Contemporary Polemics Between Neo-Wahhabis and Post-Khomeinist Shiites

ISAAC HASSON

Research Monographs on the Muslim World Series No 2, Paper No 3, October, 2009 HUDSON INSTITUTE

The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision.

CENTER ON ISLAM, DEMOCRACY, AND THE FUTURE OF THE MUSLIM WORLD

Contemporary Polemics Between Neo-Wahhabis and Post-Khomeinist Shiites
ISAAC HASSON

Center on Islam, Democracy, and the Future of the Muslim World

HUDSON INSTITUTE
1015 15th Street NW, Sixth Floor Washington, DC 20005 202-974-2400 www.hudson.org © 2009 by Hudson Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II: “Surat al-Walaya”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 17 . . . . . . . . . Ridiculing the Shiites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Contemporary Polemics Between Neo-Wahhabis and Post-Khomeinist Shiites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Post-Khomeini Shiites’ View of the Wahhabis . Appendix I: Sultan ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s Document Giving Palestine to the Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mutual Relations Between the Shia and Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . 11 12 Neo-Wahhabi Arguments Against the Shiites . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Wahhabi View of the Shia . . . . . .

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As Shia throughout the Middle East expressed growing enthusiasm and admiration for Khomeini and his revolution. Iran and parts of Greater Syria. but it also was quite popular among Sunni Arab publics. Not surprisingly. Kuwait.2 in February 1979. For Khomeini and his followers. Saudi Arabia. Lebanon. Iraq. and the United Arab Emirates). By expressly linking the modern struggle against Khomeinist Iran to the Battle of al-Qadisiyya. As a consequence. These religious scholars were under the orders of Saddam Hussein. Anti-Shiite rhetoric had once flourished during certain historical periods. a politically-charged Shiite awakening swept through the Middle East. and in repeated declarations they expressed their desire to export their revolution to all the “downtrodden peoples” (al-Mustad’afun) throughout the Muslim world and beyond. and especially in the Middle Ages. led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. the Iraqi religious scholars had revived the ancient [1] . Bahrain.4 Reviving anti-Shiism proved not only an inexpensive means for states to rein in Khomeinist influence. while employing some of the Wahhabi arguments. who had launched a bloody eightyear war against the Islamic Republic of Iran (19801988). for instance.Contemporary Polemics Between Neo-Wahhabis and Post-Khomeinist Shiites1 he contemporary conflict between Sunnis and Shiites came into prominence at the time of the Iranian Revolution.3 As one consequence of the revolution. This battle is etched in the ArabMuslim conscience as the decisive event leading to the collapse of the Sassanid Empire5—the pre-Islamic. The Iraqi ulama. fears mounted among regional governments that their subjects might attempt to topple them in an effort to replace them with Islamic regimes. yet by the latter half of the twentieth century it appeared to some observers to be in decline. One such measure for these states was to revive anti-Shiite hostility and rhetoric within Sunni populations. many Middle Eastern governments implemented a range of measHUDSON INSTITUTE T ures aimed at arresting the spread of Iran’s influence. The revolution brought about the ouster of the Pahlavi dynasty and the establishment of an Islamic republic. Persian state that once ruled over the territory of present-day Iraq. One important Sunni group that participated in the revival of anti-Shiism was the ulama of Iraq. it was felt especially in those countries with disaffected or oppressed Shia populations who were denied political representation (including. also invoked powerful historic memories by calling the Iraqi campaign against the young Islamic Republic “Qadisiyyat Saddam”—a reference to the famous Battle of al-Qadisiyya that took place in 637. the revolution and the clerical regime that it created were to serve as an example and model for others to follow.

a number of developments were taking place. a leading adherent and interpreter Center on Islam. indicating that the quarrel was fast becoming a thing of the past. invoked earlier rulings of leading Sunni ulama and castigated Shiism as a meaningless faith. T hroughout Islam’s history. which came to be dominated by secular. which they named Al-Sahat al-Arabiyya (The Arab Arenas).7 I n many ways. new innovations in religious ideology were also contributing to what appeared to be the overall decline of the Sunni-Shia controversy. ecumenical intellectual trend had emerged. by the second half of the 20th Century. and a distinctive sect within Islam.” a term that carries a more positive connotation than Wahhabi). and they did not hesitate to use it. These included. The two camps seem to have understood perfectly the need to make the best use of modern technology. and the Future of the Muslim World . as they prefer to be referred to these days. These arguments. The computer offered a myriad of possibilities. For example. within Sunni Islam a new. as hatred and fear of the Shia led to the merging of Sunni factions that were notoriously hostile to each other. who seized power in Afghanistan in 1996. the increasing secularization of Muslim politics. on the one hand. known as “the rapprochement between the various religious legal schools” (al-taqrib bayna al-madhahib). That quarrel took place between. represented a re-awakening of the Shuubiyya movement. reaching out to the greatest numbers of people while skirting borders.6 They stressed that Khomeinism. These accusations came naturally for the Baath party. of being too close to Judaism. The subsequent transformation of Ali’s early partisans into a political party. police. ideologies. This also led to the growth of a prolific literature that is of great value for the historical study of Islam. rather than religiously-rooted. who remain the dominant interpreters of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula. Yusuf al-Qaradawi.ethnic-cultural argument that stemmed from Arab hostility toward the Persian Shuubiyya movement of the eighth and ninth centuries. One especially hostile reaction to Iran and the Shia came from the Wahhabis (or. Democracy. At the same time. and the revival of a virulent Persian nationalism that was aggressively hostile to the Arabs. traceable back to the quarrel that erupted during Islam’s earliest period over the rightful successor to Muhammad as the ruler of the Muslim polity. and secret services. including those between Sunni and Shia. among other things.8 Meanwhile. In 1998. the administrators of anti-Shiite websites complained that the Shiite websites offer more serious material because great ayatollahs actively participate in the writing. the quarrel between Sunnis and Shias has waxed and waned in intensity.10 This ecumenical trend generally seems to have been initiated by distinguished Salafis who were followers of Rashid Rida (d. The first to do so were probably the Wahhabi followers of the Taliban. of [2] course. accused Shiism. They further claimed that Shiism had been created either by the Jews or by the Zoroastrians (Majus in Arabic). anti-Shiism became a unifying cause among some Sunnis. This rapprochement was aimed at minimizing the differences between the various Islamic legal schools. of course. those who believed that Ali Ibn Abi Talib’s claim to rule the Muslim polity took precedence over all others. which became entrenched and widely accepted over time. and on the other hand. and as a corruption of true Islam. censorship. they inaugurated the first dialogue website in Arabic. At the start of his career. in fact. whose ideology was rooted in Arabism. Rida was a modernist. but later on he began professing more of a Wahhabist perspective. “the Salafis.9 The origins of the Sunni and Shia conflict are. though it has remained a formative and central dispute within Islamic political and religious thought. Today. boosted these early intraIslamic debates. 1935). The Wahhabis. However. those who accepted the rule of the first three so-called “rightly-guided” caliphs.

and of their own path with regard to religious or political issues.13 problems of ritual—an area where the differences between Sunnites and Shiites are minimal—as compared to problems of dogma. Before the Khomeinist revolution in Iran. some Shiite books began to be taught at al-Azhar. This organization’s aim. the Shiite publishers of Bihar al-Anwar. “the elite” (al-khassa) among Muslims. to distinguish between the pre-Khomeini and the post-Khomeini Shiites on a number of levels. after having been banned for centuries by Sunni authorities. in 1959 the al-Azhar University of Cairo. the Shaykh al-Azhar. 1698). For these reasons. The Shiites. which allows Sunni Muslims to pray with Shiites. however.12 Moreover. abstained from including certain chapters of the original lithographic edition. This. the journal sought to put thorny questions of theology and politics aside to be dealt with at a later time and to focus instead on areas of commonality. This recognition occurred following a fatwa by Mahmud Shaltut. They viewed themselves as the only group representing the true tradition of the Prophet Muhammad. this era of rapprochement seemed to come to an abrupt close. by word of mouth and in their writings. so certain were they of the truth of the path chosen by their ancestors. included their claim that Ali Ibn Abi Talib was the legitimate successor to the Prophet Muhammad. This project originated in an ecumenical vision aiming to harmonize the two principal schools of Islam. Khomeini’s declarations concerning the need to export the Iranian Revolution throughout the Islamic world rekindled the Sunni-Shiite polemics. Dar al-Taqrib bayna al-Madhahib was very active between 1947 and 1979. the Shiites were a persecuted group within many Muslim societies. was to bring the different Muslim legal schools closer to one another. Thus the clerical establishment of Shiite Iran established in Cairo (a predominantly Sunni city. Sunni Islam’s most prestigious center of learning. too. in fact. recognized the Shiite Ja’fari legal school as the fifth legal madhhab in Islam. the publishers believed it was more appropriate to selectively edit this classical Shiite work than to risk aggravating old quarrels and antagonisms. as “the masses” (al-‘amma). Apparently. To achieve and preserve this harmony. in yet another effort to smooth over Sunni-Shia tensions. For example. They referred to the Sunnis. that’s conventionally hostile to Shiism) an institution called the Dar al-Taqrib bayna al-Madhahib. and they faced a nearly continuous wave of attacks on their beliefs. which contained articles on religious matters written by both Sunni and Shiite scholars. W B etween 1949 and 1972. and succeeded in publishing many Shiite and pro-Shiite works in Egypt. including the Shiites] on all subjects we all agree upon… and let us forgive ourselves for the disagreements that keep us apart (nata’awanu fima ittafaqna alayhi… wa-ya’dhuru baduna badan fima ikhtalafna fihi). the Shiites also published a periodical called Risalat al-Islam.”11 By mid-century. where Sunni and Shia thought tend to diverge sharply. a majority of the journal’s articles deal with HUDSON INSTITUTE ith the Iranian Revolution of 1979. had undertaken to have some of their dogma accepted by Sunni authorities. and that his right of rule was passed from Ali to his offspring. It is possible.of Rida’s thought. These chapters were excluded because they contain grave insults of the Prophet Muhammad’s companions (sabb al-Sahaba) who are revered by Sunnis. In the 1960s. very often quotes Rida as enjoining his fellow Muslims: “Let us cooperate [with the different sects of Islam. like the rapprochement tendency within Sunnism. efforts were being made among the Sunni establishment to reconcile with the Shia. the monumental work of classical Shiism compiled originally by Allama al-Majlisi (d. the Shia felt themselves to be morally superior to other Muslims.14 [3] . of course. Historically.

of his son Hussein and of the other Shiite Imams.15 to reject them (bara’a). Rather. the obligation to curse most of the companions of the Prophet (sabb alSahaba) and the enemies of the Shia. the different explanations given to history. their commentary on the Quran. rather than “missionary.17 It is also true that. the apostatizing from Islam (ridda) of most of the Prophet’s Companions. But in the last three decades. Shiite authors emerged whose writings were aimed at Sunnis with the purpose of winning them over to Shiism. whether with the assistance of Shiite regimes (the Ismaili Fatimis in North Africa and Egypt. they attack their enemies on all possible fronts: the major aspects of the Sunnis’ faith. Today they do not limit themselves to protecting their faith and their leaders. and also the “psychological warfare” intended to cast scorn on the enemy and even demonize it. the appeal to them to serve as advocates with Allah (shafa’a).16 In response to these Sunni attacks on their faith. This occurred mainly at times when the Shiites busied themselves with missionary activity (da’wa).These polemics also attacked a range of other central aspects of Shiite belief and practice. the importance of the pilgrimage (ziyara) to these graves (which in the Shiites’ view was more important than the pilgrimage to Mecca. the Shiites have adopted a far more militant position. the hajj). the infallibility of the Imams. Democracy. the post-Khomeini era. or toward one of the Sunni schools. from time to time.” These apologetics were intended largely for internal consumption within the Shiite community. or the Safavids in Iran beginning in the sixteenth century). the purpose of such efforts was to attract as many as possible adherents to their camp. and to acknowledge the right of the Prophet’s descendants (Al-Sada) to claim a fifth of the war’s bounty (khums). and the Future of the Muslim World . [4] Center on Islam. In any case. the contradictions in the traditions (Hadith) attributed to Muhammad and his Companions. and were designed to prevent a Shiite drain toward the Sunni in general. most Shiite apologetics tended to be defensive and reactive. who is to reappear in the future (raj’a) as a sort of messiah (Mahdi). hostile to the Shiites. the absence of the twelfth Shiite Imam (ghayba). or with regime assistance. in particular. including the status of the graves of Ali.

in fact. the Zaydis (Shiites) and even the Ibadis (Kharijis) in Uman. since the appearance of the Wahhabiyya movement in the eighteenth century.The Post-Khomeini Shiites’ View of the Wahhabis D uring the Middle Ages. have caused many Sunni groups to spring up against them. which only continued to grow in size and significance with the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. However. Throughout the history of the Shiite-Sunni conflict. a new branch of Shiite claims developed. This meant that the Shiites. led by the Hanbalis to whom the Wahhabis themselves belong and who claim to follow Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (founder of the Hanbali religious legal school). folk customs [5] . most of these claims existed prior to the Khomeini revolution but were used only on a small scale. The author of this book was none other than Sulayman Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. and disputes the Wahhabi argument that Muslims who adhere to flawed. Ali Ibn AbiTalib and his descendants. alongside non-governmental public institutions. mention may be made of the Ash’aris. had available to them an abunHUDSON INSTITUTE dance of anti-Wahhabi material from a variety of Sunni sources from which to draw. This book has enjoyed great circulation among the enemies of the Wahhabis. and official institutions in Iran. Shiite polemics against Sunnis centered mainly around the legitimacy of the Sunni regime and its oppression of the “declared” candidates of the Prophet Muhammad. in most cases only for internal Shiite consumption. After Khomeini. the brother of the Wahhabi movement’s founder. Shafiis and Malikis. The Sufi orders such as Al-Rifa’iyya and the Naqshabandiyya. and one of the first Sunni scholars to categorically condemn the Wahhabiyya teaching. These include. Clearly.”19 In attacking the Wahhabis.20 Among other things. “All Muslim legal schools. As one member of a Shiite internet forum points out. a famous booklet entitled “The Godly Lightning in Response to the Wahhabiyya” (Al-Sawa’iq al-Ilahiyya fi-al-Radd ala alWahhabiyya). By using materials originating from non-Wahhabi Sunni sources—which were accepted by most of the Sunni factions—they were able to denigrate the Wahhabis and to counter their claims. the Shiites have utilized a number of other prominent anti-Wahhabi books or articles composed by Sunni authors. participated very actively in spreading anti-Wahhabi material.18 as well as the secondary issues that developed through the ages as “accessories” to this claim. the Shia have routinely employed the time-tested method of borrowing materials from their opponents’ opponents. Followers of this school deny that Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s [false] claims tie in with the opinions of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal or of the sages of other legal schools—the Hanafis. by their constant verbal and physical attacks on those they deemed heretics. Among the Sunnis. particularly the Shia. wrote articles against the Wahhabis. the reins were taken off. Sulayman attacks Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s credentials as a religious scholar and as a mujaddid (reformer). whether Sunni or Shiite. for example. Throughout their existence the Wahhabis.

This contains 213 Sunni and Shiite compositions against the Wahhabiyya teaching and movement. demanding that the fighting continue until Allah decides the issue between the two enemies. Similarly.are to be considered apostates.” see the Quran. who would later establish the Umayyad Caliphate. (This article appeared as a chapter in the mufti’s book.) Another representative Sunni text utilized by Shiites against the Wahhabis is an article entitled “The Wahhabiyya Civil War” (Fitnat al-Wahhabiyya). and other places. the Sufis. stating that whoever considers a majority of other Muslims as heretics is himself guilty of heresy. Ahmad Ibn Zayni Dahlan. Democracy.) Despite the mufti’s declared opposition to the Shiites. while rejecting certain folk customs. Moreover. during which it dawned on the scholars that the very same emissaries were “funny clowns as though they were frightened asses who fled from a lion” (wajaduhum duhka wa-sukhara “ka-humur mustanfira farrat min qaswara. the Shiites claim that a Wahhabi victory within Islam would take the Muslims back to the backwardness and darkness of the past. He further attacks the Wahhabis’ indiscriminate use of takfir (the designation of the other Muslims as heretics).21 which was written by the nineteenth-century Shafi’i Mufti of Mecca. The fact that this is an official organization of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran indicates the importance that the Iranian regime attaches to the struggle against the Wahhabiyya. a group made up of Bedouin combatants broke away from Ali’s camp.22 contemporary Shiites have frequently circulated this article in various publications and have even translated it into Persian in order to embarrass the Wahhabis. who also wrote a comprehensive biography of the Prophet (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya). intolerant. They continued to operate in various locations in the Muslim world. and the Future of the Muslim World . trying to impose their principles on those around them. the Shiite Center for Studies of Faith publicized Al-Sayyid Abd Allah Muhammad Ali’s “A List of Compositions by Sages of the Muslim Community who Respond to the Nonsense of the Wahhabiyya” (Mujam ma Allafahu ulama al-Umma [6] al-Islamyya li-al-Radd ala Khurafat al-Da’wa al-Wahhabiyya). Sulayman appeals to the higher authority of the classical jurist Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Their faith was characterized by puritanism and fanaticism. the Shiites claim that the Wahhabis are in effect serving the interests of Western countries. 24 Some of these pieces were again published by the Organization for Islamic Information in Tehran (Munazzamat al-Ilam alIslami fi Tahran). Center on Islam. who. with descriptions of the destruction and horror wreaked by the Wahhabis upon the local inhabitants of Medina. Ali was subsequently forced to fight these Khawarij (which means in Arabic those who “withdraw” from the community). In the article. When Ali received Muawiya’s proposal to arbitrate the dispute. (In taking issue with this Wahhabi contention. does not consider those who follow them to be heretics. and motivated by blind hatred of the Shia.25 The Khawarij refers to a group of early Muslims who were originally allied with the followers of Ali Ibn Abi Talib when the latter ruled as the fourth caliph after Muhammad and led a military campaign in Siffin in the year 657 against Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan. History of the Islamic Conquests (Al-Futuhat alIslamiyya). T he main Shiite criticisms of the Wahhabis and their movement are that they are primitive. Al-Taif.23 Mufti Dahlan additionally cites the story of the Meccan and Medinan scholars who tried to discuss the principles of Wahhabiyya with Wahhabi emissaries. Sura 74 Al-Muddathir:51). Mufti Dahlan examines the history of the Wahhabi movement from its beginning. In this way. violent. Shiites commonly describe the Wahhabis as “the Khawarij of this [contemporary] age” (Khawarij hadha al-‘asr). and anyone else who does not accept their way. but he did not manage to overcome them.

are polytheists (Mushrikun) and that they may be killed. and the same goes for the fundamentalist Wahhabis. this accusation implies many more negative aspects. and in fact draw a parallel between the two groups. They also allowed the killing of Muslims and their wives and children whom they considered heretics. Shiites claim that the Wahhabi doctrine is “corrupt and anti-Islamist. They later split from the camp of the Imam Ali [Ibn] Abi Talib. who. both Shiite and Sunni. all Muslims are heretics because they have declared a ceasefire (hudna) on their [so-called Muslim] treacherous rulers and the heretics. Beyond this mocking of the Bedouin.29 B ut in some respects. that the Wahhabis view all Islamic states and all their leaders as heretics.33 Moreover.26 The term Khariji has a negative connotation for most Muslims. which is characterized by rudeness. and is similar to a wayward faction” (“a’lana da’watahu al-laIslamiyya al-fasida ka-hizb shadhdh”). He wrote: My attention was attracted by the streams of zealots [in Egypt]. and thus. and the bloodletting of enemies… I was surprised to find out that the stands of these [Wahhabi] groups and their characteristics are identical with those of the Khawarij. just like … [the Wahhabi] streams.strictness in matters of belief and the observance of customs. The self-image of the Khawarij and their theories accented their crooked character and bad behavior. their disciples and the following generations did without any disagreement. just as they adopted the Wahhabi assumptions also adopted the Wahhabi character.30 As far as the Wahhabis are concerned. according to Shiite polemics. In the [7] . This is the trend which this stream willed to the Islamic streams.31 The conclusion therefore is: “the Wahhabis are worse than the Khawarij (al-Wahhabiyya sharrun mina al-Khawarij) since the Khawarij dealt with things that the Muslims unanimously declared to be very sinful (Kaba’ir) and they determined that whoever commits one such sinful act is a heretic. who defy the Wahhabiyya. concerning whom we have in our possession texts [by the Prophet Muhammad]28 that censure them and caution the Muslim community about them. The Wahhabi stream from which these other [Sunni fundamentalist] streams draw satisfaction was founded by rude and ossified people who willed this rudeness HUDSON INSTITUTE and ossification upon their followers. while the Wahhabis concentrate their attacks not only on Muslims who commit acts that are not considered as sins (dhunub) but that are desired (mustahabbat). and they included the holy war (jihad) as one of the main pillars of Islam (rukn). and did not wage a holy war against them. The Khawarij were also markedly rude and stern and this term suits these streams [of Islamists and Wahhabis]. for instance. Shiite polemicists claim that the Wahhabis are even more radical than the Khawarij. zealotry. who later became the modern-day copy of the Khawarij. acts that the Companions of the Prophet. Salih al-Wardani. an Egyptian Sunni fundamentalist who joined the Shia.”32 For these reasons. The Khawarij swords were always drawn against the Muslims allowing their blood to be spilled and their property ravaged. In their opinion. Their view was that any non-Khariji Muslim was a heretic. They argue. Wahhabis are “rude and uncivil Bedouins” (A’rab ajlaf). because the image of the Khawarij continues to be that of divisive groups outside the consensus made up of anarchists or zealots who are impatient and intolerant. there is no administration that applies the religious law anywhere in the world apart from the Taliban. The Wahhabi stream that emerged holds that all Muslims.27 devoted several pages to a detailed description of this parallel. On more than one occasion the Shiite authors go beyond attaching the Khawarij label to the Wahhabis. as heretics who must be executed according to Shari’a law.

they act contrary to the stands of Ibn Hanbal (who never [8] declared any Muslim to be a heretic. they make do with the provision laid down by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyya. deified Ali. In fact their movement spread only as a result of military power and acts of cruelty committed anywhere they met with resistance. are “the people behind factionalism and differences of opinion [inside the Islamic community]” (hum min ahl al-tafarruq wa-al-ikhtilaf). Center on Islam. And indeed. Sura 9: 101). Today they make extensive use of cash to spread their faith. the Shiite author (he does not identify himself) concludes that the Wahhabis. The Wahhabis claim that they base their faith and habits on two types of sources: First. for example. “The Najd [Wahhabi] Sultan (Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud. their disciples (al-Tabiun). and the Salafis in particular.34 T he Wahhabi ideology is full of internal contradictions.36 The Wahhabis live in a “bubble. and the Future of the Muslim World . This is the description given by the Al-Kawthar Institute in the Iranian city of Qom (Mu’assasat alKawthar li-al-Ma’arif al-Islamiyya) in the introduction to the book The New and Correct Way for a Dialogue with the Wahhabis (Al-Minhaj al-Jadid waal-Sahih fi-al-Hiwar maa al-Wahhabiyyina) by Dr. and their way was full of contradictions: their thought is frozen. the sword and pointed spear and the resounding gold”(“sultan najd lahu hujjattani qatiatani… al-husam al-battar wa-al-dirham wa-al-dinar. even against Muslims who did not accept their way. alsayf wa-al-sinan wa-al-ahmar al-rannan”). In such cases the Wahhabis are not prepared to accept any other interpretation (ijtihad) of the Prophet’s Companions (al-Sahaba). Their movement’s history is riddled with acts of violence against all. Democracy. (The use of the term ghulat is somewhat exceptional given that it was previously used in medieval polemical literature to designate extreme Shiite groups who. When these accusations are made by Iranians. Muhammad al-Kuthayri claims that Ibn Taymiyya was not the inventor of this method. on rules that are categorically laid down in the Quran and the Prophet’s Sunna. allow themselves to lie when they argue with opponents. the founder of the third Saudi state.” and are thus unwilling and unable to change. where there is no specific mention in the Quran and Sunna. Isam al-‘Imad. the Wahhabis failed. and the person who allows to wage war against them. they undoubtedly reflect the anti-Arab claims raised by the Persian Shu’ubis during the second and third centuries after the Hijra. Sura 11: 48). or who refused to assist the Prophet at a time of need (Sura 9: 120.” or to be more precise: “in the darkness of the cave and they are ossified. according to the Shiite source. became entangled. or of the greatest imams.Quran. Second. apart from those who refuse to pray) and contrary to Ibn Taymiyya’s specific provision that “Those who cause a split in the Muslim community and determine that their opponents in matters of thought (ara wa-ijtihadat) are heretics. a former Wahhabi from Yemen who converted to Shiism (taharrara min kahf al-Wahhabiyya bi-kull ma yahmiluhu al-kahf min maani al-zhulma wa-l-hajariyya).”35 Given the above. the term A’rab is mostly used as an adjective to describe the heretic Bedouins (Sura 9: 97) whose faith is only outward and not internal (Munafiqun. according to the rules laid down by their spiritual father Ibn Taymiyya.37 The Wahhabis are now in fact radicals (ghulat) in their uncompromising stance in all matters that have to do with the attributes of Allah (al-sifat alilahiyya) and their accusation of anyone who upholds views other than their own as a heretic. and to falsify early sources to tie in with their stand (tahrif al-turath… wa-istihlal al-kadhib ala alkhusum). Following are further Shia observations about the Wahabists: The story of the Wahhabi movement is in fact exceptionally violent.)38 The Wahhabis. are themselves traitors to Islamic unity.) rests on two clear arguments… the cutting sword and the dirham and dinar.

They want to understand everything at the simplest level (al-fahm al-sathi li-afkar al-mukhalifin).41 Indeed. especially regarding their adversaries.Rather he mimicked the Hanbalis who came before him and willed it to the Wahhabis.43 In this case the word “Wahhabis” replaced the words “wine. who appeared among the tribe of Hanifa in the Najd area. the Shiite author Saib Abd alHamid stresses this fact. the Wahhabis are unable to delve deeply into the finer details. The placards carried by Hezbollah supporters in Lebanon following the al-Taif agreement of 1989 that put a stop to the civil war in Lebanon. who turned it into a rule that they follow. as Britain sees fit. declared that he would never “until Judgment Day” disobey Britain. Britain’s emissary to Saudi Arabia. read: “The Wahhabis are the filthy work of Satan” (alwahhabiyyun rijs min amal al-shaytan).44 One of the mustabsirun who went over to the Shia while studying for a doctorate at the alImam Muhammad Ibn Saud University in Mecca wrote a book. the Wahhabis have always served “Western imperialism in the Islamic countries… what did these countries do in order to withstand the Crusader and Zionist influence? They always opened their gates to the West so that it could take control of the Muslim countries and their sovereignty and honor.” Shiite sources show a photograph of a document written by Abd al-Aziz in which he declared to Percy Cook. that I have no objection to giving Palestine to the Jews or to others.” Sultan Abd al-Aziz al-Saud. Al-Aswad al-Anasi in Yemen. These prophets appeared during the early period of Islam— prophets such as Maslama Ibn Habib or Ibn Thumama.”46 Abd al-Aziz. gambling. known in Muslim sources as Musaylima al-Kadhdhab (“Maslama the poor liar”).40 T he Shiites claim that in his youth Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. the founder of the Wahhabiyya. that his country (Saudi Arabia) “has no objection to presenting Palestine to the Jews or to others. the altars and the arrows [used to distribute the meat of animals slaughtered on the altar as a custom practiced by Arab idol worshipers]” (see Quran. representative of Great Britain. the “prophet” of the tribe of Tamim. the founder of the (current) third Saudi [Wahhabi] state. noble and deep characteristics of the Twelver Shia school of thought so that we may elevate them to the intellectual level of the Twelver Shia.”45 According to the Shia.48 Sa’ib ‘Abd al-Hamid. Shiite publications refer to the Wahhabis as superficial and of limited intelligence. at the end of it he described how to HUDSON INSTITUTE debate with the Wahhabis: “The Wahhabis are not the enemies of this wonderful school of thought [Shiism]. the Merciful and the Compassionate. Sultan Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abd al-Rahman of the House of Faisal of the House of Saud.39 By the same token. they knowingly falsified Muslim history to align it with their stands. was very fond of reading the stories about the false prophets. I. is described as having warmly supported the “handover of Palestine to the Jews. Sajah Bint al-Harith.42 his intention is clear and transparent: Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab is a cheat who is no different from the false prophets. a former Hanafi (from Iraq) who became Shiite. as Britain sees fit. But we must descend to the intellectual level of the Wahhabi when we present to them the exclusive. Sura 5: 90). even before declaring himself king of Saudi Arabia. yet does not mention its source. I will never disobey Britain until Judgment Day. and as soon as they familiarize themselves well with it they will not hesitate to adopt it. acknowledge and admit a thousand times to Sir Percy Cook. and others. According to them. attacks the Wahhabis [9] .47 The full text reads: In the name of Allah.

with the aid of Islamic history. more correctly. T o this end the Shiites have acted methodically.. their land must be fought against (Dar Harb). inter-sectarian controversies.” “The Wahhabis believe themselves to be the only ones who totally serve Allah. whose doctrine and way of life the Islamic consensus rejected. As we have seen.”49 The “two-faced regimes” means the Muslim regimes who work “against Islam and real interests of Muslims. brought a despicable innovation to the world (bida kubra). comparing them to malignant bacteria that must be exorcised from the Islamic body. as they still do. whose only purpose is to prevent a true Islamic awakening. [ 10 ] Center on Islam. the foundling. and fought a terrible campaign against them—a quite successful effort in various Islamic countries and among the Muslim diaspora in various locations throughout the world. And they are the malignant bacteria working still today to strengthen the West’s hold on the heart of the Muslim world… There are the cursed hands that the West motivates in order to suppress the Islamic awakening and to support the two-faced regimes (al-anzima almunafiqa).. servants of the West. their primary enemy for more than two hundred years. The Wahhabis have denigrated them. in the heart of the Islamic nation. The Shiites make use of classical Sunni writings to denigrate all Wahhabi factions. presenting them as false and lacking in intellect. They compare the Wahhabis with the false prophets who appeared early on in Islamic history such as Musaylima. This Shiite campaign long ago violated the accepted limits of inter-religious or. In point of fact they. descendants and properties are not immune. desecrated their holy sites. and the Future of the Muslim World . the post-Khomeinist Shiites have been trying for the past thirty years to wage a savage war against the Wahhabis. there are agents of the West who oppress the awakening with blood and fire. or groups such as the Khawarij. The other Muslims worship gods other than Allah (Mushrikun) and their lives. Democracy. as misled and misleading heretics. the Shiites demonize the Wahhabis.”50 In conclusion. the Wahhabis.and describes them as “the malignant bacteria that prepared the ground for the West to plant Israel.

A Voyage in the World of the Shia. The authors of these works cite Shiite arguments. All the questions concerned the mut’a. even the most naive reader understands their true nature. Very often. or to verses from the Quran and the traditional sayings (Hadith) attributed to the Prophet. Obviously. the work’s supposed author—who was said to be a HUDSON INSTITUTE “repentant Shiite” and a convert to Sunnism. at the exclusion of others. comparing them either to other Shiite texts (to demonstrate the Shiism’s fallacies). Shiite apologists dispute the fact that this author ever belonged to their faith. considered permissible by the Shiites though inadvisable (makruha).52 Another work bears the title Fada’ih al-Hawza al-Ilmiyya fi-al-Najaf. Siyaha fi Alam al-Tashayyu. according to the Court. despite the fact that its authors claim to be religious scholars.54 The real authors did not refrain from quoting at length obscene details bordering on pornography. The reason for such a heavy sentence was that. it is easy to guess the real objective of these falsifications: to show that Shiites and Jews are [ 11 ] . This is the case of one work entitled Li-Llah thumma li i-Tarikh (For Allah and for History). This work is said to have been written by an author whose name is Muhibb al-Din Abbas al-Kazimi. and who later was supposedly assassinated by his former Shiite coreligionists—in fact never existed. which was attributed to an imaginary Shiite scholar from Najaf who identified himself Hussein al-Musawi.53 Sometimes these anti-Shiite works are so blatantly over-the-top and clearly false that. more likely. al-Hawza al-Ilmiyya.51 Another body of anti-Shiite literature is. and have a certain popular attraction emanating from their bawdy and direct allusions to the mut’a (temporary marriage) and the sodomy of women. A perfect example is given by a man calling himself the “Ayatollah al-Uzma waHujjatullah al-Baligha Abu Ishaq Ya’qub Ezra alAmili” of Qom. when reading the name Ya’qub Ezra. he is a disguised Wahhabi. and to reassure an uneasy public that it possesses the truth. or their authors use deceptive pseudonyms. and the authors of these texts often strive to present their works as reflective of the highest standards of scholarly rigor. The manager of the publishing house that originally published this article was condemned by the Court of Appeals in Beirut to two years of prison and to a fine of 50 million Lebanese pounds. these texts are published anonymously. Such texts can nevertheless be quite spicy. or Asrar wa-Khafaya (The Scandals of the Religious College [which educates the Shiite ulama] in Najaf. quite mediocre. or Secrets and Hidden Facts). the Ulama College. where over the course of two evenings he answered questions put to him by Shiite students. by scholarly standards.The Wahhabi View of the Shia T he sheer volume of anti-Shiite texts produced by Wahhabi authors in the past few decades is staggering. A great number of these works are written in accordance with the model typical of medieval polemical texts. The general purpose of this literature is to reach a popular audience. presumably. and refute them one by one by one. It appears that this man was in fact from Dearborn. There is a growing body online of antiShiite literature written by Wahhabi and Neo-Wahhabi authors that follows this centuries-old method. Michigan.

licentiousness and debauchery.57 Neo-Wahhabi Arguments Against the Shiites T he richest and most scathing anti-Shiite source: the popular discussion forums on the Internet (muntadayat) that are maintained by Neo-Wahhabi activists. They may express their opinions and disseminate ideas that have been widely held by the Sunni population. serious or vain discussions: anything goes. using Shiites as the butt of jokes. These forums report in detail real or fictitious accusations. Abd Allah al-Ghifari. As with the latter text. since many of these arguments aim at ridiculing the Shiites.” a name that readers might immediately associate with the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Among these. the Secret Plan ascribes to the Shiites far lesser ambitions than the Protocols does the Jews: Whereas the latter claims that the Jews intend to control the whole world. Shabakat al-Difa an al-Sunna (The Network for the Defense of the Sunna) deserves special mention. just like their brethren Jews. but warns that they will tirelessly seek to sow discord between those in power and the religious leaders. Mockery is always present. period in the history of peoples and religions. The Internet has thus succeeded in introducing into this controversy arguments stemming from the local collective folklore of the Muslim world. and everything is permissible. The text further claims that the Shiites will also seek to undermine the economic stability of the Middle East and upset the social order of the countries they have set their sights on. These forums give unqualified and ignorant people the occasion to participate in such polemics.55 and Al-Khutta al-Sirriyya li-Ayat al-Shia fi Iran (The Secret Plan of the Shia Ayat in Iran) with an introduction by Doctor Abd Al-Rahim Al-Balushi.56 This document is sometimes referred to as the “Protocol. Democracy. In some ways. The document further describes the methods that Shiites will use to attain this objective. didn’t spare any effort in disseminating hedonism.com under two different titles: Brutukulat Ayat Qumm hawla al-Haramayn al-Muqaddasayn (The Protocols of the Ayat of Qumm Concerning the Two Holy Cities) whose author is Dr. however.one and the same and that the Shiites. Among other things. this document claims the Shiites are using the same methods as the Jews in a plot to dominate the world. while encouraging the inhabitants of these countries to become morally lax and to indulge in debauchery and pornography. complete or partial quotations. The doc[ 12 ] ument describes in detail every clause and insists on the following point: fifty years are but a very short. perhaps for centuries. It asserts that the Shiites may appear to be harmless and moderate and even willing to engage in dialogue. Finally. Certain formulas used by the Neo-Wahhabis to define the Shiites are utterly offensive. One should not forget that present-day Shiites assert that they are “the descendants of millions of martyrs who were assassinated by the sons of Satan disguised as Sunni Muslims” (nahnu warathatu malayin al-shuhadai lladhina qutilu bi-yad al-shayatin al-mutaslimuna [sic] lSunna). The Secret Plan claims that the Shiites aim only to take control of the Muslim oil-producing countries in the next 50 years. they claim that the Center on Islam. and therefore insignificant. infiltrating subversive agents and buying real estate and commercial establishments for the use of Shiites who will arrive in those countries in the future. and the Future of the Muslim World . and describing them as odious creatures. thereby intensifying the negative and ridiculing portrayal of the Shiites. the texts claim that the Iranian regime is encouraging ordinary Iranians to immigrate to countries throughout the Middle East. Other examples come from a text that may be found on the anti-Shiite website www.fnoor.

the Neo-Wahhabis charge that the Shiite institution of the husainiyya—an establishment where various Shiite religious and social activities take place. and which states: “Whoever assails the Companions of the Prophet is a zindiq” (idha ra’ayta al-rajul yatanaqqasu ahad min ashab al-rasul fa-‘lam annahu zindiq). on the role that Ibn Saba’ alYahudi supposedly played in the early development of Shiism. they argue that that Imam Hussayn married a Persian princess. and not those of his elder brother Hasan (Intisab al-rafida li-al-majus al-furs). These accusations are commonly used in the various Islamic controversies against those who. the author claims. T he Shiites celebrate the Nowruz (the New Year for the Persians.”) The author explains that Shiism’s founder was in fact a Jew named Abd Allah Ibn Saba’ alYahudi59 who used the authority of Ali in an effort to falsify the Quran. the classical work of the 13th Century scholar Ibn Taymiyya. which is recognized as authentic by Sunni scholars.65 The Neo-Wahhabis often claim that even today the Zanadiqa use the Shiites to disseminate their ideas and implement their designs. known under the name of Abu Lu’lu’a. which demonstrates from where the Husainiyyat took their inspiration. the author quotes freely from the Minhaj al-Sunna. and both use choirs on various occasions. or client.68 Some Neo-Wahhabi activists quote experts on the Shia to give their accusations a semblance of legitimacy. the Neo-Wahhabis argue that the Shiite Sayyids (those whose genealogy is supposedly traced back to the Prophet Muhammad) perform in the husainiyyat certain rites and tasks similar to members of the church clergy. and they recycle many of the same attacks put forth in the Middle Ages. certain writers. appear to belong to the faithful but in reality are infidels. Paul.69 Some Shiites confer upon him the title of Baba Shuja’ al-Din. Jews and Christians” (“Mushabahat al-Shia li-al-Yahud wa lial-Nasara. or the rawafid (literally “those who refuse.70 All this goes to prove.67 The texts seeking to establish links between Shiism and Zoroastrianism are very superficially argued. and that this marriage explains why the Shiites (who are alleged to be Persian) worship the descendants of Husain only. in Arabic Nayruz). the Neo-Wahhabis point out. In their effort to link Shiism with Christianity.Shia are “a Christian seed planted by Judaism on Zoroastrian land” (“al-Shia hiya bidhra nasraniyya gharasatha al-yahudiyya fi ard majusiyya.”) 58 This description constitutes the preamble to an article titled “The Resemblance between Shiites. the existence of a Zoroastrian “conspiracy” aimed at avenging the destruction of the Sassanid Empire. 66 Equating the Shia with Zandaqa probably originates with the Hadith. used the authority of Jesus to alter Christianity. In an effort to provide a scholarly basis for his arguments.64 The same circles also insist on the connection between the Shia.62 Regarding the relations of the Shia with Zoroastrianism. on the face of it. All these polemics are meant to lead the reader to [ 13 ] . do not always make the distinction between the terms Zandaqa (heretics)63 and Majusiyya Zaradushtiyya (Zoroastrians. Among other things. are actually Persian Magi or Zoroastrians who hate Islam because it has destroyed their state. just as St. including mourning celebrations of the murder of the Imam Hussayn in Karbala in 680—is no different than the Christian church. of Persian descent. the author claims. of Al-Mughira Ibn Shuba.60 The Shiite followers of Ibn Saba’ al-Yahudi. as well as the authors writing for the Internet. And even today the Shiites still celebrate the murder of the Caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab in the year 644 by a mawla. in the Neo-Wahhabi mind. Both the husainiyya and the church. are decorated with images and paintings.61 Moreover.” or who refuse to accept the first three righteous caliphs as legitimate) and the Zandaqa.) Many articles and even booklets have been published to HUDSON INSTITUTE prove that such relations do indeed exist.

Ibn Qutayba. mubtadi’un). “They are polytheists and total apostates who deserve to be executed” (hadha shirk akbar wa-ridda an al-Islam yastahiqquna al-qatl alayha). Mustafa al-Siba’i. while an ordinary Shiite (awammuhum) is simply a heretical innovator (mubtadi’)? 72 The question of the Imamate has also been addressed in these polemics. but also other authors from the Middle Ages and from modern times who belong to all the legal schools (without mentioning the sources).76 Using the pseudonym Khalid Ahl al-Sunna. avarice. without bothering to indicate an exact source: subhana man khalaqa al-kadhib wa-a’ta tis’ata a’sharihi li-al-Rawafid (“blessed be He who created lying and who gave the Rafida nine tenths of it”). are renegades—whoever claims that is himself a renegade. Ali al-Qari. 834).”75 The Shiites are said to have become masters in the art of treachery (ghadr). Muhibb al-Din al-Khatib. as guides in the path of rectitude. According to the Wahhabis.Umar in 740. We sent them to Kufa [a traditionally Shiite center] and to Basra [a traditionally Sunni center]. the Kufites sent them back after fabricating an isnad (transmission chain) for each tradition. and third. the warraq (librarian) of al-Humaydi (d. the present version of the Quran. refusing them point-blank because all were faked. They often quote Ibn Taymiyya. who was abandoned by his troops and then crucified by the Umayyad governor Yusuf b. Democracy. According to Ibn Taymiyya. Nasir al-Din al-Albani. Ahmad b. etc. Ibn Kathir. resulting in his martyrdom at Karbala in 680.” The Neo-Wahhabis base their arguments on traditions attributed to the Prophet or on opinions expressed by many Hanbali and Wahhabi scholars and exegetes. with the Umayyad force.71 Having raised the problem of the Shiites’ status. the Shiites are the biggest liars on earth. Al-Husain Ibn Ali. who are praised in the Quran (al-Sahaba al-ladhina zakkahum al-Qur’an). Ibn Hazm.one obvious conclusion: the Shiites are either renegades (kuffar) or heretical innovators (ashabBid’a. Bahjat al-Bitar. such as Malik b. the Shiites have committed perjury because they have endowed Ali and the other Imams with supernatural. second. almost divine faculties. They base their arguments on stories told by the traditional adversaries of the Shia. The Neo-Wahhabis often quote the following sentence. Their ancestors betrayed the following great figures: First. who was invited by them to Kufa to rebel against the Caliph Yazid Ibn Muawiya (reigned 680 – 83). the inspector of the “Islamic Dialog” on the website Al-Difa’ ‘an al-Sunna (The Defense of the Sunna) adds: “such were the ancestors of the Shiites.74 T o illustrate this accusation. [ 14 ] and lying refer to the Shiites (madrib al-mathal fi-alghadr wa-al-bukhl wa-al-kadhib). the Shiites sided. however. Hanbal. which they attribute to Ibn Taymiyya. Al-Bukhari. Al-Sam’ani. following the traditionalists of Medina: “We have fabricated seventy traditions to test the Iraqi traditionalists. Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali. The Neo-Wahhabis like to repeat that “whoever claims that the Vulgate. every possible sin on earth being dumped on them. Anas. The traditionalists of Basra sent them back to us. Zayd Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain.73 The Shiites are the target of other grave accusations. Rashid Rida. and the Future of the Muslim World . the question many Sunni authors ask is whether all Shiites should be considered as kuffar. The Neo-Wahhabis do not fail to point out that certain proverbs related to treachery. or should not one rather accept the position of the moderate Sunni authors who consider that only the Shiite ulama are kuffar. how spiteful they are and how spiteful their descendants are!” (Ha’ula’i kanu al- Center on Islam. Literally. Al-Hasan Ibn Ali in Sabat al-Mada’in just before the battle against the Syrian army of Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan in 661. has been altered (muharraf). they recount an anecdote attributed to Muhammad Ibn Idris. or that the Companions of the Prophet. al-Qadi Iyad.

The NeoWahhabis call him kalb yahudi ibn yahudi (Jewish dog. one of the most notorious Lebanese Shiite leaders. It seems that the term has been accepted by certain Salafi. However. especially among Oriental Jews) is now being used to designate the great leaders of the Shia. One can thus find on the forums of the Internet the following word combinations: “kibar Hakhamat al-Shia” or “Hakhamatuhum al-ma’suma” (“the great Rabbis of the Shiites. the Shiites are accused of working hand in hand with the Freemasons in arms and narcotics deals. and to that of the al-mufsiduna fi-al-ard.80 Georges Vajda. anti-Shiite activists. They ask with an affected ingenuousness: “why won’t he judge according to the law of Muhammad and Muhammad’s family?”. I would like to draw attention to an original contribution from modern times that has been enthusiastically endorsed by the Neo-Wahhabis: the Hebraic title Hakham (Rabbi. who are the objects of Allah’s wrath (Quran 1: 7).83 This presentation examines this question from another angle—that of the anti-Shiite polemics. 17:4).84 The Shiites are accused by the Neo-Wahhabis of having been influenced by the Jews or of behaving like Jews. Thus. This insult of the Shiites is legitimized by reference to the exegetical literature where it is said that being a Jew means belonging to the category of the maghdub alayhim. regarding Jews and Shiites. Shaykh Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah. We know that since the dawn of Islam. and their disciples. the Shiites themselves accuse their opponents of being members of Freemason lodges. the Freemasons have been considered in those circles as the agents of “world Judaism” and as bitter enemies of Islam.78 In the eyes of the Islamic fundamentalists. is described by his ideological enemies as a “well-implanted agent of the British Intelligence Service and a veteran of the Freemasons’ lodges” (amma Fadlullah fa-‘amil mu’attaq li-al-mukhabarat al-Baritaniyya wa-‘unsur asil fi-al-Masuniyya).’ These trivial and threadbare arguments have been used for ages. we must recall one aspect of the Imami eschatology decried by Neo-Wahhabi circles.”) Finally.” or “their infallible Rabbis.81 and Shlomo Pines82 have touched the topic without analyzing it in depth. Meir Bar-Asher has published two important articles on the place occupied by Jews and Judaism in the religious literature of the early Shia. The question of the authentiHUDSON INSTITUTE city of these accusations will not be examined: they have been uttered by scholars who went no further than simply mentioning the insulting attributes of Jews. wa-bi’sa alkhalaf khalafuhum). Saba’ is the founder of your damned [ 15 ] . one of the most humiliating insults has been to call a Muslim a Jew. for more than half a century. namely the Shiites’ belief that the Twelfth Imam will appear before the end of times to wreak vengeance on those who mistreated Ali. To make matters worse. or son of a Jew) because “he will judge humanity according to the law of David and his offspring” (Yahkumu bi-shari’at Dawud wa Al Dawud). his offspring. (shari’at Muhammad wa Al Muhammad?). Moreover. according to the Neo-Wahhabis. those who do their utmost to sow scandal on earth (5:64. this accusation is very serious indeed since. this accusation is plainly justified since they regard Shiism as a heretical teaching sect first established by a former Jew. Ibn Saba.77 In their internal fights.79 The Mutual Relations Between the Shia and Judaism T he relations between certain Shiite traditions and Judaism have not yet been thoroughly studied: Israel Friedlander. They answer: “Because the Jew Abd Allah b.Shia al-aslaf fa-bi’sa al-salaf salafuhum. More recently.

The Iqaz bulletin published in London by Rabitat Ahl al-Sunna fi Iran (the Sunni League in Iran) contained in its issue of April 12. Nun…All will be his auxiliaries. Ibn Taymiyya claims that Jews believe only David’s descendents can rule. he draws a number of parallels. 2002 an article titled “The Similarities between the Rafidas and the Jews” (mushabahat al-Rafida li-l Yahuud).” In addition. and according to Muhammad’s law (bi-hukni lLahi wa-hukm al Dawud wa hukn Muhammad). he will be escorted by the Holy Spirit (la-talq n bihi ruh al qudus). neo-Wahhabis draw a number of conclusions. including a detailed version specifying that the Twelfth Imam will rule “according to the code of Allah and of David’s family. Sharahil alSha’bi (d. he will rule/judge according to David and Solomon’s law. We can find an additional example of this scurrilous style in the article titled. the author selectively cites from a number of the most eminent Shiite sources. There the Shiites are described as Yahud hadhihi l-umma88 (“the Jews of the Islamic community”) because “they hate Islam the same way Jews hate Christianity” (yubghiduna l-Islama kama yubghidu l-Yahudu lNasraniyyata).91 the Shiites distorted the Koran.”89 Others prefer to quote a more detailed text. for instance.”87 On the basis of these three Hadiths. The Jews “ban jihad until the coming of their Messiah” (this ban. Joshua b. the famous Kufan Epigone. The Jews will be his support. The [ 16 ] Mahdi will use Hebrew as a vernacular language. attributed to Ibn Taymiyya. Therefore they are considered by Muslims. who is described as “the Bukhari of the Rafida. which means he is the awaited king (Redeemer) of the Jews. a neo-Wahhabi Internetforum author cites Ibn Taymiyya. In his argumentation. 722).” and who allegedly claimed: “When Qa’im al Muhammad (the Twelfth Imam) appears. We will have to refrain from asking him any kind of evidence” (idha qama qa’im al Muhammad alayhi lsalam hakama bi-hukmi Dawud wa-Sulayman wa la yusala bayyinatan). The Jews falsified the Torah.90 in which he compares the Shiites to the Jews. Al-Kulini. “Donkeys as the Jews (hatta ja‘alahumu l-nasu lahum kal-hamir). First of all. claiming he is their enemy.religion!” (Abd Alah b.” It seems that the law of the Dawud family must be the Talmud. Al-Sha’bi adds: “If [the Shiites] were turned into pack animals. verse 5) in which Jews are compared to donkeys carrying books.93 the Center on Islam. the Mahdi of the Shiites is none other than the Antichrist announced by the Prophet Muhammad.8 This seems to refer to what is known as al-Ism al-A’zam. “Evidence That the Mahdi Awaited by the Rafida Is the One-Eyed Jewish Antichrist” (ithbat anna mahdi l-rafida l-muntazar huwa nafsuhu 'l-aÝwarm al-dajjal al-yahudi). while the Shiites insist on not taking part in the jihad before the coming of the Twelfth Imam. These include. In order to do this. In other words. I n order to support these attacks likening the Shiites to the Jews. while the Shiites believe that the imams can only be Ali’s descendents. known by the prophets only. the Mahdi of the Rafida will base his judgments on “the law of the Dawud family and on a new Koran that is not similar to the one we have.92 The Jews hate the archangel Gabriel. The author recounts a Hadith attributed to Amir b. Al-Nu‘mani: “When the Imam calls to [prayer]. he will call Allah by his name in Hebrew” (idha adhdhana l-imamu da’a Laha bi smihi l ibrani). they would surely have been donkeys” (fa-law kanu mina l-dawabbi la-kanu hamiran). the Qa’im will be accompanied by twenty-seven men from the people of Moses. forbids rebellion to free themselves from submission to the Gentiles). Democracy. imposed by the rabbis of the Talmud. Saba’ al-yahudi l-ladhi awjada dinakum al-la’in).85 The author also cites various versions of this Hadith. and the Future of the Muslim World . seven from the people of the Cave. Al-Saykh al-Mufid: “When he appears in the region of Kufa. This reference contains an allusion to the Koran (Chapter 62. saying that the Shiites help the renegades acting against Islam.

97 Karbala’ becomes Sharrbala’. qaddasa llah sirrahu (may Allah bless his secret) becomes. In completing this comparison. Each of these two communities has committed numerous crimes among [other] peoples and emerges like tuberculosis or leprosy. However the Shiites claim that Muhammad’s Companions are the worst kind of Muslims. The Jews are condemned to wander and to be scattered amongst other peoples. the lofty one). if such is his wish. The “errant and deceptive” Shiites at times replace the Devil. one of which allows the husband to sodomize his wife. writing under the pseudonym Abu l-Dahdah. the Shiites allow themselves to take hold of Muslims’ properties and to spill their blood. states: Hakamtu bayna l-millatayni falam ajid min farqin bi l-kufri wa l-ijrami Kilahuma bayna l-shu’ubi jara’imu nabatat ka-sillin aw ka-‘I-judhami Wa-ara dimaa l-kufri khayra wasilatin li-taharati l-dunya mina l-athami. Ayatullah alSistani.102 After comparing the two religions [of the Jews and the Shiites]. Therefore they resorted to other tactics that seem to be more effective in certain Sunni circles.98 Ni’mat Allah (the grace of Allah) al-Jazairi99 is designated as Niqmat Allah (Allah’s punishment).100 The Lebanese Shiite organization Hezbollah (Allah’s party) is called in a few publications Hizbu al-Shaytan (Satan’s party) or Hizbu al-Lat (the party of pre-Islamic goddess al-Lat. The neo-Wahhabi author does not say a word on Sistani’s personal opinion. a literal antonym of al-ashraf). I found no difference regarding their apostasy and criminality. HUDSON INSTITUTE . especially in the very common Islamic expression al-shaytan al-rajim (Satan worth stoning). Ibn Taymiyya adds that “Jews and Christians are better than Shiites. one of the most prestigious modern Shiite leaders.”95 fadaha llah sirrahu (may God reveal his secret).101 One of the participants on a chat. one of “Allah’s daughters”). the customary addition to the names of the great ulema. which is completely opposed to such acts.Shiites believe that Gabriel. who was sent by Allah to Ali. is called Ayatu l-shaytan al-Sistani.94 The Jews allow themselves to do as they like with the property and the blood of the Gentiles. there is no better solution than to spill the blood of apostasy. usually used to describe the holy city al-Najaf. In order to purify the world from the impurity caused by these crimes. The Salafis replaced honorifics and even epithets of sanctity with epithets of debasement and scorn: thus the attribute al-ashraf (the noble one. the name ayat Allah al-uzma alSistani is distorted: the first “i” is replaced by the letter “k” to become al-Sextani. In one discussion. The Jews are described in the Koran as al-mufsidun fi lard (workers of corruption in the earth). in the case of Khomeini. Shiites are condemned to similar punishments. made a mistake and gave the prophecy to Muhammad. Shiites also are mufsidun. which can be broken down into sharr and bala (the worst of [all] torments). because the Jews believe that the best generation is that of the Moses’ Companions and the Christians consider the Apostles to be the best Christians. is sometimes replaced by al-anjas (the impure)96 or by al-akhsaf (buried in the earth. On one neo-Wahhabi forum.103 [ 17 ] Ridiculing the Shiites I t seems that the Salafis were not convinced of the efficacy of these arguments in restraining the Shiite tide. This distortion appears immediately following the citing of a few of Sistani’s legal opinions.

one must not forget that Wahhabis and neo-Wahhabis are still a minority in Islam whose views represent only their own perspective. The Shiites who “convert” to the sunna are described as muhtadun (guided by Allah on the path of truth. ala l-dallin min a l-Shia l-mudillin. seems very simple. mulhidun (apostates). and the Future of the Muslim World . as well as their skill at spreading their ideas through traditional as well as ultra-modern means. authored by Khalid al-Asqalani. was: Bal dalilta. The Islamic Republic of Iran has succeeded not only in curbing the neo-Wahhabi propaganda. It has done so through its far more intelligent responses. and to the policy adopted by Iran and Shiite organizations regarding current problems. ignoring the replies of the Shiites and the writings of many moderate Sunnis.” The neo-Wahhabi response. disks. i. It should be noted that this is how Jews and Christians who join the fold of Islam are usually termed. are Shiites Muslims or have they transgressed the limits of what is deemed within the fold of Islam? T he terminology used by neo-Wahhabis is all too clear: the shia or the rafd constitute a separate “religion. it has also made its way in the Arab world.Another forum opens with the following formula: Bismi Lahi l-Rahmani l-Rahim wa-bihi nasta’in. as well as the Muslim minorities in the West.”105 Once we reach the end of this long (though not exhaustive) series of accusations. On the other hand. in which he describes abandoning the Sunna and adopting the Shia: Thumma htadaytu. and we seek a shelter in Him [because of the fear they arouse in us] until Judgment Day. What makes them important is their activism and the huge funds placed at their disposal. wa-na’udhu bihi minhum ila yawmi l-din “In the name of God the compassionate and merciful! We ask for His help to face the errant Shiites who continuously deceive others. of true Islam). etc. we cannot but ask: in the eyes of neo-Wahhabis and even Wahhabis in general. There is no doubt that this all-out offensive has been successful in convincing a number of unsophisticated minds regarding bid’a (heretic innovation). jihad (holy war against the infidels) and animosity toward the West and its values. books. those who “convert” from sunna to shia are dall (errant. In another instance. murtaddun (renegades).” not a sect of Islam. 104 Regarding this matter. However. the alim (scholar) of Tunisian origin who converted to Shiism. on the way to perdition). bid’iyyun (heretical innovators). I was guided [by Allah] to the true path. one of the neo-Wahhabi authors quotes a verse by the famous poet al-Qahtani in which Shiites are designated as hizbat [sic] al-shaytan (Satan’s party). with their tracts. quburiyyun (tomb worshippers). “Afterwards. Ali al-Tijani. [ 18 ] Center on Islam. “Oh no! you are [in fact on the way] of perdition!”106 The answer to the question “Are Shiites Muslims in the eyes of the neo-Wahhabis?” if we confine ourselves to these texts. we must not forget that Quranic exegetes attest unanimously to the fact that the word dallin in the first Sura refers to the Christians. The resources they enjoy allow them to flood the Arab and Muslim world. However it seems to be less successful in its anti-Shiite endeavor. Democracy. gives the following title to his book.e. Those who dare to oppose their positions and doctrine are afraid of being called kuffar (infidels). video cassettes and CDs.

a p p e ndi x i Sultan ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s Document: Giving Palestine to the Jews HUDSON INSTITUTE [ 19 ] .

[ 20 ] Center on Islam. and the Future of the Muslim World . Some anti-Shiite circles claim that this is a part of the “secret Shiite version” of the Quran. Democracy.a p p e n di x i i “Surat al-Walaya” The Chapter establishes that the wiliayat of Ali Ibn Abi Talib requires the duty of unquestioned loyalty and obedience to him.

9. for permission to republish this section. Humum da’iya (al-Dawha 1985).khayma.” by S. moreover.” The author wishes to thank Koninklijke Brill NV. There is no way to establish the true identity of the author. see the excellent survey of Brunner. 5. H. Enderwitz).com/fn0315. 201-9. vol. recently. 278. this attitude was severely criticized by Salafis. The Early Islamic Conquests (Princeton: Princeton University Press. for example. ed. with an introduction by Sa’id Hawwa [the radical Syrian Islamic leader]. Note: A version of the section dealing with the Shia in the eyes of the Neo-Wahhabites has been published in French in Arabica 53. 216-21. 11. This medium grants a number of advantages to those partaking in the debate.htm. Iran in Revolution (in Hebrew). 27. 1988). 299-330. where possible. (Cairo: Dar al-‘Uruba. Hanna and G.htm. under the title “Les Shiites vus par les Néo-Wahhabites. 8. it is possible to forge material and accredit it to people who have no connection with it. no. 1981). if any. especially if the person belongs to the opposing side. The Shu‘ubiyya was a socio-cultural protest movement that operated in the above-mentioned period. 7. www. 4. Bashshar ‘Awwad Ma ruf.htm.A note about our sources: almost all of the material used in the preparation of this paper can be found on the Internet. (Baghdad. Islamic Ecumenism. it is unimportant whether the texts that appear in the Internet are true or not.aqaed. al-Intisar: ahammu munazarat al-Shi’a fi-al-internet. Regarding the revival of the term Shu‘ubiyya during modern times. 2. 3 (2006). Concerning this subject. see also Dr. the common spelling of names and terms rather than a precise transliteration. Islamic Ecumenism in the 20th Century: The Azhar and Shi’ism between Rapprochement and Restraint (Leiden: Brill. Markaz al-abhath al-Aqa‘idiyya.01. I owe this last reference to my friend Professor Etan Kohlberg. 1989). In this article I have used.com/fnoor/fn0990. the denials. 6. Concerning this battle see Fred McGraw Donner. For our purposes. HUDSON INSTITUTE [ 21 ] . See David Menashri. or whether they truly reflect what was said or authorized by the Shiite or Wahhabi leaderships. but it also has its disadvantages. where the Shiite author reviews the first stages of the SunniShiite polemics on the Internet. Muhammad al-Ghazali. 3. the book written by the Baath Party member Mundhir al-Mawsili. no.” Middle East Journal 20 (1966): 335-52. Al-Qaradawi in his CD al-Fiqh wa-usuluhu. in certain cases the article is merely intended to provoke public opinion for or against an idea. 11.files/shi‘alib/index.notes 1. See.fnoor. Rainer Brunner. see for example Ayaltaqi alnaqidani? Hiwar ma’a fadilat al-shayh Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Gardner. 7. Al-Malak al-Ta’ir. see A. 10. See The Encyclopaedia of Islam (new ed. 1989). series of the kutub al-munazarat. pp. “Al-Shu‘ubiyya Updated: A Study of the 20th Century Revival of an 8th Century Concept. al-Qaradawi changed his attitude and attacked the Shiites for their efforts to convince the Sunnites in Egypt and other Arab countries to adopt Shiism. of those connected with the issue will not necessarily appear in the same site and this prevents the reader from knowing of the existence of the denial. Their importance is in their being said and disseminated by Shiites and Wahhabis. 2nd ed. Al-Islam wa-Mafhum al-Qiyada al-‘Arabiyya li-al-Umma al-Islamiyya (Islam and the Concept of Arabic Leading of the Muslim Community). pp. 513 (s. www.). led mainly by Persian Muslims who demanded full equality with the Arab Muslims and claimed that the Arabs had no right to preferential standing over non-Arabs. 2004). (Tel Aviv: Kav Adom Library-Hakibbutz Hameuchad. Qira’at fi Harb al-khalij: ‘Arab wafurs (Readings Regarding the Gulf War: Arabs and Persians). See al-Àmili. “Shu’ubiyya. 37 in www.02. and there is partial or misquotation of the opponent’s words on the assumption that the regular reader is unable or will not go to the source to find out the true quotation. a faith or a certain group. Leiden.v.

html. www.com/shialib/books/06/enternt/html. another example is the Hadith that holds that Muhammad. 16. The first list is sloppy. who claimed that he and his descendants are the sole legal inheritors of the Prophet. Mu’jam ma allafahu ‘ulama’ al-umma al-islamiyya li-al-radd ‘ala khurafat al-da’wa al-wahhabiyya (A List of Compositions by Sages of the Muslim Community Who Respond to the Nonsense of the Wahhabiyya). www. a fifth of the booty belongs to Allah. to the nearest ones [to him]. 5 (1984): 143-75. Ibid.” 334-35) mentions that all through Khomeini’s era. In the Shiite view. thus. And wrote a report against them with the Shar’i Qadi of Mecca determining that they [the Wahhabis] are heretics because of their beliefs in those faiths [declaring others as heretics] (wa-nazaru ila ‘aqa’idihim fa-wajaduha mushtamila ‘ala kathir min al-mukaffirÁt… wa-katabu ‘alayhim hujja ‘inda qadi al-shar’ bi-makka tatadammanu al-hukm bi-kufrihim bi-tilka al-‘aqa’id). ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib was the Prophet Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law and was the fourth “righteous” Caliph after Muhammad. One example is the tradition known as the Hadith of Ghadir Khumm (delivered near a stream known as Khumm). compositions. 18. The fnoor. See.” 24. In this case. for another partial list of anti-Wahhabi.aqaed. especially p. only that Ali cannot be a prophet (unlike Aaron who is considered a prophet in Islam) since Muhammad is the last of the prophets. but the list also contains antiShiite books.. in www.12.aqaed. See Wilfrid Buchta. 20. on his death bed. 7: “The religious sages of Mecca and Medina studied the faith [of the Wahhabis] and found that they contained many statements regarding declarations of others as heretics. the three first caliphs (preceding Ali) changed the will of Allah by preventing Ali’s rule.. particularly Sunni. “The Attitude of the Imami-Shi‘is to the Companions of the Prophet” (Oxford University. 36. dictated a will mentioning the twelve Shiite Imams by their full names. 336. stating that Ali and his descendants will serve in turn in his place (caliphs) over his people (the Muslims).com. the legitimacy of Ali’s and his descendants’ rule is ordained by Allah.htmk.” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam.html. Kitab al-Intisar. vol. 15. p. Kohlberg in his typed thesis. Mawqif al-shi’a min hajamat al-khusum wa-khulasa ‘an kitab ‘abiqat al-anwar (The Shia’s Stand vis-à-vis the Attacks of the Enemies and a Choice Part of the Book ‘The Scents of the Lights’). In the second list. the khums means the fifth of the wealth of the Shiite. for example. “Teheran Ecumenical Society (Majma’ al-taqrib): A Veritable Ecumenical Revival or a Trojan Horse of Iran?” in Brunner and Ende. 19.com/book-books3-wahabie3-index. 13. The book is titled History of the Islamic Conquests (Al-Futuhat alIslamiyya). See above n. 23. his Risala fi kayfiyyat al-muhawara ma’a al-Shi’a wa-al-radd alayha (A Treatise Regarding the Method by Which to Debate with the Shia and Respond to It). The Shiite imams are considered by the Shiites to be the sole heirs of the Prophet. www. 4. which states that Ali’s status in comparison with that of Muhammad is the same as that of Aaron compared to Moses. 1 and all of chapter 2. and the Future of the Muslim World .com/shialib/books/05/w-s-h/index. 1905. since it never indicates the author or the year of publication. ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ‘Ali. which has been run for more than eleven years under the guidance of Ayatollah al-Sistani. It appears in full in the publications of The Center for Studies of Faith (Markaz al-Abhath al-Aqa’idiyya). the khums being one of them. A photocopy of this Fatwa can be found on the anti-Shiite website www. The Twelver Shia in Modern Times. Cairo. to the Apostle.aqaed. see in Sa’ib ‘Abd al-Hamid’s article www. www.com website published two lists of Shiite or pro-Shiite books that were published in Egypt either by Dar altaqrib or by other publishers. According to the Quran (see Sura 8:41). The Shia movement sprang from his and his offspring’s supporters (Shi’at ‘Ali means Ali’s faction). See al-Àmili. 1971).. 19. Democracy.com/book/bookw3/sawaeq/sawaeq. The attitude of the Shiites concerning the majority of the Prophet’s companions has been thoroughly studied by E. Buchta (“Teheran Ecumenical Society. Paragraph 11.aqaed. 260. and thus have the right to collect certain taxes imposed by Allah.com/shalib/books/04/mawqef/index. p. the Iranian official Islamic propaganda took no interest whatsoever in this institution and its ecumenical role. see BihÁr al-anwar. [ 22 ] Center on Islam. The Shiite relate a number of Hadiths (traditions) attributed to the Prophet in which he “determined” categorically that Ali and his descendants are his inheritors and that this is by the will of Allah. 25. 22. See Abd al-Aziz al-Tabataba’i.com/book/books3/fetne/index. to the orphans and to the voyager. 17.fnoor. the name of the author appears together with his religious or political views. 21. 14.aqaed. also see his “Some Imami Shi’i Views on the Sahaba.html.aqaed.

‘Isam al-‘Imad. Ibid.aqaed. Kitab al-Intisar. as well as in Iran by the ‘Ashura Institution. Kennedy. Al-Wahhabiyya fi khidmat man? (In Whose Service Does the Wahhabiyya Operate?). Ibid. He abandoned this work when he found out that Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi regime funded the magazine. Lectures on Islam (the Hebrew translation). Ella Landau-Tasseron. 44. Sa’ib Abd al-Hamid (see above n.fnoor. 2-6. pp. 28. “Kharidjites.shiaweb. Al-Kuthayri.com. 49. www. www. in the series Al-Radd ‘ala Ibn Taymiyya wa-l-Wahhabiyya. For additional details about this group see The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition). Sa’ibAbd al-Hamid (see above n. 179. and most important of all al-Khud’a: rihlati min al-Sunna ila al-Shi’a (The Imposture: My Journey from the Sunna to the Shia) publicized on the site www. www. 473. 16. essay no. 48. Ibid. 31. Al-Salafiyya bayna ahl al-sunna wa-l-imamiyya.org/shia/khedaa/index. vol. Al-‘Amili. See www. 42. 16.htm. Firaq ahl al-Sunna (The Sunni Sects). Abd al-Mun’im Shafiq. 48-51. essay no. 35. 46. translated by Emmanuel Kopelevich).26. among them al-Shi’a fi misr (The Shia in Egypt). Unfortunately. 24).html. 51. section 6: al-Wahhabiyya wa-l-Muslimun (The Wahhabis and rhe Muslims). He wrote a number of books. calling them “deviants from Islam (Mariqun) who are doomed to hell. its authenticity is difficult to verify. quoted in its entirety in a Sunni site. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century (in Hebrew. 38.aqaed. For the most part this was an attempt to break away from the reign of Muhammad and his inheritors: see H. Sa’ib ‘Abd al-Hamid.alrakiza.. Aspects of the Ridda War (in Hebrew).shiaweb. Following a lengthy stay in Egypt he adopted the Shia some ten years ago and became an active Shiite.ForumMessage. Al-Wahhabiyya fi Suratiha al-haqiqiyya. See above note 46. Al-Salafiyya bayna ahl al-sunna wa-l-imamiyya (The Salafi Movement between Sunnis and Shiites). 482. in the series Al-Radd ‘ala Ibn Taymiyya wa-l-Wahhabiyya.html. PhD thesis.com/shialib/books/05/w-s-h/index. 2. One Sunni website containing a great deal of anti-Shiite material is www. Masadir al-fikr al-Wahhabi (The Sources of Wahhabi Thought). 27. Al-Wahhabiyya wa-mu’assisuha (The Wahhabiyya and its Founder). 150-1. 30. 41..com/shialib/books/03/manhaj-jadid. 40. Shubuhat al-Salafiyya (Suspicions [Reagarding] the Salafiyya) by Jawad Hussayn Al-Daylami. without mentioning the author’s name or the source. Sa’ib Abd al-Hamid. 33. essay number 28. 34.” 29. www. 100. www.aqaed. 47. The Shiite author does not disclose the source this document’s photocopy. see above note 25 (Asl al-Wahhabiyya). Introduction. 43.aqaed. Mu’jam. See Goldziher. Muhhammad al-Kuthayri.34). 32. Al-Minhag al-jadid wa-al-sahihi fi-al-hiiwar ma’a al-Wahhabiyyina).com/books. see the Shiite-Sunni free discussion forum (Muntada al-Hiwar al-Shii al-Sunni al-Hurr). Sa’ib Abd al-Hamid (see above n. pp. in the series Al-Radd ala ibn Taymiyya wa-l-Wahhabiyya. www. 45.v. 39. Jerusalem: 1998.” by G. ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ‘Ali. Al-Salafiyya baynaAahl al-Sunna wa-l-Imamiyya. 480. 37. are as a general rule well documented and draw their material from classical Shiite texts (with the exception of the discussions of the muntada al-Hiwar al-Shi’i al-Sunni al-Hurr “The Forum of Free Dialogue HUDSON INSTITUTE [ 23 ] . in the Introduction. and it is highly likely that it may be forged. which is run by Faysal Nur. This phenomenon is known in Muslim historiography as al-Ridda (apostasy from Islam). 4. 33.aqaed. 29).fnoor.com. 1074-77 (s. Haqiqat al-Muqawama: Qira’a fi awrÁq al-Haraka al-siyasiyya al-Shi’iyya fi Lubnan.. and afterwards as a correspondent for the al-Risala weekly. Jerusalem: 1951.. Al-Khud’a. 50.com. 465-6.org/shia/khedaa/index. He served in the past as the editor of an Egyptian Islamist publication al-Balagh. Ibid. The treatises published on this website. traditions attributed to the Prophet were invented in which he foresaw the appearance of the Khawarij and cautioned the Muslim people about them. www.com. (Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 1981). Levi Della Vida). 36. but in the framework of the struggle against them. The Khawarij appeared for the first time some twenty years after the Prophet Muhammad’s death.

com/fnoor/fn0336. these discussions continue to be a focus of interest. vol. 63. 52.. 28. Abi Talib is God.05.com/fnoor/index2.al. 3) AlImama wa-al-Nass (The Imamate and the Textual Determination [of the heir who should rule after the death of the Prophet]). see www. 67. 20. www. khayma. This book attacks the Shiites./ForumMessagePage.com..01.01.02). as well as music and songs. Cairo: 1968. Additionally. 6) Riwayat al-Tasadduq bi-al-Khatam (The Traditions Telling that [‘Ali] Gave [his] Ring as Charity). vol.fnoor/book13.01.05.khayma.S. 174 . Faysal Nur is probably also the author of a series entitled Silsilat al-Haqa’iq al-Gha’iba (The Chain/Series of Hidden Truths).com. 04. the Turn of the Zoroastrians Has Come). (www. 1985.2002. the series called Shubuhat waRudud (Suspicions and Retorts). www. 7) Mawqif al-Shia mina al-Sahaba (The Attitude of the Shiites towards the Companions of the Prophet). 1.com/fnoor/fn0441.. . www.” by F. This series is also copiously annotated and has no qualms about telling racy stories (…fnoor/almalak1.2002).. (alrakiza.com/forumNo1=1&Message No=594. (s. 57. ‘Abd Allah al-Gharib. 61. ed. and the remaining two thirds were Christians. p.asp?UserNo=489.. 69. al-Majus.2002. 11. 23.v. ‘Adil Ahmad ‘Abd Al-Mawjud et.khayma. consists of more than a hundred articles copiously annotated.com/arabic/shia/shia_R-persians.The Zoroastrians. 55. alrakiza.fnoor/fn0936.2002). al-Wajh al-Akhar (Taqiyya: the Hidden Side)..htm.C. 59.” 53.albrhn.02. 08.. 60. which consists of the following anti-Shite works: 1) Naqd ‘Aqidat al-‘Isma (Criticism of the Dogma of [the Imams’] Infallibility).alrakiza.ayma.85. Some articles belonging to the series continue to appear on other websites.fnoor/book13.06..The Persians.. 64. vol.04.asp?userNo489. hal hunaka alaqa?” (“The Shiites..01.khayma. 62. It blames the Shiites for practicing certain rites termed qabahat mushina (abominable and shameful actions). Wa-ja’a dawr al-Majus (At Last.. Hodgson). “Madjus. see The Encyclopaedia of Islam (new edition).com./forum messagepage. “Zindik. al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba.2002). published in the same journal on May 13. This latter series has disappeared from its original website.between Shiites and Sunnites”).com/arabic/shia/shia-jews-christians. 19.05. [ 24 ] Center on Islam. see al-Shahrastani. 28. for example. and the Future of the Muslim World . 54. 65. The adjective al-Majus is often added to the noun al-Rafida.v. The Encyclopaedia of Islam (new edition). 1 (Beirut: 1995): 22. Muhammad Mal Allah. Concerning the different meanings of this term and its use through the ages. in this respect. or the article “al-Shi’a. Abd al-Aziz al-Wakil. www.. One should not forget. at www. The series bearing the title Tanbih al-Ha’ir ila Mawadi’ al-Malak al-Ta’ir (The Caling to Arms of the Perplexed Concerning the Subjects of the Flying Angel). Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. 66. the Celebration of the Murder of ‘Umar b.v. al-Milal wa-l-nihal. 05. 51 (s. al-Khattab by the Rafida). aiming first of all at defending the Sahaba (the Companions of the Prophet) and the “righteous” caliphs. 58. The Encyclopaedia of Islam (new edition). that the Wahhabiyya rejects categorically all pictorial representations of persons or living creatures. C.02. islamicweb.. which appears without signature on the same website (…fnoor/shubuhat. such as muntada al-Hiwar al-Shi’i al-Sunni al-Hurr in fnoor.htm.fnoor/fn0226. 5. www. Some Sunnites reacted to this sentence by saying that this judicial decision is not surprising since “a third of the court was Shiite. 56.05. Saba’. Nowadays. 5) Ayat al-Tathir wa-Hadith al-Thaqalayn (The Verse Declaring that [the Descendants of the Prophet] Are Pure and the Tradition Attributed to the Prophet Concerning the Thaqalayn). p.. without any explanation given. 68. 1110-17 (s. Is There a Connection?”). See also www. See.com/fnoor/fn0441. All these treatises have been published on the Internet (www. and the reply of Qasim al-Zuhayri. de Blois).htm).11.khayma. ed. see for example Salah al-Din al-Munajjid. Concerning the historicity of this figure and the declaration attributed to him..htm). asserting that the Shia is nothing but a Jewish Bid’a (religious innovation). 4) Al-Taqiyya. 06. quoting Abu Zur’a al-Razi. 2) Al-Khums wa-Sahm al-Imam (The Fifth and the Share of the Imam). according to which ‘Ali b.htm). vol. Yawm al-ghufran.02.. “Abd Allah b. al-Khattab (The Day of Atonement. Democracy. Morony).htm.htm. pp. islamicweb. al-Furs. 13.com/fnoor/fn0300.06.” by M. ihtifal al-rafida bi-maqtal ‘Umar b. al-Sharq al-Awsat (London).” by M.

” in Filastin al-muslima (Manchester: February 1986).com/fnoor/fn0189. and Zionists who are all made of the same stuff.2001.02. see also the article “Hal nukaffiru ‘Umum al-Shi’a?” (“Do We Consider All Shiites to Be Renegades?”).hypermart. 03. al-Irshad. 83.net/joso4htm.org/montada/showthread. but one needs only to read what is written against Fadl Allah on the websites close to Ayatollah al-Uzma al-Sistani. 171-75). Beirut. p. p. Talmudists. 4a. www.03. Abi Sufyan to the chief Ansari Qays b. vol. 06.com/fnoor/fn0417. or the “Association of the Sunnite Iranians”).12.05. for a partial but well-annotated survey containing the opinions of certain Muslim scholars.net/forum: Rawafid al-kufa madrib al-mathal fi al-ghadr. “De quelques emprunts d’origine juive dans le Hadith Shi’ite.d-sunnah. vol. 93. Kohlberg. I could not find this tradition in the edition I had (1317 H lithographic edition).02. 1993): 16-36. 79. 73.kotob. Al-rakiza.pureislam. islamicweb. 1. “Banu Isra’il ka-anmat awwaliyya li-al-Shi’a” (“The Children of Israel as Prototypes of the Shiites”).” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 5 (1984): 143-75 (particularly 143-44. ed. ed. (Jerusalem: 1981). Quoted by E. “Jewish Arabic Studies.com/arabic/shia/shia_R_persians. “Shiite Terms and Conceptions in Judah Halevi’s Kuzari.htm. to get an idea of the internal struggles within the Shia. 29. 7 of the publisher’s introduction. 22. 72. www.05. 1997-8): 49-61. Pe’amim: Studies in Oriental Jewry (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute. ‘Ubada in al-Baladhuri. “Some Imami Shi’i views on the Sahaba. arabic. Jews. AjajNuwayhid. Islamicweb. 08.J. 143-44.07.” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 2 (1980): 165-251.03. 28. see. 402. the great Shiite religious leader of Iraq. ‘Ali Akbar al-Ghifari. p. op.net/forum/showthread. “The Heterodoxies of the Shiites according to Ibn Hazm. idem. 81. quoting al-Hafiz al-Haliki. 12. vol. al-Humaydi was well known for his hostility towards the ‘Ulamas of Iraq. al-Musnad. 26. Al-Farq bayna lfiraq.2002. www. see for example the letter of Mu’awiya b.net/forum/showthread. M. A reference to the Koranic accusation reproaching the Jews with modifying or falsifying their holy scriptures. www. The neo-Wahhabi author cites Kitab al-Ghayba by al-Nu‘mani without providing further details. where the author quotes Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi.99. 1967. Iqaz (bulletin published in London by a group called Rabitat ahl al-Sunna fi Iran. Sa’d b. 13. 74. quoting ‘Abd Allah al-Ghunayman. www. fnoor/fn0051. 45-53.islamicweb. 88.php?s. 397-98.10.05. Habib al-Rahman al-A’zami. 85. Freemasons. 78. 421.” The Jewish Quarterly Review 2 (1912): 481-561. 75. MukhtaÒar Minhaj al-sunna li-Ibn Taymiyya.03. cit. The Umayyads and their auxiliaries called the Ansar.01.I. 71. 16. Beirut: 1382/1962. p. 08. 91. 87. 37.htm.” See also the pamphlets of the Turkish general Jawad Rif’at Atilhan that have been widely translated and distributed among Islamist circles.1999. www. (no place of publication specified).d-sunnah. Kohlberg. 76.com/arabic/shia/mahdi_jew. 86.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 28 (1907): 1-80.03. S.03. 92.06.70. and 29 (1908): 1-183. “The Place of Judaism and Jews in the Religious Literature of the Ancient Shia” (in Hebrew). 80.fnoor/fno0148. E.khayma. ed. al-Karmil: Studies in Arabic Language and Literature 18-19 (Haifa: University of Haifa.php?s=86d7a3944c22cbc. Ya‘qub al-Kulini. the article: “Hum al-Ýaduww faHdharuhum – al-masuniyya. Schloessinger and M. I. the additions by one of the translators in Arabic of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. 77. and 3 (1912): 235300. This accusation is quoted on an anti-Shiite website. I. Kister (Jerusalem : 1971). Morag et al. 26. 21-23.php?s.03. See for example. 84. 25. Abu Ja‘far Muhammad b. ed.02.2002 Al-Masuniyya fi khidmat dawlat al-tashayyu’ wa-wilayat al-faqih (Freemasonry at the Service of the Shia State and of the Government of the Doctors of Religious Law). Forum 1 message 48. explaining that the “Jews consist of Kabbalists. 82. 04.d-sunnah. 89. Al-Irshad. www. khayma.04.htm. 90.” in Studies in Judaism and Islam.07. khayma.com/rafidah/tbn/tbninttrz. see for HUDSON INSTITUTE [ 25 ] . see al-Hafiz al-Humaydi. 28. al-Usul min al-Kafi. 1401H/1981. Ansab al-ashraf.com/shia/dialog.

in a forum named al-ikthar min dhikr al-jins fi ‘l-kutub wa-‘l-rasa’il al-fiqhiyya lada kahanat al-Najaf al-akhsaf wa-Qumm al-qumama (The abundance of the mentioning of sex in the priests’ books and Jurisprudence epistles of “buried al-Najaf” and “Qumm’s sweepings”). www. www. It is much more extensive than the ‘Utman b. When Muhammad answers it is Gabriel. the Shiites accuse the Sunnis of distorting the Koran. 1700-01).d-sunnah. Democracy.l-shma’il wa-l-siyar. D-sunnah. Paz.. 1974 (2). vol. www. I. 10.ansar. the Resurrection [of Christ]. 104. Ibn Sallam replies: “He is the enemy of the Jews (dhaka.” (I. Sallam asks the Prophet which angel tells him the prophecies.org/english and titled “Exposing al-Tijani’s lies in his book Then I was guided.example Koran. 96.4. this is the contribution of a forum member writing under the pseudonym al-Mu’tazz bi-dinihi.org.asp?userNo=489 & Forum No=1&message No= 34. “Ghur biyya.” see Ibn Sayyid al-Nas. 108.03. see EI 2. 94. A’yan al-Shi’a. ed.02. al-mustabsirun (“those who wanted to see the truth” are the Sunnis who became Shiites).. ‘aduww al-Yahud).16. 05. see Muhsin al-Amin. Sunnites?).htm. under the title madha taquluna ya ahla ‘l-Sunna? (What do you have to say. As for Qum.net/forum/showthread. the holy city of the Shiites. Beirut. The Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem was described in the same way in most Muslim historical and polemical sources.07.04.d-sunnah. “Hizballah or Hizb al-Shaytan: recent SalafiJihadi attacks against the Shi’ite group.” PRISM Occasional papers I/2 (2004). 106. 101.11.al-rakiza. 95. Kohlberg.aqaed. Brunner. one of those who aided (sa‘ada) al-Majlisi in his huge work Bihar al-anwar.‘l-ahwatu wujuban tarkuhu” (lawful if she agrees but not recommended – it is preferable to avoid).02. Forum Messagepage. which makes up the Muslims’ traditional Koran.d-sunnah. 97.03). 08. www.” 143-44.net/forum/showthread under the title madha taquluna ya ahla ‘l-Sunna? (What do you have to say. it is almost always used in Muslim and Arab sources to refer to the Old Testament as well as to any other Jewish scripture. www. Beirut. 102.e-PRISM. see also R.01. 103.net/forum/showthread. Die Schia und die Koranfälschung. Hasan al-Amin.” It is attributed to Abu Sulayman. A partial response to the al-Tijani book was published in English on www. 20. Ni‘mat Allah b. and the Future of the Muslim World . 2001.net. www. ‘Abd Allah al-Jaza’iri (d. 98.250/cgi-bin.net/forum/showthread.php_?s. 105. The Sunnis’ claims are based on certain Shiite traditions that regard the Fatima mushaf as the complete version of the Koran.05. see R. “Yajuzu ‘ala karahatin idha radiyat. Quoted by E. Zayni Dahlan. Al-rakiza….01. ya‘ni Jibril. The forum is named nisa’ukum harthun la-kum (Koran 2 : 223./Forum 1Message 48. Al-rakiza. al-Sira l-nabawiyya. 4 : 46 and 75 . ‘Affan mushaf. wa. 342. The best known sect to adopt this idea is called al-Ghurabiyya. 226-27.com/rafidha/tnb/tnbintro. it is described as al-qumama (sweepings).d-sunnah. Your wives are a tillage for you. 64. www. 107. a Shi‘ite author. [ 26 ] Center on Islam. 5 : 13 and 41. ‘Uyun al-athar fi funun al-maghazi wa. 99. “Some Imami Shi’i views on the Sahaba.khayma. Regarding the word Tora (Pentateuch). replacing its Arabic name al-Qiyama. until the beginning of the twentieth century. This is the opinion of a few Shi‘ite sects from the Middle Ages belonging to the extremist trend (ghulat) who believed that the archangel Gabriel was mistaken when passing on the prophecy to Muhammad instead of ‘Ali. Forum 1 Message 48. 02. As for al-‘Asqalan’s book. see the fnoor site.php?s=&threadid=22593. I. see www. Regarding al-Tijani and his book. Ahmad b. In fact. A reference to a tradition recounted in various biographies of the Prophet (siyar nabawiyya) in which the Jew ‘Abd AllÁh b.04. Beirut. Würzberg. 207. 100.02.13. 1973. 1986.02. Goldziher). Sunnites?) (al-Mu’tazz bi-dinihi and Asrar‘s contributions).

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Through publications. visit www. “Muslim Literature in Praise of Jerusalem: Fada’il Bayt al-Maqdis. and the connected issue of how this political and religious debate impacts both Islamist radicalism as well as the Muslim search for moderate and democratic alternatives. His publications include: Fada’il al-Bayt al-Muqaddas of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti (1979). Arazi). the transition from Jahiliyya to Islam. conferences and policy recommendations. and law.” JSAI (1998.” Studia Islamica (1995). and contemporary Sunni-Shia relations. “Judham entre la Jahiliyya et l’Islam. visit www.org .” The Jerusalem Cahedra. religious.AB O UT TH E AUTH O R Isaac Hasson is professor emeritus at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. policy. ABOUT TH E CE NTE R Hudson Institute’s Center on Islam. Department of Arabic Language and Literature. (1996). “La conversion de Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan. or decision. To learn more. “The Muslim View of Jerusalem—The Qur’an and Hadith” in J. By focusing on ideology. technology. we seek to guide global leaders in government and business.hudson. international relations. and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position. the Center aims to contribute to the development of American policy options and to effective strategies to prosecute and to win the worldwide struggle against radical Islam.” Arabica (2006). We challenge conventional thinking and help manage strategic transitions to the future through interdisciplinary and collaborative studies in defense.futureofmuslimworld. 1 (1981). Office of the Secretary of Defense. and freedom. The Early Muslim Period 638-1099. To learn more. science.). Democracy and the Future of the Muslim World conducts a wide-ranging program of research and analysis addressed to the political. AB O UT TH I S S E R I E S This second series of research monographs on the Muslim world is the product of a research project undertaken jointly by Hudson Institute and the Institute for Policy and Strategy at Herzilya. and other dynamics within majority Muslim countries and Muslim populations around the world. Ben-Shammai (eds. The History of Jerusalem. Prawer and H. The views. culture. “Les Shiites vus par les Neo-Wahhabites.com ABOUT H U DSON INSTITUTE Hudson Institute is a non-partisan policy research organization dedicated to innovative research and analysis that promotes global security. opinions. economics. Israel for the Director of Net Assessment. The principal focus of his scholarship has been on Jerusalem in Islam. Le voyage de Sa’id ibn Muhammad al-Suwaysi au Yaman 1890-1895 (2008) (in collaboration with A. A principal focus of the Center’s work is the ideological dynamic within Islam. prosperity. social.

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