Figure7.2

7.4 Measuring Resistance is Measuringresistance quite straightforward as the meter hasonly one serof ranges it as opposedto voltage. When measuringresistance is important to switch off the that are being testedshouldideally equiphent that is being tested. Any components may be in be out of circuit. This is due to the fact that surroundingcomponents in effect producea lower resistance parallel with the componentbeing testedand will value. 7.5 Continuity Testing When carrying out fault diagnosiscontinuity testingtendsto be one of the commonest carriedout by the technician. The test indicateswhetheror not there test procedures is an electricalconnectionbetweentwo relevantpoints in a circuit. In the ROV cablesfor industrv continuitv testins is oredominantlvusedin order to test subsea industrycontinuity testing predominantly conduciorbreakage.Moit multimetershave a dedicatedswitch settingfor continuity testing. This position is indicatedby a symbol depicting a diode and an audio tone. The diagram below indicatessucha symbol. Figure 7.3. (variesfrom meter to metel, Provided thereis lessthan a certainvalue of resistance 50 ohms, 100 ohms).This meansit may not operateon a long length of cable. e.g..

118

->F- ,r))
Figure7.3 On placingthetestleads therelevant pointsin thecircuit,a bleeping on will be sound heardif continuityis present.The testcanalsobecarriedout by settingthe meterto resistance. Obviously continuity present meterwill readcloseto Ohms. The if is the disadvantage thismethod thattheoperator to physically of is has look at themeteras opposed just hearing audiotone. to an

7.6 Insulation Testing Insulationtestingis probably the most common form of test carriedout in the ROV industry. Subsea cablesand connectors under constantstress are from factors such as pressure, high subsea vibration and corrosion. Thesefactorscan lead to a break down in the insulation betweenthe conductorswhich will eventuallylead to a short circuit. For this reasonit is important to regularly test the insulationresistance betweenall conductorsin a cable. The test meter usedis known as a Megger Meter. It is impofiant to appreciate that by just measuringthe resistance with an ordinary multimeter we could not determinehow the cable would perform in a realistic situationi.e. carrying high voltages.By using a Megger Meter we in fact apply a high voltage e.g. 500v and measure resistance the sametime. In practicethe the at meter has two test leadswhich may be fitted with crocodileclips in order to ensure the safetyof the operator. The meter can be set to measure excessof 200 in Megohms,when connected the operatorpushesthe test button which appliesthe up vo-ltage.The resistance indicatedby a moving needle,a cable shouldideally have is infinite resistance betweenits conductors. The following precautions should be noted when using Megger Meter: 7.6.1 Disconnect cables all from any electronic circuitry. 7.6.2 Do not touch probe conductorswhen carrying out meggertest. 7.6.3 Always discharge cableswhen testis completed.Adjoining conductors will have capacitivepropertieswhich may storecharge. 7.7 Types of Meter There .ue two typesof meter commonly availableto the engineer. (a) (b) ANALOGUE METERS DIGITAL METERS

7.7.1 Analogue Meters Analoguemetersusually incorporatea pointer which can move over a scaleand can, within limits, assume any readingi.e. theycan indicatecontinuously any magnitude of voltage or current.There are many typesof instrumentsthat fall into this category, but the most common is the moving coil meter.

119

Figure 7.4 The moving coil meter consistsof an aluminium former which is pivoted at eachend so that it is?ee to roratein a magneticfield. Fine copperwire is wound aroundthe former through which cunent is passed.The magneticfield is producedby.shaped perrnanentmagnets,the magnetic circuit is completeg bV I cyliryler of .soft iron, so ^that is therefore, only a nariow gap remains through which the coil swing.s. Tt_r_e-.coil When current is positioned in a mafn6tic field of uniform strengthand direction. of the fassed through the-coilit takesup a position dependingupgn the magnitude. 'current. motor which is The-movingcoil meter usesthe principlesof the electric on coveredin chapter6 of this book. Obviously the accuracyof this meter depends needleis userinterpretationof pointer position. To reducereading€rror a narrow usedand the scalefitt-edwith a mirror. The user simply aligns the needlewith its on.theresistance depends reflection.The magnitudeof currentthat can be measured in largercurrentsa resistoris connected parallel with of the coil. In order to measure the coil, this is known as a'shunt'resistor.The moving coil metermay alsobe used as a voltmeter by connectinga resistorin serieswith the coil, the resistoris known as of the a multiplier. With the aid of an internal.battery moving coil meter is.capable measuringresistance.For electronicservicingwork a meter that is capableof measuringall electricalquantitiesis used,this is known as an Avometer. 7.7.1.1Multipliers. the This sectiondiscusses principlesof using a multimeter to measurevoltageby multiplier iesistor. In this examplethe meter has an internal resistance incorporatinga of lkQ and a full scaledeflectionof 40pA. This simply meansthat the meter needle will be deflectedacrossthe full rangewhen a currentof 40pA is passedthrough it.

Figure7.5 = Max voltage 1kC)x 40PA V= 0.04V V= 40mV couldonly readup to 40mAor 40mV. If we Therefore meterin its 'raw'state this the we or wish to readhighervoltages culrents needto adapt circuit. in resistors measuring capability, the resistors series increase voltage in will Placing measuring capability. parallel the will increase current

120

Example:If the abovemercrwasto measure Volt, whatseries I resistance wouldbe required? Totalresistance musrequal;

1 volt/40pA= 25ke 1 R = V/I )

Therefore a24kQ resistoris requiredin serieswith the lkQ resistance shown in as figure 7.6

Figure7.6
This is termeda multiplier and enablesuseof the meter as a voltmeter. 7.7.1.2 Shunts In order to read culrent, a parallel or shuntresistance requiredin circuit. is Example: rf we wish the samemeterto read 1OmAf.s.d.,what valueof shunt resistance required? is

1 = (10mA) - (a0pA)= 9.96mA V=40uAxlkO=40mV R =V/[ R = 40mV/9.96mA R = 4.02C1

121

to Example: What value of shuntis required makea 40pA, 10kQ meterread1A f.s.d.?

I =1-40pA I = 0.999964 V=IxR V=40pAx10kO V = 0.4V = resistance0.4VI 0.99996A Shunt = resistance 0.4 c) Shunt 7.7.2 Meter loadingeffect havea sp-ecific means our meters that and of Theprocess usingshunts multipliers on is range themeter.Thisresistance conditional on valuefortach voltage resistance in therangein useandis normallyquoted kQ /V e.g.an AVO Model 8 has20 kC)^/ This means on the lV rangethemeter that ranges. on boththeac anddc voltage while on the 5V rangeit has5 x 20kQ =100kf) . has system 20kQ resistance, highresistance's. across smallvoltages implications whenmeasuring This hasserious
in Example: What voltage shouldbe measured the circuit below and what assumingthat the meter is an AVO 8 (20kO f/) on the voltage would be measured 5V range?

122

Figure7.9

Expected voltage: 5 V Measuredvoltage: Meterresistance = 5 x 20kCl = 100kQ Totalcircuit.resistance=(1 /I20kO+ I / 100kQ)+ l20kQ therefore follows that 54.5kQ+ 120kQ= 174.5kQ it Currentdrawn = 10/ l74.5kQ = 57.3LrA

Voltage acrossmeter -- 57.31tAx 54.5kQ = 3.15 V 7.7.3 Digital Meters Digital metersgive a direct readout that is free from human eror. The instruments have no moving partsand are generallylessexpensivethat analoguemeters. a b e a a a a a a a o a o a a

a l'
s lf

o

.

a a a a o a

Figure7.10

t23

The diagram aboveshowsthe typical layout for a digit on a meter. Each segment by may be represented four lighi emitting diodes(LED's). The LED's emit light when a suitablevoltage is appliedto them. 7.8 Safety Precautions a) Check Test Leads for damageto insulation. b) Always setmeter to highestrangebeforetaking reading. is c) Ensurevoltage being measured within rangeof meter. d) Removeany jewellery beforeworking on live equipment. e) If possiblealwayswork with somebodyelsepresent. using only one hand. f) If possiblecarry out measurement 7.9 Oscilloscope (CRO) is a measuring in instrument which the The cathode oscilloscope ray deflectionof an electronbeamdisplaysan appliedvoltage. An electronbeamis directedthrough a vacuum on to a face plate that is coatedwith fluorescentpowder. When the electronbeamstrikesthe face plate it producesa spot incorporates systemof platesthat, on a of light on the screen. The oscilloscope applicationof a voltage,deflectsthe electronbeameither horizontallyor vertically. the The resulting movementof the spot of light can now be usedto measure applied input voltage. The deflection systemincorporates two setsof platesknown as X and Y plates,the X platesprovide horizontaldeflectionand the Y platesvertical deflection. If the input of to the deflection systemis rapidly varying , persistence vision will make the line. moving spotof light on the faceplateappear a continuous as 7.9.1 Advantagesof the oscilloscope of a) Low inertia of electronbeampermits the measurement rapidly changinginput waveforms. b) The deflectionalong two axis allows a graphicaldisplay of voltage against time. which preventsthe c) Oscilloscopes have a very high input impedance circuit under test becominsloaded. 7.9.2 The basic system All ROV systemswill have an oscilloscope includedin the tool kit, many different however,the principlesof operationare the samefor all types are in existence, models. The oscilloscope consistsof threebasicblocks. Theseare : a) A cathoderay tube (CRT). b) Vertical deflection system( Y Plates).

124

c) Horizontal deflection system( X Plates). 7.9.3 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) The CRT containsan electrongun that consistsof a cathodethat when heatedemits electrons. The electronsare acceleratedtowards the face plate by electrodesthat also regulate the intensity of the beam. It follows therefore thdt theseelectrodesdetermine the brightness the traceon the display. of The electronbeamis focused_by electronlens. The electronlens achievesfocusing an by either electromagnetic coils or field shapingelectrostatic electrodes.Most oscilloscopes electrostatically use focusediubes.

ELECTRON LENS ELECTRON GUN

cathode X deflection face plate coated in

r

phosphour

intensity focus

Figure 7.ll 7.9.4 Yertical deflection system The vertical axis is usedto measure magnitudeof the input voltage and normally the requiresa voltage of between20 and30 vofts to producea full scale-cleflection the of electronbeam. An amplifier and attenuator network allows a wide rangeof input signals_to measured, attenuator be the having a switchedrangethat is rn'anually controlled.

125

with a fixed numberof centimetre The oscilloscopescreenis thereforegraduated a fixed voltagelevel dependingon the settingof the each squarerepresenting squares, VOLTS /DIV control. The Y gain control is normally variable and allows the operator to make a wave form useful yhgn Ising a dual This function becomes occupy-afixed numberof squares. input signalsis required. A dual trace traceoscilloscopeand comparisonof two as oscilloscope, the nameimplies, has two electronbeamsthat are independently deflectedallowing two signalsto be displayedat once. 7.9.5 Horizontal Deflection System from In order to give a voltage againsttime display the spot must be made to sw^eep left to right acrossthe display. This is achievedby applying a ramp wave form to theX plaies. The ramp wave form is commonly known as a sawtooth wave form and is generated an oscillatorcircuit within the oscilloscope. by

fly back

Blankingperiod

sweeptlme

Figure 7.12 The rising edgeof the SAWTOOTH givesrise to the spot moving acrossthe display. the The sharpfalling edgerepresents spotreturningto the left hand side of the display tfly back'period. During this period the electrongun is tumed off and is known as the and thereforeonly the left to right traceis displayed. The sawtoothis generated an oscillatorknown as a timebaseoscillator.This by different sweepspeeds therebyaltering the time it takesfor the oscillator can generate the control determines output of this spot to sweepacrossone squire. The timebase oscillator and is calibratedin TIME / DIVISION.

t26

7.9.6 Oscilloscopeprobes Oscilloscopeprobesare usedto detectthe actua_l signal,they have fine metallic tips that allow measurements signalsto be madefronivarious components a cir&it of on board. The probe is connectedto the oscilloscope a screened via cable.For this reasonthe an eafth clip which must always be attached a suitableearthpoint on the to lldg.ttut clrcult. It is also.necessaryto calibrate the probe before use in order to compensatefor thebuilt in reactance. This is achievedby connectingthe probe to tfi" rqu6r.i*uu" gutlYt of the oscilloscopeand altering the scr6* on the acd;i probe. This _adjustmeit is adjusteduntil the squarewave has a unifonn shapeas shown in rigure zlti--

TNCORRECT

CORRECT Figure7.13

INCORRECT

7.9.7 Oscilloscope controls. the on oscilloscope. is not the It figurg 7.4 illustrates controls a typicaldualtrace intention this chapter discuss of to euery'function aviilableastheyarenot normally required thebasictestprocedures for cdrried on anROV syrte-. Uoweveithe out maincontrols thatarenecessary outlined are below.
1) POWER ON / OFF: Turns oscilloscope and off. Operating on condition is indicatedby an LED. 2) X POS: Controlshorizontalposition of trace. l0) TIME / DIV: Selectstimebasespeed. 16) INTENSITY: Intensitycontrol for fface brightness. 17) FOCUS: Focuscontrol for tracesharpness. 19) CALIBRAToR: o.z.v peak to peak squarewave outpur for calibrationof testprobe.

r27

a Enables wide varietyof electrical 20) coMPoNENT TESTER: socket into th.e.CT a by to be tested connecting jack plug. components display socket.Theresulting into in earthconnection the ground and is The the indicates integrityof thecomponent. displayscan normally manual. in theoscilloscope be found of verticalposition trace. 2l) Y POS:Controls in sensitivity eithermV /Cm or V / Cm. 24) VOLTS/ DIV: Selects to inputcoupling eitherDC,AC or 26) DC - AC - GD: Selects

,tt"='".

:

lll\ *-ll
1

;5
I

d o , ir 9 ?r o

in
"T-'l
d -

OU

-T-l "Ll
:l

ifl.;G$(I

ilnFZAi*

r!\\4 ; 6>==t?r V/ -:\

EEO
//\
r l

.\J/.

'-'
.\J,

Figure7.14

t28

7.9.8 Typical usesof oscilloscope Oscilloscopes not come into everydayuseas do test meters,however in certain do situationsthey becomeessential the technician. Typical testsare as follows. to a) Monitoring of video signalduring either calibrationof cameraor fault finding on the video sysrem.(Seechapter15). b) Monitoring of telemetrysignalduring fault finding procedure. Telemetry signals,being digital signalsare best suitedto being measured with an oscilloscope. It is not possibleto interpreteachdigital pulse,however it is sufficient to be able to stepthrough a circuit and determineif telemetrysignalis present. This enablesthe technicianto be able to fault find to board level or if necessary componentlevel. to 7.9.9 Measuring Amplitude of a Signal The amplitudeor, signallevel as it is commonly known can be determinedby making useof the screengraticule. By altering the VOLT/DIV control then we can ielect a suitablescalein order that the level of signalcan be determined. For exampleif the VOLTIDIV is set to 2Y|DIY then in the exampleshown the peak to peak voltageis 6V.

2V per division

Figure7.15 TypicalvoLTiDIVISIoN sertings range may from 5 voLTS /DIVISIoN to SmV/DIVISION. 7.9.10Summary It is not the intention thischapter discuss of to everyfunctionavailable on oscilloscopes. Therearemanytypesavailable the technician and wouldberequired to readtheoperators manual theparticular for oscilloscope he/she intends uie. to However, basicprinciples the discussed this section in applyto all oscilloscopes.

t29

7.10 Self Diagnostics Many ROV systemsnow incorporatea surfacecomputerthat carriesout a self piogra-*e. This ehablesthe operatortb monitor signalsat various points diagnostics in the system. Diablo ROVprogrammeis includedin the_Hydrovision A typical self diagnostics data display system. The lollowing pagesare availablein a typical a) Multiplexer information: Up link and down link data for each be channelc-an displayedshowingeachindividual data'bit'. When a function is operatedthe datacan be seento vary accordingly. b) Main display: This pageis normally displayedduring diving operationsand providesttre pilot with vehicle heading,vehicle depth, and temperature. pitch and roll, oil pressure c) Thruster demand and gain: The amountof thrusterpower that is being usedis displayedgraphically. Also the thrustergain is displayed it as a percentage, is possibleto adjustthe gain to suit the conditions during the dive. d) DC voltages: The DC voltagesat the control outputsare displayed 'null' the trim both digitally and graphically. It is also possibleto controls to zero volts in order to eliminate thrusterspin when no input is receivedfrom the joystick. It can be seenthat it is possibleto diagnoseareasof faults without touching the ROV. This can make the faulf finding procedurelesstime consuming The softwarealso for multiplexer channels, exampleif someextra allows the operatorto re-programme is to be fitted io the vehicle a channelcan be set up without any physical equipment re wiring taking place.

130

CHAPTER 8 HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 8.1Introduction Vehiclesare,aspreviouslystated dividedinto threeclasses. SeqotgJV__QPerated pJe.ball,WorkclassandLarge InspectionCiass. The lattertwo arenormally dedicated work tasksandpipelineinspections. to thephysicalsizeof tlie to Due vehicleandthe weightof the.equipment fitted to theRov, thefower/sizedeveloped by the thrusters critical to their operation.For this reason is manufaciurers makeuse of hydraulics their source power. as of 8.2 Hydraulic Principles Hydraulicscanbedefinedasthe transmission powercreated pushingon a of by c.onfined liquid. Figurg8.1 illusratesa simplehydraulicpress, cirrying o"ut exactly the sametaskasa mechanical lever. A forceof iOtUis aplpUea a pision of an area to of I square inch, the pressure definedasForceper Unit area,or: is Pressure=Force/Area Thenit followsthata pressure l0lbs per square of inchis developed thefluid in throughout.the container. By_simple caltuhtionwe canseethat^the pressure developed the container in will in fact support loadof l00lb suppoited a piston a on areaof 10 square inches. In comparison with the mechanical levei, we canseethat exactlythe sametaskcanbecarriedout by a fluid based system.

An input lorce of 10lb.on a one squarc inch piston

vl

r I .l/

I

3. This pressure will supporta 100lb. weightif this is a 10sq. in. piston.

2. developsa prcssure of 10 pounds per squarc inch (psi)thrcughout the container.

INPUT 4. The forcesarc proportional to the piston arcas. 10tb. 1 sq. in. = 100tb. 10sq. in.

OUTPUT

A. SIMPLE HYDRAULIC PRESS

Figure8.1

l3l

a A basichydraulic systemrequiresa pump to developthe oil pressure, valve to control the flow of oil to the actuator,which in turn carriesout the work required by of a the system.Figure 8.2 illustrates basicsystem this nature.

2. Llneecarrytho llquld to actuaton whlch arc pushed outPut to causea mechanlcal to movea load.

TORESERVOIR 3. Someactuaton openle ln I stralghtllne (llnearactuatoF). Theyarc calledcyllndon or ram8. exerl They arc ugedto llft vuelght' force,clamp,etc. A. LINEAR ACTI'ATOR

Figure8.2

132

8.3 Advantagesof Hydraulics Hydraulic systemshave severaladvantages over non-fluid basedsystems. 8.3.1 Variable Speed The speedof the actuatoris dependent the volume and flow rate of the oil being on suppliedto it. This can be achievedby either using a flow conffol valve, or by alteringthe deliveryof the pump, i.e. how much oil the pump supplies the actuator to over a given time. 8.3.2 Reversible It is possible reverse hydraulicactuator to a instantaneously without causingany damageto the system. A directionalcontrol or reversiblepump providesthe reversing control,whilst a pressure relief valve protects systemfrom excess the pressure. 8.3.3 Overload Protection A pressure relief valve protects systemfrom excess the pressure broughtaboutby an overloador torque,force in the actuator. For exampleshould an ROV thruster becomefouled and seized, thenthe flow would cease and the pressure build up. The pressure relief valve will activate and allow the oil to flow back to the tank, thus protectingthe systernfrom damage. 8.3.4 Stalling If an electricmotor stallsduring an operation due to overload, is likely that a fuse it will blow, thuspreventing instant re-start.If a hydraulic system stalls, thenthe Pressure Relief Valve will divert the oil backto tank for the periodof time that the pressure system rentiiinsin excess nomtal working pressuie.Once normalpressure of is resumed systemwill continueto operate normal. Stalling, therefore, the as does not posethe sameproblenrin a hydraulicsystem, it doesin a purely electrical as or mechanical system.
1. In thls posltlonof the dlrcctlonal valve.. . 2. pump dellr/ery dlrcctedto the 18 cap end of the ryllnder. 3. The plston rcd extends.

DIRECTIONAL VALVE

4. Exhaust ls pushed oll out ot the rcd end and dlrccted to the tank.

Figure8.3a

133

5. In anotherPosltlon'oll ls dlrcctedto the rcd end of ' the cYllnder. .

6. the Pletonrod rctracts.

ollfrom the cap Exhaust end ls dlrcctedto tanx' 8. The rcllef valveProtectsthe -' dlvertlng iwt". bYmomLntarllY ir6w to tank durlng reveelng' anO*rt en Plston|s stalledor

lil,pi-ii6,iaot strcke.

Figure 8.3b

8.4 Pressure

Pressureiscreatedwhenevertheflowofliquidi'1.::Y:'g..Thismaybebrou.gh with anapplied of piestnce anactuator in bv load about a restriction thepiping'or thei;;;; An oil pressure. 80001b 8.4 Figure illi;r;;;..; tiieefiect"i'; Force road. of tt00PSIPressure' inch bv srrnnorted a 10sqLrare pisto' t;";;t;;;;;;"it a' i ;'d"Ar;;.;6 ii *.,t't y thefoll-owng formul = Pressure &Isg Area Pressure= f(l0llD 10Sqin = Pressure 800PSI

I t f o l l o w s t h a t i f t h e l o a d i s u n c r e a s e pu" e n s o i s t h e p l e s s u randPiston S . 4 d t h it" pitton' TheForce e . F i g u r e the illusrrares effect"1" f..t on the t'ti"* the sanle'However oil flow and remainunchanged s9theprrrr"#iJtuintih" flow Area output is 10 ;';;t;il's-s'ir19"i fi;;il; passses piston .t*l: o"*p the The overal] piston' *-OlS"guff9"r'prlminuteto *ou" the then Lallonsimins i;[;;; muchslower' t6adwill move Effectis thattfr" pi.to"riuii,ii"i"fJ* ttre

134

1. Theforceis 8000tb. and. . .

2. the arcais 10sq. in,

equalsForce+Arca 3. The pressur€ sq. equals 8000lb.+10 in. = 800psl. A. NO LEAK IN SYSTEM

Figure8.4a

gpm 4. ,19-112 arelost thrcugh a leak.. .

5. the oil not lost muststill raisethe piston.

6. Thusthercstill is an 8000lb. forceon the oil and pressure maintained. is

B. LEAK IN CYLINDER Figure 8.4b

135

8.5 Flow that gives the actuatorits force. in As discussed the previous section,it is pressure However, it is the flbw of oil that gives thb actuatorits movement,flow is createdby the actionof the pump. 8.5.1 Measurementof Flow There are two ways in which flow can be measured. distancethat the oil particlestravel per unit and time. Velocity - The average Units - Feetper secondor metresper second of Flow Rate - Is a measure the volume of fluid passinga given point in a given time. Units - gallonsper minuteor litresper minute 8.5.2 Flow and PressureDrop force to causemotion. In order for liquid to flow, theremust be a stateof unbalanced therewill alwaysbe slightlyless pipe of uniform diameter when fluid flows througha up pressure down streamwittr ieipect to the pressure streanr.This is due to friction in during the designof the system.Figure lhe pipeline,and must be takeninto account pressure with respect flow througha unifornl pipeline. to 8.5 illustrates

1. Prcssureis maximum herebecauseof lhe heightol llquid.

4. Succeedingly lower levelof liquld In these pipes is a measurc

3. Frlctionin the pipe drops prcssure fiom maximum to zerc

2. Pressurcis zerc her€ as the llquid llows out unrcstrlcted.

Figure8.5

8.6 Hydraulic Calculations the By applyingthe basiclaws of physicsit is possibleto determine main components requiredby a hydraulic system. 8.6.1 Determining Pipe Size By applying one of two formulasit is possibleto calculatethe size of hydraulic lines required. If gpm and velocity is known, it is possibleto calculatethe cross Sectional Area of the flow line. Cross SectionalArea = gom x 0.3208

( squarefeet)

Velocity(fps)

N.B. fps - feet/second

by The Velocity in fps can be calculated usingthe formula:

(fps) velocity

=

3.r17ffiea

8.6.2 Work and Power Work is carriedout whenevera force actsthrough a distanc:e. i.e. Work = Force x Distance of e.g. A 10lb load is moved througha distance 5 feet. ThereforeWork = 10lb x 5 feet Work Done = 50 ftllb the In practicewe must takeinto account rateat which work is done. This is referred to as power. Porver = .Ee.tgg-E-Di$ltglgg or Work Time Time 8.6.3 Horsepowerin a Hydraulic System 1 is One horsepower describedas being power requiredto lift 33,0001b, foot in 1 as are and distance represented gallon/minute, minute. In a hydraulicsystemspeed as and force is represented pressure. Horse Power = gpm x P.S.I x 0.0005tt3 Horse Power = gpm x Psi x 0.583

1000 or hP= SP1IIJ-ESI t7t5
the We can now calculate exacthorsepowerof a systemusingthis formula,however a is efficient. In practice typical hydraulic that this formula assumes the system 1007a systemis only about 807oeffrcient. For this reasonwe have to calculateon effective for horsepowerto compensate losses. The equationis as follows:-

137

hp = gpmxPSIx0.000583 hasto bemodifiedto approximately hp=gpmxPSIx0.0007. 80Voof 0.0007. is N.B. 0.000583 approximately Thushorsepower now berepresented can h.p=gallonsxpAUXdE minutes Sq Inches As I gallon- 231Cubicinches l2 in ches- lfoot Power = sallon minute x e1!in3 gallon x Pounds in2 x 12in

= 231 ft lb l min t2
powerof one gallon per minuteflow at 1 PSI of mechanical This givesthe equivalent by pressure.We can express this as a horsepower dividing by 33000foot poundsper minute.

/ ++ rtrb min
33000
ft lb / min

= 0.0005tt3hp

hp flow at I PSI ecluals 0.0005t13 Thus 1 gallonper nrinute 8.6.3 Horse Pnwer and Torque Torque can be defined as a rotating or twisting force. There are two torque - power formulasmost commonlvused.

Torque=63025xhp rpm 8.7 BasicHydraulicSystem

hp = fgrgue-:rlpxq 6302s

of Figure8.6 showsthe basiclayoutof the hydraulicsystem a typicalWorkclass that to the ROV. It is the intentionof this section discuss variouscomponents make up the system.

138

2.
C a { t ;

-9:
6 :

g 9 e ,
4 =

a 7

:e > 6
9i : 9.:

a t

6

, 3
o a o

q

,
o I
a

z

o t o o I

=
I

3? ol

t

:5 < r

i< z :

t

rt
:
c

<=
i O

e { t 6

; o

ir
t:

> r

F
i f

ig

ffiHlill
F = : i : r i 6 : ' * : : ;
: : : 9
3

Figure8.6

r39

8.7.1Hydraulic Pump The hydraulic pump is directly coupledto an electric motor and convertsmechanical energyinto hydraulic horsepower.The principle of the operationis that an increasing volume (with increasing volume is generated the intake side and a decreasing on pressure) the outputside. on 8.7.1.1 Pump Displacement per The flow capacityof a pump can be defined as the displacement revolution, or in is simply the outputof oil in gallonsper minute. Displacement expressed cubic inchesper revolution. 8.7.1.2 Pump Delivery upon two factors:The delivery of the pump is dependent a) Load Conditions b) Drive Shaft Speed rating,if it is runningunder The pump will actuallydelivermore oil thanit's specified that the deliverywill reduceunderexcessive no-loadconditions. It follows therefore load conditions. that the shaft upon the speed is The amountof oil beingdelivered alsodependent the to turns. In orderfor the pump to performaccording it's specifications, drive motor must operate the correctspeed. at 8.7.2 Types Of Pump The most commontypesof hydraulicpump found in industryare positive of pump deliversspecificamounts pumps. A positivedisplacement displacement in fluid per revolution,strokeor cycle. Thesepumpsmay be of fixed displacement, haveto be adjusted. this parameter, certaininternalcomponents orderto adjust by Somepumpshavethe facility to vary the sizeof the pumpingchamber adjusting pumps. externalcontrols,thesepumpsareknown as variabledisplacenlent

t40

8.7.2.1ExternalGear Pump
4. Outlet pressune against teeth causesheavysideloadingon shafts as indicatedby arrows. 3. and forced out of prcssure port as teeth go back into mesh.

OUTLET

DRIVE EAR G

2. Oil is carriedaround housing in chambers formed between teeth, housingand side plates. .

INLET

1. Vacuumis createdhere as teeth unmesh.Oil enters from rcservoir.

Figure8.7

As the teethof the two gearsun mesha partialvacuumis created, thus,drawingoil into the unit. The oil becomes trappedbetween gearteeth,and as the teethmesh together oil beconres the pressurised. Gearpumpscan be ntounted tandem, in or throughdrive which allows separate inlet andoutletparts,thus,creatingtwo separate isolatedsystems, possiblywith two differenttypesof hydraulicoil. Thls systemdoes occurin certainROV systems, typically wherethe nranipulator hydraulicsystemis isolated from thenlrin system.

8.7.2.2 VanePumps
2. is carriedaround ringin pumping chambers.. .
PUMPING CHAMBERS

C A M R I N GS U R F A C E

ECCENTRICITY A side load is exerted on bearings because of pressureunbalance.

SHAFT

|NLET€>

.*+L

ourLEr I

1. Oil entersas space betweenring and rotor increases. . .

3. and is discharged as space decreases.

CASTING

141

of principleof the v?1e: puqq. The,unit.consists a the Figure 8.8 illustrates operating 'thrown'against outer the vaneswhich are moveable sldttedspindle. The slotscontain of casingoi the pump body. The eccentricity the spindleis suchthat a vacuumis then the oil volunie betweehthe vanesdecreases, creatJdon the infdt siOi, and as the contactwith the casing,they in constant Due to the vanesbeing increases. pressure wear. As the vaneiwear down, then they extendfurtherfrom to ire subject constant is replacements necessary. their slotsand eventually at can operate The vanepumpscoverslow, mediumand high volumelangesand. pSr. T'heyare highly elficient with a low noise level and a long i,p t,i fOoo ;;;;t;;; life. 8.7.2.3 Piston Pumps a on Pistonpumpsare contmonlyusedon ROV's and operate the principlethat.when it expelsfluid from it pistonin u bor. rerracrs diaws fluid in and when-itmovesout type of pistonpunlp: ihe bore. The second Thereare two typesof pistonpunlps: a) Radial Piston Pumps ring' (seefE g.gl. RadialPistonPumpsconsistof a cylinderblock insidea reitctiotl are boresin which free moving pi.stons housed.The The cylinder blockcontains to. are the block is offsetin sucha way thatasit.spins, pistons subject cylinder cylinders.As the nloueout,fluid is drawninto the. force. As the pistons clntrifugal then rirtgdecreases, the pistons block and reaction thg distancjbetween s:ylincler forcingout fltrid in the process' centre the move in towards

.ENTERLTNEx.--.1

B CYLINDER LOCK

CASE

PISTONS

CYLINDEB

R REACTION ING

8.9 Figure

t42

b) Axial Piston pumps Figure 8.1-0 showsa.simple axia! pump. The cylinders rorare parallelto the axis of rotationof the cylinder block. Th-eswashplate is at an anglethat determines the length of thepiston stroke. The larger the strokeis, then tFe more oil is drawn to the bore and the larger the displacemeni becomes. The ports are arrangedso tha^t the pistonspassthe inlet, they are drawn back and as as they passthe outlet they are forced out. The displacement ihe pump is determined of by the numberof pistonsand the length of the sttoke. VALVE PLATE SLOT
2.and are forced back in at outlet.

PISTON SUB.ASSEMBLY

OUTLET PORT

DRIVESHAFT

lNLET PORT

SWASHPLATE

SHOEPLATE (RETRACTOR RtNc) CYLINDER BLOCK BORE

' i,:*"1'",:':liffi:, ...
Figure8.10

are in a pasr ringsand lotg pistons designed such waythatoil is allowecl thepiston into thecasing facilitate to lubrication internal of bearings. thisreason For there has to be a part,knownasa case drain, allowoil backto ihetank. to 8.8 Hydraulic Valves Introduction a.basic.layout anROV hydraulic for system. canbe seen It ligut" 8.6illustrated that thethruster motors will requirea variable flow speed direction, orderto meet and in theirrequirements. manipulators The contain linearactuators, whichrequi.e only a variable direction, nomtally bur ody a constant rate. flow

143

8.8.1 Directional Valves Directional valves feature in the ROV Hydraulic systemin more than one form. They have the ability to start,stop and control the direction of fluid flow. 8.8.1.1 Classificationof Directional Valves as Directional valves are classifiedaccordingto certaincharacteristics listed below:a) Number of flow paths e.g. two way, threeway. b) Actuation method pneumatic, electrical e.g.mechanical, c) Internalvalve element e.g.Poppet,spool,piston,ball d) Size- Sizeof flangeor part connections threador flanged straight e) Connections Pipethread, 8.8.1.2Check Valve includingROVs Basicallythey Checkvalvesfeaturein almostall hydraulicsystems in only one direction. allow the flow of fluid Figure 8.11 showsa checkvalve servingas an in line one way valve. A springholds forcesthe poppetagainst thi poppetin the nonrrallyclosedposition. Fluid pressure ceases, direction. When the pressure the Spiiirg,thusallowing flow in the appropriate back flow of oil. any undesired the poppetretulnstctits seatand prevents Typical UsesOn ROV a As on many hydraulicsystems, checkvalve is often useddirectlyafterthe pump to pressure buildingup in the system. preventbaik flow of oil, in the eventof excessive SEAT BALL(ORPOPPET)

FREEFLOWALLOWED AS BALLUNSEATS
FREEFLOW NOFLOW

AS FLOWBLOCKED VALVESEATS

F i g u r e8 . l l

r44

8.8.1.3 Trvo Way Directional Valves Two way directionalvalvesare commonly found in what is termedthe Hydraulic, Control Unit (HCU). This unit consists a'bank' of two way directionalvalves, of which control devicessuchas manipulatorarms,and camerapan/tilt units. The H.C.U generallyoperates a lower pressure at than the thrusterhydraulic system, typically 1000- 1200PSI. As previouslymentioned, H.C.U may be completely the isolatedfrom the main system,by incolporatingtwo directly linked gear pumps into (seesection the system 8.7.2.I) OIL STATIC

VALVE CLOSED
otLouT
A I otLtN

DrREcroN ffi O\E
OILOUT

DIRECTION TWO
Figure8.12 8.8.1.4 Actuation Directional of Valves There several are methods generally used industry actuate spoolmovement. in to the Theyinclude, pneumatic, mechanical electrical and actuarion. ROV industry The makes of electromagnetism, theparticular use and valveis knownasa solenoid valve.

t45

ENERGISED COIL

P
\

ARMATURE

SPOOL
Figure 8.13

lSED DEENERG colL.

state,by applyinga voltage,the valve in an energised Fig 8.13 showsthe solenoid valves the moving the pin against spool. Normally solenoid energised, coil becomes the spooloncethe coils arede-energised. that centralise containsprings, 8.8.2 Servo Valves to of valve that is capable being infinitely positioned The servovalve is a directional ROV's make useof to providecontrolof the amountof fluid supplied the actuator. of lhesedevicesto meet the requirements the thrustermotors, which are requiredto run at variablespeed and in eitherdirection. 8.8.2.1Principlesof Operation ServoValve:of Figure 8.14 showsthe principleoperation a Electrohydraulic
IONOUE MOTOF ANO SERVO VALV€ ARE IN SINGLE UNIT I
I

I
MECHANICAL OF HYDRAULIC

ACTUATOR MO/ES AT COiITROLLED TO SPEED CONTROLLED POSITION

I

I I

MECHANICAL OFIHYDFAUL(

FEEOBACK TELLS DEVICE SER\IOv LvE IF OESIRED

o_1 l^E199.!Iv

Figure8.14

r46

A control signal,which may compriseof an analogued.c voltage is feed to an amplifier, which booststhe signal. This analogue voltage will represent initial the output from the joystick control. The electricalsignal is appliedto the torque motor, which is mechanicallycoupledto a spool that controls the fluid rate of flow. If follows thereforethat the load will move at a rate proportionalto the electrical input signal. A feed back loop may be incorporated into the system,whereby an electrical signal is appliedfrom the load to the servoamplifier. This feedbacksignal is comparedwith the original input signal,and any resultingerror is fed to the torque motor, which reactsin sucha way as to cancelthe error. 8.8.2.2 Torque Motor Figure 8.15 showsthe basicoperation the torquemotor. of ARMATURE

SUPPORT TUBE FLAPPER PERMANENT MAGNETS

PERMANENT MAGNETS

FEEDBACK SPRING

Figure8.15

The unit consistsof a flapper,pivoting on a flexible supporttube. The flapper is in coupled to armature,which is encased a permanentmagnet. Each armatureis which the conrol signal is applied. On application by surrbunded electricalcoils to are of control sighal the armatures shroudedby a magneticfield, the strengthof which is proportionlal the input signal. This magneticfield gives rise to the movementof to and thereforethe pivoting of the flapper. the armatures to The flapper is mechanicallyconnected the spool as illustratedin the_single.stage to servovaive (Fig 8.16). It follows that the spoolwill move proportionally the input signal and thus createa fluid flow of equalproportion. spooltoshifta 2. causes proPortional distance to electricsignal. VALVE BODY
hLECTRICAL CONNECTOR

MOTOR TORQUE

SPOOL

of 1. Deflection motorarmatuc

PRESSURE

MECHANICAL CONNECTION

Figureft.16
8.8.2.3 Two StageSp<lol Type Servo Valve from requirea largerflow ratethancould be obtained ROV systems In most cases the singlestagespoolvalve. For this reason systemmakesuseof the Two Stage in Spool- Type ServoValvesas illustrated Fig 8.17.

148

1. Whentorquemotor movespilot valveto left. 6. Sleeve follows pifotspool and cuts off flow whendesiredmain spoolpositionis reached. LINKAGE FULCRUM (vARtABLE) TOROUE MOTOR ARMATURE

3. Supply prcssureis openedto port'4". . .

PILOT STAGE SLEEVE 2. largeend of spool rcceivesincreased control pressurle spool moves and to right.

cotLs

2A SPOOL ENDAREA

CONTROL PRESSURE
MAIN SPOOL

7. Ratioof main spoolto pilot spool movement is adjustable.

4. and port "8"

1A SPOOL ENDAREA

5. Feedback linkage transmitsspool movements sleeve to

Figure8.17(a)

t49

2. In neutral,large pilot end is blocked at pilot valvein the staticcondition.This = pnessune 1/2control pressure (Pc). PILOT STAGE SLEEVE PILOT SPOOL SUPPLY PRESSURE

3. Controlpressune is presenthereand at smallend of mainspool.

FULCRUM LINKAGE (vARTABLE)

ARMATURE FEEDBACK MAINSPOOL 1. l.argespool end areais twice the area of opposite end which is subjectto control pressune all times. at CONTROL PRESSURE

4. Controlpressune holds mainspool stationary againstoil trapped at oppositeend at 1/2(Pc). PcxlA=1l2Pcx2A

Figure 8.17 (b)

150

The principleof operationis similar to the single stagevalve, exceprthat the flapper is mech.anically_ connected to.a pilot spool, which coitrols the main supply spooi.^ It should be notedin this casethat the feedbacklink from the main spoofioitt.i flapper is mechanical. The most common type of servovalve usedon ROV's is the MO'dF, the specifications and port configuration are availablein the appendixsectionof this book. 8.9 Hydraulic Actuators 8.9.1 Introduction The.h.ydraulic actuatoris the unit responsible convertingthe energystoredin the for fluid into mechanicalenergy. They compriseof either motors,or rams; motors providing rotary motion for thrusters, rams producinglinear motion for manipulators and camerapan and tilt function. 8.9.2 Hydraulic Rams Figure8.18 illustrates typicalconstruction a hydraulicram/cylinder. the of

ROD ENDHEAD RODEND PORT RODBEARING OPTIONAL VENTS AIR (FOR BLEEDTNG ArR FROM CYLTNDER)

COLLAR CUSHION SEALS PISTON CAP END HEAD ENDPORT

RODSEAL RODWIPER P C U S H I O NL U N G E R BODY STATIC SEAL

Figure 8.18 The^operatig! the cylinderis basicin the fact that oil is clelivered eitherport via of to the Solenoidvalve, and.the pressure actsup on the piston,rnovingit in the appropriate direction. The pistonrod is connected the 'linrb'of-a manipulator to for exampleand transfers movement thepistonrod to the lirnb. the of

r5l

the Figure8.19 illustrates variouscylindermountingmethods

TAPPED MOUNT

FLANGE FLANGE RECTANGULAR RECTANGULAR END MOUNT-BLIND END MOUNT-ROD

FLANGE SOUARE END MOUNT-BLIND

FLANGE SOLID END MOUNT_ROD

FLANGE SOLID END MOUNT-BLIND

SIDELUGMOUNT (FOOT MOUNT)

CENTERLINE LUGMOUNT

MOUNTTRUNNION RODEND

MOUNTTRUNNION INTERMEDIATE

T R U N N I OM O U N T N BLIND END

TIE EXTENDED ROD MOUNT-RODEND

TIE EXTENDED ROD END MOUNT-BLIND

TIE EXTENDED ROD ENDS MOUNT-BOTH

MOUNT CLEVIS

WITH MOUNT CLEVTS BEARI SPHERICAL

Figure8.19

152

The main componenrs the limb are as follows. of a) Seals' The sealbetween pistonand the cylinderwalls is critical for efficient the operation. The sealsmly qg manufactured frorncast iron or more commonly rubber. If thesefail, then 'gre_ep.' occur when the actuatoris on load. This is cauied by oil will by-passingthe seal. Iris important to ensurethat the rubber material is compatibie with the oil, as the rubber may perish. The integrity.of the rod sealis of upmostimportance,as this preventsingressof dirt, or seawater into the actuator. Rod sealsmay be manufactured from rub6er or teflon. The rod sealmaterialmust be compatible only with the oil, but in the caseof noi ROVs in the seawater. b)-.Cylinder Cushions- The cylindercushions situated eitherend of the are at cylinder, in order to slow down-themovementof the piston at the end of it's stroke. If this was not the case,the piston would hammeragain.st end cap and suffer the possible damage. c) Ports ' The externalopeningsto the cylinderallowing oil to and from the cylinder as appropriate. 8.9.3 Hydraulic Motors 8.9.3.1Introduction Motor is theterm given to an actuator that providesrotaryrnotion. All motorsare js commonin the fact thatpressure exerted-on piston,vanesor gearswhich are directlycoupledto an ourputshaft. The motor that we areconcerned with most in the ROV industry,is the axial piston motor. For this reason is this motor that we will base it our information. 8.9.3.2 Perf<lrmance Motors of The performance motorsis based the foilowing paranreters. of on a) Ability of pressure exposed surfaces withstand to force of hydraulicfluid. b) Efficiencyof linkagemethodusedto connect pressure surflce with output shaft. c) Leakage Characreristics 8.9.3.3 Motor Ratings Motors areratedaccording torque,displacement, to speed and maximumpressure limitations. a) Torque - Torque twistingfunctionof the ourpur. Motion is a il lh" -r-urning, tuncttonof fbrce,and if sufficienttorqueis present overcom^e to friction, motion will occur. b). Displacement- ls the amountof fluid requiredto turn the motor I revolution,and it is expressed cubic inchesper revolution in iCubic in/rev). c) Running Torque ' The runningtorqueof a motor is the actualtorquea motor can develop to keep the load turning. Running torqueis a percentage trieo."ti.ai of torque.

153

to is torclue the torqueretluired startthe load d) Starting Torque - The starting torque. of to turning. Once againit is considered be a percentage theoretical that the motor can e) Speed- Speedis therotationalvelocityat a specificpressure damage.It is a funciionof volumeof deliveredfluid and mainlainwithout sustaining displacement. the is f) Slippage- Slippage the leakingof fluid across motor without any work place. taking 8.9.3.4 Axial Piston Motors type found on ROV systems. Axial pistonmotorsareprobablyone of the commonest TorqueMotors. Figure8.20 showsthe Low They fall into the classof High Speed, of construction a typical in line axial pistonmotor.
5. As the piston passesthe Inlet,it beginsto rcturn into its bore becauseol the swashplate angle. lluid is pushed Exhaust into the outlet port.

4' The pistons,shoe plate, and cylinderblock rotate together.The drive shafl is splinedto the cylinderblock.

3. The piston thrust is transmittedto the angled swash plate causing rctatlon.

SUB. PISTON ASSEMBLY PORT OUTLET

INLETPORT DRIVESHAFT

SHOERETAINER PLATE

2. Exerts a force on pistons,forcing them out of the cylinderblock.

Figure11.20

154

Fluid pressure acts up on the piston endswhich transmitthe pressure the swash to plate. The angle of the swashplate is suchthat a rotationalmovementis developed. The torqueof the motor is proportionalto the area,numberof pistonsand the angle at which the swashplate is positioned. The motors may be of fixed displacement or variable displacement.The variation of displacement brought aboutby externally is adjusting angleof the swashplate. the 8.10 Contamination Control 8.10.1 Introduction It can be said that about 707aof hydraulic breakdownsare due to contaminationof hydraulic fluid. Contaminationcan be defined as the presence solid particlesin the of hydraulic fluid. It is essential in thereforeto try and minimise this occurrence the best possible manner. 8.10.2 Effect of Contamination on System The following factorshaveto be takeninto accountwhen looking at how contamination effectsthe system. a) Purposeof Hydraulic Fluid To Cool and dissipate heat fornrsa sludgeon the reservoir Contamination walls and thusprevents effectiveheat transfer. - To Transmit Power restricts flow of oil to Contamination blockssmallorificesand consequently the relevantunits. - Lubrication This can leadto disastrous havetolerances consequences. hydrauliccomponents All which allow a certainamountof oil to flow throughthem for lubrication. For example, a certainamountof oil passes pistonrings in the axial motor in order to the lubricatethe shaftbearings.Build up of contamination the cylinderswill prevent in this and leadto possible seizingof the shaft. b) MechanicalClearances The clearance hydrauliccomponents be definedas follows. between can - 5 micrometers high pressure for units - l5 to 40 micronreters low pressure fbr units Note - one micrometer one millionth of a meter. is

r55

valuefor varioushydrauliccomponents Figure 8.21 showsthe typicalclearance
pm

ln.

Gearpump (Pressure loaded) Gearto side plate Geartip to case Vanepump Tip of vane of Sides vane pump Piston to Piston bore(R)" Valveplateto cylinder Servovalve Orifice wall Flapper Spoolsleeve(R)" valve Control **Orifice*-' --

1t2-5 1t2-5

0.00002-0.0002 0.00002-0.0002 0.00002-0.00004 0.0002-0.0005

1t2-1' 5-13

5-40 112-5

0.0002-0.0015 0.00002-0.0002

130-450 18-63 14 - l

0.005-0.018 0.0007-0.0025 0.00005-0.00015

Figure[1.21

c) Modesof Failure the particles bringabout vary contamination in size.It is thisfactthatdetermines that system. of degree failurein a hydraulic - CatastroPhic Failure may a For jamming acomponent. example particle largeparticles uUout'Uy Brought in the motor. This wouldcause the nAgJU"t*een rhetedth'of two crowi wheels immobilised. in of .".frpf.t. seiuure themotorandresult theROV beconring - Intermittent Failure mayprevent such reliefvalves.Thecontantinant Thismayoccurin conrponents aS dy.Ppbackto p.op".ly a1dthevalvewouldtemporarily Itr" popp"tfrom re-seat'i,lg will operation beresumed. normal away, is as tun[. R'ssoon theconffimin'antflushed - Degradation Failures This by of by iuitui.r arecaused erosion components fine contaminants. Oegra-aa?ion by if failureoccurs not checked a until catastiophic may contlnue process (See 12). chapter procedure. maintenance 8.10.3Summaryof Contaminants in contaminants theROV the in Thetableshown tig tt.22summarises various svstems. hvdraulic

156

Contamlnant Acidicby-products

Character Corrosive

Sourceand Remarkr Breakdown oil. May also arisefrom of water{ontramination of phosphatg-€st€r fluids. Breakdown oil. of Alreadyin fluid or introduced system by fault or breakdown of oxidation-inhibitors. Effectcan be controlled by anti-toam additives. Excess due to improper air bleeding, poor s!€tomdesignor air leaks. Use of wronglluid for toppingup, etc. Fromlubrication points.

Sludge Wator

Blocking Emulsion

Air

Soluble Insoluble

Othsroils Grease

Miscible but may r€acl May or may not b€ miscible lnsoluble lnsoluble with catalylic action lnsoluble, blocking
Abrasive and blocking

Scale

Frompipes not prop€rly cleanedbeforeassembly. May be causedby water contamination, controllable with anti-rustadditives. Painton insideof tankold or not compatibl€ fluid. with particles Airborne (remwewith air tilter). SealbrEakdor'vn. Checkfluid,compatibility sealdesign. of Sealing compounds shouldnot be usedon pipojoints. Sandshouldnot be usedas a fillerfor manipulating bends. pipe Adhesives jointing or compounds shouldnot be usedon gask€ts. Onlylinhlree clothsor ragsshouldbe usedfor cleaning plugging or dismantled components.

Melallicparticl€s

PaintflakEs particles Abrasive Elastomeric partlcles j Sealing compound particles
Sand

Blocking Blocking Abrasive and blocking
Blocking Blocking

Adhesiv€ particles Lintor fabric
threads

Figure8.22

r57

8.10.4 Prevention of Contamination filters into the systenl.thev are Low Pressure As a generalrule ROV's incorporate-2 Filtei is locatedafter the Filter. The Low Pressure SuctionFilters and High Pressure particlesthat T.u{ b" tank and before th" ;;";i *tti.ft isaeiigneA to removeany as from the tank byihe pump. High pressurefilters, the namelmplles sucked side. pressure ift".itr. pu-b on the high removesany conramination filter a Figure 8.23 illustrates typicalhigh pressure
5. Bypassvalve oPens if filter is too clogged to Pass lullflow.

2. flowsdown . carlrldge. . around

CARTRIDGE r BODY

3. through filterlng

to medium center . of houslng. .

Figure[1.23 is as on to of It is nottheintention thischapter go intodetail filter changing that Maintenance' 12 in amplycovered chapter on Mechanical 8.11 HydraulicFluids oil' frgm a hydraulic required previously abouttheproperties It hasbeenmentioned in be of tio*.u.. it is usefuiL'i,uu.anappreciation whichoils should used the in whichtheROV is working. elviionment i'i,.* io suittheparticular 8.11.1Viscosity to of as can Viscosity bedefined a measure a fluidsresistance flow, or aninverse in whichoil is used thatdetermines viscosity of measure its fluidir'. it is generally is thenits viscosity low, a fluid that if Ii canneisaia i nuiOfio*s easiiy, ;ily$;. is not does flow easily saidto havehighviscosity'

158

8.11.f.1 Choosingthe Right Viscosity One has to make a compromisewhen choosingoil of the optimum viscosity. A high however viscosity oil is desirabl6for maintaininga sealbetweenmating surfaces, thereare disadvantages. - High resistance flow to - High temperature causedby friction - InCreased power consumptiondue to friction - Sluggish operation - Air becomes easilytraPPed. If we overcomethesefactors by using a low viscosity oil, the following problems may occur. - ExcessiveInternal Leakage - Pump efficiency decreases, speed. slowing down actua.tor - Brea'kdown of oil film betweenmoving parts givesrise to frictional wear. of 8.11.1.2Measurement Viscosity th.e by The viscosityof a given oil can be determined measuri.ng flow rateof oil at a and valueis termedthe KinematicViscos^ity hasbeen given tempeiutute."This (lSO) for a varietyof oils at Organisation Standards by Eatalogued the Internarional different temperatures. the Figure 8.24 illustrates ISO figuresfor oils at 40oC'

rso
ViscositY Grade

Limits ViscositY Kinematic Midpoint ViscositY cSt at 40oQ Kinematic cSt at 40oC

fsovc2 tsovc3

2.2 3.2

tsovcs
tsovcT tsovclo

4.6
6.8 10

tsovcls
fsovc22 tsovc32
lsovc46

1s
22 s2
46

tsovc6s
tsovcl00 tsovcl50

68
100 150

tsovc320

320

t s o v cl 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 t s o v cl s0 0 1 5 0 0 Figure8.24

159

From this we seethat one must bearin mind the conditionsthat the ROV is required to operate. For examplewhilst working in the Arctic regions-alow viscosity oil is for required,e.g. ISO VG 30. When working in hotter climate-s, examplg-T fg wa6rs, the vehiclemay requireoils of viscosityof aroundISO VG 10. Eaitern Typical Oils are as follows:

BP ESSO SHELL TOTAL

HLP 10 NUTOH10or UNVISJ13 TELLUSTIS TELLUS RIO OT AZOLLAVGlO

8.12 Manipulators 8.12.1 Introduction Constantimprovementin technologyhavegiven rise to ROVs carrying out more and more subsea tasksthat were at one time reliantsolelyupondivers. In order to commonlyknown as carryoutthesetasks,ROVs haveto be fitted with roboticsarn1s, principle, the pilots control work on a master/slave manipulators. All nranipulators can beingthe slave. Manipulators have being the masterand the manipulator anythingup to nine functions. 8.12.2 Principlesof Operation 'eyeball' with equipped classare_ of Manipulators found on all classes ROV - small are their purposefor exarnplewould be to carry a function electronicmanipulators, single in CP Probe. As vehiclesincrease size,the tasksbecomernorecomplex, where manrpulators are more functionalmanipulators required.For this reason and stronger powered. natureare hydraulically of this at to The functionsare nornrallyonly recluired operate a flxed rateand therefore eachfunctionwill valveswill be usedto cont}olthe flow of oil. Norr.nally solenoid of valve, which will be one of a series identicalvalves, haveits own dedicated known as theHydraulicControlUnit or H.C.U. collectively

160

Figure 8.25shows layout theSlingsby the of Engineering TA009Seven Ltd Function Manipulator.
m n
CJ) -l

Tt r i o
'N o2

R9
- 1

>J --l
m

Qo

! a\ t-

o z -

F
€ t ;
(tl

m
n

^
o o

q) -i

"
1l
@

c

J

o

6
|c/)

T TI

o

o o T
o z o a

m m tm

m
@ CJ)

5 _ a"V

Fll\<

J

m
(D

'Tl

I
€ : o d

q)

o-P

o o

r

o x xo o =: a = o
N

- =
x <

('l

l €
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0) I

o d o

ll
\ \\

{
-i o 5

q)

st
s
A) o c

o o

,^=E € 5
o o 5

(D q)

i i r o = \ gl_

m z
t-

o

f

-

n
-

s
a


(o o o
it-

-lI -rr
a<
+ =

mO o=m o m o. \,1
@ -

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X @

0e
Fl

3 3
x

z
CJ) m

s
A)

{

€ b.J (n

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t\) 5

'Tl

;
o o

10- - = d

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a

Jv.o--

:

it
U) c

o P o = :XI(/)

: 1x x 6
5

= e. r,:'R

€ 161

on potentiometers the master feedback of the Figure8.26shows location therelative andslavearms.

t

Figure 8.26

POTENTIOMETER LOCATION DIAGRAM SLAVVMASTER ARM

162

8.1,2.37 Function Manipulator which constitute The TA009 Manipulator consistsof two main groupsof components manipulatorsystem. a basic7 function, closedloop positionalfeedbackmasterslave power supply and amplifiers are the minimum The Master Arm and its associated requiredin the masterarm gfoup. (SeePictorial SystemAssembly). components System,UnderwaterCable The SlaveArm, Valve Pack,Positive Compensation in Assembly and SlaveElectronicsUnit are the minimum requiredcomponents the slavearm group. (SeePictorial SystemAssembly). The systemis designedto be capableof operatingin a variety of installation or situations. Typically, a remotepiloted submersible, mannedsubmersible Package. configurationmay be usedas the Transporter are A numberof productoptionsto the basicmanipulator available. Among theseare:A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. Wrist Rotate Continuous Tool Grip Jaws ForceFeedback Tool Lock Mechanism Facility Freeze ParallelJaws Multiplexer. Self Contained Extender 8th Function control Microprocessor based Teachand Repeat HydraulicPowerPack SpecialTooling Interface DebrisCutters.

in systemare,as configuredin the human The sevenfunctionsavailable the standard arm. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Slew (left/nght) Shoulder up/down Shoulder Elbow pivot (left/nght) Forearmrotate Wrist Pivot (left/right) Claw rotate Claw open/close

163

with the It operation.. is described The following is a brief overviewof the system tfr'ata basic systemand freezefacilityare-fitted in a modern Type ROV. assumption Otherinstallationswould operatethe samein principle. The motion of the manipulatoris governedbythe masterarm systemwhich.is a arm). Each position feedbackjoint, version ofihe slaveirm (underwater scaled-down mountedon it, the on both masterand slavearms,has a 5 kilohm servopotentiometer of which is directly coupledto the motion of the joint itself. Refer to the spindle mechanicalassemblydrawingsfor further details. joint, a signalis available from both the masterand slave Thus,to takea parricular pre-alignedat the commissioningstageto corer the arms and theseare nominally and samelength of travel on the potentiometers, henceto give nominallythesame the have+- 5V d.c. between terminals.Some voltage.ing", as all potentiometers functions as the variaiion e*ists in the forearmrotate,claw rotate and claw open/close the slavearm with and masterarm is configuredwith rotary actuationpotentiometers perform gain adjustmentto linear actuationpot6ntiometers.The electronissystems cases. matchingof voltageswings,in theseparticular ensure controlbox, the Both masterand slavesignalsarefed to the vehicleelectronics 'Freeze'control card and the being carriedvia the optional surfacemasterarni signa-is performsa compal.son or sysrem vehicledatl link. The controlbox electronics a the the b'etween two signalsand if an errorexistsbetween two, supplies drive signal controlvalve)in the slavearm. to rherelevanthydiaulicseruovalve (proportional This servesto diive the slavearm joint to the requiredmasterarm position, tltg reducingthe drive and progressively conlinuously controlrnonitoring electronics Atth.is point, the slavearm and master correspond. the two arm signals signaluntil of joint. Taking all sevendegrees are ar-m in the samepositidn,for that particular this at and all operating ihe sametime (if recluired) meansthat rogerher freedom p6sitionor attitudeis takenup by the masterarms,within the mechanical whatever a the of constraint.s the systenl, slaveamr will be driven until it asstlnles g posit iott. correspottdin 'freeze' the cause slavearnl to track slowly, over the switch is released, electronics A A new positionthat the masterarnt ntay.have.adopted. period,to any a 10 second and is usedto switch hydraulicpower to hydraulicisolatevalve is fitted io the system the arm.

r64

Figure8.27shows capabilities the Slingsby the of Engineering 9 Function Ltd Manipulator.

TA33-9 Function Master/Slave Manipulator

Slave

s\
R c l a to n

r$

i.

Roiatron

340' Rotalron

.^- -. ': *./ / \, .., ': ,l

\
./ts,
t . ,i\ s-:.

90'
I \ / l 1 -

Master
Figure 8.27

\'. \

\-

3.10!'\>/../ Potat,on

-x-

i
..i

ia.

165

EnveloPe TA33- Operating

ication Specif
S h o u l d e-r U p / D o w n 190" S h o u l d eS l e w r
L A<O

1M

Elbow 1'10" Rotation Forearm 340" WristPitch Upper 80" WristYaw +15" -65' LowerWristPitch 80" ClawRotation OPtional Continuous 340". Torque Rotation 108. Nm B0ft.lb. ClawOpen/Close 2 1.51",1 M 1 S O m( 6 i n . ) m R Maximum each 1 7 5 m( 6 9i n ) Lift Maximum at FullBeach ( 3 a k g 7 5 l b) H y d r a u l iS u p p l Y c 0 1 3 8 1 2 0 6 r( 2 0 0 0 i 3 0 0p s . i . ) 2 p m . ba 9 Arm of Weioht Slave lb.) BBk6 (193lb.)InAir. 56 kg (123 ln Waier Installation of Weiqht i k g ( 1 5 4b . )I nW a t e r ) 0 . 5 h 4 l i O [ g Q 4 2 t b . I nA i r . 7 0
1M

Figure 8.28
Sice elevalion

masierislave TheTA33is a ninefunction primarily subsea for designed rnanipulator vehicles, operated or useon manned remotely for u'ell being as suitable usein almost as environment. anyhostile dexterity unrivalled TheTA33 offers with essentialfor combined theruggedness
r9cr m nwt(o g r r r cvrv rreh c o 2 r : n e r : l i n n qi v . H 'i, r r i' r :v rv l, ii v ' r ' v J s : n ri iv e ,

linesrun tryithin arm the service electrical of lo avoidthe possibility damage s'iructure orsnaggrng.

purpose subsea as Designed a general suited is the manipulator, TA33 particularly tasks and cleaning inspection to dif{lcult is where access limlted, on structures n a s u c h sw e l d e d o d a l j o i n t s . of TheTA33is a development theproven now manipulator, accepted function TA9seven master/slave slandard industry as theof-fshore of has and system, therefore theadvantage a back-up and spares technical wellestablished service.

8.12.4 Conclusion This chapterhasprovidedan overviewof hydraulictheoryand the components of commonlyfound in ROV systems.The maintenance the systemis coveredin chapter12.

166

CHAPTER 9 PRESSURE FITTINGS 9.0 Introduction work classRovs alr makeuseof hydraulic po-wer.- hydraulicsystems The thus pressure fittingsto.oitnr.t together highpressure work the !!!t-ovea,use pipe and hoses usedto connect to-gether various the components. High pressure fittings are produced several bv diffErent manufacturer swic ii6ki;;ig"ffi t ait -?" rangeof re-usable fittingsthatarevery?opulargr{".d["* theindusny. These u fittings will be usedro ilustrate-therypesoftitrinls availablel 9.1 Selecting Fittings Beforeanv fittins is selected tubeoutside the diameter must threadsiz6musti'e either,ttritGaloingw *ork, o.,nurct beknownandthefitting ia to existingfittings where modifications mainteii:: is required.1-te ne*i or conriJrruoon the working is pressure. hvdrauric For

systems may. thii musr able withstand pressureF;r.i,-on il0'db;;.i.'ffi';;?ltiig be to this #itf,tutGfi;;;."""'
9.1.1 Thread Size

ur"o

Due to design considerations area number differentthread there of sizes types and available. thread The maybetafred;rparallel
a)

threads designed thata pressure-tight is made are so Japergd seal on the threads.when usingthese suchasstripTeezeor swak v" eI" eeL lypesa seaiant is required. These manufaft*ra io gs ;1:'* are Parallel threads used.wherepressure-tight is not are a seal threads.The sealis usually_maae'elttreimetit-to-*"tatmadeon the "i *id, a gasket against faceof the.femite the pun.irtiie maybe3 "*iul;;; on the sealing :urangement being'coveredby 2779. all BS i) Thefirst variation a Mareparaller is with Bonded Gasket seal. In thiscase_composite a washer, "i"uffy metalandelastomer, is usedto.sealagainit thefaceor ttrJ remdre port. A machined taperdirectlybehind marethread the c"nt is trr" gast"t.----one variation theFemale paralrel. is This typeseals against the " faceof thefemale port metal-to-metal *itr, u gurt"tl---"oi The third variationis theFemale paralel Gauge. gasket,meta] A or fibre, is used insidethefemale pon uguinrta flat surface. The a lating palejgTpgrynt exerts load"fth. t;k;;";.li;;;. co.nnection. 1780 BS (19g5) anadditionuf is ip".in;;r.;"f"; this type.

b)

ii) iii)

Therearea numberof differentthreads for hydraulic use applications someof themore usual types are:a b c d

pipe Thread(NpT) AmericanStandard AmericanStandard Unified Thread

rso7/1 rso228/r

to/

e f

BSP BSPT DIN

h i

JIS BSPP

9.1.2 Pressure Rating fittings areall ratedto the maximum It canbe stated with confidence Swagelok that tubing. In their literaturethey statethat Swagelokfittings working pressure standard of on The providea leakproof sealon all tubingconnections. onusis, however, the the individual to ensure he selects correctlyratedfitting for thejob in hand. that 9.2 The Swagelok System to all components, manufactured fittings arecomprised four precision-made of These The very stringent tolerances underrigid qualityconffolprocedures. consistency and can matched is that components ttrereason Swagelok be so andqualityof these "fit for purpose".Thefour components are:confidentin their being The nut The backfemrle The front femrle The body to by on courses trainingis provided Swagelok demand teachthecorrect and Special fittings areshownin Figure of andsafeuseof their fittings. A selection Swagelok

168

9.3 Advantages of Tube Fittings The reasons concentrating these for on typesof mechanical fittingsin this chapter pipe are:Tubefittingsareeasier installttranthreaded to pipe Labourcostscantresignificantly reduced procedures, eliminated sp6cial is W.ldirg,with the assoliated No specialist toolsarerequired

Figure 9.1

r69

CHAPTER 10 ROV HOOK UP, PRE/POST DIVE CHECKS f0.0 Introduction It is the intentionof this chapterto outlinethe mobilisationof a typical ROV systemand discussthe principlesbehindthe pre and postdive routine. As.$9 nameimplies the pre andpost dive checkstakeplaceimmediatelybeforethe vehicleis deployedand as soonas it arrivesback on deck. It cannotbeemphasised enoughhow importanta task the pre and postdives are. They form an integralpart of the plannedmaintenance procedure the fact that they identify any malfunclion in immediatelyand can therefore minimiseany vehicledowntimb. For this reasonit is importantthat a standard routineis laid down in the form of a checklist that is made availableto all Rov personnel, especially newcomers the system. to Becomingcompetent carryingout a pre andpost dive checkis a skill that develops at only with practice. It is importantto includeeveryitem on the list and a very imponant point is to be totallyawareof the fact thatthehydraulics havea limitedrunningtime in
alr.

l0.l ROV Hook Up ROV hook up basically refersto themobilisation pro<;edure takesplaceat the that beginning the of the contract, taskusuallytakesbetween of the twelvs and twentyfour hoursdepending the classof vehicleandthe natureof theiob. on Mobilisation p!'rce takes initially in the base andwill involvetesting system, the carryingout a full inventoryof spares and consumables selecting suitablecrew to and a suit the nature the operation.Oncethis hasbeencarried the system of out will be transported the vessel installation supplyshipor helicopter to or by depending the on class ROV beingused. of The actual positioning theconuolcabin,workshop, of winchandcrane requires a certainamountof liaisonwith theauthorities boardas therearemanv safetvfactors on that haveto be takeninto account. Oncein positionthe ROV teamcan startto connectup the appropriate cablingbetween therelativeunits. l0.t.l Deck Cabling

Deck cableis atmoured,zonetwo ratedcablethat carriesthe necessary signalsbetween the controlcabin,winch and wortshop. Typicalexar.nples these of cablesareas follows:a) b) c) d) e) 0 Main power cableto supplythe winch andcranepower packs. Domesticpower supplyto the workshop. Cableto route power, control,video and optical fibre signalsfrom the control cabinto the winch fixedjunction box. If necessary purgehoses any between the units. all Communication between link control cabin, winchnndcrane. Vessel rig supplyto thepowerdistribution or unit.

t71

possibleand once r.nanner the During this procedure cableswill be routedin the safest crew will be necessary' "gui" Ef.r" iiuiron with the vesselor installation During.the to The umbilical is alsoconnected the ROV during this procedure. being looseconductors "."rp"".iion ttrenOV is dir.onnr.t"d from the rlmbilibal,the travellingcontainer' r"ru.!O to the winch which hasa dedicated quite 1ime., a are Once in locationthe conductors feconnected, taskthat can.be ^,The final stagein the operattonrs the on depending the systemin use. ;;;;g -unA i=n "nruring that ai1the equipment the contiol cabin is hooked testingof the ,ytp. up colrectly. completedthe control cabin,winch' workshop Once the testshavebeensatisfactorily and requireto and craneare weldeJto ttredeck.ontompietion the welds are inspected be certified before the operationscan proceed' 10.2 Pre and Post Dive Checks It system' can a Fisure 10.1illustrates typicalpre andpostdive checkIist for a Scorpio any faults or defectscan the whole systemand therefore il;'h;;h*ktinciude ;""# immediatelY. be identifled not sufferedany The list beginswith integritychecksthat ensurethat the vehiclehas hasnot worked loose' physicaldamageo. ittui?nVequipmentthat is fitted to the vehicle the ROV' Thesechecks.nuv oiio riigfrify d.p"nding on what equipmentis fitted to the in is thata generator alsoincluded thelist. It may be the casethat It canbe seen and therefore ttuu" a suitablesourceof power systemis working "i " iftip that does.t''oi If to supplya-generator. this is thecasethenit is the the ROV .o-puny ii ;q;il"4 its etlsure safeoperation' of responsibility the teamto The it once the integrity checksarecornplete is safeto PoYel up the ROV. pitot iind deck officer is via haidwirecommswith a Oei*eenlne communication ur"JUyil. deck officer. The pilot will b:i.?:.o,l1g^the functions -i"-pt'one treadsei elltctent from the control cabin whil.stthe deck officer observingthe vehicle' An to ensurethat the hydraulicpower pack is not is methodof communication essential takestime to procedures *nning for too tong ,i periodin air. Cood communication in Chapter14. Oeuitofi,the basicititis of which arediscussed that the of During the dive checksit is the responsibility the deck officer to ensure the nearby'.Jley ha.vg right to gy petsonnelwho may be p*.du.. doesnot endanger rhevehicleat risk. or interceptanyone*ho irr"lir"el tir be puftingthemselves

172

SCORPIOPRE AND POSTDIVE CHECK LIST
Post Dive No: Pre Dive No: Date Submersible: )ost VEHICLEPOWERON Pre Dare Vehicle Integrity Checks Pre frame meetrom damase cables & connectors secure

Post

Post JENERATORCHECK Pre Fuel level Water level Anti-freeze correct off Oil ievel
Generator running

Flux gateto SLAVED
Leak locator to OPR Resetcable twist ind. on Depth ind. to zero Auto depth to MAN Auto hdg to MAN Veh lts check

Podsuaps,caps Plugs & OK KELLUM & Pennenr corrcct
Fixed buoyancy& BallastOK

Thruster propscorrect &
Manipulatorsecure& correct Cable cutter secure& correct Pan & Tilt & carncracorrect on Lens cover Lights secure Sonar correct,comp full off Post

Record running hrs

WINCHCHECKS he
Oil level in reservoir Resetfootagectr Brake operation Buoy'cy floats ready Comms working Startwinch Test all functions

Video system check Sonar svstem check Power ON - HYD. Check HYD Dressure

HYD temp(100F max) Thrusters functions OK Pan& Tilt OK
Manipulator OK Tools function OK

Hyd.TermSecurc 80%full &
Hyd. Fill Vv & Drain Plug OK Hyd. motor securc Hyd. Conps (x27) 807, full Umb. Terrn. OK & Comp 807o TCU oil ind full. & cao securc TCU Vv closed& cappcd HCU oil ind. full, cap secure Optics J/B comp diaphm full Xenon flashersecure Emergencypinger secure off Still camera flashsccure & Sonardynetransrxrndcr OK Ancillary eqpt. litted & secure on
)osI [)ost

CMNECHECKS
Oil level in reservoir Hook & Shackles OK

Pre

HYD - OFF HDG - OK with ship?
Climb/dive rate ind - 0 Pitch ind veh atirude Ancillary eqpt check

Lifr wLe OK
Startcrane fest all functions

VEHICLEPOWERON Pre Power ON - OCU Hyd.Wng Lt ON
Leak indicator test lts off

EmrgyPingertestOK
Xenon flasher
tn

BALL-AST FITTED kg

ADDITIONAL BUOYANCY

kg

PowerON - Veh

Check RCU

1 0 . 3 D i ve L o g s

Figure 10.1

The pre dive and postdive log sheets retained the companyand contribute are by towardsthe recordsthat arekept regardl_ng vehicle'shistory Another importantlog lfq is the ROV dive log. The dive log recordsatt the eventsthat oicur from the momentt[e Rov leavesthe deck until the momentit comesback again.By carryingout this process is possibleto keeprecordof the total numbeiof hoursthai th-e it vehicle has beenoperating well asrecordingspecific as events thatoccurduring thedive.Fig. 10 2 illustrates typicaldive log. a

| /-')

DIVE LOG SUBMERSIBLE
DIVENO: CHARTER:
OPERATIONTEAM Ops Controllcr I Surface Officer Pilot Observer Winch aran" )eck

Sheet of
WIND: LAT.: IONG:

DATE:

SUBMERSIBLE JOBNO.: LOCATION:

SHIP/P[-ATFORM SEASTATE

DIVETASK: FTTTED: EXTRA EQI.IIPMENT

BOTTOMCONDITIONS:

No.: \rlDEorAI,E
Video counter
Evenl

I utveouRmoN'

Time

Figure 10.2

CHAPTER 11 ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE. ll.0 Introduction

A plannedmaintenance procedure (PPM) is, in the long term a cost effectiveway of ensuringthe efficient operationof the whole system. tTppV were not in place then breakdownwould eventuallyoccurand leadtotime consuming remedialriaintenance during which the vehiclewould be on DOWN TIME. Down Time refersro the time that the systemis eff-ectively hire due to breakdown. off Adhering to 3 PP{ is the respon_sibility all ROV personnel of and all pracrices shouldbe suitablylogged. well organised procedure will reflect the systems ^the .A fogging overallperfor_ma1ce will, in certalnsituatioiJ aid and technician locatingfiults. in Maintaining.the log.isnormallytheresponsibility the SubEngineer he forks of as solely.withthat particularsystem opposed certainpersonne'i as to who are contractors and will constantlybe moving between different systems. The Sub Engineerwiil 'handover'doiumentation ensure.that log.sarekept up to dateand compil-e the any that is required be given to the new teamon cre*^change. to A certainamountof time may be dedicated eachday to carryingthe routine maintenance. is the intention thischapter outlinethevaliouselectrical It of to maintenance tasksthat nray be carriedout as part of the maintelrance procedure. ll.l C a b l e s , C o n n e c t o r sa n d p e n e t r a t o r s

As-a.general the vehicleelectronics rule tendsto be a very reliable partof the system. All the circuitsarehoused watertight in pressure vessels requirb and little main"tenance. Howeverthe connectors cables and that-interlink various the pressure vessels are exposed the harshenvironnlent eresusceptible danrage wear. For this to and to and it be methods of Ieasg.lt is imperativethat the technician fully awilreof the"correcr handling andmaintaining suchdevices. ll.l.l C o n n e c t o l . sa n d P e n e t r a t o r s

Connectors penetrators and fbrm the interfacebetween internalelectronics the the of ROV and the external cablinginterconnects various the pressure vessels. efficient The operationof thesedevicesdepe.nds their ability to preuentwateringressto the on currentcanying conductors. Figure 11.0illustraies a-typical connecto-r penetrator and unrt.

Penetrator

Locking LockinqSleeve

Contacts Conductors

Figure11.0

175

11.1.1.1 Penetrators circuitry and the the The penetratorforms the interfacebetween intemalelectronic steeland high quality stainless from are connector.Penetrators normally manufactured betweenthe two mating vessel. The seal into the actualpressure are boltedor screwed 'O'Ring of by facesis created a rubber'O'Ring and it is the degree integrityof this vessel. that preventswater ingressto the pressure one and can contacts vary between and The numberof internalconcluctors therefore The of on anythingup to seventydepending the requirements the interconnection. of i ,onturtr"u." normally gold phtedto ensure ttigtt degree electricalconductivity..All rubbermatrix which a and contids arechemicallybonded-into synthetic conductors to andresistance watel ingress. of offersa high degree insulation penetrators connectors manufactured eithermale or femaleconfigurationand in are and of in typesareincluded the appendices this handbook. the many available a list of ll.l.l.2 Connectors

and contacts to ere Connectors directly attached the cableand haveinternalconductors The nlan.er as in penetrators. nray havea locking sleeve that are bondedin the .sa,rle howeveris of that addsto rherigidity of the unit. The niainpurpose the lockingsleeve during.. pulledoutof the.penetrator beingaccidentally the ro prevenr con"necrbr by are that to-realise ih6 sealing_properties not created the opirations. It is important and will only leadto damage eventual tightening over and i<icking sleeve excessive of breakdown the unit.

t76

ll.l.2

Theory of Operation

the mating with a $Su1e I 1.1 illustrates principleof operationof a singlepin connector female penetrator.

Internalconductor

Male connector

Synthetic rubber

'O'ring

Bulkhead Figure ll.l The diagramillustrates typical connector penetrator a configuration.It can be seenthat / thereis a taperedshoulderlocatedat the baseof the contact.-Thisforms part of the connectorsyntheticbody and it can be seenthat when the connector and penetrator is matedthen a sealis created alongthe faceof the shoulder. It follows thai as the vehicle increases depththenthe surrounding in waterpressure increase. will This hasthe effectofforcing the rubbersealing facEs together thus,increasing sealing and the effect. It is imperatjvetherefore that the integrityof the sealingfaceslsmaintainEd all at timesas any breakdown will resultin waterineiess.

177

11.1.2.3 'O' Ring Seals They form a and on O Rings operate n similar principleto the connectors penetrators. 1 in seal mechanical which is illustrated f i g u r e 1 . 2

4
Water pressure

+ =+

Air inside vessel

'O'ring Un-distorted a). Natureof 'O' ring at shallowdepth

Water pressure

----+>

Air inside vessel

+ +

b). Natureof 'O'rirtgat depth Fi gu r e ll.2

mis pressure increases O Ringbecomes shapen the It canbeseen astheexternal that that It the andis forcedinto thegapbetween two surfaces. followstherefore a greater whenworkingin shallow is however depths, whenthevehicle at greater sealexists together. mayoccurif thetwo faces notfirmly bolted are wateringress depths

178

11.1.3 Maintenance of connectors, Penetratorsand 'o' Rings. The efficient_operation sub seaconnectors totally dependent how well they are of is on maintained.It cannotbe emphasised enoughhow importantit is that the correct methodsare usedwhen carryingout connector peneratormaintenance failure to do as / so may result in many hoursof unnecessary breakdown. lf.1.3.1 Connectors and Penetrators

Whenevera connector and penetrator unmatedthe following procedure are shouldbe followed. a) Inspection of contacts. Electricalcontacts susceptible corrosion. A defectof this nature are to would indicatethat therehasbeena possibleingressof water througha faulty or improperlymatedconnectoi. Contacts may also becomeirisaligneddue to the connector being'forced'during matingprocess. the 'arcing'. Contacts shouldalsobe inspectedfor evidence o-f eriing occurswhen the contactis improperlymatedin the femalerecepttcle, this givesrise to the current jumping'across gap and causingthe the contactto burn. b ) l n s p e c t i o no f s y n t h e t i c r u b b e r . The rubbershouldbe inspected evidence wateringress.Any sign for of of nloistureon the rubbersurface unacceptable the problem is and shouldbe addressed imrnediately. The possible causes wateringress of are inrpropermatingof the connector and penetrator, rubber beconring mis-shapen to over tightening the lockingsleeve due of and, in exttemecases rubberbecoming the cracked perished.In exffeme or cases waterlngress electro-chemical of an reaction may takeplace resulting a deposit in fomringaroundthe sealing face.s. c) O Ring Seat. Connectors nrakeuseof an O Ring to create sealrequirethe O that the Ring to be thoroughly inspected whenbver unit is un-mated.The O the Ring shouldbein-spected obvioussignsof damage, for lack of integrity and perishing.It is not uncommon an O Ring tobe mislaidand-the for unit reassembled withoutthe O Ring beingin place. For thisreason is it imperativethat the technician checksthat it is Correctly positionbefore in assernbly. 1I.1.3.2. Assembly Procedure

Oncethe aboveinspection hasbeencarriedout the following procedure shouldbe undertaken when assembling connector the and penetrator. a) The contacts sealing and facesshouldbe cleaned with a suitable electricalsolventcleanerin orderthat all traces dirt areremoved. It of to Tay b9 ne^cessary useQ Tips in order ro removeany tracesof din fronr the o Ring groove.on somevessels installatibns or theremav be a source compressed available of air which canassist the cleaninebf in theconnector.

179

and peneffatolarecleanit is necessary connector b) Oncethe contacts, It is normalpracticep apply a thin rhe ro lightly grease connecror. fild ofSiticon Grease to the maring parts in order to provide lubrication. If this was not carriedout then the mating partswould force that becomedry and difficult to un-mate. The excessive them would lead to possible would haveto be appliedto un-mate damageor distortionof the unit. taking greatcare as c) The connectolshouldbe matedto the peneffator, havea locating to align the two mating unitscorrectly. Most connectors and connectors Som.e lug tliat preventsany riisalignment iating pla9e.pin, of with penetrators manufacture-d one pin, calleda.polarising are in biffe.ent size which assists correctlocation.In this situationgreatcare must be takenas to correctlyalign them. Figure I 1.3illustrates of connectors this nature.

pin Polarizing

Flangefbr captivating lockineSleeve

/@ o\

o o o
o @
/ way connector

o@o@o @o o@
o @ @
12 way connector

Figure 11.3

180

d) When adjus.ting locking sleevegreatcaremust be takento preventover the . tightening. If this occursthen the connector liable to warp thus'destroying is the sealingproperties. It.is thereforeonly necessary hand tighten the lockiig sleeve to and no attemptshouldbem1{g to use spanners sffapwren*ches. or Occasiona'ily may it be necessary usea tool of this natureto undo a connectorlocking sleeve. This is to because unit may havebeensubjectto extremepressure the and thil hashad the effect of tighteningthe connector.It may also be the casethat the connector somewhat is inaccessible the handan a tool is requiredto release locking sleeve. to the f 1.f.3.3. Greasing

It is importantto fully appreciate reasonbehindapplyingSiliconeGrease sub-sea the to connectors.As previouslystatedit is usedpurely as a lubricantand doesnot createthe seal. There are many misconceptions exist ttnoughoutthe industry,someclaiming that " that if a largequantityof grease appliedthenthe grJateris the sealingeffect of the c is

Excessive grease allows pathfor waterintrusiorr

t

I

I

t
Grease
Figure Il.4 Figure 11.4illustrates effectof over greasing, this situation glease the in the prevents the connector and p€neffator from matinf coneclly. The grease actualiyallows a path for water,that may be underpressure, tolccess the conta6ts. ll.2 Sub-Sea Cables

Sub-sea cablesareespeciallydesigned withstandexcessively to high pressures to which.theyare. subjected in their working environment.They ari manufactured to from a resilientsyntheticrubberthat offers a higli degree protectionand electrical of insulationto the conductors within. Sub-ieacibles containvarying numbersof conductors depending the specifictask. It must be statedhoweier that if they do not o.n fall into a structured maintenance procedure thenthey arevery susceptible faiiure and to consequent breakdown the system. of

181

F
ll.2.l Possible Cable Defects taking place. The following defectsare likely to occurwithout regularmaintenance a) Breakdown of outer sheathing. by to exposed drag caused the the During operations cablesareconstantly movementof the vehiclethroughthe water. If they are not properly secured cablesmay to then they becomesusceptible wear.In extremecircumstances on becomesnagged a manipulatoror even suckedinto a thruster. To that all cablesare securely to overcomethli problemit is-important ensure fastened with Ty- Rapsto the vehicleframe. the In someextrembcases insulationmay perishcausingthe rubberto crack and within. For this reasonit is importantto inspectall exposethe conductors cables a regularbasis. on b) Breakdown of internal conductors. within the cable Extremecablemovementcan alsoleadto the conductors which tendsto be the most breakingdown, particularlynearthe connectors by point. Once againit is possibleto detecttheseoccurrences regular sensitive testingof the cable. 11.2.2 Testing Sub Sea Cables the we In order to monitor the integrityof the internalconductors can measure This hastheeffectof eachone usinga MEGGER METER. insulation between voltageto a whilst connecting high. eachconductor the between measuring resistance shouldbe Ideallythe insulation 7 the condultors.(seechapter Use of TestEquipment). with either combined howeveringress moisture of conductors, infinite between that will require breakdown damage leadto an insulation can or connector conductor repair to be canied out. NOTE: WHENEVER AN INSLLATION TEST IS CARRIED OUT THE CABLE VESSELSOR FROM THE PRESSURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE DISCON}{ECTED ANY ELECTRICAL CIRCUITRY. 1 1 . 3 M a i n t e n a n c eo f U m b i l i c a l s lead to whichcaneventually to Umbilicalsaresusceptible bothfatigueandoverloading the breakdownof the internalconductors. Thesefactorsmay arisefrom poor piloting which may leadto the umbilical becomingtwistedor kinked. Damagemay techniques of alsooccurdue to mismanagement the umbilical during the launchandrecovery process.When the vehicleis passingthroughthe splashzonethe umbilical may tend to 'slack' isnatch'due whilst latchingand un-latching. available to therebeinginsufficient in the R.O.V. teamhavingto carryout what is known as a factorscanresult All these however can RETERMINATION. Retennination be a lengthyand tediousprocess, 'down it procedure order to minimise the vehicle in is importantto follow the correct time'. of for The following sections outlinethe process there-termination a typicalarmoured umbilical.

182

11.4. Cable Splicing cablerequires repair to be carriedout in { stlylqiolmay often arisein which a sub-sea the field. This may be due to insulationbreakdown be^tween internalconductors the or in extremecases, severing the cableby a thruster.In eithercasethe cablecan be the of re-joinedusing.either quick splicemethodor the long splicemethod. Normally th.e sparecableswill be availableand the damaged one can be instantlyreplaced with a serviceable one. In this casetime will allow the damaged cabletobe iepairedusing the long splicemethod. Howeverit may be the casethat the repairrequires'immediate attention, this casethe quick splicemethodwould be used. in

ll.4.l

Long Splice

The long sp-lice methodmakesuseof speciallymanufacturecl potting compounds to form arigid, water tight joint. It is the settingtime of suchcompotinds tliat restrictthis -?llod Figuie 11.5.illustrares procedure cable the of long..I periodsof maintenance. splicingby this merhod. ll.4a. Staggeringof joints Soldered ioint

Sub-sea cable ll.4b Potted joint

183

wherethey arejoined in order to It can be seerr that the coresof the cableare staggered joints from coming the also mainrainunifonn thickness. Staggering pievents soldered 'heat joint is normally coveredwith into contactwith one another. Each soldered the has properties. Oncethis stage beencompleted cable shrink'to add to the insulating agent.The cableis then insulatiod cleaned is with a degreasing coresand the outside is in mounted a mould into which the pottingcompound poured. eachhaving slightly different available, Thereis a wide variety of potting compounds is the properties.The main difference-between compounds the specificdepthrating and ^the guaranteed spanof the compound. Oncethe compoundhasbeenpouredinto life [l the mould thejoint requiresto be left to setfor approximately to 10 hours. L1.4.2 Short Splice for is The initialjoining together theconductors the sarne the shortspliceas it is for of with this methodis the fact that no form of potting the long splice. The only dit-ference tape rubbertapeknown as self amalgamating is an compound used. Instead insulating it bondswith itselfto form a strong is used.When the tapeis stretched actually from the centreof joint. The tapeis woundaroundthe conductors, starting waterproof eachlayerof tapeit is common and the conductors workingoutwards.Between and insulating practice coateachlayerwith a resinthatsetsandfonns an electrically to waterproof coatingover the tilpe. ll.5 Sub Sea lanrps

of the is to The qualityof Subsealighting crucial all ROV operiitions, principles this ntaintenance a in 16. havebeen discussed chapter For thisrenson correct subject procedure essentill thiscluality to be upheld. if is is The mostcomlnonproblemthatoccurswith subsealightingis the burningout of the the available the indusffy, main to actualfilament. Therearea varietyof lanrps which offers in difference beingthe powerrating. They aremounted a housing that in protection environmerrt which to operate.It follows therefore and a watet'tight 'o'ring whenever lamp is a which requires be inspec:ted to contains an seal the housing maintained. Lampsmay burn out due to one or nroreof the following retlsorts. to a) Wateringress the lanrpconnector. 'o'ring b) Breakdown the of sealallowingthe actuallamp to become exposed seawater. to of c) Mis handling thelarnpduringinstallation. for d) Beingoperated too long a periodin air. shouldbe placewithin the lanrpconnector thenthe connector If wateringress takes the inspected darrrage. necessary cableshouldbe for If undone and thoroughly replaced with a serviceable one. 'o'ring if If the down thenit to shouldbe replaced, waterdoesmakecontact sealbreaks and with the lamp connectors thena shortcircuitis likely to occuras well as corrosion breakdown the actualcontacts. of

184

It is imperativethat the lampsare not touchedduring installationas moisturefrom the 'hot spots'on bulbs surfacethat can causethe glassto crack. For the skin can lead to by this reasonthe bulbs are suppliedsurrounded a pieceof foam that shouldbe usedto installation. hold the lamp during It is importantto realisethat sub seabulbsrequireto be watercooled. Shouldthey be run in air for too long thenthey may overheatand bum out. During dive checks for thereforethe lamps shouldonly be operated a few seconds.

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185

CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL 12.0 Introduction

MAINTENANCE

for drawn to the necessity a Throughoutthis handbookattentionhasbeenconstantly as maintenance regardto the procedure.So far we havediscussed plannel maintenance the blectricalsideof the RO, it is now the intentionto discuss routinemaintenance units of the ROV. It follows procedures that shouldbe carriedout on the mechanical of largelyon the maintenance hydraulic ihereforethat this chapterwill concentrate principlesof which havebeencoveredin Chapter8. the systems, basic is of Maintenance hydraulic systems carriedout on the basisof how long the system log informationmay be obtainedfrom the Sub Engineers book hasbeenoperating,this 'hoursrun'meter that may be incorporated into the control console. or an Each unit will have a specifiedperiod of time that it can operatefor, after which it will rule.theunits be requiredto be removedfrom the systemand serviced.As a general one.The actualservicing for that requireto be servicedwill be swapped a serviceable to be and will therefore sentashore a suitable test specialist equipment may.require ROV teantto ensurethat the of servicingengineer. However,it is the responsibility the and is day to day runningof the system maintained thatif any unitsareto be removed, they are done so in the correctmallner. l2.l Hydraulic Oil Level

energythroughoutthe systemand The function of hydraulicoil is initially to transfer thus give rise to work beingdone by the actuators.[t alsoprovideslubricationand that the fluid be cooling to certainmoving components.It is imperativetherefore effectscould detrimental at maintained alt optirrum level at all timesotherwiseserious the takeplacethroughout systenr. l2.l.l Loss Of Pressure

energyand up fluid is nrade of potential in The toralenergythat is present the hydraulic and directly to the systempressure it kinetic energy. The potentialenergyrelates thenthe energystoredin due follows thatl? the opiimum oil level decreases to leakage fluid will be lost. This will becomeevidentin the fact that systempower will be the difficulty in controllingthe vehicle. reducedand the pilot may experience L2.1.2Lack Of Lubrication the In extremesituations optimumoil level may be reducedto suchan extentthat may arisewherecertainhigh speed insufficientlubricationtakesplace. Situations may seize.This may be the casewith thepump which contains components lubrication of gearwheelsand bearings.Insufficient suchaspistons, components and heatbeing generated eventualseizure could leadto excessive thesecomponents failure. in thusresulting system 12.1.3 Sea Water Ingress oil arisewherevirtuallyall the systems is lost thenthis will result Shouldthe situation to necessary flush the of in the ingress seawater. If this shouldoccurit will becorne out with freshoil. whole system existingoutsidethe system by The ingress seawateris caused a positivepressLlre of as if with respect the.inside, this shouldoccurit can leadto suchproblems corrosion to within the system.

187

Any ingressof water to the systemcan be detected drainingoff a sampleof oil from by the lowestpoint , theoil will haveemulsified and will havea'milky' appearance. 12.1.4 Determining The Oil Level and is displayed As a generalrule the oil level is monitoredvia the systems electronics an is at the surfaceunit. A transducer mountedon the systemwhich produces electrical via signalproportionalto the oil level, this is passed the systemtelemetryto the surface. indicatingto the Shouldthe oil fall below a certainlevel an alarmwill be activated operatorthat a leak nray be present.Normally therewill be two alarms,the first being and will allow the activated 660/o the total oil level. This alarmmay be over-ridden at of operators time to rec:over vehiclebeforecompleteoil lossoccurs. The secondalarm the will be setto activateat a much lower value,for exarnple337o,this alarm cannotbe over-riddenand will causethe systemto completelyshutdown. The oil level can also be monitoredwhen the vehicleis on deck by noting the positionof the compensators. 12.1.5 Compensation

junctionboxeswhich,when subject extreme As a general rule the ROV hasseveral to pressure would probablyimplode. This is overcome filling eachbox with by pressurised is statichydraulic by oil. The internal pressure nraintained a pistonthat oil is exposed the external waterpressure. to sea The pistonis directlycoupledto the oil via sea the at system a springthatmaintains oil pressure 3 to 5 PSI abovetheexternal waterpressure. follows thatthe pressure It insidethejunction box is positivewith respect the external waterpressure, preventing inrplosion thejunction to sea the of thus box. This methodof conrpensation appliedto the main hydraulicsystenr.Shouldan oil is positive leakoccurthe internal pressure give riseto the oil beingforcedout as will will be activated oppose seawatel beingallowedin. As theoil leveldropsthe alarnrs to recover vehicle, hopefullybeforeiiny seawaterenters and the operators can the the system. Whilst the vehicleis on deckit is possible nronitortheoil levelby notingthe position to piston. It is conrnron practice nronitortheoil levelsthroughout of the compensator to in the systenr this mannerduringthe pre and postdive checks.(seeChapter10). 12.1.6 Oil Filling The frequency which the system requires of filling with oil depends uponthe leakage factorof thevarioushydraulicunits. Howeverthe methodfor filling the system remainscommonfor all ROVs. It is commonpracticeto fill the systemat the lowest point in orderto minimisethe trapping air. The system filled from a pressurised is of which hasa dedicated container hydraulic fitting to coupleto theoil inlet. Beforeconnecting is vital to ensure it cleanin orderto thatthe filler point is thoroughly 'quick minimisethe ingress dirt into the systenr.Many systems of nrakeuseof fit' connectors which simply snapon to theoil inlet. This minimises useof spanners the a n dc o n s e q u e n tsyv e st i m e . ll 12.1.7 Air Bleeding Whenever system filled with oil it is necessary bleedair out of the system. the is to This is normallydonefrom the highest point in the system.Howeverit may be the casethat therearevariousbleedpointsaroundthe systern locatedin the appropriate positions.The bleedpointrnayconsist a capthat when slackened of allowsthe trapped The bleedpoint should air to escape. remainin this state until oil flows freelyfrom the fitting. It may be necessary bleedthe system a regularbasisespecially a major to if on oil change refit hastakenplace. or

188

12.1.8 Oil Filter Change Oil filters shouldbe changed wheneveran oil changeis carriedout. Most filters require the elementto be changedand thereforea spareshouldalways be kept in stock. Th^e operators shouldneverbe temptedto run the systemwithout a filter elementas this could lead to major breakdown due to contamination the maior units. Before of changingthe filter or any unit for that matterit is importantro drain the systemoil as the posltlve pressure wouldresultin a largelossof oil. 12.1.9 Dielectric Oil As previouslymentionedall junction boxesare oil filled, howeverthejunction box may houseconductors transfomrers or that would not be compatiblewith siandard hydraulii oil. In this caseit is necessary usean oil thatis inert. bielectric oil hashigh' to insulatingpropertiesand is usedin suchenclosures.This oil is sometimes cilled transformer and is c^ompensated the usualmanner. It is importantthat the oil in insulation properties the oil is constantly of monitored, can be doneby draininga this sampleof the oil front the enclosure and checkingfor signsof water.In the caseofthe tlectric motor the insulationis monitoredelecrricilly, in ihis casea resistance readingis displayed the surface at unit andgivesan indication rheintegrityof thedielectric to dil. 12,2 Component rvear It is commonpracticeto.havespecialised engineers carry our the servicingof individual hydraulicunits. The.task may iequirethe useof specialist ecluipment and"skills that doesnot fall within the requirements the Rov personnel.'However, basic of a understandilg which conrponents susceptib]e wearcould help the operator q{ are to in the diagnosis basicfaults. We will now coirsider conrponents the basic of rhe of hydraulicunitsthatareproneto wear. 12.2.1 Hydraulic pumps and motors HydraulicpqnJp.s ntotorscontaineithergears,vanes pistons itncl or which arerequired to.operate high speeds.Irt eachcasethe principle operation at of relieson fine tolerances between chanrber the wall andthemovingcomponent, increase these any in tolerances leadto lossof system can pressure thelase of pumpsandreduced in power 'case' and excessive pressure the caseof motors. Pumpsand motorsaredesigned in in a ihe vanes g"utr to or ;uc.!. way.thata certainamountof oil is allowedpassed pistons, facilitatelubricationof.the bearings and shaftseals. For this ieasonit is possibieto measure outputof the casedrainover an intervalof tinte,and,by consulting the the manufacturers data,de,tem-Line integrityof the internalconrponents. the For eximple if the oil is in excess the s.pecificationswould indicate of it that thepistonrings werewom thereby allowingexcess into the case oil chamber. Another cgrymox problem that can ariseis wearingof the shaft seals.This is evident by a visualcheckof the system whilst on deck. SJalshavea specified worting life as statedby the manufacturer, howeverthis can be drasticallyredirced the systeirsoil if becomes contaminated.If any seals_are removedthey shouldalwaysbe inspected ever for damage and any signsof breakdown.

r89

L2.2.2 Hydraulic valves and for that Valves generallycontainminute components areresponsible the flow rate on is oil. For this reasontheir operation dependent 'ht - , dr""6;;nydrautic and the environmeniin which they havebeenserviced. ileanlinessof the sysr; oil could be:Typical faults that iould arisefrom blockages a) b) relief valve leadingto systemoperatingat reduced Blo,cked pressure. Blockagein solenoidvalve leadingto malfunctionof manipulator flnction.

c) Blockagein servovalve leadingto eithercompleteloss of oil flow to in thrusteirlotor or reduction runningspeed' 12.2.3 Hydraulic rams of totally on th€ integrity. the internaland rantsdepends The operationof hyclraulic the across piston leakage can in seals.Any breakdown tiretolerances leadto external unit. For examplethe of reductionin operatingperfgmrance the driven and therefore 'sluggish' in resultingin it being may or tn. r-nanipulatoi be reduced ;;i;tp.;"i ntovement. by is leakage easilydetected visualinspection excessive seals As with all external pre and postdive checks. during

190

12.2.4 Fault diagnostics a procedure a typicalhydraulic for ligure 110. illustrates faultdilgn-osis system. Figure(12.0illustrates thefaultfi-nding procedure a sitiration for f;;;;y;rJ;irtat is generati excessive ng noise).

Selting too low or loo close to another

REMEDIES A Any or ail of the followino: . R e p t a c e i r t yt i l l e r s d . Wash slranels in so/yenl compa/ib/e ,///, s/s,le/v //a/iy' . Clean ctogged inlet line . Clean reservoi(b(eathe(vent r Qhange sys\em !\uid . Change to proper pump drive motor speed . Overhaulor replacesupercharge pump . unecx ilutd temoeratute

B Any or a[ of the foilowino. ' T i g h t e n l e a k yi n l e tc o n i e c t i o n s . Fill reservoirto proper level arr - with few exceptions, return rines shourdbe berowfluid reverin the reservoir. . Bleed air from system . Replacepump shaft seal Also replaceshaft if worn at seal journal. C All of the tollowino: . A t i g nu n i t . Check conditionof seals, bearings,and coupling O . lnstalland adjust pressuregauge E . Overhaulor replacedefectivepart(s)

Figurel2.l(a)
l9l

generating excessive heat. Figure12.l(b)illustrates procedure a system the for

R e m e d y :S e e c o l u m n D

R e m e d y :S e e c o l u m n D

Faultyfluid cooling syslem

Worn pump, valve, m o l o r , c y l i n d e ro r other component

REMEOIES Anyor all of the following: . R e p l a c e i r t yf i l t e r s d . C l e a nc l o g g e di n l e t l i n e . C l e a nr e s e r v o ib r e a t h e r e n t r v . C h a n g es y s t e mf l u i d . C h a n g et o p r o p e rp u m p d r i v em o t o rs p e e d . O v e r h a uo r r e p l a c es u p e r c h a r g p u m p l e Any or all of the following: . T i g h t e n e a k yi n l e tc o n n e c t i o n s l . Fill reservoir proper level to With tew exceptions, return lines should be below all fluid level in the reservoir. . Bleed air trom system . Replacepump shatl seal Also replaceshaft il worn at seal journal. All of the lollowing: . A l i g nu n i t . Check conditionof seals,bearings,and coupling . Locateand correcl mechanicalbinding . Check for work load in excessot circuit design
U

. Installand adiusl pressuregauge Keep al least 125 PSI differencebetweenvalve settings e Overhaulor replacedefectivepart(s) . C h a n g et i l t e r s . Check systemfluid viscosity. Change if necessary. . Fill reservoirto proper level . Clean cooler and/or cooler strainer . Replacecooler conttol valve . Repairor replacecooler

tr
F

Figure12.1(b)

t92

Figure12.L(c) illustrates procedure a system the for with an incorrect operating flow.

Relief or unloading valve set loo low

RPM of pump drive molor lncorrecl

Pump drive motor turning in wrong direclion

E n t i r ef l o w p a s s i n g over relief valve

Worn pump, valve, molor, cylinder, or

REMEOIES Any or all o, the following: . Replacedirty filters . Clean clogged inlet tine o Clean reservoirbreathervent . Fill reservoirto proper level . Overhaulor replacesupercharge pump . Tightenleaky inlet connections . Bleed air trom system . Check for damaged pump or pump drive . Replaceand align coupling

D . Adiust parl E . Overhaulor replace parl
F

Any or all of th€ tollowing: . Check position of manuallyoperatedcontrols . Check electricalcircuit on solenoidoperatedcontrols . Repair or replace pilot pressurepump

G o Reverse rotation H . Replacewith correct unit

Figurel2.l(c)
193

at operating an incorrectpressure. a illustrates system Figure12.1(d)

Remedy: See Charl lll, column A

Remedy: See Chart lll. column A and B

Pressure reducing, reliefor unloading valve worn or damaged

p Oamaged ump, motof or cylinder

A c c u m u l a l o rd e f e c tive or has losl charge

REMEDIES

A

. Replacedirty filters and syslem tluid

B . Tightenleaky connections Fill reservoirto proper level and bleed air lrom system C . Check gas valve for leakage . Chargeto correcl ptessure . Overhaulif defective D . Adjust part E . Overhaulor replace part

Figure12.1(d)

194

12.2.5 Summary It can be saidtherefore that the efficientoperation the hydraulicsis dependent the of on cleanliness work environment.Shouldany maintenunrL requiredthe ROV should of be be hoseddown with fresh water and the unitin questionremoved'fromth; vehicle and takento a clean,a_v_.worfntace. high standaril cleanliness A of shouldat*ays Ue 'maintained whenfilling rhesysrem with oil so as to preventingress dirt. of 12.3 Planned maintenance EYtry systemshouldhulg plannedmaintenance procedure that shouldbe correctly I adhered at all times. This would normally be kipt in log r".,n "i""-n"ppy oiir. to The principle of the PMP is that it recordsthe running timJof all the com6ffi;. Having this informationenables one to ensure that th6 relevantunit is serviced afier the appropriate numberof running hours. The running time is determined the by 'Figure manufacturer and may have sfightvariationdepenling on the company. l2.l illustrates typical log for the runninghoursof the mfin nyorartic syiiem a o?a iypicar ROV.

I\,,IASTER LOG DATE HOURS

HPU I,4OTOR S/No HOUBS

HPUPUMP
S/No

PORTTHRUSTER S/No. HOURS

STBD.THRUSTER S/NoHOURS

FWD.THRUSTER S/No. HOURS

AFTTHRUSTER S/No. HOURS

VERT.THRUSTEB
S/No.

HOURS

HOUBS

Figure12.2

195

detail of the actual a Figure 12.2.illustrares typical fault docketwhich provide.s.some the operatorto locate of *Iintenunce carriedout. Documentation this natureenables reoccurringfaults more easily. For examplecertainunitsmay breakdoYl more often a than normil, by consultingthe docketit may be possibleto_detect nend in the elsein the systemwhich can be symptoms. This could indicatea fault som6where time. and a-ddr^essed therebyminimisethe overallrepairmaintenance This contenton the ROV sy^stem. The fault docketalsogivesindicationasto tha spares -a log, but in this caseit is possibleto crossreference would normally have separate logs. between easierfor the of One of the main advantages this systemis that it makesmaintenance -work with the system.It follows that it is in.everybody's crewswho may various that procedure it minimisesrepairmaintenance can as interestto follow the maintenance to the ROV cornpanies. Drovecostlv

H F A U T TD 0 C K E T o . ) ATE ] ATTGORY : A U T TS Y I 1 P T O T I S

H D I Y E o .I

lJ08

t E t l o v E D F R 0 l " lS Y S T I H 8 q

IEPAtR Y0RKc ^EE!!9_q!IJ

U ;P ARES SED ; t6nED lAcK ltl sYsTEl'l

IDATE

: A U L TD o C K E T o . H D ATE CATEGORY F A U L TS Y H P T O H S I D I Y Et l o . I |JOB

i i x o v e or n o Hs v s r r x e v l
o R E P A TY 0 R K c A R R t E D u r l R

J P A R E SU S E D

; l'ttED
tAcK tH sYSTEf4

I

io^t'

H iAULT DOCKET o

DATE
: ATEGORY
:AULT SYF{PTOIIS I

D t v Et l o . I

lJoB

D V T E P A I R O R KC A R R I E O U T I

S PA R E S S E D U
S IGIiED

IDATE

B A C KI H S Y S T E H

Figure12.3
196

CHAPTER EMERGENCY 13 PROCEDURES 13.0.0
The natureof ROV operationsis suchthat despitecareful preparationand adherence to proven operationalprocedures, situationsarisethat endangerthe vehicle and require the crew to take emergency action. The aims of this chapterare to describe common emergencies, focus on the crucial considerations navigation, to of communications, and buoyancyin pre-diveplanning and finally to describeactions that should be taken by the crew once an emergencysituationhasarisen. 13.f.0 The following is a description possible of emergency situations;13.1.1 Support Ship Entanglementis perhaps most commonform of emergency the situationand often resultsin the completeloss of the ROV. This can arisewhere the position of the vehicle relative to the ship is uncertainand the ROV surfaces close to a propeller or thruster,where the ROV entangles with the taut wire of the DP system, or wherethe relativepositions havechanged due to a navigation error and the umbilical hasmoved 'under'thesupportship. The key factorin theseincidents is often poor communications betweenthe ROV crew and the suppoft ship'smaster.

13.L.2
assistance ratherthanthe complete lossof the vehicle. This often occursbecause the 'snagged', pilot becomes disorientated, vehiclebecomes the on debrisor a structural component suchas a pile guide,or the vehiclelosespower in precarious circumstances, may alsooccurif the supportvessel but movespositionwithout the ROV crew being infonned.

Structure Entanglementalso is verycommon usually results ROVor diver but in

13.1.3
Guide Wire Entanglementis commonwithin Drilling Supportactivitiesand can resultin the crushingof the ROV as the Blow Out Preventer (BOP) Stackis landed. This can happen,for example,in remotelocationswherethe Drilling Supervisormay only allow a period of time for the crew to disentangle ROV before the recommencingdrilling operations due to cost pressures, particularly if there are no otherROVs or Divers available assist.The mostcommoncauses this arePilot to of disorientation to lossof visibility possiblyas a resultof disturbed due sediments or displaceddrilling fluids, and unexpected changes current strengthand direction. in 13.I.4 Anchor Chain Entanglementoccurswhen surveying anchorchainsof Bargesor the Semi-Submersibles platforms. This is the result of the ROV losing orientationdue to disturbed sediments the chainis lifting, the vehiclethenpassing as underthe chain as it lowers trappingthe vehicleor its umbilical. This situation alsolikely to occur is when laying umbilicalsand pipelinesas the vehiclemonitorsthe touchdown point. It is very important,therefore,that theseoperationsare carriedout in acceptable 'heave' weatherconditionswhere there is not excessive of the vesselunder survey, and that the vehicleis positioned facing into the currentwherever possible, that it so benefitsfrom optimum visibility and the prospectof being canied-safelyaway from the work areaby the currentin the caseof a systemfailure.

197

13.1.5 hazardsuchas mono-filament Bottom Debris Entanglementoccurswhen an unseen are are to nrtting f*" o. nyton-ffi, which tend. be buoyantwhere..they. not anchored' 'snagged'around or drawn into the vehicle.ittrruster, when the vehicleumbilicalis The besradviceis to travel slowly.in the vicinity of,these htg"; items of debris. or cease slowly and in the eventof soft line beingtakeninto the thruster hazards vehicle free using the umbilical winch' to pull th"e reversethe thrusteronAuit.nlpt

13.2.0
can largelybe avoidedby careful planning of each incidents The abovementioned ;ittr particutai atrentionbeirig paiOto; currentaand weatherconditions, ;Fil;" ,o.n*uni*tiont, and the bioyalcy of the vehicleand its umbilical' This navigation, secti6nexplainsthe importanceof eachof thesefactors' L3.2.L predictionof the weather conditionsand ocean It is crucialto havean accurate durationof eachdive. Theseshouldbe available currents for the nl"*in.rutoexpected vesselcan be,posilio".df9l,T:I]1YT so io, tt e pre-divemeerings that the support rnto condrtrons ind the dive can be plannedt4ing the currentt3nq weather safety, ROV crew, the shipsmaster by.the ur.olnt. The pre-div. to..ting shouldbJattended peisonnel, plan:rrived at will be a resultof the the otfrerparticipating u"O-u"V and paranreters the ship'sand RoVs operating ;;;i11G;onhitionr, the"srirface of experience the personnei. 13.2.2 to the is of Consideration the supportship and the ROVs navigation s-vstems crucial vary_considerably. of ftunnlng of the dive beiiuse rheaccuraci, differenisyste.ts (GPS)may.be Sateilite by positionrf detemrined GlobalPositioning The shiis positions, and satellite on <lepending the location to accurate within -5-10 metres nomlally suchas Deccaor Fulse8 arenruchtllore acctlrate' *harau, radio systents (l-lPR),. usedto sy.stenl Referencirrg Position The Hyclro-acoustic within 1 metre. ro poiirionth; ROV relative the s.pportship,will alsovitr'fin accuracy.depending fitted (Pinger, typeof transdttcer iiimarily on rhedepthof the vehicieand the. on thatincertaincircrtt.tlstances,.panicularly nieans irunrpond..o. r.rpbnder).This of po.sition the to judgethe relative. it or closeto the surfitce, may be expedient known directionof itrip, t,y eyeoi by f eel and tl're ro vehicle,with respect the sirrface systems of The accuracy the navigation awaytronrthe ship. the umbilicalleading a key factorin avoiding . l Gyro or compasi)is also (including vehicies the likely.hazards' the as duringthe'dive, is prior knowledge-of position.of intungf.ti,.nts that ii alsoinrportant the pilot is it or srrucrures guidebasis arogrid When"working nlarksand of ancl the ilrcluding orientatidn the position identification fully briefed, conlpetelltly. hirtlto rtavigate to features enable 13.2.3 crew areanother and ROV crewmenrbers thevessels between Communications a andexecuting dive. Therehavebeen whenplanning consideration important 'lack-of to leading the lossof communications' iind nrisunderstandings numerous main shipsthruster.or nearan operational the For exantple R6V may surfac:e ROVs. 'sucked and in' iri by unexpected theu.sr.is crew,resulting the ROV being propeller a a supplyboatnraycome alongslde platformasthe ROV is hesiroyea.Alternativeiy Manager(0tn,1)hasnot beeninformedof tne orisrroreinstallation because surfacine.

198

the diving operationunderway. Thesecircumstances seemall too obvious,but happenall too frequentlydue to poor communications.

13.2.4
The buoyancy of a vehicle and its umbilical can also be a critical factor in avoiding entanglements easingsubsequent and rescueattempts. The situationof having an ROV positively buoyant(usually about 30lbs for a work size vehicle) may well be suitablefor a pipeline surveyjob where the vehicle can reasonably expectedto be surfaceclear of the surfaceship in the event of a systemfailure. It may however be more appropriateto have a 'heavy'vehiclefor deepwater work so that in the event of a systemfailure or partedumbilical, it will sink to the bottom where it can be found by the rescueROV or divers. Consideringthe buoyancyrequirements the vehicle of prior to eachjob can, therefore,significantlyeaseany rescuethat may be attempted subsequent an entanglement partedumbilical situationand needsto be given due to or consideration the pre-diveplanning stage. at

13.3.0
The first time that an ROV operator experiences vehicleentanglementsituationcan a be unnerving. It is importantto remember that thesesituations occur commonlydue to the natureof thejob and the difficultiesencountered navigating poor in in visibility, avoiding unknown obstacles, and accuratelypredicti-ng wEathir conditions and oceancurrents. Whilst this may be a new and unnervingexperience you it for will be familiar to your supervisor who will haveseennumerous suchincidents previouslyand will know that they usuallyhavea successful outcome. Thereis no substitute experience thesesituations this sectionwill describe for in procedures but that may be followed to ensure bestchance a successful the of outcome.

13.3.1
The first thing that a Pilot must do in the caseof entanglement to inform his is supervisor. If appropriate actionis takenearly therewill be a much greater chanceof a successful outcome, whereas uninformed attempts rectify the situationwill to invariably make it worse.

13.3.2 If thevehicle suffers loss power thesurface, following a of on the actions should be
taken: i) ii) iii) 13.3.3 Deploy suitable fenders buoysover the sideto minimisecontactbetween or the vehicle and the surfaceplatform. Use the umbilicalcablewinch to move the vehicleinto the recoveryposition. Perform the usualrecoveryprocedure.

If poweris lostwhile the vehicle submerged followingacrions is the should be
taken: i) ii) iii) Manoeuvre surface the platformwherepossibleso that the vehiclewill not come up under the platform. Deploy suitablefendersor buoys. If the vehicleis not rising,usethe umbilicalwinch to haul the vehicletowards the surface.

199

iv) v)

If it is dark the emergencyflasherwill activatewhen the vehicle reachesthe surface. Use the um6iticat winch to move the vehicle into the recovery position. Perform the usualrecoveryprocedure.

13.3.4
If the vehicle is on the surface and the umbilical has been severedthe following actionsshould be taken: i) iil iii) iv) v) 13.3.5 If the vehicle has becomeentangledthe following actionsshouldbe taken: i) ' 'Black-box'video of and with the assistance the cable recorder Replaythe to determinehow the vehicle came to be entangledand twiit indicator attempt the lay of the umbilical. usingthe video camera. of the Determine degree entanglement Plan a routeout of the entanglement. Loosenthe umbilical by unwindingthe umbilical winch, and attemptto the manoeuvre vehicleout of the entanglement. If stepiv) fails atremptto manoeuvretlie surfacevehicle to free the vehicle. to If steirv) fails attenrpt pull the vehiclefree using the umbilicalcablewinch. Be careful not to exieed the breakingstrainof the cable and to allow for the bend radius and safeworking load of the sheavewheel and recoverygear. Deploy suitablefendersor buoys. -anoeuure the surfaceplatform closeto the vehicle' Deploy a rescueboat and attachlines to the vehicle. Haul the vehicle into the recoveryposition. Perform the usualrecoveryprocedure.

ii) iii) iv) v) vi)
13.3.6

the If the umbilical is severedwhile the vehicleis submerged following actions shouldbe taken: i) ii) iii) iv) v)' ' float mid-wateror remainon the Estimatewhetherthe vehiclewill surface, vehicleand its umbilical. of buoyancy the. the bottomby calculating resultant Infom'rthe ship'smalter andrecordthe ROVs last known positionon the charts. for If the vehicle is likely to remain on the bottom arualrge an ROV or diver to the rescue. attempt perform the recoveryprocedurepreviouslydescribed. tf the vehicle surfaces' vehicle is likely tb be ftetamid water then the oceanculrents shouldbe If the shouldbe deployedfrom the predictedand if avaiiablean acoustictransducer 'listen'for and locatethe vehicle through. activationof its the iurface ship to 'Pinger'.The vehicleshouldbe 'tracked'and-grappling hooks emergency path to attemptto hook the umb.ilicalor vehicle. acrossits deplo-yed Ori hdoking the ROV recoverto ihe surface,immediately attacha line or surfacebuoy and perform the usualrecoveryprocedures.

vi)

It is very important in the abovesituationto act quickly. as the ROV can drift away it. of the rapidly decreasing chances locatingald rescuing Grapplinghooks,charts und oih"r relevanirescueequipmentshouldbe madeready and the crew briefed beforethe diving operationcomn'lences.

200

13.3.7 In circumstances wherea rescue ROV or diversis required is necessary give the it to Client's Representative theonshore and Operations Manager leastthefollowing at information:
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Last known location. Circumstances and degreeof entanglement. Depth of ROV. Backgroundinformation and manoeuvres alreadyattempted. Likelihood of the vehicle drifting in the oceancurrenrs. Urgency of the rescuei.e. is the vehicle holding up other platform or drilling operations?

Finally, rememberproper planning can often preventthesesituationsfrom occurring, but they do still occur from time to time due to unforeseen circumstances.Keep calm and follow the relevantemergency procedures issuedby your companyand you are likely to have a successful outcome. If however,the outcomeis the l,oss the of vehicle,rememberthat it will be coveredby insuranceand that it is accepted within the industry that a numberwill be unavoidablylost due to the natureof the work. Thesesituations not usuallycareerlimiting and can be put down to experience. are

201

CHAPTER 14 COMMUNICATIONS 14.0. Introduction. of ROV personnel will be requiredto usecommunication at systems variousstages the programne offshore. This chaptersetsout to indicatethe procedures work usedfor "hard both radio and wire" communications svstems. l4.L Hard Wire Systems.

This is the terminologyusedto describe deck to conffol room wire line the communication is containinga speech system. The commonconfiguration a headset activated microphoneall connected a wanderingleadwhich is connected a deck to to mountedcontrol box. This methodof communication useddaily and all ROV is personnel must be familiar with its use. The procedure on adoptedfor speaking a hard wire systemis basedon radio procedurebut is lessformal . For examplethe Proword "Over" is not used.Radio procedures Prowordare outlined later in the chapter. and 14.2 Radio Communications Radiocommunications may be requiredto communicate between: Deck andcontrolroom; a. Vessel platform; b. to c. Vessel vessel; to d. Vesselto shore. There are a variety of differentradio systenrs usedfor theseand other purposes offshore. It is not nec:essary havean intimate to knowledge thesesystems a brief of but resume, highlighting pointsaffectingthe userwill be helpfLrl. the 14.3 Radi<lConrmunicationModes Radio_comrnunications systensaredesigned be eitherSinrplex Duplex. In a or to Simplex systemit is only possibleto transmitand receiveat the sametime. If one radio on thedesignated frecluency channel transmitting is not possible any other is it for or radio to talk back to the transmittingstationuntil the transmitbuttonis released.This is not the casein a Duplex systemwherethe transmitter and receiverare on different frequencies which nraintains transmitting incoming the ability to receive station's signals.Thuson this typeof networkanother station can talk backto the transmitting station evenwhile he transnrits. 14.3.1 Radi<l Frequencies For a variety of reasons radiosusedifferent working fiequencies. The common frequencybandsand commentson thereusesare outlined below. (HF). Usedfor long rangecommunications High Frequency a. worldwide. Suffersfrom interference is particularlybad for and communicating night. Usedfor vessel shore at to communications when more advanced systems unavailable.Commonly uses are duplexmode. (VHF). Usedfor shortrange,line of sight, Very High Frequency b. comnrunications. Much lessproneto interference thanHF andclear voicecommunication possible hoursa day. Usedfor vessel is 24 to vessel, vessei shoreand deckto controlroonrcolrmunications. to Conrnronly usessimplexntode. (UHF). Usedfor shoftrange,usuallylessthan c. Ultra High Frequency line of sieht.and satellite communications. Verv clearvoice

203

are communications possible24 hoursa day as thereis little interf'erence at all. Commonlyusessimplexfor line of sightandduplexfor satellite conlmunlcattons. 14.4 Radio Procedures. the Before using a radio for communication frequencyor channelto use,the callsign.of the transmitiingstation,the callsignof the stationcalled,the personrequiredat.theother must all be known. Oncethis informationis known to end and the su6ject be discussed beginin the sameway. Thereis the call, the text andthe ending all radiotransmissions transmission. PolymarinerTHIS IS StenaMayo The Call: of The call consists the calisignof the stationrequired,followed by the Pro words This up Is and the callsignof the stationcalling. Eachcallsignmay be repeated to three channel16. if the initial call is madeon international times Either: Give me a working Channel;or The message. The Text: may be a request for a working channelif the original call was madeon The text international channel16 or it rnaybe theinformationto be passed. The Ending'fransrnission: OVER or OUT. or of consists the ProwordOver if a reply is required Out if no The endingtransmission reply is expected recprired. or 14.4.1 VHF Maritime Calling Procedure. The offshore. fiecluencies VHF is the mostcornnlonpractise on Callingon Maritin-re is: procedure 16 Tune to Chanrrel andlistenfor a quietperiod. a or as Make your transnission outlinedaboveeitherrequesting stating b. in workingchannel thetext. If calledfor trp to 10 seconds. there front the station Wait f'ora lesponse in is no response thistinremakeyourcall again. and to fretluency the workingchannel is When a response madechange d. 16 Do not re-establishconrntunications. work ott channel whichis used and only tor distress calling. 14.4.2 How tn Speak will assist the the is Whatever system usedfor communication following conlments is that a clearmessage passed. userin ensuring or to Always give precedence distress urgentcalls a. or conversation chat. with un-necessary Do notjam up thechannel b. makesan ending station until the transmitting Wait to respond c. if Only try to interrupt it is most urgentthat you do so. transrnission. Do not swear. d. Do not stammer. e. RSVP Remember f. for Rhythmof speech as normalbut usepauses effect. R - Slightlyslowerthannormal' of S Speed speech V Volumeof speech Slightlyloaderthannomral,but only slightly. Pitchof speech Slightlyhigherthannormalpitch if possible. P g. buttonandallow a shortpause Reniember pressthe transmit to the and to beforespeaking continue hold the buttondown throughout transntission.

204

14.4.3

Prorvords

Numerousstandard phrases, which haveinternationally recognised meanings, used are in radio voice communications. Thesephrases calledPro,iords. A table'of the more are usefulProwordsfollows.

PROWORD MAYDAY

PAN

imminentdanger and lmnteolate asslstance is required. The urgencysignal. READ BACK Used where safetyis threatened danger but is notjudged to be imnrinent. The saf'ety signal. Mainly usedfbr navigation or meteorological and understood this message?

USEOR MEANING PROWORD USE OR MEAMNG Thedistress signal. HOWDO yOU What is the strength Usedwhenin FIEAR ME? and clarity of my voice
transmission? Request the to receivingstationto readbaci the message sent.Used to confirir the message been has received exactlyas sent. A request all, or a for part of the message to be repeated. Usedwhen a word or an abbreviation spelt is out.

SECURITE

SAY AGAIN

ACKNowLEDGE ilil:'i5;.eceivect
ALL AFTER/ALL BEFORE Usedwith a kev " word from the transn]lsslon to identify parrof the a text.

I SPELL

OUT

Transmission conrpleted no and replyis expected.

OVER

Transmission is I READ BACK The receivingsration corrrpleted. a reply and repeats back the rs requlred. message receivedto as confirm it is correct. Cancelsthe word or just sent. phrase Normallyfollowed inrmediately the by correctversion. WAIT The stationrequires time to considera reply this allowsup to 5 seconds unless followed by a number which indicates the numberof minutes.

CORRECTION

ROGER

Message received and I SAy AGAIN understood

Usedwhen a messase or phraseis repeated fbr enrphasis.

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14.5 . Deck Communications. are As statedabovehard wire communications frequentlyusedby ROV personnel. haveseveraladvantages: They do a. b. c. leavethe handsfree; Headsets Thereis no interference Does not interferewith radio users.

Deck Officer (DO), CraneOperator(CO), Pilot, between; A Typical conversation VesselCaptain(VC), and Dive Control (DC) will illustratethe useof voice procedure on thismeans. DO Pilot DO VC m m DC DO Pilot This is Deck Officer, Pre-divechecksare now completestandbyto launch Pilot, Roger of report the status the vessel Bridge This is Deck Officer, Please you areclearto launch. Heading1100, Bridge,Vesselis on station, Deck Officer, Roger. report stittusof divers. Dive Control This is Deck Officer Please Dive Control,All diversareout of the water.You areclearto launch. Deck Officer, Roger.

with the launchopel'ation. The Deck Officer would thenproceed

206

CHAPTER 15 UNDERWATER VIDEO 15.0 Introduction Remotelyoperated vehiclescould not exist if closedcircuit televisionwas not available. In all typesof vehicleit give a visual imageto the surfaceshowingwhat the vehicleis looking at and allowing topsidestaff to navigatearoundobstacles-or inspect components just generallymonitor the underwater or situation. Thereaie several differenttypesof cameras availableand in this chapterthe most popularwill be outlined. 15.1 SIT Cameras The Silicon IntensifiedTargetcamerais usedextensively generalnavigationand for observation.The camerawill operate low light condiiionsequivalentto night time in with a quartermoon showingthis as a sensitivityof 1 x 10-a Lux. This in turn means that floodlightsarenot requiredand in turbid conditionsbenervisibility is achieved because thereis no back scatter.It is the prime cameraon most ROVs and is the pilot's first choice.OspreyElectronics manufacture compactSIT camerafor ROV usewhich a is 100mm in diameter andapproximately mmlong. It is ratedto 1000m water 300 dqpthand containsan automaticiris. The focus is fixed giving a depthof field from 140mm to infinity. Oneimportant point is to ensure lenscoveris put in operating the placeas soonas the Rov is on deck to protecrthe target. The pictureis in monochrome. 15.2 SDA Camera The Silicon Diode Array canrera specifically is designed be tolerantto high intensity to light and can,for exantple, usedto observe be welding,the sensitivity the camera of is around1-10Lux. This wouldbe impossible with othertypes cameras thelight of as from the welding arc would destroythe picturetube. Ospieymanufacture SDA an which is 100ntm in diameter approximately ntnrlong. It is ratedto camera and 350 1000m water depthand containsan autonratic iris. Focusis by remoiecontrol and it is possible get closeup viewsof an object.This would be recluired weld inspection to for for instance.This camera usedfor specialist is pllrposes wherehigh intensitylilht is to be observed. 15.3 CCD Cameras This type of colour camerahasbecomethe industrystandard all typesof inspection for and observation where goodquality colour video picturesarerequired,sensitivities rangefrom +10 to 0. i Lux. Ospreyonceagainmanufacture thii type and they can providetwo models: oneof which hasa pan andtilt mechanism buili into the 6ead. The overall dimensions 104mm diameterand approximately are 330 mm long. They are ratedto 1000m and haveautomaticirises.The focus is by remotecontrol and is from 10 mm to infinity. 15.4 Video Recording Whatevertype of canrera calledfor in the contractspecifications video is the informationwill needto be recorded.Thereare several different standards doine for this and Figure 15.I laysout in tabular form thosecurently available.

207

Paramerer
Resolution (TV Lines)

S-VHS
>400

Hi-g >400 46 dB 90 90 60

VHS 260 43 dB 240 500 t25

U-Matic

U-Matic HB

Colour250 Colour270 Mono330 Mono 370 45 dB 46dB

Signalto NoiseRatio

46 dB

Max Tape 180 (mins) Length Cassette Size 500 (Volume) Volume per Hour Recording
Signal Input

1615 1615

1615 1615

166

conrposite or S-Video

composite or S-Video

composite

conrposite composite

Figure lS.l Most operatgrs stipu.lating are S-VHS (SuperVideo Home System)because hasgood it resolution.To utilisethis system its fuli potential is necessary use2 co-axial to it to cablesfrom the cameraas opposed the usualone . Onecablecarriesthe chrominance to signaland theotherthe luminance.The extracableis nor usually,r"J uipi.i"ni. rn orderto recordthevideo signalfrom thecamera.a recording suitenrustU" pui iogether. To indicate how this rrtaybe.done diagranrmatic a layoutrri,tr ,t, .outA b" ;;d;y " S c o r p i o O V i s s h o w n n F i g u r e1 5 . 2 R i

208

Raw Video Porr

Raw Video Pan and Tilt

RawVideo StM

Nav 1 Monitor Nav 2 Monitor

Switch Matrix

Figure lS.2 15.4.1 Recording Qualit-v As a result of a study sponsored severalof the offshoreoil producers; by conductedby R.w. Barrett,M. clarke and.B. Directoiat.,uno f.ay for the MarineTechnology published Underwater in technology vol. lg No. 2 four on siie resrs were recommended: a b c d Check I Recorderplayback and monitor Using a tapepre-recorded broadcast to standards Check2 Cameraand transmission Excluding the recorderfrom the system Check3 Recorder and transmission Using a taperecorded sitein theprevious on check Check3 Cameraunderwarcr A simplecheckfor specificunderwater problenrs.

Thesecheckscan only provide a measure the video quality at the time of they are implemented. can neitherguarantee quality at a aiireie'nttime nor carittey tate 1l9v acc.ount of.possible degradation components the whole systemare changel or if of additionalitems conne-cted it. Theyire, however,designed technicians to for who are competent the useof relevantunderwater in equipmentbuj who haveno specialiitvideo or electronicknowledse.

209

15.5 Video Signal There are rwo main video systemsin operation, they are PAL (phasealternation by titrc) in and NTSC (nationaltelevisionsystemcomminee)which wasdeveloped the United to go into greatdetail on these of States America. It is not rhe intention of ttris book but formatsas the subjectis alreadywell documented, it is sufficeto say that all are sysrems compatiblewith both types. that scansthe object, Video signalis an electricalsignal that is producedby thecaniera, and it is proportionaito the intensityof light enteringthecamera.Light is made up of the sevencolours red, orange,yellow, green,blue, indigo and violet. However the humaneye is most perceptiveto red, greenand blue,for this reasonthe camerais designedto detect thesethree colours which are recombinedto form an image of the originalobject. to is The camera made up of threetubes,eachone designed receiveeither red, greenor to blue light and producean electricalsignal which is proportional the colour strength. at The colour is then transmittedon the actualvideo sienalanddecoded the monitor to producethe actualpicture. Figure 15.3illustrateshow video signal appea$ on an oscilloscope.

Sync Pulse

Typical Video Level I Volt Peakto Peak Figure 15.3 pulses,colour It can be seenthat compositevideo signal is madeup of synchronisation and burst,chrominance luminance. 15.6 Luminance Signal Luminanceis the characteristic usedto provide picturedetailby varying levels of Luminanceis transmitted the picturesection the signal. brightness. on of

2r0

15.7 Chrominance Signat Chrominance-signal usedto conveythe colour informationin the video signal. The isr9{, greenand blue colours.produce electricalsignalthat is proportionalt6 the phase an shift betweenthem. It is this electricalsignalthat forms the chrorninance signal. 15.8 Colour Burst Colour burst is addedto the video signalto provide synchronisation the for chrominance.This is addedimmediatelyafter the piciure information,beforethe following synchronisation pulse. 15.9 Synchronisation Pulses The synchr^onisation pulsesensure that thereceiveroperates stepwith the vertical in scanning^o_f camera. the The TV monitor displayis niadeup of 625 scanlines that are ^Ueing sc^anned eachline is scanned a frequency at ?!_!ilttl per second.This meansth-at of 15.625KHz. It can be seenthat the time period betweeneac6synchronisation pulse is normally 64ps, the pictureinforn-ration betweenthe two consecutive synchronisation pulsestherefore represents inforn.ration the appliedto one scanline. 15.10 Calibration Of Video Cameras p.u.e the lengthof umbilical,ROV systems subjectto the effectsof line losses. to are This canmanifest itselfin the ROV video system. The monitorson the systemrequirea certainlevel of video signalto function correctly, if this is not thecasethenit may resultin extremely poorpictlre quality. A situationmay arisein which the umbilical may be-replaced a muih longerone. for For example may be necessary incorporate TMS in to the system, it to a this"would requirethe additionof an amroured umbiiical. This would obviouslyresultin an increase the ovet'iillline losses.For this reason would be necesstrv carrvout a in it to calibrationof the vic'leo cameras. By calibratingthe camerawe arein fact amplifying the canrera ourpurro overcomethe line losses.Normalll, the sjBna_l monitorbdit th-e is surfaceusingan oscilloscope, whilst.the signal.is output. This may invoTve adjustnient a the of ldjq$qd at the camera potentiometer which will in tum alterthe gainof an outputamplifier. It is importantto adjustthe gain at the canrera ratherthanthe surface the video end as signalwill have'noise'.superimposed it, by carryingout amplification the upon at surfacewe would amplify the nbise sighalas well. Nbis; may be derivedfrom the powerconducrors lie in closeproximitywith the videocoax. that 15.11 Colour Loss Due to the difference.in tiequencybetween red, greenand blue light it follows that the colour absorption will takeplaceto a varyingdegree over a fixed lenlth of umbilical. To overcomethis it tla.y.benecessary boolt an individual colour r.iith respectto to another. As red is of higherfrequencythan greenand blue it follows that it is subjectto the highestabsorption factor and may needto be amplified at the cameraend.

2tl

15.12 Typical Faults With Video Systems The most commonfaults that arisewith video systems caused connector are by breakdown,this may occur at eitherthe ROV or the surface. Shouldany faults develop it would be wise to checkthat all the connections serviceable prior to carryingout are any major dismantling. It may be the casethat the video picture becomesimpaired due to electricalinterference. This can ariseif the video systemdoesnot havean independent earthfrom the rest of the ROV electricalsystem. If this were the case'current loops'may be inducedinto the video systemfrom the mains supplyand give rise to pictureflicker taking placeat mains frequency. This fault can be provedby monitoringthe video signalon the oscilloscope.It would be found that signalswould be presentat a frequencyof 50 or 60 Hz. Many ROV systems make useof fibre optic transmission conveyvideo signal,this to will illuminateany electricalinterference. Howeverthe physicalsizeof the conductors makesthem susceptible breakdown, to especially the connectors.This can lead to a at total lossof video signal.

212

CHAPTER 16 UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY 16.0 Introduction. Photographyis usedextensively offshore as a method of providing a permanentrecord of the actual stateof underwatercomponentsand structures. Thesephotographsare in colour and may be stereoscopic.Engineerscan then use them for structural analysis and other purposesand they iorm part of the permanentrecord for any particular structure.Photography also one of the prime methodsof recordinginspection is information during annualplatform inspectionsand forms part of the final report for this type of survey. Although video taperecordingsare universallyusedfor the purposeof recording information on thesesameunderwaterconstructionsphotographs still have an important role to play and ROV personnelmust be fully competentin the use of underwaterphotography. It is appreciatedthat offshore personnelwill probably neverneedto apply the physicsof underwater optical systems directly in a system designway but it is still most usefulto havean understanding the basicprincipals of affectinglight in water. 16.L Light in Water Light enteringthe water is affectedby reflection,refraction,lossof intensity,loss of colour and loss of contrastin accordance with the laws of physics. Thesesamelaws apply when the light entersthe camerahousingfrom the water. As photography is basicallyrecordinglight imagesonto film a betterunderstanding theseeffectswill be of of benefitfor anyonecontemplating photographs. taking underwater 16.1.1 Reflection

This is a straightforward effect;whenevera light beammeetsa reflectingsurfaceit is reflected, angleof reflectionequalsthe angleof incidence. the

Angleof incidence

Angleof reflection

Figure L6.l Angleof Incidence Equals Angleof Reflection the

2t3

16.1.2

Refraction

with Snell'sLaw from water to air it is refractedin accordance As a light beam passes which can be summarisedby the equation: Nwater 0*u1",= Nair Sin 0u;t Sin Where N*",", = Refractive Index of water Nni, = Refractive Index of air by O*ut",= Angle to the Normal subtended the light ray in water by Oui'= Angle to the Normal subtended the light ray in air

In the caseof light passingfrom water througha glassor plasticport into the.airglp in the a camerahousirig iiis posiiUte to look at the simple casew-here Port consistsof a glasswith-parall^el surfaces. The Refractive Index of glassand perspexis very plane similar to water and in this casethe equationevolvesto:
Sin 0uir = N Sin 0water

Where:
A

J

WATER(N watefl

AIR (N air)

IMAGEoTA[?'

LENS

I

L_

3'4d_
PlanePort

Figure 16.2 Refractionfrom Water to Air acrossa PlanePort

As can be seenfrom Figure 16.2 the light rays emanatingfrom the image after passing through the port appearto originate from the apparentimage. This has the effect that, witho=ut conecting the lens, distortion, focus errors and field of view errors are caused. 16.1.3 Distortion in Rays from points forming a rectangle water will suffer effect . unlessthe lens is correctedfor this underwater "pincushion"distortion,

^ t

z l+

A

ROV TECHNOLOGY

Figure 16.3 Pincushion Distortion illustrates effectsof pincushiondistortionwhich is more noriceable the Jhe d-iagram at the edgeso! qheframe and lessdiscernible towardsrhecentre. The diagra- i; exaggerated emphasis. for 16.I.4 Focus Error.

This effect is illustratedin Figure 16.2. The apparent imageappears be 3 largerand to 4 nearer. 16.1.5 Field of View Errors.

4:3referto Fig 16.?.Thismeans lens the to tongeif*;ii;;til1" lppears have'a water. Theobjectfills moreof theframe.Alio because ther."ftu.tion-u;tii,ilr beam of entering 4"pg{ at anangleotherthanthenormalwill leaveat a widerungr6.X lu*.ru hasa fixedfield of view andtherefore these in circumstancis fieldoi ul"* in warer its will belessthanin air. 16.1.6 Loss of Intensity. Light passing through water attenuated accordance therelationship: is in with
I/Io = s'kx Io is the initial intensity I is the intensityafter icatteringand absorption k is the attenuation coefficrent x is the distance The attenuation coefficient,k, is the sum of the absorption coefficientcr and the scattering coefficientB botl of which dependon rhe wavelength of the light and l. the type and amountof suspended material. Where

Objectsin water are largerthan thosesameobjectsin air by a factorof approximately

215

16.1.7

Scattering.

particles tl th! water Figure 16.4 shows the effects of scatteringwhere suspended on .eflect someof the light at random anglesdependant the angle the reflecting surface the to of the particle presen-is the beam. The more suspension greaterthe amount of scatteringand ihe greaterthe reductionin light penetration.

Figure 16.4 Scattering
for which is a problemon the photograph is Scattering alsoresponsible back scatter in effect of using headlights fog. The light is reflectedback and itself analogous th-e to

reduces field of view. the 1 6 . 1 . 8 A b so rp ti o n . the whichis to reduce form in Fig 16.5shows diagrammatic theeffectof absorption of on is in strength thelight beam.Thereduction strength dependant theturbidity of travelled. thewaterandon distance the matterin the waterandthegreater distance of The greater amount dissolved the will the travelled greater betheloss.

2t6

REDUCTION IN LIGHT DUE TO ABSORPTION

Distance from LightSource(m)

Figure l6.s
Absorption Both absorption and scattering causeproblemswhen the stand-offdistance sizeable. in Scalqryg is more troublesome it addsbackground as illumination as well as removing g1elullight. This background illumination is called "back scater" as shown in Figure" 16.6.

<

s-O

no
o

v

o

Figure 16.6 Back Scatter In somecircumstances may..be it possibleto compensate the lossof light by for absorptionby using sffongerlighis,but if back sc^atter a problem this o[tiorimay not is be possibledue to the over?,ll degradation the light caused the increase back of by in scatter, ratherlike usingfull beamheadlights G. in The effectsof back scatter can be minimisedby plicing the light sourceat an angleto the planeof the lens of the cameraas shownin Fieure-I6.7.

2t7

Strobelightangledto planeof cameralensto reduceback scatter

Figure 16.7 MinimisingBack Scatter in especially coastalwaters,that usable it Even using this technique is quite possible, photographs only be takenat a rangeof a meteror two at most. can 16.1.9 Loss of colour.

the White light is madeup of the coloursof the spectiumand as it penetrates water the at are which havedifferent wavelengths, absorbed of variousc-olou.s the-specffum, are absorhd at different rates with red light, different rates.The shorterwavelengths 6 approximately times fasterthanblue light. This effect for example,being absorbed photographs havelittle colour other than blue-green. to underwateilong-range causes this Fig 16.8illustrates graphically.

218

COLOUR ABSORPTIONIN WATER

Relative lllumination

Red 70004

15

2U

25

Distance from Source in meters

'A

Anqstroms

Figure l6.tt ColourAbsorprion The methodfor overcomingthi-s problerrr to usea strobethat is powerful enoughto is illuminatethe viewingareasufficiently.The basicadvicetherefoie, with any sr6be, is to get closeto the subject. 16.l.l0 Contrast

When we observe inrage fonl andtexture nracle art its are apparent theeye by the to differentintensities reflected of light conringfrom its surface.If thedifference in intensities stronglyrlarked thenthecontrast goodand the inrage saidto be is is is 'crisp. are anclthe iniageis saidto be Jf l!. differences poor thenso is the contrasr 'Pu{dy'..Underwaterthere is alw.ays light available less thanin airir-nd with increasing depthlight intensity decreases. Thusthe situation wateris that thereis alwayspoor in contrast and withoutintroduc.ing artificiallight this problenr gersworsewith d6pth. The solutionto this problenr to usea powerfulenoughstro-be compensate the is to ior lossof naturallight andensure you areas closeas posiibleto rhe subject. 16.2 Electronic Strobe Lights All the problems associated with lossof light can be overcome at leastimprovedby or an.appropriate underwater strobelight. In air photography output frorn stroile the llsing lightsis indicated theGuideNuntber. by This numberis calculitedgenerally use for with 100ASA filnr (filnr speed and theASA system discussed are llter). W"hen strobe a

219

control is setat the flash is to be usedto provide the light the camerashutterspeed the In which is often 1/60thsecond. thesecircumstances synchronisation speed formula is:appropriate GuideNumber=f XD f =f stop D = Flashto SubjectDistance henceto determinethe f stop required with 100 ASA film and the shutterspeedset at 1/60thsecondthe formula becomes:r

Number Guide Guide Number.

16.2.1.

to In order to determinethe Guide Number it is necessary considerthe flash rating and the film speed,as indicatedin paragraph16.2.A generalformula is:GN_ v

BCPS = Beam CandlePower Second ASA = Film Speed Rating give the Guide Numberfor the film as a function of BCPS. Most film data sheets rating by the The BCPSrating of a sffobecan be detemrined from the watt-second formula:-

s6p5= ! 4r

) 0'xNrx#

WS = Watt SecondRating M = Reflector Factor LIW= Lumen Second/lVatt secondRatingof the flash tube. Normally 35 to 50. The guidenumbercan be determined ratingof the strobe thus:from the watt-second -l \ l,= V l o o o r \ w S \ , { S A X Nxl L t t
\\,

For a nominalreflectorgainof 2 and a 50 lumensecond watt-second per flashtube: G N = O . 7 lr / \ v SX A S A is:andthis means that in air thecorrect exposure

16.2.2 Effects <lf Water Attenuation on (iuide Number. is Underwater light fronr the strobe attenuated the which reduces light intensity the by the factor e -cD

Wherecr is the atterluatiorl co-efficient per foot of the waterand D is in feet,the returning light is attenuated like anrount a suchthatthetotalattenuation light falling of on thefilm is:

220

-2crD e Applying this to the f stop calculation gives for underwaterwork:
f

= f u i .X e - 0 D

The attenuation function equalsone stopfor eachobjectdistance incrementd, where:

e-0d={t
= O, 2.BB For the remainderof this chapger will be called the one sropattenuation this distance' In the clearest oceanwater "d" is 23 feet, however,the conditionsusuallyencountered arelessthan this and can be estimated one tenththe limit of horizontal'visibility. as Thus, in water with 50 feet visibility, the lens shouldbe openedup one f stop foi each 5 feet of distanceto the objectover ihe "in air" setting. 16.2.2.1 Estimating Horizontal Distance. d= I

It is obviousthatestimating horizontal distance a guess the analysis is but abovewill help in understanding dlamaticdifferencein the ighting requirements underwater the of photographyversusdry land. As can be seenthe "Un-derw"ater'Guide Number" of a strobelight depends power, reflectorefficiency,water conditionsand varies on dramaticallywith distance compared normal "in air" guide numbercalculations. to 16.2.2.2 Estimating Proper Exposure The chartreproduced_a-s figure 16.9showsf stop versusobject distancefor various film speeds usinga.150watt-sec strobe. This is i good rturiingpoint for estimiting exposure. The chartis workedout assuming ambient'light. high ambient g.oTec.t no In light the iris shouldbe stopped d.9*1 furtherthant"he serrings shoin to rffi.niut.. The amountof iris adjustment depend rhelevelsof a'mbient will on light in uiy particular application a rule of thunrbwould be eitherone half or"on. f sio'p but

221

F STOPvs OBJECT DISTANCE BASED ON 150WATT/SEC STROBE

100 22
to

1 V 1oft )

16

11

.t6

l1

B

N
\\ \

\

) 2 V 20ft) )
3 V 40ft )
4 V 80ft

=estimi led vis mit

11

5.6

4

F o r ' n r ' m a l ' o inore ! ller usl V=20t

5.6

2.8

Fo reep o

EAN US

v:80f

f stop

0 0

2

4 0.6

6 1.2

8

1 1.8

0 2.4

1 3

2

1 3.7

4 4.3

1

6 4.9

1 5.5

8

20 (feeQ 6.1 (metres)

Oblectdistance

Fig u r e 16.9 F St<lpVersesDistance f 6 . 3 . C a m e r aC o n t r o l s Theamount lightentering camera conrrolled thesizeof theaperture the of a is by and speed with whichtheshutter op^e^n..s. these Both controls adjustablebn types are the of camera usedfor photography offshore. understandinghbwthese An of controis'work will beuseful matter no whaicamera beingused is becaule there a standard is method applied all camera by manufacturers. 1 6 . 3 .1 . A p e r t u r eC o n t r o l .

Thesize thgaperture of is.controlled theirisdiaphragm, by whichis adjustable, rhe and tocal,length theparticular of lens. Thismgqlsthata largt aperrure a longfocal and length transmit can the.same brightness lightasa smailaperture shorifocal of and leng^th. scale The used in.photography relite focallength aperture ii tUt"O to and size thef number system. This systemis applied a standar? as method manufaclri"rrro by thatan aperture say,f4 will always of, Lansmit same the brightness tigtiiwtraiever of thefocallength. Theseries f numbers a wholeis arranfed rhateich reduction of as so o.fonef stoph.alves amount light admitted thecaile.a.nor exampli?4 the of into allows twicetheamount lightasf 5.6to enter onlyhalftheanlounr n.g. of but dr
fno.
units of

22

16

ll

8

5.6

2.8

1.4

Figure16.10 F stops

222

The size of the apertureaffectsthe image definition of a lens. At maximum aperturethe sharpness the image in the centreof the picture is nearly always greaterthan in the of corners.Stoppingdown the lens improvescentraldefinition slightly and corner definition much more.At small f stopssuchas f22 thereis usually slight fall-off in sharpness causedby diffraction,the scattering light rays collectedin the front of the of lens as they passthe edgeof the iris diaphragm, this is not importantin underwater but photography. 16.3.1.1 Depth of Field

Depth of field describesthe extent of the picture in focus at a given f number. The and lengthofthe zoneon eithersideofthe subjectdepends the sizeofthe aperture on the focal lengthof the lens.In theory,only the subjectin which you focus is completely sharpbut m areaof acceptable lies sharpness in front of and behindit. As the sizeof the aperturedecreases, depth of field lengthens,bringing more of the picture on the either sideof the subjectinto focus.The subjectfocusedon is not in the centreof this sharpzone which extendstwo-thirdsbeyondand one-thirdin front of the subject.

L6.3.2

S h u tte r S p e e d .

The shutterspeedis set by adjustingthe shutterspeed control, which is calibratedin seconds and partsof seconds. Here, the relationshipbetweenstopsis obvious and follows the samemethodas f stops,the differencebetweenone shutterspeedand the next is a ratio of l:2. A typical series shownas Table 16.1. is I tlz U4 r/8 lfis U30 tl6o Utzs llzsl 1/500 l/1000

Table l6.l Typical Shutter Speeds but Here Vatpasses/z as much light as T.ro twice as much li-qhtas X::.

223

Deothof field at f l.4

I
lmage

Depthof fieldat f.l6

F i g u r e 1 6 . lI Depth of Field Usin g a Typical 50 mm Lens
16.4 Film to Films vary from one manufacturer anotherand thereis a wide variationin choice a to eachwill present different hue and one from one photographer anotherbecause may be mbre pleasingthananotherto differentindividuals.Underwaterthe choice of tendsto be more limited howeverbecause the low light conditions. 16.4.1 Film Speed scales The speed reactionto light for any film is ratedon one of two international of (ISO). The Organisation Standards rationalised the International by whicli have been methodand Association) American scaleis referredto as the ASA (AmericanStandards Norm) method.The DIN (DeutschIndustries the Europeanscaleis refened to as the and the ISO the between two methods tablebelbw showstherelationship rationalisation.

Slstem ASA DIN

rso

25lts

25 15

50/18 rwlzl

50 18

Film Speeds 200 100 21 24

ti00 30 200124 400127 800/30
400 27

Table 16.2

114

As can be seenfrom Table 16.1the ISo hasgroupedthe ASA and DIN merhods together. of loth methodsapply the samerules and an examination the ASA sysrem will show how both work. As the numberincreases filnr's reactionto liehiis faster. the The film speeds illusrratedare groupedinro slow films with ASA of 25 and-50, medium films, ASA 100 and 200 and fast films ASA400 and above.As the value increases I step_th9 by preciselytwofold; for example 100 ASA lighqerytion increases is twice as fast as 50-ASA. This equates one full stoil on the cameraaperture to or shutterlpeed con_trols. reasonthat a film reactsmore or lessquickly to light is the The size of the silver halideson the emulsion. The smaller the grain th^e slower thJreaction to light. By carefulselection grain sizethe film manufacturer of determines ASA the r-atin_g th9 film but as the film speedincreases grain size also increases the and thus 9{ the finished_print becomes more and more 'grainy'ai the ASA rating increases. Thus in selecting-a film speed is necessary balance reactionto light alainst finished it to the print quality. A sensible choicefor most offshorework is EktaChrom--e which is a 200 reasonably fine grain film with a moderate reactionto light. 16.4.2 Types of Film There are basically two kinds of film; a) Negativefilm which requiresa print to be madebeforeyou can properly interpretthe subject. b) Positiveor Colour Reversal film which allows the subjectto be viewed directly on the film. 16.4.2.1 Colour Sensitivity Films.alsovary in their sensitivity_to differentpartsof the light specrrum. example For Ektachromeis more sensitive blue light, Kodachrome ied and Fugicolourto to to for ryen. Somefilms are specificallybalanced artificial light and are niarked -used "Tungsten''. It is recommended that only daylight film be for underwater photographyas thesefilms are balanced for-usewith strobeliehts which are exhaustively usedin underwater photography. 16.4.2.2 Film Format photography, either Jltere are basicallytwo filnt forntatsto choosefrom in underwarer 35 mm or 70 mm. 35 mm is by far_the nrostpopularfilnr fomrathavingthe fbllowing advantages: a) Cameras smaller are and lighterandless expensivJ than70 irm. b) 35 nrm film is nroreuniversally available and lessexpensive than70 mm. c) 35 mm is easier process. to d) 35 nrm film is lessbulky ro srore. a than35 ntnt, ils indicated Fig 16.13and in 7Op.q film produces much largernegative for high qualityor photogramnreiy thisls a majoradvantage.

22-5

35mmvs 70mm

Figure 16.12 that It is unquestionable 70 mm will give betterquality prints than 35 mm the question or is whether35 mm is acceptable not. 16.4.3 Film Selection is from and the basicrecommendation to experiment to Thereis a wide selection choose bestand with different films at first and then selectthe one that suitsthe requirements betterpictureswill result because staywith it. Over time if one film is usedconstantly, of of the consistency approach. 16.5 Framing the Subject nornrallylist the angle-of-view(in water)of the cameras of Manufacturers underwater at cameralens system, and fronr this infornrationthe area-of-coverage various this Figure 16.13illustrates for a trigonometry. usingsinrple calculated can'be distances 35 mm camera.

226

VIEWING AREA OF A TYPICAL 35mm CAMERA

35mm camerascover a rectangular area with the same ratioas the neoative 24mm 1 vertical "' 36mm 1.5horizontal
_6r

Figure 16.13 Ar e a of View Thisstraight forward head-on situation gives basis calculation in a real the for but situation maybenrore it cornplicated. example rhecanrera looking For if is obliquely downthearea coverage a trapezoid. i.sillustrated figure16.1V. ' of is This in

221

Area of view with cameraat an angle is a traoezoid.

Figure 16.14 Area of View When Camera is Tilted This problemof framing a subjectcan be a difficult one to overcomebut applyingthe principal shown hereand with somepractisea satisfactory solutionshouldbe found. which Somecamerasystems n'lorehelpful thanothersand thereare two systems are for usethe samelenssystem boththe Video andthe Still carlerathuswhat you seeon video is what you get on the still photograph. 16.6 Camera Systems Thereare several carnera systems availablefor useon ROVs but one manufacturer, Photosea Inc. arecurrentlythe nrostpopular. They nranufacture several Systems different typesof renrotelyoperated to takecloseup, standcanrera systems designed photographs. complinrent they off or stereoscopic to theirrangeof cameras suitablefor all ROV manufacture compatiblestrobes can offer total packages and requlrements. 16.6.1 Photosea 1000 Thesec:uneras be fitted to ROV's and are alsoavailablefor deepseaand diver held can modes. Depthcapabilities rangefrom 6fi) m to 6000nr. Standard features include: 28 mm water-corrected system. a) lens b) Completely self-contained, weighslessthan 1.1kg. in water. Rechargeable internal powerpacks. c) Electronicfilnr advance. d) Data chamberwith time, alpha/numeric e) codeand frame number. Daylightloadfilm nragazine standard exposure 250 36 or accepts 0 exposure cassettes.

228

16.6.2

Photosea 2000

This camerais a single,completelyself-contained stereocamera, incorporatinga dual lens systemanda singlefilm magazine. problemsassociated All with t^aking siereo photographsyitlr_a complex two-camera,/two strobesystemhave beeneliminated. With the Photosea2ffi0 series cameras stereo-scopic viewing can be achieved with a system as simple-as conventionalsingle frame cameias.Stereopairs are automatically registered.and a major advantage.over is two-cameras stereosystems wheredeveloping and handling.twoseparate rolls of films and trying to matchstereopairscan be a tediousand time consuming task. 16.6.3 Photosea 70 Series Cameras These70 mm cameras were designed the offshoreprofessional for desiringthe bestin high resolutiondeepoceanphotography. Thesecameras utilise largeformit 70 mm film with more than32 times the negative aieaof 35 mm film. CombinEdwith the high resolutionwater-corrected designed lens and built by photosea. 16.6.4 NDT 3000 Macro Stereo Camera This camerahasbeen^specifically designed provide high resolutionstereo to photographs.at closedistances assisi the detection cracks, to in crT pitting andcorrosion inspection. The most uniqJefeatureof the 9ygg^lgl-destructive testingand structural NDT 3000is the ability to takestereo photographs a subject at distance l5 cm. of 16.6.5 Combination Photo/TV Camera 'combination Two companies manufacture photolfV cameras. Theseunits includea television camera insidethe housing, which is usedas a 'viewfinder' the photo for camera. f6.6.5.1 Sub-Sea Stereo view 2000

This combination camera includes colourtelevision a camera anda Photosea 2000 'metric' stereo camera the samehousing. additionto the ability to take'rnono'o, in In stereo photographs, stereo the pairsproducedby the cameracan beirsed to take actual photogrammetic measurements. systemalsoincludesa datachamber.This The equipment availablefrom is Sub-Sea Systems Inc. 753 West Washington Ave. Escondido California 92025 USA 16.6.5.2 Osprey TVP Combination Camera This systemincludeseithera black and white SIT cameraor a colour televisioncamera and a.'mono' single-lens reflexph919 camera the samehousing. in The rytt.* ulro includesa datachamberwith capabilityof remotelyannotaring titm. ffi" syste. It th? availablefrom: OspreyElectronics, Ltd. E27 WellheadsIndustrialsCentre Dyce Aberdeen AB2 OGD Scotland

)to

L6.7 Strobe Lights

strobe,lights usinghigh-energy is still Almostall underwater photography accomplished of characteristics light in water.In theligh attenuation to which arenecessa.ry offsit for illuminationneeded high will proiide thebalanced udaiii*, u po*r*,it strobe light at in red light is virtually non-existent ambient since a;;iit iotjur photographs 4-5 beyond m. depths 16.7.I How They Work

or of made glass, quartz(for high and is The srobeflashtube essentially arc-chamber The sizeof the arc-chamber, into sealed eachend. outputlamps)with anelectrode by filled with inertXenongas, determined its.operating.paramet is wtrictr normally is tubes, as areavailable straight Flashtubes for unAttr" upplications whichit is designJd. usualattached A third elecffode, of conceniiation light. or coiledinto a helix for greater An to is wall of thiarc-chamber, needed triggertheflash. invisible to theextemal the around wall of wrapped on material thetube,or a fine wiie coatingoi Conauctive circuit,seefigure discharge in are Flashtubes used a capacitor used. id6;p is usually 1 61 5 . .
'X' sync in switch camera

High volrage DC powcr supply
R (Charging impdancc)

Flashtube

Figure 16.15 Basic Strobe Circuit of The main components the circuit are: DC power suPPly. a) Chaigingimp-edanceThis limits the chargerateof the energystorage b) capa&toi and allows the flashtubeto de-ioniseand extinguishafter the flash. Capacitors storethe energyfor the flashtube. c) Hilh voltagetriggerpulsecircuit - This is usuallya simple step-up d) of putied fiom the discharge a small capacitorcontrolled transformei, pulseactivates The shutter'sync'contact. higli vo.ltage by the camera ionisationof the gasin the arc-chamber. the flash by electricalenergyinto light. The flashtube- changes e) 16.7.2 Strobe Power Ratings As mentionedearlierthe light output of most'topside'strobelights areratedwith a light ttre guidenumber,but because-of wide variancein waterclarity and its severe in water,As a result,most this fttenuationcharacteristics, guide numberis useless (oules). This rating undr.*ut.r strobelights arerate?in rcrmsof wattsper seconds itself with: the describes input power to the flashtube

230

J w-t = 2 CV2 C-= C_apacitance the main dischargecapacitorbank of V = !ol|a8e. to which the capacitorii chaiged (which appliesacrossrhe flashtube). 16.7.3 Maximum Power Input All flashtubes also havea specification called'maximumpower input'.Although this specification normally.onlyof interestto strovedesigners, is users'ofstrobetig'trts shouldbe awareof what it means,because can haveind impact on overall rirt"it designfor a specificphotographic.requirement wherethe flash frequencyis i#portant. Maximum power input is the relationihip betweenthe energyper fiash, ind maiimum flash frequency. For example,a'218'series (usel"inphotosea1500 flashtube strobes), a maximumwatt per second has ratingof 200.At 150w -sit hasa maximum power input rating of 5 watts. Therefore:

= 30 seconds maximumflashrepetition rate )w If this particulartube operatingon a power level of 150 w -s,were flashedat a rate fasterthan I flash.per seconds, would overheat prematurely 30 it and fail. Thus the w -s raungrs actuallytheinputpowerto the flashtube. 16.7.4 Reflector Efficiency

ll0 w s

The amountof actuallight outpugand the parrern light is affectedsignificantlyby the of reflectordesign.The old styleleflectorswbre circulariross sections arid theref#e focusedthe lig^ht causing hot s_pots' which were very contmon in many unda.*ut". photographs. Figure 16.16. See

Figure 16.16 C i rcu l a r Cr o ss- section Reflector s Focus the Light Causing Hotspots New' reflector designs areparabolic that rlup. with coatings diffusethelight give rhat goodevenillumination across rield-of-view rhecam"era the of eliminating ttte.ie trot spots'. Figure16.17 See

23r

Figure 16.17 Parabolic Shape Provides Even Illumination 16.7.5 Strobe Light Colour Output Because its spectral light sourcecan matchthe electronic of output,no other underwater havea continuous flash for quality underwater All colour photographs. flashtubes spectral distributionthrough-outthe visible energyrange.This visible radiationis 'daylight' approaching which produces excellentcolour in all partsof the spectrum. 'Daylight'rated flash.SeeFigure film shouldalwaysbe usedwhen usingan electronic 16.19

c<
=
I r'\

r r'1

z
rrl

f r'l

F
I fll

6000 ANGSTROM UNITS Figure 16.18 SpectralDistribution of a Typical 1000 v Flashtube

232

16.7.6

Strobe Units

Photosea supply the 15005and 1500SX(externalpower)whichboth provide energy outprt to 150w -sand the 3000 seriesup to 300 w -s.All theseunits are lightweighi and have housingoptionsto 6000 m deplhsand all haveinternaldiffusingieflectors. 16.8 Operational Control of the Camera System C*9* systemsare commonly actuatedby a contactclosurewhich could be a remote switch initi-ated.bV operator,or a 'bottomcontact'switch which triggersthe system u.n automaticallywhen it reachesthe bottom, or by an intemal electronict'iirer that tiiggets the systemar pre-settimed intervals.In eachcasesomeinterfacingis required.In situations wherelong cablelengthsare used,or wherethereis thJpotent'id foi trign electronic'noise',from manipulatoror thrustermotorsfor example,it is always b-est to 'actuate'.the photo_system wiih a relay locatedcloseto the camera,iuch as in i nearby electronic bottle. The reasonfor this is that most new cameradesignsinclude solid stite timers which are susceptible noiseand can be 'false'triggered. this problem is to if occurring,it.will be obvious;the camerasystemwill 'actuiie' itself. Thid problem is easilycqed by using a voltagewhich actuates relay which in turn actuatlsthe camera a designers have also usedopto-isolators the samepurpose. for lVst*' Sory9sy^stem SeeFigure 16.20.

Remote Actuate -l-

]J

Long cableor high noise pickup Actuate

Camera

'X'sync from
mera fires strobe Relay or opto-isolator

-

Srrobe light

Fig u r e 16.19 System Actuation 16.8.1 External Power to Strobe Stf:F lightscanbeoperated from internal batteries exrernal or power. Whenoperating a highporyeled strobe light from external power, careshould taken be wheninierfacin-"g because thehigtrpeakcurrents of involved. followingcomments^O'.a* photosea The applyto 1500 strobes theprinciples but applyto all electronic flasf,unitswhich ttigtrpeat currents whenrecharging. a) Srobesdrawshort peakcurrenls up to 10amperes o! duringrecharge (quiescent current aftercut-offis 12mA). Thereiore poier source the should. capable supplying be of these peakcurrents, it is also and advisable fuseyoursrobepbwerlinewith an 8-10ampslo-blo to fuse or breaker. b) If possible, remote a ON-OFFswitchshould installed thepower be in line sothestrobe notoperating is duringprolonged periods time of whenno in use.

a-'t-',

Input cableconnections critical when operatinga high power strob are from a remote power source. No. 12 or 14 gaugewire is recommended keep line resistance a minimum. For to to requireat least21 volts to fully chargeand shutoff.With just examplePhotosea sffobes 1 ohm line resistance peakcurrents and 8 exceeding amp at 24 volts therecould be an 8 volt loss in the cabling to the strobeand it would neverfully chargeand shutoff.The strobewill simply keep turning itself ON and Off and oscillate erratically as the voltage sagsbelow the l8 volt shutoffpoint and then risesafter the currentdrain is removed. Typical curent drain of a Photosea15005 strobeduring its rechargecycle is a short, 250-500ms, peak of up to 10 amp at the beginningof the recharge cycle, average current of approximately4 amp during the 3 secondcharging period, and 12 mA standbycurrent after shutoff. It is recommendedthat the external power sourcebe a batteryor a voltage sourcethat will not 'sag'dueto theseshortpeak currentloads.You should never connecta voltage sourcedirectly to a strobelight that includesinternal batteriesor chancesare the batterieswill be permanentlydamaged. c) 16.8.2 Trickle-charging NICAD Batteries NICAD batteries can be'trickle-charged'continuously during operations keep their to capacityup. All NICADs must be chargedfrom a constant Typically currentsource. trickle chargecurrentis in the 25-50mA rangefor a l-2 amp per hour batterypack. An importantpoint to remember that the voltagecapabilityof the constant is current sourcemust be at least4-5 timeshigherthanthe fully charged voltageof the battery pack or the batterywill try to chargethe chargingcircuit. For example,a24 V NICAD batterypack,2o cellsat 1.2V per cell, will chargeup to 28 V, I .4 V per cell at full charge.Therefore,if the chargingcircuitry requires2-3 volts drop, the constant current source shouldhavea voltagecapabilityof at least30-32volts.Figure 16.20showsa simple and reliableconstant currentsource.

30-35 DC V (Srobe24Y Btv
I to Bty

t0-12v DC (CameraV Bty) 6

Note:LM3l7T shouldbe mounted on a heatsink

R1Value 48O4w 24Q4w

Tricklecharge current I 25 mA 50 mA Figure 16.20 S i mp le Char gingCir cuit

/.-)+

16.8.3

System Installation

Actual installationof a photo systemwill vary depending specificapplications, on but thereare severalguidelines that shouldbe followed whateverthe installation. 16.8.3.1 Camera/Strobe Positioning Back scatterin turbid water can be the biggestenemy in taking quality underwater photographs. particlesin the water will reflect light back into the ciunera Suspended lensresultingin a reductionof contrast. turbid water this problemcannotbe In eliminatedbut separating cameraand strobewith at least-a m distancewill help the 0.5 significantly. The leastdesirablestrobemounting position is directly adjacentto the camera.The strobe,or strobes, shouldbe mountedso that they intersectwith the cameraaxis at the approximate rangeof the requiredpicture.Figure 16.21illustrates this.

Desiredcamera/subject distance

Secondsrobeif mounted

Camera/strobe separation at least m 0.5 Figure 16.21 Mounting Strobes 16.8.3.2 Mounting The normal methodof mountinga cameraand strobeis to usea saddletype mount with a clamping device.If stainless steelhoseclampsare used,the units shouldbe secured with at leasttwo clamps,and theclampsshouldbe coveredwith shrinktubingor similar insulatingmaterial.Remember that the cameraand strobeshouldbe accessible and easyto install and removefor chargingand film changing.It is also necessary to haveeasyaccess the ON-OFF switches. cannotbe over-emphasised to the to It as importance properrouting and connection cables. very high percentage of of A of problemsoffshoreare caused because poor cableconnections. of

,J)

16.8.4 Pre/post Dive Check List points are pre dive: Some-important Fih installedproperly and cameramechanismtested; a) Lens Focus/irissettingcorrect; b) Data chamberturned ON and properly set; c) Srobe and camerabatteriescharged; d) Power switchesOFF until dive; e) and Systemall connected Testmade 0 and g) O rings properly greased installed; Postdive: a) b) c) d) e) All units flusheddown with fresh water; Film unloadedin the dark and then labelled; All power switchesswitchedOFF; charged; Batteries stowed. HousingsProPerlY

236

C H A P T E R 1 7 S E A MA N S H IP
17.0 Introduction

-...-'

In a handbook this n.alurg is not possible coverii vasttopic suchas seamanship of it to in any detail. Seamanship itself includes topicsasdiverse th^e of lifting as use equipmenton one handto the art of navigationon the other. It includessafeworking practices, rigging, boat handling,weatherpredictionand all the many and various tectrniques skills which go to make up the art and skills of seamanship. and The objectiveof this chapteris to cover in enoughdetail for operational use,t6osesubjects which will haverelevance ROV Pilot/technicians for offshore. 17.l Lifting Equipment

One operation that the piloVtechnician certainlyundertake will regularlyis the depJoyment recovery theROV. This entaili the useof lifting devices and of and as it is sucha regulartaskthis aspect seamanship be covered of will first. the subject will be brokendown into threecategories. Safety, which will be dealtwith first, rigging and which will give an insightinto rhenrechanical adiaitales of fillttY blocksandtackles lifting equipntent. 17.l.l Safety Aspects

As stated Chapter safetyin the work placeis the subjecr numerous in 2 of Acts of Parliament Statutory and Instruments. The basicrequirement thateveryone is must shoulder their own .part the responsibility ensirring safework place. On any of for a work siteyou are likely to go to it is no unlikelythatyori will find locil safety requirements whichhaveto be followed.In thenraiority cases of these will be alons " the lineslaid out here. Oneshould aware, be however, thereis a possibilitv that of somelocalvariations. l7 .l.l.l P e r s o n a lS a f e t _ v .

On a personal levelone shouldalways: a) Observe andcomply-with safetynotices all and instructions. b) Always wearthecorrecr safety equipnrent. c g. Safety.boots, gloves, helmets, goggles, protectors, ear safety hantesses, preservers lrte etc. c) Be sttreof thecorrectoperation any,and all, toolsand,or equipment of likely to be required duringany lifting operations. Readoperating instructiotts beforeusingany devicefor the first time or if in any-doubt. d) Always usethe right tool fbr thejob. Nevernrakedo with the wrong one. e) Always standwell clearof overhead loads. Understand fully what is required any particular 0 fcrr taskundertaken as part of the overall operation. g) Avoid leaning over the sideof the shipand be awareof the location of life saving equipment. h) Tie all ecluipntent down and stow it crorrectl)/ duringperiods heavy of weather. 1 7 . 1 . 1 . 2 L i f t i n g E c l u i p m e n tS a f e t y . All appliances gearusedfor lifting, loweringand handlingloadsmustbe inspected and and tested regularintervals.In theNorth Seaatt suchecluiphent tested at is every6 monthsby a competent person.The actlral testing normallycaried out by speiialist is companies certificates issued and are oncetheequipntent uncler hasbeenapproved. test

:_1 I

It is necessarv testto 1.5timestheSWL for loadtesting to currently outlined as in Chapter paragraph i. 2 2.1.

17.1.1.3Safe Working Loads frflltj,:q.ruipment Ilftlng equlpmentls not markedit must not be used. If the ltem is in apparentlygood conditionit should to to F Pu., one side andse.nt a speciilist cornpany'fbrteiiiirg ano cerrificationafter which ir may be put back into use.'
L7.1.1.4 Out Of Date Equipment. It is commol p{a.ctlsq lifting srops, shackles other such lifting for and equipmentto be colour codedwith oaint in the coloui of the month. riris iimptifi;s-;fe j;t"oitlir.ting that it is in date as ill that ls .equi.eaii to.nr^ur. that only the correctly colouredstrops etc',are used. Any jQuipment which is out of datemustnot be usedbit can be Uact loadedand re-certifiedby an appropriare aurhority. 17.1.1.5 Safe Practises If equipment becomes damaged duringuserheoperarion nrusrbe suspended the and offending item replaced. Inexperienced personnel and anyone underl8 years ofage shouldnor bg in chargeof powered lifting equipment unleis underinstruition,in wiich .ur" .r,rt. r"p.*ijion uy a competent personis requir-ed all times. at Controls lifting anclhandlingequipment of shouldbe pernmnently legibly marked and with functionand opera.ting diiectionshownby arrowsor other(i*pi. ri.u,ir. Make-shift extensiorls shouldnot be fitteclto conrrols any unauthorised nor alterations madeto them. Foot-operated controlsshouldhaveslip-resistant surfaces. No lifting.appliance shouldbe usedwith any lockingpawl,saf'ety attachment device or rendered in-operative. If, exceptionally, limit switches needto be isolated orderto lower a craneto its in stowage position,the utmostcareshouldbe takento ensure operation the iico.preteA safely. Any powerappliance shouldalwayshavea man ar rhecontrolswhile it is in operafion, it shouldneverbe left ro mn with l controlsecured the oN pos,t,on. in power.lifring equipment to be left unattended - the poweron, loadsmust is with ff,any be takenoff and controlsput in 'neutral'or'off positions. wh91epractical,controls shouldbe lockedor otherwiseinactivated to prevent accidental restarting. When work is compieted power must be shutoff. l;:i:"tt safetypointsmay be summarised a chartform which can be in seenas Figure

musr marked thesafg be with wgrking (swl-). If anyitemof load

238

Figure 17.l Personal Safety
START
i

I

T H I N KA B O U T H ED A N G E R S T

W e i g hu p j o b h a z a r d s

Weigh p u e n v i r o n m e nh a z a r d s t

Decide n precautions o to betaken P RE P A R E Puton appropriate s a f e t yc l o t h i n g

Assemble orrect c t o o l sa n d e q u i p m e n t i n s p e c tf o r s e r vc e a i l i t y i b

P o s i t i oD A N G E R n WARNING otices, n s a f e t yb a r r i e r s s a r e q ur e d i

Remove ny loose a e q u i p m e nftr o m a r e a r v h i c hm i g h t c a u s e a h a z a r d .E r e c ts a f e t y e q u i p m e n a sr e q u i r e d t
fio'nhin n'r:rrl

e i Position qupment a n d r o u t ea n y p electric, neumatic or hydraulicables i n s a f e sp o s i b l e w a y t

protective creen) s

C A R R YO U TT A S K

W e a ra p p r o p r i a t e s a f e t yc l o t h i n g

Always correct use tool N E V E RM P R O V I S E I O NT O O L S

C L E A R PO N C O M P L E T I O N U

C o l l e c tt o o l s

Return quipment e t o s t o r eo r b a y

R e m o v en o t i c e s s a f e t yb a r r i e r s s a f e t ye q u i p m e n t

Replacany e l o o s ee q u i p m e n t moved

F I NI S H

239

17.l.L6

Crane Signals

It is most colilnon thesedaysto usesomeform of voice communicationdirectly to the to when it is necessary usehand signalsto cranedriver but theremay itill be occasions The currentstandardCodeof Hand Signalsis reproduced indicateyour requiremenis. as Figure 17.2.
Code of Hand Sigrals

{? n_ s, H
l
l

l

t

A CLENCH ND UNCLENCH T FI N G E R S O 'TAKE SIGNAL T H ES T R A I N ' OR'INCH THE LOAO'

EMERGENCY STOP

?-

HOIST

R LOWE

SL I N D I R E C T I ON I N D I C A T E D S I G N A LW T H O N E H A N D . O T H E RH . N OO N H E A D 'l ] I

S I G N A L\ \ I T H O N E H A N D O T H E RHA N O O N H E A O

\

D E F R I K I N GJ I B

JIB DOWN

J E X T E N DI B - .

.

J I E L t r 5 U L r P I N GI B

R E T R A CJ I T

/,? ii \ ;=-

T TRAVEL OME

M F TRAVEL ROM E

S I G N A LW I T F B O T H H A N O S

I I T R A V E L N D I RT C T I O NN D I C A T E D

WRIST ROTATE OF L E F TH A N O

KS TWTSTLOC O N / O F F

O P E R A T I O NC E A S E S

Figure17.2 240

17.2 Fibre and Wire Ropes. Tferg are a variety of both man-made and naturalfibre ropesand several different types of wire rope in useoffshoreon vessels and platforms. The intention hereis to introduce the commontypesof both wire and fibre ropes,indicatingthe way they are constructed, their breaking strains and someuses. 17.2.1 Fibre Rope Construction. All twistedor laid up ropesare manufactured the sameway. The selected in fibres are combed.intolong ribbons which are then twistedinto yarns. Theseyarnsare then twistedinto strands which in turn are laid up into the finished threeor four strandrope. In order to achievea good quality rope it is necessary selectand blend the fibres to carefullyto ensure unifomtity. The spinning into yarnsmustbe cerefullycontrolled to achieve uniformcross-sectional andwith all thefibrestwistedin at the correct a size, tension and at thecorrectangle. Finally the layingup of the finishedropemust alsobe at thecorrecttension andanglewhich is detemrined according the intended ro application the finishedrope. Threestrand of ropesarereferiedto as plain lay and four strand shroudlay. with the four strands as conrnionlylaid round a centralheart.Both these typesof rope are nomtallylaid up right handed. 17.2.1.1 Variations Both plaited and braidedropesareavailablebut they iire nor so commonas laid up ropesoffshore.Their construction the sante outlinedaboveexceotthat the final is as stage layingtlP the ropeis achieved of diff-erently. Theseropesnorrnally put to are special usessuchas for ruooringwarpsor anchorropesancltherefbre ROV pilot is the lesslikely to conleintocontact with thenr. 17.2.2 Types and Properties<lf Ropes Broadlyspeaking ropesrnaybe dividedinto two categories: synthetic naturalfibre and ropes. Outlinedbelow arethe main properties these ropes. of 17.2.2.1 Natural Fibre Ropes. a. . b. Manila - This is madefrom "abaca" fibre and n-ray vary in colour from dark brown to ivory white The rope is smooth,glossy,strong,flexibre,very hasa very high resistance seawaterrotting. to ly.able, easl'to handleand"aloe" Sisal - This is madefrom leaves and is a creanry-white colour. ihe rope is very brittle,glossy,swellsup when wet anclit hasa hairy surface.Top gradesisalis e.cpral rnediumgrademanila but it is an unpleasant to rope to handledue to its rough finish and is not usedfor pref-erenCe marinb work if in manilais available. Coir - This is madefrom coconutfibre and is a reddishcolour. The rope is very elastic, floats,is roughto handleandis extremely resistant seawater to rotting. It rf aboutone sixth the strength half the weightof manila. and H9*p - This is n-rade from the fibre of the Hemp plant and is a dark brown in colour. It is ntainlyfoundin sntallsizes as seiziirg or twin in marine applications. can be stronger It thanmanilabr.rt u.ieis restricted. its

' c. . d.

?.41

17.2 Fibre and Wire Ropes. Tferg are a variety of both man-madeand natural fibre ropes and severaldifferent types of wire rope in useoffshoreon vessels and platforms. The intentionhereis to introduce the commontypesof both wire and fibre ropes,indicatingthe way they are constructed, their breaking strains and someuses. 17.2.1 Fibre Rope Construction. All twistedor laid up ropesare manufactured the sameway. The selected in fibres are combedinto long ribbons which are then twistedinto yarns. Theseyarnsare then twisted into strandswhich in turn are laid up into the finishedthreeor four strandrope. In order to achievea good quality rope it is necessary selectand blend the fibres to carefullyto ensure unifom'rity.The spinning into yarnsmustbe carefullycontrolled to achieve uniformcross-sectional andwith all the fibrestwistedin at the correct a size, tension and at thecorrectangle. Finally the layingup of rhefinishedropemust alsobe at thecorrecttension andanglewhich is detemrined according the intended ro application the finishedrope. Threestrand of ropesarereferred as plain lay and four to strandas shroudlay. with the fbur strands commonlylaid rounda centralheart.Both these typesof ropeare nomrallylaid up right handed. 17.2.1.1 Variations Both plaitedand braidedropesare availablebut they are nor so commonas laid up ropesoffshore.Their construction the sameasoutiinedaboveexceptthat the final is stage layingup the ropeis achieved of differently.Theseropesnorrnally put to are specialusessuchas for tnooringwarpsor anchorropesancltherefore ROV pilot is the lesslikeli,to comeirrtocorltact with the'. 17.2.2 Types and Properties<lf Ropes Broadlyspeaking ropesntay be dividedinto two categories: synthetic naturalfibre and ropes. Outlinedbelow arethe rnainproperties these ropes. of 17.2.2.1 Natural Fibre Ropes. a. . b. Manila - This is rnadefrom "Abaca" fibre and nray vary in colour from dark brown to ivory white. The ropeis smooth, glossy, strong, tlexible,very easl'to handleand hasa very high resistance seawaterrotting. to 9ytable, Sisal - This is rnadefrom "aloe"leaves and is a creanry-white colour. the rope is very brittle,glossy,sweilsup when wet and it hasa hairy surface.Top gradesisalis eclual mediumgrademanilabut it is an unpleasant to ropeto handledue to its rough finish and is not usedfor pref-erence marine work if in manilais available. Coir - This is madefrom coconutfibre and is a redclish colour. The rope is very elastic, floats,is roughto handleand is exrremely resistant seawater to rotting. It is aboutone sixth the strength and half the weightof manila. Hemp - This is madefiom the fibre of the Hempplant and is a dark brown in colour. It is nrainlyfoundin snrallsizes as seizingtwin in marine or applications. can be stronger It thanmanilabLrt useis restricted. its

' c. _ d.

241

r

L7.2.2.2 Synthetic Fibre Ropes a. syntheticfibre after Kevlar Polyamide (Nylon) - This is the strongest which is only availablefor specialuses. The rope is very elastic,soft, pliable, easyto handle,will not rot in seawater and is pestresistant.It will absorb water howeverand will swell up if left for periodsin the water. The rope dries quickly but shouldnot be exposed sunlightfor long periods. Nylon is the du to Pont tradenarnefor polyamide. Polyester (Terylene) - This rope is only a little less strongthan nylon, for strainof 750 kg. while 6 mm example mm Nylon would havea breaking 6 being with somegrades Polyester would be 550 kg., and it haslow stretch, pre-stretched. as Nylon except This rope hasthe samecharacteristics available that it will not absorbwater. Teryleneis the ICI tradenamefor polyester. In as Polypropylene - This rope has almostthe samestrength polyester. parting,and it will common with Nylon it will stretch, fact 407obefore in absorbwaterbut only 0.IVoof its weight. This ropefloatsand it will melt at 1650C. It is very commonoffshore. for Polythene(Courlene) - This ropeis much lessstrongthanpolyester, example breaking its strainfor 6 nrm would be 375 kg. This rope haslow it it to stretch, floats,it will not absorbwater,it is resistant sunlight, is usually orangein colourand hasa waxy, slipperyfeel to it. It is cheapand is widely available. is Courlene the manufacturer's tradename.

b.

c.

d.

17.2.3 Use and Care of Ropes The Commoncauses failureare:excessive the of stress; danrages fibres,abrasion; this with inadequate or cutting;on a sharpobject:exposlrre chemicals bad storage and to particularly wet ropes. Rottingoftencomn.lences the insideof a rope ventilation, on of andis difficult to detectunless lay is opened.Loosefibresor duston the inside the indicates rot. If the interioris darkerthantheoutside, dry this is a signof dampness Ropes while a greypowderl, indicates should substance niildew andpoorventilation. hooks. The be stored awavwherr dry, on gratings hungon wooden galvanised or or storeroom shouldbe well ventilated dry, awayf}om r.noist air. Artificially dried and ropeswill becorne brittle,as nrostfibre ropesarespunwith a srnallamountof lubricant introduced the tinreof manufacture reduce fric:tion increase ropelife. at internal and to If left on deck,ropesshouldbe protected from sunlight, rain and frost (asthe ice particles cut.through frozenrope). Ropesshouldalsobe kept awayfrom all the nraterials, paint thinners, chemicals, suchas cleaning etc. After usein saltwater,ropes shouldideally be hoseddown with freshwater. Knots and kinks shouldbe avoidedas much as possible.When coiling rope,as mostropesarelaid up right-handed they , shouldbe coiledright handed clockwise.When heaving a rope,ensure i.e. on that it doesnot chafewherrpassing throughfair leadsor over the roughedgeof a dock wall ashore.Sharpedges must alsobe avoided. Mooring lines(warps)may haveshort lengths plastichosetiedonto thenlto reduce of chafe. When a ropepasses arounda sheave, sheave the diameter shouldbe nineto twelvetinresthe ropediameter. When usingwincheswith ropes, ensure thata laid ropeis put onto the winch in the samedirectionthat it shouldbe coileddown. The leadonto the winch must be such that the furnson the drunrdo not ride over the followir]gturns.SeeFigure 17.3

242

Figure I7.3 Lrading a Rope OntoaWinch

17.2,4 Wire Ropes wire ropesgreysedextensively,for typeof standing runningrigging,crane all and wires,winch wiresandstrops.In any o{shorgapp[cltion whereF.oVs #e ueing deployed wire ropesin oneform or anottrer G used. will 17.2.4.1 Selection when selecting wire ropefour mainfactors a should considered: be a. Whatjob is it to beused for? i) for riggingit witl be lessflexible If th. wire is required standing f9r example, , than if it is to be usedfoi runningrigging. b. What safeworkingloadis required? i) This will effecteitherthediameter thematerialproperties or of thepp9. If.it is ryquiredttratthediameter theropebe a of particulalsize,for example, maybenecessary it toselecta high tensiletypeof wire rope. c. Will thejob requirespecialist properties form thewire? i) A Tirfor wire needs be wire coreinsteadof hempcore for to example. d. Will it haveadequate resistance thecorrosive to factors present the in environment? i) Standing riggingis oftengalvanised providesomecorrosion to protection because theaggressive of environment hasto it withstand. 17.2.4.2 Construction All specialist qualities Iopqpossesses introduced theropein the handling a are into manufacturing stage.Therefore, is important we know how a ropeis formedas it that the materialproperties selected matchthemethodof lay. Therearethreebasic are to forms: OrdinaryLay; Lang'sLay; Preformed. a. Ordinary \uy - { roqeof.ordinary hasits strands up togettrer lay laid right handed, thegpposite in directionof theirconstituent wires,whiih aie Uia up left handed form a srrand. Figure17.4 to See

-+-l

ORDINARY LAY

Figure17.4 b.. Lang's Lay - A ropeof Lang'slay hasits strands up together the laid in same directionastheirconstituent is wiresaretwisted.This means ca.re that requiredwhen handling Lang'sLay asit tendsto unlayitself. SeeFigure 17.5

LANGS LAY

Figure17.5 Preformed rope - This is a moderndevelopment the manufacture in of wire rope.The manufacturers individualstrands spiralsbeforethe form into strands laid into therope.This is knownaspreforming resultsin each are and sfand layingin its correct position a completed in ropewithouta tendency to springout shouldthe ropebreakof becut.Preformed ropesaresaferto handle

c.

L7.2.4.3 Specialist Qualities Threefactorswhichdetermine rope's qualities a specialist are: a. The typeof corethatis used thewire rope; in The sizeandnumber individualwiresusedto form a sffand; b. of The numberof strands c. usedto form thewire rope. a. Cores - The type of coreusedin a wire ropeplaysa part in the whe's flexibility, rigidity andresistance crushing. to

1) FlexibleSteelWire Rope(FSWR) Extra SpecialFlexible SteelWire and Rope@SFSWR) generally havea coreof manmade fibre, occasionally natural, which is impregnated a lubricant reduce with to corrosion.ESFSWR is generally stronger thanFSWR,asit is madeof better quality steel. ii) SteelWire Rope(SWR)frequently a steel has coreandcontains fewer wiresin eachstrand thanflexibleropes.trtis generally usedwhenstrength a is greaterneedthanflexibility.

.,AA

b.

"6x37" Wires.Steelwiresareoften described beingof , for exanrple, as construction. This description means that the wire consists 6 strands, of each comprising wires. Thereis a wide varietyto choose 37 from, as an illustration: i) 6 x 24 Galvanised.Figure 17.6illustrates RoundStrandRope,right a handlay, which is 6 x 24\aid over a fibre core. This typeof rope would commonly be usedfor toppingrope and cargorunners. The maJorityof wire ropeshave six strandswhich form the rope. There are,howevei, multistranded ropes,usedfor theirnon-rotational properties as many as l6 and strandsrnay be usedto form a rope. 6 x 24 Galvanized

Figure 17.6 ii) 12 x 6 over 3 x 24. Figure 17.7 showsdiagrunntaticlya Multi-strand, right handLang's ropewhichis 12 x 6laid over A 3 x24 core. This typeof lay rope would comnronlybe usedfbr, cargopurchases derrickcranes, on and deckcranes wherenon-rotating properties desirable. are 12x6over3x24

17.2.2.4 Handling

Figure17.7

Wire.ropesshouldalwaysbe treated with the utmostrespecr. The following points shouldbe noted: a. b. Never handlewire ropeswhen wearingringson the fingers. Neverkeep l wire ropg turnedup arounda bollard for a long period,especially if you havea pull of 50o/o moreof the breakingstrainofthe rope. fhis wiil or deform the rope. A wire.rope which is undera load nearto the linrit of its breaking strainwill a high pitchedwhining note,it may vibrateandit r"nay show signsof oil 91xt beingsqueezed berween wires. A ropein this state under6xtreme out the in

c.

way, not at stress and the loadingshouldbe eased oncebut in a controlled suddenly. as Always inspectbeforeuse.Look for distortionof strands, this is a result of kinking, crushingor seriouscrippling. Broken wires are a result of fatigue and but wear. A rope with a good externalappearance with a dry powdery heart shouldbe discarded. d. over which the rope will passmust be correct. The The diameterof any sheave the smallerthe sheave, greaterthe friction and the smallerthe bendradius. The factor. SeeChapter concentration the smallerthe bendradiusthe greater stress and wires the 4.3. The greaterfiiction is causedbecause strands 4 paragraph move furthestfronr the centreof curvaturemove apartwhilst thosenearest and the closertogether.This resultsin friction between wiresand strands the the this friction will be. Generallythe diameterof the smallerthe sheave greater of sheave shouldbe at least6 times the circumference the rope. of Coiling. Long lengths wire rope shouldbe stowedon reels. Wire ropeis lessableto absorb turnsthanfibre rope,so whencoiling down it is sometimes "Frenchmen". Frenchmen serveto loopscalled necessary useleft handed to SeeFigure 17.8 by counteract twistscaused coiling down right handed. any

Figure17.8
f. up Openinga coil. A coil of wire nlustnot be opened in the samemanneras a "kinks" it be will be theresult.Instead, should of coil of ropeor a multitude up. Smallcoils can be rolled way to which it wasnrade unrolledin tlreopposite but nrAnner a hoseis unrolled, largeronesrequire as alongthe deck in the sante so is turntable keptfor the purpose, one hasalwaysto a turntable.No special pieces wood lashed of This is bestdonewith two substantial be improvisecl. by togetherto fomr a cross. Two bridlesare attached nrakingan end fast on the eachleg of thecross, aboutmidway between centreandthe ends,and the of to bightsmustbe long enough reachthroughthe centre the coil when it is laid position,or from a suitable on the woodencross. The bridleis then suspended for a small craneif one can be dedicated this purpose. The wire can then be unis of coiledand it will revolvefreelyif thecranehook or nrethod suspension occasionally takeout to fitted with a swivel. Otherwise coil mustbe landed the device. any turnsput into the suspension Cutting. Befbrecuttingwhippingor strongtapemust be put onto the wire nrayfly apartand spoil eithersideof the cut, otherwise, oncecut, the strands theropefor someconsiderable distance.A few sharpblows with the edgeof the hammerin the space between whippings(about25 nrm) will flattJnthe the surface, that the sharpcold chiselwill cut moreevenly. Cuttingmust be so doneon a good,solid foundation, that a cleancut is achieved. so

tt D'

246

17.3 Safe Rigging Practise Ropemanufacturers provideinfbmration the safeworking loadsfor their will on products and tables available are which can be consulted.For general use,however, laid out below asFigure |J.9, arethe recommended safeloadswhich can be used with fibre rope, FSWR, stud and open link chain. Theseformulascan be usedin normalworking conditions.
METRIC FORt',4ULAE BREAKING FOF STRESSES NATURAL OF ANDSYNTHETIC FIBRE ROPE, WIREROP€AND CHAIN STEEL

MATERIAL

FIBRE ROPE strand hawser laid 3
1 Grade manilla g High rade anilla m Polylhene Polypropylene Polyester Oerylene) (Nylon) Polyamide (7mmo 144mm) t (7mmo 144mm) t (4mmto 72mm) (7mmto 80mm) 4mmto 96mm) (4mmto 96mm) ( 4 m m o4 8 m m ) t (8mm o56mm) t (8mmto 56mm) (12.5mm 120mm) to (12.5mm 120mm) to ( 1 2 . 5 m m t1 2 0 m m ) o (12.5mm 50mm) to (12.5mm 50mm) to

FACTOR Strajn) {Breaklng

zDz/3oo 3D'l3oo 4D'/300 5D' l3oo
15d'1500

FLEXIBLE EEL IRE OPE ST W R
6 x12 6 x24 6x37

zoD' l5oo ., Ereaking Strain 21D' /5oo 2oD2/600 3oD2/6oo 43D' /6oo 2oD2/600 3oD2/6oo

SWt

STUD INK HAIN L C
1 GRADE GRADE 2 GRADE 3

OPENLINK CHAIN
1 GRADE GRADE 2

The drameter D is expressed in millimetres, the breaking stress in tonnes.

Figure17.9

I7.3.1

Shackles

Shackle sizesand typesvary rangingfrorn about25 mm in lengthto over 1 m. They do haveone thing in commonfor offshoreuse;all are testedand stamped with their safeworking load (SWL). It is alsocommonpractise the North Sea, as hasbeen in statedpreviously, all lifting equipment, for includingshackles, be colourcoded to to indicate that it is in datefor test.. 17.3.1.1 Safe Use of Shackles In any situation wherea shackle employed part of the riggingonly tested is as shackles shouldbe used. This will elinrinate risk of failureof the riggingand thusensure any safetyof personnel.Whenever shackles beingusedthey rnustbe mousedto are preventthem beconring accidentally un-fastened. Figure 17.10Showsdiagrammaticly how this is done.

1,1'7

Mousing

Figure 17. l0 MousedShackle L7.3.2 Lifting Strops Similarly wheneverlifting stropsare employedthey must neverbe doubledover and nrethodrecluires lifting hook to be placedcentrallywith the strop the the recommended illustrates this. whereit hangs formingan angleof 1200 over the hook. Figure17.11

Figure l7.ll SafeUse of a Lifting Strop 17 .4 Knots, Bends and Hitches and Their Uses it In the normal courseof work aroundan ROV spread is probablethat you will frequently needto secure in objects placeandthe mostlikely way of doing this is by "knot" is as If then accepted the general usingrope or someform of cordage. the term work for a fasteningmadewith cordage, somemore precisedefinitionsfollow: a. b. c. d. e. part.Is the main part of the ropeabovea loop or bight.It The standing is the part opposedto the end. part The end.Is the end or unsecured ofthe rope. A bight.Is a half or opencirclein a rope and alsorefersto the middle part of a lengthof rope. A loop. Is a closedcircle in a rope. A knot. In theprecise meaning the temr , is any knot otherthana of "stopping"knots, bendor a hitch.The bestknown knotsare suchas the Figureof Eight knot, which is usedto preventthe roperunningout througha cleator fairlead. A bend.ls the knot usedfor tying one rope to another. A hitch. Is usedfor fastening rope to another a object,suchas a spar,or to tent peg.Seethe followingdiagrams. Figure17.12 1l.25.

f g.

248

Figure 17.12

249

Stoppingtail end of rope running througha sheaveof a block

FIGURE OF EIGHT KNOT Used on tail ends of sheets,to stop ends runningthroughclews or sheavesof blocks.

Figure17.13

Figure17.14

KNOT Generalpurposeknot for joiningtwo of equalsizedroPestogether.

Figure17.15

FigureL7.16

250

SHERMAN'S =ND

Sheet bend or swab hitch

Doublesheet bend

Figuref7.18

To secureboats painterto buoy ring

Figure17.17

(ii) Blackwallhitch To secureliftingpennantto liftinghook

Figure17.19

i.e. situations, Used in life-saving to securinga lifeline a diver,or man workingfrom heights

Figure 17.20

To join two unevensized ropes together

Figure17.21
252

---

I

II
I
l

II

CLOVEHITCH

tl i l l l
purposehitch.Can be used General for securingboats painterto mooring ringfor short durations.

ROUNDTURNAND TWO HALFHITCHES purposehitch for securinq General lifelines anchorpointson barge' to or harbourwall. Boatspaintersto bollardor mooringpointson jetties,

Figure17.22

Figure17.23

TIMBER HITCH

c liftpilings, timberor any round cylindrical objects.

Liftingslippery,shinycylinders, scaffoldpoles.etc.

Figure17.24
2_53

Figure 17.25

17.5 Blocks such equipment of use This itemof riggingis in comnron in manydifferent lYPes lifting use.the widespread it is in'such "t.. sy;i";;, winches bJ"uute launching ascranes, '26 in up parts whichgo to making a "on1-onblockareshown Figure17 various

Swollow

Pin Sheave

Figure 17.26 Partsof a Block 17.5.1 Types of Block obviously for ty.pe.s.available, Blocks areput to nany usesand thereare specialised. in ROV deploymentsystems which may well be included ip.riri puipor.t. Tw'o type^s blocksand leadblocks. aie snatch heldin placeby a lockingpin' They can hingedancl one itreet< blocksf,aue Snatch into a working line and this is their purpose. thereforebe insertecl

254

Oncein placethey can then be employedto change directionof pull on the load and the thusbecome Lead blocks. Commonblocksarefrequently usedfoi this purpose when the riggingis first beingsetup and theycan be threaded onrorhefalls oi working line. 17.6 Tackles A brief introduction tackles to will illustrate method the employed all cranes by and similarlifting devices.A tackleis a sin-rple devicewhich givei incr6ased powerby a conrbination blocksandropes. The numberof sheaves the block,the mannerin of in which^the ropeof fall is rove throughthem,and whether not the standing or part is made.fast the. or bottorr.r tg. top block areall distinguishing features the uiious types of of tackle. The theoretical power gainedis proportionate with the numberof sheav'es in the tackleand typically variesfrom two to nine timesaccordingto the type of tackle useo. 17.6.1 Gun Tackle The namefor this sirnple tackleis derivedfiom thefact thatthese tackles wereusedto run out the gunson sailing tren o' war. It simplyillustrates principle the involvedin usingp.urchases ittcrease to lifting powerwhiihis why it is illusirated^here. The theoretical pow^er gainis two or threedepending whetherit is riggedto advantage on or disadvantage. Figures17.21and 17.29. See

DIRECTION OF PULL

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL

Gun tackleriggedto disadvantage Powergain ratio2:1

Figure 17.27

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL

Gun tackleriggedto advantage. Powergainratio3:1.

DIRECTION OF PULL

Figure 17.28
255

Figure17,29

Figure17.31
257

17.7 ROV DeploynrentSystems fronr thefollowing: ROV'scan be operated a b. c. Monohullvessels; vessels; Semi-submersible Fixed pliitfornts.

andmay be deployed eitherover the sideor througha moonpool ROVs arelaunched bn_t handlingstrategies four with or without a cageor garage.Thereare several are and the ilhtstrate possibilities these outlinedbelow. will adequately examples the it the Whatever method,however, will require useof eithera craneor a winch to conrrolthevehicle.SeeFigure17.29 unOtZ.lO. If a winchis usedit will commonly the employ an A frame to suspend ROV clearof the deck and move it inboardand of The cranehasthe advantage beingable to cover a largerareaon the deck out'boatO. and is more flexible. The A frame is-morerigid and therearefewer controlswhich within the ^ mustbe designed and winches easier.Both cranes makesoperating of suchas:AntericanBureau society, classification ofan approved requirements or of Lloyds Register Shipping Det NorskeVeritas. Winchesarevery Shipping; to wideiy JsedanOare 'ilost often controlleddirectly by the ROV teanrasopposed operator.Somespecificpointson winches cranei which mostoften havea dedicated will not go amiss. therefore 17.7.1 Winches a or whendesigning choosing winch the most factorsconsidered Of the numerous and by is the line pull required.This is determined the weightto berecovered obvious not be more than the 6reakingstrainof the cable,taking accountof the fPPropriate will by safetyfactor. Anotherfactor is the drum diameterwhich will be determined the on radiusof the wire. The numberof wrapsto be stored the drum minimum bending by This will be detennined thelengthof the umbilicalto be will alsobe considered. It the this in turn will detemrine clruntflangediameter. is usedandthe cablecliameter, the with a Ievelwind to ensure unrbilicalis evenlyspooled.If this bestto usea winch whendeck which is not alwayspossible fleetangleis required a is not possible goocl factoris the brakingmethod.Two methods important is space at o p.etiirm. Anothdr brake and -e co--on. Manualbrakingis usedduringnormaloperations an automatic suchas a rapiddrop in oil pressure. situation, will be appliedin an emergency 17.7.2 Pick-up Hook Recover-v andnraybe winch or hand is In this casethe umbilicalusecl mediumandlightweight o-n are is tended.When this approach usedsimplecranes enlployecl,often an. when generally employed is basis.Thjs methodof launchandrecovery opportunity l i v e b o a t i n sS e eF i s u r e1 7 . 3 1 .

258

17.7 3 .

Speciatist Latching

"grabit" "go-getter'is A specialist or run down the umbilicarl latches pick-up and a device to the top of trrevehidle. The vehicleis ttten.i.or.r.o usinga dedicated crane. This methodis generally used*iihort a cageand in a live boatsituation. 17.7.4 Umbilical Launch and Recovery This methodis occasionally usedwith largevehicles which havesufficient powerto manoeuwewith the amroured cablethat iJnecessary tu[. tne weigtrioiiti. u.r,i.t. to during the launchandrecovery.once more this -etnoa is mainly usedwhen live boatingand without a cage. 17.7.5 Cage and Winch Deployment

T:l:::;,:*1{^f::,,r:ryll containthefbllo*in*r ili elenrents: typeof cageis employed will thgre"th.e g ntaJor ir
The framework Spoolingdrunr Slip rings Powersource.

vehicle pa.[eo yl'.f is inio-it'or. it :T,ttji"l:1s: yflligi,'3s.. arrangemenl the uer,icie

fr:.^t:.::,"l1rl]"g

- - - - - - - - - . the vehicreis loweredfrom a dedicated r. . i ^ : . . _ : : " . r J r v v y w r u u r r v r r r d u s u l u i . l r . s owinch usin.q w l n c n u s r n g an A frame. an A trame.

ii r,*r,.j",i;,fi;:#:'"rfi;i.';.,

Additio-nally somecages tlttedwith a depthgaugeanda T'v canrera. are This enables the Rov's positionrelativeto.thecage beass"essJo. to ir'. ,,nrhrilical_f'rom_the surface winch to the cageis annoured and hJavyduty to takethe *,1.rr., and strains the of launch,,anp recoie+ anci vehicleun.,uiti.riiirigrrLi. rrlls vehicle the umbilicalmay be neutrally.buoyantseawater.This neutral in uroya'ncy iur'tit to rotl[o*.u., u, ir .ty any smallcut itl thecableouterwill allow seawaterto enterancltheneurral buoyancy is dependant the specificgravityof the wareranyway. on The cagemerhod launchand of recoveryprovides several advantages cornpared oti.r metirois. Thesein.ruo., io Vehicleprotection duringlaunchandrecovery: ' Isolation unrbilical of drig from the vehicle; A merhodof carryingtools down ro rhe *oikrit.: A nreans kcepin-e mainunrbiricar of ihe .te'oiourrrircrions.

byfenderingabsorb strains to rhe imposed by 111.":X;,::11,-o^Y.:'::19_.|:.iJ,?,::,.d whi,9line,vitabt. is t,,no"'1ri;p;;;;,,; ti;. ffiJi';.Ji't: 1:-:glly:k caref,r minimised by handring til*rr;;;;;iil - paying i" ,rrii"irr swlnglng rslng m o t i o n s S e eF i g u r e .
lj.3Z.

I

I

Figure17.32
2-59

17.8 Navigation of^some by The natureof the work undertaken ROVs is suchthat an understanding for are an asset. Being able-to.follow a. compass.c.ourse, of aspects navigation that is requiredof any-ROVp1lqt. Similarly the ability to be able to e*lmpte ,is a sf,ll to interpiet intormationavailabieon chartiis a helilful technique havewhen planninga dive in a new location. 17.8.1 Compasses

cardswere markedin points (onepoint is i i4 o; but now they Tradirionally compass when steeringan ROV . to gi by theare marked in degrees. It is often adequate roseis ieproducedas Figure 17.33. lf "o-pitr points ind for this reasonthe compass. practise use3 digis to courseit is conventional to it is necessary steera more accurate as to indicatethe bearing, in l80o or 0300'

$'l{1y; V V t
(),,1-l \: ll

Figure17.33

260

1 7 . 7 . 3 S p e c i a t i s rL a t c h i n g "grabit" "go-getter' A specialist or is run down the umbilicalandlatches pick-up a deviceto.the top of the vehidte. The vehicleis thenrecovered using. oraiJui"a crane. This methodis generally usedwithouta cageandin a tive uoatsituation. 17.7.4 Umbilical Launch and Recnvery This methodis occasionally usedwith largevehicles which havesufficient powerto manoeuvre with the armoured cablethat iinecessaryto tu[. the weighioiirie uenicte duringthe launchand recovery.Oncemore this *"thoO is mainly usedwhen live boatingand withouta cage. 17.7,5 Cage and Winch Deptoyment A cagecontaining vehicleis loweredfrom a dedicated the wrnchusingan A frame. The actual, cagernaybe a garage *r*g"nl.nt wherethe vehicleis parkedinto it or it "top may be a hat" arrangenrerit wherc"the vehicleis larched ,no.rirr'. tog"."wt ur.u", typeof cageis enrpr.yed will corrainthefbllowing"r;.i"i it elenrents: The tiamework Spoolingdrunr Slip rings Power source. Additio,nally somecages fitted with a depthgauge are anda'fv camera.This enables the ROV'spositionreiativeto,the.cage t',e to as#ssJo. i6e unrt,ilical-from_the surface winch to the cageis anrlourecl hJavyduty lo iot. trr. yresses and and strains the of launchandreco-veu anclthevehicleun.,bili.ni iirigrrLi. iiris vehicleumbilicalmay be neutrally.buoyantseawater.This neutrar in uroyiniy is iiirritelyto lasrhowever as any snrallcut in thecableouterwill allow seawarerro enrerancl r;;;;i bJoyuncy ihe i, dependant the specificgravityof the wareranyway. on The cagemethodof launchand recoveryprovidesseveraladvantages comparedio otirermetho"ds. Thesein.l-uO-", Vehicleprotection duringlaunchandrecovery; ' Isolation unrbilical of dragfronrthe vehicle; A methodof carrying toolsdown ro the *oikrit.: A nreans keeping mainunrbiricar of ihe ctea.oiourrrucrions. The cageand RoV 'should protectecl fendering be by to absorb.the strains imposed by the odd knock which is inevitiible nomialop..atl3,ii. in ih.r. knockscan be minimisedby carefirl handling particulirattentiorr nrininrising " payirrg ' to swinging m o t i o n s S e eF i g u r c 1 1 . 3 2 . .

261

17.7.6 Motion Compensation usedin is motion compensation requiredfor the system. One technique Occasionally the decouples vehicle live boatingis to attachfloats to the umbilical;this essentially is winch compensation also availablebut from the surfaceforces. Active and passive drive systems; thesemethodsare complex and involve the useof: high response has counterweightsor accumulators.A different approach beenusedwhich involves the aeration the moonpool. This permitsthe safelaunchand recoveryof the vehicle of up to force 5/6. 17.7.7 Launch Hazards If motioncompensation not usedthe hominganddockingof the ROV with the is launcher Small ROVs, up to 500 kg, normally can be both difficult and hazardous. and brute shockabsorption respondadequately a little application appropriate to of to force. Where ROVs arebeing deployedwithout cagesthey are normallyconnected closeto the vessel. Abrupt, the handlingarrangenrent the surfaceand hazardously at dynamicloadingto the hoistingsystem oftenoccurswhen lifting the vehicleclearof the waterin these is cases.If motioncompensation not usedthis callsfor carefultiming and a gooddealofexperience the partof the winch or craneoperator. on 17.7.ll Porver Requirenrents powertrainon the winch is Normallythis is 440 volts 3 phase andmostoften,the which allowsfor goodspeed electro-hydraulic control. The sizeof thepower supplyis per by dictated the line speed by andpull. This is established distance unit time rnultipliedby force (theunitsof power). The numberof wrapsof cablearoundthe required and starting drum mustbe takeninto consideration this affects torclue as the which are higherthanworking current, must alsobe considered. currents, 17.7.9 Locating the Launch Site places ROV nearto the pitchandroll centre and A centrally located on thevessel site the maximises safetyancl efficiency duringlaunchandrecovery.A centrallocationwill periodsfrorn theelemerrts which is of benefitduringnlaintenance alsoprovideshelter andit If a falsedeckcan bc provided will allow access it system underthedeployment for and will help to isolatethe system fronr seawater. It will alsogive access cables hydrauliclines. Finally if a winch is beingusedin conjunc:tiolr a craneof with it a opportunity nraytrenecessary useleadblocksto ensure c:orectleadis to maintained. 17.7.10 Operating in Tide or Weather ROV weighsseveral kilos with powerto matchit is not expected to Unless_an hundred zonein any adverse weather operate the surface in the splash on or conditions.The first point aboutoperating these in conditions as then,is to get below the surface 'fhe quickly as possible. point is thatthe effectsof currentwill be more second "eyeball" noticeable the unrbilical ROV's will on thanon thevehicleitself. As a guide generally it in operate 1.5 knotsof tide or currentbut, because the currenteffects, is of prudentto pay particulerattentionto the reductionof drag on the umbilical. This is wherethe garage methodof launchandrecovery suchan asset is and why it has becomeso favoured.

262

17.8 Navigational The natureof the work undertaken ROVs is suchthat an understanding some by of aspects navig.ation an asset.Being able to follow a compass of are cou.Ie, for example,is a skill that is.req-uired any ROV pilot. Similarly ihe ability to be ableto of interpretinformationavailableon chartsis a helpful techniqueiohavewhen planninga dive in a new location. 17.8.1 Compasses

Traditionally compass cardsweremarkedin points(onepoint is 114o) but now rhey are markedin degree.s. is often adequate It when steeringan ROV to go by the pointsand for this reason compass co.mpass the roseis ieproduced asFigure 17.33. If it is necessary steera more accurate to courseit is conventional practisetJ use3 digits to indicatethe bearing, in l80o or 0300. as

lui,
, (;\. l Lr ) \

\: l/

ffi
Figure 17.33
263

N a\.
i"*c

+

Itr

+
(?\ r

Yle

\,,'
tl

f.c ; *

/ LJti

rf Ar)i
7

f p EI

s// ,.E c
:l/
5.;

r ) - : ) //,

\:,\Y/ nq"
v/,6
V

% ' (

17.8.2 Magnetic Compass The magneticcompass responds the earth'smagneticfield by way of a magnetic to needle, which is freely suspected, aligningitself North South. On the bowl of the "Lubber card. is Line" and connected the magneticneedleis a compass compass a to The compass suspended gimbalsso that movements the ROV do not interfere is in of direction,the compass with the swingingof the needle. As the ROV then changes bowl moveswith the vehicle,while the card is held in a North/Southdirectionby the needle. The relativemovementbetween lubberline and the card can then be read the which indicates headingof the vehicle. the off directly in degrees 17.8.3 Gyro Compass Most ROVs are fitted with gyro compasses of which usethe properties gyroscopic inertiaand precession. child'sconicaltop, when not spinning, A will toppleover. If it is madeto rotaterapidlyit will not deviate from the uprightposition.This is an inertia,i.e. the axleof a rotatingbody tendsto remainpointing example gyroscopic of in a fixed direction. If a forcecould be appliedto therotatingpartsof a spinningbody in sucha way that it werenot sloweddown, it would be seenthatthe objectwould move in a directioncontraryto that expected.This is the propertyof precession exhibited only by rotatingobjects.Thesetwo propenies rotatingbodiesare of pointsto harnessed the gyro compass produce mechanism in which continuously to a North, providedits sensitive from a suitableelectrical rotatingpartsare kept energised power supply. The gyro compass ideallyseeks align itself in the true north-south to it direction, but, in commonwith mostmechanical to apparatus is subject smallerrors. These mustbe allowedfor whentheconrpass in use. is 1 7. 9 C h a r t s The chartis an important which is available the to andreliablesource infonrration, of ROV pilot asrequired the ship'sbridge. The mostconlnlonchartsavailable the via in North SeaareAdmiraltycharts, word wide therearea greatnranyvariations.All but chartsusesimilarmethods indicate to various features objects whatis a on and pictureon a flat surface a portion of the curved surface the earth. conventionalised of of

17.9.I

Scale

The naturalscaleof a chartis theratio of the areaof the pictureto the actualarea represented therein.The largertheratio,thesmallerthe scaleandthe lessthe extentof ( t h e d e t a itl h a t c a n e s h o w n .T h u sa c h a r t h a v i n g a n a t u r a lc a l e o f1 : 7 2 , 0 0 0 1 " t o 1 b s (5 nautical mile) shows moredetailthanone with a naturalscale 1: 393,000 " to 1 of nauticalmile). 17.9.2 General lnformation The general informationin chartsis given by means standardised of synrbols and abbreviations, which are listedin a key chart.In the caseof Admiralty chartsthis is known as chan 5011 and is available book form. This kei,chartwill be available is in the ship'sbridge.

264

17.9.3 Chart Title The title is much more than a merelabeland shouldbe readcarefully,sinceit contains much key information. The contains, additionto a statement the areacharted, in of suchkey informationas the naturalscale, way in which bearings, and the soundings, heights land,drying banks, rocksaregivenand the datumlevelsfrom which of or soundings heightsaremeasured. and The surveys which the chartis based also are on included, and oftenfurtherinformation, suchas theexactpositions prominent land of features. 17,9.4 Corrections Always seethat a chart is up to date and so far as possiblekeepit so. Chartsas sold by the agentare corrected to dateat the time of saleand the corrections up incorporated are shown by a stringof numbers outsidethe frame of the chart at the bottom. They represent yearand numbers the Admiraltyor similarorganisation's the of notices to Marinerswhich are issued regularly.Thesenotices, which arenunrbered sequence, in arecareful,plain language statements changes harbourlights,positions in of or removalof wrecksetc. 17.9.5 True Cornpass Roses Circularnotation. Several compass rosesareusuallyprovided. Eachrosealways includes olrtercircleor truecompass an rose,which is dividedin degrees from 0o at True North,clockwisethroughEast,Southand West to 3600. The evennumbered degrees beingindicated radiallines,with theodd nunrbered by degrees indicated by dotsbetween them. Everytenthdegree indicated a longerradialline markedwith is by the numberof degrees. Thesetrlle roses so oriented are that a line between and 0o l 8 0 o i s t h et r u eN o r t ha n d S o u t h . 17.9.6 Magnetic Compass Rose Notation. Theseareconcentrically rosesandare within the tnrecompass Quadrantal oriented thatthe North point corresponds magnetic so instead trueNorth,Degree to of markingsaregiven in the sameway ason the truerose. 1 7 . 9 . 7 M a g n e t i c V a r i a fi o n A magnetic roseis twistedin relationto a truerose,for the North point of the former is magnetic Nor1h, whereas, of the latteris true North,the anglebetween that North and trueNorth is calledthe variatit'rn. is not consmnt, variesall over the surface the It but of earth.It alsochanges slowly with tinre. This canbe ascertained from the information printed across E-W line of the rose. the 17.9.9 Tidal Diamonds The directionand rate of the tidal streams given at selected pointson the chart,in the is form of a magenta diamondif it is an Admiraltychan. The chartshowsa numberof letters, tidal diamonds, with printeddetailsreferring the dianrond's positiongiven in to a box on the chart. 17.10 Tidal Infornration Thereare manyoccasiorts when ROV'soperate areas in subjected tides.the to following information shouldbe of usein these circuntstance.

26-5

17.10.1 Causes of Tides pull of the Moon and the Sun,the moon has The tidesare caused the gravitational by the greatereffect. The-rationof the effecisof eachbody is roughly l:,3 \.e. the Moon's "units" and the Sun's 3 "units". The planets alsoexefi much for pulftccounts for 7 the water and smallergravitationalattractions.Both the earth'satmosphere to the surround.ing earthare free to move in response the motion of the sun and moon motion is not significant,causingonly a small aroundtheiarth. The atmospheric ubulg^es" throughthe day, but the water;being more dense, changein pressure signiEcantiytowardsthe attractingbody. The bulgeoccurson both sidesof the earth, as shownin Fisure 17.34

Hw

Sun--)

Figure 17.34 Tidal Bulges Generallythereare two high watel and two Iow water times in each24hour period onceevery 24 exceptin the Pacific. The earthrotatesaboutits axis anticloc:kwise rotation, as hours. The moon orbitsaroundthe earth,in the samedirectiort theearth's the This means lunarday is longerthanan earth onceevery 292 days(approxiniately). as due to the nroonnrovingin the saniedirection the earth's day by about50 minutes is or two high waters two low waters the roiation. This in tllnt nteans intervalbetween "semi-diurnal" i.e.twiceaday. In tide givinga minutes, 12 hours?-5 on average in European watersthe tidesare alnrostinvariablysemi-diurnal character.In the pacific do low eachday. Local anomalies occur, the tide is diurnalwith only one high andone by low waterseachday caused the for thereare four high and at Southampton exan-rple is much affectedby tidal streaniflowing aroundthe Isle of Wight. The rangeof the tide the shapeof the seaor ocean,the gradientof the seabed etc. If a seaor oceanhasa range naturalperiod of oscillationnearto the periodof the tidal forces,then a greater -The rangesin the world, particularlyin North Atlantic hassomeof the greatest results. the Bay of Fundy wherea 17 rnetrerangeoccursat springtides. In the Mediterranean generallylessthan0.7 nletres. thereis very little tidal moventent; 17.10.2 Springs and Neaps The Sun and Moon ntay act togetheror at 900to eachother.They act togetherat New At and Full Moon and at 900 to eachother at flrst and last quar"ters. New and Full moon giving the tidesare higher at High Water and lower at Low Water than the average, the springtides.At first and last cluarters High Water is lower and the Low Water is termedneaptides.See giving a smallerrangethanaveragel lrigherthan the averilge, Fieure 17.35

266

LastQuaner Neaps
New Moon

C

Springs

o

Full Moon { Earth } \-/ Ncaps
First Qua,rter

Springs

o

c

Figure 17.35 Springand Neap Tides The Sun and Moon move North and Southaboveand below the Equator.The Sun takesa year to make a full cycle front 2320N to 2320S and back again,while the Moon takesabout26 daysto move from 2820N to 2820S and backagain. When the Sunis at the Equatorit givesthemostdirectpull to the senti-diurnal tidesand thusthe greatest tidal range. The sameapplies the Moon. The Sun is at the Ecluator to on March 21 st. and Sept.21 st. andthe New or Full Moon nearest this dategivesrise to to themostextreme tidal range; pru-ticularly the Moon alsoat theEquatoi. The with springtidesnearMarch21 st..presunrablv riseto the narlefbr thetideshavingthe give greatest range. 17.10.3 Tidal Definitions A numberof termshaveto be understood beforecalculations caried out on heights are and tintesof tides. Thesearebestexplained the useof a diagrant by showinga tide pole in a coastal area.seeFigure 17.36.

HWS High Watcr Springs HWN High WatcrNcaps

Height of tide

MSL Mean SeaLevcl LWN bw Water Ncaps LWS Low Water Sprints CD Chart Datum This is a lcvcl choscnsuchthat the sea level rarcly falls bclow it. This is approximatcl1, low'csIpredictab'lc thc tide level undcravcraSc nrclc\)rologicral conditions.

Spring Range

[TJ,;"*'

Fig u r e 1 7. 36 TideTemrinology

267

17.10.4 Times ancl Heights at StirndardPorts Ports' At these' the of A number portsthroughout word areknownasStandard of thepositions of andtheeffects overa nu*l"ioiye-ans made have observations been Port'sothatpredictions for each ditermineO naueUeen G rheSun,Moon anO Planets ports will for ahead thetidalheights.which occurat these manyyears for canbemade form various in tabular andthetimesof HW'.fi;W:'Tht;l;i;rmation iiavailable Almanac'Thewayin Af-unut or theMacmillan suchastnenimiralry, R'eed's sources of allow curves rise to which the tiderisesandfalls hasatsoU.en-iattfullyrcxamined of u number ap ana for 9y andfall to beproduced Spring Niai tides.'These Rlodugq{ curves be can tidal bobtsof of the asencies bestt.nown ifricfris ttre'nimiiuft' These is required' whenthetidalheight c6nsulted 17.11 Weather Weather mustbe considered' at undertaken seathe weather In anyoperation be consulted are forecasts availableworld wide and the local forecastshould oPerations. beforeconducting

268

CHAPTER 18 DRAG, BUOYANCY AND NAVIGATION f8.0 Introduction Thereare two purposes this chapter. The first is to introducethe effectsof two for forcesthat effect ROVs in the working environment; namelydrag and buoyancy. The second to discuss is navigation the ROV in practical on terrns. 18.1 The Drag Force One importan-t factor that shouldbe appreciated when considering effectsof drag is the that.the dragforce itself is still imperfectlyunderstood a greatdeal of empirical and work is undertaken, wind tunnels in and testtanks,at the designstage new for developments because this. This doesnot meanthat ROVs arethustested does of nor it imply that nothingis known theoretically aboutthedragforce. It is simply stated hereto underline complexnature drag. the of l8.l.l Fluid Florv

In considering dragthe first consideration to be the typeof flow of the liquid has causing drag. This can be eitherLAMINAR or TURBULENT and manydetailed the experiments havebeenundertaken studythe effectsof flow notablyby O.sboune to Reynolds who published results 1883. His nanre usedto denote nonhis in is the dimensional REYNOLDS NUMBER that is decisive deternrining type of flow. in the The Reynolds number deterntined is thus: Re=

pul

u

Re - Reynolds nurnber - Density p I - Selected Dimension tt - Viscosity

The densityof freshwateris takento be 10tX) m-3and seawarerabout1025kg m 3. kg The viscosity freshwareris 10 3 Nsnr2 (1.0mPa)(Pa- Pascal of and 1.0pa = 1.0 Nsm-2) An exanrple shouldillustrate useof this formula the Example :What is the Reynolds nurnber seawaterflowing at 2 knotsover a I m length fbr of pipe? (i Kt approximately equals nrl) 2 Thus2Kt=2X2=Int-I

Re=

pul l.r

1025X1Xl 1010 2 5 0 0
?

269

At low Re the flow is saidto be laminarbut at high Re it is turbulent. The actual flol.and depends l 1ndthe ge_neral thesetwo states Reynoldsnumberseparating 9n flat plate aligned transitionfrom laminarto turbulentfor a ttrin Figure 18.1showst6,e with the flow to be at aboutRe = 500000. 18.1.2 Boundary Layers has layerswhichwasfirst inroducedby Ludrvig.Prandtl led of The concept boundary has This concept beenthe subject as of to ttredevelopment FiuidMechanics a science. in in especially the aircraftindustryandmany-advances of muchexperiment and have understandi:ng ociuned. Thereis still muchthatis not understood work considera thin flat plate aligned in continues tiris field. To illusfiatecrurentknowledge ngrmally !e with with the flow. The dragcoefficientassociated this flow w-ould for on haveconcenrated thedrag-coefficient a single C6but experinients denoted is for siniplifiesthe study. Thedragcoefficient a singlesurface often asihis surface general (Ca= 2 C) andis callid thefrictioncoefficient.The simplest Cr denoted in case boundary-layer is summarised Figure18.1

c" ^

0.010
\ \

0.008

t
\ \

0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003
l e

\
f

\ \

I
\

\
Cll'

0.002 0.001

I

uvr

z 6 t d z s t d z s 1 0 z s d z 5 to8 5 toe
Re Figure 18.1

Cg is the on As indicated thediagram Cpat low Re (lessthan500000) laminarand_ layeris likely to be the AboveRe = 500000 boundary as decreases Re increas-es. from the plate. nrrbulent. The more turbulentthe flow thebetterit resistsseparation flow a high dragandto minimisethis andgive an attached generallycauses Separation in as shape illustrated Figure18.2is employed. streamlined

Figure 18.2 vehicle of from theshape a typicalunderwater far is This shape obviously removed "bluff" shape. as which mustbe considered a

210

18.1.3 Bluff Shape Bluff shapes havedetached flow at therearandsucha shape shownin Figure 18.3 is

Figure 18.3 This section a waketypically.about same has the width asthe section containing flow "of thatmay be;very turbulent, varyingin a regular manner, some or combination these a particularly circularcylinders wakeis oftenin the the 1wo. F^or varietyof sections, torm of vorticesin a regular pattern calledthe"Karman VortexSffeet"asshownin figure 18.4

Flow

-+

o t

+

d

O

l--=4.5d-J

H

Y=1.26d

Vortex street Red 2000 at Figure 18.4 von Karmanwasableto demonsffate arrangement Figure18.4wasa stable the in one t$t is-byno means usualcase mostsuchaoangeirents unstable. the as are -Ug Whetherthevortexsffeetis stable not,however, cauiesviolentlateralmotionsof or it thefluid behindtheobjectandis associated a highdragcoefficient, with which ior bluff shapes oftendenoted (thisbeingc6 based fr6ntalarea). is cap on a. A standard equation usedthroughout studies fluid flow is into Bernoullie's equation :P=p*2puzx+pgz P = Total Pressure p = Staticpressure p - Density g = Gravity z = Heightabove datum pressure term P Ez= Potential = Velocity u 2 = Constant integration of

271

ale showthatfluid dynamicfgr-ces proportional This equationandpracticalexperiments fluid force by a nonto of th6 speed.It is a commonpractise express to the rqu*" forcecoefficientC and:dimensional F=2pu2CA "drag of area. A commonexample the forcecoefficientC is the WhereA is a reference C-6. coefficient"denoted " A usefuldeviceto redice dragis a splitterplate"behindthe object.The effectsof this form in Figure18.5. in areillustrated diagrammatic

Car 1.03

o
Shape

0.59

4

Flow

0.62
Effectsof SplitterPlate Figure 18.5 18.5 Effects of Drag in Practise of To illustratethepracticalaspecLs theeffectsof dragconsidera neutallY byo131tt in ROV operating 150m of wateron a pipeli3einspection.Lh. ROV is ;;tk;6rJ shows ontothepipeline.th" diugt*.nq Fig. 18.7. from thedect aid locates deployed vertically.abqy" whenttrevesielis stationary a moment in a;fsnapsfrot" time at St but rtution'*y ROV with thetetheralsorisingvertically..Thisis not a realisticsituation o.f it doesginea startpoint for a simpleanalysis th9t?S forcgl at this point in time. foundfrom ihe tablein Figure L8.6 The drig coefficieirtcanbe 3D SHAPES SHAPE

co,
0.4

0.8

1.1

272

Support Vessel Umbilical = Diameter 40 mm Tidalcurrent=2kts ( ApproxI m-l) 150m

<|--Fr
Frontal area -/ {___

1.5mx m=3m2 2

Figure 18.7 Consider first theforceon the umbilical. F r = 2 p u 2C a sA = 2 x 1 0 2 5x 1 2 x 0 . 4 x 5 0 x 0 . 0 4 1 = 1230 N Now consider forceon the vehicle. the Fz=2 p u2C61 A =2x1025x12x1.1x3 = 1691.25 (1690I{) N that and F"tg figuresdemonstrate theforceon theumbilicalis considerable for long lgngtlts dragontheumbilicalis greater the thanthedragon thevehicle.The umbilicil dragis effectivelyreacted 50Vo atthevessel and56Vo end atthevehicle. This means that the total forcereacted ttrevehicleis: by = 615+ 1690 2305 N This in turn means whatevel that polveris available thevehiclea percentage that to of powelis required overcome dragforcethusreducing poweravailible for to this the otherfunctionssuchasmanoeuvring. the situation In bein! coniidered heretheROV mustachieve rateof advance a alongthepipelineof approximatnly ms-I. This will lD impose^greater forcesonto both theumbifi&l andthevitricte andiequire evenmore power.from vehiclejust to go forward, T!" situation the posed this simpleexample in is obvio-usly frgm therealcase far where forces theumbilicalin particular the on witi Ue imposed a muchmorecomplicated in manner indicated Figure1g.g. as in

:t-1

Vessel Support Umbilical

FFr
150m
Ftn 0r

=40mm Tidalcunent=2kts ( Approx I m-l )

a,n
G-Fz
Figure 18.8 In this situation forceon the umbilicalreacted theROV mustberesolved its the bv into two components thus: Fln = F1 Sin 300 and Fth = F1 Cos300 In this case which is slightlymorerealisticsome vehiclepoweris required both for horizontal verticalreactions. and Therealsituation evenmorecomplexof course is but thefwo pointsto bearin mind are;ttredragforceon theumbilicalis considerable and will alwaysaffectthevehiclehandling, thetotalavailable and vehiclepoweris neverall for available forwardmotionbecause proportion to beusedto counter drag a has the forces. In any situation putsanonuson thepilot to navigate this accurately thus and power. Thedragforceon the minimisethe needfor manoeuvring conserve and umbilical is alsoan importantreason employinga cageor tethermanagement for system wheneverpossibie whendeploying ROV. the 18.8 The Buoyancy Force "An This forceis encapsulated Archimedes'principal, in whichstates, objectimmersed in a fluid is subjected anupthrustequalto the weightof thevolume of fluid to it displaced". a Quantitatively is easilyevolvedby considering verticalcylinder filled with air immersed a liquid asshownin Figure18.9 in

274

pressure Znro gaage

j\
z

Cylindercross-sectional is area S andlengthis I

I

t

l
Figure f8.9

Fromthediagram:BuoyancyforceB=Fz-Fr

Fz=PBhzS

and

Fr=PghrS

..l=pEhzS-pghr . =pgS(hz-hr)
but hence 3=pgSl howeverSl=V Thus B= pgV forceactsverticallyupwards from thediagram thebuoyancy that It canalsobe seen gravity. throughthe centreof gravityi.e. it opposes 18.2.1 Practical Applications force to ROVs is in eitherfreshor saltwater In practisethe applicationof thebuoyancy to balancing weightof objects.This allowsa simplification the around andit revolves possible assume 1l of fresh that to weightfor mass.It is then be madesubstituting force the of wateris equalto 1 kg weight.andif 11 freshwateris displaced buoyancy lift. In orderto applythese equivalent 1 kg of to an will produce upthrust is: the simplifications basicequation of Weightof Object- Displacement Object= Lift Required
h2-h1-l

275

18.2,1.L Examples 2m that Suppose a blockof concrete x 1.5mx 3m is to belifted from the seabedin How muchfree air will be lifting bagis to be used. lSffaipttr of water.An inflatable required? of Weight of Object- Displacement Object= Lift Required a. (D) DisPlacement =2x1.5 x 3 = 9m3 salt = freshwaterand 10251in water now 1m3 10001in =9 h e n ce D =9 x 1 0 25 2 25k8 b. =2200kg m-r Weightof concrete block=9x2200 = 19800kg henceweightof kg .'. 19800 9225= 10575 will the of Now if 10,5751 wareris displaced upthrust equalthis. Thusan airbaqfull of block is to be concrete of thii will displace amount seawater. If ahis of 10,5751 uir howeverthelift bagwill haveto be full of this amountof air at mted trom the seabed the to be tftut a"ptft. BoylesLaw musttherefore ap4ied- determine reqqrgd amountof -be thus:from the surface.BoylesLaw maybe stated air thafhasto supplied P t Vr = PzYz tl.thge at is at The pressure the surface p1an4thepressure the seabe{ is-p.z1nd ( I Bar is approximately p.s.i.). Thusthe I4.7 to it calculations is easier woihin Bars will of amount freeair required be:-

p"v
V = 't ' p
and pressure 4.5 bar (approximately) Pt = 1 Bar is At 35mwaterdepththeAbsolute = '51 .'. Vr = 4.5 x 10575 47587 It would be anusualROV taskto placesuchan air bagbut it couldbedone. bed on maybe to piaceEansponders the-sea for a sitesurvey. a moreusualexample aii tg_1n anda:! gflindrical in t!ry".yog u (;O Soppot"the transpbnders-weigtr diineter of 0.2 mand a lengtfiof lm. How manyGrimqbybuoysof 5l displacement neutrallybuoyant? arerequiredto makethe tansponders of Weightof Object- Displacement Object= Lift Required a. = lt x Displacement t2l=TI x 0.12 1 =.0314m3= 31'41 60 - 31.4=28.61

to very little difference the amountof lift required makes In this casethedisplacement for included completness. is but thecalculation

2'76

b.

The number Grimsbybuoysrequired of will be: 28.6 = 6 5

18.3 Navigation

following a nrnglile o1a surveywhen'the nltiguti6l *iii u" ir the handi oi a ipeciatist team. It may alsobedifficult asit canbewhei workingoff a plaforminath; sonilr andcompass unserviceable. go 18.3.1 Open Water Navigation The. taskin.openwateri,qmadestraight forwardby theprovisionof the vessel,s navigation information displayed on-aVOU is ttrehOV'connolroom. fne n-OVwitt be providedwith a sonartranspondelwhSh interrogar"a trtestript iiyoioa"ourti" is Uv Positioning Reference SystemiHPRS).The."tponrl"r.o- tttr RoV is the'n displayed on theelectronic chartandthepilot cansee a glance fosition relativeto thevessel. at his Navigational targets are_displayed thecharta"na piioi can,,read,, course on ttr. his directlyfrom this. The ROV will normallyhaveitsow'nsonar -rrt. beprovided andwill with a magnetic compass probably gyrocompass *Jr. and a ur .t-pt r"rl, "r.a to maintain course yhich is checked th6'track theVou andasttteta'ne"to tlre by on target closes Rov sonar the is.used to-pinpoint rarget. pil"t;;;"d;; the Th" information negotiate vehiclein itremostenicieii way to the."quir.a porition. to the 18.3.2 Navigation Without Electronic Aids On occasiol^it^TayFnecessary navigate to ontoa target withouttheaidsoutlinedin pagagraph In this case will be it to resorr under*ai". pilo[g" to 18.1.1. usingvisualinformation_gained theteggssary ctcoit television.The basic from ROV cl6sea course bemaintained_using compass to establish course can the but the -aO" eooath" "setand drift" of theRoV mus=t estimated. be Thiscanu" u.rri"uJ;r;.u*f,;%vel by facingthe ROV intothe current, centralising ca-era anJtunng thebearine ttre whenthe sediment isobservediocomine gl9ryq sggpgn$ed be aiiedtrv it;h;;;#. Th" rectprocal this bearing thecurrent of is direction.Havin'g established sii the drift ttre adjusting the particieiare :T,T::l_llP9_!r across front RoVs positionsotttatitte,suspended dnrnngclrectly the of thecamera. The timetakenfor a sel6ctedparticle to passa knowndistance berecorded. can Theknowndistance bethelendh of a can manipulator some.other or visiblepartof theROV. Usingtrt. ii-fr" .quu-ii|,itrr'ut 'uppro*i-ut"ty distance dividedby.gmeequals s.peed apppxrmlion thatz -t ?nd^the equalsI knot thedrift canbeestimated. exlirience is gained curienirpe"o As ttte *a direc on canbeesuy,led"in tively bul.intialiy ti tui i u"i"i g"i *a ryhit"dd;p;;;;";;, theforegoingshouldbeof some.heip.- setind drifroith" .uo.nt togethei The ioitt tt " vehiclespeed thenbe appliedto a VetocityVectorrriangre andtheri*ii *a can ti-" to thetargetcanthenbeestimated. These meihods.-.nri" thattheRov is navigated ontoa targetusingonly its compass. f83.3 Navigating Around a Structure It is mostimportant thatthepilot makes himselffamilarwith thestructure consulting by theplatrormdrawingp.Some platforms haveunderwater identification --t"wrricrr and are 9d ngvigalion wherethese in usethepilot -uit *uti himselfawareof where theyhave\en placed.A hazard navigation to *ound u ,t utt*" is debrisand sometimes fishineline, wherethisis likeiy to be^a-probtem iimust U" antiiipat"Abefore thedive. once th"e ROV is on tt" ituiiurc itselfthe_compass nor be of any may assistance it may as uy ft9 magnetic field of trr!-it uctureitselfandthepilot f {rgcte$ much mustrely on navigating visually mdrethanis thecase-in open water.

Navigating a1 Rov can be very straightforward operationas, for example, when

271

provided pilot is prepared sit thevehicle to The sonar still be of greatassistance can the pictue to build. It is vitally important theroute that in onepositionandallow the sonar the takenaround structure theROV is memorised thepilot. This will ensure the by by in awareness is not umbilicalfouledup. Thepilot needs cultivate skill of spatial to the muchmorethanfor otherROV operations because this hazard of this typeof operation to theumbilical.

218

CHAPTER 19 PRINCIPLES OF ROV PILOTING & SONAR 19.1.0 Piloting Competencies 19.l.l This chapteris concerned with the principlesof piloting ROVs which is often considered something a 'Black art'. The aimsof this chapterare to explainas as of simply as possible competencies competency a combination both (a the is of knowledgeand skills) that an ROV pilot shouldhaveif he is to succeed what is a in very difficult operar ionalenvironment. 19.1.2 Piloting an ROV is often considered difficult to teach,but ratheras a setof too competencies only 'talented' that peoplecan learn,and only thenby yearsof operating experience.It is clearlytrue that work experience requiredfor the Pilot to be fullyis capable, we havefound that the learningprocess but can be considerably accelerated by initial Pilot trainingin these fundamental -ompetencies.

r9.1.3
Althougheachprinciple easilyunderstood isolation, fully capable is in the ROV Pilot must incorporate thenrall at onceand this can only be acconrplished practising by them. It is also true,that the progress the trainee of Pilot is boundto b-e impeded-if theseprincipiesare not properlyunderstood during his initial trainingperiod as they form a valuable'frarnework' build uponthrouglipractice. to 19.2.0Teamrvork t9.2.1 The ROV Pilot is ottenrenrber a snrallteamof usuallythreepeople.For the Pilot of to be able to operate successfully nrustbe ableto uncierstancltheroles and he of, communicate with the otherteammenrbers. The pilot depends and must on communicate with the supervisor takecareof overallsafetyand the operational to planning,the observer keep trackof the vehiclespositionand keeprecords, to and the winch man to adjustthe umbilicallengthaccording the vehicles to circumstances. Thefirst fundamentulp,rincipLe thereforethat the Pilot c:anonly be successful is with the assistance the other teammembersand that clear uno,mbiiuous of communication must exist betweenettchof theseteammembers.. 19.3.0 Navigation 19.3.1 Navigatingan ROV can be anythingfrom very straightforward extremelydifficult. to In open waterthetaskis_made straightforward the provisionof a shipsnavigation by displayshowingthe ROVs positionrelativeto obstaclbs targets and usinginfoimation from the shipssurface. navigation systern and the Hydroacoustic-Position"Referencing System. This systemts howeveroften unavailable the Pilot may be requiredto and navigate openwater. This is againstraightforward the targetis"large in if enoughto be displayed clearlvon sonar, is nruchmoredifficLrlt, it howevEr, thelilot is' if searching a smalltarget for suchas a well-head a transponcler, or particularly it is if

279

the necessary estimate ROVs'Set and Drift' to the target,allowing for the current to as directionand speed outlinedin Chapter18. of i) Once the currerltis known,providedthe throughwaterspeed the vehicleis kno*n allowing for umbilical lengih, then the Set,Drift and time to targetcan be of of usingnonrralmethods Triangles Velocities' estimated

19.3.2
the When navigatingaround structures Pilot needsto be familiar with the structure marksan Chapterl8 givesmore informationon this subject. any ide"ntifiJation and 19.3.3 that work is carriedout with the by Navigationis assisted planningthe dive to ensure with the vehicle Wheieverpoisible the task shouldbe undertaken optirium visibility. preventsedimentdisturbedby the vehiclesown thrusters ficing into the currentto must not be unnecessarily. fromibscuring the work .site.In additionsediment this is the seabed.Although irt many cases itself or from-thestructure disturbed 'easier improve planningand careduring divescan appreciably saidthandgne'careful the situation. principle is that the pilot must be u.bleto navigate.effecttvelyThe seconclfunclamt:ntal and umbilical takinguccounto.fcurrent,visibil,ity in open *aie, or arountl'structures incLutlingwhere necessary resirictionsmaking useofnu,t;igationalaids effectively, 'Dead Reckoning'. 19,4.0 Spatial Arvareness

19.4.r
develop_a the of In additionto beingcapable Navigation, ROV Pilot r.nust fig! degree fhat of spatialawat'etres=s. is, he muit not only be ableto go from A to B, but he must to with reference A and position threedimensions in his be ableto visualise relative B. It is very comntonfor ROV Pilotsto be awareonly of the video monitorsand to position thisaloneduringtasks. on the determine vehicles that awareness of a develop sense spatial Pilot will however The accomplished the him to visualise whole situationin threedimensions, lhis transcends and enables without the waterbeing ratherlike he was ableto look at a modelof the situation everythingto North and know the lie of the In this way he is ableto reference there. and umbilicalthroughor aroundstructures obstacles. it ntorenaturallyto somethanto others,but in all cases a6ility comes This essential ROV and Umbilical onto working supportvessel, can be improvedby clrawingthe during dives. drawingsat regularintervals senseof spatial developed The rhird principle is rhat the Pilot must havea hi44hl,v awareness.

and Vehicle Geometry Systems 19.5.0 19.5.r
and The positionand powerof vehiclethrusters, the positionof the umbilical of relevantto the understanding the vehicles pointsare particularly attachment of affectsthe pedornlance the vehiclein of performanci. fhe geonretry the thrusters

280

the most fundamental way. It is clearthat a vehiclein the standard configuration of two sternthrusters, verticalthruster, one and one lateralthrusterwill behave quite differently to a vehicle having threevertical thrusters, and one horizontalthruiter in eachcorner of the frame at 45 . The latter configurationis more effective in c.ountering upwardpull of the umbilicaland enablinguniform manoeuvrability the in the horizontal plane. The attachment positionof the umbilical to the frameis also important because, will be seenlater, the umbilical pull is often very substantial as and the point of application this pull can severely of effectmanoeuvrabitity. L9.5.2 A.knowledge the vehiclestechnical of systems againessential.As an exampleof is this;.take hydraulic vehiclethat hasa pump capable providingan outputo? IOOO a of PS.I.hydraulic pre^ssure a maximumflbw rateof 15 Gallonsperfuinute. tf tnis at vehiclehasfour thrusters eachrequiring5 Gallonsper Minute at full speed, thenit is clearthat the Pilot will not be ableto demandfull speed from eachthrusterat the sametime. In this situation may be inappropriate attentptto manoeuvre it to the vehiclein turbulentconditions aroundsrructuies with the AutomaticDepth and HeadingCircuitsengaged, the total oil demanded as from the thrusters may be more than the 15 Gallonsper Mirtuteavailable resultingin a severe drop in oil piessure hencethruster power. The informedPilot may well decideto disengage the Automaticcircuitswhilst ntarroeuvring these in condition ensurehaximum to power at the thrusters wherc it is nrostrecluired.

r9.5.3
Clearly a knowledgeof all the vehiclessystems essential efficientand effective is for ROV operations the Pilotmustbe well awareof the vehicles ancl capabilities. Thefourth principle is tlut tha Pilot mustknow the vehtr:les geometry', systems and performanc'ccapu hi I i ri cs. 19.6.0 Effects of Controls 19.6.1 The effectsand secondary effectsof thecontrolsmust be appreciated the ROV by Pilot and theseare not.alwavs straightforwardas it first seenrs.For'example as if lateralthrust.is to a vehicleit nray be expected sintplytraverse to laterally lpplied maintaining heacling. its Howeverit is unlikelylhatthelateral ihruster positiohed is in the exactmetacentre the vehicle,and thereis therefore of likely to be the secondary of or 9{fu-cJ a headingc:hange, roll which will be requiredto be counteracted. S.imilarly, a pilot is endeavouring change h^eading a vehiclehe may well if to the of find that the vehiclecreeps forwardas the siernthrusters-nlay well be more eifective when operating the forwarddirectionthan when operating the reverse in in direction, this may needto be counteructed the application rever^-se by of thrustin association with heading controls. Thefifth principle is; thereJore, that the Pilot must know the effectsand secondary effectsof the control inputs. This is often bestestablished iniiialty in a test tank or on the surface,where the Pilot can seethe vehicleand cun monitor ihe eXectsdirectly, but can be quickly ttppreciatedby the experienced Pilot in the work siiuation.

281

19.7.0 Vehicle Momentum 19.7.1 sufficiently The significanceof the vehiclesmomentumis very often not appreciated very differently to cqq il this respect. Whenturning a by PilSts as ROVs behave co.ner in a car the steeringis simply applieduntil the desirednew direction is achieved,then removed. iire coritrotinput and resultanteffect on the car is shown in control input to an ROV would not, however,have the same Figure 1. The Same efiect. Becausethe car is in contactwith the road, the momentumeffects are minimal. The ROV will, however,continueto turn after the control input has been removed,due to the high momentum and low drag forces (particularlyin the caseof heavycompactvehicles). 19.7.2 as resultin overshoot shownin A similarcontrolinput to an ROV will therefore an ROV would be of change Figure2. The requiredcontrol input to affecta heading requiredto put in an opposite in as"shown Figuie 3. The ROV Pilot is therefore the control actionio every initiatingactionto achieve desiredvehiclemovements. This is a very important skill for the ROV Pilot to attain and becomesapparentas the when thePilot is requiredto cotlnleraclIhe rrehrc\e vehicle descendito seabed, if the on momentumby applyingup-thfust seeing seabed, he is to avoid touching iisiUifity. If the Pil6t.simplyremovesthe down thrust,the rp,iifing t'f'e ;;;;;"d the it momentum'ofthJvehicle will ensure continueidownwardsuntil eitherdr.ag, the it, prevents often obscuring visibility by dislodging umbilicalor the seabed sediments. that The sixth principle is thereJore, the ROV Pitot must be dwore ofthe vehicles with an momentumond be prepured to countcructeach inititttirtgt:rtntrolntovement rno\)enrcnl. opposite

o

Z

O 1&3
STEERING WHEEL POSITIONS

Figure19.1

19.7.0 Vehicle Momentum 19.7.1 sufficiently The significanceof the vehiclesmomentumis very often not appreciated respect. When turning a by Pilots as ROVs behavevery differently to carsin this corner in a car the steeringis simply applieduntil the desirednew direction is achieved,then removed. The control input and resultanteffect on the car is shown in Figure 1. The samecontrol input to an ROV would not, however,have the same effect. Becausethe car is in contactwith the road, the momentumeffectsare minimal. The ROV will, however,continueto turn after the control input has been removed,due to the high momentum and low drag forces (particularlyin the caseof heavycompactvehicles). 19.7.2 as resultin overshoot shownin A similarcontrol input to an ROV will therefore of Figure2. The requiredcontrol input to affecta headingchange an ROV would be requiredto put in an opposite as shownin Figure.1. The ROV Pilot is therefore vehiclemovements. the control actionto every initiatingactionto achieve desired as apparent the This is a very importantskill for the ROV Pilot to attainand becomes the when the Pilot is requiredto counteract vehicle vehicledescends seabed, to if the on momentumby applyingup-thrust seeing seabed, he is to avoid touching down and spoilingthe visibility. If the Pilot simply removesthe down thrust,the until eitherdrag,the it downwards momentumof the vehiclewill ensure continues the prevents often obscuring visibility by dislodging it, umbilicalor the seabed sediments. that the ROV Pilot must be uwore oJ'thevehicles The sixth principle is theref'ore preparetl to courLtcrut:t each initittting control movementwith an momentumund be )\'(tttc . ttl opprtsite tn(

c
INPUT CONTROL

z

O 1&3
STEERING WHEEL POSITIONS

Figurel9.l

282

n'
Q z
Q ras
JOYSTICK POSITIONS

'lolRov
MANOEUVRE

aq())RSHoor

Figure19.2

'/Y
@s Q+
\ 2,3&4 | . \r/ /

,lffHfiB

Q,
Qz Qr
JOYSTICK POSITIONS

Figure19.3

283

19.8.0Drag Effects 19.8.1 is Perhapsthe most crucial factor effecting vehicle p-erformance the effect of drag on particularthe fact thai the dragforces on the umbilical can be much the vehicle and in greater than the drag on the vehicleitself. The exampleshownin Figure 19.4shows Elearlythe relative iize of thesedrag forceson a typi-al medium sizedwork vehicle traveliing at ll2 a knot at a depthof300m. The examplealso showsthe effect of the umbilicallength,henceangleat the vehicle,on the directionof theseforces. 19.8.2 the In this examplethe drag on the vehicleitself is shownto be 20 kg whereas to^atension horizontalcomponentof tne umbilical drag is 120 kg. This correspoqqs in the umbilicai of 140 kg at 30 to the horizontal and 240 kg at 60 . SiglLftllntly the of upwardcomponent this forceis 70 kg in the first case(Figure4.) and207kg i1 the the case(Figure 5). This neans that in many cases primaryforce at a vehicle second force as may be may well be the upwardpull of the umbilicaland not a backwards dragforcessee of expected.For furtherinforrlation on the rnethod calculating Chapter18. principte is that theforcesJ'rotnthe umbilical can be at least ten times the The seventh 'tight drag force on the vehicleitself, and the length of the umbilical is significant as a tendsto pull the vehicleup off the.iob, rather than exert a purell' horizontal stri"ng' astern as tnay otherwisebe expected. force

Depth300m

1

Tension 240k9

a--

20kg Drag (Vehicle) Speed:72 knot -+

I

+
I I
Fh:1 20kg <-

Figure19.4

Figure19.5

284

f9.9.0 Hand/Eye Co-ordination 19.1.0 Hand/eyeco-ordinationis a skill that is partly hereditaryand partly developed through practice. Co-ordinationis generallyover rated as a Piloting skill, as it is just one of the many requiredand not an end in itself . The differencein co-ordination as abilitiesbetween one Pilot and another often inconsequential very few ROV is preferable that a It tasksdemanda very high degree co-ordination. is generally of here,ratherthan simply having Pilot hasa good graspof all the principlesmentioned highly developed Hand - eye co-ordination. The eighthprinciple is that the ROV Pilot must developa high degreeof Hand - eye co-ordination. 19.10.0BE IN IT! 19.10.0 ROVs are difficult to fly because that is , thereis no they are RemotelyOperated, 'feel' imagine with them. The capable Pilot will, however, thathe is associated lean when turning and actuallyonboardthe vehicle,to the extentthat he nray actLrally 'duck' as the vehicleapproaches This is a good trait as being able to obstacles. greatlywith navigationand imagine. in onesself to be ac:tually the vehicleassists onentatl0n. The ninth principle is that the ROV Pilot should be able to imagine that he is actually 'in' particulurll,wlrcnnavigatingand attempting orientatehimself. the vehicle, to 1 9 . 1 1 . 0F a m i l i a r i t l ,a n d E x p e r i e n c e 19.1l.l To be fully competent ROV Pilotmusthave'internalised' principles skills the the and mentioned the previousnine sections.This can onlv be achieved thorough in by initial training,as providedat Wray Castle, followed by fanriliarityof the ROV ROV Pilot will systemoperated and experience thejob in hanC.The pragnratic of alwaystakethe time to familiarisehimselfwith a new vehicleor taskin a sheltered prior to undertaking iob for real. environment the The tenthprinciple is that the ROV Pilot will befamiliar wirh the ROV he is operating and will have experience tlrc task in hand whereverpossibleprior to the offshore of operatbn. 19.12.0 Diffi cult"vComparison

19.t2.r
The following comparison usedat Wray Castleas a methodof explainingthe is of with airline Pilots:degree difficultl, experienced ROV Pilotsas compared by Imagineyou are to f1y an airlinefrom London to New York. Firstly replacethe aircraft's high resolution radarsystems with its sonar equivalent, system a thatis many thousand iessaccurate. Then limit thePilotsvisibilityto around tinres three metres. Arrangefor the wind to blow at around300 Knots with directional changes

'6-\

every 6 hours. Finally arrangefor a massivesteelstructurein the middle of the Atlantic oceanand attachthe aircraft to a tetheranchoredto the ground at the other end. Effectively you will be reducingthe information availableto the Pilot and increasingthe externalforces acting on the aircraft. This comparisonservesto enablethe traineeto understand natureof thejob and to the 'internalising' comprehendthe reasonsfor fully the l0 Piloting principles explained above. 19.f3.0 Sonar Interpretation 19.13.1 In order for the ROV Pilotftechnician to be able to understand and interpretthe sonarsthat are typically usedduring ROV operationsit is necessary review the to theory. The depth of this review is sufficient to allow the scientifically educated readerto gain an appreciation the complexity of sonartheory and the factors that of affect the ability of a Sonarand its Operatorto detecta target. This review is not intendedto be exhaustiveand the interested readeris recommended read the to appropriatescientific literature. 19.13.2 SONAR is an acronymfor SoundNavigationand Ranging. The term is usedfor systems that utiliseunderwater acoustic energyfor obseruation obstacle and avoidance.Sonaris preferred Radarbecause the extremelyhigh attenuation to and of (EM) radiated scattering that Electro-Magnetic energysuffersin a highly conductive medium suchas seawater. The AcousticTrianglehasthe sanre purpose the ElectricalTriangleusedfor Ohms as law andis to showthe relationships quantities responsible between fundantental the for soundtransfer:-

Figure 19.6 Where:- P = AcousticPressure (Equivalent VoltageV) in micro Pascals. to U = ParticleVelocity (Equivalent CurrentI) in m/s. to (Equivalent Resistance in AcousticOhms. Z = AcousticImpedance R) to

286

Then the acoustic ecluivalent V = IR is P =UZ and the acoustic of equivalent of ElectricalPoweris:- Instantaneous AcousticIntensity= PU. The soundvelocity (C) at or nearthe surface a watertemperature 15.5C and a in of salinityof 34 partsper thousand 1500m/s.This valuecan be takento be reasonably is constant throughout normaloperating conditions, allowances but shouldbe madefor its variances when undertaking detailedsurveywork or similar. 1 9 . 1 4 . 0 h e S o n a rE q u a t i o n : T The generallyaccepted equation the signalto noiseratio (Ns/N) at the transducer for of a sonar is:Ns/N = (SL - 2PL + TS) - (BN - DI) Where: SI- rs the Source Level in dBs. This variesfrom l0dBs to over 100dllsdependent the powercapabilityof the sonartransmitter, on type, sizeand the directionality the transducer of array. PL is the propagation losses which thereare the following types:for i) i;) iii) iv) vi) v) 'IS Spreading loss. Attenuation Loss. Scattering Absolution. and Heating absorbtion. by Seabed and surface reflectionand absorption. Reverberatiorrs.

is theTargetStrength and is the echolevel fronr an actualtargetin dBs uhovethe echolevel of a reference sphere.The value ofTarset Strength dependent is on:i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Sizeof targer. Shape target. of Orientation tarset. of Internalconstructlon target. of Extentof Anechoic coatingl. Frequerrcy transntission. of

BN is the Background Noiseandconsists thefollowingtypes:of i) ii) iii) Self noiseis that noiseproduced the receiverand its by platform,it can be decreased good designand maintenance. by Ambient Noise is from; Thermal,SeaSurface, Biological, Traffic, Rain, Surf. and Turbulence sources. Reverberations the portionof the scattered are sound from any reflectingsurface the oceanwhich returnsto the in l i s t e n i n gr a n s d u c e r . t

DI is ihe Directivity Index of the receivingarraywhich is dependent on the frecluency the lengthof the array. Directivity is for and exanrple betterwhen the lengthof the arrayis twice the wavelength of the ri:c:eived signalthan a quarterof the wavelength.Put another way, the transducer arrayneeds be longerat lower frequencies obtain to to t h c s r r n rd i r e c t i v i t v . e

287

The operatorsability to detecttargetsis also a factor which shouldbe taken account of by the Recognition Differential RD where the RD = NsA.{when thereis a 50Vo chanceof detectionby the operator. The aboveservesto show the complexity of the Physicsinvolved in Sonaroperations. In practice,althoughit is important to be awareof all thesefactors,the experienced operatorwill becomefamiliar with his equipment,the optimum settingsand the displayedinformation in order to identify targets. 19.15.0The Transducer The Transduceris the name given to deviceswhich convert energyfrom one form to in hydrophone) casethis is the another, the active(ratherthanthe'Passive'i.e. conversion electrical of energyinto soundandvice versa. Thereare two main typesof transducers:Electric Field Types Piezo-electric CrystalMicrophones, Transnritters etc. when under Electrostrictive The alteration physicaldinrensions of the actionof an electricfield. MagneticField Types Electrodynamicmovingcoil. - nrovirrg Elec:tnlnragrrelic iron. Field typesare most conlmon. With all Transducers the Of thesethe Electric: amplitudeof the signaloutputdepends uponthe signalstrength over the frequency bandwidth.

Output Signal dBs

Frequency Figure19.7

288

Q is the Quality Factor Q = fRBandwidth (W). and Q is important in the designof transducers in an active Rx hydrophonethe bandwidth W should be wide enoughto accommodate transmission the frequencyand the full rangeof Doppler shift while maintaininga high quality factor to attain satisfactory output signal levels. Transducers the Electrostrictivetype have of capacitance and the only way to measure transducer deteriorationis to measurethe capacitance plus insulationand noise. Transducers generallyconstructed from are severalsmallerelenrents ratherthan one larger one for severalreasonsbut primarily to enabledirectionalcoverageto be shiftedfrom MechanicalSteeringto Electrical Scanning, and to improvedependability althoughit alsoimprovesdiiectivity and eases manufacture.

f9.16.0 Trade-off: 19.16.1 In all cases losses higherthe greater frequency, the are the this meansthat the Sonars with the highestfrerluencies havethe shortests range. Howeverthe higherfrequency sonars havegreater Directivity enablinggreater resolution be obtained.This means to that thereis inevitablya 'trade-offto be madebetween Resolution and Rangewhen decidinga Sonars operating frequency. 19.17 Transmission pulses: .0 Thereare two basictypesof transmission usedin modernday Sonar: 19.17.1 The first transntits f)'ecluency a ranrpand conrpares frecprency the returning the of signalwith that beingtransrlitted (thedifference frecluency) obtaintherange. ro 19.t7.2 The rampedfrequencies contained are within a pulseand thereis a blankingperiod pulses. between 19.t7.3 The pulserepetitionfrequency (PRF)is increased the rangeis decreased as enabling (usuallyPPI) to usethe sarne the^display graticules the CRT and simply to usea on differentscale. t9.17.4 A major advantage this type is the fact that the differencesignal can be amplified of and listenedto by the operator who can thenjudge the rangeof targets theby flequency; the lower the frequencythe lessis the differencefrequencyairOtherefore the closerthe target. The disadvantage that theseare often more efpensive than the is simplepulsealternative. t9.17.5 The simp_le pulset1,pe simply sends shortpulses soundat one fiecluency.The of rangeis determined fronrthe time takenforthe pulsetoreturn. It is-usuaiforthe

289

pulse is transmittedto protect the receiver receiverto be blankedas the transmission and or The headcan eitherbe mechanically electricallyscanned the returns circuits. on a computermonitor where they can be logged on computer are usually displayed disks. 19.17.6 of The advantages theseare that they are cheap,small andbecausethe data such as altimetersand profilers to be protocol allow muliiple deviCes communications pair, simpleto install and versatile. to connected a singletwisted 19.17.7 are The disadvantages that they transmitonly one frequencymaking them a compromisebeiweenrangeand resolution,and also ir is not possibleto judge the rangeby an audibleoutput. 19.18.0 Example of Ramped Frequency Sonar frequency Sonaris the Ametek SeaProbemodel 19.18.1 An exampleof a ran.rped ramppulseis a frequency vehicles.The transmitted 2504 as fitted ro many Scorpirc front of are and receivingheads fitted to the from 107to l22KHz. The iransmitting takesplaceas the headis turnedeitherin sectorscanmode the vehicleand scanning sonarreturnsthat motor. The audiooutputrepresents by or continuously an electricai by frequencies the receiverand fed into the havebeenconveriedinto audiodifference and in outputis furtherprocessed the.analyser {itpluy speaker.The samereceiver in circuitsand is presented PPI forrnaton the CRT. Figure 19.8showsthe display unit for this sonar.

rxa{SxCrtO //

r((urri^rtOi

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e^N6t.rr ftP t5 gJ/ acvi G rx

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lOOt L 15O^SOiat

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Figure19.8 Ametek250ASonar

290

19.18.2 The operating controlsof the Ametek 250,4havethe following functions:1. CRT: 7 inch CRT thatrepresents targetdatain PPI format. Equippedwith an illuminatedgraticuleand filter. Graticuleis graduated 5 degree in inciements and m^arked every 45 degrees from 0 degrees relative with rangerings for determination of targetrange. 2. Threshold cnntrol: Adjuststhe level of intensityat which targets are displayed and setsthe level for rejectionof low amplitude video signalsthat arein the output^of the.analyzer. This controlis effectivelyusedto improvethe signalto noise ratio of the displayed infomrationby rejectingthe low level iignals and noiseleaving only the stronger signalsdisplayed. 3. Illumination control: Controlsthe brightness the controlpaneland of graticules the displayunit. on 4. ScanSrvitch: Selects transducer the scanmode: ON position:Transducers continuously a clockwise scan in direction. OFF position: TransdLlcer scanis halted. SEC_p^ositiort: Transducer scanning a preset degrees is 90 scananglecenffed on (X)0degrees automatically reversing the scanliritits at 5. 6. REV button: Whendepressed, causes scanto rotatein the the counterclockwise direction. When released, scanis in the clockwisedirection. RCVR GAIN: Controlsthe gainof the Sonarand markerreceivercircuit, therebycontrollingthe level of its outputto the analyzer and audiocircuits. Increasin_g gain increases level of the signalsand the noisetogether the the therebydoesnot improvethe signalto noiseraiio. POWER Srvitch: Controls powerro the DisplayUnit. the VOLUME control: Controls loudness the soundheardvia the speaker the of or headset. RANGE FT: Selects operating rhe rangeof the sysrem rheMarker or m o d e . S e l e c t a b l e r a n ga rs ;0 - 2 0 f t , 0 - 7 5 f t , 0 - 2 ( [ f t , 0 - 7 5 0 f t a n d0 ee 2000ft. MKR Channel:May be tunedto any frequency. Displays direction the but not the rangeto markerbeacons.

7. 8. 9.

10.

The basicfunctionsof thesecontrolssuchas gain and threshold similarfor all are Sonars and a full understanding thesefunctionsarereqLrired the operator. of by

291

SimplePulseSonar Scanned 19.19.0Mechanicall-v

l9.19.r
the Sonars.are TritechST325,525 Simple_Pulse Scanned of Examples Mechanically AvoidanceSonars.A typicaldisplay_f91tle1e ina iS Imagingand Obsiacle is are inoludedur Fig.ir. 19.9and the specifications includedas Figure19.10 It is 'trade-offb-etween.range resolution with theseso that the and importantto n6t. the job. For examplethe ST325KHz hasa rangefor correctSonarsan be selected each"degtees, range.of the ST725KHz hasa shorter of of 200 metresand a beamwidth 4.5 the of 2 degrees.In.bothcases with ibeamwidth resolution 100 metresbut a grearer which narrows sizeof the transducers the can belmprovedby increasing resolution the beamwidth.

{
R
E €

{
o

e
s

€ E
V)

Figure 19.9 Sonar DisPlaY ST325 325kHz 4 . 5 "x 2 4 " 2.5"x24" 200 metres sec. 60 - 1000p - 40" sec. 8 1 9 5m m 1 9 9m m 70 mm 1 2 3m m 1kg 0.5kg 3000metres RS232 RS485, 2,200metres Optoisolation Zenerclamping 18- 30 VDC @ 900mAmax 6 Tritech pin sT525 525 kHz 2 . 5 "x 2 4 " 1.2"x24" 150metres sec. 60 - 1000p 8 - 40" sec. 1 9 5m m 1 9 9m m 70 mm 1 2 3m m 1kg 0.5kg 3000metres RS232 RS485, 2,200metres Optoisolation Zenerclamping 't8 - 30 vDC max @ 900mA 6 Tritech pin sT725 725 kHz 2" x24" N/A 100metres sec. 60 - 1000p 8 - 40" sec. 1 9 5m m N/A 70 mm N/A 1kg 0.5kg

Frequency normal Beamwidth, Big Beamwidth, ToP range Maximum Pulsewidth Scan rate Overalllength Overalllength,Big ToP Diameter Maximumdiameter,Big ToP Weightin air Weight in water Depthrating Communications Long line drive Protection Powerrequirements Gonnector/ penetrator

3000metres RS232 RS485, 2,200metres Optoisolation Zenerclamping 18- 30 VDC @ 900mAmax Tritech6 pin

Figure 19.10 Tritech Sonar Specification

292

19.20.0ElectronicallyScanningSonar 19.20.1 Sonaris the Tritech SE500. An example Scanning of An exanrple an Electronically 1. fbr this is shownin Figure19.1 This hasrapidSonarimageupdate of a display of only allowing a 60 degreescanangleratherthanthe ratesbJt hasthe disadvantage headitselfand the system Figure19.12showsthe Sonar full 360 degrees. specifications.

Sonor inrage of platform

risers

Sonar High Resolution Scanned Figure 19.11Tritech SE500Electronically Displa-v

- rpact, high speedimagingsonarfor

. ROTV, MCM andothersubsea .:tions require that veryfastsonar image
.J\.

Sonarhead

4 persecond Sonar update rate,maximum 500 kHz Frequency 60' Sector Width 64 Number sonarbeams of 13.4" angle Verticalscan 3' - 13.4" vertical scanangles Optional 2.7" width Horizontal beam 75 metres range Maximum on 100mm (depending range) Range resolution Transform FastFourier method Beam forming SDLC Dataprotocol @375kBaud pair twisted Screened, Datatransmission 265mm Length 1 0 0m m Diameter 24 VDC @ 2A Power supply 300 metres Depthrating 2.5 kg Weight air in 1.25 kg in Weight water polyurethane aluminium, Anodised Materials

Headand Specifications Figure19.12SE500

193

Bathvmetric Sonar Multibeam 19.21.0

t9.2r.r
9001,shownin An exampleof a MultibeanrBathymetricSonarsystemis the SeaBat and the andupdates sonarimage afull displays Figure19.13. This Sonarsystenl in profile of the seabed real time. The high datadensityallow total area digitised 'footprint' for makingit suitable such degrees within a of 90 by 1.-5 coverage floor mapping. as applications sea

SonarSystem Bathymetric Figure19.13Reson, SeaBat 9001Multibeam

294

pnrfilingSonars 19.22.0 Scanning 19.22.1 in is (usually Profiler display shown dual)Scanning An example a nrultihead of the to vertically downwards determine profileof the is to TheSonar used scan 19.14. it. that as such a pipeline maybe across seabedandanyfeature

n
.i. ar a

{.4 \

profilerDisplay Scanning Figure19.14TritechSTl000Multi-Head 19.23.0 Altimeters Altimeters used are altinreter. of 19.23.1 Figure19.1-5 shows example an acoustic an bed. fronrthesea of the on ROVsto detemrirre heieht thevehicle

Altimeters Precision Figure19.15TritechsT200and ST500

195

19.24.0Doppler Sonar frequency L9.24.1The Doppler Sonarworks on the principlethat their transmitted if or to appears increas-e decrease thereis relative movementof the Sonarwith respect moved. speed and distance determine to toine watercolumnor seabed precisely 19.17showsthe andFigure Figure19.16showstheTritechDS30DopplerSonar of technicalspecifications this sonar.

SonarUnit Figure9.16 TritechDS30Doppler

Operatingfrequency Transducer mooe ............. Operating Operatingrange(forseabedtracking) Trackingmodes ....'..-.... voltage Operating Velocitv VelocitY accuracy Velocityresolution Uodaterate ......."....... Length(inc.connector) diameter Minimum Depthrating W e i g h itn a i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W e i g n itn w a t e r. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...'...........'.. Communications Analogueoutput.......'....

1 MHz """"""""""" "" 4transducerJANUSanay .. PulseDoppler 2 metresto 30 metres Seabedand Seawater .""" 12 VDC to 48 VDC +o to 3'75 m/sec +2'5 cm/sec +0'5 cm/sec """' 5 updates/sec 365mm ' 95mm """"' 3,000m .."""""-"""" skg """"""""""' 2kg RS-232/RS-485 """' 0-3'75VDC

SonarSpecifications Figure19.17TritechDS30Doppler

296

19.25.0 Use of the Sonar 19.25.1 It is important to ensurethat the Sonaris correctly installedand maintained or clean as-grease headsshouldbe_wiped prior to testing. In particularthe transducer performance and if the headis oil filled this should be kept clean and bit witt impair water free. that the head in can be tested air by turningthem on and observing 19.25.2 Sonars should path in closeproximity to the_head scanscorrectly,placing targetsin the beam correctly. The Sonar indicate Sonai tiansnrii and receivecircuitry is operating manual should be referredto, prior to thesetests,as somemodelswill overheatif operatedfor too long in air. will only testthe vehiclecan be deployed.Sonars surface 19.25.3After a successful are sometimesonly show echoesthat reflect soundback, suchthat hard shiny surfaces can textures seenwhen they are at right angleto the Sonarhead,and rough seabed completely. blot out smallertargets 19.25.4The plan view alsodoesnot showhow high an objectis unlessa shadowis is to cast,in which casethe lengthof the shadow related the heightof theobject,its of range,and the heightof the Sonarhead. Interpretatiorl Sonardatadevellps with or of expirience. Sonarreflections isolatedsmallobjectsgive no indicationof shape tend to haveregular or suchas Platforms Pipelines attitude. Man madestructures, patterns which are easierto identify. 19.25.5Using a Sonaris ratherlike looking at a world madeof shiny black plastic,in only show when the the dark, witlionly a narrowtorch beamfor illumination,targets on beamshines thentdirectlyat right angles. in or that when closeto largeobjects, in a depression the seabed, 19,25.6 Renrember may linrited. Very strongref-lectors give viewing rangentay be severely that the in.range. by line andareidentifled beingequispaced alonga bearing nrultiple echoes due echoes to theirair excellent persist, reduc:C Gain. Fishalsoproduce the If they targets. sacsand can often obliterate keepthe vehicleheadingas steadyas possibleto fbr 19.25.7When searching objects, modefor If stopthe imageblurring.-Sit on the seabed if necessary. usinga sidescan f1y the vehiclea few metresabove at keepthe vehiclesteady, longerranges sealching, on rangeand quality. Depending waterdepth the seabEdto improvethe detection or by be caused surface and vehicledepth,therenray be ring like echoes.Thesecan and seabed directreflectiorts may be difficult to avoid. to with Sonarwill enablethe operator be able to quickly setthe 19,25.8Experience without as Gain, ThresholdanclRangecontrolsto give as evena background possible, perfornrance <;apabilities. the nraxinrising Sonars thu.s the swamping display,

297

CHAPTER 20 QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) SCHEMES 20.1.0 Background to QA Schemes

20.r.r
increasein products,and their consequent The revolution in the quality of Japanese that the generalbelief throughoutbusiness. Global market share,has brbught about 'Quality Marters'. This belief fias permeated into the Offshore industry and.it is now to ndr-ui for Operatorsto require thbir suppliers be registered_fo1recognised 1 Assuiancescheme. The standaidthat is relevantto ROV Contractorsis euality Council a Institute, British NationalAccreditation uir.rt6d by the British Standards is the sameas international C"rtifi"A dody and is known as B55750 Part 1 which firsr appeared EN 29001. This standard ISOEQQ1 the Europeanstandard and standard defence05 seriesof standards in 1979as BS5750 which was basedon the ministry of which was updatedwith a lessprescriptive,more flexible framework in 1987. It is ISO9000 which as that is now accepted the internationalstandard this standard without quality.standards provides a practicalaction plan for managersto implement 'management of andvagaries .theso called becomingionfused by the intangibles "The as of remainder this chapterwill refer to this standard IS09000. experts'.

20.1.2
level of.quality an are standards a meansof ensuring agreed TheseQuality Assurance and throughbutthe servicecontractfrom bidding through to job completion/rep.orting of the r"*eio reassure client that the performance the contractwill be carriedout to agreedperformanceand reporting slandards.There is a generalconception.offshore, 'something 'paperwork that and exercise' are tliat theseQuality Assuranieschemes a to affectsthe office'. It is the intentionof this c!ap19r explainthe quality. only to and its relevance offshoreROV work as a meansto raising sysrenl managemenr and standards reducingequiprrlent'downtime'. operaiional

20.1.3
procedures nlanagement a ISO9000is fundamentally setof quality policy statements, but of standard QualityAssurance is this is the accepted and work placereferences, ideal (TQM). TQM is an all e.ncompassing only part of totat Quality Management an to total quality throughout and thai includesattitudeassessmenf a commitment can furtherimprovequality IS09000 that haveachieved Companies organisation. are of thiough the implementation TQM and many ROV contractors strivingto this. achieve 20.2.0 The Quality ManagementSystem

20.2.1
as can be thoughtof as a threelevel structure shown system The quality management by in Figure 20.f. fne threelevelsare linked together quality recordsand the auditingprocess.

20.2.2
decisions level wherepolicy, plansand strategic Level 1 is the Seniorlnanagement poticy manual coversihe quality policiesand planscoming are made. The Quality from the Seniorlevel of managentent..

299

20.2.3
level which will include the Level 2 is the middle or operationalmanagement or Offshore Superintendent Team Leaderand the OnshoreProject Manager. This key quaryy and implementationof -th-e for group will bi responsible the interpretation for of and the development workable procedures gyeryonelo follow. The ioliiies which are developedand Quality Procedures Manual coversall the procedures middle level of the organisation. implementedat this

20.2.4
The Quatity Policy Manual and the Quality Procedures Manual togetherwith a are guide-toworkplacereferences often referredto by the genericterm:- The Quality Management Manual

20.2.5
teamitself. The the The third level is the workforce which includes operational the workforce will follow the proceduresandconsult WorkplaceReference Documents.
lcvel Organisational Documentatiott

Level I

Planning and Polic.v

Quality Policy Manual

Quality Management

Level2

Management and Procedures

Quality procedures or Operations manual

Manual

Level 3

Task

Workplace References

FIGURE20.1 20.3.0The QualityPolicyManual into six sections: divided 20.3.1Thisis usually i) ii) Introduction PolicyStatements

300

-----

iii) iv) v) vi)

Organisational Structure Management Responsibility Authority and Management Review The Quality Managemenr systemand it relationship ISo9000. to

20.3.2
The organisations quality. programme put into contextin the introduction by is introducingthe organisation its quality management and sysrem. 20.3.3 the Thgjt are usuallytwo Policy Statements, Mission Statementand the Quality Policy Statement An exampleof a Mission Statementmight be:- Company'x' undertakes deliver to the highg_s1 technologyservicepossibleto the custo-ers iatisfaction uny *fr"ir in the world. 'World-wideserviceattempted with perfection'. An exampl.e_ofQuality Policy Statementmight be:- It is the Policy of Company a 'x'to: Provideproductsand services which nreeiourclientsrecluirements, the by implementation maintenance a costeffectiveQuality Mbnagemeni and of ryri"'and based the conceptof 'TotalQuality'in which euerynrenibe. itaff has on of accepts.a personal responsibility q.uality.Thesepolicy statements usually for are signedby the seniormanagement the organisation indicatetheir commitment of to and supportfor them. 20.3.4 The organisationalstructure section the Policy Manualwill describe of how the organisation works. This will include organisaiional an chartwhichwill show:i) How the linesof authoritythroughout organisation organised the are around projectsor functionssuchas; sales oplrations. or How many linesof authoritythereare,and the titlesof the rolesin the ii) hierarchy. iii) What formalised directand cross-reporting relationships exist between lines of management respon bility. si In additionto showingmanagentent rolesthe chartwill show the roleswhich are rpPortantfor the Quality Management systemsuchas the Quality vfunug"i anO Quality Inspectors.

20.3.5
detail.the.responsibilities reportingrelationships the rolesidentifiedin the and of organisational chart.

The.Management Responsibility Authority and secrion describe further will in 20.3.6

The Management Review sectionwill describe systenr which senior the by management evaluate Qualitl,Management will the systent.

3f)l

20.3.7 The Quality Managementsystemand its conformancewith ISO9000 requirements sectionwill describethe scopeof the Quality ManagementSystemand its ielationship with ISO9000requirements.The scopemay be limited by the fact that only somedivisions of the companyareregisteredand by the fact that product Part 1 whilst are supplyand designcompanies coveredby ISO9001/BS5750 Productionand Installalioncompaniesare coveredby ISO90028S5750 Part2. In the companies; whole companyis usuallycoveredby the caseof ROV contracting Part ISO9001/8S5750 1. 20.4.0 The Quality ProceduresManual 20.4.1 The Quality ProceduresManual is oftenreferredto as the Operations Manual It 'nriddlemanagement' will and is primarily intended the useof the organisations for and processes the organisation the procedures in defineand describe management the work smoothly. This manual is the that must be followed to make theseprocesses heartof the quality management systemand setsup a detailedmodelof operational how the organisation shouldoperate. 20.4.2 the The Management processes sectionwill describe main groupsof management projectmanagement the role of and conffacts, activitiessuchas:-Salesand marketing, as a memberof the or the offshore supervisor Team Leaderwho may be considered processes serviceproviders suchas ROV for management team. The management 'customer teams are driven'. This meansthat the management Contractors usually for in will behave a way that providesthe maximum satisfaction the client. Some 'technology and may alsobe driven'sucha research areas the organisation of development. 20.4.3 manualare The Quality Management Proceduressection the Quality Procedures of 'the Procedures'. The procedures thereto inform are oftenreferredto sinrplyas: peoplehow to implementall the n'lanagenrent activitiesthat areto be donein the The procedures thereto ensure the organisation. are that all the peopleacross organisation thingsin the sameway which fits with how otherpeopleare working. do The procedures will include:i) ii) iii) iv) How all the managernent activitiesarecarriedout. Who will carry out all theseactivities. How the activitiesare to be docunrented. for and their A list of the workplace instructions that will be needed reference location.

Procedures will be focused management that contracts on suchas;ensuring activities, are carriedout to the requirements the client, and personnelselection,training and of reward structures. Training standards considered be extremelyimportant,if quality procedures are are to if must know how to follow them. It is preferred training to be followed,personnel

302

to are standards verified by someform of externalassessment recognisedstandards (NVQs). NVQs can be extremely useful as suchas National Vocational Qualification to on they are partly assessed the ability of employees follow workplaceinstructions schemes. as requiredby Quality Assurance manualwill however be a descriptionof the An important part of the operations of duties and responsibilities personnelat every level. An exampleof a typical descriptionof the dutiesof an ROV OperatorMaintainer(This is the sameas Pilotfiechnician and is the term preferredby Cablelaying companiessuch as BT (Marine)Ltd from whoseOperation Manual this was taken)is given below :JOB TITLE: OPERATOR/MAINTAINER To undertake safeoperation Equipment as of PURPOSE OF JOB: the directedby the Team Leaderor SeniorOperator/lMaintainer. ACCOUNTABLETO: SeniorOperatorMaintainer

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES has An Operatorfit4aintainer a responsibilityto:others,in i) Protectpersonalhealthand safety,and to take all stepsto safeguard line with the BT (Marine)Healthand SafetyPolicy. and ii) the Understand companyconcept Total Quality Managentent, to of contribute the continningprocess improvement. to of iii) Have an awareness the potentialdamage that can be caused the various by of pollution,and to ensure forms of environmental that all work is carriedout in protection. with the companypolicieson environnrental accordance iv) Equipment as directed. Undertake safeoperation subsea the of

v) work, as directedby the Undertake breakdown and routinemaintenance Senior Operator. vi) Assistin maintaining records rerluired. as

vii) nraintenance modificationwork on Equipment, as directedby Undertake and the Senior Operator. viii) ix) xi) x) Assistin mobilisation, required as Assistin the production operating instructions. of Assistin applyingcompanyquality assurance procedures. recordsas necessary. Updatestores and maintenance

NOTE: Equipment in the abovecaserefersto the Trencher, Plough, Scarab and other specialised tools and associated equipment operated BT (Marine)Ltd. This by will vary from contractto contractand companyto companydepending the on equipment operated.

30-3

20.5.0Workplace References 20.5.1
The Quality Policy and Quality Procedures manualsare providedprimarily for the middle and seniormanagement level of an organisation, and as suth are unlikely to be referredto regularly by the ROV Pilot/Technician, exceptto gain an understanding of the policies and management procedures they affect his job. Whilst it is as important for the Pilotffechnician to be awareof iheseit is the workplacereferences that will be most essentialto ensuringthat he carriesout his responsibilitiesto the prescribedquality standards.

20.5.2
The ISO9000 standard requiresthat personnel know exactly what referencematerials they are_likely needand where to find them. It is also extremelyimportant that to thesereferencedocumentsare kept up-to-dateand complete.

20.s.3
Workplacereferences be eitherinternally or externally generated. can Examples of internally generated workplace references are:i) ii) iii) iv) v) VI) vi) vii) Forms TechnicalManuals TechnicalInstructions TechnicalDrawings Instructions and Checklists InternalSpecifications Standards and Methodologies Testing for Reference and Research Materials

20.5.4
Examplesof Forms would include:Daily reports, Dive Logs and Equipment maintenance logs.

20.5.5
Examples Technical Manuals would include:the Manualsprovidedby of manufacturers specificequipment. for

20.5.6 Examples Jgghnical of Drawings would include: working drawings the for
equipme^nt. NOTE: It is particularly importantto modify thesedrawings and manuals as modificationsare undertaken the iystems,for the benefit of otheicrews. on

304

20.5.7
Examples Instructions and Checklists would include:Pre/Post of Dive Checklists.

20.5.8 Examples Internal of Specifications standards and would include: video
acceptance standards and calibrationstandards. 20.5.9 Examplesof Methodologies for Testing would include: calibrationand equipment testprocedures, procedures handlingnon-conformance's. and for

20.5.10
Examplesof Referenceand ResearchMaterials would include:Detailsof equipmentand methodsunderdevelopment, and areasof specialistknowledge available within the organisation. Thesewould alsoincluderelevant periodicals and research reports.

20.6.0
Externally Generatedworkplace Referencesarethe laws, standards and guidelines by bodieswhich are outsideyour organisation, which influence set but aspects what you do. Exarnples externallygenerated of of workplace references are:i) ii) iii) iv) Legislation. Industrystandards, codesof practiceand tradeassociation guidelines. Customer Specifications NationalVocationalQualifications work instructions bookssuchas this. or

20.6.r
Fxamplesof legislation would includeHealthand Safetylegislation suchas (SI)1019, health Statutory Instruments the and safety worliact SI 840andthe at Controlof Substances Hazardous Healthregulations (COSHH). ro

20.6.2 Examples IndustryCodes Practice of of include those issued theAODCsuch by as 'The
Safeuseof Electricityunderwater' 'ROV HandlingSystems'. and

20.6.3
Examples Cu.stomer of Specificationsinclude'Scopes Work' on Inspection of contracts similar specifications Ploughing/Cable or for laying or drill support activities.

20.6.4 Examples National of vocational might include EnTra the Qualifications
engineering. maintenance work instructions similarif developed this specific or for industry.They may alsoincludetrainingnotes handbooks or suchas this.

305

20.7.0 at It is important a guideto workplacereferences existsandis easilyavailable that Manual refersto the that everywork site. It is alsoimportant the QualityProcedures and references workplace wherever theyform part of theprocedures further specific references. procedures modifyingandupdating for these workplace 20.8.0 In conclusion is essential theROV Pilot/Technician understand it for to the references importance followingprocedures, workplace and of consulting internalising concept 'TotalQualityManagement'for successful the completion the of and of contracts thesatisfaction theclient,to ensure safety properoperation to of the of theequipment to safeguard own welfare. and their

306

Appendices

-307

Colour Codes AppendixA Resistor

COLOUR RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE VIOLET GRAY WHITE GOLD SILVER NO COLOUR

FIRST

SECOND

Drcrr(A)
2
-) 4 5 6 7 8 9
a

DrGrT(B) 2
a J A a

MULTIPLIER TOLERANC (D) (c0

5 6 7 8 9

100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000
+l- 5Vo +l- l07o +l- 20Va

308

Appendix B Electrical Formula RL Circuit (Series)Impedence R, C, and L Circuit (Series)Impedance

z = " , 1 n 2 *1 p 6
1) Sine-WaveVoltage Relationships Effectiveor r.m.sValue Eeff =Ema^ = E*a*=0.707Emax

Z = . , 1 R 2 +( X t -- x O 2

Maximum Value Emax = {Z Geff) = l.4I4Beff AC Circuit Current P l=E = Z ExP.F

AC Circuit Voltage E=lZP 1xP.F

2) AC Circuit Porver ApparentPower P=EI Power Factor P.F.= P EI = cos 0 True Power P=EIcos0=EIxP.F.

cos 0 = -------!MSSI power apparent 3) Transformers Voltage Relationship E p = N po r E . = E p x \
Es Ns Np CurrentRelationships s = Secondary p = Primary N = Numberof turns ParallelCircuit Impedance

Ip=Nt Is Np

Z=ZZ
Zt +Zz

309

AppendixC Formulasand Data (Hydraulic)
1. z.

motions' forceor modify power. maybe usedto multiply lt of is Hydraulics a means transmitting in undiminished all directions fluid on exerted a confined is transmitted LAW:Pressure PASCAL'S to areasand at rightangles them. and actswith equalforceon all equal by and ihe (circle), square diameter multiply .7854. A = D2 x '7854' To findthe areaof a piston

A

can be determined by exerted a piston The force(pounds) by (square inches) thepressure area the by multiplying piston F = P x A applied(PSl).

, t r t 5 . T o d e t e r m i n eh e v o l u m eo f l i q u i d( c u b i ci n c h e s ) e q u i r e d o m o v ea p i s t o na g i v e nd i s t a n c e m u l t i p l y t h e p i s t o n a r e a ( s q . i n c h e s )b y t h e s l r o k e r e q u i r e d( i n c h e s ) . V o l . = A x L . U 2 3 1 c u b i c i n c h e s = O n e . S .G a l l o n W o r k i s f o r c e a c t i n g t h r o u g h a d i s t a n c e .W O R K = F O R C E x D I S T A N C E ( E x a m p l e :W o r k ( i n . l b s . ) =F o r c e( l b s . )x D i s t a n c e i n . ) Work 7 . P o r v e ri s t h e r a t e o f d o i n g r v o r k . P o w e r = - - = Time
o.

Force x Distance Time

t y t o H y d r a u l i c i l s e r v e sa s a l u b r i c a n a n d i s p r a c t i c a l l n o n - c o m p r e s s i b lle .w i l l c o m p r e s sa p p r o x at 1.1920 3000PSI at 120oF. P a l m a t e l y0 . 4 o f 1 o / o t 1 0 O O S I a n d

H o 9 . T h e w e i g h to f h y d r a u l i c i l m a y v a r y r v i t ha c h a n g e i n v i s c o s i t y . o w e v e r ,5 5 t o 5 8 l b s . p e r c u b l c t h e v t s c o s i t yr a n g e f r o m 1 5 0 S S U t o 9 0 0 S S U a t 1 0 0 o F . foot covers y 1 0 . p r e s s u r ea t t h e b o t t o mo f a o n e f o o t c o l u m no f o i l r v i l lb e a p p r o x i m a l e l 0 . 4 P S l . T o l i n d t h e t p a a p p r o x i m a t e r e s s u r e t t h e b o t t o mo f a n y c o l u m no f o i l , m u l t i p l y h e h e i g h ti n f e e t b y 0 . 4 . e c 1 1 . A t m o s p i t e r i p r e s s u r e q u a l s1 4 7 P S I A a t s e a l e v e l . u c d 1 2 . G a u g e r e a d i n g s o n o t i n c l u c ea t m o s p l - e r ip r e s s u r e n l e s sm a r k e dP S I A . n o a e ) d T h e r em u s tb e a p r e s s u r e r o p( p r e s s u r d i i f e r e n c ea c r o S S n o r i f i c e r o t h e rr e s t r i c l i o t o c a u s e ' f o r vt h r o u g hi t . C o n v e r s e l yi,f t h e r ei s n o i l o w , t h e r e w ' i l lb e n o p r e s s u r e r o p . d l
1 A

A f l u i d i s p u s h e d ,n o t d r a w n ,i n t o a p u m p . p P i A p u m p d o e sn o t p u m p p r e s s u r ei;1 sp u r p o s e s t o c r e a l efl o r v . u m p s u s e dl o t r a n s m i t o w e ra r e p o s i t i v e i s p l a c e m e ntty p e . d usuaily

to.

a p r e s s u r ei s c a u s e db y r e s i s t a n c t o { l c r v A p r e s s u r e a u g ei n d i c a t e s h e l v o r k l c a d t a n y g i v e n g t . e moment. F l u i d st a k e t h e c o u r s eo f l e a s tr e s i s t a n c e .

a a

1 8 . S p e e d o f a c y l i n d e rp i s t o n i s d e p e n d e n tu p o n i t s s i z e ( p i s t o na r e a ) a n d t h e r a t e o f f l o v r i n t o i t . F l o r v( c u j n c h e s / m i n ' ) o R ) V e i o c i t y( i n c h e s / m r n . A r e a ( s q .i n . ) Flow=VelocitvxArea

310

Doubling through pipevariesinversely the square the insidediameter. a as of the Flowvelocity h i n s i d e i a m e t eirn c r e a s ets e a r e af o u rt i m e s . d (pressure drop)of a liquidin a pipe vary with velocity. losses 20. Friction to 2 1 . To find the actualareaol a pipe needed handlea givenflow,use the formula: A r e a( s q .i n . ; = GPM x '3208 (Ft./Sec.) Velocity
\JN

(Ft./Sec.) Velocity

GPM 3 . 1 1 7x A r e a( s q .i n . )

pipeis usually 2 2 . Theactual inside diameter standard of larger thanthe nominal sizequoted. conA v e r s i o n h a r ts h o u l d e c o n s u l t e w h e ns e l e c t i n p i p e . d c b g 2 3 . S t e e l n d c o p p e r u b i n g i z ei n d i c a t ets e o u t s i d e i a m e t e r . o f i n dt h e a c t u a il n s i d e i a m e t e r , a T t s h d d subtract two timesthe vrallthickness fromthe tube sizequoted.
z+.

Hydraulic hosesizesare usually designated theirnominal inside Withsomeexcepby diameter. d t i o n s t h i si s i n d i c a t e b y a d a s hn u m b e r e p r e s e n t i nh e n u m b e r f s i x t e e n t ih c hi n c r e m e n t s , n tg o i n t h e i ri n s i d e i a m e t e r . d f O n e H . P . = 3 3 , 0 0 0t . l b s .p e r m i n u t e r 3 3 , 0 0 0b s .r a i s e d n e f o o ti n o n e m i n u t eO n e H . P . = o l o . 7 4 6 w a t t s . n e H . P . = 4 2 . 4B T U p e r m i n u t e . O

zo

, T o f i n dt h e H . P .r e q u i r e do r a g i v e nf l o l r a t ea t a k n o w np r e s s u r eu s e t h e f o r m u l a : f = PumpOutputH P. = GPlv'l PSI x .000583 GPlilalqL x 171 4 T o f i n dt h e H . P .r e q u i r e t o d r i v ea h y d r a u l ip u m po f a g i v e n o l u m e t a k n o w n r e s s u r e , s e p d c v a u t h ef o r m u l a :
Prrmn lnnrrt l__p l _vr r r I r \ .u u Q G P vM Ax P uS l , x C u0 J0 J5 8 3 Pump Efficiency

G vr PM x PSI 1714 x Pump Efficicncy

l f a c t u a l p u m p e f f i c i e n c y s n o t k n o v r n ,u s e l h e f o l l o w i n gr u l e o f t h u m b f o r m u l af o r I n p u t H . P . i I n p u tH , P . = G F l . l x P S I x . 0 0 0 7 p 2 7 . T h e r e l a t i o n s h ib e t y / e e n o r q u ea n d H P . i s : T

1 ' T o r q u ( l b .i n ) = t : A r i , ' x -H . P-. O B e
T o r q u e( l b . i n . ) x F P \ 1 u r n .o. = 63025

43025

2 8 . T o d e l e r m i n et h e p u m p c a p a c i l y ( G P l ' , 1n e u . C e do e x t e n d a c y l i n d e rp i s t o n o f a g i v e n a r e a ) t
( s q . i n . ) t h r u a g i v e n C i s l ; , n c e, r l c h c s ) r r a s p u ' c r f i tci n r c ( s t - ' c o n d s ) : i l . 1 - o ^ _ P j s t o nA r e a - ( s o . _ i n , ) L q n g i n ( l p c f e s ) x Q 0 s g . q , t 4 uTtvt = T i r n e( s c c o r : d s ) l - r 1 c u , r r . x

-1 I I

Appendix D Meteric Unit For Fluid PorverAPPlication QUANTITY NAME Acceleration Angle,Plane Area Conductivity,Therr.nal Current,Electric hydraulicfluids & other liquids gases Density solids pneumatlc Di spiacement (unit discharge; hydraulic Efficiency Heat Energy, Flow Rate,Heat Flow Rate,Mass
Ptteutrtittic

METRIC SYMBOLS UNITS metre per secondsquared m/s" o degree minute second mm2 millimetre square per metrekelvin watt w/m .K A ampere kg/L kilogram per litre (Note 1) kg/m: kilogramper cubic m g/cm: gram per cubic cm crn3 cubiccn-t L Iitre
I

U.S.CUSTOMARY SYMBOLS ft/sec2
: mm2

Btu/hrft oF A lb/gal lb/ft: lb/ft: in: gal
ln3

llllll

mL
o/-

Flow Rate, volume hydrarrlic Force Forceper Length (Cyclel Freciuency (Rotattonal ) Frequency Heat Specific HeatCapac:ity, ic t HeatTransfer, Cocffic: rr

percellt kilojoule watt granrper second kilogranrper second per cubicdecinretre sec per cubiccentinletre sec Litre per ntirtLlte per nrillinretre nrinute
ne\.\'toll newton l)er ll"llll hrrrtz_ leciprocal tttittute reciprocltltttittttte kilo.joule kilo.jouleper kilograttt kclvin llletre \\'ittt l)er s(ll.lilre kelvin kilognrrtrnlctrc sclultrctl

KJ

w

g/s kg/s dnvr/s cm/r/s L/min
nrL/rlirt N N/nrnr HZ 1/rtrin I/min k.l k.l/kg'K ' W/nrt'k

Va Btu Btu/min lb/min lb/s ftr/min (cfm) in:/min (cim) gallmin inr/min tb lb/in Hz (cps) cpm rpm Btu Btu/lb.'F

Btu/hr.ftz'uF
Kg'l1tl

ot Montettt inertiu.

lb. ft2

312

AppendixE Hydraulic Symbols
1) Lines

L t N E , O R K T N( M A t N ) W G LINES ROSSING C L t N E ,P T L O(T O RC O N T R O L ) F LINES OINING J LINELIQUID RAIN . D L I N E I T HF I X E D W RESTRICTION \,,

C O M P O N E NE N C L O S U R E T

t- - ----r
_)_

r-_l
----+-

FLEXIBLE

\J

HYDRAULIFLOW C

P N E U M A T IF L O W C

STATION, TESTING, M E A S U R E M E NP O W E R T. T A K E . O F F ,R P L U G G E D O PORT

FLUIDSTORAGE
RESERVOVENTED IR.

l

l

L I N E , OR E S E R V O I R T . ABOVE LUID EVEL F L . BELOW LUID EVEL F L

I
J
{

R E S E R V O IP R E S S U R I Z E D R.

VENTED ANIFOLD M

3l.i

2)

\ / a r i a b l e d i s p l a c e r n e n ltl u m p s

H CO M A N U A L ,A N D W H E E L N T R O L

PRESSURE COMPENSATOR CONTROL

C PRESSURE OMPENSATOR L A N DT O R Q U E I M I T E R

LOAD ENSING ONTROL S C

S A LOAD ENSING ND P R E S S U RL I M I T E R E CONTROL

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC CONTROL

314

3)

l i i x e d d i s p l a c e n t c r r tu n r p s p

V S I N G L E .A N E T &GEAR YPE

SINGLE. W I T HI N T E G R A L PRIORITY VALVE

S I N G L EP O W E R , STEERING UMP P W I T HI N T E G R A L FLOWCONTROL A N DH E L I E F VALVES

SINGLE, W I T HI N T E G R A L FLOW CONTROL VALVE

SINGLE, PISTON TYPE WITH RAIN D

\ A -r-\-,/

I
w

I

t

I

DOUBLE. VANE ANT) GEAR YPE T

-jl5

1 ) D i r e c t i o t r a lc o n t r o l v a l v c s
TWO P O S I T I O N TWO C O N N E C T I O N

SPRING CENTERED, A I RO P E R A T E D

TWO POSITION T H R E EC O N N E C T I O N

TWOPOSITION F O U RC O N N E C T I O N

O SPRING R PRESSURE CENTERED, OPERATED PILOT

TWO POSITION INTRANSITION

| ,r*r, PostrtoN roun coNNEcrloN I
I vnlves cAPABLE i or t ru rl ru l r E I post rt o r u t r u c BARS 1(HontzotlrAl lr F l N lr E N i t t 'ro t c n r

SPRING CENTERED, SOLENOID OPERATED

] rostrtorutruo
I ABlLlrY)
r _

SOLENOID CONTROLLED, O PILOT PERATED

NOSPFING DETENTED, MANUALLY OPERATED

O SPRING FFSET, MECHANICALLY OPERATED

SPFING CENTERED, SOLENOID CONTFOLLED, O PILOT PERATED

I

r_L_ t l

|

O SPRING FFSET, LEVER OPERATEDTWO WAY PFESSURE CENTERED, SOLENOID CONTROLLED, O PILOT PERATED ( s n 4 P L l F l ES Y M B O L ) D

NOSPRING W I T HD E T E N T S , LEVER OPERATED

, 1|Y l Hill ltt;:J lu /\ tl
l

o . . _ | 1 . .. .q .
I
l r

316

5)

Proportionalr iilves

PROPORTIONAL VALVE

VALVES SERVO
TWO.STAGE VALVE SERVO

VALVES CHECK
CHECKVALVE OPERATED PILOT VALVE CHECK

VALVES DECELERATION
NON-ADJUSTABLE DECELERATION VALVE ADJUSTABLE DECELERATION W V A L V E I T HC H E C K

H Y D R A U L IM O T O R S C
D FIXED ISPLACEMENT D U A LD I R E C T I O N A L VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT, DUAL IRECTIONAL D

CYLINDERS
E SINGLE ND, N OC U S H I O N S SINGLE ND, DJUSTABLE E A R C U S H I O N , O DE N D

E A SINGLE ND, DJUSTABLE C C U S H I O N S ,A P A N DR O DE N D S

SINGLE ND, HEAVY DUTYROD

A E SINGLE ND, DJUSTABLE C C U S H I O N , A PE N D
I

DOUBLEND

6)
PRESSURE RELIEF

P r e s s u r ec o n t r o l v a l v e s

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE WITH I N T E G R AC H E C K L

PRESSURE VALVE, RELIEF SOLENOID CONTROLLED

I

UNLOADING V RELIEF ALVE WITH I N T E G R AC H E C K L
Hl-1t))u11tr

V RELIEF ALVE, REMOTE ELECTRICALLY MODULATED PRESSURE REDUCING

rhtr))unE

V RELIEF ALVE, CARTFIDGE TYPE VALVE

I
I I

PRESSURE REDUCING \ALVE WITH I N T E G R AC H E C K L

I

r--.l PRESSURE FEDUCING VT\LVE, CARTRIDGE VALVE TYPE
I

V SEOUENCE ALVE

I I
I

ryi

ffir-?

itr5

-j
i

V SEQUENCE ALVE, A U X I L I A Rf ] E M O T E Y CONTROL OPERATION

r-T-_l
i |l_l-l-* [ - t -

I

I lf l--e

I IFTI

318

7)

Florv Control valvcs

FLOW CONTROL, ADJUSTABLENON-COMPENSATED

-*-

FLOWREGULATOR WITHREVERSE F R E EF L O W

FLOW CONTROL VALVE

=I-OW ONTROL ALVE ITHCHECK C V W SI|'4PLIFIED MBOL) SY

i E i U O T E O N T R O L L E D ,L E C T R I C A L L Y E C ..IODULATED W I T HC H E C KV A L V E

F L O W O N T R O L N DO V E R L O A D C A BELIEF ALVE V

: R E S S U R EC O M P E N S A T EC A R T R I D G L D .:ALVE TYPE

3r9

A p p e n d i xF

F English \letric Cottversion actors

To convert lnto Unit
Atmospheres BTU/hour C u b i cc e n t i m e t r e s C u b i cc e n t i m e t r e s C u b i cf e e l C u b i cf e e t C u b i ci n c h e s C u b i ci n c h e s ( Degreesangle) Fahrenheit Feet
Feet of water

Into ....----_---> To convert Symbol
Atm Blu/h
cm3 cm3 tt3 tt3 in3 in3

MultiPlYbY D i v i d eb y Symbol
bat

Unit
bat

Factor
1.013250 x 0.293071 10-3 0.001 1.0 0.0283168 28.3161 16.3871 0.0163866 0.0174533 0.3048 0.0298907

kilowatts litres millilitres cubic metres Ii t r e s c u b i cc e n t i m e t r e s litres r a dr a n s ( Celsiuscentigrace)

kw
ml m3

cm3

rad m bar
cm3 J

tt
tl HzO

melres c u b i cc e n l r m e t r e s joules
wails

U F l u i do u n c e s , S Footpoundsf. F o o tp o u n d s / m i n u t o G a l l o n sU S , Horsepower Inches f mercury o Inches f water o
In c h e s lnches Krlogramforce Kilogram f. nrelre

USfl oz tr lbl t1Ibf/min
llQ c:l

29.s735
1.35582 81.3492 3.78531 0.7457

latres
kilowails millibar millibar cenlimeires millrmetres ne\l1ons newlcn meires

hp in Hg in HaO
tn
ln Kgl

moar mDar cm mm
N

33.8639 2.49089 2.54 ?5.4 9.60665 9.80665
U JdUCOJ

kEt m
kPa

Nm bar
N

f K i l o g r a m. / s qc e n t i r e t r s
Kilopascals

bar
L . r

0.01 9.80665 9.8066s 0 980665 0.0254 1.33322 0 . 0 90 6 t 0.1 10 10-5 0.473163 0.4536 16.0185 0.0276799 4.44822 |.35582 0.112985 0.06894 o.104770 0 092903
6.4516 x 10-a 6.4516

Kiloponds m Kilopcnd etres
K i l o p o n d s / s q u a r ec e n l i m e t fe l,'licrcinches

kp
kpm kpicmz
]lln

n e,rlo n s n e ! \ 4 0 nm e i r e s bar mtcrons mrllrbar mrlrrbar

Nm bar pm mbar mbar
oar

l,4iilimelresmercury of
o l,4illimelres f waler

mm ng mm HaO N/crn2 l'J/n2

N e M o n s / s q u a rc € n t r m e l r e e
N e w l o n s / s q u a r em e l r 9

bar
Dar lrires kitograns kiiogr;ns/cubic rneire i c k i l o g r a m s , 'u b r c c e n 1 m e i r s ne$ions nesion muir€s newion nrelreS Dar

( q P a s c a l s n e w t o n s / sm e l r e ) P i n i sU S , ( Pounds mass) o P o u n C J c u b ilc o t i P o u n d J c u b i cn c h Poundsforce f Pounds. feet f Pounds. inchcs t l P o u n d s . / s q u a r en c h
R e v o l u t i o n g r ni n u l o

Pa U S i i qp t
to tb/lil
lb/i'il

xg kg/mr
k9.1c mJ
N

lbl

t b fh
lbl in l b l ii n z

Nm Nm
raols
1p2

r/mrn
ine ine

raCians'second

f Square eel i S q u a r on c h e s i Squarenches

n square elres s Q U a rm e l r e s e
s q u a r ec e n l i m e l i e s

m2 cm2

"C = 5("F-32)/s F o rm u l t i p i e s d d Prelixes enoting ecimal F l u i dp o w e re q u i v a l e n t s o N multiples rsub-multiPles 1 bar = 105 /mz = 1 b a r = 1 0N / c n r 2 1 d N i m m z = lpascal 1fJ/m2 8 1 l i t r e = 1 0 0 0 . 0 2c m 3 (cSt) = 1 66:75 1 centistoke (Ws) 1 joule = 1 wattsecond Hertz(Hz) = cycles/seccnd

F o rs u b - m u l l i p l e s

320

A p p e n d i x G H 1 ' d r a u l i cF l u i d s
Contamlnant Acidic by-products Character Corrosive Source and Remarks Breakdown oil. May also arise from of water-contamination of phosphate-ester ids. flu Breakdown oil. of Alreadyin fluid or introduced system by faultor breakdown ol oxidation-inhibitors. Etfectcan be controlled L., ^^r;,^^^ aooruves. oy anil-roamf , r i . i , Excess ir duelo impropebleeding, r a poor systemdesignor air leaks. Use of wrong fluid for toppingup, etc. points From lubrication

Sludge

Blocking Emulsion

Water

Air

Solublo lnsoluble

O t h e ro i l s Grease

Miscible ut b
I rrdy I vdu(

fu1ay may or not 0e miscible lnsolu le b lnsoluble with cataiy,lic action Insoluble, blccking Abrasive and blocking Blocking Blocking Abrasive and blocking Blocking Blocking

Scale p Metallic articles

F r o mp i p e sn o t p r o p e r l y cleaned efore ssembly. b a May be causedby water c o n l a m i n a i i oc o n t r o l l a b l e n, w i t ha n t i - r u s td d i t i v e s . a P a i n to n i n s i d e f t a n k o l d o r o n o t c o m p a t i b lw i t h f l u i d e p s A i r b o i ' n e a r t i c l e( r e m o v e i t h a i r { i l l e r ) . w S e a l b r e a k d o w n . h e c kf l u i d ,c o m p a t i b i l i t yf s e a l d e s i g n , C o S e a l i n g o m p o u n d s h o u l dn o t b e u s e do n p i p ej o i n t s . c S a n d s h o u l dn o t b e u s e da s a f i l l e rf o r m a n i o u l a t i no i p e b e n d s . o Adhesives jointingcompounds or should not be used on gaskets. Only lint-free clothsof rags shouldbe used for cleaningor plugging d i s m a n t l ec o m o o n e n t s . d

Paintflakes particles Abrasive Elastomeric parlicles Sealingcompound particles Sand particles Adhesive Lint or labric threads

-r_ I

g 2 ) I S O V i s c o s i t - v r l r l e s f o r H 1 ' 4 l ' a u l i cO i l s I ISO I Viscosity I Grade I Midpoint y K i n e m a t iV i s c o s i t L i m i t s c K i n e m a t iV i s c o s i t y c S ta t 4 0 o C c c S ta t 4 0 o C Minimum '

Maximum 2.42 |

r

l__l!eYG2 I tsovcg
I lsovcs '
llsovcT

z.z s.z
4.6
6,8

t.sa z.Bs
4.14
6.12

3.s2
5.06
7.48

, i

' j
I

i

llsovcls
I |SOVG22

1s
22

13.5
19.8

16.s
24.2

j

I r s o vc4 6 I l s o vc6 s

I tsovcsz

sz
46 58
100

ze.s
41.4 61,2
90.0

ss.z
s0.6 74.8
11 0

j
i j
i ;

I

I |SOVG100

1s8 2Bs 414 612 900 _ __ t 3 ) C o n r p a t i b i l i t l ' oIf{ 1 ' d r a u l ifc u i d sa n d s e a l i n g n a t c r i a l s l
WATER-BASE UIDS FL
MATEBIALS UNDER P E T R O L E U MO I L S CONSIOERATION O I LA N D WATER EMULSION

I 199vG220 220 320 I tsovcszo 460 I l s o v c4 6 0 r s o v c6 8 0 _ 6 8 0 I I lsovc1000 1000

242 gs2 506 748 11 0 0

_i

i

NON.WATER.BASEUIDS FL

WATER.GLYCOL MIXTURE

PHOSPHATE ESTERS

ACCEPTABLE S E A LA N O PACKING MATEBIALS

N E O P F E NE , EUNA N

N E C P R EE , N BUNA , N ( N OC O F n

(No oFn c

NEOPBENE, N BUNA ,

8 U T Y L ,V I T O N ' , VYRAM, srLtcoNE, TEFI.ON FBA ,'AIR UBE" C EPOXY S A FECOMNIENDED

ACCEPTABLE PAINTS

CONVENTIONAL

CONVENTIONAL

AS FECO[4TlENDED 8YSUPPLIER

ACCEPTABL E P I P ED O P E S

CONVENTIONAL

C O N V E N T I O N A L P I P ED O P E S S F E C O I , , ! M E N D E D ,F L O N A P E TE T A

ACCEPTABLE SUCIION STRAINERS

1 0 0r " l E s Hw t R E 1.1/2 [,1ES T P U M PC A P A C I T Y CELLULOSE Ft8EF, 002 3 C O E S HW I R E , M KNIFE DGE E OB PLATETYPE

1 O h , l E S H! V I R E 4 T I I , I E SP U h , l P CAPACIry

50 '\.1ESH IFE. 4 TI|t,lES UMP CAPACITY W P

9U55

tittH

ACCEPTABLE
r tLt Eh5

?00-300 \ V I F EK N I F E ,
EUbtr UH

PLATE

CELLULOSE F I B E R2 O O , 300 |"IESH WIRE, KNIFE DGE R E O PLATE

C E L L U L O S F I 8 E R ,? O O - 3 OM E S HW I R E ,K N I F E E O E D G EO R P L A T E Y P E( F U L L E R ' S A R T H R M I C R O N I C T E O T } ' P E M A YB E U S E DO N N O N A D D I T I VF L U I D S . ) E

ACCEPTAELE METALS F O CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION

AVOJD GALVAI.lIZED CONVENTIONAL METAL ND A CADMIUM PLATING

CONVENTIONAL

JZL

Appendix H

Hydraulic Pipcs

1 ) P i p e s i z e s b y s c h e d u l en u m b e r (STANDARD) (EXTRA HEAVY) SCHEDULE 40
SCHEDULE BO COMPARISON

SCHEDULE DOUBLE
tou

EXTRAHEAVY

IAMETER
SCHED. 160

DOUBLE EXTRA HEAVY

1tB 114 3/8 1t2 314 '|
t- v+

.405 .540 .675 .840 1.050 1.3.15
LCOU

,z o J ,c o4

1-1t2
z- vz

3 3-112
A

5 6 B 10
1C

1.900 2.375 2 875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6625 8625 10.750 12.750

.493 .622 .824 1.049 1.380 1.610
/,uol

.215 .302 .423 .546 .742 .957
t.zto

1.500
LY-ly

2.169
.r.uo6

3.518 4.026 5.047
o.uo3

7.981 10.020 1 19 3 4 .

2.323 2.900 3.364 3.826 4.813 5.761 7.625 9.564
I l.J/o

.466 .614 .B 5 1 1.160 1.338 1.689 2.125 2 624 3.438 4.313 5.189 6.813 8.500 10 . 1 6 2

.252
,Z+ '+ J

.599 .896 '1.100 1.503 1.771

4.063

2 ) P r e s s u r e a t i l r go f p i p e s r
Nominal Pipe Size in. 1/8 1t4 3/8 1t2 3t4
1

Oulside Diameter ot Pipe .in. 0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050
t.J tc

Number ot Threads P e rI n c h 27 1B 18 14 11-1t2 11-1t2
I t-tt1

Length of Eflective Threads -in. 0.26 0.40 0-41 0.53 0.55 0.68 0.71 0.72 0.76 1.20

Schedule 0 4 (Standard) Pipe lD-in.

Schedule 0 8 (Extra eavy) H

Schedule 160 Pipe lD-in.

Double (ExtraHeavy) Pipe lD-in.

Burst Press- P i p e lD-in. PSI

Burst PressPSI

Burst Press.
PSI

Burst PressPSI

1-1t2
1- tIZ

1.660 1.900
z,Jt3

16,000 .302 '13.500 .423 13,200 .546 .824 1 1 , 0 0 0 .742 1.049 '10,000 .957 1.380 8,400 1.278 1 . 6 1 0 7,600 1.500 2.Q67 2.469 3.068 1.939 7,000 2.323 6,'100 2,900

.364 .493

22,000 19,000 17,500 .q6s 15,000 .614 '13,600 '1 1,500 1 . 1 6 0 10,500 I.JJd

21,000

: 21,000 ;^
.434

35,000 30,000

1 9 , 0 0 0 . 5 9 9 27,O00 1 5 , 0 0 0 .896 23,000 14,800 r. 1 0 0 21,000 14,500 13,000 12,500

2.875 3.500

| 1-1t2
A tt

9,1 0 1.689 0 9,600 z . t z 3 8,500 2.624

,.!,

I (ne

19,000 18,000

Workingpressures various for pipesare obtained dividing schedule by burstpressure the safetyfactor. by

-11-1

3)

Oil florv velocit]' in tubilrg

frorn fornrula florv capacity tubing,and werecalculated of in Figures chartale GPN4 CPI\4=VxA 0.3208 V = Velocity(feet/ second) inch areaof tube A = Inside square

i F i q u r e s n B o d y o f C h a r ta r eG P MF l o w s

Tube Wall o.D. Thick.
n?q

2 Ft/Sec
. 9 0 5G P M .847 .791 .670 .620
.54b

l c l l o l l s I rvs"" I rvsec I rvsec
G 1.81 PM 1.63 1.58 1.14 1.34 1.09 3.01 2.85 2.72 2.54 2.10
z.vo

zv

Ft/Sec
9 . 0 5G P M 6.47 7.91 7.22 o./u
o.4v

30 Ft/Sec
13.6 12.7 11.9 10.8 '1 .1 0 9.30 6 8.1 22.6 20.4 ron 18.0 17.0 15,5 13.9
na t

112

.042 .049 .058 .065 .o72 .083
.UJf,

4 . 5 2G P M 4.23 3.95
J.O I

6 . 7 9G P M
O.JJ

5.41 4.65 4.09 11 . 3 10.7 10.2 9.51 9.00 8.49 7.73
o. Yf

0 3.1 7.54 6 7.1 6.60 6.34 6.00 5.66 5.1 6 10.4 9.8.+ 9.41 8.77 8.35 6.93 14.8 13.6 13.1 12.3 11.5 10.6 19.9 19.1 18.5 17.9 17.0 16 . 1 15.0 32.5 31.5 30.7 30.0 28.8
zt.3

5.46 15. 1 14.3 13.6 12.7 12.0 11 . 3 10.3 9.26 20.8 19.7 18.8 17.5 16.7 15.3

518

.049 .058 .065 .072 .083 .095 .049 .058
.UOJ

.51 ,43 ,36 .27 .20 .03 . 92 6 2.08 1.97 1.88 1.75 1.67 1.53 1.39 2.95 2.82 2.72
z.c<

1.85 4.17 3.93 3.76 3.51 3,34 3.07 2.77
).v l

15.6 14.8 13.2 12.5
1 1 q

3t4

.072 .083 .095 ,1C9 .049 .058 .065 .072 .083 .095 . 10 9 .049 .058 .065 .072 .083 .095 .109 .120 .049 .058 .065 .072 .033
.UYJ

29.6 2e.2 26.4
13.v

10.4

23.0 20.8 44.3 42.3 10.7 39.2 34.4
J t . ,

22.2 2 1, 1 19.6 18.5 17.2 15.8 29.9 27.8
lo.t 25.) 24.1

7t8

2.46 2.30 2.11 3.98
J.Oa

5.43 5.23 4.-42 4.60 4.22 7.96 7.65 7. 1 1 7.17 6.81
o.\ z

28.2 27.2 26.2 21.6 23.0 21.1 39.8 38.2 37.0 34.0
a ) 1

3V. /

57.4 51.1 18.2 44.9 42.4 97.4 94.4 92.1 89.8
do.J

I

370 3.59
J.Z I

3.00
z.6J

6.00 5.65 13.0 12.6 12.3 12.0 11 . 5 11.0 10.4 10.0 18.4 18.0 17.4 16.8 16 . 1 15.5 25.7
1J.Z

29.9 28.3 48.7 46.0 14.9 43.1 4 1. 2 39.1 37.4 68.9
o/.f

650 6.29
o. tq

64.9
oz.t 61.4

1-1t4

6.00 5.7 5 5.50
J.Z I

.120 .065 .o7? .083 .095 .109 .120 065 072 083 095 109 120
| -1+

5.00 9.19 9.00 8.71 8.40 8.4 7.77 12.8 12.6 12.3 11.9 11.5 11.2 10.7 171 . 16.9 16.5
io,u

26.1 25.0 45.9 45.0 43.5 42.0 40.2 38.8 64.2 63.1
o l . $

55.U \ ) 1

82.5
IO.a

74.9 9 1. 9 90.0 87.1 84.0 80.4 77.7 '1 28 126 123 11 9 . 115 112 107 171 169 165 160 155 152 138
t ?(

65.3
oJ.v

l2 1-1

131 126 '193 189 184 179 172 167 '161
ZJT z3J

60.3
co.J
YO. J

1-3t4

24.6 23.8 23.0
11,O

s9.6 57.4
3f .d

21.5 34.2 33.7 32.9
JZ, J t - l I

53,7
bf,. o

94.7 92.1 89.3 86.1 83.7 80.6 128 126
lzJ

2

.065 .072 .063 .095 .109 .12Q
- t J {

15.5 15.2 14.7

30.3 29.4

84.3 82.3 80.2 77.7 75 . 8 73.4

247
ZJJ

120 117 110

220

324

Appendix I

Cl,lindersizeselecfiorr

plus when supplied with various working pressures, will e.xert This chart lists the theoreticalpush and puil forcesthat cylinders ji pi"ton vetocitieswhen suppliedwith 15 Ft.lsec. lluid velocitythrough scH 80 size pipe' iriii"*irc

Bore Rod Dia. Dia.

cvl. Pislon

Work Area Sq.In.
1.767 1.460 .982 3.11 4 2.356 1 656 4.909 4.124 3.424 2.504
B 2-46 6.811 5.891 5.154 12 566 '10.161 9.424 7 657 1 96 3 5 16 . 4 S 2 14.726 12.566 4 10.0i

P.S.I. PRESSURE WORKING HYDRAULIC

R Fluid equired P e rl n . 0 f S t r o k e Port

Fluid Velocity 6 15Fl./Sec.

500
883 730 491
tJ/ |

1-112 5/8
1

2

r-

1-3/8

1178 828
.^FA

2-112 i-3l8

1 1-314

2062 12 17 1252 41 8 4 3405 2945 2577 6283 5080 4712 3B2B B 961 8246 7363 6283 5007

1000 1500 2000 750 3534 1767 2651 1325 2 1 9 0 2520 1460 1095 1473 1964 982 736 6283 47 11 31 41 2356 12 3534 47 2356 li67 2 331 2484 1656 8 3682 4909 7363 9 8 1 8218 86 3093 4124 61 5 1 3 6 6848 2568 3424 3756 s00B 2504 1878
6222 5108 4418 3865
8296 1 681 1 589 5154
1'/AA

3000
5301 4380 2946 9423 7068 4968

Gal. 00765 00632 00425 01360 01 020 00717

Piston Size F l o w Vel. GPM ln./Sec. Cu.In.
1.767 1 . 4 6 0 1t2 .s82 3.141 2.356 1t2 1.656 4.909 4 . 1 2 4 1t2 3.424 2.504
8 296 6.811 3t4 5.891
( 1(,{

1t0

11.0

14727 .02125 7 12372 0 1 8 5 10272 .01482 7512 . 0 1 0 8 4
24888 20433 17673 15162

11.0

24.0 29.0 43.1 13.5 18.0 25.6 8.6 10.3
ta.q

to.Y

3-114 t - S , t 1-3t4
1-314 2 2-1t2
c

10216 BB36 7731 BB49 5241 4136 1465

65,Q2 3622 17E2 0308

.0359 .0295 ,0255 .0223

203

9.4 11,5
IJ.J

15.2 6.2
1 1

4

"q425 12566 r621 1 0 1 6 1 7068 9424
7657
t\l ll)

25132 37698 .0544 20322 30483 .0440 18B1B 28272 .0408 r(211 1 1 2297 .033 3927C 32984 29542 25132 20c28 53905 49476 t'B 441 37698 30c42
8,1822 70095 63615 47124

12369 94 21 751 0 21245 1/-524 15904 11i81 23861

5

2-112 3 3-112 2-1t2 ^
2

9635 61-o2 4726 2566 4 001 4 2827 23365 21205 1 5708
38,185

29.153 2'!738 22089 188.19 15021

0850 074 1 0637 0544 0133, 1224 1 01 098 1 0680

1 25 6 6 1 01 6 1 . 3t4 I 424 7 657 '19 635 16492 14.726 3 t 4 12.566 '10.014

203

8,3 10.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 62 7.8 4.6 5.6
o. I

20.3

o

28.274 14137 23.365 11682 10602 T.245 1 5 . 7 0 8 7854
38.485 31.416 2 59 1 9 18850 50.265 40 644 37.699 26.507
IJL9 '

la.41 1 56548 35047 46730 3 1 8 0 7 A2410 31416 23562

4 28.?7 23.365 21.205 1 57 0 8 38.465 3 1 . 4 1 6 I 1/4 25.919 1 88 5 0 50.265 40.644 37.699 26.507 78.540 62.636 51.782 40.055 11 3 . 1 0 89.34 74 . 6 2 62.84
t-Uz

338

83 602 6.0 7.4 8.9 12.3 6.4 7.9 8.5 12.0
o.o

I

15708 23562 3 1 1 i 6 12960 19139 2 5 9 i 9 9425 11137 18850 33 251 20322 18850 13253 39270 31318 27391 20027 56550 44670 3i310 31420 376"09 30483 4 2827 19880 58905 46977 41086 1 3004 84825 6700s 55,o65 47130
50265 $61,4 37699 26507

57i28 47124 38878 28275

5455 1666 7 6 9 7 0 11 360 62832 94248 1 7 7 7 5 7 1122 836 51 1 37700 56550 0 8 6 150795 2176 121932 1759 113097 1632 79521 3400 2711 2371 1734

I

3-1t2 ^ 5-1t2

00530 75398 1 60966 8 1 2 8 8 56548 75398 4 39760 5301

83.0

10 o , n 5-1t2
7 5-112 7 I 7 8 10

78.510 62.636 54.782 40.055 11 3 . 1 0 89.34 74.62 62.84 153.S4 115.46 103.68 75 . 4 0

1 78510 1 1 7 8 1 0 57080 235620 87908 62636 93954 125272 1 82173 109564 164346 54i82 65 10055 60082 8 0 1 1 0 1201
1 1 1 3 1 0 0 69650 226240 786E0 0 1 89340 13401 74620 1 1 1 9 3 0 119240 62840 94260 1256E0

139

8.5 9.8 13.4 6.8 8.6 10.3
It.t

12

339300 4896 268020 3867 223860 3230 188s20 2720

a-UL

199

14

1 53940 769i0 r l q / ( ( 57730 86595 115160 036t0 840 77760 1 51 37700 56550 75400

0 23091 173i90 155520 113100

820 .6664 307880 161 230920 346380.4998 1 207360 31 040 .4488 150800 226200 .3264

153.94 I 1 5 . 4 6 2-1t2 103.68
1e /i

J.U

199

6.6 7.4 10.2

per t of piston ravel' p p O i l . " ^ r , ^ p t i o " i n g a l l o n s e r m i n u t e= G a l l o n s e ri n c h x i n c h e s m i n u l e s r s r i . Z S t c u O i c n c h e s C y l i n d eb o r ed i a r n e t e ra n d p i s t o n o dd i a m e l e r a r e i n i n c h e s . i;;il;:

32-s

specifications are Appendix J Heavy, Medium and Lightweight ROVs (As vesse-l tiaUteto change,pleaserefer to manufacturer for current specifications.) a) AN/SLQ-48(V) Mine Neutralisation System Inc. Manufacturer.Alliant Techsystems Work capabilities. Intendedto neutralisebottom and moored lines. Also survey operatiolls. Dimensions. Length 3.70m Breadth 1.20m Height 1.20m Weight tn air l,247kgs Construction GRP frame depth. 1000nr. Operating horizontal,1 lateral,I vertical. Propulsion.Twin 15hp. 4 x thrusters,2 and Instrumentation tools. Manipulatorand cablecutter,2 low light level cameras sonarand trackingsystem. and lights. High resolution b) Boxer Compact MarineLtd. Seaeye Manufacturer. Inspection survey. and Work capabilities. Length 0.725rr Dimensions. Breadth 0.65m Height 0.50rn Weightin air 70kgs with stainless steelf-asterlers. Construction.POlypropylene depth.300nr Operating thrusters.2 horizontaland2 vertical. Propulsion.4 x dc brushless optional. CP probe,FMD Instrumentation tools. 1 functionmanipulator and optional. lampsof varyingintensity. AdditionalTV Cblour CCD camera,2x 150w halogen depth sensor,auto pilot for depth cameras optional. Fluxgategyro with compass, and heading,sonaroptional. c) Diablo Manufacturer.HydrovisionLtd. support,survey drilling andconstruction support, Work capabilities.Generalsubsea and inspection. Length 2.10m Dimensions. Breadth 1.50m Height 1.70m Weightin air 1980kgs

326

designed to

Construction.HE30 aluminiumchannelspace frilnre,specially give throughframelift capabilityof 3 tonnes.

Operating depth. l000nr Propulsion.75hp. 6 x HT300 Curvtechhydraulicthrusters, axial,2lateral,2 2 vertical. Instrumentation and tools. 1 x 7 function manipulator,1 x 5 function grabber,low pressure waterjet. Depth sensor, water alarms. I x Osprey 1323dSIT camera,2 x Osprey1360colour cameras, x OspreyCCD BSW low light camera, x 250w 1 8 lights,2 x 400w wide flood lights. Sonarand gyrocompass. d) Examiner Manufacturer.SubSea OffshoreLtd. Work capabilities.Subsea engineering, pipelinesupport, subsea completionsupport, platforminspection and drill rig support. Dimensions. Length 2.00m Breadth 1.95m H e i g h tl . 8 0 n r W e i g h ti n a i r I , 7 0 0 k g s Construction.Aluntiniunr frante Operating depth. 500nrsw. Propulsion.HPU 75 hp, 8 x hydraulicinner space 4 thrusters. x vertical,2 x lateral, 2 x horizontal. Instrumentation tools. 7 firnctionmanipulator, functionnranipulator, and provision 5 for specifictooling packages. Sensors.2 x hydraulicpressure, x hydraulictemperature, 2 hyclraulic flow, variable pressure, buoyancy wateringress. conrpensator vacuum, powersupplyvoltages, cableIRs. Provisionfor 6 canteras rvith separate locus and on/off controls. Expandable 12 to with video switching,provision fibre opticvideomtrltiplexing. for Obstacle avoidance sonar', depthsensor, headingsensor, pitch and roll sensors. Auxiliarypowersupplies. Auxiliaryhydraulic system. HPU 1tt.75Kw(25hp). Additional datalspecialfeatures.An eyeballROV can be incorporated into the systemand mountedwithin the main ROV frame. e ) H y d r a 2 0 14 0 Manufacturer.Oceaneering productionsystents. Work capabilities. Drilling andconsrruction sltpport tasks. Dimensions. Length 1.80m Breadth 1.20nr Height l.30rn Weightin air 862kgs Construction6061T6 aluminiumframe.stainless steelfittinss. Operating depth. 1000nr 2,50011

-1: I

Fropulsion. 7 x thrusters(2 fore / aft,2lateral' 3 vertical) and tools. 1 x 7 function manipulator,1 x 5 function. ! -Osarey Instrumentation 1323SIT camera,1 x OspreyOE 1335colourcamera,1x Osprey1352 CCD' Photosea1000,2000 or NDT 4000. digital depth Auto depth and headingcontrol, fluxgate magneticcompass, tracking. sonarand acoustic resolution meter,high

5000 0 Hysub
Ltd. Engineering Submarine Manufacturer.International and salvageoperations. Work Capabilities. Research Dimensions.Length 2.54m Breadth 1.52m Height 1.6[lnt Weightin air 2,091kgs Anodisedalunliniumframe. Construction. depth. 5,000rn Operating Propulsion.40hp hydraglicpowerpack,6 x hydraulicthrusters. and Instrumentation tools. 1 x -5functionrateam1,1 x 7 functiottmanipulator, collection. tools and sanrple sampleskid for geophysical depthgauge.1x OspreySIT 1323video camera,I x CpSpAC compitet^sy.ttenl, and 4 camera, x 250-wlights,gyro corltpass Ospreycolour^CCDf:Ot uiOeo sonar. Mesotech HysubATP 10,HysubATP 40, HystrbATP 50 are NB Also available Hysub2-5, and HysubATP 150. g) MiniROVER MKI I Inc. Benthos Manufacturer. and observation light work capabilities. Inspection, Work capabilities. Length 86cnt Dimensions. Breadth 50cm Height 4}ctt't Weight in air 34kgs keel rectangular Conitruction. Altiminium hull, PVC motor housing, skids. depth. 305nr Operating I Propulsion.ElectricthruSters, x lateral,I x vertical,2 horizontal. 2 video camera, x 150wquartz and Instrumentation tools. Low light high resolution lamps. halogen Max ROV MK 1, MKII, MKIII andMicroVER. NB Also available

328

h) MRV (Multi Roll Vehicle) Manufacturer. Slingsby Engineering Ltd. Work Capabilities. Survey,drill support,intervention, construction, cableburial (work package recovery,salvage available suit customer to requirements. Dimensions. Length 1.92m Breadth 1.50m Height 1.56m Weight in air 1,590- 2,250kgs(basicvehicle) Construction.High strength aluminiumspace frame,stainless steel fasteners. Operating depth 600m / l,000nr/ 2,000nr deeper recluesr. on hopulsion Up to 200hp, 4 x horizontal,2 vertical,additionalthrLlsters be x can fitted on request. Instrumentation tools SEL offer a rangeof toolingpackages.Maximum of 5 and cameras, mono,colour,stillsor SIT, 3.5kwmax lighting,spotor flood with dimming facility. Auto altitude, autodepth.pitchandroll, heading, trim. Digicluanz gyro depthgauge, compass. sonrrr suitcr.rstonrer to / fluxgate rerluirements, pingeland enrergency flasher. i) OffshoreHyball ManufacturerHydrovision Work capabilities Inspection and observarion. Dimensions Length 0.575nt Breadth 0.77nr Height 0.575nr Weightin air 60kgs Construcrion Fibreglass, stainless steelfittings. Operatingdepth 300m Propulsion 4 electric thrusters, fore / aft and rotationalmoventent,2 lateral and 2 vertical movernent. Instrumentation tools Manipulator and interface fitted as optionalextra. Digital kit depthindicator,leak detection system, microphone provideaudiofeedback the to to groundfault interrupter operator, artdcircuit breakers protectsrrrf-ace to equipment and vehicle,CP interfacestandard. Remotefocus low light CCD canrera nrounted 360ororaringchassis.2 x 100w on quartzhalogenlights,2 x 75w lightson chassis.AC6000 supershortbaseline trackingsystem optional,AC9000 sonaroptional,magnetic -onrpass and rate gyro compass. NB OffshoreHyball is a more powertulversionof Hyball having 1007a more power.

,j29

j) Phantom Ultimate Manufacturer. Deep OceanEngineering Work capabilities.lnspection Length 1.81m Dimensions. Breadth 1.17m Height 0.97m Weightin air 363kgs steelcrash with stainless polypropylene Construction.Full perimeter recessed and all frameprotecting components, cameraDons. hardened depth 610m, testdepthl62nt Operating xverticalthrusters,2xlateral Electric.4x horizontalthrusters,3 Propulsion. thrusters. systems. with almostall ntanipulator and Instrumentation tools. Compatible devices. toolsand santpling includecablecutter, Options reflectingvehiclecondition,CP optional. includesaudiofeedback Instrumentation built in video switch for low light CCD canrera, PALNTSC, colour high resolution, platfomr with 360otilt. 2 x 250w camera. Camera instrument optionalsecond / lights. halogen tungsten dimmerable Optionsincludesonar,tracking depthtransducer. Fluid gimballedfluxgatec'ompa.ss, and altinteter. system DS4, Phantom DHD2, Phantonl 300, 500, Phantom NB Also availableare Phantont pipeline. HVS4 attdPhantom HD2, Phantonr k) Pioneer OffshoreLtd. Manufacturer.SubSea work, guiding generalsurveyand inspection Work capabilities.Drill rig support, anddebrisremoval. bullseye checking leakchecking, drill string, Length 1.65rn Dimensions. Breadth l.65nr W e i g h ti n a i r l , 3 1 5 k g s aluminiumframe. br.royancy, Construction.Polyrtrer depth 1,525nr Operating plus has75hp), 5 x Propulsion. 50hp power hydraulicpowerpack (pioneer proportionally controlledthrusters. control with positionfeedback lnstrumentation tools. I x 7 functionrnanipulator and and hydraulicpressure sensors, and 1 x 5 functionmanipulator.Vehiclestatus panel,low oil alarms. at water ingress alarnrs 12 points,telemetrystatus temperature,

330

I x low light camerawith facility for up to 3 additional cameras.6 x 250w lights. ( Depth sensor, headingsensor slaveable gyro),autodepth,headingand altitude, pinger,emergency acoustic flasher, obstacle avoidance sonarwith hydraulic tilt,vehicleturnsindicator,pitch and roll sensors, optionaltransponder.

l) Recon MIA Manufacturer. Perry Tritech Inc. Work capabilities.Drill support, pipelinesurvey. construction support, Dimensions. Length 2.06m Breadth0.90nr Height 0.85nr Weightin air 467kgs Operating depth.300nrsw Propulsion.Electric. 2 x axial, 1 x lateraland 1 x vertical. Instrumentation tools. 2 functionmanipulator, and cablecutter,marinegrowth cleaningpackage, or 7 functionHercules 5 manipulator, or 6 firnctionSchilling 5 manipulator. probe. High resolution CP blackand whitecanler{r with optionfor colourand SIT camera, ancl pan tilt. 2 x 250w variable intensity lights,sonar, auto heading and trackings),stenr. m) Rigworker MK 4 R3000 Manufacturer.HydrovisionLtd. Work capabilities.Drill suppofiplus firll rangeof work tasks. Dimensions. Length 2.lOnt Breadth l..40nr Height 1.50rrr W e i g h ti n a i r 1 , ( r 5 O k g s Operating depth 1,000nr Propulsion.Hydraulicpower pack. 2 x forward/ reverse, lateralthrusters, 3 2 vertical thrusters. Instrumentation tools. lnterfacefor all proprietyof ntanipularors, and typically I x7 and 1 x 5 function. Cotrprehensive rangeof tooling alsoavailable. Interface 4 for cameras includingpanand tilt. Auto depth,altitude anclheading.Provision fit proprietary to obstacle avoidance sonars.Optionalinterface a full rangeof surveysensors for inc:luding bathymetric system, profileandpipe/ cablerracker dual scanning andgyro. NB Also available, Rigrvorker 30001 R3000S. / n) ScarabIV Manufacturer.Oceaneering Productiolt Systenrs.

331

cableburial and repatr. Work capabilities.Telecommunication Dimensions.Length 4.00m Breadth 2.00m Height 2.00m Weight rn air 2,722kgs depth 1,850nr Operating Propulsion.Hydraulic, l50hp cable gripper and cable and tools. 2 x 7 function manipulators, Instrumentation cutter. I 4 x SIT cameras, colour CCD cameraand variableintensitylighting. high resolution positioningsystem, acoustic magnetometer system, Cabletracking pitch androll sensors, depthtransducers. fluxgatecompass, sonar,altimeter, o) Super Scorpio Manufacturer.PerryTritech includingplatfomr and pipeline,Pre Work capabilities.Surveyand inspection, diver supportand sub sealemote installation surveysand as laid surveys, intervention. Length 2.-50nt Dimensions. Breadth 2.50nr Height 1.90m W e i g h ti n r t i r 2 , 1 0 0 k g s (otherdepths optional) depth 1,000ntsw Operating a c 2 P r o p u l s i o n6 2 h p . - 5x h r , d r a L r ltih r u s t e r s ,a x i a l s , 2 l a t e r a ln c l1 v e r t i c a l . . survey grabbers, suctionarnrs. Standard Instrumentation tools. Manipulators, and junctionbox, options sertsor. bathynretric includeCP probe, depth, lighting. Auto heading, includepanand tilt andcolourwith suitable Cameras responder. Digiquartz, pitchandroll. OptionsSortar,

Of AppendixK Properties CableConductors 1) Copperconductors Attenuetin Loop AWG number Diameter i resistance(QKm) dB i Km (mm)

0.25s
0.30 0.32 0.40 0.405 0.50 1 0.51 0.60 0.644 0.70 0.80 0.90 0.91 1.00

30 30 28 28 26 26
') ,l a 1 L+

680 492 433 277 270 177 170
r a 1

/_'

107 90 69 5-5 -53 44

z?
22 22 19 19

2:4 2..23 2..03 r.62 1.61 1.30 r.27 l.0tJ 1.01 0.92 0.81 0.12 0.71 0.65

r&5
1400 13r3 1050 1036 839 822 700 652 597 524 468 460 418

cablemakeup Resistances based purecopperanddo not takeinto accourrt are on irregLrlarities impedance abscenceof assunle Attenuation and impedances 2) Coaxial cable Characteristics

Type

M43 M67 M70

Max RF Attenuation impedance capacitanceMax dc overafl pF / m dB/l0m voltage(kVpeak diameter. (O) (mm) kV voltage @100MHz 1.3 2.6 I00 21 5 50 10.3 5.ti .50 75 -50 50 75 50 -50 15 -50 -50 50 50

l(x)
67 100 100 6ti 100 96

40
1

l+

A

6.s l.ti 2.6 3.5 6

0.68 1.5 1.6 3 . 1* 1.3 4 . 2* 4.4
a ^

}/{16 5 RGsSCAJ 5 RG59BAJ 6.is RG174AnJ 2.8 1.tl RG178B^J RGI79Bru 2.5 RG213/U10.3 RG214|U10.8 RG223N 5.s RG316 2.6 J

21

6 4
A -

1.5 1
r

r00 r00
96 96

|

-1./.

5 5

1.25 1.25 0.450 0.400

0.62 0.76 1.58 36.0

r.9
t.7

r02

* = Attenuation / 10m@200MHz dB

333

Appendix L Umbilical specifications l) MRV Tether

I TPRiocket, 49 mm Yellow jocketthickhess: mm opprox 3.4 dTex 24x10x3360 broid, Aromid 40.5 mm oPProx Diometer: jocket,I 38 mm TPRoverPUR Yellow 2 thickness: mm 3.9 TPRthickness: mm; PUR ( t 2 ) l n s u l o t ec o n d u c t o r..J 4 - m m 2 l d

mm, ploin 19x0.J0 I 1.5 lon'OrCiott copper XLPE, insulotion: I 4.7 mm ( 1 ) D r o i n w i1 .e 4 m Z ^ ^ r J m . 2. mm, 1.5 mrn
ploincopper19x0.J iohductor: toPe copper/polYester Lopped Filler,64.7 mm /

(O) Ooticol tube loose fibresin qel-filled / stedlwirecentre, 2.2 mm Stionfeaoround Tubesize;lD : 0.85 mm; 0D = 2 mm , P Ej o c k e t I 7 . 1 m m fl Fillers, 4.7 mm (5) Droinwires mm2 1 '1.5 m p 1 c i o h d u c t o r s :l o i n o p p e r 9 x 0 . 2 6 m , I
diometer:

(4) lnsuloted 0.75 mm2 conductor m c r i o n d u c t o rp l o i n o p p e 7 x 0 . 3 7 m ,6 1 . 1 1m m : XLPE, 4.7 mm I insulotion:

: OpticolFibre Properties *)

uomPonent M o d e N u m e n c 0 l B o n d Attenuotton Aporturewidthof 850nm dBAm MHz*km 50/125 Multi

"lnterstices filled" "Theweiqht seowoter to opplies on ossumed in of density 1026kglm3." seowote-r for ore *) Note: Thevolues corrected the ' of ouerlength the elements.

0.2

400

4

: Properties *) Electricol C o m p o n e n tR c o n d R i n s u l Volt. H i g h s Volt.test )00 V D( R o t i n g lnll I 1' of 5 min.

12 500 2E.J Enn 12 ?/3.5 1 . 3 4m m Z 16 . 1 2 2 . 0 droinwire rnm2 . 1.34mmZ 1 1 O droinwire -TtToIe: to Uo is voltoqe eorth ' U is line-t5-line-voltoqe
0 ./ 5 m m Z Properties: Mechonicol

hm/kmlvlohm*kn

'2/J.J

KV

KV

Currentroting Core 1.34 mmZPower 0.75 mm2 Power 1 . 3 4m m 2 d r o i n I mm2 droin current 5.8 Amp 4.0 Amp 5.8 Amp 4.8 Amp

Breoking strenoth
colcr.tloted

Bending rodius
recornmended, min-

Weight
calailaled

KN 76

stotic d v n o m i c o i r seowoter kolkm kolkm mm mm -9 19 2 5

conditions: 25 temPeroture deg C ombient woter; operotion continuous (5) lovers cobleon winch of 85 temperoture deg C m6x 6onductor

-)-12+

2) MRV Umbilical

preformed, (2) Controhelicol of loyers greosed, 2260 N/mm? steelwir-es ioivonised iirst lover: 45 wires6 2.3 mm 60 lover: wiresI 1'9 mm second to Theloyeriore bolonced minimise I torque& rototion, 4J.6 mm F BlockPURiocket, 35.2 mm jocketthicliness: mm 2.2 (26) lnsuloted 2 conductor mm? m 1 c i o n d u c t o rp l o i n o p p e r 9 x 0 . J 7 m , / 1 . 8 5m m : XLPE, 4.7 mm I insulotion: ( t 2 ) O o t i c o li b r e s n q e l - f i l l e do o s e u b e t l i f centre'I 0'9 mm steel-wire oround Str<inobo l s T u b e i z e ; D = 0 . 8 5m m ; 0 D = 2 m m , m P Ej o c k e t I 1 ' 1 . 6 m toPecopper/polyester Lopped (8) Droinwires mm2 1 m 1 L o h d u c t op : o i n o p p e r 9 x 0 . 2 6 m , I 1 . 3 m m rl c
: C o b l ed i o m e t e r 4 3 . 6 m m . : OPticolFibre ProPerties *)

toPe. copper/polyester Lopped ( 5 ) D r o i n w i r e sm m 2 1 m 1 c i o ' n d u c t op:l o i n o p p e r 9 x 0 . 2 6 m , 6 1 . 3m m r

tsondAttenuotton u o m p o n e n (M O 0 e Numencol Aporture width ot 650nm MHz*kmdBlkm 50/125 Mult

"lnterstices filled" for ore +) Note: Thevolues corrected the of overlenoth the elements. "Theweioht ,.onot.r opplies on ossumed to in of density 1026 kglmJ." seowotdr

o.2

400

4

: Properties *) Electricol R Components cond

Volt. H i g h Volt.test r00 V DCRoting l ^ / 1 11 1 of 5 min.
KINSUI

/ohm*kn

KV t.2/J.t

2 mm? 1 mmZ 1) Note: '

10.? 708

500

roting Current
Core current

orornwrre

to Uo is voltoge eorth U is line-to-line-voltoqe

2 mm?Power 1 m m 2dr oin

6.1Amp 3.9Amp

: Properties Mechonicol

Breoking strenqth
calculated.

Bending rodius
recommended *-itt-

Weight
calcttlated

KN

stotic d v n o m i c mm rnm

olr
kolkm

seowoter

kolkm

594

4170

J2J5

conditions: 45 temperoture deg C still oir; ombient operotion continuous (5) lovers cobleon winch of 85 temPeroture deg C m6x ionductor

33,5

3) Lightu'eightROV Urnbilical

jocket,/ 37 mm PUR Yellow jocketthickness: mm 2.5 (2) Controhelicol lovers oromid. of I topeoi eochloyer, 3'1.9mm Non-woven F BlockPURiocket, 26 mm jocketthicliness: mm 1.2 (12) lnsutoted 2.4 conductor mm? ploincopper19x0.4mm, 6 2.0 mrn ionductors: PP, insulotion: I 4.6 rnm Aluminium topescreen, ?3.5 / (6) Opticol loosetube fibresin gel-filled Q steelwirecentre. 2.2 mm Stronded oround Tubesize;lD = 0.8 mm; 0D = 2 mm , P Ej o c k e t / 7 . 1 m m (12) Intersticiol 0.88 mm2 droinwires ploincopper7x0.4mm, Q 1.2 mm ionductors: topescreen, 14.3 Aluminium / droinwire mmZ 2.4 lntersticiol 1 m c c o n d u c t op:l o i n o p p e r 9 x 0 . 4 m , I 2 . 0 m m r (2) lnsuloted conductors mm? 2.4 ploincopper19x0.4mm, f, 2.0 mm dohductor: i n s u l o t i o P:P , 6 4 . 7 m m n

C o b l ed i o m e t e r 3 7 m m . :

"lnterstices filled" Properties *) Electricol : C o m p o n e n tRcond R i n s u l Volt. High s Volt.test t00 v D( Roting
of 5 min. ).4 mm2

quod[4x0.5mm2] Twisted shielded ploincopper 7x0.3mm, / 0.9 mm conductors: & tope. PE, insulotion: I 1.6 mm. Twist polyester (5x0.2flot) tope & droinwires Aluminium 2-poss PEjocket, 7.1 mm fr *) Note: Thevolues corrected the for ore of overlength ihe elements. "Theweight seowoter in opplies on ossumed to of seowoter density 1026kg/m3."
Component: power cores 2.4 mm2

)hm/kmlMohm*kn 8.9 500

KV
I LJ

2.4 mm?
7.+ mm.1

8.6
9.5

500
drornwrre drornwrre

JJOO 60

to

O.EE m2 m l Q U . bm m z

24

+1

500

OoticolFibre Prooerties *) :

ComponentM o d e Numericol o n d Attenuotion B Aporture width ot 850nm MHzrkm dB/km 50/125 Breoking strenoth
calailated,

Multi

tJ.'l

400

4

M e c h o n i cP r o p e r t i e s ol :
Bending rodius
recqnmended min^ slotic dvnomic

roting: 5.5 Current conditions: operotion. still oir. continuous oir ombient temperoture: 45 mox.conductor temperoture: 75 5 loyers cobleon winch. of

Amp

deg C deg C

Weight
calculoted,

KN 195

mm

mm 608

orr seowoter ko/km kolkm 1425 320

83.8 48.+ Voltoge drop (V/km): voltoge (V): 2292 (l-ph) sJsJ (J-phj Supply (Hz): 60 60 frequency 70 ienip.(deqC): 57 con'ductor (A): 5 per current cohducto? J.5

336

.f) IvIRV Conductor idenri[ication

B

K
I

c

Coble diomeler: 44.2mm

"lnterstices filled" "Theweight seowoter in opplies on ossumed to seowoter density 1026kg,/m3." of *) Note: Thevolues corrected the ore for overlength the elements. of

Ooticol Fibre Properties: Component M o d e N u m e n c o l u o n d Attenuotion Aporturewidthof 850 nm MHzlkm dB,/km

50/125 Breoking strenoth
colcdated,

Multi

o.2

+

Mechonicol Properties :

Electricol Prooerties:

Bending rodius
recorntnended tnill^

Weight
calculated

C o m p o n e n tR c o n d R i n s u l Volt. s High i00 v DcRotingVolt. test
of 5 minhm/kn / o h m * k n

stotic d v n o m i c o t r

KN EE7

mm

mm 551

seowoter ko/km ko/km

KV 2000 -(1En
I U

6800 5 2 0 0

4 mm? 4 mm2

5.2
5.2

500 500

15

ITEM NUMBER DESCRIPTION A 2 4
Fiber-optic units, eochcomprising: Opticol fibresin qel-filled loose tube. Tubesize:lD = 0'.E mm, OD= 2.0 mm Stronded oround centrol o steelwire/ 0.9 mm PEjocket,I 5.8 mm Power cores4 mm2 - 2kV Conductors: copper19x0.52 ploin mm, / 2.6 mm Insulotion: I J.8 mm PP,

c

PEjocket,I 12.7mm jocketthickness: mm 0.5 Ploincopper yornbroid.6 13.4mm wire polyester / Ploincopper12x8x0.2 / Polyester mm 12x2x1100 dTex Coveroge copperportl. % of 64 Loyer non-woven of tope0.2 mm, lopped.

12

Powercores4mm2-JkV Conductors: copper19x0.52 ploin mm, / 2.6 mm I n s u l o t i oP : ,I 4 . 4 m m nP Loyer non-woven of tope0.2 mm, lopped. Ploincopper yornbroid,/ 24.3mm wire polyester / Ploincopper24x8x0.25 I Polyester mm 24x2x1100 dTex Coveroge copper port:65 Z of PURjocket,/ 28.4 mm jocketthickness: mm opprox 2 Controhelicol loyers. preformed, of greosed, golvonised steelwires1960N/mm2 Firstloyer: 42 wiresf, 2.0 mm S e c o n do y e r5 8 w i r e s 1 . 0 m m l : / Thirdloyei: 46 wires 2.5 mm Q Fourthioyer: 58 wires6 2.0 mm The loyersore bolonced minimise to torque& rototion, 44.2mm 6

338

5 ) S u p e rS c o r p i oU m b i l i c a l

r) Note : The voluesore correctedfor the overlength the elements. of "lnterstices filled."

J x Twisted Copper[7/.3] Conductor 0.5mm2Ploin to lnsulotion Polyethylene01.65 Tope& DW Ali-Polyester Shield to Polyethylene 14.8/5.'lmm Jocket Cooxiol Q4.8mm 4x75Ohm Ploin Copper 0.22mm2 Centre lltO.Zl to Dielectric SolidPolyethylene /3.5mm 95%] PC Broid [Cover Screen to Polyethylene/4.8mm Jocket 6 x LowPow r C o r e s 1 . 7 m m e 9 Copper lttO.Sl Conductor 0.5mm2Ploin to Insulotion Polyethylened1.7mm Wire & TopeShield Ali-Polyester Droin Inner Jocket Polyethylenel16.4mm to Moteriol Thickn ess 0 . 8 m mR o d i o l 15 x Power Cores l4.0mm P C C o n d u c t o r 4 . O m m 2 l o i n o p p e rl l S t O . S Z l : to Insulotion : Polypropylene64.1mm Jocket Bedding lo Moteriol : Polyethylenel26.2mm : T h i c k n e s s 0 . 8 m mR o d i o l Wires overCu Tope PloinCopper Spirol Screen Sheoth Bedding to Moteriol : Polyurethone l30.6mm T h i c k n e s s 1 . 9 m mR o d i o l : Strength Member : Stondord Modulus Aromid Broid Outer Jocket to Moteriol : Polyurethone l38mm T h i c k n e s s 1 . 9 m mR o d i o l :

N o mC o b l e i o m e t e:r 3 8 . 0 m m . d
"The weightin seowoter opplies on ossumed to seowoter densityof 1026 kglm3." Properties *) Electricol : ComponenisRcond R i n s u l Volt.

High Volt.test 500v D( Roting of 5 min. )hmlkn ilch m * k n KV q )C 4.0 mm2 5 500 3000 'C U.5 mm 4J 60 500 CooxCentre 9 4 500 600 3.6
Breoking strenoth
calaiated"

Prooerties Mechonicol ; Bending rodius
recorntnended nbt

: CooxiolProperties *)

Weight
colctlaled

Components o p o c l m p e d . C ot r t l k H 10 MHz
oF/m

Attenuotion

KN 9E

stotic d v n o m i c seowoter mm mm kolkm kolkm

dBl100m M 0 h m 1 M H z l S H z10 MHz

7 5 O h mC o o x 7 1

75

1.45 2.45 4.J |

1966

EOJ

339

Appendix M Video Commonly accepableTV camera F<lrmatsin various countries

Country
Argentina Australia Bahamas Belgium Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Canada Chilie China Columbia Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong Hungary India Indonesia Italy Japan South Korea Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania

B&W Standard CCIR CCIR RS-170 CCIR CCIR CCIR CCIR RS-170 RS-170 CCIR CCIR CCIR C CIR C CIR CCIR CCIR C CIR C CIR CCIR C CIR CCIR C CIR RS- 70 1 RS-170 C CIR RS170 CCIR CCIR CC IR RS170 RS-170 CCIR C CIR C CIR

ColourStandard
NTSC PAL PAL NTSC PAL PAL PAL SECAM NTSC NTSC PAL SECAM SECAM PAL PAL PAL PAL SECAM PAL SECAM PAL PAL PAL NTSC NTSC PAL NTSC PAL PAL PAL NTSC NTSC SECAM PAL SECAM

Antilles Netherlands RS-1170

340

Countr-v SaudiArabia Singapore South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Thailand United Kingdom United States U.S.S.R. Venezuela Yugoslavia

B & W S ta n d ar d CC IR CCIR CCIR CCIR CCIR CCIR R S -7 0 1 CCIR CCIR RS-170 CCIR RS-170 CC IR

ColourStandard SECAM SECAM PAL PAL PAL PAL NTSC PAL PAL NTSC SECAM NTSC PAL

VideoCameras For Specifications TypicalUnderwater
Osprey 1382 CCD camera i) Electrical Resolution Sensitivity Pick up Device Signalto noiseratio Scan HorizontalFrequency satiolr Auto light con'lpen Power Video Output ii) Environmental Waterdepth Temperature Optical Lens Standard Iris Focus Angle of view li.5nrm f:1.6 Automatic l0nrm to infinity Remotevia telemetr), 600 Oiagonal(in water) (deeper ratingsavailable) I (XX) rnetres Operating-5('C to +400C 320 lines 0.9 Lux (faceplate) CCD (q inch format) Interlinetransf-er >,4U B d 625 line I 50Hz PAL fbrnrat 15.625KH2 15,000 1 : Voltage16 - 24Y dc (0.6A) Constant I . O VP K - P K

3ll

iii) Mechanical Size Weight Connector Connections

Length:327nm Diameter: 104mnr Air 3.9Kg. Water 0.8Kg (Branter) Sea-Con XSL-5-BCR Pin 1.Ground Pin2. Positive Supply (+) Pin 3. Telemetry (-) Pin4. Telemetry Pin5. Video Removable stainless mesh steel

Port Guard Osprey 1323S.I.T Canrera i) Electrical Resolution Sensitivity Tube type Signalto noiseratio Scan Horizontalfrequency Auto light compensation Power Video output Bandwidth ii) Environmental Water depth Temperature iii) Optical Standardlens Iris Angleof view

>600television lines -5x 10-a Lux 1 i n s .S . I . T . 40dB 625I 50H2,525I 60Hz available 1 5 . 6 2 5 K H 2 ,5 . 7 5 K H 2 1 7 5 , 0 0 0 :1 Constant voltage16 - 24 v dc (650mA) 1 . 4v o l t sP K - P Ki n t o 7 5 W l2MHz (- 3dB) 1(XX)m _-50C +400C to 5.5mm : 1.5 f Autonratic motorized l 1 0 od i a g o n ailn w a t e r

342

iii) Mechanical Size Weight Connector Connections 298mmlong, lOOmnr dianreter A i r 3 . 7 K g , a t e rl . I K g W (Branter)type 5 pin Sea-Con XSL - 5 -BCR Pin 1. Ground Pin2. Positivesupply Pin 3. Focus(N/A) Pin 4. Focus(N/A) Pin 5. Video NB Dimensions excludinc are connector.

-r+-)

Appendix N

Dive Exercises

Dive Exercise l. Surface Navigation And Control Familiarity Training Area. Referto the diagranrshowingthe Wray CastleROV Operational the between Deck Officer is The objectives this exercise to practicecommunications of and the Pilot, and to gain familiarity with ROV controlsand their effects,particular of and field of view/scale video shouldbe given to directionalorientation attenrion cameras. i) of Pilot the ROV on the instructions the Deck Officer to the most Easterlyleg of .letty(TargetArea A). The ROV shouldbe on a Westerly the wooden Heading. Pilot the ROV to rhe most Northerly leg and back againto surveythe South Easterlysideof the Jetty.Care shouldbe takento allow for the reductionin the targetsizedue to the effectof the cameralens,it is inrportantto manoe^uvre 'snagging'. videorecording each of A vehicleaway from the targetto avoid conlnlentary. Jettyleg shouldbe nradewith descriptive the Followingrheinstructions theDeck Officermanoeuvre ROV into the of thenfollow his the middleof the areabetween Jettyand the wet dock, of out instructions takethe ROV on the surface on a heading 0100for at least to thertturrtitttdreturnto the launchpoint. 50 metres

ii)

ii)

to can the of NOTE: At the discretiolr the instructor student be ertcouraged usethe by legs verticalcontrolon the.jetty, or on retumingfronr the lastnranoeuvre following wherethe student the Lake bed backro rhelaunchpoint.This canonly be encouraged with theexercises the suditce. on contpetence hasdemonstrated 'stab-in' D i v e E x e r c i s e2 T r o n i c R O V M i n i C e C o n n e c t o t ' is receptacle Target TrainingArea,theconnec:tor of Ref'er thediagrant theOperational to Area C. on co-orclinittion A typical is c:ontrol The obiective this cxercise to practicc of problern. intervention i) of Referring thediagranrs theTronic ROV rrini CE Plugiind receptacle, to lug that ensuring thelocating is plugto theViking ROVsmanipulator the attach Position manipulator the rec:eptacles orientation. side the on thecorrecrt to nratch when and suchthatthe plugwill be horizontal in view of thevideocamera submerged. underthe instruction the Deck Officer to the of navigate Launchthe vehicleancl fanriliarwith distance/ uea. Align thevehiclewith theplateandbeconre rarget of (Camera perspective) whilst underthe instruction video imagerelationship the Deckofficer and thevehicleis on the sudhce. control,dive the vehicleto thecorrectdepthand, Usingthe verticalthruster Gain full controlof align the plug with the receptacle. allowingfbr perspective, and setthe trims to to the thevehiclebeforeatten.lpting locate plug at this stage as maintainpositionas accurately possible. and alignment placethe GENTLY nrovethevehicleforwardmaintaining and ntorlentul"n apply It to connector. is important allow for the vehicles

ii)

iii)

iv)

344

reverseihru:ter BEFORE actuatcon&rt to avtid hiuiry th urFt wift ary the signitlcanttorce anddanragine .-onnerncr v) a then rrim andalignnrent applying the Remoretheplugb1 ntainrainine vehicle action.Returnthe vehicleto it standoff positionat sharpfull re\erserhrusrcr of thediscretiorr the DeckOtficer.

D i v e E x e r c i s e3 . S t r u c t u r a l S u r v e y Training Area and the structural Referto rhe Diagrantsshowingthe Operational areaB. is at The structure located target drawings. survey. is The objectiveof this exercise to plan,carryout, andrecorda full structural i) ii) iii) in nreetand plantheoperation detail. The teantshoLrld buoy in the proceed the targetareartnddrop a nrarker to The Safetyboatshoulcl vicinityof the stnrctrrre. of the slioulcl launched under directions theDeck Officerbe and The vehicle be be should divedfbllowingthe buoy.The vehicie navigated thenrarker to buoy asa markerbuoy line to within sightof thelakebed.Usingthenrarker and is the andcompass structure to be located reference the vehiclesonar ancl buoy rec:orcled. to the positionwith ref-erenc:etherrtarker

to in is rhe NOTE: DuringalloPerations safetl,bout to renrain thevicinityof theTarget LakeLtsers. recrelttional warnoff appnltching iv) as lecttrclittg ntuchdetailas is A logiculsurvcv ot'thcstnlctLlrc to be unclertltkett The uppropriitte. instructor inclucling CPPu'here possible rhetintelrliou'ecl in nlethods principles rccording ltttcl inspection will givc guicltncc csttblislrecl on as theexerclse l)ro_grcssL's. data,logsand itncl lre shoulci rec:overed all clrawittgs, the On conrpletion vehicle for givento the instructor assesslllent. vicleo tapes

v)

3.r5

WRAY CASTLE ROV OPERATIONALTRAINING AREA

---+

Target AreaA (Jetty) Launch Point

Target AreaC 'Stab-in' Connector 70mal

-

Target AreaB (Structure 30'Depth)
N

t I
I

I

Lake Windermere
- _ -'-.-.'-\\

/

346

TargetB - SteelStructure

t I
I
./ '15mm Holes

Platform North

,4

500mm

frP
PlanView
(asseenfromabove)

\,

Whiteplate welded to MA43and MA31 horizontal members

347

Platform NorthEastFace

Tubular Estimated o

". .

Anode (Active) 0% Wastage

Leg 2 SteelPlate with2 Holes

NorthWestFace Vertical Diagonal Sleeve Welded 4.'t\ \os ontoMC44

TwoWhite Band

Bottom NodeObscurred MudSuspect by Structure into Settled SeaBedon Leg3

FineSiltyBottom No Evidence Scour Seabed of or Errosion

348

Platform NorthWestFace

Anode (Active) 0% Wasted

White Single Band

BothLeg1 andLeg2 Bottom Nodes Buried in SiltSuspect South EastFace into Settled SeaBed

FineSilty Bottom No Evidence Scour Seabed of or Errosion

3-19

Platform SouthFace

O N

o o

E E

FineSilty Bottom No Evidence Scour Seabed of or Errosion

350

351

Appendix O Question I

Examples of Exercises

of With the aid of the servicemanualcarry out a full inspection the Fl1 fixed pump/motor.On completioncompile a reportindicatingthe following:displacment a b c What components wereinspected? What conditionthey werein? The effect of faulty componentson the operationof the unit

Question 2 Using the technicalmanualbriefly explainthe testthat can be carriedout in situ on the Includetypical F1 1-5pump/motorto determineits general conditionof operation. results your explanation. in Question 3 Briefly explain the purposeof the inlet and outlet portsand the two casedrain ports with referenceto the operationof the ROV Task I Purpose. This particular is assessment designed assess to threemain abilities:In Firstly the students knowedge the unit is beingassessed. order theoretical of of to explain the effectsof the variouscomponents the operation the unit the on knowledge mustbe present. underpinning theoretical Secondlythe students ability to apply informationobtainedfrom a technical manualto a practical is situation beingassessed. Lastlythe students mechanical and the abilityto inspect conlponents appreciate wearcanhaveon theoperation the unit. effectsmechanical of Validity. During the course students havecarriedout inspections varioushydraulic the on units.Thesehavebeencarriedout by referingto technicalmanualsas well as discussing effect of wear on generalperformance. the This assignnrent designed assess these is pointsandis therefore to valid to all the course. The taskscarriedout in the assignnrent typical of tasksundertaken the in are ROV indusn'1,. assignment therefore This is valid in that someof its contents can be appliedin the workplace.

3s2

Appendix P Task 2 Fit Co-ax Connector are Detailed noteson Co-ax connectors given under the video sectionof the course notes.Read thesecarefully before attemptingthis exercise. Equipmentrequired:1 BNC Kit Solder Iron and Holder Snips Wire Strippers Multimeter Identify the type of connectorand co-ax cable you have beenprovided with. to given in the notesand carefullyfit the connector the co-ax Follow the instructions NOTIFY THE INSTRUCTOR

-1)-J

Appendix R

Teeside Valve and Fitting Company Ltd

TeesideValve and Fitting CompanyLtd is a privately owned company,founded in distributor,for fluid systemcomponents October lgll as an exclusiveauthorised manfacturedby the Swagelok $oup of comapnies.The serviceterritory for the Durham,Tyne and Wear, companyis the countiesof Northumberland, North Yorkshire and North and outh Humberside. Cleavland,Cumbria, TeesideValve and Fitting Company also provide training to customersfor various products in the range. As part of tnis ffain1ng,we provide installation seminarsfor the correct installation of Swageloktube fittings. For the last 5 yearswe have been with Subserveal Wray Castlein this role On the ROV Pilot/Technician's associated Course.

354

Appendir Q Task 3 Repair of Underwater Cable You are reguired ro make a warerproof repair/join to the cable provided to you by the instructor.You are ro employ the following procedure:a Cut and staggerthe conductorsto preventa large bulge at the splice b c d Cut 1/4" of insulationback from eachconductor Placethe correct size heat shrink over the conductors Solder the conductorstogetherensuringeachis of the samelength to ensurestrainis equally applied

When you have completedall the necessary tasksto this stageTELLTHE INSTRUCTOR e f g h Apply heatto rheheatshrinktubing Cleanand roughenthe cableinsulation Apply self-amalgan-rating to eachjoin of the conductor tape Either:i or ii prepare within a potting box for porring Apply self-amalganrating over the whole connection tape

Note:in eithercasei or ii ensure rlininrumof air is trapped thecavities. a in NOTIFY THE INSTRUCTOR

355

S Appendix Rigging WEIGHT AND BREAKING LOAD TABLES CargoHandlingGear 6 x 19 Galvanised RoundStrandRope Lay Right-hand Ordinary Fibre Core Weight Size Nominal Diameter mm 18 20 22
aA L+

SteelCore

Minimum Breaking Load at 145 kg/100m tonnef 109 134 T4.4 17.8

Applications: Ropes, Guy Topping pendants 6x19

r63

2r.6
25.7 13.2 16.2 r7.9 19.7 23.4

193 100 t24 r36 150 i78

18 20 21 22 'lA
L+

6 x 36 &6 x 4l Galvanised
kg/l00m

ar1tt0
Grade tonnef

at 1tl0 Grade kg/l00m tonnef

356

RoundStrandRopes Right-hand Ordinary Lay

16 18

20 Applications: 22 ToppingRopes, Cargo 24 Purchases Derrick for 26 Cranes DeckCranes. 28 and Preventer Guys,Standing 32 Rigging 35 36 38 40
AA AT

r9

r20
- IJ J
l a a

94.5

r79 2r3
250 289 378 452 478 533 591

148

15.2 t9.2 21.4 23.8 28.7 34.2 40.1 46.6 60.8 72.7 77.0 85.7 95.0

r32

104

r63 r97 234
275 318 4t6 497 526 586 650 787 935 l 100 1280

146

23.r
25.7 31.0 36.9 43.3 s0.3 65.7 78.5 83.2 92.6 10.3 124 148 174

t6.4 20.7

48 52 56 1 7x 7 Multi-strand Rope Right-hand Lang's Lay Applications: Cargo Purchases for Derrick Cranes, DeckCranes where non-rotating properties al'e desirable CargoHandlingGear 12x6over3x24 Size Weight l6 18 19 20 22 24 26

201

9s.2 r20
134 149 180
1 1 4 L t+

t+. I

251

18.6 20.7 22.9 27.8 33.0 38.8

Mininrunr

357

Multi-StrandRope Lay Lang's Right-hand

Nominal Diarneter mm

Breaking Load ar 180 Grade kg/100m tonnef 92.6 ttl i31 t45 t75 208 245 284 310 13.8 17.5 19.5

Applications: for Cargo Purchases Derrick Cranes.Deck Craneswhere non-rotatingproperties are desirable

16 18 19

20 22
1A LA

2r.6 26.2
31.1

26 28 32

36.s
42.4 55.3

HangerRopes Stays, Rigging Shrouds, Standing
6 x 19 (lalvanised SteelCore

3sB

RoundStrandRope Right-hand Ordinary Lay (180grade steel)

Size Weight Nominal Diameter mn] 22 24 26 28

Minimum Breaking Load ar 180 Grade kg/100m tonnef 193 229 270 312 31.1 37.0 43.5 50.4 Minimum Breaking Load at 145 Grade tonnef

7 x 19 Galvanized

RoundStrandRope Right-hand Ordinary Lay (145grade steel)

JZ

36 40
44

380 481 594 719

53.9 68.2 84.2 102

Preventer Gu-vs

Fibre Core
Size Weight Nominal Dianreter

RoundStrandRope Right-hand Lay Ordinary

nrll

M ininr unr Breaking Load a r1 4 5 Grade kg/l00nr tonnef I -1.1 163 193 227 17.t4 21.6 25.7 30.1

20 22
1 4 :+

26
SlewingGuy Falls

Size Weight Dianreter
lllnt

Minimum Breaking Load Kg/100m kg/220nr tonnef 19
A"l +L

Polypropylene Ropes ('Fibrefilm' Staplespu n or

l6 lti

-1.-)

20 22 24 28

22 27
a a

49 6l
- 1

-f -)

t-)

40 53

uti
l lti

4.5 5.4 6.5 7.6 10.1

3-59

Manila Ropes- Grade I

t6 18 20 22 24 28 16 18 20 22 24 28

19 22 27 33 40 53

42 49 6T 73 88 118 42 49 6T
-a

2.0s
2.45 3.25 3.85 4.55 6.10 1.80 2.t5 2.85 3.40 4.05 5.35

SisalRopes

19 22 27
aa -fJ

t)

40 53

88 118

METRIC FORMULAEFOR BREAKINGSTRESSES NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC OF FIB R ER OP E , TE E LW IRE ROPEAND CHAIN S l). FibreRope3 StrandHarvser Laid
Material Grade 1 manila High grademanilir Polythene Polypropylene (Terylenet Polyester (Nylon) Polyamide Diameter 77rrnr- 144mnr 7nr - 144nrrl 4rn Tntrtt 72nrnr tl0rurn

Breaking StrainFactor 2D2l3(X) lD2/j(x) 4Dtl3tx) 5Dt/3txl

4nrrn - 96nrnr ;lnrrn 96nrnr

2). Flexible Wirc Rope Steel Material 6x 12 6x24 6x37
Dianreter (4nrnr to 4t{nrnr) (tlnrnr to 56nrm) (8nrnr to -56nrnr)

Breaking StrainFactor 15p:/.500 211p2/-500 21D2l5(X)

360

3). Stud Link Chain Material Grade I Grade 2 Grade 3 Diameter (12.5n-rnr l20mm) to ( 1 2 . - 5 m mo 120mm) t ( 1 2 . - 5 m mo 120mm) t

Breaking StrainFactor 20D21600 20D21500 43D21600

4). Open Link Chain Material. Grade I Grade 2 Diameter ( l 2 . 5 n t n rt o 5 0 n r m ) ( 1 2 . 5 n r nt o - 5 0 n r m ) r Breaking Strain Factor 20d2t600 30D2/6fi)

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