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George Oliver - The History of Initiation

George Oliver - The History of Initiation

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. Printed and Bound by BRBSNAN. LOUISYILLB. Stereotyped by A GRAY. KY. F. NEW YORK.HOLMAN J.

F. H.S. M. It required I was engaged in arranging these no deliberation to determine at whose feet these Lectures should be placed.. in the capacity of its Provincial Grand Master.TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE CHARLES TENNYSON D'EYNCOURT. THE DUKE OF SUSSEX. ETC.. he in this extensive county. Experience is a species of wisdom that is seldom erro- neous . will soon bid adieu to Freemasonry. To your Masonry energies I confidently look for the spread of From your enlightand vigorous superintendence I antiened understanding cipate measures that will secure to the man of letters a profitable employment for his time in the tyled recesses of the Lodge for it may be fairly presumed that if his mind be not deeply interested in the investigations. papers for the press. P. PROVINCIAL GRAND MASTER OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS FOR THE COUNTY OF LINCOLN. and it amply confirms the opinion that a masonic .R. A.S. MY DEAR WHILST SIR. by His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex.A. F. ONE OF THE EQUERRIES OF HIS R. I received the gratifying intelligence that the friend and supporter of all my literary labours had been elevated. for duty and inclination alike concur in the propriety of inscribing sible them to you. and the guardian legitimate patron of all its collateral pursuits. as the ostenof Masonry within the Province. M. to the superintendence of Freemasonry in Lincolnshire.. .

D. and contents itself with is Lodge its the technicalities of the science like one possessing the . GEORGE OLIVER. while knowledge is making such a rapid progress in the present age of free inquiry. Your faithful servant and Brother. known that in our Lectures. that their rarity or value may It is well be correctly estimated. assured as I am that it will recommend them to the notice of the fraternity. I have the honour to be.IV DEDICATION. much scope is afforded for amplification both in science and morals . our Lodges will maintain their proper character of schools of virtue and dispensers of the liberal arts. Wolverhampton. my dear Sir. founded upon an insecure basis if it rejects from illustrations the philosophy. of a rich casket of splendid jewels. D. . 1840. it cannot then be a futile expectation. Dec. that by the judicious rule and masterly elucidations of our legitimate governors. Imbued with these sentiments. it affords me no inconsiderable degree of pleasure to associate your name with these Lectures. which he has keys not the curiosity to open. 7th.

(n. Celebrated after the establishment of Christianity. V?V V^S. ib.) Hieroglyphics of the mysteries. Essenes take charge of initiations. 9. 46. 28. 16. ib. ib. 64. 5. 31. an emblem. 50. 29. 20. a symbol. Power of the priests. Felicities of initiation. The ib. 47. LECTUKE GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Second degree. knowledge. ib. 17. ib. and Salsette. DEDICATION. 37.) (n. Origin of the metemDecay of Masonry. Enoch the inventor of books. ib. 62. PREFACE . iii. The ten avaters described. The mysteries abolished. 6. Initiation the only means of acquiring Black. Places of initiation in Hindostan. ib. 2. 34. ib. Progress of the false initiations. 32. Third and fourth degrees. 48. Nature of the idolatrous The candidate was a representative of Noah. 44. First degree. LECTURE Sects. ib. Peculiar ceremonies.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. HISTORY OF INITIATION IN HINDOSTAN. ( n -) Lecture from the Archbrahmin. Places of initiation described. Amulets. Employment of the first Freemasons. 15. Caverns of initiation at Byblus. when first adopted. ib. 19. 21. Definition of Egg. Ceremony of Terrible ceremonies. Light. ib. 18. M. ^fo A.) Symbolical instruction. 14. ib. 52. Periods of initiation. ib. 11. explaining the indispensable qualifications of the Master ix. (n. universal Deluge. 1. ib. Bells. Mysteries. Lamentations of Isis.. 25. Causes of their destruction. Despisers Ear of of the mysteries. (n. Origin of India. 8. U. . it. efficacy of. PHILOSOPHY OF THE EASTERN MYSTERIES. ib. 4. austerities of. (n. II. (n. ib. initiation. I. ib. Candidate made to personate the ib. avaters. Instruction. ib. Divine unity. Terrors of initiation. Caverns of Elephanta. Seven caverns. Tokens. Lecture. 36. 38. the deity.) Human victims. Four degrees. 40. LECTURE III. ib. Investiture of the Zennar. (n. Virtue and science recommended. 13. 27. Antiquity of initiation. ib. psychosis. 47. Sublime Name. of a Lodge.) Peculiar meaning of Darkness.) The euresis. ib. 24. Illuminated sacellum. 23. 45. Initiations perverted. corn. 30. Bewailings. Legend of initiation.) Gyges' ring. Osiris and Typhon. The aphanism. Deities. ib. 51. 26.

Plato's Trinity. ib. Internal purity required of the candidate.) Investiture. ib. Amulets. LECTURE HISTORY OF INITIATION IN GREECE. 105. . Incestuous connections. 86. ib. of. Creation and destruc- Officers. ib. The festival. Amulets. 81. 61. Mystic dance. were preceded by a public Preliminary LECTURE Place of initiation. 90. account of. 104. (n.) Instruction by mystical sentences. (n. INITIATION IN PERSIA. 64. ib. 106.) Chinese worship. His penances. Pollutions of the mysteries. Dissolution of matter. Rigours mythology described. Origin of the word philosopher. Pastos. Sciences taught to the esotericks. ation. 76. CONTENTS. CEREMONIES OF INITIATION INTO THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. Its actual dangers. 88. initiation. Descent into the infernal regions. ib. 99.) Birth of Zoroaster. ib. The aspirant purified. ib. Amulets and Talismans enumerated. initiations rites. ib. 87. 97. LECTURE IV. 80. ib. ib. ib. ib. The Simorgh of Persian 67. authorities. 92. Torments.) Seven stages of initiation. ib. tion. Account of his ib. 66. 68. Symbols. VI. Formula of 98. Symbols. 75. Fables referring to the Deluge. ib. (n. Facts in the life of Mses found in the Grecian spurious Freemasonry. ib. ib. 85. . The Grecian mysteries divided and greater. Darkness and Light 108. (n. 101. Wan derings of Rhea. 91. Theogony. ib. 74. The son of a virgin proclaimed. Three degrees. Cave of initiation. Pri vileges of initiation. Eleusinian. Numerous initiations. 110. 96. Machinery of initiation. Eeforms the Persian education. 103. ib. ib. 69. 63. Grotto of Elysium. 78. Eternity. The aphanism. 77. ib. Incantation. (n. Confucius. The Grecian mysteries abolished. 65. into lesser V. 100.) 55. New creation. 53. 89. Fall of man. ib. Pythagoras initiated. ib. Probation. Its splendours. Deluge. 94. Japanese account of the Creation. 102. religion. terrific Legend. Lamentations. 56. ib. Elysium. Doctrines. Preparation. 84. ib. Description of. System of Plato. Moses and Bacchus compared. exclusion. ib.Caverns of initiation. 72. 59. (n. Probation. 82. 57. ib. The process minutely described.VI ib. Scripture The sacred fire. (n. Magical words. 70.) Account of the CreContests of the two powers. 54. The euresis. Mystical symbols. ib. Places of Precepts. 58. The divine Lights. ib. ib. 62. 107.

(n. Copious illustration of the number seven. and languages. 127. The earth a pollu- Illustrated. Presentation to the Archdruid. ib. 122. (n. 140. Sacred rocks. initiation. Origin of the Britons. oak. Sun at its meridian. (n. The ib. 137. Terrific and dangerdegree. ib. liberal sciences. 164. 120. HISTORY OF INITIATION INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. 163.) Groves of oaks. 115. by Sigge or Odin. of the Godhead. 119. Giant's cave in Cumberland^ 131. May eve. (n. lake. 111. 162. Hymn. fitted up. 152. ib. The unity Symbolical language. Thrice born. ib. 150. Winged. 125. Classernis. 138. 114. pentine. 136. ib. 155. ib. islands. ib. 156. Druidical vaticination. ib. ib. ib. 132. ib.) Cruciform. Intricate passages. Caverns of 130. Water of purification. ib Creation and Deluge. Seven. Objects of Worship. Abury.) Serdaughters. Various methods of augury.) Form Oval. Circular procession. ib.) Castleton. The mysteries. Mountains. 134. 144. medicine. ib. arkite. future state. 165. ib. 139. (n. ous progress to perfection.) Arthur's round table. 158. 149. Periods of initiation. immortality and a t Place of punishment. 148. 153. Lots. 147. Rejection. ib. Legend of a holy 116. Anguinum. (n. Mystical orchard.CONTENTS. (n. 129. 124. The (n. 145. 133. (n. of Temples. Logan or rocking-stone. 160. One hundred and forty-seven. 143. 161. Circular. Extensive privileges of the perfectly initiated candidate. (n. Purification of the sea Light.) Magic. Confinement in the cromlech. (n. 128. ib. Botany. Investiture. CEREMONIES OF INITIATION IN BRITAIN. Morality and truth. 112. Instruction.) How how constructed.) Oath. ib. ib. Power of ib. Derivation of the name of Druid. PLACES OF INITIATION INTO THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. 126. 118.) tion. Preparation for the third Death of the mysteries. ib. LECTURE IX.) the Druids. Number three. His system.) Nature of the ceremonies. ib. of different nations. Vll LECTURE VII. Various symbols illustrated. Introduced victims. ib. Transformations. 121. Misletoe. 151. Human . LECTURE X. 135. VIII. Grotto at LECTURE Robes of the candidate. 142. SYMBOLS AND DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. Darkness and mysterious noises. Long Meg and her ib. Caer Sidi. Preparation. 157. 154. and lakes. of Dylan. The circular dance ib. Triumph. ib. Antiquity and utility of symbols. ib. Stonehenge. ib. 146. (n.

) Horrible sights there Regeneration. Cosmogony of the American savages. 177. 195. Doctrines.) Painful probations. ib. ib.) monies. ib. St. End of the New creation. (n. 168. ib. The annual festivals. Applied to Machinery of the Apocalypse. Horrible Rainbow. Bloody purifications. New-year's gifts. 200. (n. ib. Power of the Drottes. Balder. ation. Kingdom of Thrudwanger. 205. Palace of Thor. Twilight of the gods.) Mysteries. sacrifices.) Ceremonies and processions. Splendour and importance of the White Shield. ib. Amulets. 198. LECTUKE DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. Coincidences. Frea. the god of vengeance. puca. Christmas-boxes. 211. 197. (n. IN AMERICA. ib. Hieroglyphics. Descent to the tomb of Volva. 196. The resurrection. corroborate the Mosaic records. (n. ib. ib. 189. Symbolical instruction.) Triad. Origin of Yule-cakes.) System of the Mexicans. Talismanic ring of Sign of the Cross. Prodigies. Doctrines. Idols multiplied. ib. 212. (n. ib. and Mama Ocello. ib. 204. (n. 193. ib. Symbols.) 169. Yule. ib. ib. The mysteries religion. of candidates. ib. Indecency of these rites. ib. 207. XII. The system introduced by Manco Capac Annual festival. barbarous. XI. ib. Belief in a supreme . Vitzliputzli. Preparation Invocation and magical cereib.). first settlers in Wanderings of the 208. ib. 210. Investiture. 170. 216. ib. Serpents. (n. (n. Charge. ib. TescaliDeities. (n. 188. 184.) Origin of healths and pledges. human victim. ib. ib. 171. 214. (n. tri-une Temple of the god Odin One God. The mysteries funereal. 203. the god of mercy. 179. LECTURE HISTORY OF INITIATION 192. The system abolished. ib. 201. 206. Account of his death. ib. Science of the primitive inhabitants. 180. Bewailings for the death of Balder. COROLLARY. 209.) Illustration of the palace of Thor. 185. Oath. ib. 172. Man199. 190. 166. Thor world. ib. When America was peopled. ib. 181. 183. 215. Mexico. tion.) 186. 194. 174. Tests and probations. 182. ib. 173. (n. il. ib. Oracles. Charms. ib. 175. ib. Descent into the fearful caverns of initiation. Spurious Freemasonry. Natural cave of initiation in Norway.) Progress through the subterranean passages of initiation. Vitus's dance. Amulets. Triad. Niding. Cre- Deluge. God. (n. 187. Witches.CONTENTS. ib. Introduction of Christianity. Runic spells. Door of expurgaIlluminated sacellum. 167. Magic. ner of sacrificing a displayed. 217. (n. Creation and destruction.

rank. of the trust which they are bound to perform. in the judicious selection of our members. and the substance is lost in the shadow. with much justice. without adverting to the propriety of one step they pursue. are eminent for ability. THE excellent Preston says. our assemblies have been in general better regulated of which the good effects are . Masonry has long laboured under these disadvantages. and every zealous friend of the Order must earnestly wish for a correction of the abuse. solicit and are deluded and even assume the government of the Lodge. that our mysteries are merely nominal . either accept office with reluctance. sufficiently displayed. and. . equally unacquainted with the rules of the Institution that they pretend to support. frequently view the honours of Masonry with indifference . anarchy and confusion ensue. that the practices established amongst us are frivolous . and fortune. " Many by the vague supposition. and the nature accept offices.PREFACE. Hence men. The consequence is obvious. it must be acknowledged. or reject them with disdain. and that our ceremonies may be adopted or waived at pleasure. Passing through the usual formalities. and the proper observance of our general regulations. Of late years. they consider themselves authorised to rank as Masters of the Art. On this false basis we find too many of the Brethren hurrying through all the degrees of the Order. or possessing a single qualification to entitle them to advancement. who when " their patronage is solicited.

have nothing to learn. . Edit. and the reputaTill genuine merit shall tion of the Society preserved. as well as to answer the objections and knowledge settle . a general reformation would speedily take place. and duly apprised of the offices they are chosen to support.. not only to instruct the younger Brethren. p. mystic legends. the ancient conse- quence of the Order would be restored. it occurred to me that some aid was wanting to convey a species of information on the subject of our antiquities which was not generally attainable in the common routine of our Lodge pursuits. "Were the Brethren who preside at our meetings to be properly instructed previous to their appointment. before a Brother can be pronounced competent to undertake the arduous duty of governing a Lodge. How far I have succeeded must be submitted * Illustr. I am decidedly of opinion that much general knowledge is necessary to expand the mind. 12. to render pointless the ridicule of our uninitiated adversaries. This conduct would establish the propriety of our government. Impressed with these ideas at a very early period of my masonic career. and that desideratum I entertained the ambition of attempting to supply. and lead men to acknowledge that our honours were not undeservedly conferred. and familiarise it with masonic discussions and illustrations. and distinguish regularity of deportment display the influence and utility of our rules."* In coincidence with these sentiments. and xv. the world in general will not be led to re- concile our proceedings with our professions.X PREFACE. to reconcile . A Master of the work ought to He should be fully qualified. but to resolve the doubts of those who are more advanced in masonic to apparent contradictions and to elucidate obscure facts or chronologies. xiv. our claim to the honours of Masonry.

with a very inconsiderable exception. that the arrangement may correspond with my former publications on Freemasonry. . therefore. The whole of the original work has been retained ex- cept a few paragraphs which have been struck out of the fifth Lecture. . and to their de- cision I implicitly in the present bow. It is to be hoped that this work will display the . and have not ventured to introduce The comprehensive nature any single fact without its accompanying authority.PREFACE. any person who may be desirous of following in the same track. Hence. The arrangement is in a great measure new. by portraying the abhorrent superstitions and revolting customs which were introduced amongst all nations during the prevalence of idolatry. The series is before them. Much additional matter has been substituted. until it burst upon the world with effulgent glory in the person of our blessed Eedeemer. will be comparatively free from the inand may tricacies with which I have been surrounded refer without difficulty to the original sources from whence I have drawn my information. that I have altered my original plan. sat in DARKNESS AND THE SHADOW OF DEATH. during the entire period from the Dispersion to the Advent of Christ. of the inquiries embraced volume has not been without its difficulties. It will be seen by those who have perused the former edition. and proportionably abstruse. and the absence of LIGHT from the mind for. and have comprised the whole work in twelve Lectures. and. the whole world. beauty of Christianity with some degree of effect. and were enveloped in a veil of delusion so impervious that all the exertions of their wisest philosophers were ineffectual to obtain the least glimmering of light. because they were considered irrelevant. I have advanced with much caution. X to the fiat of the literary and intelligent portion of our community.

or the parallel institutions of the heathen world. it and is hoped that the general value of the work is is greatly increased. By this means I have been enabled to embody a considerable portion of inte- resting matter without swelling out the volume to an unwieldy and inconvenient size. and I flatter myself that the general reader will meet with a fund of entertaining information which will materially assist him in any researches he may be inclined to make. . The notes with which each Lecture accompanied are of great extent and variety.Xll PREFACE. either into the antiquity of Masonry.

Babylon. 8vo. 8vo. 4to. and. 8vo. fo. the. R. Bhagvat Geeta. Acosta's History of the Indies. 8vo.ADVERTISEMENT. 3 vols. 8vo. 4 vols. 8vo. to supply such a catalogue. 8vo.2vols 4to. Ruins of. ABULFARAGiiHistoriaPocockii. Bilson's Survey of Christ's Sufferings. Aneurin's Gododin. fo. Anderson's Constitutions. Bin Washish's Ancient Alphabets. Earner's Mythology. for even the greater part of my own library is in Lincolnshire. 12mo. fo. ^Eschylus. which is not particularly retentive. although the task has difficulty. been attended with some It is several years since the History of Initiation was written. 4to. that I do not possess the it more extensive and correct. on teer. 4 vols. period I had access to many valuable works and at that which were not in I my own collection. Aristophanes. in any of the titles. 8vo. or indulgence of my readers. 4to. 2 vols. Asiatic Researches. 8vo. by Potter. 2 vols. I am now resident in a dis- tant part of the country. Barruel's History of the French Revolution. Bernier's Travels in theMogul Empire. Pamphle- Annales Usheri. necessary to consult and I means of making : Gr. Opus Majus. under an impression that such a means of reference might be useful to the Fraternity. Arabian Nights Entertainment. Berosus apud Eusebium. by Hammer. THE Publisher of this Edition being desirous that I should subjoin a list of the authorities which I originally consulted to elucidate the various subjects of which it treats. 0. Historia. . 8vo. Memoirs of Jacobinism. Bacchic Mysteries. vol. 4 vols. 4to. fo. in Davies's Druids. Bacon. fo. viii. Should there be any inaccuracies. therefore. the works which I found number of volumes. Greek and Latin. Ammiani Marcellini. square 12mo. Ayeen Akbery. Bard well" s Temples. must depend principally upon the strength of my memory. Apuleii Opera. Blair s Chronology. I have endeavoured to comply with his request. 12 vols. size. I must claim the The list does not contain all it regret to add.

8vo. 8vo. 6 vols. Greek and Latin. 8vo. Greaves's Pyrarnidographia. by Potter. 2 vols. fo. fo. 8vo. Halhed's Code of Gentoo Laws. 8vo. 3 vols. Goranson's Histories in Mallet's Northern Antiquities. 4 4to. Carne's Letters from the East. Clemens Alexandrinus Stromata. 4to. 4to. 4to. Dow' s History of Hindostan. Buxtorfii Synagoga Judaica. of Pembrokeshire. 4to. 8vo. 4to. 4 vols. 4to.) Works. Humboldt's Personal Nar arrative. ovo. on British Coins. 2 vols. 3 vols. Voyage to the East Indies. 12mo. 4to. Historia. Grotius de Veritate. 8vo. viii. Hesiod. a MS. Fleury's Manners of the Ancient Israelites. History of China. . 8vo. 8vo. 8vo. Greek and Latin. Horapollinis Hieroglyphica. fo. Holwell's Historical Events. Hyde. Freemasons' Magazine. 8vo. Bocharti Sacra Geographia. Eusebius de Preparatio Evangelica. fo. Encyclopedia Britannica. 4to. 8vo. Choi-din's Travels in Persia. Brady's Claris Calendaria.. Couplet's History of China. 8vo. Faber's Mysteries of the Cabiri. D'Anville on Ancient Geography. 4 vols. Greek Minor Poets. Chronicon Paschale. fo. 3 vols. vol. Heetopades. 4to. Dean's Worship of the Serpent. &c. Jones's (Stephen) Masonic Miscellanies. 8vo. Helvetian Ritual. 4to. Londinensis. Davies's History and Mythology of the Druids. Greek and Latin. 12mo.XIV LIST OF AUTHORITIES. . 2 vols. 8vo. 4to. Dionysius. Julius Firmicus de Errore. 4to. Calmet's Dictionary. 8vo. Brand's Popular Antiquities. 2 vols. 12mo. 2 vols. Institutions of India. Antiquissima. 8vo. 8vo. 4to. Spirit of Masonry. 8vo. 4to. 8vo. Calcott's Candid Disquisitions on Freemasonry. 8vo. Cumberland's Sanchoniatho. Gage's Survey of the West Indies. Bower's History of the Popes. 8vo. Perthen- sis. vols. 12mo. Herpdoti Historia. square 12mo. 6 vols. let's in Mal- of the Northern Antiquities. Hamilton's Egyptiaca. Provincial Glossary. Dermott's Ahiman Rezon. on the Feasts. Celtic Researches. 8vo. 2 vols. of the Hindoos. fo. Metropolitana. Origines Gent. Bryant's Analysis. Hales's Analysis of Chronology. Hope's Architecture. Godwyn's Moses and Aaron. Rees's. 8vo. 4 vols. 8vo. 12mo. Forbins' (Count de) Travels in the Holy Land. fo. Camden's Britannia. Fenton's Hist. Josephus on the Antiquities Jews. Cudworth's Intellectual System. Ciceronis Opera. Hutchinson's History of Cumberland. Buchanan's Researches in Asia. Jones's (Sir W. Eddas of Snorro and Saemund. Veterum Persarum Religionis Diogenes Laertius. D'Hancarville's Recherches sur les Monumens Antiques de 1' India. 2 vols. by Dinsdall. cient Inhabitants of America. 2 vols. by Gough. 8vo. Cave's Lives of the Fathers. phleteer. Eleusinian Mysteries. 4to. Brown's Vulgar Errors. 12mo. Dubois on the Jamblichus de Mysteriis. 6 vols. 2 vols. 8vo. 12mo. de Divinis Nominibus. Gale's Court of the Gentiles. 3 torn. Du Halde's 8vo. Lexicon Rabbinicum. 4to. Pagan Idolatry. 4to. Journey from Madras. &c. 8vo. 8vo. Grose's 8vo. Denon's Travels in Egypt. 4to. Pam- Isocrates. Desaguliers' Constitutions. 4 vols. 8vo. Antiquities. 4to. on the. 3 vols. 8vo. Gael and Cimbri. 2 vols. 4to. Monuments of the An- Diodori Siculi Bibliotheca Historica. fo. Buckingham's Travels in Palestine. Celsus apud Origeu contra Celsum. 4to. Grabe's Septuagint. Euripides. 5 vols. 4to. 4to. 2 vols. 2 vols. 7 vols. Clarke's Travels. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary.

fo. More's Apocalypsis Apocalypseon. Works. 4to. 4to. Sir W. Palmyra. Spencer de Legibus Hebroeorum. Maundrell's Journey. Shuckford's Connection. 3 vols. 4to. Description of the. Pontoppidon's History of Norway. Lodwich's Antiquities of Ireland. fo. Rowland's Mona. Macrobii Opera. 12mo. 8vo. Montfaucon. fo. Niebuhr's Voyage in Arabia. 8vo. 8vp. Maurice's Indian Antiquities. fo. 8vo. Malcolm's History of Persia. 3 vols. vol. Marsh's Horse Pelasgicse. Memoirs of Central India. 8vo. fo. fo. 2 vols. Parsons's Remains of Japheth. m Satires of Perseus. 4to. 8vo. 2 vols. Stillingfleet's Origines Sacrse. Meyrick's History of Cardigan. 8vo. Bishop Percy. 3 torn. fo. fo. Chivalry. Rollin's Ancient History. Letters on Greece. 4to. Le Compte's Memoirs of China. 3 torn. Philonis J udaei Opera. 4to. 8vo. 10 vols. 8vo. 4to. 8vo. fo. Pamphleteer. Raleigh's History of the World. Philostrati Opera. Owen's Welsh Dictionary. 8vo. 4to. Keightly's Mythology. Southey. fo. 5 torn. 8vo. 4to. 4to. 2 vols. Pocockii Specimen Historiae Arabicas. Philpot's Heraldry. Ramsay on the Theology of the Pagans 12mo. Strabouis Geographia. Ksempfer's History of Japan. Porphyrius de Antro Nympharum. 8vo. 2 vols. Stanley's Chaldaic Philosophy. Voyages and Travels. Robertson's History of America. 8vo. 12mo. Laurie's History of Freemasonry in Scotland. Lamb's Hieroglyphics. . 8vo. the East. fo. Pignorii Meusa Isiaca.LIST OP AUTHORITIES. 4to. Newton's Chronology. fo. Maimonides de Idolatria. Patricii Oracula Zoroastr. 8vo. Introduction toLlywarch Hen. Savary's Letters on Egypt. 8vo. 3 yols. 2 vols. 3 vols. 7 vols. Modern History of Hindostan. 3 vols. fo. Historical Fragments. Milman's History of the Jews. fo. 8vo. Orme's Transactions in India. L'Antiquite expliquee. Pau&anias. 6 Ancient History of Hindostan. 12mo. Plinii Naturalis Historia. 4to. Stukeley's Itinerary. 4to. 2 vols. 4to. Mounier's Influence of Freemasonry on the French Revolution. Platpnis Opera. Runic Poems. fo. XV torn. fo. 5 vols. 2 fo. 8vo. fo. 4to. Oliver's Signs and Symbols. Le Noir. in Mallet's Northern Antiquities. L'Autiquite de la Franc-Ma- Lord s Banian Religion Luciau de Del Syria. Jones's Koran. Religious Ceremonies of all Nations. Notes to his Poems. fo. 12mo. fo. Nieuhoff 's Travels to India. fo. by Taylor. Poli Synopsis. viii. 8vo. Journey to Alston Moor. 4to. History of the Philosophers. 2 vols. 2 vols. Potter's Archaeology. Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy. 8vo. 4to. 12mo. Norden's Travels in Egypt and Nubia. Delden de Diis Syriis. 8vo. by Manetho apud Eusebium. 4to. Pyramids. Mallet's Northern Antiquities. 8vo. 8vo. 8vo. 8vq. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry. Samme's Britannia. Mills's History o the Crusades. Richardson's Dissertation. 8vo. 8vo. Plutarchi Opera. fo. Deely's Wonders of Elora. Kellet's Tricseuium Christi. 8vo. Pierii Hieroglyphica. vols. 2 vols. 2 vols. Pennant's Tour in Scotland. Purchas's Pilgrim. 12mo. Moor's Hindoo Pantheon. 8vo. fo. 8vo. 8vo. 4to. Sale's Sacontala. Iside et Osiride. 4to. Pinkerton's Collection of Travels. Smith's Use and Abuse of Freemasonry. 3 vols. 8vo. Star History of Beverley. Spineto's (Marquis of) Lectures. Antiquities of. Antiquities of Masonry. 8vo. connerie. 8vo. Perron's Zendavesta. Serpent Worship. 2 vols. fo. 8vo. Prideaux's Connection. 8vo.

fo. Verstegan's Restitution of Decayed Tavernier. fo. 4to. Welsh Archaeology. 12mo. 8vo. Turnbull's Voyage round the World. Intelligences. 8vo. fo. Volney's Travels in Syria. les Six Voyages. 3 vols. . 2 vols. Toland's History of the Druids. Willett's Universe Displayed. 8vo.8vo. 4to. Universal History (Ancient. fo. Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons. 2 vols. 3 vols. Stukeley's Stonehenge and Abury. 4 Valpy's Classics. 4to. 8vo.xvi LIST OF AUHTORITIES. Hexapla in Exodum. 8vo. 6 torn. Wormius's Danish Monuments. Syncelli Chronographia. 8vo. Zimmerman's Tract on the Illuminati. Wait's Oriental Antiquities. 2 vols. 8vo. Vancou vre's Voyage round the World. 4to. Tenison's Idolatry. Young's Egyptian Antiquities. Webb's Freemason's Monitor. Taylor's Proclus. 8vo. 4to. Thevenot's Travels into the Levant. 8vo. 8vo. 3 vols. vols.) 18 vols. 4to. Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses. 4to. Ward's View of the Hindoos. 5 vols. Jewish Antiquities.

uncontaminated by the contagion of evil example. INITIATION may be traced to a period of the most re- In the infancy of the world the ceremonies would be few and unostentatious. LECTURE I. the rites of initiation would become progressively more complicated. 172. like that of admission into Christianity.. (Div.) referring.HISTORY OF INITIATION. Leg. and bad men had turned a sacred institution into ridicule from its simplicity 2 and . 2 Warburton says. whose presence might pollute their pure devotion and social converse by contumelious language or unholy mirth. doubtless. and unsophisticated devotion to God. This was. pure as it came from the hand of God. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. that some discriminations became necessary. and some antiquity. which was the great original from whence they were derived. doubtless. To prevent such intrusion.easiness of access.. in the hope that they would practise the social duties of benevolence and 1 good will to man. the profane scoffer. 1 mote 2 . conferred alike on all. and the rites assumed a higher and more imposing form. that it was an universal opinion that the heathen Mysteries were instituted pure . perhaps. therefore. and kept at an unapproachable distance. and unadulterated by the innovations of man. The distinguished few who retained their fidelity. in reality nothing more than the practice of those simple moral precepts which were enjoined by a religion. p. and consist. primitive Masonry . to the primitive Science here described. vol. i. would soon be able to estimate the superior benefits of an isolated institution which afforded the advantage of a select society. of a simple lustration. It was after the stream of iniquity had inundated the world.

indeed a favourite pursuit The study of Astronomy was with the Freemasons.2 HISTORY OF INITIATION. Wait. and added to the practice of divine worship the study and application of human science. Ant. to which accident gave the name of Masonry." (Bar Hebraeus. by the Author of this Work. of Masonry. Pref. and would doubtless be one of the Sciences Whether it led to the pracinculcated on the initiated. that they should give alms.. He discovered the knowledge of the Zodiac and the course of the Planets and he pointed out to the sons of men. by pursuits of literature. the Fall of Man. 6 This was the race which the Freemasons of the present day regard as their most early predecessors in the practice of rites. and enable the pious worshipper to detect with unerring certainty the truth or falsehood of any pretensions 3to a fraternity with the faithful followers Their ordinary employment was in the of the true God. Enoch is converted into an idolater. is in 7 . so to call them. which was subsequently lost even amongst his favourite people. study and contemplation of God's wisdom. first used in writing and in numbering. 4 cultivation of the mind. ut supra. Bishop Cumberland says.. "the chief suggestion which MBses has given us concerning the beginning of idolatry before the Flood. Paradise. 3 The divine Enoch gave to these rites a decisive character. p. Orient. the doctrine of the Patriarchs before the flood consisted of traditions of the Creation. p. and appointed festivals for sacrifices to the Sun at each of the Zodiacal Signs. viii. 7 tice of the Sabean superstition is matter of conjecture.. that they should worship God. p. &c. the Jews. gf these. Vid. and governing the world . Cain's fratricide. 5 Cumb. &c. distinctive tokens would be adopted as infallible tests to exclude the uninitiated . Vid. and enacted some admirable laws. votive offerings and tenths. that they should pray. 17. was Edessa. which are sublime studies. and that he taught the sons of men the art of building cities. . the characters of Enoch and Enos. and suppose or involve some 5 skill in Letters. ''Enoch was the first who invented books. that they should fast. and the Antiquities of Freemasonry. the Seventh day. Ant. to which. 6 who flourished before the Deluge. and the conservator of the true name of God.) It will be observed that in the latter part of the above quotation. Sanch. with obserordering. by Wait. According to our traditions. cited . In his days 180 cities were built.. after the Flood. Enoch was a very eminent Freemason. together vations on the motions of the heavenly bodies. 182. 4 According to the Bechinath Ilapperushim. The ancient Greeks declare that Enoch is the same as Mercury Trismegistus. and different sorts of writing. and the sciences of astronomy and geometry therein employed . but the author evidently blends into one. were added the Seven precepts of Noah. the in making. 226. that which was the least.. &c. p. p. He reprobated abominable foods and drunkenness. 93.

they did not suppose the stars to be the only things.) ascribes the invention of astronomy to Enoch.. and used them as his ministers.. which are Described to be certain . bearing a character similar to the 8 Such was Inipolluted Mysteries of the postdiluvians. These pillars were found in subterraneous caverns. vol. was totally forgotten.. Impressed with this notion. c. men began to call THEMSELVES by the name of i. These are his words of Enos. or circumscribe its blessings. for we know from an authority higher than that of Maimonides.. p.) tells us that Atlas was the first eminent astronomer of the antediluvian world. Mys. 304. Cab. near Thebes. 17. that they should receive from man the same veneration as the servants of a great prince justly claim from the subject multitude. 8 vi. Heraclitus (de incred." (Cumb. and beyond the Nile. in a place called Syringes. the authors of the Universal History say. ix. deities. 9 26 the words being translated. and to worship them. Their language was. identity.. or the first Mercury. men fell into grievous error.) The early attachment to this science thus displayed. and even Enos himself partook of their infatuation. that ''Manetho extracted his history from certain pillars which he discovered in Egypt. as in the margin of our Bibles. whereon inscriptions had been made by Thoth. and Eupolemus in Eusebius (Praep. de Idol. should have been excepted from this general charge of idolatry. and thus it passed through 1 we have no the hands of the antediluvian patriarchs. and laid up in the private recesses of the Egyptian temples. however.. 4. 9. in the vain expectation that they should thus please the Creator of all At first. to be deified. that great and venerable Name tent. the Lord God OmnipoIn process of time. that Noah was a just man and walked with God. i. that our anted>luvian Brethren engraved their ineffable secrets on pillars..) The patriarch Noah.INTRODUCTION. : then. p. . e. Evan. Thus Atlas is represented as supporting the heavens on his shoulders . but adored in conjunction with them. and the whole human race retained no other religion than the idolatrous worship of the host of heaven. however. (Gen. and deposited them in a cavern of the earth. however. it was evidently his will. that since God had placed on high the heavenly bodies.) Maimonides. who is said to have invented or greatly improved this sublime science. Sanch. c. in the sacred letters and dialect but were. In corroboration of this legend. translated frorrf the sacred dialect into the Greek tongue. 10. after the Flood. Enos lived. apud Fab. not far from the sounding statue o! Mcmnon. tiation in these primeval ages. : build temples to the stars. the son of Seth. but O certain evidence that it produced any surreptitious rites. which is no inconsiderable proof of their 9A Masonic tradition is in existence." (Maim. they began to Gen. was decidedly of opinion that the antediluvians were addicted "In the days to the solar and sideral worship. to sacrifice to them. iv. a fiction arising entirely out of his reputed hnowledge of astronomy. unalloyed by any innovations which might tend to vitiate its benefits. indeed. for Atlas was but a personification of Enoch. produced some very curious fables in subsequent ages. while the Lord.

" (Vol. in several places . this annihilation. 6. or Rhea. Signs and Symbols. but Buddhism admits of none. in the figurative language of scripture. and hence their cosmogonies all commence with dark chaos. excelling in those enormities. pref.) And this awful goddess was no other than the Isis. and fearing lest the memory of their ceremonies should be obliterated. Flood the altar of Darkness 10 was arrayed the altar of Light . which have been distinguished by mythologists. this never coufounds right and wrong.4: HISTORY OF INITIATION. . the gods as. each possessing its own peculiarities. 2. both before the creation and during the prevalence of the diluvian waters." says Malcolm. or Ceridwen of the Mysteries. Orph.. or Ceres." 77. atrocious self tortures this inculcates few austerities. built and contrived vaults. and were solemnized with But after the winding apartments under ground. That makes absorption into deity the supreme good . The mysterious systems of polytheism branched off into two great sects. i. Brahmenism has incarnations. cutting on the walls many sorts of birds and beasts. theft. the patriarchal ordinances were against perverted .. "'' That enjoins bloody That requires sacrifices. that all the abominations of apostate idolatry originated from that city as from a common parent. which is a great mistake.. this forbids all killing. 12 By subsequent corruptions. those who were skilled in ancient rites. i.) It has been often supposed. the rites of Buddha were engrafted on the 11 pure ceremonies of the masonic ritual. 13 14 . and innumerable kinds of animals. vol. by the Author of this Work.) by which is meant. by reason of its supposed priority of existence . and never excuses any sin. for it has no permanent god. or bear less evidence of being derived from each other. Idol.. This principle was iden10 It may be observed here. No two systems can be more opposite. under the names of Buddhism and Brahmenism. Darkpeculiar marks of veneration. (for Venus and Night were the same individual deity. p. 39. representing equally the earth and the ark of Noah. Hymn. that in ness was honoured with tified with the Great Mother. " that Buddhism resembles Brahmenism. remained enveloped in the blackest shades of darkness. always considered darkness to have been of greater antiquity than light.) all the idolatrous systems. from that pas" the prophet of the Apocalypse styles Babylon or sage in which Babel. 5. (Rev. 5. (Signs and Symb. (Vid. That makes and other vices sometimes commendable. the arkite rites thus boldly introduced. and the plains of Shinar resounded with the frantic yellings of the rebellious Cuthites. for those who were unable to extend their ideas beyond the creation of this world. p.) who. as it is said. That has a host of idols. 13 at length assumed the more 14 complex form of Brahmenism. (Pag. this only one. dug with vast labour. foreseeing the coming of the Deluge. Lect. and which. 12 Faber contends that idolatry commenced at Babel. and describes lying. viii. which they called hieroglyphical letters. Lect. the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth .. Signs and Symbols.

under whose protection they penetrated into unknown climes. surviving the general destruction.. who tinguishable hatred and sanguinary hostility. In some nations the two systems became. Fab. 1.. until they literally covered the earth as the waters cover the sea.. increasing in pomp and celebrity. It is a melancholy fact. separating their professors from each other by conflicting ordinances. bearing the sacred ark of the favourite deity. and settled in such situations as promised to yield them shelter and 16 The surreptitious initiations accompanied each support. Mys. O such splendour of ceremonial pomp and imposing magnificence of decoration. while the Chinese. (except Pythagoras. and their peculiar symbols were introduced into the 15 The apostacy was attractive. the architects of Babel travelled into distant countries. and addicted to the arts of civil and social life. but such as emanate from piety and virtue.. the Indians and the Britons may be marked out as the chief.) The Indians. p. accompanied by a life which coveted no distinctions in this world. "the priests of Jupiter the conqueror. which is now denominated Masonry. emigrated from Shinar under the direction of a Cuthite priesthood and nobility. 36. the whole earth was polluted with these abominations and every country had its system of religious mysteries j all partaking of the source from which they undoubtedly 16 15 It is evident . initiations aimed at extinguishing the unprespurious suming blaze of truth. vol. adopted the latter system. but which marked a distinctive character. citing from Hestiaeus. that before the advent of the Messiah. the former maintained their superiority by the sword. from Josephus. 203. ii. and the Saxons were Buddhists. the The disJapanese. .. Of these. i. the Persians. c. Pag." 17 Zosim. Leg.. The Buddhists were Magians. 4. each tribe under its ostensible leader. Cab.INTRODUCTION. in subsequent ages. Jud.) and the Britons were Brahmenists. tinctions between these two sects were arbitrary. 17 They sprang up in the East like some insignificant plant. vol. having preserved the holy vessels and ornaments. and the celestial sphere. . that they excited universal notice. the Brahmenists were Sabians and how abhorrent soever it may appear from the mild and bloodless character of the primitive Buddha. Div.) that a regular idolatrous priesthood was established prior to that dispersion for he says. who practised a modification of Buddhism. the latter were peaceable. p. 1. At the dispersion. iv. while the unmixed tribes adhered to the former.. supported only by the unpopular recommendations of silent devotion to God and unoffending simplicity to man . i. repaired with them to Babylon. Idol. (Fab. that the minute distinctions of each were swallowed up in the broad outline of the general scheme. so intimately blended. . apud Warb. and often producing inexThe mixed tribes. tribe. sprang. (Ant. the Greeks.

(Apoll. Hser.) into Persia by Zeradusht. Mas. which probably took place on the plains of Shinar. being derived from one source. ii. 5. increasing with the march of time. Pilg. 148. 10. spread over the world with a rapidity which is truly astonishing. (Herod.) into Cyprus by Cinyras. into the Italy by Pelasgi. and with the increasing oblivion of the peculiar manner in which their salvation 18 The Mysteries. 5. Messen. Ant. adv... Marsh. after they were once instituted.) Hence it will follow. alike yielded to their sway. b. The continent of Asia was pervaded in every part of its vast and spacious surface . This veneration.) into Boeotia b}^ Prometheus and his son. grew and enlarged with such prodigious rapidity and branches spread from strength. that soon their vigorous east to west. Pelasg. 1. p. Hor.) by Vitzliputzli.6 HISTORY OF INITIATION.) or Cadmus.. and disseminated their abominations. into Egypt by Thoth the son of Mizraim. the cold and inhospitable regions of Scandinavia and Iceland. (Pausan... p... 300. the distant isles of Britain and Hibernia.. iii. 9. and gave distinction to the Greek and Koman name. c. felt and acknowledged their utility in enslaving and reducing to abject submission the savage nature of their fierce inhabitants. into Scandinavia by Sigge or Odin. (Bp. i. (Garcilasso.) into Thebes by Methapus. before the dispersion of mankind. Hist. (Pooocke. into Etruria by Philostratus. (Etnaeus.. (Ant. Marsh. b. by a clear induction. though acknowledged under different appellations. Arab. . c. 15.into Thrace by Orpheus. into Gaul and Britain by Gomer or his immediate descendants. p. c. They were introduced into India by Brahma. c. and even the distant and unknown colonies which peopled the woods and forests of the new world... Bseot. 281. Bibl. (Purch. p. viii. theyimparted activity to the adventurous designs of the Phenician merchants.. from north to south.. and celebrated in honour of the same deities. 18 The effect universal Deluge w ould produce a tremendous on the minds of the survivors. i. 1. Horse Pelasg. 1. (Mai.... the shores of Africa basked under their shade.) into Greece by Melarnpus. Spec. that all the Mysteries throughout the world were the same in substance. p. (Bp. into Mexico 62. and as a knowledge r of this terrible event was propagated amongst their pos- terity. into China and Japan by Buddha. )into Crete by Minos.) into the city of Arene by Lycus. into Samothrace by Eumolpusor Dardanus. v. 147.) and into Peru by Manco Capac and his wife. (Epiphan.) into Messene by Caucon. North. p. it would naturally be accompanied by a veneration for the piety. 4.. and afterwards for the persons of the favour- ed few who were preserved from destruction by the visible interference of the Divinity. Pausan. into Athens by Erectheus. 9. p.

or male principle. Venus. Nep20 tune. In it they placed the Sun. at length assumed the form of an idolatrous worship. instituted a series of divine honours to Noah arid his triple offspring. Added to this. which may afford an additional reason 19 why the system extended itself so generally over Mr. which by degrees introduced the abominations of the phallic worship while Vesta represented the Ark itself. Ceres. Eellations ita. their priests were supposed to be invested with a power of directing those influences at pleasure. vol. the founder of their nation. which latter the female principle. Hu. p.. 30. Iris was the rainbow. On these rude beginnings the whole complicated machinery of the Mysteries was formed. which completely banished from the political horizon of idolatry the true knowledge of God. Rhea. and as the supernal deities were consecrated into the principal stars. as the acknowledged representative of the great father. the office of pilot. Idol. which produced the Deluge and preserved the ark upon its waters. mate objects of the creation. and assigned to him.. and Juno the arkite dove.. Jupiter. They constitute the same false principle to which the Mysteries were universally consecrated. Adonis. &c. while the former. which ultimately became substituted for the antitype. male or female.INTRODUCTION. the doctrine of the influences of the heavenly bodies over the affairs of men was assiduously inculcated. under the various apof Isis. Minerva the divine wisdom and j ustice." 20 (Pag. Astarte. i. &c.. and Nimrod. the first open apostate. Bacchus. and introduced amongst mankind the worship of animals. and was subsequently represented acknowledged in different nations. and of a superintending providence. Ceridwen. Hence the Sun and Noah were worshipped in 19 conjunction with the Moon and the Ark. 7 was accomplished. and the inani. Proserpine. Frea. and gave the original impulse to the helioarkite superstition. as the fountain of light and heat. assumed the names of Osiris. Faber conceives that "the ancient mythologists considered the whole frame of the heavens in the light of an enormous ship. . Saturn. who were identified with the Sabian worship. Each of these deities had legitimate and appropriate symbols. Brahma.) These were the various appellations which different people bestowed on the same divinity. and the high rewards of a residence with them in the same happy mansions was held out to all the virtuous who embraced their opinions . Odin.

whom they called Cneph. who had previously lived in four hundred millions of worlds.. 1. Evan." in defiance. vol.8 HISTORY OF INITIATION. the face of the earth for the priests. and eternal torment in the next. another as a monkey. he at length was born son of the above-mentioned The moment he king. presiding Spirit. early times. &c. p... claimed Now I am the noblest of men This is the last time I shall ever be born !' When in this state his mind was enlarged.. and (Euseb. 672. the impious contemner of their rites. levied to defray the expences of maintaining the sacred animals adored in the cities of Egypt. was born. (Ind. would not fail to consign to universal execration and contempt in the present world. and spreading out his exanimal. or and in almost every grade and condition of human life. in which were taught to believe that the unhappy soul of the they wicked despiser of the Mysteries was doomed to a transmigration of three thousand years' duration. Having in the course of these transitions. fly. In ' : 22 The greatest philosophers of this arms. ' world he had been almost every sort of worm. . fish. from Porphyry in Eusebius. or loathsome reptiles? 23 And who would be bold enough to reject or 21 Maurice asserts. 11.deity. the Buddhist king. in the ordinances of Menu. it is decreed. Ant. that. 21 And the triumph of this diabolical system was com22 plete by the invention of the Metempsychosis. of which he rehearsed many to his followers. fowl. "a man who designedly takes away the property of another. was affirmed c. elephant. fowl. or eats any holy cake not first presented to the deity at a solemn rite. Godama was the son of a king. \ ." ^Thus.) Cneph to be the creator of the world. one relating his life and adventures as a deer. Five hundred and fifty of these narrations have been preserved. that in the most " the whole Thebais united in acknowledging a supreme. praep. so that he remembered his former conditions and existences.) all ages and nations considered this doctrine to be perfectly orthodox. while rewards and honours would be accumulated on those who distinguished themselves in the defence of their apostacy from the simplicity of primitive worship. attained immense merit. iv. was a serpent. This doctrine was a fearful engine in the hand of a politic priesthood to enslave the mind through the influence of imaginary fears. and consigned it to a long succession of transmigrations through the polluted bodies of ravenous beasts." iii. Malcolm gives a curious account of the transmigration of Godama. and passed through innumerable conditions in each. he jumped upon his feet. upon which account they were excused from paying the public taxes. What could be more terrible than the contemplation of a punishment which degraded the human soul beneath its natural superiority of character. thus potent and despotic. I suppose.

12. founded on similar principles. or a pucassa".) I would reply in the emphatic words of an inspired apostle.. 453.) of a Brahmin must enter. and nought could have saved it from extinction. had it not been reinvigorated by the Essenes. chandala. (Ibid. "Doth a fountain send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter ? Can the fig tree bear olive berries ? either a vine figs ? so can no fountain both yield salt water and The wisdom that is from above is first pure. acquired. then peaceable. and I have been told. full of mercy and good fruits. if it require one. iii. a sheep. of snakes and chameleons. a stag. at length. 25 cherished it in " shall inevitably sink to the conor contempt of the holy ordinance. that the arguments there used afford an indirect sanction to the opinion that Masonry is derived from the Mysteries. p.) In the Bhagvat Geeta this degrading species of punishment is still more pointedly denounced " Because of their folly. who took charge of the forsaken Institution. fresh. 17.INTRODUCTION. which it otherwise could never have . therefore I cast down upon the earth those furious. an ass. p. a goat... Assoors. Idol. the body of a dog. and that the far-famed Mysteries of idolatry were a subsequent institution. 117. Fab. founded on intense study and abstruse research. (daemons) from birth to birth. at least. or of mischievous blood-sucking demons." on the despisers of the sacred Mysteries.) 24 1 have denominated the surreptitious initiations earth-born. which was certainly And to those who contend that Masonry is noderived from above. In answer to this charge. those evil beings who thus despise me. " says the good Crishna.) "He who steals the gold of a priest.) I wish to be distinct and intelligible on this point. not finding me. of crocodiles and other aquatic monsters. *5 Vid. p. Works. a bird. by the author of this . a boar. Jones. in contradistinction to the purity of Freemasonry. 190. abject wretches." (Ibid. until it gave portentous intimation of approaching decay . vol. in. a camel. I only need refer to the general tenor of that volume and to declare explicitly my firm opinion. with the design of conveying unity and permanence to the false worship. 451. thing more than a miserable relic of the idolatrous mysteries. as some misapprehensions are afloat respecting the immediate object of my former volume of Signs and Symbols . " The slayer dition of a brute." a Sermon. Pag. they go into the most infernal regions. 451. vol. with the creation of our globe. according to the circumstances of his crime.. 9 a dread- contemn a system which bore the ensigns of such ful retribution? Meanwhile the true light of Masonry declined in public estimation as the rapid progress of its earth-born 24 adversary made all nations and people and languages bend before it.. "The Progress of Light. (vid." (p. into the wombs Being doomed to the wombs of of evil spirits and unclean beasts. that the Science which we now denominate Speculative Masonry was coeval. they adopt false doctrine and continue to live the life of impurity ." (Sir W. 116." (James iii. shall pass a thousand times into the bodies of spiders.. a bull. 11. a well-intentioned sect of people amongst the Jews. p.

and clearly revealed those important truths which the metaphysical reasonings of heathen philosophy could never fathom. in the broad and glorious blaze of splendour that dissipated the unholy shades of idolatry. or omit the process of initiation. were to relinquish all the title to preferment 2G and even the comforts and charms of domestic life were scarcely . however. which brought and immortality to light. Phaedone. wealth. that rise to any degree of celebrity in the relior political institutions of polytheism. in Long antecedent the person of Jesus Christ. terminating. until its rays of light once more began to illuminate the surrounding darkness. who had borne without shrinking or complaint. attainable without this indispensable qualification. were the practices exhibited which form the subject of the following pages. The Orphic mysteries were dignified with the high appellation of Orphotelestte. which was supposed to restore the fallen soul to its original for the uninitiated person was virstate of perfection tually an outcast from society. their bosom. and simple introduction to religious privileges. it was the only avenue to honour. In those distant times. and almost without the pale of legal Hence the extreme utility. }7 Plato. in his History of Freemasonry in Scotland. but by gious passing through this preliminary form . The first initiation was a sort of baptism. and the peculiar blessings of immortality were restricted to those alone. the privation and actual terrors of this rigorous ordeal. conferred on persons in their infancy. has also taken a clear view of this subject. superior light. to the time when this benevolent life dis- pensation was promulgated. an eternal object of suspicious jealousy. the rites of initiation were so indispensable. because the initiated were assured of certain happiness in a future state. 26 . or fame.10 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and has written an useful book although I differ from him on some important points. abstruse points in the history and mythology of Laurie. of investigating a subject of such exten- f sive application and high importance towards elucidating many Work. Laurie was an intelligent Mason. To despise the Mysteries. and it thence continued to enlighten a narrow and restricted path. and has instituted a comparison between the usages of the Essenes and those of Freemasonry. . in these times of protection. and amongst the people who had renounced the homage which the creature owes to the no one could Creator.

as it actually 28 . The Casket. not only to call together the workmen that were building the Ark. 9 The eastern Christians had a curious tradition. which he was to strike three times every day. impressed with feelings of horror and apprehension. 115. and then with the seven just figurative representation of the descent of This Regeneration originated the very curious ceremony of the Taurobolium and Criobolium. and named in Arabic. and the perfect 28 Epopt was then said to be regenerated or new born. derived. them collection and complicated and many of the political and domestic customs of antiquity may be traced It was to the same inexhaustible and prolific source. which contains a splendid of antique jewels of inestimable value. p. such as is used in the East at this day instead of bells. water . which are at present wrapt up in the mantle of obscurity.) 30 If the theory be correct which supposes the natural cause of the Deluge to be the near approach of a powerful comet to the earth. and. and hence the motives which produced the superstition will not be difficult to account for. but to give him an opportunity of daily admonishing them of the impending danger of the Deluge. which were decidedly arkite.. Hist. restored to a renovated existence of life. as is advanced by Mr. to call the people to worship. whose power of attraction not only elevated the tides to a prodigious height above their customary level. he also directed him to make an instrument of wood. has long been closed. as well as a descent into hell. and the contents exposed to the penetrating gaze of antiquarian research. 29 Here he remained in darkness and solitude. and placed under the Divine protection. of Masonry. but by the prudent use of this talismanic key.. probably. which was a place of refuge from the punishment inflicted on the sins with which the old world was stained. p. mechanism of heathen mythology Noah into the Ark. (Vid.) The ram as well as the bull was a legitimate symbol of the Ark of Noah. This was a Initiation involved all the confused . where every pollution was purged by lustrations of fire. and its riches inaccessible to the eager eye of curiosity. nakus. until the earth had been purified 30 by a general lustration. or the bloody baptism of the Bull and Ram. light and purity. but burst the central abyss and caused the waters to rush out with a dreadful concussion then the lustration may be said. Ant. from some ceremony in the mysteries. not unaptly termed death.INTRODUCTION. or oblivion of all the stains and imperfections of a corrupted and an evil life. (Univ. 11 the ancient world. that when God ordered Noah to build the Ark. vol. and need this Master-Key to bring into light. Whiston. considered to be a mystical death. 43. the bolts may be withdrawn. i.

Geeta.. Thus they provoked Him to auger with their inventions.. indeed. to it is .12 HISTORY OF INITIATION. Int. in nota. 1825. . vet. Kes. ii.. ii. 33 Apollon.) and the Parsees similarly fabled that the waters proceeded from the hot-oven of an old woman named Zala. among other things. Myst. who were no other than the impious antediluvians. in all their forms. (Bhagvat Geeta. Mai. Ophion was no other than the infernal Serpent. 147.. (v. Comp. 148. Hist. Idol.) " They joined themselves to Baal Peor. Edda Snor.. 1. p. with him. Ovid. Metam. Wilkins. 157." 2 Vid.) and ate the sacrifices of the dead. 32. i.. 33 before the Flood. vol. (Koran.. from your old traditions. 44. Cudw. 52. 328. They celebrated the mystical death and revivification of some individual. the highly figurative account of the Deluge exhibited in the Courma Avater of the Hindoos.. c. ii. Pag. p. whom you call Deucalion. vol. 197. Geogr. Syst..) Sale.. he descended into Hades or the Ark. he beheld. 10. Hist. unbelieving persecutors: acknowledge that the Deluge of Noah. Pers. spake thus to his 'Ye yourselves.. etiam Plat. c. (Ovid. by the use of emblems at once impious and disgusting. p. The candidate. 82. (Dionusus. Vid. Ant... lightning. Cedren. 29. who suffered martyrdom in the year 250. b. North. 22. was a representative of the and subsequent depatriarch during his erratic voyage 31 Like Noah. Fab. under the sway of their prince Ophion. p. Cab. under the Emperor Decius. 1. was mingled with fire. in a livery from destruction. c. p. Maur. vol. Norway. Nat.. p. the uncontrolled 32 the anarchy and contentions of the impious race age. b. Argon..) the account in Hesiod's Theogony of the destruction of the Titans. fire. p. at his initiation. yet do you but half understand the real truth of this matter. remarkable that all the heathen accounts of the Deluge And ascribe that event to the agency of fire. Bhagvat. The intelligent reader may profitably consult Hyde de Rel.. like Noah. Metam. and water. licence of the iron figurative manner. a place have been accomplished by fire and water. Hymn 5. 25. David accuses the Israelites of this abominable practice in Psalm cvi. vol. vol.) It was. 10. which represents the earth.. On this curious subject the authorities are numerous and convincing. Edit. is said to be involved in raging flames which spread destruction on every side. Ant. Ind. iii. i. is replete with In the same terrific machinery thunder. ** Pionus. Strabo. Orph. i. mon belief amongst all nations that the Deluge was accompanied by a torrent of fire.. a com- was and in the Mysteries. i. 1. 344. Celt. 31 The Mysteries. Plin. p. 28. Dav. 1. p. Hist. ii. Tim. p.. the equal foe of God and man. were funereal. p.' " (Pontoppidon.. from Al Beidawi says. 4.. the mountain Mandar. Fab. as it did on the first created man in the garden of Eden. ii. he emerged persons who were incarcerated into the light and hope of a new and perfect world on which the favour of heaven once more smiled. that the waters of the Deluge were reputed to have burst from a hot-oven at Cufa..

57 king of Egypt. 34 things past. to confer benefits on the nations around him. the bitter cries and shrieks of despairing sinners in the agonies of remorse like Noah. p. which agrees with the patriarch Noah in the helio-arkite superstition. (vol. and travelled for three years to communicate to them the arts of civilization. ix. and to come .) 35 The aspirant figuratively. at which all the conspirators were present. (Metam. left the government of his kingdom to the care of his wife Isis. was taught to believe. the aspirant was represented under the figure of a new born infant seated on the lotos or water lily.. his piety had conferred. stipatum me religiosd cohorte. heard a loud voice commanding to proclaim * The great and beneficent king Osiris is born. and here in safety he heard the dissolution of the world. he emerged into a new life of purity and perfection. usurp his throne. .' called Pamyles. 268): "On the day Osiris was born. i. deducit ad proximas balneas et prius suelo lavacro traditum. he . 36 The legend of initiation was this. was thus said to bo an inhabitant or two worlds and to be equally acquainted with extraneae . in honour of the infant. according to others. a damsel things is come into the world . he fell a sacrifice to the intrigues of his brother Typhon. de Senect. the dismemberment of rocks and mountains. On his return. 36 Thus introduced to all the blessings of a new mythological existence. 355. therefore. Nationes sacris quibusdam initiantur Isidis alicujus. which she did with all the veneration due to such a charge performing the mysteries called Pamylia. 35 and rejoiced in the distinction which. p. like Noah in reality. Osiris.INTRODUCTION. present. the rush of waters. (Tertull. et Osir. the regenerated aspirant was an emblem of the Sun. (Plut. a voice was heard crying out 'the Lord of all or. which was a symbol of the Ark of Noah... 13 of solitude and darkness. going to fetch water from tho temple of Jupiter. like those styled Palephoria. who was directed to nurse him. Cic. at Thebes. aut Mithrse per lavacrum. like the diluvian patriarch. He was in the month Ablutions were profusely used during the initiations. 17 The fable respecting the birth of Osiris is thus related by the authors of the Universal History. when the Sun was in Scorpio. But the infant and lotos was an emblem of the Sun.) Apuleius thus describes those of Isis: Sacerdos.) as well as of the aphanism and euresis . and. . purissime circumrorans abluit. de Isid." . who had formed a conspiracy in his absence to destroy him and ment invited to a grand entertainof November. he passed unhurt through the and death 34 purifying element j and being thus regenerated. prsefatus Deura veniam. in prseteritorum memoria et providentia futurorum. lib.' He was delivered to this damsel.

and it must be observed that the candidate was put through a corresponding series of ceremonies to produce a strong and lasting impression upon his mind. crowned by a multilateral pyramid. chambers of convenient height for a Hist. thirty-three feet high including the pedestal. ii. 9. et Osir. into the river. a valuable chest.) 39 The present appearance of the caverns at Byblus..] They are about ten yards distant from each other. [The initiations were always funereal. the inhabitants. making the air re-echo with her Typhon produced . with unparalleled zeal and perseverance.) . richly inlaid with and promised to give it to any person present gold. and. Isis. they at length gained possession of her husband's corse. undertook a second journey to search for the scattered fragments . and repeated disappointThis is said to be the origin of the word panic to express exceeding great amazement and fear. After many extraordinary adventures.. intending to By the treachery of Typhon give it a splendid interment. 19. is thus described " About half a mile to the southward of the court are two towers. andsecretedin as many different places. than it was nailed down and thrown This was the aphanism of the Mysteries . These subterraneous chambers and cells are cut out of the hard rock. instead of ending in a point. wrought into an hemispherical form it stands upon a pedestal six feet high. discontinued at about the third part of its height . Is." (Plut. supposed to be sepulchral monuments. one in form of a cylinder. and they were filled with horror and amazement. whose body it would most conveniently contain. The first 33 persons who discovered the above transaction were Pan who communicated the intelligence to and the Satyrs. which was severed into fourteen parts. figure of a lion in a sitting posture. and traversed the earth in search of the body.14 HISTORY OF INITIATION. which is ten feet high and fifteen square. for they stand on an ancient burying place. set out in company with Thoth.. 39 and left at the foot of a tamarind tree. * lamentations. she was again deprived of the body. and sixteen feet six inches square. variously disposed and of different lengths. in Phenicia. and after considerable fatigue. with which she returned to Egypt in triumph. where these ceremonies were solemnized." (Univ. adorned at each angle with the : : 38 Under ground there are square man. and long cells branching out from them. Isis. The body of Osiris. Osiris was tempted to try the experiment but was no sooner laid in the chest. in the extremity of sorrow and despair at the loss of her husband. was cast up at Byblus. p. thus committed to the mercy of winds and waves. p. vol. The other is a long cone.

2... Lat. 1. 2. Arabica gens Adoneum. Greece the rites were celebrated in honour of Bacchus and Rhea 41 at Byblus.. Fragm. as vehicles intended to uphold false systems of religion . p. varied with the varying language of the people. in her left are Close by her spikes of corn. &c. vol. 17. W. 1.INTRODUCTION. Epig. erecting an altar over every grave. Ogygia me Bacchum vocat . p. i. 4. 40 so in in Egypt Osiris and Isis were the prominent deities.. the sun and the moon. and conducted with great splendour. c. Bibl. she succeeded in finding every part. The emblems by which this goddess was designated are so striking. . p. to Mahadeva and Sita Ceridwen in Scandinavia.. and promise of plenty.. 1. They were pompous and imposing. Orph. . 12. out of the top of which there arise corn and In flowers.. torn. vol. Varro de Ling. 41 10 Georg. 1. and buried them in the several places where they were discovered. 1. ..) She is figured as a beautiful female personage and has a chaplet in which are seen ears of corn like rays. the pomegranate.. It was then proclaimed that Osiris was risen from the dead . Diod. and on each side a pomegranate. that I cannot resist the opportunity of quoting them from the learned Bryant. to denote the renewal of seasons. and amongst the Pelasgi they were called the mysteries of the . to Woden and Frea. 1. iii. the favourite emblem. 21. the centre of these fruits. Saturn. although the names of the individuals in whose honour the rites were celebrated. . 10. In every instance these divinities represented the two most obvious lights of heaven. 189. Virg. 247. p. and the most extravagant demonstrations of joy were used to express the sincere delight of the mystse on this This was the euresis. As . iv. 305. Osirin Egyptus putat Mysi Phanacem nominant Dionuson Indi existimant . . 42 On the above legend the dramatic scenes of initiation were constructed. Dii Magni. 30. Montif. Macrob. 364. to Hu and India.. to Adonis and Venus in in Britain. p. p. appears again and crowns the whole. c. interesting occasion. to mark the situation where her beloved husband's remains were deposited. 15 mcnts. Arch. Ant. 43 Dion. .. Her right hand reclines on a pillar of stone.. (Anal. Romana sacra Liberum . and Auson. side stands the beehive. It will be observed that the main facts in this fable were in all countries the same. Hal.

Pococke. and in the time of Alexander the Macedonian.. p.. 45 So effectually was the meaning of these hieroglyphics hidden from all but the distinguished few. became at length so strongly excited. if in the common hieroglyphic. 4. 122. 43 And and tropical hieroglyphics. whose interest and personal welfare were bound up in their concealment. same symbolical characters were made use of. 227. was hieroglylearning. to which but few were admitted. a hawk signified the human the sacred hieroglyphic it would stand for Expedition . 4G so that even those who had been initiated into the preliminary Degrees. or dispensers of these Mysteries. 1. which is described and explained in my Theocratic Philosophy of Freemasonry. 47 So artfully were these mysteries constructed. that trembling for their secret. A phonetic alphabet has recently been ( Jambl. 36. that they were perfectly understood by none but the curiologic hierophants and mystagogues. i. vol. and thus essentially would the signification of every particular emblem be altered. to the initiated. a hiero44 43 glyphical inscription. placed the phics. . p.. decidedly and a system of adapted to these celebrations . and made acquainted with the common rock of adamant. by the influence of visionary and preternatural Vid. mysterious and symbolical. which to the highest Degree of was exclusively appropriated 45 in which it is probable that nearly the their Order . as the uninitiated themselves. and they succeeded so effectually in establishing an absolute control. new language. legible only the morality. but the hidden meaning attached to each was entirely changed . c. of Egypt. in Thus. or design anew.16 HISTORY OF INITIATION. while they embodied important truths of revelation. soul.. de Myst. that in process of time the interpretation was entirely lost.) discovered amongst these hieroglyphics. as if been incased in a they had the jealousy of the hierophants. none could be found to show the meaning of. that the sacred hieroglyphic and language was the same as was used by the celestial deities. and the politics of every nation as out of the reach of popular acquirement. Descr. At the invasion of Cambyses it was but imperfectly understood . were as completely of the nature and secrets of the ineffable Deignorant grees. they subsequently invented a new hierogly44 phic or sacred symbolical character and language. Herod. 7. 47 46 An opinion was industriously promulgated. ii. from the knowledge of all but studiously concealed them those A who were interested in perpetuating the imposture.

I feel as though I had been initiated." It is a melancholy fact. in shades so delicate as to be unobserved. 3. and that those who are above all their fellow citizens in wisdom and knowledge.. terrors. that in the mysteries practised at Alexandria. Liv. For this purpose the Mysteries were proclaimed the beginning of a new life of reason and virtue . Innumerable . when any one was transported with extraordinary sensations of pleasure. . infra. c. (Vid. ceremonies.) <9 Clemens of Alexandria exclaims with indignation " Such are your voluptuous symbols your insulting theologies the institutions of your libidinous gods your satyrs. The whole of Egypt. ii. and their flesh eaten. vii. 'EnortTevhv uoi 8oy. Cic. being divided into a number of parts called nomes by the Greeks. i. thejirst is occupied by the priesthood. 52 and the initiated. . had become its probations were severe. yet would conjure up unheard of fears. and support the servants of the temples as well as their own families for they hold that the administration of the honours of the gods ought not to be fluctuating. who are held in the greatest respect by the inhabitand as possessing ants. introduced at different periods. from the superiority of their education and from the revenues of these lands they perform all sacrifices throughout Egypt. 3 . Warb. The land being everywhere divided into three portions. and contests of buffoons exposed in shameless nudity. that 17 the very name of INITIATION. says Diodorus. had been engrafted on the few expressive symbols of primitive observance. c. and blanch the cheek with imaginary apprehensions. but to be conducted always by the same persons. divination being effected 1. wild and romantic. and instances have occurred where the terrified aspirant. by artful changes. 14.INTRODUCTION. by their entrails. has 50 absolutely expired through excess of fear. ought not to be below any of them in the comforts and conve62 niences of life. 13. . or esoteric companions were said to entertain the most agreeable anticipations respecting 4!) revolting Whence the Greek proverb. vol. 51 and therefore it is no wonder that they should endeavour to induce as many as possible to participate in the advantages which were ostensibly attached to the process of initiation. dreadful and appalling. Lect. 166..(5. though pos- sessing a wild charm. and in the same manner . Its process. during the protracted rites.) ^ Vid. whose effects on the mind were 48 indescribable.. naked nymphs.. each of these is governed by a Nonarcha.. to whom the care of its public concerns is entrusted. p. children of both sexes were 48 : slain 50 51 . as being devoted to the worship of the gods the greatest power of understanding. 1. (Socr. It has been observed that the priests were peculiarly interested in the general dissemination of the Mysteries.. de Leg. Leg.

. Div. i. and at their death to be elevated to the supernal mansions of the 55 They were believed also to convey much temgods. p. v. and to 50 On the other most imminent dangers by land or water. 275. They were considered as profane wretches.IS HISTORY OF INITIATION. (Apollon. Demon. unworthy of public employment or private 59 58 confidence. Rhod. 140. The evidences to have been initiated at Samothrace. and to elevate the soul to absolute perfection . 56 Schol.. which is always excited by a system in which secrecy forms a prominent feature . do not esteem the sciences or languages which we know equally with others of which we are ignorant . valence of this general feeling it was that such a high degree of public curiosity attached to the Mysteries. a public odium was studiously cast on those who hand 57 refused the rites. in Aristoph. reaching forward to extended information. sometimes proscribed as obdurate atheists. seeks for it in those institutions where it is supposed to be preserved. for the human mind. 57 58 Warb. afford absolute security amidst the poral felicity. 5.. undefined principle of curiosity. Strom. 69 G0 Lucian. They professed to be a short and certain step to universal knowledge. cont. 53 death and eternity j to comprehend all the hidden mys54 to have their soul restored to the teries of nature . Alex. and finally condemned to everlasting punishment. Argon. and those are always deemed the most abstruse. Plat. Thus the Argonauts are fabled . The faith in such protection. Plat. Iren. . of which we From the prepossess the least degree of information. however. and the knowledge which is enveloped in mystery is frequently courted with greater eagerness than that which is open to public inspection. but the means were shrouded under the impenetrable veil We 63 55 of this fact are numerous and weighty and serve to prove that a future state of rewards and punishments formed a prominent doctrine in the Mysteries. 1. They were exhibited in the dramatic machinery of initiation as enduring the to be pains of Tartarus a doom which was pronounced These motives were strengthened by that everlasting. vol. And 60 to heighten the impression. Cels. Orig. Paneg. Leg. Phsed. Isoc.. state of perfection from which it had fallen.) was suspended on the possession of amulets which were delivered to the candidates at their initiation. 5t Clem. viii. the despisers of the Mysteries were considered marked men. to procure an auspicious voyage. Phasd.

62 All persons mysteries." At the time of thotflood. Act. or elsewhere. i. say the Arabian writers. p. 1. based on terror. and supported by superstition of the very worst satisfy the 61 kind. Argon. where God chose. 2. iii. the emblem of night. columns. that the system was a kind or Inquisition..INTRODUCTION.. .) and hence the early idolatry of most nations was directed to a atone . Bacchant. which were said to have been communicated to the priests by revelation from the celestial deities. sealed by oaths and penalties the most tremendous and appalling. by the angel Gabriel. and ceilings of the most sacred temlaudable thirst after ples were curiously decorated. Elusin. 20. the youth of all ranks to aspire to knowledge prompted the ambition of decyphering the meaning and illustration of these obscure symbols. Even the detached tribes of wandering Arabs venerated the black stone Kaabah.. Initiation was the only means of acquiring this knowledge. therefore. and many other authorities which will most sceptical.} No severity of probation could deter the bold and determined aspirant from encountering terrors and actual dangers which led to the and the shades of darkness gratification of his curiosity imparted vigour to the passion which looked forward to a recompense of such an exalted nature.. 19 of secrecy. even. 3.. Georg. apud. Euseb. c. it was emblematical of the altar of Noah. (Porph. Orient. 1176. . To excite this sentiment in all its sublimity of horror. Sec Meurs. It will at once be seen. 62 There was also another quality of the mind which served to recommend the mysteries that strange attachment to the marvellous by which every grade of human nature is swayed. the initiations were performed at the dead of night (* <ncora> xm wxri. black Appollon Shod.." (Al Azdli. praep. which is described as being originally "whiter than snow and more brilliant than the sun. 17. 1. Ant. was con eidered the proper colour to shadow the mysteries : (Strabo. cited by Wait. and it is therefore no wonder that initiation was so much in request. c. and restored to Abraham.) and when this stone was in the form of a Cube. but few into the Greater Eurip." 61 This feeling was not a little encouraged by the hieroglyphical characters with which the walls. 1. when he built the temple. Black.. 64 A : .) w Darkness was an emblem of death and death was a prelude to resurrection. 41. "it was taken up to heaven. in what manner the doctrine of the resurrection was inculcated and exemplified in these remarkable institutions. 63 were initiated into the Lesser.

1.20 HISTORY OF INITIATION. . 68 Few. the daughter of Thaumas. 372. by Styx.. Brit. Pag. was referred to in the thought by Mr. not only the Institution. and the soul's existence in and is . Alex. with authorities! 69 Clem. at the Deluge. vol. resorted to in times of pressing danger or calamity. c. i'v. at the absolute disposal of the hierophant . . the rainbow.. of immolating human 65 the selection of whiqh was commonly the victims. by the sanction of supernatural apprehensions. p. Vid. Euseb.. Faber to bear a reference to the oath of God. which was cemented by fearful oaths and heavy and destructive penalties. placed. i.. Strabo. ad Const.a future state. although ably have arisen from an imperfect knowledge of the 67 Thus were the initiated prediction of the Messiah. of the myriads who sought admission into the lesser Mysteries. and it is observable. p. . The 1. Strom. 261 and see Fab. and the most exalted rank was not exempt from an abject subserviency. But the potent spell which sealed the authority of the hierophant was the horrid custom. 70 Tertul. . moreover. however. 104. the disclosure of which might endanger. . but also the authority of the civil magistrate. Orat. when this oath of Jupiter was taken. bel. "for which reason. adv. attained to the higher and more perfect Degrees. with any degree of precision." Faber. to become depositaries of those truths. for here were imbedded the real secrets of the Institution. and promise of a Mediator the unity and trinity of the Godhead the Deluge redemption by a bloody sacrifice . And these were the Creation. i. i. Valentin. inviolable oath of J"upiter. Iris. is represented by Hesiod as hovering over the broad surface of the ocean. it might proborigin of this revolting practice. vol. and was usually punished by an ignominious 65 Diod. 69 The most careful selection and preparation were necessary to determine who were fitted for these important discloand for this purpose they were subjected to a sures 70 lengthened probation of four years before it was considered safe to admit them into the Sanctum Sanctorum. 66 67 68 Sammes. ix. 1.. vol. initiations. 13. Hence to reveal the Mysteries was the highest crime a person could commit. Gen. . Cab. Idol. Ces... 66 It is difficult to prerogative of the chief hierophant. v. what was the pronounce. Now that such a phenomenon appeared immediately after the Deluge. that it was made a special Vid. sign of God's oath to Noah. we are expressly informed by Moses. Fall. Gal. 5.. p. 16. vi.. that he would no more drown the world . Mys. Sic.

Ind. and as the latter was designed for initiation. and all the tranquil scenery of Nature in* its most engaging form. We Pyram. vol. 34) . and a well did actually exist " in the pyramid. hewn out of the solid rock on which the pyramid rests. 2. They had a communication with the interior of the pyramid.) Mr. Alex.. and it may be added. Maur. 187.. The entrance is narrow. and Italy. Strom.. Petit. and the machinery with which they were fitted up was calculated to excite every passion and affection of the mind. p. by an acute observer. into which the egress from the pyramid was by a shaft or well . ii.INTRODUCTION. is a well. or a labyrinth. as many of the cells are entirely choked up (Greaves. and the construction of the cells intricate. purling streams. 1. accompanied with strains of heavenly music. 73 a pagoda.. p. and fourteen hundred feet in length. when buildings on the surface would have been erected at one hundredth part of the labour and expense. were equally .. Mn. were indifferently a pyramid. Thus the hierophant could rouse the feelings of horror and alarm. but independently of the consideration that such extensive excavations would never have been made out of the hard rock with the chisel for mere dwellings. Crete.. of the East. vol. that perhaps the only entrance was from the caverns beneath. i.. the use of which is otherwise unknown. 73 Virg. 74 The labyrinths of Egypt. all involved in darkness. 73 The pyramids were doubtless erected very soon after the dispersion. the depth of which was never ascertained. Ant. iii. Lemnos. arc told. or excite terror and dismay. p. Greaves thinks that these apartments were for the priest to lodge in . and hollowed into an extensive range of apartments. lege morti addicebatur. At the " " extremity of one of the passages says Sir R. that the second pyramid has two elaborate pieces of cavern architecture attached to the north and west sides. and many of them closed up with an accumulation of dust and rubbish. Si quis arcanae mysteria Cereris sacra vulgasset. as copies of the great phallic tower on the plain of Shinar. v. that they were intended to contain the apparatus of initiation into the mysteries and were exclusively devoted to this important purpose. vi." (Vid. embittered by denunciations of the hottest pains of Tartarus in another world. 243. 21 71 death. p. These places the figurative harmony of the spheres.. 33. thirty feet in depth. it is clear from the internal construction of these spacious caverns. in lege Attic. and when the soul had attained its highest climax of apprehension. 74 furnished with vaulted rooms. by phantasmagoric visions of flowery meads. Wilson. so were the former. 1061). Sam.. vol. vol. extensive wings connected 71 Clem. Pag. p. 72 The places of initiation were contrived with much art and ingenuity. light up the fire of devotion. for we know that pits or wells were occasionally used in the mysteries (Fab. he was furnished with the means of soothing it to peace. also Pococke's Descrip. Idol. which cannot now be discovered.

iii...) . The whole island was dedicated to Osiris and Isis. (Vid. multitudes of secret dungeons. p. p.) Even the stable. in which Jesus Christ was born. iii. et Osir. Idol. It was there that superstition at midnight waved high her flaming torch before the image of Isis borne in procession . et Osir. iii.. de Isid. 79 Strabo.. and vistas. every of the world. "where the solemn and myste(Ind. near the cataracts. Maurice vol. where the relics of Osiris were said to be preserved. Pag. carved on the walls and pillars. p. they were filled. Idol. 77 One of the most sacred places which ancient Egypt could boast. Pag.22 HISTORY OF INITIATION. suffice it to say that such complicated excavations are common in here. p. chaunted their sweetest symphonies. but was prevented. by the filth and rubbish with which them. was the small island of Phile in the Nile. and were part indubitably used as places of initiation. It was in these gloomy caverns that the grand and mystic arcana of this goddess were unfolded to the adoring aspirant.) 75 (Fab. Ant.. subterranean passages. 78 and of such magnitude as to contain a numerous assembly of persons. 79 In all practicable instances they were constructed within the recesses of a consecrated grove. in v. and spacious sacelli . the learned Warburton has given some plates from the Bembine Table. 639. 76 Sometimes the place of initiation was constructed in a small island in the centre of a lake 77 a hollow cavern natural or artificial. de Isid. and there that her chosen priests. "Throughout the whole of this famous island. p. by open and spacious galleries. pasHe attempted to descend several of the steps that led down into sages. which almost covered its entire surface. while the solemn hymns of initiation resounded through the long extent of these stony recesses.. 254. was afterwards devoted by the Emperor Adrian. in every one of which was enfolded some philosophical or moral truth. In the particular mysteries of every nation." 78 Plut. from penetrating to any depth. which in the torrid regions of the east conveyed the united advantages of secrecy and shade . terminating in 75 which were adorned with mysterious symbols adyta. : Bethlehem. to the celebration of the mysteries of Thammuz or Adonis. and appropriated to their worship and a superb temple was erected. vol. tortuous passages. learning and religion.. Georg. narrow orifices. (Cal. 76 Plut. 1. with sounding domes." says Mr.. and to inspire a still greater veneraj designed for initiation into the mysteries. which is an invaluable specimen of the secret symbols concentrating the leading principles of Egyptian politics. 639. if we may credit the testimony of the learned Calmet. or rather the cave at Bethlehem. Diet. 536). Norden to run subterranean splendour. in holy ecstacy. vol. these places will be described with some degree of minuteness . anciently rious rites of Isis were celebrated with such distinguished pomp and there appeared to Mr. ix. In the Divine Legation of Moses.. 269.

which assigned to them the province of executing the will and pleasure of the infernal. p. there was no appeal. the demons fled. At this period of the degeneracy and degradation of the risen . Hence the pyra- of the Oracle whom he should appoint as his successor to the imperial diadem. as the accredited agents of invisible beings. their wealth and power were equally unavailable. Thus despotic. They had the privilege of nominating human victims . to their arbitrary or wanton inflictions. they imbibed a corresponding love of magnificence and The crimes and indecencies of their order were luxury. and the unbounded licentiousness which pervaded the other.) And the Christian has no reason to doubt . that after the birth of Christ. like a glorious PILLAR OF FIRE. without murmur or complaint. the Oracle ceased to give responses and to the same effect Suidas (in voc. against which. tion. de. 81 at the approach of Truth. Firm. 1. and therefore no responses would be given. that the God of gods was incarnate amongst the Hebrews. Thus they conand as they trolled senators and kept monarchs in awe increased in riches. or places 80 of sepulture. the inevitable result of the system. against the effects of which. Augustus enquiring . Mysteries. Antiq. that in the times of Augustus Cesar. 81 Strabo. indeed.INTRODUCTION.. (Vid. Diod. 194. excited public horror and aversion. Bibl. that he could not disobey. it is scarcely to be supposed that this proud hierarchy would exercise its influence with moderation. this : haughty priesthood fell with greater rapidity than it had for the open debaucheries of the one. but as the devoted offering might be redeemed by a heavy fine proportionate with his wealth or rank. 82. Delphi. And justly for the rites of initiation there celebrated were funereal. and. penetrated into their darkest recesses. and submitting. at length. 23 they were properly denominated Tombs. and had commanded him to return to his place . Thus invested by superstition with tremendous powers. tells us. and the 80 mids of Egypt were accounted to be Tombs. of Masonry. as well as the celestial deities. these potent priests became possessed of absolute authority.. p.) says. and frequently beheld even monarchs crouching at their feet. the blaze of Christianity. was answered. it is reasonable to believe that the ransom would be paid. . even though the unbounded avarice of the priest might assess the penalty at a large proportion of his temporal possessions. 4. vi. error. p.. soon transferred to the initiations. Jul.

enjoined on the candidates for admission into his school a five years' silence . and even in Alexandria itself. who executed his commission to the letter. in a manner. and as they really ought to be done. 671). finally sank to rise no more. the welfare of mankind solely depended. in imitaApostles. In the year 364. vol. that these rites were secretly performed in Greece and Rome. and they had. 82 Valentinian published a law forbidding nocturnal sacrifices. These united causes were the precursors of their destruction . were no longer necessary.24 institutions HISTORY OF INITIATION. 84 and probably with some although it has been said. and finally abolished these institutions. thinking that the law would impel the people to desperation. which they upheld. with orders to close the temples and places of initiation. 83 The pagans entertained such a very high opinion of the Mysteries. for several centuries after the Advent of 85 Christ. says Zosimus. "whilst. polity to their suppression. the Mysteries were performed. 110. that one of their best writers attributes the dissolution of the Roman brated. truth. p.. if they were prevented from performing the sacred Mysteries. Theodosius sent and in He says (Zos. 83 permitted them to be cele- Cynegius into Egypt. the types. and adopting some of the astronomical absurdities which he had learned in Egypt. Assuming Osiris to be the sun. provided everything was done decently order. under the pretext of convivial meetings. from the numerous instances. 83 Zos. and by the Typhon . therefore. and every branch of the ancient and religious rites.. they have decayed and sunk into oblivion. But the pro-consul of Greece. or heathen. v. Psellus the accuracy of this account. whether Jewish. 2. according to the appointment of the oracle. 1. for the purpose of preventing the indecencies which were perpetrated in the Mysteries. Pretextatus. engrafted them into his system. the whole world in subjection tothem. which caused his followers to be anathematized Church. Isis the moon. But the festivals having been neglected from the time that Dioclesian abdicated. 735. as they believed. 1. called the Basilideans. p. upon which." 84 Gibbon. He shut up the temples. Subsequently. however. for the reality having appeared. and prohibited the celebration of the Mysteries all over the East. tion of Pythagoras. p. 85 The legend of initiation was subsequently interwoven into Christianity by a sect of heretics who flourished soon after the time of the The founders of this sect.. 4. of infernal spirits being ejected at the command of Christ and his Apostles. in his own Scriptures. the Roman Empire was safe.

. he taught his disciples to frame crystals bearing these emblems. which were delivered to every candidate at his initiation into the Mysteries." has given an engraving of one of these gems. These were a transcript of the talismans of Persia and Arabia. by the latter. from the Bardic writings of that period. Hutchinson. and we are assured. By the former they were termed azimet. Scorpio. in an early edition of his ''Spirit of Masonry. or abracadabra. on undoubted authority. which were used as amulets or talismans to protect them from danger. Mr. abraxas. that they were celebrated in Wales and Scotland. down to the twelfth century of Christianity. in which the above symbols bear a conspicuous figure .INTRODUCTION. because Isis is represented with horns. as a crescent. and subsequently abrac. says. like a new moon. namely. and they are accompanied by a The moon is depicted in its increase brilliant star and the serpent. that in 26 Athens they were practised till the eighth century. alakakir.

derived. . or the Snowy Mountains. 45. 7. These primitive inhabitants practised the patriarchal religion. were the seven sons of 2 who formed colonies in the neighbourhood of Japhet. that the seven Rishis were the seven persons who were preserved with Noah in the Ark. and from thence Gen. ii. whose miraculous preservation from a general deluge is told at large in the Matsya. HISTORY OF INITIATION IN HINDOOSTAN.. 6. a residence in the stars. under Rama. 1 according to the Abbe Dubois. in language " It is related in the Padmavery similar to our own Sacred Writings. or Lord of the Earth . which last words are in the vulgar dialects usually pronounced Cham and Sham. from the seven Eishis or penitents. pt. that Satyavrata. until they were conquered and subjected to the yoke by the idolatrous Cuthites.. to Sharma he allotted the countries to the south of those mountains . Pooraun. whose exemplary virtues elevated them to These seven holy persons. and. as we frequently hear Kishn for Chrishna.. but he cursed Charma. to whom he gave all the regions to the north of Himalaya. 4 and then the diluvian Mysteries were introduced.. and of which Caucasus is a part . however. The royal patriarch. the eldest of whom was named Jyapeti.LECTURE II. 3 And Mr. if its own annals are deserving of credit. was particularly fond of Jyapeti. 2 4 1 Mount Caucasus. consequently. Maurice is of opinion that they proceeded thence to the remotest regions of the west. worshipped the true God. Hind. because when the old monarch was accidentally inebriated with strong liquor made of fermented rice. p." (Maur. had three sons. the others were Charina and Sharma. i. their posterity spread over the vast continent of ancient India. x. for such is his character in the Pooraun. with all the horrible rites Description of India. The Indian Records present us with this information. Charma laughed .) 3 It is highly probable. which extend from sea to sea. notwithstanding the authority in the text. the victorious son of Cush . c. INDIA is a very ancient nation . Hist. and it was in consequence of his father's execration that he became a slave to the slaves of his brothers. vol.

till by some purifying rite of devotion. divisions bore an irreconcilable hatred to each other.. the central peak was appropriated to Siva. during the threatened destruction of Jerusalem } while the - . The mystical zennar was a cord of three threads the emblem borne in the hands of some of these deities. the one mild and benevolent. . Idol. 7 The chief deity of this vast empire was the tri-une Vishnu Siva. soon became divided into two discordant Sects .INITIATION IN HINDOOSTAN. 5 the other. but was venerated by the Jews. and the two others to Brahma and Vishnu. This custom of accounting the three peaked mountain holy.. . p. by a sublime figure. " 6 Speaking of a temple near Bereng. in. similar to that of the Grecian Neptune the mode of worship was ternary.. they had obliterated the stain. Ind. v. 27 and disgusting superstitions which had polluted the The system of religion of the descendants of Ham. . feet of the Almighty are placed on the two outer peaks of this the mountain... by this act. Ant. At this place. the city of Jerusalem.) (Ayeen Akbery. . vol. divine worship. 856. 6 The professors of these sectarial barbarity and blood.) 7 Maur. vol. 4. p.. 9 But the Indians "saw God in every object Brahma The religion of the Vishnu sect. which were accounted the residence of the deit}'. Chemosh Milcom Ashtoreth. near nations. Ant. the devotees surround themselves with tire till they are reduced to ashes." according to Maurice. also.) See.) where. after this innovation. Theirs is the festive song. " is of a and social nature. in the centre of the reservoir is an idol temple of stone a beautiful fabric. p. p. 863. the Persian historian says." (Ind. they considered themselves polluted. Zachariah. which proclaimed the superiority of Siva. 158. was a system of terror and penance. (xiv. three peaks.. that if an individual of each adverse party accidentally met. disperse fragrance through the temples of the Preserver. &c.. addressed to Vishnu. was not confined to the idolatrous Thus Olivet. pleasing the deity. and consisted of bowing the body three times the principal deity in the cavern of Elephanta was depicted with three heads the summit of the massive pyramidal pagoda of Tanjoru is surmounted by . the gaj-est garlands decorate his statues aromatic woods eternally burn before him and the richest gems of the east 5 " cheerful . v. and were equally distinguished by feelings of such interminable hostility. Pag. \vhose three peaks were composed holy of gold. &c. imagining they are. 8 This triad was variously represented by emblems in this quarter of the globe. silver and iron. (2 Kings xxiii. so called. was a trident. had three peaks." vol. 205. 9 Fab. 13. vol. 8 who was said to dwell on the mountain Meru. the sprightly dance.. ii. . and the resounding cymbal "libations of milk and honey flow upon his altars.

of the confusion which occurred when the Noetic family quitted the ark. p. and the destruction accomplished by They were celebrated in subterranean general Deluge.. 10 Statues of the principal Indian Gods may be seen in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. carved out of the solid rock. Fab. and bore a direct reference to the happiness of man in paradise. These caverns were frequently excavated in the bosom of a grove of trees. Grcecos. whom Solomon married. Fab. accompanied with the clashing of swords and shields. will aiford a . iii. competent specimen of the* inner apartments exhibited in the places of secret celebration. 254. But in process of time. * The solemnity of an extensive wood. to split asunder.28 HISTORY OF INITIATION under the sun. 386. It was a wild and frantic movement. Pag. was in honour of the Solar Fire. London. appears to have suggested to all nations the probability that it was the sacred abode of the divinity. contra. And in the Heetopades. symbolical. Eyramids 13 and the reputed perfection which its worship conveys. by a tremendous concussion. caverns and grottoes. that their Pantheon is said to have contained three hundred and thirty millions of deities.) says that it was Hiram's daughter. who seduced him to the worship of this unholy triad on the above mountain.. vol. vol. 12 and the adoration of the olar Fire. p. leaving a great valley between Tatian (Orat. its influence extended also to the sacred commemorative dance. ii. 243. mountain itself is made at the centre peak. 10 The mysteries of India formed one of the earliest coris now denominated ruptions of the pure science which Freemasonry. appear to have been the object and the end of the initiated. and charged with statues of every description and degree of magnitude. according to Bryant." and had consecrated and paid divine honours to such a multitude of different substances. Cab. both situated near Bombay. or in the secret recesses of gloomy and dark pagodas . fices.. the divided parts. 184. 11 formed in the solid rock by human art and industry. from east to west. which abound in the These stupendous edivast continent of ancient India. or grove of ancient trees.. it is represented as a place of penance and mortification. the subsequent deviations from the righteousness. 13 13 11 . A brief description of the caverns of Elephanta and Salsette. Idol. when the Sabian worship was engrafted upon the rites of the ark. which was thus converted 14 and became a into a permanent residence of the deity source of high and superstitious terror to all the world besides. and called Betarmus . p. The earliest religious dance with which we are acquainted.

and splen.. 736. The temple of Jagan-nath " is a stupendous fabric.. 407. 17 Maur. 19 Maurice 20 says "that some of the figures have on their heads a kind of helmet of a pyramidal and others wear crowns. form 15 5 Fab. so Jagan-nath has representations. horrid king. Idol. Ant. and. and with rich bracelets on their arms and wrists. are of doubtful origin. It four massive pillars. many have six. of them have four hands.) . and whose power could execute such imperishable monuments of human ingenuity and labour.IN HINDOOSTAN." (Buchan. to such stupendous works as might practically exhibit a striking indication of their superiority over the vanquished people. 19 All the temples and pagodas of Ilindoostan were ornamented in the same style. The more conspicuous figures are all gorgeously arrayed. while others display only Many large bushy ringlets of curled or flowing hair. Ant. 18 Goldingham. rich with devices. was accessible by four entrances. the weapons of war and The adytum. the symbols of* justice and ensigns of religion. of that vice which constitutes the essence of his worship. iv. p. and others betray evident marks of deep dejection and inward anguish. is lost and forgotten in the lethean stream of time. whose enterprising genius would be applied. As other temples are usually adorned with figures emblematical of their religion. Pag.. with belts sumptuously wrought." western extremity of this extensive grotto. framed by the hand of man. 15 29 Their antiquity is infolded in the veil of obscurity. after the Indian fashion. The walls and gates are covered with indecent emblems. didly decorated with jewels. in Asiat. vol. p.) Ind. that they make a man's hair stand upright . in Asia. They may probably be ascribed to the first Cuthite conquerors India. others are distinguished by a placid ' serenity and benignity of countenance. 133. p. iii. 18 thirty-five feet square. are distorted into such horrible and fearful forms. and the name of the monarch. 361. ii. and in those hands they grasp sceptres and shields. p. vol. Res. Ind. and its walls are supported by covered on all sides with statues and carved emblematical decorations. numerous and various. in the words of Linschoten. whose bold and aspiring mind could project. each guarded by two gigantic statues. vol. Res. 17 is one hundred is and eighteen feet high. with heavy jewels in their ears. 245. placed at the the trophies of peace.. 16 The cavern of Elephanta.. iv." (Ibid. in times of and truly commensurate with the extensive sway of Moloch. vol. with superb collars of precious stones. the most ancient temple in the world. of peace. Some of these figures have aspects that inspire the beholder with terror .. p.. in massive and durable sculpture.

placed at convenient distances. 332. was placed in the inmost recesses of the structure. In every cavern was a carved basin. Ant. for the arrangement of the dreadful apparatus of initiation. infested by enormous ser24 very greatly exceed. in pents and ravenous beasts.. being in number three magnitude. vol. often alone. to give greater effect to certain points in the ceremonial of initiation. to contain the consecrated water of ablution. in. Ind.. 23 as the medium of regeneration. Ind. 156. constructed for the express purpose of initiation . the deity was represented by that obscene emblem. forty-six broad.30 HISTORY OP INITIATION naked. vol. Signs and Symbols. Lect. p.. 9. The different ranges of apartments were connected by open galleries. ii. 26 or Phallus. and situated in the bosom of an extensive and fearful wood. p. ii. and forty high . 185. Ant. vol. p. curiously contrived. !S Maur.. 273. which was used in a greater or less degree by all idolatrous 21 On each nations. which was so constructed as to overwhelm the unconscious aspirant with horror and superstitious dread. Ind.. 27 A specimen of this obscene emblem is preserved in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 22 and a sacred orifice. this element being considered the external medium by which purity was conveyed And amongst an innumerable multitude of images and symbolical figures with which the walls were covered. vii. and the most secret caverns. 333. p. for the periodical sepulture of the aspirant. In this sacellum. 287. were accessible only by private entrances. the Linga. on the surface of which floated the flowers of the lotus. hundred. 27 was everywhere conspicuous. London. Fab.. those of Elephanta. Archaeol.. vol. 25 The largest cavern is eightyfour feet long. to represent his generative power. The caverns of Salsette. ii.. side were ranges of cells and passages. vol.. p. which contained the ineffable symbols. 25 Vid. Ant. and sometimes in situations too disgusting to 22 Maur. 3 21 . and decorated with jewels and other ornaments. Idol.. Pag. full of cavities on all sides. 4 Maur. for the same mysterious purpose. accessible only to the initiated. vii.. Ant. p. Archaeol.. and a cubical cista. excavated in a rock whose external form is pyramidal. This orifice is used at the present day. all adorned with an abundance of carved and emblematical characters. vol.

earth. (Res. which are newly painted exhibited in public.. reminds them of the famous Indian doctrine of corruption and reproduction. and air. which were equally the dispensers of perfection in a 31 The candidate might perform greater or less degree." says Dr. vol. * Maur. Ind.) The tower of Jaggernaut. " They use cowdung in purification. and that disposition will be the source of virtue. In'd. v. great annual festival was held in January. or Degrees. in like manner. with aqueous ablutions. (Holwell. 145. vol. Lect I do not find what particular stage was the most auspicious for at which this purpose. vol. Gent. b. when sexes. in Asia. whenever he enjoys one of the three or four religious Degrees . the point within a circle. p. therefore.. iii. of Menu. Ant. " practise virtue. or. let him be even-minded with all created things.) 32 Ordin. is only air in a condensed form. 31 and typified equally by the petal and calyx of the lotos. A 5)1 . because it is the medium by which the barren soil is rendered prolific . 935. which was explained to refer to the three elements. the image of the goddess and her mystical death was celebrated with lamentations .. p. and are objects of sensual gaze by both 9. initiated into the Lesser Mysteries. children were. and. Ant. In Greece. p. for water. 28 34 " p. according to the Brahmins. iv. consisted of an investiture with the Zennar. Buchanan. which was celebrated in honour of the Sun. The periods of initiation were regulated by the increase and decrease of the moon. 33 This investiture was attended with numerous ceremonies." (Hitop. with sacrifices to the Solar fire. other nations. who was the same as Juno. on the seventh day of the New Moon.. and purifications with the dung and urine of the be mentioned 23 j and ended with an extended lecture from his preceptor. 134. 88..IN HINDOOSTAN.) " Let even the wretched man. while the utmost joy prevailed when the idol emerged from the purifying stream. 29 30 it is Vide Signs and Symbols. the principal subject of which related to the unity cow. p. was committed to the Ganges. Sir W. or sacred cord of three threads.. 29 and the intersection of two equilateral triangles." says the Hitopadesa. to the planets." (Maur. The rites of this goddess bore a great similarity to those of Egypt and . 32 It his first probation at the early age of eight years. except it was the ninth day of the decrease time began the great festival in honour of the goddess Durga. fire.. usually too abstruse for his juvenile comprehension. called Char Asherum. and to the household gods . 30 and the mysteries were divided into Four Steps. Fast.) The cow was a sacred animal. Jones' Works. 966. " is covered with indecent emblems. v. After various ceremonies. perhaps. the Minerva of the Greeks.

qualification for another Degree. He was then clothed in a linen garment medium When he had attained the specified age. Ant. iv. 346. p. 39 by avoiding external 40 and was instructed in defilements. ceremonies. "Works. noon. he stretched his body under the first tree.) that the candidates were plunged in alternate baths of fire and water 38 Ayeen Akbery. 41 Here his austerities were doubled . vol. if he were found.. Maur. vol. to eat becomingly. Ant. and traditions of religion. and by the use of which he was to be distinguished from the uninitiated. v. vol. and 38 passed the whole of his time in prayer and ablution. 37 ! 42 Ayeen Akbery. vol. 969. he was admitted to enter on the probationary ceremonies for the Second. and when exhausted nature demanded repose. The nine gates are the avenues of Bhagvat Geeta. iii. Maurice be correct in his information. whether carnal or intellectual. if Mr. p. 35 without seam godhead. a total abstinence from animal food 41 Maur. (Ind. .. 92. Ant... Jones. These penances were indeed rigid. &c. which was figuratively termed the city with nine gates. 33 36 Ordin. Ind. 36 and consecrated a cord was put over his right ear as a of purification. mouth. attained the age of twenty years . . He was taught to preserve the purity of his body. as the nose. the management of the and the holy rites of morning. 972. p. Maur.. of Menu. p. 10 A phrase meaning.32 HISTORY OF INITIATION trinity of the fire. ears. Ant. p. in which the soul is imprisoned.. vol. on examination.. for a competent knowledge of the institutions. evacuation. Ind. and his nights in the study of Astronomy . TV. v. Sir. 48. was restricted from all indulgences. 574. Ind.. ii. literally. to be instructed He was inured to hardcations for the Second Degree. which was called Gerishth. p. for he says. p. who was thence termed his in the necessary qualifispiritual guide. Much of his time was devoted to the study of the sacred books. in nota. 219. all those minuter ceremonies which were adapted to every act of his future life.. iii. 37 suffered the infliction of rigid penances until he ships. ablutions and sacrifice. were an essential j and evening. and he was placed under the exclusive care of a Brahmin. to have made due progress in the mythological lore of the First Degree. he was obliged to support life by soliciting charity his days were passed in prayer. 42 snatched a short sleep.. and . vol.

in the rains he stood uncovered. vol.. Ant. of Menu. Ant. (Maur. 33 43 rose speedily to contemplate the monsters of the skies. Plate 69. p 316. 974. Ant. when the clouds poured the heaviest showers . . Ind. Signs and Symbols. by many ancient nations.IN HINDOOSTAN. fig..) as is also the pyramidal temple of New Grange. or hell. p. equal in extent. vol iii. wore wet clothing. 6. 51 in the East. situapersonified in his imagination by the appearance and "In the hot season he sat tion of the fixed stars. ** The Tartarus of the Grecian mysteries. vi. The holy Cross pointed to the four quarters of the compass and was honoured as a striking emblem of the universe. Lect. he is Brahma when he gains his meridian in the south.. and went on 45 by degrees the austerity of his devotion.. 357.. Maur. ii. Works. v. 46 Sanctified by the sign of a Cross. Ind. vol. p. he is Siva and when he sets in the west. was led at the dead of night to the gloomy cave of mys- tery. 47 which was denominated the door of in the cold season he increasing 48 His purification being completed. 7. Ind. 43 The singular arrangement by the ancient Indians. 52 The attendant Mystagogues. Ordin.. without even a mantle. he is 53 . vol. Brahma Vishnu Siva.. Lect. of which each wing is Sir 4(5 ." His probation being at length completed. . 50 robes the three chief hierophants. which had been duly prepared for his reception. proceeding from 49 There sat in rich and myriads of brilliant lamps. to represent the great Indian triad. Ant. in Ireland (Ledwich. he Patala. p. p. costly West and South. It is found engraven on their monuments and even the erection of many of their temples was conducted on the same cruciform principles. Irel. with the exposed Sun above . 898... 49 Maur. was of of the Fixed Stars into Constellations a nature calculated to encourage the indulgence of this feeling. he was admitted by initiation to participate in the privileges which the mysteries were believed to confer.) and many others. The Christian reader may start when he beholds the sacred emblem of his faith used as a symbol of heathen devotion but it is even so. 44 45 Jones. 3GO. p. 4 . 44 to five fires. he was subjected to the probation of Pastos. . A 60 51 Ibid. four blazing around him. 228. When the Sun rises in the east. W. which was marked on every part of his body. specimen of the Crux Ansata may be seen in Pococke's elaborate description of the East. The two great pagodas of Benares and Mathura are erected in the form of vast crosses. 377. 47 Signs and Symbols. The interior of this holy cavern blazed with a light equal to that of the meridian sun. 19.

but. and as they were attached to the priestly vestments. 54 and Thou art the the supreme supporter of the universe supreme mansion! And by55 thee. c. was a corruption of Jehovah Sabaoth. Panth. were seated respectfully around. p. p. but in the Geeta it is a term in theology used to express the vital soul. (Asiat.. having their heads covered each with a pyramidical cap. v. Orient.) llamayuna of Valraic. like the Sabazius or Bacchus of the Greeks. he prepared himself for the active business of initiation. Thus or the solar ray. Ant. O infinite form.) ' Bhagvat Geeta.34 HISOTRY OF INITIATION clad in sacred vestments.. Res. in solemn guise. so were they worn by the Bacchantes in the Dionysiacal celebrations. 63 142. which called upon him to make a formal declaration. resuming his courage during this apostrophe. p. inhabiting a body. Preserver. that he will keep his body pure. His reflections were interrupted by a voice. de nat.) The bells used in the Jewish ministrations. 23. Hind. have a tongue of good report. Moor. or Destroyer. deor. (Vide Wilkins. w iii. was overawed by the display now exhibited before him. p. were imitated in the spurious Freemasonry. Notes on the Geeta. and the initiation commenced with an anthem to the great God of nature. with the following "O mighty being. This declaration having been this august : ! ! sacred bell53 summoned ! ! Vishnu. in some doubt as to what results this unexpected scene would lead. and the firmest secrecy in maintaining inviolable its hidden and abstruse mysteries. Jones thinks that Siva.. (See also Cic. Thou art The world's mansion Eternal god of gods the incorruptible being. 94. the ancient Pooroosh. observe a passive obedience in receiving the doctrines and traditions of the Order. (Wait. distinct from all things transient Thou art before all gods. the well-known signal from the disposed the aspirant into the centre of assembly. ness was then solemnly opened. or portion of the universal spirit of Brahm. 277. vol. 254." The aspirant. whether as The sacred busithe Creator. the universe was spread abroad. . * Pooroosh literally means no more than man . 1. bell in the Saib Ibn Batric pretends that Noah had a Ark. 82...) Sir W. already weakened by abstinence and mortification. made of the wood of the Indian plane. emblematical of the spiral flame. that he will be tractable and obedient to his superiors. where they were profusely introduced .. p. greater than apostrophe to the Sun we bow down before thee as the prime Creator! Brahma.

and was made to circumambulate the spacious cavern three times. in reference to the Trimurti. these names will consume and destroy their most inveterate sins. and to obtain every wish of their hearts. " Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain !" The Hindoos are further persuaded. 156. in his "View of the Hindoos. iii. Ward.. Sacrificam. Rama. like fire. 57 This was the common practice of antiquity. Vid. Rama. Rama. " Moses at the Bush. that when the Egyptian priests adored any of their deities. and south points of the circumference of the mystical circle. In 2 Chron. which the fathers assert to have been borrowed from Moses. costumque cubile. and pronouncing those meritorious names. p.. According to Strabo. that by meditating on the perfections of the deity. 69. Several gentile philosophers affected to do the same to enforce reverence from their disciples. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus assure us. lato vestcm distinguere clavo. the captives taken by the children of Israel from the cities of Judah and Jerusalem are depicted as barefooted.. Haree. to typify the captivity in Babylon. their ieet were uncovered. Nee . Bhagvat Geeta." (Wait. that the consecrated ground on which he stood might not be polluted. Pun. and follow his This being completed. Pes nudus. Haree. xxviii.) says of the priests of Hercules. as the efficient means of preparing his soul for ultimate absorption. &c. they are enabled to penetrate into futurity. discolor ulli Ante aras cultus velantur corpora lino. tonsceque comce. According to Mr. Haree. copy the example of the Sun. Antiquities. whose representatives were stationed triangularly in the east. j" which is merely a repetition of the two names of the deity. Silius Italicus (Bel. on his arrival each time in the " I south. Et Pelusiaco praefulget stamine vertex. &c. previously to the harangue of Oded ..) 5 .) and they believe that this repetition has ( abundance of merit . and at the Mount. or more frequently 56 he was divested of his whispered in his right ear. p. a lege parentum. was enjoined to take the shoes from off his feet.IN HINDOOSTAN. he was sprinkled with water . 57 shoes. and was told 50 The mantra is merely an invocation of the deity. he was again benevolent course. such was the practice with the sacerdotal Order among the Germans . because the place on which he stood was holy ground. and such was the case in the worship of Diana and Vesta. Inrestricta focis servant altaria flammae. Haree. and solemnly enjoined to the practice of religious austerities. Distinctis mos thura dare. on Jewish. Rama. While performing this ceremony. 1." the initiary incantation was this : Haree. How contrary to the simple command of the true God. and Isaiah walked barefooted. atque. and that. he was taught to exclaim." placed in the centre. 15. 35 assented to. a mantra or incantation was pronounced over him. west.

) in Arab. one day declared to the author. or to his imagination. tyranizing over the whole host of deities. vol. . and committed to the waves inclosed in a chest. and that then repeating the name Krishnu. is said to have been slain by Iswara. p. who has attained the high distinction of Brahma's blessing. for the Hindoos hold that though they live in the habitual commission of every known sin throughout the whole period of their lives. but 58 makes those immortal beings subservient to his wishes. the subdued candidate endeavoured to preserve the utmost equanimity of temper during the process of initiation fearing. he should without difficulty ascend to heaven!" How nearly allied is this to the creed of some Christian sects. he . 60 61 Niebuhr. 28. and was always prepared to punish the indiscreet disciple who should fail in any point. or betrayed any symptoms of dread or irresolution. lying. i. the infant was taken from its entrails. that the merit of such works. for the gooroo was usually possessed of much discrimination. 2.36 HISTORY OF INITIATION Thus violate the injunction now imposed upon him. under the from the presiding Brahmin.. Maur.. 59 The 60 61 aspirant was passed through seven ranges of dark and 68 It is no uncommon thing to read in the Puranas. even to strike him dead on the spot with a malediction. and commanding them to perform the most menial services to gratify his curiosity. who was the Cupid of Hindoostan. lest Joy any involuntary expression which might imply cowardice or disapprobation. Ant. which being caught... either of deference or respect. 274. instructed. c. vol.. iii. who. the care of his gooroo or spiritual guide. 11. Mr. v.) says. 187. that he should live in the practice of adultery. The chest was swallowed by a fish. it is a certain passport to heaven. like the Grecian Bacchus. Ind. Ward. This god. 59 In some of these celebrations. should he presume to should elicit the dreaded resentment of this potent avenger .. Res. the death of Cama was lamented with solemn dirges and bewailings. and the Egyptian Osiris. and directed to observe a profound silence during the whole of the sucdenunciation of summary ceeding ceremonies. possessed unlimited power. the aspirant was placed under After this admonition. Hindoo shopkeeper (View of the Hindoos. yet if they are able to repeat the name of a god with their dying lips. (Asiat. he was punishment told. The bewailings for the loss of Sita then began. torn. of a religious ascetic.. and nurtured by amuse "A Reti. Voy. b. till death . will emit a splendour which renders man not only superior to the gods. and other writings. These austerities do not necessarily include the practice of morality. p. &c. by the performance of the prescribed observances. p. ii. fee.

v. 65 64 improperly Calica. His consort wandered over the earth. which were succeeded by the blackest darkness. and this was instantaneously followed by a dead Flashes of brilliant light streamed before their silence. and on each gorgeous appearance. (c." 65 " Amongst these he saw one terrible figure. who is fabled to have circumambulated the . and adorned with . that when Mahadeva received the curse of some devotees. one of which was larger and brighter than the rest. succeeded 64 by the body of an animal with the head of a man. ings. and a sparkling jewel hung in every one of his ears . Asiat. and his body were black the skirts of his habiliments were yellow. 37 caverns. here a shapeless trunk. his eyes gleamed like flaming torches. and their duty was to take care that the sacred symbols were not exposed. 63 Some with many hands. .. were distinguished by a Square . vol.. under the form of Iswara.. and floomy lamentations. p. shrieks. there a human body with the head of a bird. and holding human skulls and vases in their leffc. with the remains of his murdered conAmidst all this confusion a sudsort on his shoulders. he was deprived of his Lingam. arms. and united once more to his beloved Sita. Res.IN HTNDOOSTAN. straggling. the Wisdom of Solomon. 02 Another account states. To his utter astonishment. These were the initiated. and passing in In these processions the Stolistes processional review before him. yellow bodies. . and filled the world with her bewailMahadeva was at length restored. of them a crown set with resplendent gems. 63 Vid. now a human trunk with bestial extremities. eyes. his arms were extended. disguised for the purpose. to represent the bewailings of ismal Mahadeva.) in the Apocrypha of our Bible. which in the end proved fatal to his life. with long. long ears. his tongues.vorld seven times. red faces. whom he had disturbed at their devotions. amidst the din of howling. Purana. who had a with a thousand heads. which seemed to rend the mountains whose gloomy recesses they were now exploring. beast or fish . armed with tridents and axes in their right hands. 390. Some with "fiery eyes. Others having three eyes and strings of human skulls suspended round their necks. surrounded with rays of light flitting across the gloom. the candidate now beheld shadows and phantoms of various and compound shapes. where this part of the ceremony of initiation is minutely described. frightful teeth. xvii. and legs others without any of those appendages . but his neck. 62 den explosion was heard.

Res. vol.. 68 The candidate was then made to personify the god Vishnu.. In despair they solicited the aid of Brahma and Vishnu who instructing them how to proceed. mace of war. and contains an account of the Brahma having fallen asleep. the demon Hayagriva general Deluge. the the Jones. on the gods of Greece. vi. or water of immortality. and. (Maur. half man. The Soors then held a consultation on the summit of mount Meru to discover the Amreeta. and to perform his numerous Avaters which. 353. These persons accordingly entered the vessel. p. Bhagvat Geeta. and he was said to resemble a Tortoise supporting the earth. When the waters had attained their greatest elevation this god plunged into the ocean. the fourth having been digested. who were preserved in a vessel constructed under the direction of Vishnu. and recovered three of the books from the monster's belly. it burst and the gods contained womb 67 were scattered over the face of her capacious the earth and the places where each of them fell were accounted sacred. and his radiated weapon. : . Ind. 90. the world was destroyed by a flood of waters. a king of India. p. He was plunged into the waters the fish-god. if my conjecture be correct. The sacred Books being lost. but that a ship should be sent in which himself and his seven holy companions might be preserved. in his charThis These appearances were intendacter of the Destroyer. Ant. attacked and slew the giant Hayagriva who was the cause of this great calamity. the serpent Vasookee wound the folds of his enormous body round the Sir 67 06 W.) 70 This Avater was also a figurative account of the Deluge. half fish.. swallowing them.. Asiat. allusive to the reanirnation of nature and learned that it could be produced only by the violent revolution of the mountain Mandar. except a pious monarch. . and becoming universally corrupt. which the Dewtahs found themselves unable to move. and the lotos.. i. would produce the followto ing ceremonies. retired to a secret place at the bottom of the sea.38 HISTORY OF INITIATION hands bore the holy shell. who descended to the bottom of represent 69 A heavy burthe ocean to recover the stolen Vedas. and the earth resuming its former state was repeopled by the eight persons who had been miraculously preserved. 70 He was instructed to . he presented the Vedas to Brahma . and the waters prevailed so extensively as to produce the entire destruction of all created matter. p. 477. . 69 This was called the Matse Avater. vol. with his family of seven persons. mankind soon fell into vice and wickedness. ii. Asiat. Res. stole the Vedas. the first generation of the gods. p." was no other than Mahadeva himself. rich bracelets. for it was ed to typify of Sita was carried by the figured that while the body in soiTowing Mahadeva. Satyavrata. Then emerging from the waves.. vol. den was placed on his back. w Vid. was instructed by a fish that in seven days the world would be inundated. 249.

from whence the Soors obtained the water of immortality. foundation. whom. who was a huge giant. vol. who. To evince his contempt of the divinity. he subdued. Indra began to whirl the mountain about with incessant motion. in the shape of a Boar. Ant. . the violence of the motion produced a stream of smoke. that no being of any known form should have power to hurt him. conflict ensued. which unexpectedly started from his belly he crushed the monster's head. 74 In the sixth manifestation. who were engaged at his tail. with one foot covered the earth.) 71 This was done to commemorate the third manifestation of Vishnu . 39 descend into a lower cavern on all fours. 150. while the roaring of the ocean was tremendous. Vishnu. he was again attacked by a gigantic monster. which referred to the 73 and the remaining Avaters74 infifth manifestation. p. p. The mountain Mandar was then carefully replaced in its former station. and hurled him down to the infernal regions. 72 to take three steps at right angles. who were employed at the mountain Soon serpent's head. The god found him out and slew him. drank his blood. encounter. the giant dared him to come forth from a marble pillar. 71 like a cable. Here he was received by an antagonist who offered him battle. tore the giant in pieces. with the other he filled all the space between earth and heaven.. by means of his snout. in A sage scarcely large enough to admit his body. as much ground for sacrifice as would suffice to place three feet upon. or.. who had taken refuge in the lowest of the seven inferior worlds. who had received an assurance from Brahma. 343. took the mountain on his back. mixed with molten gold. which at length decided in favour of the Soors. 73 As a diminutive Brahmin.) Then the Soors and Assoors commenced a dreadful battle for the possession of this glorious water. and the waters retired to their primitive caverns and recesses. in the form of an animal compounded of a man and a lion. and Vishnu becoming incarnate in the form of Thus loosened from its a Tortoise. The various productions of the waters were torn to pieces . penetrated through the earth. and their opponents fled some rushing headlong into the ocean. it began to rain furiously. the fruits of the earth were annihilated. in search of the monster Hiranyakshana. and with a third. mimic torious. The tyrant granted his demand . ii. At length a stream of the concocted juice of the dissolved matter ran down the mountain. with the assistance of the Assoors. as the repreHe was then taught sentative of Vishnu. The column immediately burst with a violent concussion. and Vishnu resuming his own form. (Bhagvat Geeta. and a raging fire spread destruction all around.IN HINDOOSTAN. the restoration of Nature from the power of the triumphant waters. and wind. (Maur. attacked the brother of the former giant. and the Soors. Vishnu demanded of the impious tyrant Bali. through a pas- which the aspirant was vicWhile elated with this conquest. Ind. and Vishnu issuing forth in flaming fire. and decorated himself with his entrails as a trophy of victory. in other words. fire. therefore. and others hiding themselves in the bowels of the earth. which ascending in thick clouds replete with lightning. 72 Vishnu. in the human form.

2 Pet. 41.. Acts vii.) In India no religious ceremony was esteemed efficacious if unaccompanied by this indispensable appendage (Maur. Ind. Lect. 56.. armed only with an enormous serpent and in the ninth he transformed himself into a tree. 10.. xv. 75 Having reached the extremity of the seven mystic 76 a cheerful peal of bells was heard to ring. so there are also degrees of reward proportioned to the measure of man's faith and obedience. Heb. under the name of Rama. lar dangers.. for the purpose of gratifying a criminal passion with a king's daughter.) 78 These wicked and mischievous beings were said to be struck with horror at the sound of a bell. 77 From time immemorial. (Asiat. iv. 83. that this Avater "is expected to appear mounted (like the crowned conqueror in the Apocalypse. 2. 76 These seven caverns bore an allusion to the metempsychosis. 900. which he was instructed to believe would expel from these dark caves the evil demons who might be inclined to disturb the sacred ceremonies in which they were 78 engaged." . composed of an incredible number of monkeys or satyrs. and even the undulations of the air produced by it were so detestable to them. that the Christian system gives a sanction to the same hypothesis. Eph.) if the plural number be commonly used by Christ and his apostles. i. bells were employed in religious rites all over the eastern world. Sir W. Res. 5.40 HISTORY OF INITIATION volved him in a series of furious conflicts from which he for to seldom escaped without wounds and bruises make him equal with the gods.. (John xiv. 236. p. Signs and Symbols. to mow down all incorrigible and impenitent offenders who shall then be on the earth... (1 Cor. v. Ant. vol.. host of giants. And it may perhaps be asserted without profanation. valiant and successful warrior. he accomplished so many wonderful adventures. p.) then we may also conclude that as there are many heavens. he slew a recital actually fills several volumes.. iii. 10. when speaking of the place of supreme bliss j (Mark i.) of the righteous differing from each other in glory.) on a white horse.. Jones informs us. i.. 10. with a cimeter blazing like a comet. it was necessary that he underwent the same trials. led on in battle array. See also the Rumayuna of Valmic. 77 caverns. 2. xii. Ant. vol. that they would flee witii . 8. as one star differs from another . Orient. The Hindoos still expect a tenth Avater. of which Vishnu is the hero. who is represented as a With the assistance of a vast army. and exposed himself to simi.. as well as to the seven places of reward and punishment which different nations have received into their creed. that their In the eighth Avater. The seventh Avater forms of itself a complete and voluminous Romance. p.. &c. If an inspired Apostle speaks of a third heaven : (2 Cor.) and if the Saviour himself should acknowledge that heaven contains many mansions . (Wait. Before the candidate w as T enlightened and ed and destroyed whole hosts of giants and tyrants. with the same impatience which the Jews manifest for their Messiah. .) 75 Vid.

Bhagvat Geeta.. . the pealing Conch was blown. ." and was strictly admonished against the commission of which were prohibited under heavy penalties and punished with eternal vengeance in the next. Facts in natural history were made subservient to the purposes of superstition.) 82 This was the actual name of one the grottoes in the subterranean temple of Elora. Ant. 906. Ind. deeds of charity. Bhagvat Geeta. . and the splendid sacellum figures..) The Christians of this country. and take refuge in deep caves and inaccessible recesses. (Sacontala. p. Jones.. The awful moment was now arrived when the ceremony of initiation had attained its highest degree of 81 the folding interest. 82 which was a spacious apartment blazing with a thousand brilliant 83 ornamented with statues and emblematical lights... v. is not for this world or that which is above. 123. and is supposed by Faber (Pag. whether it be sacrifices. 281. in this life.IN HINDOOSTAN. were addictto the 79 same superstition. was referred to the nine incarnations of Vishnu. 2. 255. precipitation from the hated spot. in addition to the usual points relating to secrecy. 897. . in vit. but rather relieve him that he will not be addicted to intemperance in eating or drinking and that ho will not associate with any person who has polluted himself by the commission of these crimes.. scented . before the Eeformation. 41 introduced into the presence of the holy Altar. he was told that " whatever is performed without faith. Apollon. or rob him of gold or other property. v. Idol. that he will never have any carnal knowledge of his mother. Ind. Translated by Sir W. to avoid a sensation at which their nature revolted. but will always extend his protection towards them that he will not assassinate a Brahmin. Works. 85 the unsubstantial figures of the airy inhabitants of unknown worlds carved on the roof. 83 Maur.. vol. Ant.. p. p. ii. and costly drugs 84 decorated profusely with gems and jewels. five crimes. which had nine valves. in the act of volitation. (Maur. p. or daughter. vol. . sister. iii. and the candidate was introduced into Cailasa or Paradise. 84 Ibid. 1. And these particulars form a part of the Oath under which he was now solemnly bound and he seals 80 it by a sacred ablution. aromatic gums. ^Philost. He swears. vol. vol. with the rich fragrance of odorous flowers. vi. or foldings. p. vol. or mortifications of the 79 flesh.. p. p.) to have been the illuminated sacellum into which the aspirant was introduced at the close of his initiation. ii. 81 Vid. This sacred Shell. doors were suddenly thrown open. 80 The terms of this oath are curious. 29.

some being rubies. 89 The four heads of Brahma represent equally the four elements. 54. their teeth and eyes of gold. he was ashamed to own his passion. Pilgr. and of a magnitude so uncommon. and In somo others emeralds. his astonishment he found the hollow body full of and pearls. and crowned with mitres and tiaras of 86 With eyes rivetted on the altar.) The principal idol in the Pagoda at Benares was decorated with chains of precious stones. torn. 319. iii. 369. he was pleased to manifest himself in Cashmir. Travels.) of the Pagodas. . in the moment of enthusiasm. iv. and I therefore introduce it here from the Matsya Purana.) And the priests were as proud of these trophies. iv. p. Her beauty was such as to excite the love of the god but deeming her his daughter. others pearls. 368. intermixed with precious stones. p. and the four quarters of the globe.. p. the the brilliant display so expansion of the folding doors exhibited before him .. and out of the severed moiety. and followed this ceremony. which yet experienced no diminution. to p. p. p. Pag. During this conflict between shame and love he remained motionless. i. 16. bright pyramidal fire that blazed upon 88 to which the hollow shell or trumpet. with his eyes fixed upon her. rubies. Ant. he burnished gold. filled the mind of the aspirant with admiration. (Voyage de Tavernier. 88 .) Vid. " When Brahma assumed a mortal shape. p." (Bhagvat Geeta. (Purch. and many thousands were often found in the same temple.. denominated Iva and Satarupa. where the Judge of all the world is represented as descending to the sound of the eternal trumpet. " diamonds.. the instantaneous unexpectedly the profound silence which prostration of the priests. with his four heads 89 and bearing in his hands . 1 Thess. 87 " . (Mandeslo. p.. the ears of the monstrous idols were gilded and full of jewels. The idol of Krishna in the temple at Mattra had two -great 373. vol.. vol. The pillars were covered with plates of gold." (Ib. Idol.. Ind. that the beholders were filled with surprise and admiration. sound of the caverns reverberated in long and continued echoes. arrayed in gorgethronged with priests ous vestments. Here one half of his body sprang from the other. i. 579. in Fab. vol. of a water so pure. tion in his heart he could almost persuade himself that he actually beheld the expected descent of the great Brahma seated on the lotos. 21. God is in the fire of the altar. and lighted up the holy fervour of devoso that. as if they were their own personal property. And when Mahmed broke in pieces the idol of Sunmaut.42 HISTORY OF INITIATION and hierophants.) The images silver. . (Ib. was taught to expect the descent of the deity in the 87 The sudden it. The history of the production of these four heads is somewhat curious. he framed a woman.. 151. were of gold and (Maur. 86 The riches of many of these temples is incredible.) and the floor of the hallowed temple at rubies in the place of eyes Naugracut was covered with plates of gold.

. show pretty evidently whence this fable originated. Thus were produced the first man and woman. Idol. Pag. Satarupa perceived his situation. The cavern. Circle or King was received as an expressive symbol of the Ark all over the world . and held a canopy over the head of Sacya while Indra. was the Ark. and having a brazen ring on his finger. when the other half of his body sprang from him. ii. and the four tutelary deities of the four corners of the universe. and as the great Father was hidden within its enclosure during the prevalence of the diluvian waters. in riota. attended to do him reverence and . and fire. and stepped aside to avoid his ardent looks.. Again she shifted her situation. to whatever side she withdrew herself. p." vol. found a brazen horse in a cavern. ii. beheld her incessantly. vol. Ind.) .. On the summit of the temple Brahma alighted. but still desirous to see her. in whom the Trimurti became incarnate. 93 " service.. and the The mare giant. 440. and another face emanated from the enamoured god.. The Within the horse was hid the body of a man of gigantic stature.IN HINDOOS TAN. or the great father. being unable to move. a new face sprang out upon him towards the object of his desires. Suddenly a golden temple appeared. And the cavern was one of those sacred grottoes. with a fan in his hand Naga. Ant.. during the period of his death-like slumber while enclosed within the ark. prince of serpents. 91 90 Maur. was a form of Ceres or Hippa. . become conspicuous with four faces directed to the four quarters of the world. 385." (Fab. which was reputed to render the wearer invisible. At length she recovered her self-possession. The dead giant was the gigantic Buddha. 91 92 the circle. p. according to Plato. many fables sprang out of this connection. 43 90 the usual emblems of eternity and uncontrollable power." (Asiat. the mystic nurse of the ark-exposed Bacchus or Noah the man. containing a chain of wrought gold. found that it rendered him invisible. . 852. I shall mention only one. the mysterious Ring of Gyges. vol. therefore. * Gyges. 1. Res. Brahma. and became Swayambhuva or Adima. v. p. the ring. This ring Gyges took. . within which the mysteries were perpetually celebrated and from which both he and his initiated votaries were feigned to be born again. and from their embrace were born three sons. Still she avoided his gaze. until the incarnate deity.

p. and with the addition of many mystic rites. who received him as a brother and associate. p. He was invested with the sacred sash or belt. forehead was marked with a cross. p. passes to the right side.. (Valmic. v.) Mr. vol. An inverted level was inscribed on his breast. It can be woven by no profane hand . this is folded again into three. Ant. Three threads. PHILOSOPHY OF THE EASTERN MYSTERIES. and a symbol of eternal life. then they are folded into three and twisted again. e. Ramayuna. Ant. Signs and Symbols. and hangs fingers can reach. tokens. are first twisted together .. the Brahmin alone can twine the hallowed threads that compose it. and therefore to renovate his spirits. vol. 3 the consecrated 4 chaplet. seated him in an elevated situation. and it is done by him with the utmost solemnity. three times three threads . And now being fully regenerate. 2. Such is the zennar. 2 which was considered equally Or. making it consist of nine. as a badge of innocence. 849) says he has no doubt but this mark was the hermetic cross. each measuring ninety-six hands. Maurice is very particular in his description of this sacred cord. the Kowsteke-Men. down as low as the . a new name was given him. or Kowstoobh.. Lect. he was made to drink a fermented liquor out of a human skull. 1 which was explained as symbolical of the four cardinal points of the compass. in the midst of the august assembly. iv. 3 Mr. expressive of his recently attained purity. 740. by which he was advanced to an equality with the superior order of the priests. 10.) 4 Vid. and solemnly deHis livered the signs.44 LECTURE III. i. and he was introduced to the chief Brahmin. but without any more twisting. Maurice (Ind. 2 to express his recently acquired dignity.. and each end is then fastened with a knot. the tau cross 1 . which being put on the left shoulder. invested him with a white robe and tiara. and lectures of the Order.. (Ind. in other words. THE fatigue attending the protracted ceremonies described in the preceding lecture exhausted the aspirant . and the * The sectarial mark on the forehead is called Tiluka.

to be prepared as follows " the shell of a cocoa nut. vol. 908." says Anusuya. placed with a red flag on the house-top. to ensure success in litigated suits . and incanta9 tions. which was known only to the 5 Specimens of the Salagram may be seen in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. he aims an arrow at its breast. some earth from the consecrated ground. Jones. whose multiform shapes he was emblematically said to have assumed . the candidate was entrusted with the sublime NAME. charmed paste.. in Asiat. p. attach Name the most wonderful powers. to procure the torture or destruction of his enemies." (Rajamartanda. The remnant of this ancient superstition is observable amongst the uneducated rustics in almost every part of Europe . &c. or other venomous 7 reptiles. drives away sin and disease. was presented as an antidote against the bite of serpents. but in India it A : We still 10 exists in all its primitive force. for his own personal protection. The Hindoos used charms on every occurrence in life. vol. iii. and being now fully invested. on the fourteenth day of the dark half Charted.. in to the knowledge of this sacred common with the Jews and idolaters. Here. an amulet similar to the anguinum of the Druids. prove fatal unless averted by a counter incantation. from the flames of which he snatched the half-consumed bamboo lever by which the bodies had been secured. but the following was considered sufficiently efficacious to destroy an enemy. vol. Works. which is believed to inflict a similar wound on his enemy." (Sir W. The Mahometans. that would. take it down and keep it in a fresh lotos leaf. and generally had the Lingam suspended from their neck (Maur. was delivered to him. Ibid. he formed this purified bamboo into a bow. Ant. . is Res. and retreated rapidly to his hut... on an Amra tree. iv. He who wished to use it. to procure good fortune. 5 or talismanic label for the left arm. Ant. with the fragrant dust of Nagacesaras . 45 The salagram. to insure good fortune. p. 8 "A branch of Snuhi (Euphorbia) in a whitened vessel.. p. and the serpent stone.) 9 This was a most horrible ceremony in a country where the people were superstitiously addicted to the belief of preternatural acquireare not informed what was the absolute nature of this ments. waited patiently for the ceremony of burning a widow on the funeral pile of her husband . v. to appease or destroy an enemy. whilst I collect some Gorachana from the forehead of a sacred cow.. vol. and having set up a clay image to represent his unconscious adversary. charm. in the Drama of Sacontala. p. &c. vol.) " I have said. in the dead of night. He was then instructed in the secret art of composing 8 amulets. for protection against serpents and ravenous beasts . 7 6 Maur. Ind. vi. 935). Ind. and some fresh Cusa grass. 6 as an amulet magical which would insure to him the protection of Vishnu. to cure diseases .. which you see fixed filled. 279. undoubtedly. 660. v.EASTERN MYSTERIES. of which I will make a paste.. black stone.

is forbidden to be pronounced but in silence. under what name all It . and who instruct them . 16 ) was said to make . p. however. was expressed in a triliteral form in the mysteries. Balrarna. and Jagan-nath. without quality." (Niebuhr. incorporeal. and seclusion . M. and the Maur. a. that the same is also true of the other two persons in the divine triad for as these three are in fact but one person. are at the command of the initiated. personified in Brahma.. 142. 16 Mr. for the pronunciation of this awful u Name A.) "Vishnu is the being of beings. earth tremble. The perfectiors of God are thus described in the last book of the Ramayan. "*5 66. that it discovers what passes in the distant countries. vol. translated by Sir W. p. and which signified the solar fire. 14 second for the Preserver. i. because revealed by God himself. U. and his will moves the inhabitants of the universe. vol. HISTORY OF INITIATION. Thalaba. Subhadra. infinite. incomprehensible. the lame. preserving. 13 This mystic emblem Wilkins. The first letter stands for the Creator. the following passage is found. (Works. vi..46 initiated. indivisible. which in composition and make 3 5 an d the nasal consonant *?^ m. immutable. that it places the winds and the seasons at their disposal . Bhagvat Geeta. p. soever he might be designated. without passion . cited by Southey. immense. that this cipher graphically exhibits the divine In an old Purana. or combined principle. 1S In the Oracles ascribed to Zoroaster is a passage which pronounces the sacred Names used in the Mysteries to be ineffable. p. which shows the veneration displayed by the ancient Indians for this tremendous word: "All the rites ordained in the Vedas. AUM. of the deity OM. p. and united in its comprehensive meaning the great Trimurti. one substance in three forms . pleasing contemplation. as we triad. notes on Bhagvat Geeta. which could be indulged only in 15 silence. on which the existence n or as it This word was of all things is founded. that it familiarizes the possessors with the genii. or more prothe sun itself. the symbol of which was an equilateral triangle. Jones. the maimed. Vishnu. as puppets are moved by strings. that it heals the bite of serpents. the sacred emblem of the supreme perly deity .. vol.. and the blind. 74. Faber says. the third for the Destroyer. and not to be changed. vol. . This ineffable word formed the subject of incessant and OM . His operations no mind can conceive . They pretend that God is the Lock of the Ism Allah. and destroying 13 power of the deity. Res. Ant. 623. or science of name of God. the above attributes were ascribed to him." must be observed. i. It is who a syllable formed of the letters SJ coalesce.) 11 Vid. 285. 12 to represent the creative. the sacrifices [ . and Mohammed the King that consequently none but Mohammedans can attain it. 14 Siva. irresistible. Ind. 198. vii. Asiat. without mode. learn from the Abbe Du Bois.

fortitude. 177. 20 The Brahmins were consequently acquainted with the science of arithmetic they understood music. the seal by which secrets or mysteries are revealed. early prac- to the fire. making a sign to the initiated to tions. and beauty temperance." Mr. and attributes of the several deities whose symbols were sculptured on the cavern walls and an elucidation of the mythological. Asiat. be silent and attentive.EASTERN MYSTERIES. heaven. p. Maurice thinks they were the inventors of algebra. are necessary to compose the mysterious name of the deity. Orient. tised in India. science of astronomy occupied a proportionate share of attention during this display but its more abstruse problems were hid from common investigation by the enigmatical obscurity with which they were studiously invested. 21. Wait.) 18 Porph. visible emblem of this awful name. 17 OM is termed by Dara Shekoh. and every other com. as is evident . Ant. strength. of the Lord of all things. 47 and even the angels of heaven to quake for fear. 122). mansion of the blessed. . the aspirant was directed to meditate upon it with the following associait which are the mysterious names of the seven worlds. and Mr. p. p." The Arch . Ant.. de. The the two eyes of God. abode of truth. in their sacred dialect. Tat.. An elephant's head was the. and justice. the two eyes of God . sky. Wilkins informs us. Nymph.Brahmin. and a rabbit the Moon. vol. or manifestations of the power of OM. 348. p. the combination of two others. and Al Q|^ Sat. but that which shall never pass away is the word for it is the symbol .. from the Bhagvat Geeta (p. Heetop. v. 268. mendable virtue. that in addition to the above cipher. prudence. . now entered on the explanation of the various emblems which were arranged around him with the arcana of the hidden science enfolded under the holy gloom of their mysterious veil the names . place of 18 births. Res. "OM! 17 Earth. ff^ .. Thus a horned elephant's head symbolized the Sun. ut supra. 36. and all other solemn purifications shall pass away . Geometry was very from the true proportions of those stupendous caverns which have been already described. middle region. therefore the foregoing emblems were mystically . (Vid. 19 but the Sun and Moon were termed. 19 Vid. When was thus perfectly communicated. figures which every where abounded emblems of wisdom. p. the solar fire. which signifies OM Om. .

.. and eyes. mineralogy. Syrus. 91) as "of infinite shape. which exemplified itself in the practice of cine and surgery. Pythagoras. Thus the great father is indifferently said to be born from a cow and from the Ark. says Serranus on Plato's Symposium. p. " the first learning in the world consisted chiefly in symbols. tries^ Savary also a 5) . 8) says it still maintains its pristine veneration in that country. imprinted on their shoulders with a hot iron. and excelled in many other abstruse arts. and cuts whatever it approaches.. et Vid. Pherecydes. An extensive system of symbolical instruction was used in the Mysteries. and beauty horned heads benevolence by the cow 23 wisdom by the friendship by the buccinum or conch chakram 24 the lotos 25 was an emblem of the soul's freewheel. 3. 24 Krishna is described in the Geeta (p. formed with abundant arms. for this animal (vol. as well as those domestic manufactures which are attendant on civilization.48 HISTORY OF INITIATION. strength. Their sylvan residence imparted a taste for the study of medibotany. Plato. in his notes on the Geeta (p. 21 " In truth. Sanchoniathon.. of which many devotees of Vishnu bear the emblem.) It is also used without the shaft. Ant. of the ancient philosophers to represent truth by certain symbols and hidden images. which whirls with great rapidity. of all the ancients that is come to our hand. was usually identified with the Ark. c. the outer edge of which is made very sharp. and contribute their aid to the refinements of social life.. vol. describes it as "a kind of discus with a sharp edge hurled in battle from the point of the fore finger." The Chakram is a round or circular machine.. crowned. 1. . v. and referred to the ark of Noah. 21 Eternity was symbolized equally by a serpent and a by a wisdom. Phenicians. and bellies. 41. The wisdom of the Chaldeans. by means of which a rotatory motion is given to the plate. it was the sublime throne of oriental mythology. p. c. Jews. It is still used in some places as a weapon of war. i. for Mr. and armed with a club and Chakra. and Mr." says Stukeley. 22 circle of . nor were they ignorant of chemistry. and is nothing more than a large circular plate of iron. 23 The cow was i. 11. Wilkins. a mass of glory darting refulgent beams around. p. It was the great vegetable amulet which distinguished the eastern nations. j . metallurgy. Egyptians. ii. and mouths. Socrates." 23 Maur.." 25 This plant had the good fortune to be held sacred in most counIn Egypt it was called the lily of the Nile. for which there is a hole in the centre. It was the mode." (Dubois on the Inst. Ind. Through the centre a shaft passes. Tobit symbol of the great mother (Herod. 96). and the veil by which they were covered was too dense for the uninitiated to penetrate. 857. fire by a trident. of Ind. of Zoroaster. is symbolic. indubitably . Their gods were always represented as seated on the lotos .

so Asiat. in the persons of the same progenitors . vi. Hence the Greeks designated a temple and a ship by the very same word. 49 earthly tabernacle. 36 Siva is called " the god with the crescent. noon... obscenity. but sometimes even built their Diodorus Siculus mentions. and pointed to the great father and mother of the renovated world the egg and lunette 26 . symbolized the generative principle. built in imitation of the Ark. represented the of wisdom and eternity. 29 i. or male principle for a mast for according to the Brahmins. that it was covered with plates of gold and silver." (Bhagvat Geeta' In memory of the Ark.) p. p.) 37 " p. that it never was designed for a voyage at sea. . as a lunette. it plant. compassion. at the city of Theba or the Ark. Naus or Naos. that Sesostemples in the form of ships. 27 The triangle within a circle referred to the Trimurti 23 and the trident had a similar allusion. in fact. It was. and hence what is. and from its being placed in the inland district of the Thebais. it was under this form that the two principles of generation29 were preserved at the universal Deluge. that the entire worship of these idolaters was and still continues to be nothing less than a disgusting scene of lasciviousness. and destined for the solemn performance of the diluvian mysteries. Cab. from its being dedicated to Osiris. The Bull was an emblem of religion. 523. penance. p. 81. an immense navicular temple. (Vid. deposited at the bottom of a river. as rays night. vegetates by degrees from the germ to a perfect the waves. 129-141. The 5 . Res. we still call the body of a church. and adds that it was made of cedar ." (Fab. for the moon and egg were equally symbols of the ark from which they issued when they became the parents of a new race.. and afterwards rising proudly above floats in air as if independent of any extraneous aid.. in contradistinction to the chancel. and that it was dedicated to Osiris or Noah. Researches in Asia. with the linga. vol.. A of glory were of blessings emanating from the gods. and truth . the ancients were not only accustomed to carry about small navicular shrines. vol. symbolized the female principle. which was 280 cubits long. bearing a globe in its folds.EASTERN MYSTERIES. the body . The ark of Noah. 30 Thus were religion and .) Moor's Hind. Panth. his four legs being representations of purity. doubtless. It is sufficiently evident. fact is. p. and blood. Buchanan. 215. 400. union serpent. the nave or ship. for it takes root in the dom when liberated from its mud and the triple headband with which he was usually bound denoted that he was to be worshipped morning. both from the preceding description of this ship. a relic of the primeval arkite idolatry. and A spear was a symbol of omnipotence. tris constructed a ship.

and he was weary of the troubles and vexations of active life. Ramayun. or Banperisth..) 35 Ordin. 36 uminated "Higher worlds. and occupied himself principally in sacrificing Arid from this point of time he was said to the gods. penances. lived in the open air. made of wood . to renounce the world and all his former connections. 461. Sir W. The fourth degree was believed to impart an extreme portion of merit to the intrepid sage who possessed courage enough to undertake the performance of its duties. of Menu. 32 and was considered as a being of a superior order. shade of hierophilosophy veiled under the impervious .. to avoid the company of women . ate only vegetables . while but an obscure mass of unintelligible darkness. to wear heavy and inconvenient clogs. and bring up his family. 90. 34 The word Sannyase means a total abstraction from all worldly things. p. and mortifications. commenced when his children were all capable of providing for themselves. p. He returned with his wife into the recesses of the forest . 95. was believed 54 capable of transforming the happy Sannyase into the divine nature. Works. His third probation. p. vol. used all the daily prayers without any omission. Valmic. (Bhagvat Geeta. This. 35 and to secure him a residence amongst the celestial gods. v. p. beaming streams of to the profane they were light to the initiated. and to exercise himself in incessant contemplation. After being formally installed by an assembly of his caste. tion of the mysteries of Greece and Rome. 36 Maur... These symbols were publicly displayed in their temples.. Ind. "are illumi v* ^ 33 31 ." say the Ordinances of Menu. he was solemnly bound by oath to the following observances: to rub his whole body every morning with ashes . Jones. vol. 143. from which it was difficult to extract a single idea which bore any resemblance to the original truth. and glyphical symbols intended to lead them into a maze of error. and the candidate was allowed to marry. 977. added to an endless catalogue of other duties. p.50 HISTORY OF INITIATION. unintelligible to the profane. Here the initiation ended. Ant. 31 to be twice born. iii. This corresponds with the regenera^ Ibid. to subsist entirely on alms. renounced all other society. practised every kind of ablution known in his caste.

230. 325. He rejected all idea of assimilating Buddha or Brahma with the Eternal God. Holwell. tioned on the subject of the altar." &c. Works. and finally destroys the universe. 116. Asiat. and " Light and light is the principle of life in every created thing. and placed in them a seed. Seely (Wonders of Elora. 41 The egg which contains the rudiments of life. vol. . he who naturally shines 39 with seven rays is called Light. Him midst. and is. he goeth immediately to bliss. vol. 76. he said.." or is subjected to further tedious transmigrations. Out of this egg41 Brahma with the glory of that man. and omniscience. giving exemption from fear to all animated beings. "there is no idol in front of the great altar in the Templo of Ekverah. and was hence esteemed no unimportant symbol of the resurrection. The first element and cause of all things was water. Brahm was the creator of this globe. 111 the initiations in India a lecture was delivered to the candidate. Jones. the great omnipotent and omniscient ONE . and without end. is resplendent. p.. founded on the following principles. brilliant as the meridian sun. 37 38 iii.) p. 37 He is the being who was. he who walketh in the former path returneth not. was One alone from beginning to end . exclaimed. p. "because the Being who shines with seven rays. who passes from his house into the fourth order.) Thus Brahm is Light. &c. having neither commencement nor termina38 Endowed with the attributes of omnipotence." (Colebrooke. which soon became an egg... v. the Lord. viii. &c. which existed amidst primordial darkness. therefore. 73) says. i. Hist. and is to come . and his emblem was a perfect sphere. Capt. illuminates. and pronouncing the mystic words of the Veda.. 51 Researches40 we find him designated.. he nearly spoke as above described. in nearly the words of our own poet. for the Brahmins say. (Bhagvat Geeta. p. whilst he who walketh in the latter cometh back again upon tho earth. p. the greatest in the world. Him last. matures productions. p. assuming the forms of time and fire.EASTERN MYSTERIES. In alluding to the Almighty.. Him without end. Event. This divine Being created the waters with a thought. was no other . or at Elora the umbrella covering rises from a wooden Brahmin whom I quespedestal out of the convexity of the altar. "the great God.) 10 Vol. Res. 39 And in the Asiatic omnipresence. and that the circular altar was Bhagvat Geeta. and by his spirit invigorates the seventy-four powers of nature . tion. Him first. 350. placing his hand on this circular solid mass. e. who. or the effulgent power. A his emblem. darkness are esteemed the world's eternal ways ." (Sir W." This Being was identified with LIGHT. but the universe is without beginning.

and Labour. 1. therefore the birth of Brahma or Dionusus from an egg was nothing more than the egress of Noah from the Ark. the destruction occasioned by the general Deluge . Pag. so named from Scripture. Ibid. Hitopadesa. Wealth. The creation of the world. who were equally worshipped under the name of Brahma. Brahma appears to have been Adam or Noah . the 48 the final dissolution of all created instability of life. and the Sudra.. and. than the Ark and . Protection. Vishnu. Ham .. 244. Brahma. vol. Works. having remained a full year enclosed who was hence termed the ema- The egg was afterwards divided two equal parts. were naturally divided . 4. his into so many thighs.. because he was the parent of mankind . i. 47 the depravity of the human heart. in the present case. Fab. a personification of Adam and Noah.52 HISTORY OF INITIATION. or an emanation. i. and the necessity of a mediator to atone for sin.) Here is a manifest confusion of terms. the Vaisya. 44 These were called the Brahmins . one of which formed the concave 43 and egg-like canopy of heaven. or the creative power. strictly interdicted. Faber's Pagan Idolatry (b. c. 4. are used to this effect. for Brahma equally represented Adam and Noah. 69.. Sir W. after was produced. Hymn. invested with power. 48 49 c. 46 Signs and Symbols. 5). men between distinct castes. although the work of creation is intended to be exclusively illustrated. 2). They taught the unity of the godhead belief of other nations the legend in the text corresponds exactly with the Dionusus was fabled by the Greeks to be born from an egg (Orph. Res. 43 Idol. . yet the year which Brahma spent in the egg was evidently the confinement of Noah in the Ark . Lect. Lect. b.. ( Vid. into the latter springing from his head. and. from their belief in a succession of similar worlds. Japheth. of Menu.. Asiat. Seth. and Brahma. p. Cain. consequently. iii. 42 in absolute absorption. and its restoration after the Deluge are frequently identified in the heathen cosmogonies . and there exists considerable doubt after all. and his feet. In truth. Jones. his arms. translated by Sir William Jones. 43 See Manava Sastra. And he and Noah were the same person . for Brahma was only a created being.) 45 It is a question whether the Creator in India was esteemed to be the true God. was either Abel. and the other the earth. 5. where many powerful arguments 5. or Shem. The Indians believed that the duration of the world would cease. created inferior gods and nation of the deity. 49 and the restoration of the world in a more perthings. vol. (Ordin. 46 4* which all communication was 45 j the happiness of the first created men . p. Siva. were not a mere deified mortal. i. whether the being to whom the rites of Hindoo worSee ship are so devoutly paid. the Csheiriya.

Then shall Ruddery carry up the souls of all people to heaven with him. she be turned. for this doctrine embodied and familiarized the idea of man's personal responsibility. From a firm persuasion that souls were subject to the process of transmigration." 50 From persons were reanimated in Shem. corresponding with Adam.. shall involve all things in fire." (Bhag' regions vat Geeta. but the bodies . and the three productions thus formed were the counterpart of Abel. and armed with a Scimeter which blazes like a comet. having quitted its old mortal frame. this was supposed. Pag. to account for the mysterious dispensations ji Providence. and go to the of eternal happiness. Vishnu. who were acknowledged in India. 40. who have abandoned all thoughts of the fruit which is produced from their actions. creation. by the precession of the equinoxes.) At the commencement of each Manwantera. they considered each period to be similar and parallel in all its events. Desatir. The Mysteries of China and its dependencies were and its destruction be consummated when the zodiac had effected one complete revolution. the lightning shall flash with terror. And as. summon up all the powers of destruction. mounted triumphantly on a white horse. originate the abominable custom of burning widows. Siva. and reduce the world to ashes. by this agony. the sun shall shed his purling light like flaming brimstone . c. 50 They inculcated the eternity of the soul and the metempsychosis. and act pre- Hence might probably cisely the same part as he had done before. the for sin. 37. was supposed to be renewed. indispensable necessity of voluntary penances to atone and appease the wrath of an avenging deity. with great earnestness. the moon shall look red. and there remain united in the nuptial tie. 91. under the names of Brahma. are freed from the chains of birth. till.. Japheth.) l " As a man throweth away old garments and putteth on new. to advance about one degree in something less than a century. "Kuddery (Siva) shall. Ham. was supposed to triplicate himself. This system they believed to be eternal . Rel. and thus every individual who lived in a former world. p.) . They held the doctrine of a future state of rewards and punishments. that they might accompany their deceased husbands into another state.000 years from the creation. L. to her first confusion. the sky shall change into all colours.) the ruins of every world a new one was expected to arise. who were worshipped as a triad of Deity. eritereth into others which are new Wise men. Then the Calci. (Book of Abad. shall be at opposition and variance. p. but. the first created man. Idol. even so the soul. under the name of Degeneration. 2. (Lord Ban. 51 and pressed on the initiated. at that period. b. so the universal dissolution of the present system would undoubtedly be accomplished 36. a fiery redness shall overspread the face of heaven the four elements of which the world at first was constituted.EASTERN MYSTERIES. shall perish. The souls of these Cain. where peace and harmony should prevail in a perfect and renewed. to rest in God's bosom. (See Fab. Seth. feet 53 and happy form. especially.

One prominent misconception. Martinius. p. vol. On his death bed he predicted that there should arise in the western part of the world a GREAT PROPHET (Couplet. being derived from essentially similar to those A Asiatic nations. counteracted the benefits which might virtue. therefore. accordingly. founded on the same general principles. who should deliver mankind from the bondage of error and superstition. Kes. however... Ind. vol. which. and containing the same rites. when visible objects centuries before the Christian era. of adoration were introduced. lation of the ceremony of initiation will. that in the course of a very short period. Ant. 78). p. His followers erroneously concluded that this great and powerful being was no other than Buddha or Fo himself. the same source. who was. in Maur. and I shall confine my notices of China and Japan to the detail of a few prominent facts. 600. 807. vii. and his followers styled themselves Immortals. 53 and so rapid was the march of innovation. could not quietly submit to the mortifying castigation of austere and unbending The Emperor and his grandees disregarded his admonitions . and worshipped an invisible God. was afterwards adored as a god by his countrymen was obliged to fly from civilized society to escape from the dreaded machinations of his powerful opponents. which should be ultimately embraced by all the nations of the earth. with solemn pomp. C. to 53 52 the worship of idols. p.. The Chinese practised Buddhism in its most simple 52 until a few form. the Mandarins hated him for projecting a reformation in those abstruse mysteries. introduced a system which bore a striking resemblance to that of Epicurus. and formed a school of philosophy. He retired into the desert. lar adoration. p.54 HISTORY OF INITIATION. v. 299). to which he invited all who were inspired with a love of virtue and science and the genial effects of his improved system were reserved for the enjoyment of posterity.. as the chief deity of the Chinese empire. and establish an universal system of religion. Ant. installed into their Temples in a visible form (Asiat. 797..) They were materialists. for ancient India comrecapituprehended the whole of that vast continent. v. 54 Confucius attempted to reform ^the abuses' which had crept into their religious mysteries . This proceeding . Lao-Kiun. but licentiousness long indulged.. in their present state. be unnecessary. who flourished about the year A. (Maur. notwithstanding. . . which constituted the shades of difference between them and other of India. Ind. were the chief source of all their wealth and all their power and one of them actuAnd the great philosopher. reasonably be expected to result from this greatjnan's improvements. who ally made an attempt upon his life. China was as famous as any other idolatrous nation for the number and variety of its objects of popu54 It is true that many abuses had crept. but addicted. vol.

. says Sir W. Gros. The first to other idolatrous innovations . more properly. vol. immeasurable. processions were made round the Tan or altar. is a small idol enfolded in a sheet of consecrated paper. accom58 panied by the magical words O-MI-TO Fo. the same name softened down by a diversity of language and pronunciation. were worship. counted the beads pronouncing the mysterious words 0-mi-to Fo accompanied by many genuflections. To his neck and arms are appended bracelets composed of a hundred small beads and eight large ones . Hist. accumulated so rapidly. ii. 94. and ideal objects of worship. ** p. p. and a certain deliverance from the dreaded evil of successive trans- migrations. vol. The happy possessor of this trinket. 5. and Fo was only another name for Buddha or.. The whole is then deposited in a small box and buried with the deceased as a passport to heaven. debased by superstition. .. as indisputable testimonials of the 66 ! 55 divine favour. See Faber's Pagan Idolatry (vol. 55 into their former system of and the people. Sinic.. into the deity j . Omito was derived. which denoted the omnipotence of the divinity and was considered as a most complete purification. 57 The most valuable amulet they can possess.. and. Anal. Ees. greatly to deteriorate the primitive simplicity of their devotion. or absorption 56 and to secure this admirable state of 57 supreme and never changing felicity. of the worshippers to their and successive changes tended. prepared for any novel scheme which might gratify their The priests converted pride. at the death of the devotee. or satiate their curiosity. attended with indecent and unnatural rites (Martin. i. amulets were as usual delivered to the newly initiated candidates. The initiations were performed in a cavern... 342). 374). 149). The performance of this ceremony is recorded by marking a red circle round the neck of the genius . that China soon became celebrated for the practice of every impurity and abomination which characterized the most degraded nation of the heathen world. Bryant. c. on important occasions. and in a conspicuous situation is placed a large bead in the shape of a gourd. vol.EASTERN MYSTERIES. and sacrifices offered to the celestial gods. Jones (Asiat. where the grades are traced by which the one became transformed into the other. p. . ii. Their morality was limited to opened a door five precepts. after 55 which. the profound veneration own aggrandizement . are minutely attested and sealed by the officiating Bonze. or of deliverance from danger. p. The chief end of initiation was a fictions immortality. the aggregate number of these circles. Chin.. by gradual approaches. and remission of every sin. from the Sanscrit Armida. in the revolution of ages. ii.

p. a mouth. and doubtless originated in the history of the Deluge . the Tetractys of Pythagoras. 60 Fab. supported by two serpents. Thus while the sum of the even numbers. a cat. they might be exempted from the fearful holy punishment of their transgressions. The aspira A titude. Signs and Symbols. p. China. 5. The Rainbow was a celebrated symbol in these mysteries. theft. and the Tetragrammaton of the Y was also much esteemed from its same tri-une god 60 the three distinct lines 61 composed forming one. hath produced one . Vid. which would transmute the baser metals to gold." (Du Halde. a dog.. i. they were told. They boasted of their power over the winds and elements. which miraculously surrounded his mother while walking by a river's side. and proclaimed themselves the possessors of the philosophers' stone. or of a loathsome and insignificant reptile. p. Idol. " Tao. 30. 253. They The mystical symbol allusion to the of which it is This was in effect the ineffable name of the deity . the candidate to afford by the prayers of these men. vol i. which. Cab. Much merit was attached to the possession of a consecrated symbol representing the great triad of the gentile world.. 62 63 We p.56 forbids HISTORY OF INITIATION. external and the fifth. was emblematical of the world protected by the ponver and wisdom of the Creator . and referred to the diluviari patriarch and his symbolical consort. or reason. Alys. for it was believed that the father of their radiant 63 god Fo-hi was a rainbow. a rat. lying. through the medium of superstition. Le Comte. as containing divine properties. the second. 248. . a mule. two hath produced three and three have produced all things. 318. 2+4-|-6-f 8+1 0=30 designated the Number of Earth. and the number eight. l-f3-f5+7-f9=25 was dignified with the appellation of the Number of Heaven. the ark . particularly recommended the bonzes. 59 that protection to murder. 61 find here again a superstitious veneration for odd numbers. vol. This was an equilateral triangle.) Fab. drunkenness. and the ark itself was 62 represented by a boat. and the one is three. ii. impurity. . vol. the sum of the odd numbers. the third. ring. said to afford protection in all cases of personal danger and adversity. the fourth. . would otherwise consign their transmigrating souls to the purifying medium of a horse. These artful priests used magical ceremonies to delude the muland to direct the tide of popular prejudice in their favour China. and convey the blessing of immortality. Lect.. Pag.. one hath produced two . Jews.

65 The Egg was always esteemed an emblem of the earth. but that indeed is not the principal object that commands our attention. attracted from the bottom of these waters a terrestrial substance. and in his right he carried a pail of water. at the time of his deliverance or new birth and hence he was figuraark. and so created the world. which is enclosed within the hollow space of it. which floated on the surface of egg the waters.) " There is a pagoda at Micoa consecrated to a hieroglyphic Bull. which is placed on a large square altar. we have any knowledge. and that the holy covenant of God was embodied in its system of hieroglyphical symbols. . He was lean of visage. in its original state. and was bareheaded and barefooted. having long hair and a long beard . . The bull observing this egg. by the ambiguous meaning of the name of the Bull. thus describes. &c. The whole world at the time of the Chaos was enclosed within this Egg. to the Deluge. 417. which in the Hebrew Language is attributed to the Deity. that the world was enclosed in an before the creation. instead of the Supreme Being. as he gripes it between his forefeet. His long coat was girded unto him with a towel of white linen. from Johannes Pomarius. animal. which swam upon the surface of the waters. (p. 64 tively said to be the offspring of the rainbow. The Moon by virtue of her Light and her other influences. in process of time. which was insensibly converted to a rock. 06 At this period a prickle 67 appeared amongst 64 The Japanese held 65 The universal prevalence of this symbol in . In his left hand he held up a wheel . by goring it with his horns." 67 To this source may be referred the Gothic idol Seater. This fable ma}7 in some measure be reconciled with truth. broke the shell of it. of Decayed Intelligence.EASTERN MYSTERIES. 57 however. His neck is adorned with a very costly collar . was to signify that the Saxons for their serving him. and composed of solid gold. and the Egg floats in some water. p. they ascribed the creation of the world to this the Chaos . His standing on the sharp fins of this fish. rant. which he pushes with his horns. 78. 66 The history is thus given in the Ceremonies and Religious Customs of various Nations.) First. The most remarkable thing is the Egg. This Bull is placed on the summit of a rock. was actually surrounded by a rainbow. by supposing that an ancient tradition had preserved amongst the Japanese some idea of the creation of the world but that being led into an error. was the representative of Noah . . and the which was accounted his mother as well as his wife. The Egg represents and what follows is the illustration which the doctors of Japan have given of this hieroglyphic. should pass steadfastly and without harm in dangerous and difficult places. on a pillar was placed a pearch on the sharp prickled back whereof stood this idol. and by his breath formed the human species. and by that means the eggs rested upon it. wherein were flowers and fruits. which (Restitution Vcrstegan. is very remarkable all the systems of which and points out that the Spurious Freemasonry had a reference.

and considered as the creator of the two great lights of heaven. and thirty arms. 1. 70 71 Asiat. In some of the representations of this idol he was pourtrayed sitting on the Lotos.. to use numerous ablutions daily. as striking symbols of the purity acquired by initiation. In others he had seven heads. the evil. and even the hierophant was not competent to perform the ceremony of initiation until he himself had been initiated the same period . vii. who.. and as it is expressed by Ksempfer. symbolical of the seven days of the week. 68 69 The good deity was called Amidas . as the worshippers behold their own image in the glass. 153. which represented the period or cycle of thirty years. during the term of his trial. were the parents of a race of heroes. with four arms. Japan. 72 and generally in the midst of a grove. Japan. and his five assistants must necessarily have had each ten years' experience from the date of their admission before they were competent to take this subordinate part in the initiations. and studiously abstained from every carnal indul73 In the closing ceremony of preparation he was gence. c. Hence the mirror was a significant emblem of the all-observing eye of the god Terisio Dai Sin. iii. with their wives-.58 HISTORY OF INITIATION. 73 He was obliged to renounce the use of flesh. Jemma. to denote his eternity and imperishable nature. Res. p. from whom proceeded the original inhabitants of 69 They worshipped a deity who was styled the Japan. each of which had its appropriate emblem. and to subsist wholly upon vegetable food. His image was made of solid gold. learned to subdue his passions . from whence sprang six other spirits j 08 the waves which became datsno-Mikotto . son of the unknown god. The aspirant. Kaempf.. vol. 70 The caverns71 of initiation were in the immediate vicinity of their temples. They were also decorated with a profusion of hieroglyphical designs cut in white paper. Kaempf. with his but- 72 . devoted himself to the practice of austerities. and was called KnnitoTcospirit. They were furnished with large mirrors to signify that the imperfections of the heart are as plainly displayed to the sight of the gods. kneeling down on the ground. 422. b. and near to a stream of water. p. The term of probation for the highest degrees was twenty years . because one of their old deities was said to be born from a cave . referring to the four seasons of the year.

in order to keep it from the rain. and balance it with another box* or bundle of straw. as induced him to refuse to quit his confinement in the pastes . Japan. which was usually presented to the devout pilgrim who had performed his devotions at " This the Temple of the most high god Tensio Dai Sin. as being a relic of very great moment and consequence to The amulets within their dwellings and misfortune having its them. v. these two virtues being the most pleasing to the gods. and the name of the Canusi who gave the box. c. b. some of which are wrapped up in a bit of white paper. made of small thin boards. better conveniences to keep and to hide it.. To this voluntary martyrdom was attached a promise of never-ending happiness in the paradise of Amidas. tocks to his heels. printed in large characters. and to remain there until he literally perished with famine. b." very efficacious amulets was the ofarrai. to the opposite side.EASTERN MYSTERIES. His memory was celebrated with annual rejoicings. an inch and a half thick. to up seven hundred and fourscore times every day. Signs and Symbols. Messengers of the gods. is pasted to the front of the box. much of the same weight. and full of thin small sticks. iii. There was also one. says Ksempfer. 10. But one of their mos safe from thieves and housebreakers. armed with a drawn sword. The name of the Temple Tai Singu. that is. and clapping his hands over his head. Ofarrai is a small oblong square box." (Ksempf. which they fasten Those that travel on horseback have to the opposite side of the hat. for there are great numbers that carry on this trade. and immediately tie it under their hats. Lect. They wear it just under their forehead. 75 The 74 lift himself were numerous . about a span and a half long.. at Isge. c. and this " houses with this last mark must needs be author quaintly remarks. however. 4. the pilgrims receive with great tokens of respect and humility. 75 a ring or circle of gold. they take especial care for the preservation of this Ofarrai. . This Ofarrai. 59 entombed within the Pastes or place of penance the door of which was said to be guarded by a terrible divinity. as the vindictive fury or god of punishment. in order to remind the pilgrim to be pure and humble. were dignified with an assurance of a happy immortality to all who passed through the rites honourably and with becoming fortitude.) . with the noble title of Taiju. Japan. Indeed the merit of such a sacrifice was boundless. (Hist. as an emblem initiations. Amongst the amulets used on this occasion. two were the most venerated . in a smaller character. the Temple of the great God. When the pilgrims are got safe home. 4) against poverty . two inches broad. During the course of his probation the aspirant sometimes acquired such a high degree of enthusiasm. which is as much as to say. 74 Vid. a title which all the officers of Mias assume to themselves. or indulgence. every disease appropriate charm.

. and hence their dwellings were exempted from the visitations of disease or calamity. was supposed to convey the blessing of a long and prosperous life . and a chaplet of consecrated flowers or sacred plants and boughs of trees . which being suspended about the doors of their apartments. of eternity. ritually consecrated.60 HISTORY OF INITIATION. prevented the ingress of impure spirits .





THE Persian Mysteries were indebted to Zeradusht, 1 or Zoroaster, for much of the celebrity which they atThis great reformer is said by Hyde 2 and Pritained. 3 deaux to be a Jew by birth, 4 and to have received his education in the elements of the true worship amongst
by the Persians, Zeradusht, and by the Greeks, question of the identity of Zeradusht and Zoroaster Such a person, under will form no part of the present undertaking. one of these names did actually flourish in Persia, and reform its religion about the latter end of the Babylonish captivity, and I am The curious reader little concerned in this much agitated question. may profitably consult Hyde on the Religion of ancient Persia; Richardson's Dissertation, Sec. 2; Prideaux Connection, p. 1, b.lv.; and Faber's Pagan Idolatry, b. in., c. 3. 3 Prid. Con., vol. i., p. 213. Hyde. Rel. vet. Pers., p. 314. 4 The Persian historians have shewn much anxiety to establish the Persian supernatural perfection of this great prophet's birth. author has declared," says Sir John Malcolm, (Hist. Pers., c. vii.,) " that the religious, among the followers of Zoroaster, believed that the soul of that holy person was created by God, and hung upon that tree, from which all that is celestial has been produced. ... I have heard, this author observes, the wise and holy Mobud, Seeroosh declare, that the father of Zoroaster had a cow, which, after tasting some withered leaves that had fallen from the tree, never ate of any other: these leaves being her sole food, all the milk she produced was from them. The father of Zoroaster, whose name was Poorshasp,

He was






entirely supported by this milk ; and to it, in consequence, they Anrefer the pregnancy of his mother, whose name was Daghda. other account says, this cow ate the soul of Zoroaster, as it hung to the tree, and that it passed, through her milk, to the father of that The apparent object of this statement is to prove that Zoprophet. roaster was born in innocence ; and that not even vegetable life was he was born, he burst into destroyed to give him existence. a loud laugh, like the prince of necromancers, Merlin, and such a This anlight shone from his body as illuminated the whole room. cient tradition respecting Zoroaster, which we meet with in Persian books, is mentioned by Pliny." The phosphoric property here referred to was not confined to Zoroaster, but is recorded of many other emi-


nent personages, Christian as well as heathen.



countrymen in Babylon. He afterwards became an attendant on the prophet Daniel, and from him received initiation into all the mysteries of the Jewish doctrine and practice. His abilities being of a superior cast, he made a rapid progress in his studies, and became one of the most learned men of his age. Perceiving that the
to his master was inspired by his extraordiendowments, Zoroaster was desirous of converting nary his own acquirements to the same purpose; and as he was not enabled to prophesy by the aid of God's Holy to the study of magic, which he Spirit, he had recourse prosecuted under the Chaldean philosophers, who con-

homage paid


This brought him into disgrace with Daniel, 5 who banished him from the land, and prohibited his return on pain of death. 6 He fled to Ecbatana, and giving out that he was a prophet, set about the arduous and 7 dangerous design of reforming the Persian religion ; the character of which, by a series of gradual and imperceptible changes, had become subverted from its primitive object; and the Sabian system had almost prevailed over the ancient Magian form of worship. Professing to be a rigid Magian, this plausible impostor, like other bold innovators of all ages and nations, soon found himself surrounded by followers in every rank of life, who entered into his schemes with all the enthusiasm usually excited by novelty, and gave their most strenuous support to his
8 projected plan of reformation.

upon him the

privilege of initiation into their

He was openly patronised

6 6

Hyde. Eel.

vet. Pers., p. 114.

have given the above account of the early life of Zoroaster on the authority of Hyde and Prideaux, although I myself entertain some doubts of its probability. Whoever this extraordinary character might be, it is certain that he possessed an extensive knowledge of all the science and philosophy then known in the world, and hud been initiated into, the peculiar mysteries of every nation, to qualify himself for the distinguished part he was now about to act on the
I think also it is highly probable that great theatre of the world. two distinct personages of the same name flourished in Persia at different eras, the former perhaps the inventor of a system which the other improved. (Vid. Justin., 1. i., c. 1. Plin., 1. xxx., c. 1. Diog.

Prid. Con., vol. i., p. 212. Laert., in Proem., &c. Stanley on the Chaldean Philosophy, c. 2 and Richardson's Dissertation, 2nd edii Pococke. Specim. Hist. Arab., p. 147. tion, p. 230.) 8 His object evidently was to restore the ancient system of worship. And he succeeded; and established a reputation which has asso;



by the monarch, Darius Hystaspes, who accompanied him into Cashmere, 10 for the purpose of completing his preparatory studies by the instruction of the Brahmins,
he had previously received initiation, 11 After obtained a complete knowledge of their theologihaving cal, mathematical, and astronomical system, he returned into Bactria, arid took up his residence with his royal 12 patron at Balk. He began with their religion. Before his time the Persians worshipped in the open air, and resisted the in13 novation of covered temples, long after they were other nations; for they thought that an adopted by immaterial Being could not be confined in buildings erected by the hand of man; and, therefore, they considered the broad expanse of heaven as the sublime cover14 Their places ing of a temple consecrated to the Deity. of sacrifice were of an open and very simple nature, be15 ing elevated on hills, and composed principally of irunhewn stone, like those of the northern regular circles of 17 nations of Europe. 16 They abominated images, and 13 worshipped the Sun and Fire, as representatives of the
ciated his name with those of Confucius, Mahomet, and other successful reformers of religious rites. 9 Hyde. Rel. vet. Pers., p. 323. 10 "Cashmere, which has often been called the terrestrial paradise, may indeed be justly denominated the holy land of superstition. In the Ayeen Akbery, forty-five places are stated tr> be dedicated to Mahadeo; sixty-four to Vishnu; twenty-two to Durga: and only three to Brahma." (Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. v.. p. 861.)


Am. Marcell., 1. xiii. Prid. Con., vol. i., p. 220.
The Persians were


for the early Egyptians, as well as the Druids and others, worshipped in uncovered temples. (Clem. Alex. Strom., 5. Lucian de Dea Syria.) 15 u Vid. Cic. de. Strabo., 1. xv. Leg., 1. ii., c. 2. 10 By some unexplained process in the human mind, huge stones were always objects of veneration with every people who had forsaken

not singular in this custom

the true God.
17 Herod. Clio., 1. i. Yet, "according to the Zinat o'ttawarikh, idolatry first arose in Persia, from survivors preserving the busts and images of their deceased friends ; which, in subsequent ages, were venerated with divine honours by their posterity." (Wait. Orient. Ant., p. 11.) 18 Even the Jews in their idolatries were not exempt from the su-

which they pretended perstitious adoration of this element, a practice God, say they, appeared in to justify from their own Scriptures.
the Cherubim over the gate of


as a flaming sword, (Gen.




succeeded in prevailing omnipresent Deity. Zoroaster on them to preserve the Sacred Fire, which, by burning on the highest hills, was liable to be extinguished by 19 storms and tempests, in covered fire towers, which were with a dome, and a small orifice at the circular buildings, top to let out the smoke. In these the sacred flame,

where God was supposed to reside, was kept perpetually 20 Thus the building represented the universe and alive. the central fire which constantly blazed within it, was
figurative of the great luminary, the Sun. He then proceeded to remodel the Mysteries ; 21 and to accomplish with greater effect this design, he retired to

22 a circular cave or grotto in the mountains of Bokhara, which he ornamented with a profusion of symbolical and astronomical 23 decorations, and solemnly consecrated it to the middle god or Mediator, 24 Mithr-As, or as he was elsewhere denominated, the invisible Deity, 25 the parent of the universe, who was himself said to be born, or pro-



to Abraham as aflame of fire ; (Gen. xv., 17,) and again to as a fire at Horeb; (Exod. iii., 2.) and to the whole assembly of the people at Sinai, when he descended upon the mountain in fire ; (Exod. xix., 18,) and they further urged that Moses himself had told them that their God was a consuming fire, (Deut. iv., 24,) which was reechoed more than once; (Deut. ix., 3,) and thence the Jews were weak enough to worship the material substance, in lieu of the invisible and eternal God. 19 Hyde, de Eel. vet. Pers., c. 8, et passim. 20 " The Orientals make Nimrod the author of the sect of the Magi, or worshippers of fire ; and tell us that accidentally seeing fire rise out of the earth at a great distance from him in the East, he worshipped it; and appointed one Andesham to attend the fire there, and throw frankincense into it." (Univ. Hist., vol. i., p. 90.) 21 Pococke. Spec. Hist. Arab., p. 147. 13 Porph. de Ant. Nymph., p. 254. 23 There do not exist two opinions respecting the early knowledge of astronomy in this quarter of the globe. Indeed, Pliny says, (Nat.


Hist, 1. i., c. 26) Belus, inventor fui1 sideralis scientiae; and Belus was the grandson of Ham. 24 The Persians were so deeply impressed with this amiable characteristic of their god, that they denominated every person who acted in the capacity of a mediator between two contending parties ; Mithras.
(Plut. Isid. et Osir., p. 43.)
25 Mithras, whether corporeal or incorporeal, was unquestionably taken by the Persians for the Supreme Deity, according to that of Hesychius, Mi&pas 6 TCQIOTOS ev IJepoais debs, Mithras the first god among the Persians who was, therefore, called in the inscription, (Apud Gruter. Thesaur. Inscrip., p. 34,) Omnipotent! Deo Mithras.


Intell. Sys.,

1. i.,






duced from a cave hewn out of a rock. 20 Here the Sun 7 \\as represented by a splendid gem, which, with an in28 supportable lustre, occupied a conspicuous situation in the centre of the roof; the planets were displayed in order round him, in studs of gold glittering on a ground of azure the zodiac was richly chased in embossed gold, 29 in which the constellations Leo, 30 arid Taurus, with a Sun and Lunette emerging from their back31 in beaten The four ages of the gold, were peculiarly resplendent. world were represented by so many globes of gold, silver, The whole were decked with gems and brass, and iron. stones, and knobs of burnished gold and during precious the celebration of the mysteries, illuminated by innumerable lamps which reflected a thousand different colours and shades of colour, 32 like the enchanting vision of a 33 In the centre of the cave was a marble celestial palace.


fountain of water, 34 transparent as crystal, to supply the numerous basons with which the grotto was furnished for the purpose of ablutions and ceremonial purifications. 85 The cavern thus ornamented, furnished, and disposed, was an emblem of the widely extended universe, 36 supported by the three grand Pillars of Eternity, fecundity, and authority; 37 and the symbols with which it was profusely adorned referred to every element and principle in

Nature. 38

cum Tryph., p. 296. Porph. de Ant. Nymph., p. 265. Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. ii., p. 28.
Just. Mart. dial,

of Osymandyas in Egypt, was surrounded with a broad beaten gold, three hundred and sixty-five cubits in circumference, to represent the number of days in the year. (Diod. Sic., p. 44.) 30 Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. v., p. 987. 31 The bull and sun were emblematical of the great father or Noah
circle of


The tomb

Ark for Noah was the sun, and the bull was an acknowledged symbol of the Ark. (Porph. de Ant. Nymph., p. 265.) Hyde (de Rel. vet. Pers.,) says that the Mogul emperors use this device on their coins. Sometimes, however, Leo is substituted for Taurus. !3 Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. v., p. 987. 33 See the Story of the Second Calendar in the Arabian Nights 34 Entertainments. Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. v., p. 990. 35 Porph. de Ant. Nymph., p. 263. 36 37 Ibid., p. 254. Signs and Symbols, Lect. 7. 38 And let it not be thought that these riches and this refulgent
riding in safety in the

splendour are inconsistent with probability, for the Persians of this age were a magnificent people, and possessed an abundance of wealth,


is thus described: "The walls and ceilings were overlaid with gold. fountain of truth. and others. which uniformly ended in conversion. He reposed his head on a casket containing five thousand talents of gold. 40 As the Jewish law was revealed roaster. the most distant regions 42 for initiation. 481. most to resemble the deities . i.66 HISTORY OF INITIATION Every preparation being completed. vol. legislator. Pythagoras. which he was directed to communicate to those only who possessed sufficient virtue to resist the allurements of the world. 41 he now commenced the celebration of those famous rites which exalted his name to the highest summit of celeEvery person who wished to attain a knowledge brity. or choir. and amber. 41 All these men. p. who was with the Deity forty days in the mount which burned with fire. which was called the king's bolster.. The monarch's bed. Ant. Zoto Moses. . received up into the abode of the Most High. vol. only those who are supposed. 216. Here is the statue of the deity.. and the pure and unmixed contemplation of the Deity and his works. Zoroaster had become acquainted with this fact in which they used with great profusion. Its lofty throne of pure gold was raised on pillars refulgent with jewels of the richest lustre." (Maur. has no gates. says The interior temple. but is open in the front. ivory.. In the most secret recesses of this hallowed cave. &c. was encircled with a of pure bright and ever living flame of fire . &c. he said.. from their piety and virtue.. vii. that a system 40 worship had been revealed to him.' : Lucian. of the Persian philosophy resorted to the Mithratic cave The fame of Zoroaster spread throughout the world. drew alike from the sacred . and were willing to devote themselves to the study of philosophy. who. . the imperial residence. p. contains many curious instances of these visits. Numbers from. The palace of Ecbatana. but to the inner none are admit- ted but the priests and even amongst them. and his feet rested on another. describing the Temple of the Syrian goddess. Babylon. wrought in the most exquisite taste. Con. exhibiting the noblest designs. Ind. was shaded with a golden vine and palm tree. Zoroaster caused a rumour to be propagated that he had been favoured with a celestial vision. 39 and permitted to converse with that awful Being face to face. also of pure gold.) 30 This was in imitation of the Jewish Prid. and to whom the care of all religious matters is entrusted. Every' body may go into the outer temple. containing three thousand talents of the same metal." 42 The commentary on the book of Zeratiisht in the Desatir. Plato. on whose branches hung clusters of emeralds and rubies.

vol. resolved to explore it. Porph.. when to their astonishment. and honey. 5 Maur. and examine what remnants of that superstition it contained . " years . numerous lusis were performed with water. publickly exposed.. 49 43 Sir W. and he was never more heard of. 2. have no certain evidence of an intercourse between the chus. 50 in others. So saith Apuleius. Res.. and his system embraced sciences. 1. p.. which were brought out. (Hist. even Pythagoras travelled from Greece for initiation by this celebrated 43 His doctrines. 20. torture. v. hunger and stripes. 228. ii. 150. and confined amidst cold and nakedness. human and divine. p... Dion. but for a long period closed up. Myth.^ which ended degrees with a fast of fifty days' continuance.. 67 came to hear Ills Lectures . The Grecian On the other hand. and learned of him most of that knowledge which afterwards rendered him so famous in the West. and excited the utmost horror in the inhabitants of that great city. Deut. p. To prepare the candidate for initiation.) that they who write of Pythagoras do almost all of them tell us. Eccles. that he was the scholar of Zoroastres at Babylon. Ind. ix. 49 Christianity. Vid. 965." must have been far advanced in sage. 45 by others eighty. vol. 44 by some that the aspirant went through forty of probation. it is said. Nicaetas cited by the Abbe Banier. the principal thing they found in it was a great quantity of human skulls and other bones of men that had been thus sacrificed . a Christian writer. Porphyry." (Connect. Ant. vol. whose robust nerves enabled them intellect was in . his body was cast into an inner In the fifth century of cavern. v. 44 40 47 48 and Clemens Alexandrinus. the candidate suffered a partial derangement of but the few.. Luciau in Necyom. p. 992. and so say JambliPrideaux observes. Ant. however. 47 These intense and protracted trials were endured in the gloomy recesses of a subterranean cavern. which none could understand but those who were all qualified by initiation . 297. Dean (Asiat. p.IN PERSIA. were a continued philosopher.) 60 When a candidate died under the infliction of these rigid penances. fire." (Psalm Ixxiv. " The dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty. where he was condemned to perpetual silence. according to the report of Socrates. an event by no means uncommon.) . 43 accompanied with an extreme degree of refined and brutal trations It said The unbending severity of this stern novitiate some instances attended with fatal effects. 18.. tissue of allegory... v. and we two Philosophers." (Maur. ii." says he. Ind.. Jones thinks " it is barely possible that Pythagoras '* knew him. i.c.) 45 Non.) "the Christians of Alexandria having discovered a cavern that had been consecrated to Mithras. wholly secluded from society. de Abstin. and.

The oil of ban is Orient. a monguide. Peleiades." (Fab." and is probably but a duplicate of the Arabian Roc. v. xv. 392) or the Indian Garuda. p. and to have reigned as queen on the fabulous mountain of Kaf. who was the representative 55 strous griffin. and dignities.. Arabian Nights' Entertainments Tales of Sinbad) for the Arabian word for the Simorgh was Rakshi . Dissert. a similar allusion to the history of the Deluge." says : . at the expiration of his novitiate. k 51 52 . 'The olive in. the unhappy novice. Mys.. and seen many wonderful revolutions of different species of beings that inhabited the globe before the creation of man. Ant.. (Asiat. Ant. (Vid. appears to have been a In Richardson's Dictionary it is thus described species of Eagle. its body unknown .. vol. Dissert. (Rich. able to exclaim. the close connection of the dove and the olive.) 65 the balsam of Bezoin. and the oracular or Doves..) "The Simorgh. who suffered his courage to forsake him through excess of fatigue or torture. Res. while in consequence of priestesses of Hammon. 3 . p. was rejected with the strongest marks of infamy and contempt. to rise superior to the accounted profane and excluded from the rites. vol. It is fancied to be rational. by which he was slightly wounded. successful probationer. The Caharman namah gives an account of a conversation which that hero had with her. and like the Griffin in shape and monstrous size. the priests 'of Mithras were styled Hierocoraces. Ind. of Simorgh. 170. 991. i.. p. 174) the Egyptian Phanix (Ovid Metam. I have escaped an evil Tertull.. t54 Rich.. a particular species of With that tree 53 was denominated Columbas.. p. to have the gift of speech. 10.68 HISTORY OF INITIATION . 1. that they would each I have found a better lot. 248. with authorities. and an important agent in the machinery 51 apud Maur. (Orient. 194. 155) implies that it is of the size of thirty birds. . Ant. c." " It corresponds in some respects with the idea of the Phoenix.. Cab. p. " whose name Wait. and for ever most extreme suffering of a fully were eligible to the highest honours extended probation. was brought forth into the cavern of initiation where he entered on the point of a sword presented to The . and then he was ritually prepared for the approaching 52 anointed with ceremony. (Wait.. He was crowned with olive. p. and received a degree of veneration equal But to that which was paid to the supernal deities. or sacred Ravens . It is described by naturalists as a creature whose name is known.. his naked left breast. in which she informed him of her having lived several ages before Adam. one only of the species being supposed to exist. 54 53 and armed with enchanted armour by his oil of ban.) Berhni Kattea.the mysteries was commemorative of the olive branch brought back to Noah by the dove and it was the propitious omen that the patriarch and his family would speedily emerge from the soon be gloom of the Ark to the light of day .

or buckler of Jan-ben. 69 This is represented as a high ladder with seven steps or gates. Signs and Symbols. 254) that this doctrine was shadowed out in the Persian mysteries. vol. the Jebeli. which rendered the heroes of Perromance proof against the arms and magic of the Dives. Gels. 01 Celsus.) (Orig." 61 which was an emblem of those infernal regions through which he was about to pass. monarch of the world. by seeing the sacred fire. of the number Seven forms an important feature in all the institutions of antiquity. Dissert. cuirass. Lect. The conjecture bears strong marks of truth from the extraordinary fact. (De Rel. p. at intervals. . his terror was excited by the distant yelling of ravenous beasts .) 58 Maur. Ind. or the flaming sword. vol. 8. which gave to its possessors the command of the elements. more famous in the east than the shield of Achilles among the Greeks . The use Vid. Introduced into an inner apartment he was 58 purified with fire and water. This remarkable number will be copiously illustrated in Lect. p.. (or wicked genii) were muhur Solimani. when setting out on their adventures to rescue distressed damsels from the power of necromancers or giants. con. the fifth. iv. whether their tendency be idolatrous or otherwise. accompanied with ceremonies differing little from those practised by our European knights errant. 280. .) 57 The preparation for these encounters consisted of spells as a defence against enchantment. cited by Maur... vet. (Vid. demons. Threading the circuitous mazes of the gloomy cavern. and solemnly put through f the SEVEN 59 STAGES bursting from beneath his feet. 56 u sian . Ant. sometimes descending on his head in a broad sheet of white and shadowy flame. Ind. 991. p. or the seal of Solomon Jared. Pers. p.. 69 of initiation. v.. p. flash through its recesses to illuminate his path. iv. the howling of wolves." (Dissert. and of every created thing the Siper. he beheld a deep and dangerous vault into which a single false step might precipitate him down to the "throne of dreadful necessity.. j. the fierce and rj^ mog fam0 us talismans. Rich. 7. 1. sometimes of Persian mythology. and furnished with talismans 56 that he might be ready to encounter all the hideous monsters raised up by the Dives to impede his progress to perfec57 tion. 60 This part of the ceremony might probably bear some allusion to the soul toiling through the metempsychosis towards perfection and everlasting beatitude for Hyde informs us. or the impenetrable and the Tigh atish. Amidst the admiration thus inspired. he was soon awakened from his trance of thought. 60 From the precipice where he stood. 645. that almost every ancient idolatrous nation addressed the rites of divine worship to the seven hero-gods.Jan.. Ant.. 272. the roaring of lions.IN PERSIA. The reference might probably be to the seven antediluvians who were saved with Noah in the ark.

. to rise from the earth. Div. 64 (Vid. p.. from the imminent danger with which it would have been accompanied. 203. vol.. says Mons. 8. same thing: i. phantoms in the figure of dogs.. To guard their queen. v. de Gebelin speaks also of the dogs which are mentioned by Virgil. Being hurried through this cavern into another. towards the quarter from whence the appalling sounds proceeded . 65 Rich. Leg. also Warb. 336. the hideous dogs of rises from the land of shades Snakes wreath' d in oaken boughs curl'd round their : hair. enlightened with a single lamp. and other monstrous spectres and apparitions. he was at a loss where to turn for safety . 6. but this terrible conjecture must be admitted with great reluctance. Signs and Symbols. and hailed with three cheers. Maurice thinks that real lions and other savage beasts were To such miserable expedients were the introduced (Ind. these dogs are said to spring out of the earth. iv. FAWKES. . fierce dogs appeared and fins. . in his notes on the magic oracles of Zoroaster. torn. by diately attacked. amidst the 66 the initiated in the forms of lions. Loud shriek the Naiads of the neighboring lakes &c. and he was immemost tremendous uproar. he dead silence wr as once more shrouded in darkness. tigers.. 67 Vid. meditating was obliged to proceed with deliberate on the danger he had just escaped. in the celebration of the Mysteries. he adds. 68 Pletho. he seldom escaped unhurt. vol. Signs and Symbols. A succeeded. 66 Mr. but was forward by his attendant.70 HISTORY OF INITIATION 62 Enveloped in blackest darkthreatening bark of dogs.) idolaters reduced to perpetuate their system. It was the custom. and at the sudden himself in a den of wild opening of a door he found 64 His beasts. Dissert. . grif67 other monstrous beasts . and he step.) Apollonius speaks of the Brimo up And gleaming torches cast a dismal glare. to place before the aspirant. p. Ant. hell Rend the dark welkin with incessant yell The heaving ground beneath her footsteps shakes. 170.. 997) . and hence it was adored. 63 ness. (Monde Vid.. Lect. p. 63 Darkness was a symbol of secrecy. that even these farcical representations were encouraged to give effect to the mysterious celebrations. and bay tremendously at the aspirant. wolves. Lect. Primitif. p. and with dreadful bowlings endea68 voured to overwhelm the aspirant with alarm . His attensmarting 62 In the Zoroastrian Oracles. and under the wounds he had received. dimly 65 conductor exhorted him to courage. who maintained impelled rapidly an unbroken silence. and how bravely soever his courage might sustain him in this unequal conflict.

and to by put them on a footing of prowess with the gigantic dives. whom the Dives had carried off. In the first encounter he has the head of a hog. engages the Dive Arzshenk. Here Tahmuras. and the Dives.) 2. 71 tion. to the attack of another powerful Dive. called Houdkonz . where he is surrounded with vast piles of wealth amassed by plunder. and Father Angelo mentions having seen a stupendous monument in the midst of a plain. 69 They were probably acquainted with a chemical process thunder and lightning. who dread him. In the Shah name the celebrated Rostam. 70 This was intended to represent the tremendous contests between the Peris and the Dives. and gives him instructions how to proceed. An undefined rumbling noise was heard in a distant range of caverns. called Demrush whose residence is described as a gloomy cavern. many ages afterwards. He arrives at Kaf . with which he ornaments his helmet. she speaks all languages and knows future events. the Peri Merjan. and then in the true spirit of knight errantry. or evil genii.IN PERSIA. which Rostam strikes off at a blow. Arzshenk is there painted with a body somewhat human. She offers her assistance to conduct him to Jinnistan . they solicit the assistance of some mortal hero. at the Peris request. he is armed with enchanted talismans. Vita Apollon. one side resembling the head of a lion. send also another. who had escaped from the chains of Tahmuras. c. Rostam. dragons. and the head of a bull. . which became louder and louder as he ad69 vanced. who is considered as the Hercules of Persia. and armed with the buckler of Jan-ben-Jan. but here Tahmuras falls. These fabulous struggles for preeminence ran through the whole system of Persian romance? which indeed derives its principle attraction from the use of this machinery. and her brothers had long searched for in vain. he de- Arzshenk and also another Dive still more fierce. kills a demon called the Dive Sepid. the other that of a wild boar. the last king of the Pishdadian dynasty . informs him of the dangers ho will encounter. but their foes. pulls some feathers from her breast. the son of Rostam. The Dive Munheras is wounded with an arrow in the mouth by Gershab. and mounted on some tremendous monster. He then mounts the Simorgh. The Peris honour him with a splendid embassy . She counsels "him to aid the Peris . One of the most famous adventurers in fairy land is Tahmuras. crosses the dark abyss which mortals cannot pass without supernatural assistance. 1. until the pealing thunder seemed to rend the 70 and the solid rocks and burst the caverns around him . was soon roused from these reflections and directed to other dangers whicli appeared to threaten. but in the next he is pictured as a bifrons . He chains the vanquished demons in the centre of the mountain sets Merjan at liberty . amongst other rich spoils.. near the feats . an ancient Persian king. He consults the griffin Simorgh . . and enchanters whom he destroys. In general the Peris or good genii have " when they are in danger of being overpowered the superiority. flies. (Philostrat. among many other Dives. to imitate 33. and kills him after a fierce battle. and he is afterwards put to death by Sohrab. which shook the earth to its foundation. . and as a token of friendship. however. finds a fair captive.

a vivid illumination was suddenly introduced. 24. vol.209. one of whom.) . with such regularity. dial. 4. v.. cast a living serpent 75 into his bosom as a token of regener76 and a private door being opened. these were multiplied with increasing horror. 171. that the snake was generally alive. 135. the torcity of Fehelion. and beheld in every appalling form.) 72 first impulse to the practice of magic. Lucian.. Compare Maur. and see Signs and . (Horn. uEn. Orient Ant. 74 and the flavour of grateful perfumes. p.'1. Symbols. supposed to be commemorative of this combat which was cut into a quadrangular fortification. frowning displeasure.. vol. Ind. He turned his eyes with an involuntary motion to the place from whence these bewailings appeared to proceed. Here. p. Lect. and when the aspirant Was ready to sink under the effects of exhaustion and mental agony. Ant." (Rich. who. TO vi -> P. Seated at rest in this apartment. v. 172. Having pronounced himself disposed to proceed through the remaining ceremonies. between Shuster and Shiraz. Ind.. 1. 996. Ant. as struck him with new and indescribable emotions of terror. until nature could no longer endure the trial . (Wait. with vol. 992.72 vivid HISTORY OF INITIATION and continued flashes of lightning. 71 in streaming fire. appeared to threaten with summary destruction these daring intruders 73 Scenes like into the privacy of their hallowed abodes. p. sheets of rendered visible the flitting shades72 of avenging genii.. Virg. but I am inclined to think from the analogy of other nations. Diss. p.) 74 Zoroaster introduced music into the Persian Mysteries which them a more imposing effect. It has been thought that these illusions gave the Sometimes a serpent of ductile gold was used. he was conveyed into another apartment to recruit his strength. the celestial messenger of the gods. 170. and his outraged feelings were soothed by the sound of melodious music. that it had the appearance of being formed of one entire stone. Odyss. under the conduct of Mercury. 1. Mai.. g ee the 75 (Strabo. 71 8.) ?3 This was the emblematical FIERY GATE of heaven through which souls descended in transmigration. gave Maur.. after a long and solemn pause.. forth such howlings and cries of lamentation and despair. et Merc. a signal was given by his conductor^ and three priests immediately made their appearance . his guide explained the elements of those invaluable secrets which were his initiation more fully developed when was complete. 17. there issued ation.

" i . and 82 changed into 77 78 79 the doors of the seventh vault.) and seven heavens. been triumphantly borne through this accumulated mass of difficulty and danger light.. p. stages of initiation being in a circle.) All these fancies might safely date their origin from the hebdomadal division of time observed by the Creator.. the spirits who inhabit the most distant regions of the air . having successfully threaded the . vol. . and having.. second.) seven names of hell contained in their Scriptures. and it The divine pen was created by the finger of is made of one pearl. p. . Signs and Symbols. as is the space between heaven and earth its breadth equal to the distance from the east to the west. 642.) metan belief of seven hells. Ahriman. (Vid. ' * . the apparent motion of the sun himself. the spirits of the "vasty deep. the scene of some perilous adventure . Maur. their chief.. 81 30 Porph. who devour the corrupted tenants of the grave. p. 262. past. he was passed through some other dark caverns and passages 73 until. and excite earthquakes and con- . p. God that is also of pearls. the Persians held the doctine of seven classes of demons. iv. and enjoined on man by divine authority. Its length is so great. only the angels can understand. were thrown open. . Lect. Idol.IN PERSIA. by the exercise of fortitude and perseverance. self-moved. those who traverse the dense and stormy regions which are nearer the earth. the dwell in charnel vaults and caverns. fourth. it writes all things. but still at an immeasurable distance . The seven hells of the Jewish Rabbies were founded on the p. 389. Signs and Symbols. Ind. and of such length and breadth that a . connected 81 each opening with a narrow stone by winding galleries. Sacellum. or stages of punishment in the infernal regions." (Maracci." which they who vulsions in the globe and seventh. vii. sixth. third. Ant. 8. and demons. 247. 77 Turning from this scene of woe. the spirits who hold a solemn (Vid. Ant. 328. in Fab. referred to the course of the planets round the sun or more probably.. First. the malignant and unclean spirits who hover over the surface of the earth. reign of darkness in the centre of the earth. de Ant. 73 ments of the wicked in Hades. subterranean demons agitate with storms and tempests. p. lest they should change or corrupt anything thereon.. From this doctrine probably emanated the Mahovol. in Southey's Thalaba. that. p. Hist.. p. termed G-hools. 675. 82 The progress of the candidate through the seven Ibid. consisting of six spacious vaults. or his darkness was He was admitted into the spa- Maur. present. Tale of Eustam. fifth. portal. in the " guarded from highest of which the Table of Fate is suspended. iii. Ind... which is accomplished by a movement from east to west by the south. Light is its ink and the language which it uses. Jews. Nymph. vol. Pag. 80 79 labyrinth. It swift horse could scarcely gallop round it in five hundred years is so endowed. 253. 153. ! and to come. In conformity with these seven subterranean caverns. vol. . (Basnage. ii.

88 and dispensers of the myshi order to the 85 sat the ' . . agreed. is infallibly granted. crowned with a rich diadem decorated with myrtle boughs. is considered as being : There is a prevailparticularly consecrated to ineffable mysteries. Pers. which was denominated the sacred grotto of Elysium. (Thalaba. ing opinion. that sometimes on this night. vet. and moved Here symphonies of heavenly music. whatever is asked of God by the 'fortunate beholders of the mysteries of that critical moment. 1. 1004. 80 The ceremony of investiture is described in Signs and Symbols. These potent auxiliaries were very numerous. . that a thousand secret and invisible prodigies are performed on this night . in the East. 1. 86 and habited in a flowing tunic of a bright cerulean tincture 87 round him were arranged in solemn order the Presules. This con83 secrated place was brilliantly illuminated. which covered the awe-struck aspirant with a profound feeling of veneration and. p. 1.. gave rise to many superstitions in different nations. 1. elevated on a throne Archimagus of burnished gold. frequently produced an act of worship. book 81 7 ii. I quote one from D'Ohson " The as a specimen night Leileth-ul-cadr. 10.. p. at which juncture. both in his person and property. Metam. that he might be exempt from all assailing dan90 gers. Maur. It has not. Ant. Apul. A splendid sun 84 and starry system emitted their dazzling radiance. Strabo. the sacred WORDS were entrusted to him. and the glory of God appears visible to the eyes of those who are so happy as to behold it . but it is universally. 380. Ind. and applied to . by an involuntary impulse. and sparkled with gold and precious stones.. now claimed investiture abundance of amulets and talismans were delivered to him and he was even taught the secret of constructing them. however." Southey has a long note on this subject. the firmament opens for a moment or two. vol v. pleased him (says the legend) to reveal it to the faithful. 17. having surmounted the dangers of initia89 and instruction. 1. of which the ineffable TETRACTYS. and that all inanimate beings then pay their adoration to God. Here he was received with congratulations and after having entered into the usual engagements for keeping secret the sacred rites of Mithras. Lect. An tion.) * Herod. Every emblem teries . .74 HISTORY OF INITIATION cious and lofty cavern already described. The aspirant. or Name of God was the chief. forming altogether a reverend assembly.. 58 Hyde de Eel. 83 The radiance which illuminates the celestial abodes.

shells. in Hakluyt. imply Kherchare -is an ass's head placed on fascination or malignant eyes. wejihet. Shebarik. Cheshm benam.. every incident which excited his I subjoin an enumeration life.. whithersoever they goe. a pole in a garden. rings. specimens of wound with 9-2 which. for the most part. gezz. and hung round the necks of horses to defend them from fascination. a tree of which they make amulets for the same purpose. carry such stones with them. ii. nirek. how trivial soever. small beads hung by women round their necks. which overspread the earth like grasse. an amulet. tufts of wool hair^ men's bones. country called Panten or Tathalamasin. Azimet. healing also and closing up the sayd the powder of a certain fish. mikad. i. Jones. reki. p. kyrzehlct..) " In the although the note is already somewhat too much extended. (Asiat.) was an amulet for preventing or curing insanity. beads. nezret. Nirenk. Ghezshghaw were tufts made of the hair of sea-cows. there be canes called Cassan. Bazur and bazubend signify amulets or any kind of ligatures used in enchant- mutemmim. as a charm to gain the affec- every transaction in of many tion of lovers. Atfet or Antefet. cited by Southey. to be launced." to quote a very curious passage on this subject from Odoricus. 275. %c.. hemail tawiz. ment. shuh. Sulwanet. poured from a kind of shell upon the earth. p. Keble.IN PERSIA. the people aforesaid doe. a spherical amulet worn by some women round their waists to prevent pregnancy. or spell against serpents. incantation. keep their husbands faithful. kherez. &c. to guard against fascination. triumph both on sea and land. Res. or other malady.. or Sulother evil. and by others to favour a conAkhzet. (vol. an amulet in form of a knot. a philtre by which necromancers pretended to reconcile enemies.. remain. ferhest. mawiz. which they drink to the health of a person as a cure for love. disease. which the latter word implies. rab. (Dissert." 91 This display was denominated Zvroyia. in which their mysterious dogmata were perpetuated. or dead signify amulets made of shells. latet. and therefore the men of that country. kehal. in his fine poem of Thalaba. or sacred cipher. as we learn from Psellus in his Notes on the Oracles of Zoroaster. which are continued upon the ground almost for the space of a mile. Many also cause one of the armes of their children while they are young. berim. (the name whereof I do not know. putting one of the sayd stones into the wound. vol. but I beg leave cination of malignant eyes. wan denotes water taken from the grave of a dead man. Neju. and out of every knot of them spring foorthe certaine branches. one of which stones whosoever carryeth about with him. for the most part. 75 01 displayed to his view by the divine lighfs in this vast 92 and diversified cavern. Akret. because they are in general fastened round the arm. He was taught the hieroglyphical character. In the sayd canes there are found certaine stones. according to SirW. an amulet for averting the fasThus far Richardson. cannot be wounded with any yron.) which powder doth immediately consolidate and cure the sayd wound. or beads used as amulets. 114.) still . " Nushret of them from Richardson. p. And by the vertue of these stones. &c. 57. which women wear to ception. or any severe affliction.

11. devouring element/ he was prohibited from controlling its progress by the use of water.) which was the Persian paradise. . but he was equally supposed to be resident in the Fire.. equally with the meanest slave. Prid. and some of the devout. The veneration of the Persians for Fire was unbounded. p.UU. 384. 567. but used an instrument made of the purest wood divested of its bark. VOL. trees and plants. Zendavesta. : the Theology of the Pagans. ^so even in private dwellings the richest noble. p. (p. p. the supreme source of 97 created the world at six different light and truth. fifth. as an emblem of ceremonial cleanness. and being clothed in a white garment. and explained in a series of disquisitions. Porph. he covered his mouth with a linen cloth to prevent the possibility of profanation. vet. 15. The Parsis of Guzerat still practise the same superstition. and inspires it with a degree of knowledge which is unattainable without this distinguished privilege. 203. vol. irradiates the mind with some rays of the divinity .. in vit. iii. He then approached the sacred element with the utmost veneration was careful not to pollute it by the use of any metal tool. therefore. (Hyde ut supra. perishing by this 9* 93 Kamsay on J-JLJ VAC. with their offerings. the earth. He was instructed to adore 93 the consecrated fire. The candidate was taught that the benign influence of the superior light derived from initiation. the gift of the deity. and to the was now converted persons of their administrators. 1.76 HISTORY OF INITIATION astonishment during the tedious process of initiation. would not dare so much as to and if his dwellspit in the fire aud every thing it contained were ing. Con. p. . Pyth. p. Perron's Zendavcsta. to a moral purpose.. p.) " God is in the Krishna fire of the altar . 94 as his visible residence. cosmogony was this Ormisda. In the Bhagvat Geeta. IreL. calculated to inspire an irrevocable attachment. alike to the mysteries. 54. 225.. Eel. Hyde. 5 The throne of the deity was believed to be in the Sun. 160. Perron. te ( . Even his breath was supposed to convey pollution (Vallancey. (Strabo. stones. vol. that its pollution was strictly forbidden.) and. Pers. cited by Wait. p. 98 First. waters. the one 9G and the essentially good. 161. vol." The priest alone was allowed to appear in the presence of this Shekinah and he was obliged first to purify himself by washing from head to foot. JLliCJL. and was allowed merely to smother it by throwing earth. 95 He was taught the existence of two independent and equally powerful principles. 276. Anc. _says. . Berhani Kattea. p. fourth. JJ. third.. while offering up his petitions for the public good. Hist. direct their worship unto god in the fire.. i. he made the heavens. second. or any other similar anticombustible substance on it. Notes on Richardson's Dissertation. which was also held sacred by the people. Orient. . J. . the periods. 277 ) Vid. the other irreclaimably evil . Ant p 85. _L 01O. .

vol. by whom. a new germ was introduced. which blew for three successive days from the same quarter. and Fab. vet. ." says the prophet. each drop as large as the head of an ox. vol.. The Lord of Being created his servant free. c. 63. to resign to their superintendence. A tempestuous wind. iii.. (Vid. who were always engaged in a violent contention for pre-eminence. 3. or Mithras. named Ahriman. iii. Hist. p. 105 Vid. Ormisda. 102 by whose in103 a tervention.. b. and was the author of evil. Rel." (Desatir. 105 which was explained by a reference to the change and variety of the seasons . indivisible and without position. 104 p. dried the waters from the face of the earth and when they were completely subsided. which is a free and independent substance. Pers. ii. 101 This Persian doctrine was the foundation of the Manichean heresy. Ormisda created six benevolent gods. Idol. Book 10 of Abad. which the celestials deities were contented . Diog. iii. Hyde. a state of purity and happiness for many ages. without a body or any thing material. by prodigious showers of rain. . if he doeth good he gaineth heaven. called Taschter. in Procem. and referred to the sun. The evil spirits at succeeded in gaining the dominion over one half length of the year. 103 Here we find another evident duplicate of Noah and his triple '* offspring. "separated man from the other animals. de. which produced a general lustration. 19. flood of waters was produced to purify the earth. Bower. another pure being was created. but was at last poisoned by the temptations of a subtle serpent100 who inhabited the regions of genius. 104 This theogony was also inculcated. 59 " Mezdam. et Osir. of a man and a bull. however. 101 and his ascenddarkness. vol. Plut. Pag. Laert. with the assistance of three associates. by which he obtaineth the glory of the angels. and Ahriman formed the same number of malignant spirits. Isid. Perron's Zendavesta. ency upon earth became at length so great as to create a powerful rebellion against the creator. Bryant Annal.. which vexed the Christian Church from the fifth to the ninth century... To coun- teract the effect of this renunciation of virtue.IN PERSIA. > 77 animals and sixth. as before. he was at length subdued. man. if evil. from which sprang the present race of mankind. of Popes. he becometh an inhabitant of hell.) This being was denominated Mtoiroe &eoe." or rather a being compounded This newly created being lived in of a man and a bull.. compounded. p. 160. by the distinction of a soul.

being' symbolical and the latter of the world.. torn. from whom it received its name . 109 On these legends many wild and improbable fictions were engrafted. as a striking emblem of the immortality of the deity. which were emblazoned on the roof The mysterious emblem which of the Mithratic cavern. served to typify these perpetual contests for superiority l(f7 the former was. 2. of the powers of light and darkness." (Book of Abad. and Commentary. Demons. and carried this composition to a place where the rays of the sun never entered. resembleth from beginning to end the grand period that is past. "In Mr. This doctrine is set forth in an Coll..) 111 Rich. And. 2. that the Persians " offered sacrifices of thanksgiving to Oromazes and to Ahrimanes sacrifices to avert misfortunes. 170. Signs and Symbols. At the conclusion of a grand period. Montfauc.) and a particular day of each month was dedicated to him by festal rites and ceremonies. one man and one woman .. 119. which they bruised in a mortar. all the rest of mankind perish and hence mankind derive their origin from the woman and man who sur: vive. but others precisely similar to them will again be produced. two serpents contending for an egg. or light and darkness .) in reference to the solar superstition. ancient Persian book. 109 Calmet says. Dissert. 106 pointing also to the twelve signs of the zodiac. in v. where is a plate of emblem. "In the beginning of each . and knowledge and events of the Grand Period that hath elapsed. 1'Antiq. this Vid. p. Supplem. p. 107 The deity was frequently represented as involved in the folds of a serpent... which has been copied by Maurice into the fourth volume of his Indian Antiquities. only two persons are left in the world. the very forms. who had 106 Thus every month was under the peculiar guardianship of a genius. 183. Dissert. p. Ant.. the omniscient 111 griffin. The Archimagus related to the initiated how the world had been seven times created and destroy- m ed. They took an herb called Omomi. invoking at the same time the god of hell and darkness they mingled with it the blood of a wolf which they had killed. ii. (Rich. And every grand period that cometh. Fox's collection of Persic .. Grand Period. for whom this Much may be seen on this subject in reptile was often substituted. a new order of things commenceth in the lower world. the six summer. for the serpent was a symbol of the sun." (Diet.) u Orient. i. and from whose loins numbers issue in the new grand period. indeed. and hence it was often depicted in the form of a ring with its tail in its mouth. here they threw it down and left it. called the Desatir. and the like number of winter months. 110 how Simorgh. Lect. p. p. ? 108 . which has been recently discovered and translated into English.78 HISTORY OF INITIATION and represented the manner in Which the year was governed by the successive recurrence of summer and winter. vol. not. (Mont. Expl. 211.

she belonged to that class whom the great Solomon compelled to acknowledge him. Caherman name. being sensible how much power she had over him by her submission to the Almighty. He would fain have avoided her. 52. but she was so near. whether Shiah or Sunni. 169. or wicked 113 who waged eternal war with each other. worship the Devatas" (Dives. us u Those who wish for success to their works of this life. they are supposed. 79 existed through all these revolutions of ages. containing a picture of the Simorgh. and when she approached. insertion here. . the reader feels as much surprised at this indignation as Aladin was himself. revealed to a hero. 115 though the former were the most powerful. knew Maimoune. of original may have been Simorgh instead of roc. he must either fight or yield. 11.) (Bhagvat Geeta. or of poaching them.IN PERSIA. in the same to believe that she has so bad a physiognomy volume." (Amours of Carmaralzaman and Badoura. 112 that the first inhabitants were the Peris. either for the sake of drilling the eggs. and malignant in mind differing only from the infernal demons in not being confined to hell but roaming for ever around the world to scatter discord and wretchedness among the sons of Adam. be the height of human impiety. and was seized with fear. there is good reason to conclude that this is not a genuine portrait.) is an illuminated copy of Ferdusi. Perhaps the To think. . (B. 116 and cover the universe with dismay. 114 arid ones." i2 Vid. called Caherman.' . " As Maimoune mounted high to the middle region of the air. Kich. would in a believer. p. he is violently enraged. p. Wretch. wouldst thou From the manner in which rocs are have me hang up my master usually mentioned in the Arabian Tales. still to enjoy distinguished marks of divine favour. indeed. and though guilty of errors which had offended Omnipotence. are depicted as hideous in form. The Dives. on the contrary. from the Arabian Night's Entertainments.. 117 Then succeeded an animated account of books. but too diffuse for . in consequence of their penitence. 117 "The Peris are described as beautiful and benevolent. their contests for superiority were sometimes so violent as to throw nature into convulsion. I should be loth and as. As for Maimoune. blue and yellow horses. and the Dives. Dissert. When the genius of the lamp is ordered by Aladin to bring a roc's egg and hang it up in the hall. who is there represented as an ugly dragon-looking sort of bird.) 116 There is a good account of these Peris and Dives in Calmet's Historical Dictionary under the word Daemons. robbing the* Simorgh' s nest. This genie. and exclaims. will show this fact. In the Peris we find a wonderful resemblance to . she heard a great flapping of wings. which made her fly that way . says Southey in a note on Thalaba. she knew it was a genie who made the noise but it was one of those that are rebellious against God. 115 The following description of meeting between two of these imaginary beings. whose name was Danhasch. there are. Peri.) 14 D'Herbelot in voc. or good beings. .

or carrying vine branches at the feast of tabernacles. follow the direction of this supernatural appearance. whose countenance was found necessary or useful to aid the extension of its schemes. Hyde. bearing ivy branches for which." (Bich. 167. Dissert. (2 Mac.80 HISTORY OF INITIATION the valour and prowess of certain Persian heroes..) 18 seem to claim one common source. a great prophet should appear in the world. p. In the concluding period of the Jewish history. yi. who should be the son of a pure virgin. vanquished giants. by a new and brilliant star in the heavens. p. to sanction the vicious practices of potent individuals. even to the preliminary ceremony of public prostitution in the holy porch. Dynast. the initiated were taught that important prophecy of Zoroaster. like all others which have not the revealed Word of Gro'd for their basis. the adventures of the eastern heroes breathe all the wildness of achievement recorded of the knights in Gothic romance and the doctrine of enchantments . carried on the nifying deception to its utmost extent.. 382. as a last. which he had learned in his travels through India and Egypt that.. The newly initiated candidate was strictly enjoined to initiation. and to appear in the public processions of the Bacchantes as Periphallia.. to whom he was commanded to offer rich gifts and sacrifices. until he had found the new born babe. p. Abulfarag. they had been prepared by their own custom of the ooxoyooia. the desire of all nations. The mysteries being connected with the services of 119 the miserable jugglers who profited by magreligion. 19 vet. 54. the absurd fears of superstition. if it should happen in his day. Hyst. . and made hostile fairies obedient And at the conclusion of the ceremony of to their will. 118 This celebrated system. indeed. Eel. shining with celestial brightness at mid-day. and thus the initiations gradually became so corrupt as to serve as a cloak for licentious indulgences. in future times. and to the latest moment the fairies of the European nations . in both. we find the at Jerusalem profaned by these abominations. destroyed the power of magicians. and the Dives or Genies differ little from the giants and savages of the middle ages . 4. Temple . branched out into numerous abominable rites. and whose advent should be proclaimed to the world. Pers. . and to fall prostrate before him with devout humility as the Creator of the world.) The Jews were compelled to participate in the rites of the Dionysiaca. great secret. who dissolved enchantments.

) 121 120 A . p. vol. in his treatise of Policy. 182." (Stanley's Lives. (xiv. the mother with the son. 121 and it became an axiom in religion. iii. i. Cab. and Chrysippus. that the father may lie with the daughter. 122 Vid. the Egyptians their sisters. 120 these were at length sanctioned. 81 of their powers. 15. in Proosm.IN PERSIA. who were much addicted to incestuous connexions . that the produce of a son and a mother was the best calculated for the office of a priest. Laert. description of the abominations necessarily resulting from such pernicious tenets is displayed in the Apocryphal Book. that all wives ought to be in common. To conciliate the Persian monarchs and nobility.. 1. Fab.) 122 most appalling Strabo. p. and even encouraged in the mysteries . Mys. vol. which led to the grossest obscenities. called the Wisdom of Solomon. "The Persians many their mothers. Diog. Here the phallus was a consecrated symbol. 94. asserts. 22-27.. but Plato more universally saith.. and the brother with the sister .

4 who were prepared for a new accession of knowledge by processes. mysteries formed an important feature in the In of religion practised amongst the Greeks. and penalties of the most sanguinary character. but the ceremonial did not vary in any essential points.. 142. 2 Leg. Strom. No foreigner Schol. (Sopat. Div. in divis. These Mysteries were divided into three degrees. iiiy. p. Death shall be his penalty who divulges the Mysteries.) . 5 The former were denominated the Lesser. because they formed the beaten track of duty which mortal man was supposed to owe to the immortal deities. 5.a&aooia. and ra enonTixa.. and bound to secrecy by fearful oaths. vol. But the highest ceremonies of religion were . (Aristoph. i.. because it was thought dangerous to entrust the ineffable secrets3 to any but a select and chosen few. quaest. to. 3 Clem. HISTORY OF INITIATION IN GREECE. The Eleusinian mysteries were per1 Warb. and these the Greater Mysteries. at once seductive and austere. Plut. and to these rites the THE people of every rank were admitted without distinction. only celebrated in the presence of that distinguished portion of the community which had bound themselves by voluntary vows to preserve the solemn 1 These rites inviolably secret from the rest of the world. rites were known under the high and significant appellation of The Mysteries f and even in them a subdivision had been made. which were Styled TO y. In Greece the mysteries were celebrated in honour of various deities. Alex.) 4 5 is to be initiated into the holy Mysteries. system the institutions of polytheism the gods were worshipped openly by prayer and sacrifice.LECTURE V. . therefore.oa Mvornoia.of a nature too sublime to be exposed to public view: and were.

vol. first boiled his members in water.INITIATION IN GREECE. excited by the steam. hurled his thunder at the Titans. and being restored to his pristine life and integrity. (Potter. and Bacch. in Pamphleteer. Taylor. Mys. 6 a town in Attica. But while they were tasting his flesh. Ant. and perceiving the cruelty of the deed. (Jiowaos) one of the names of Bacchus. the seventh to public games." says Plutarch. mankind were produced. viii. both vocal and instrumental.. 10 At Athens they obtained the most distinguished popularity. the eighth to the solemn purpose of initiation. the 'third was shall 6 " No woman Lycurg. shall be fined 6000 drachms. and the performance of sacred rites ." . ArchaBol. and the ninth to the final ceremonies of libation.. 3. and in making the requisite preparations for the solemnity .. and among the rest he was particularly captivated with beholding his image in a mirror during his admiration of which he was miserably torn in pieces by the Titans . Dionysus. that they might be properly interred.. S3 formed by the Athenians at Eleusis. from the exhalations formed from the ashes of the burning bodies of the Titans. c. heightened by the charms of music. Sic. i. p. tinder the fostering care of Pythagoras and Plato. instituted in honour of the Bromian Dionusus the former. and afterwards roasted them by the fire. was engaged by the Titans. 10 The arcane narration of these mysteries is thus related by Mr. which received their designation from Dionysus. but committed his members to Apollo." 7 The statue of the Eleusinian Ceres by Phidias is now in the public library at Cambridge. during laceration.) thinks it probable that Lenos was derived from the Sancrit Liriga. through the stratagems of Juno. 8 The Bacchic mysteries were equally celebrated. v. in the mean time.) The first day was usually consumed in assembling together. Jupiter. the go in her chariot to Eleusis. 7 every fifth year. the fifth to an illumination with torches.. the second was employed in ceremonial purifications and ablutions in the sea. 383. 1. the fourth to public processions .) 9 Wait (Orient. 210. (Diod. But. so named from Lenos (Arjvosf a wine press. (On the Eleus. properly performed. the sixth to songs accompanied with the music of flutes and brazen kettles. and consisted of the Lenea and the Dionysiaca. again emerged. and were consequently invested with a proportionate degree of splendour and magnificence.) "Dionysus or Bacchus. and was celebrated with much imposing splendour. and were subsequently translated to Kome by Adrian. thus dressed. were a pre. who. paration for the latter. .. 8 This festival was of nine days' continuance. whose heart. was snatched away by Pallas and preserved. while he was yet a boy. Rhet) " appropriated to sacrifice . by a new regeneration. (In and whoever commits theft during the feast kept at that place. vol. in a variety of sports with which that period of life is so vehemently allured . Grec. not content with this cruelty. the brother of And this being Bacchus. the Phallus. he afterwards filled up the number of the gods. p.

Apul. Strom. 1. and was initiated into the mysteries of all nations. 14 This probation embraced many important particulars. a marks a wise head. Life of 12 13 Py th. was intended to abstract their minds from sensible things. the most accurate chronology teacheth that Ezekiel and Pythagoras flourished together. Laert. Alex. the latter to the esotericks. icks. called a quinquennial silence. the Milesian. 11 "Nazaratus the Assyrian. that by analysing the peculiarities of each system. 1. that they might be enabled to reflect on the nature of the deity with a pure and undivided attention.la. the account hinders not but this Nazaratus might be Ezekiel. . The candidate was rejected if found passionate or intemperate.. and he was so impressed with the idea that something more was intended to be conveyed by this solemnity. 7.84 HISTORY OF INITIATION Mysteries were greatly improved. one of Pythagoras' masters. by their age and well-known prudence. and instruction in sacred things by Ezekiel the 11 prophet. Hence the English proverb. that he resolved to devote his life to the discovery. ii. He travelled over the world for knowledge. The former received the rudiments of that knowledge which afterwards elevated him to such a distinguished rank. Florid. Pyth. p. which opinion Clemens (Strom. . Some parts of his scheme would have been unaccountable. from Anaximander His first initiation took place at Sidon . were supposed to possess the requisite qualifications.. 13 This extended trial. This probationary silence differed essenfrom that which was denominated Tcarre^rjs e%[tv&.) oppugns. Selden observes. was by some supposed to be the prophet Ezekiel.. Hence his improved mysteries were the most perfect approximation to the original science which could be accomplished by an idolatrous philosopher bereft of the aid of revelation. conten. He enjoined upon his candidates a probation of five 12 for he esteemed the latter years abstinence and silence virtue as an unobjectionable proof of wisdom." (Stanley. which implied that the initiated were bound to conceal from all the world the secrets of the institution. nevertheless. betwixt the 50th and 52nd Olympiad and. The probation of five years was sometimes partly remitted to those who. The former was peculiar to the exoter- Clem. two years were deemed a sufficient trial. as Mr. With these. in Vit. but from the fact of his Jewish initiation. still Diog. he might discover the source of truth. 14 tongue tially 5. therefore. than the priests were able or willing to explain.

c. 17. or name Jao. on receiving the third degree.IN GREECE. they were And . c... meditation. 20 19 Jambl. 17 (Ibid. some authors suppose. which was expressed by ten commas or Jods. b. 246. The doctrine of Aristotle. Under the first were ranked rhetoric. lg After the lapse of another considerable space of time. or with the point of a sword. and proved in other respects worthy of admission. i. Trigonon mysticum. (supposing it to be derived from the Tetragrammaton of the Jews. as follows:' Monad.) The Oath propounded to the aspirant was made on the number FOUR or Tetractys.) Ov pa TOV d/nere^rj. the contemplation of nature and dialective disceptations. Pythagoras had no sooner established his system at Crotona. &c. the world proceeding from their union. Phil. 29. says Lucian. and were termed Mathematici : "and afterwards. c. ( Jarnbl. Jewish Jamblichus gives us the words of this oath. 17. Pyth. 16 15 Ibid. the passive principle. This triangle. p. &c. Triad. under the other. whence it was termed.) vit." . By the Great Tetractys. each side con taming four . it was Italy afterwards. the liberal Sciences. the more remote and subtle philosophy. he was allowed to receive the first degree. exoteric and acroatic. Notwithstanding this rigid probation.) disposed in form of a triangle. was system of Grecian initiation ranked among the Acousmatici. of Freem. that the unfortunate person frequently expired under its infliction. Quaternary. c. who hath communicated the fountain of eternity to our souls. 15 Pythagoras made tried society in which his fortitude particular enquiry as to the kind of the aspirant had passed his time . Duad. 18 c. they were admitted 20 to the second degree. 12. 6. 29. (Jennings. This Rejection was attended with circumstances so galling to the mind. (De Ant. Jambl. or the active principle. Fire.. 1G he bodily wounds with an and constancy by the infliction of iron instrument heated red hot. in compliment to Pythagoras. than in a very short time he had And " soon all six hundred candidates for initiation. c. or other sharp weapon. nice disputes on the knowledge of civil things .. 17 if he endured these torments without shrinking. denominated Magna Grecia. c. bore a reference to the triune God... See Theocr.) was filled with his disciples and though before obscure. tious or ambitious of worldly honours 85 and distinctions.. . conformably to the 18 and as an exoterick. 20. was of two kinds.

asked. 106. Valerius Maximus relates also. he was asked what was the name of his system. 26 He thought the creation of the world was rhetoric.) Symbols. which were used as the names of propagation. or into the sanctum sanctorum of the philosopher. The Pythagorean system of numbers may be found in Signs and and the Theocr. Persius. and wherein do they differ from others ? Pythagoras answered. and some to 22 21 observe curiously what is there performed. Serm. and fully instructed in the abstruse principles of his philoso- 22 - phy. what are Philosophers. were entitled to all the privileges of esotericks. phers. These despise both glory and employ themselves studiously to inquire into the causes of all things. as a medium whereby to prove taught the mathematics the existence of God from the results of reason and observation. v. one being the father. asked him what art he professed. thus imitating the perfections 25 He of God. Lect. charmed with his discourse. . sTni'nifJj^ and the practice of virtue . I am not Sophos. and arithmetic. as far as is possible in a human being. which are consummated in the number TEN. of Freemas. the idea of all things.86 HISTORY OF INITIATION 21 clothed in white garments as emblematical of purity. and made a great display of his learning before Leo. some for profit. and answered. 6 .) that when Pj'thagoras founded his school. that the great Pythagoric Symbol was ONE and TWO. and to convey happiness to man. ad Eufin. (Stanley. some attend for glory. the prince of the Phliasians. two the mother. B 26 compend. 40. but Philo-sophos. Pythagoras defines his system. but was a Philosopher. that he knew no art. because he conceived that the ultimate benefit of man consisted in the science of numbers. a lover of wisdom . Stobaeus. 23 bv ineditation onjleath. de 5000. In his Lectures. as having had perfect initiation into the mysteries of Pythagoras.J)f_divme humanJaws. wise. 2 * bvpurifym^the bvthe discovery of truth. and logic were taught to cultivate and improve the human reason . that human life is like the Olympic Games. Phil. or Philoso- and profit. Lives. These are inquirers after wisdom. grammar. quaest. surprised at this new name. to which I may add. 23 Psell. 2." (Cicero Tuscul. and from henceforth received the appellation of Pythagoreans.. 5. and admitted within the screen. The multiplication of unity and duity (once twice two) make FOUR. <( Pythagoras went to Phlius. 24 Hieron. p. Lect. The prince. the and true method of obtaining jijknowledge:. Leo. and my followers shall be called Philosophers. He answered. 9 . Sat. the Tetractys.

c. 1. i. effected 87 27 by the harmony of numbers. 31 heads to which he reduced these virtues were institution. is fit for the kingdom of God. to speak the The several truth. It . 29 deities.IN GREECE. away from thyself every edge. 5. referred to justice and Wear not a ring. and fits it for the contemplation of high and immortal things. but search for the true light.. and estimate his infinite perfections. were theoretic and practical virtue. and to render 'benefits to each other. Nicom. for this is worse than absolute ignorance . Arith. of ignorance as the finger is bound with a ring. live not without initiation and be not initiated without contemplation and discipline for initiation. Use prudence. Pass not over a balance.) Pythagoras meant the same thing applied to an inferior purpose. denoted prudence. and is worse than total darkness. no man having put his hand to the plough Pj'thagoras hath said. odd and even numbers. e. ungovernable passion. and abstain from This also Take off thy right shoe first. that they might attain to perfection.. Physic. music. Eat not the heart. with his known axiom. and looking back. Comdisputes or useless divisions. which separates the mind from terrestrial considerations. .. . Look Beware of that state of twilight which not in a glass by candlelight. but be initiated into philosophy. consists in superficial knowledge . and hence all sacrifices to those beings ought to be in Even numbers were for the infernal Geometry. How did Pythagoras reconcile this doctrine of Serv. and ten were the Tetractys. useful. began. for the furies go back with you. Bind not your soul about with the chain equality. Do not rend asunder the social bond which unites your society." (Luke ix. that you may be enabled to find out the nature of the Deity. pithy sentences. . Lay not hold of every one readily with the right hand. and that they existed in the regions of the blessed before the world 28 Odd numbers he assigned to the celestial gods.. Try and prove every one before you admit him into your society as a friend and brother. Travelling from borne. Eat not the brain. or sacred name of God? 31 One of the methods which Pythagoras used to enforce on his of moral virtue. ii. G2. Stob. and introduce virtue into the mind j 30 and he taught that the two most excellent things for man. because he conceived that man is indebted to these sciences for a knowledge of what is really good and odd numbers. by unnecessary Put not meat in a chamber-pot.i was an exhortation to his followers to pass honourably through every Turn degree of his system. in JEn. means. A greater than turn not back. 3. of Light. which were symbolical Sit not upon The following is a specimen of this mode of instruction 27 29 : 28 a Oicenix. was by the use of short and disciples the practice of some great moral duty. and astronomy were inculcated. that the numbers four Stob. He accounted his system vain if it did not contribute to expel vice. Serm. without previous is but to enjoy a faint shadow preparation and subsequent diligence.

. ? art. This symbolical character repreflowers. who. because. and is so extensively useful that it has been adopted in all lodges It is said by since his time. The forty -seventh proposition of Euclid was invented by Pythagoras. this subject further. sented the course of human life. He taught that man knowledge to 32 is endowed with eight organs of which symbolical institution might be . and deliberates which he shall pursue. resembles Light. The right angle or square comprehends the union of the celestial and terrestrial The perfect capacities and was an emblem of Morality and Justice. as a significant symbol of Masonry. A A . is exceedingly doubtful. sees two ways before him. from which celebrated work the above have been extracted. the centre. was a symbol of health. Mesoupoint within a circle. and justice. HISTORY OF INITIATION temperance. refers to God. sense phantasy.88 silence. or the shades of midnight darkness the mists of imperfect information. The letter Y. . pry into futurity. usefully applied and these were. herbs. for such an one will disgrace and betray you. raneo. because Pythagoras abhorred bloody sacrifices. The triple triangle formed of five lines returning into itself. and was called Hygeia. the principle and author of all sublunary things . He the omnipresence of God. and shall be. or the dark The curious reader who wishes to pursue clouds of total ignorance. in his most exalted moments he is not able to . and the necessity of personal immortality holiness to qualify man for admission into the society of the gods and declared his opinion that no man could be accounted happy or miserable till the day of his death . as has already been explained of The cube was a symbol of the mind of man after a the Tetractys. and is. fortitude. well spent life in acts of piety and devotion . If he . lest the remainder of your life be passed amidst the uncertain glimmering of twilight. that Pythagoras sacrificed a Hecatomb on the discovery of this useful problem. or to divine to-day what evils to-morrow may bring upon him. Youth. may find all the symbolical sentences of Pythagoras in Stanley's Lives of the Philosophers. prudence. Sleep not at noon. the proceeded to inculcate of the soul. and in his soul Truth. a perfect figure. square represents the divine mind. arriving at manhood. gods. the mansion of Jove. Shut not your eyes against the Light of knowledge at a time when its hidden stores are most clearly displayed before you. This. municate not your mysteries to an idle or foolish person. because the most excellent body ought to have the most The central fire was esteemed by excellent place. and fruit. viz. in his body. which is thus perfectly prepared by virtue for translation into the society of the celestial symbol of the universe. and directed his followers to offer nothing but cakes and wine. Apollodorus and other authors. The Dodecaedron was also a Pythagoras. He was. symbol of the universe. 32 The following are some of the symbols of Pythagoras : The equilateral triangle. however.

vit. and astronomy. p. though his Institution was the most perfect system ever practised amongst idolaters. which he believed capable of restoring 34 He adopted the division of to its primitive purity. that Truth must be sought for at the bottom of a well. impair his health. because he arranged said that motion began in the East or right side of the world and proceeded towards the West or left side. 56." says Faber (Pag. Sat. it will lead to sloth and luxury. Lives of Philos. and bring on an old age of infamy and misery. See also the Theocr. Syst. (Porph. who were henceforth styled Epopts.. will waste his estate. science. or persons who see things truly as they are and by the well. during which he was subjected to the Pastes. the ceremonial being in accordance with Greek mode. 35 and (Cudw. v. to intimate meet with a guide that directs him to pursue philosophy.. was wont to say. By truth he meant the speculations revealed to the initiated. regeneration. Plato was deeply versed in all the mysteries of anti33 the soul quity. Persius. iii.. and mind. vol. which appears broader and better. the gressive. In a word. yet when he endeavoured to enter the Holy of Holies..IN GREECE. he meant the sacred pit or cavern where the mysteries were so frequently Idol. &c. his assemblies due East and West. geometry. in which the brows of the candidate were encircled with a crown or tiara. embraced arithmetic. and the third. his life shall be honourable and his death happy. Phil. p. and no candidate was admitted to them without an elementary course of study and privation. three degrees. Serai. Intell. because three was a mystical number. "whose philosophy was largely tinged with the doctrines of the Mysteries. wisdom. and takes the left hand path. iii. and began to speculate on the knowledge of God and a future state. .. by being placed in a well for a specified period. 89 He prudence. 188). dediThese degrees were procated to the celestial deities. 35 M In Phaedone. Pyth. as the medium of The first degree was mathematical . where the system of Pythagoras is elaborately explained. 33 Proems says that Plato derived his theology from Orpheus." . Stob. Stanley. 547.. instead of enjoying the brilliant beams of divine truth. But if he omits to do this. opinion. celebrated.) of Freemas. music.) " It was in allusion to such rites that Plato. and he procures initiation. the instruction of the second degree was confined to physics . he was bewildered with childish notions and idle conjectures.

that the of the world had committed all things to their governor superintendence. fell 37 In Timj-eo. in verification of the fable of Phaeton . and appointed to convey sacrifices and supplications from earth to heaven. and Spirit. and blessings and rewards from heaven to earth. after death. and a power of instructing others. steals to him. until. was His doctrines embraced disquisiconfined to theology. but held. as something could not have been formed from nothing. how they conversed with angels in a state of nature and unclothed. meaning of were almost Jews " entirely lost. nature was. Wisdom. that. grief. and preserved in his system a tradition of the first created beings in Paradise . how the earth brought forth its fruits spontaneously to provide these favourites of heaven with food. Penia comes a begging to the door Porus being drunk with nectar. and the creation and ultimate His opinion of the divine destruction of the world. became ashamed of their nakedness. and that they were the authorized mediators between the gods and men. enigmatically describes in his Symposiacks. how they spent their time in innoentitled to and how at length. and there falls Penia observing it. and were cast forth into a world of sorrow. they . from their purity. therefore. or Goodness. 36 He believed that the universe was doomed to be ultimately 37 destroyed by fire. and despair. did understand the ^ymbols by his converse with the history of the Fall of Man. and were. in process of time. 30 De An the uninitiated. became demons. and by this deceit conasleep. Eepub. in Egypt. the second of which emanated from the first. Where he brings in Porus the god of plenty feasting with the rest of the gods after supper. that it contained three hypostases. which he. the homage of divine worship. and the third from both. tions on the nature of God. Origen thinks that Plato. the true intent and and allegory in which it had been enveloped. goes into Jupiter's garden. 1. from the deductions of human reason. the materials must have descended from some pre-existent state. But he taught that all good men. He taught that Grod created the world. . . 38 These traces cence and unoffending simplicity by the suggestions of a serpent. obscure tradition of this event had been propagated in every nation of the heathen world from the dispersion but it had been studiously disguised by fable to keep it secret from the vulgar and 33 ..90 that he had HISTORY OF INITIATION now received the inestimable gift of superior endowments. . v. after his way. which he termed Tagathon Nous Psyche.

12. I 91 of truth fully prove the source whence the mysteries in general proceeded. . ! ! . therefore. 41 To accomplish this abstraction with the greater certainty. that he might be entirely at liberty to devote himself to the study and contemplation of celestial things. 39 He taught the "history of the Deluge. Origen takes notice what a near resemblance the garden of Jupiter hath to Paradise. c. during the celebration of their most solemn rites. to mortify the flesh by the use of certain herbs which were should be capable of revealing the true interpretation. 40 represented the Demiurgus. some were so rigid in this respect. that in Syria. and he inculcated the metempsychosis. or Creator of the universe. This practice was esteemed highly meritorious. if he should adhere too close to the Jews. as literally to proceed to the expedient of emasculating themselves. Hence we are told by Lucian (de Dea Syria. castration was invested with a high degree of supererogatory merit. and submit to the castigaSuch is the ting knife. and thus become a perfect master of every science embraced by the Institu41 tion of which he was the The next despotic head. hence." (Stillingfleet. 1. and Porus to the man who was deceived by the Serpent. Evan. because they bear undoubted marks that at their institution they were commemorative rites pointing to events which actually took place at the commencement of the world. It was an axiom that what is most valuable to man should be offered in sacrifice to the gods and. Penia to the Serpent which circumvented Adam. Prsep. that all inclination to illicit pleasures might be effectually subdued. reputed to possess the virtue of repelling all venereal excitements. In this fable of Plato. ceives by him.). and wrote a book professedly on the subject. Alex. in the presence of the assembled crowd power of enthusiasm . lest he should too much displease the fabulous Greeks. Orig. the unimportant nature of the information. which he called Atlanticus. he had it in reality from the Jews. and. 518. it was customary for these dignified priests. who . the priests would suffer themselves to be attired in female habiliments. he inculcated on his disciples.. Nay. and led a retired life of perpetual celibacy.. and the important doctrine of man's personal responsibility. because of Plato his custom to wrap up those excellent things he knew under some fables because of the vulgar for which he after speaks of his custom in altering and disguising what he had from the Jews. The chief hierophant or dispenser of the mysteries. in the earlier periods of their history. iii. Which he conceives to be the more probable.) 9 The truth is. Strom. p.0 Euseb. Sacr. as Origen has truly testified (see also Clem.. that though Plato professed to have received his knowledge from an ancient tradition. mous among them. who were so infa. 1) but the facts were unaccompanied by the key.IN GREECE. unless some future philosopher should rise up among them.

duct. Dissert. in Apopth. 11... and to fix their minds intensely on the high and supernal celebrations which were performed under the actual inspection of the immortal gods. in white. iii. v. the aspirants were exhorted to abstract their attention from every light and worldly subject.. de Pint. character.. de Leg. because white was an et Vid..) emblem ApuL Metam.92 superior officers herald. and the sterling value of . Signs and Symbols. 15. were four inferior attendants to whose care the less boma. and endured the rigours of 'a nine days preparation after which the ceremonies commenced with prayer and sacrifice. for the petitionary sacrifices (Avnrrixd) of heathen nations were used at the commencement of every important undertaking and success was anticipated in proportion with the degree of sincerity that was used in supplicating the favour of the gods. Sat. ii.. 45 The initiations were preceded by a public festival. Pers. 20. i. 45 46 47 Leg. 40. Plat..) the and the attendant on the altar. Meurs. 47 to an intimate union and communion with whom they were now about to be admitted. et 1. 1. ii. the and the planet Mercury. During the continuance of these preliminary rites. c. Lacon. so a dissolute candidate was uniformly rejected with contempt. of innocence. . Procl. c. 43 The aspirant was required to possess a character of irre44 was reputed to proachable morality j for as the system be without stain of impurity. besides whom there Moon. . and the candidates. c. 1. 42 44 Hence they were habited (Cic. whether male or female. and con.. 46 were carefully purified in the pellucid waters of a running stream. They were denominated Epimelitse. in Ramp. (0 Epi- Three other officers represented the Sun.) 42 HISTORY OF INITIATION were the torch-bearer. Eleusin. and involve it in all the opprobrium of public scorn.) important departments of these mysterious celebrations were committed. (Daduchus. The probationary tests were strict and solemn. 48 The priests then proceeded to invoke a blessing by prayer . 1. as calculated to bring disgrace on the Institution. 11. The most minute colloquial examination of the aspirant was instituted to corroborate the testimony of others so that it would require all the arts of successful imposture to elude the mystagogue's investigations into his former life.. Cic. 48 Arrian. 14. (Ceryx. Lect.

" the victim.. 49 The ceremonies were the officiating priest. who asked publicly. commencement of these services amongst the Romans.. to abstain from brawls and quarrels. in process of time. they were enjoined litibus et jurgiis abstinere. Then the sacrifice was offered with the customary formalities. 4 - Plat. Tiraseo. p 548. pray . "Holy things are for holy people. in. 1." tionably dictated . at the conclusion. who was ashamed of their impurities. the rites of praters. as we learn from the candid and honest report of Herodotus. But. c. xxviii.." 50 " Let us 51 crying with a loud voice.. Christ. 4.. because salt was an emblem of hospitality and 52 friendship and the priest augured from the entrails of : He is fit to be present at this ceremony?*' To which was answered. and harmless men. 12.) ancient oracles in the heathen world were unquesby the spirit of truth for God never left himself unwitnessed by his extraordinary interpositions. as well as by the ordinary dispensations of his providence. wheft the celebration was ended.. 1. with the rites of the Lingam or Priapus &c. before they were suffered to depart. 51 At the M Kellet. ut faverent linguis." and proceeded in due form to make the requests of the attendant aspirants known to the benevolent deities. 465. : proclamation was made. the oracle degenerated and basely sanctioned the introduction of Egyptian Polytheism. opened by "Who it then rejoined. Hist. the strictest equality was observed. Nat. 2. 93 the accompanying offerings. whether the gods were propitious to their If the response were favourable. Hor. "Honest. and a heavy fine was imposed on any opulent person who endeavoured to distinguish himself by an equipage. (Plin. and every person resumed his ordinary station in life. But. the gradations of rank were defined and observed with their accustomed regularity. 1. 62 ** The most (Kale's Anal. vol. initiation were forthwith celebrated..) . seasoned with salt. During the whole continuance of the festival. celebrated at Samothrace likewise. Sat.IN GREECE. p. that the people should govern their tongues and. Juvenal. Od. Tricsen.. good.




THE place of initiation was a gloomy cave, 1 or rather a connected range of caverns, 2 fitted up with machinery that might display, with full effect, all the terrors of the Streams of water ran through various parts of process. its dismal area ; which served equally for the purpose of lustration, and to shadow out the diluvian waters pervading the material world. The cavern was ritually consecrated3 and secreted from vulgar observation by being

The Nympheum, or place of

initiation in Greece, is thus briefly

described by

at the

And crowns

head a branching olive grows, the pointed'clifts with shady boughs,

Beneath a gloomy

grotto's cool recess, Delights the Nereids of the neighbouring seas Where bowls and urns were form'd of living stone, And massy beams in native marble shone On which the labours of the Nymphs were roll'd, Their webs divine of purple mix'd with gold. Within the cave the dust' ring bees attend Their waxen works, or from the roof depend. Perpetual waters o'er the pavement glide ; Two marble doors unfold on either side Sacred the south, by which the gods descend; But mortals enter at the northern end."

POPE, Od.,



v. 122.

The gate of entrance

for the aspirant

was from the north ; but when

purged from his corruptions, he was termed indifferently, new-born, or immortal, and the sacred south door was from thence accessible to
bis steps.
2 Vid. ut supra, p. 16. Plut. de Isid. et Osir., p. 639. The most celebrated of- these Greek caverns were the caves of Eleusis, Athens, the grotto of Trophonius at Lebadea in Beotia, and the horrid subterraneous dens of Samothrace. 3 In Egypt and other nations, the place of initiation was a pyramid erected over a subterraneous cavern. It appears to have been dedicated to that purpose with an intensity of labour that produced the The Arabians solidity which bids defiance to the ravages of time. have a tradition, says Greaves, in his Pyramidographia, that the Egyptian pyramids were built by Saurid Ibn Salhouk, king of Egypt



the reputed residence of the vindictive deities, whose vengeance, it was believed, would undoubtedly descend on the unfortunate intruder, who, by accident or design, should penetrate unbidden within the sacred precincts. 4
lived three hundred years before the Flood The pyramidal form of building was adopted alike for its firmness and durability; and its symbolical reference to the Sun from an imitation of the spiral flame. And what are the spires of our present churches but an imitation of this primitive system of pyramidal architecture ? 4 Maundrell has accurately described one of these places of initiation near Tortosa, which, however, he erroneously conceives to be a double " The first antiquity that we observed," says he, sepulchral monument. was a large dyke, thirty yards over at top, cut into the firm rock Its sides went sloping down with stairs formed out of the natural rock, descending gradually from the top to the bottom. The dyke stretched in a direct line from east to west, more than a furlong, bearing still the same figure of stairs running in right lines all along its sides. This dyke was on the north side of the Serpent Fountain" (Pinkert. Collect, of Travels, vol. x., p. 315.) Mr. Maundrell then describes a spacious court cut in the rock containing an altar or cromlech, and two " Each pyramidal towers at the distance of about half a mile from it. of these towers," says he, u has under it several sepulchres, the entrances into which are on the south side. It cost us some time and pains to get into them, the avenues being obstructed first with briars and weeds, and then with dirt, but we removed both these obstacles. Going down seven or eight steps, you come to the mouth of the sepulchre, when, crawling in, you arrive in a chamber which is nine feet two inches broad, and eleven feet long. Turning to the right hand, and going through a narrow passage, you come to a second room, which is eight feet broad and ten long. In this chamber are SEVEN cells for corpses, two over against the entrance, four on the left hand, and one unfinished on the right. These cells were hewn directly into the firm rock. measured several of them, and found them eight I would feet and a half in length, and three feet three inches square. not infer from hence that the corpses deposited there were of such a gigantic size as to fill up such large coffins ; though, at the same time, why should any men be so prodigal of their labour as to cut these caverns into so hard a rock as this was, much farther than necessity required ?" (The fact is, they were never intended for corpses, but as t; On the south conveniences for the terrific machinery of initiation.) side of the first chamber was a narrow passage of seven feet long, leading into a third room, whose dimensions were nine feet in breadth, and twelve in length. It had eleven cells, of somewhat a less size than the former, lying at equal distance all round about it. Passing out of the first room foreright. you have two narrow entrances, each seven feet long, into a fourth room. This apartment was nine feet square ; it had no cells in it like the others, nor anything remarkable but only a bench cut all along its side on the left hand." This was the sacellum. Several other similar (Maundrell, ut supra, p. 316.) ranges of subterraneous caverns are found in the same neighbourhood,
! '



which might


and probably were, connected together.



crowned with serpents the symbols performed their dreadful and unhallowed 11 Oil lll^dlJ I/CIHUIIO commenced VVJ.U1J. Their incantations VyViJlllAltxli^v;a with the consecrarites. llLtiS. 5 the creation of tion of an egg, to commemorate equally tl believed to have which were traditionally belli all things, 6 sprung from an egg formed by the deity and the reno-

Here the

of initiation


vation of mankind by the great father. The first actual ceremony among the Greeks was to him with purify the aspirant with water, and to crown 7 myrtle, because ^he myrtle tree was sacred to Proser8 pine; after which he was free from arrest during the celebrations. 9 He was then introduced into a small cave 10 or vestibule to be invested with the sacred habiliments;
" 6 Plat. Sympos., 1. ii., q. 3. Hyginus has preserved a curious tradition respecting the Assyrian Venus, in which the arkite dove, and the mundane egg, make a very conspicuous appearance. An egg of wonderful magnitude was reported to have fallen from heaven into the river Euphrates, and to have been rolled by fishes to the bank. Upon it sat doves ; and out of it was at length produced that Venus, who

was afterwards styled the Syrian goddess." (Fab. Mys. Cab., vol. p. 81, with authorities.) Nigidius and other authors have recorded the same thing.

Vid. Grot. De Verit., i., s. 16, in nota k. Schol. Aristoph. Ranis. 8 The machinery of these mysteries is thus described by Psellus in a Greek MS. quoted by Taylor in his dissertation on the Eleusinian and Bacchic mysteries. (Pamphleteer, vol. viii.) " The Eleusinian mysteries consisted in representing the fabulous narration of Jupiter mingling with Ceres and her daughter Proserpine. But as venereal connections take place along with the initiations, a marine Venus is represented as arising from certain fictitious genital parts ; afterwards the celebrated marriage of Proserpine with Pluto takes place, and those who are initiated sing, I have eat out of the drum, I have drank out of the cymbal, I have borne the mystic cup, I have entered into the " bed.' (This is evidently the Pastes of the mysteries, in which the aspirant for the higher degrees was immured during the period of his " But the pregnant throes likewise of Ceres are repreprobation.) sented." (Here Ceres is the ark ; and her pregnant throes refer to the dismemberment of that sacred vessel, and the egress of the hero " Hence the supplications of Ceres are exhibited ; her drinking gods.) of bile, and the pains of the heart After all this, the honours of Bacchus succeed ; the cista, and the cakes with many bosses like those of a shield likewise the mysteries of Sabazius, divinations of the priestesses of Bacchus a certain sound of 'the Thesprotian kettle, the Dodoncean brass another Corybas, and another Prosperine, who are resemblances of Demons," &c., &c. 9 " No one shall be arrested or apprehended during the celebration of the mysteries." (Demosth. in Mediam.) 10 Chrys., Orat. 12.






after which his conductor delivered him over to the raystagogue, who then commenced the initiation with the prescribed formula, E%as, Exas, eore fierce, Depart hence, all ye profane ; and the guide addressed the aspirant by exhorting him to call forth all his courage and fortitude, as the process on which he was now about to enter was And being led forward of the most appalling nature. a series of dark passages and dismal caverns, to through represent the erratic state of the Ark while floating on the troubled surface of the diluvian waters, 11 the machinery He first hears the distant thunder opens upon him. 12 pealing through the vault of heaven, accompanied by the howling of dogs 13 and wild beasts an apt representation of the confusion which prevailed amongst the multiplicity of domestic and ferocious animals during These the period of Noah's confinement in the Ark. terrific noises rapidly approach, and the din becomes r tremendous, reverberated, as it doubtless w as, in endless from the echoing vaults and lofty caverns repetitions, within whose inextricable mazes he was now immured. Flashes of vivid light now broke in upon him, and rendered the prevailing darkness more visible ; and by the momentary illumination he beheld the appearances by which he was surrounded. Monstrous shapes and appa14 demoniacal figures, grinning defiance at the ritions, intruder ; mystical visions and flitting shadows, unreal 15 phantoms of a dog-like form, overwhelm him with


was a rude and fearful march through night and darkness. apud Warb. Div. Leg., vol. i., p. 235.) 12 It has been asserted that the Egyptians, and hence probably the Greeks, were acquainted with some chemical process to produce an


If (Maur. Ind. Ant., vol. vii., p. 671.) explosion like gunpowder. this be correct, the imitative thunder is easily accounted for. 13 St. Paul admonishes the heathen converts to beware of dogs. They were symbols of the xay.odaificov, or evil genius, (Phil, iii., 2.) and were used and worshipped in the way of propitiation.

Monstrum, horrendum, informe, ingens


lumen ademptum.



The celebrated Barker Pletho. Schol. in Orac. Zoroast., p. 131. Anubis (latratorem, semicanem deum. ^En., 1. viii.) was exhibited. Cerberus, the infernal monster, was here represented in mimic show with his three heads, which are said by Porphyry to have referred to the rising, southing, and setting of the Sun (Apud Euseb. prsep. Evan., 1. iii.) and hence it is a reasonable conjecture that this noisy, latratory porter of hell was nothing more than an emblem of the

solar orb.




In this state of horrible apprehension and 11 he was kept three days and nights. darkness,

18 He was covered with the mystical death of Bacchus. the pastos or bed; or in other words he was subjected to confinement in a close cell, that he might reflect seriously, in solitude and darkness, on the business he was engaged in ; and be reduced to a proper state of mind for the 19 This was reception of sublime and mysterious truths. 20 the symbolical death of the mysteries ; and the deliverance from confinement was the act of regeneration or

With passions thus excited, the aspirant was now made to perforn the aphanism, or ceremonies commemorative of

new-birth and hence the renovated aspirant was termed womb of his natural l6 Si<pvr or twice born ; once from the mother and again from the pastos of initiation. During the period of his imprisonment in the cell, he was
16 Proclus. in Plat. Theol., Orig. cont. Gels., 1. iv.




Dion. Chrys., Orat. 12.

" The scriptural account of it is very brief, yet it sets forth Fabec. one circumstance of high importance. There was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days ; they saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days. It appears, then, that the duration of the preternatural darkness was precisely equal to that of the darkness of the Mysteries." (Fab. ut supra.) 18 Or Osiris for Bacchus and Osiris were one and the same mytho;

17 Fab. Pag. Idol., vol. iii., p. 156. This ceremony had a particular and intimate connection with the Egyptian plague of darkness, says

logical personage,

(Auson Epig. 30,) as were also Ceres and Isis ; and as such they will be considered throughout this description of the mysteries of Greece. (See on this point, Fab. Mys. Cab., vol. i., p. 155.) The same rites were also celebrated by the Phrygians and Byblians in honour of Attis and Adonis or Thammuz. (Lucian de dea Syria., s. 6, 7. Vid. Ant. of Masonry, p. 104.) The death and resurrect! on of Osiris or Adonis has been made an emblem of the sowing and sprouting cf corn; (Vid. Voss. de Idol.,) but I think this idea is of modern date, and was borrowed from St. Paul.





(1 Cor. xv., 36, et seq.)
19 In some of the mysteries a statue resembling a dead body, ( Jul. Firm, de error Prof. Rel., p. 45.) was enclosed within an ark, (JPlut. de Isid. et Osir., p 378,) shaped like a cresent ; to represent the mystical death of Noah when enclosed in that sacred vessel. (Apuleius, 1. ii.) In Egypt the symbol in which Osiris was feigned to be incarcerated was sometimes a wooden cow, because that animal was emblematical of the ark. (Fab. Pag. Idol., vol. i., p. 34, and refer to plate 42 of Pococke's Description of the East, vol. i., p. 108.) An oration was pronounced over the body by the hierophant, relating most probably to the Deluge. (Diod. Sic., 1. i.) 10 Orph. Argon., v. 28.

de Isid. The ceremonies. a place which was then inhabited by a race of people called autochthenes. and his scattered limbs. 158. p. 151. c. quoted by Mr. for now was the representation displayed of the waters of the Deluge breaking forth from Hades to inundate the globe. accompanied 21 27 by many minute ceremonies. in the course of her wanderings arrived at the boundaries of Eleusis. of the period in which the waters of the Deluge actually increased upon the earth. of the same luminary in the west. 25 Minuc. probably. 12.) and hence the propriety of the fable. as Osiris was of the patriarch Noah (Fab. which supplied the whole earth with men and animals after the waters had subsided. her body begirt with a serpent. and Osir. whose names were as follows Baubo and Triptolemus Dysaules. women. In this Allegory we must view Osiris as the ark itself rather than the diluvian patriarch. vi. accompanied with frantic shrieks and furious gesticulations . . a 24 22 Jambl. and a flaming torch in her hand. and despair. (Gen.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. i. vol. 26 These lamentations were figuratively said to continue forty days.) or the Deluge. 22 discovered the ark in which he had been secreted. 25 with lamentations 26 for the loss . torch was a symbol of Diana. so contradictory to each other. Fel. and which would unquestionably salute the ears of Noah while enclosed within the vessel of safety. that there exists much difficulty in reducing them to order. which prevailed throughout the world at the universal destruction of animated nature.. however enveloped in mystery by the ritual of initiation. Typhon was a personification of the sea. and violently 23 scattered the limbs of his victim rending it asunder. 363.. over the face of the earth amidst the din of dissolving nature. Cab. p. 99 alarmed by a crash resembling the rush of waters bursting with sudden impetuosity from a deep abyss.. or the deafening fall of a tremendous cataract . in commemoration. The monstrous Typhon. 354. consternation. to symbolise the death-shrieks and exclamations of terror. s. goddess Ceres. in many respects. A . accompanied with doleful cries and howlings of men. will show one of the practices used both in " The Egypt and Greece.. 5. and animals. . whose representative he was. at the period of initiation..) 27 The following account of a disgusting ceremony. 24 The aspirant heard the lamentations which were instituted for the death of their god. which : continued.. its contents. or descended from the earth. when searching through the earth for her daughter. vii. reversed.p. p. Upright. however. 21 raging in quest of Osiris. of the Sun in the east. Plut. . in the Attic region. Taylor from Arnobius. ut supra. Mys. a goatherd Eubulus. de Myst. were. (Plut. Then commenced the wanderings of Rhea in search of the remains of Bacchus..

176. 218. Orient. 30 Ovid (Metam. whether males or females. which accounts for the gross obscenity of these rites. p. from whom the race of the Eumolpidse descended. and determined to try if she could not exhilarate by prodigies a mind which she was not able to allure by serious attempts. (Pamphleteer.. either naked.. p. Sometimes the sexes exchanged clothes. For this purpose she entreated her to pay attention to the refreshment of her body. and who afterwards flourished as bearers of the Caduceus. and placed before her a miscellaneous potion to assuage the vehemence But the sorrowful goddess was averse to her of her thirst. an abomination expressly forbidden to the Israelites in the law of Moses. 1. who persevered in her refusal with unshaken constancy and invincible But when Baubo had thus often exerted her endeavours to rigour. some bearing the thyrsis . and the illustrious name of Cecropidae was derived.) states distinctly that Priapus and Dionysus were one and same person . p. some habited in splendid attire.. Letters on Egypt. 68. et passim. vol. de. neither shall a man put on a woman's garment. as her guest. Bishop CumberThe land's Treatise on Sanchoniatho's Phenician History. with crowns 28 or mitres on their heads . keeper of swine and Eumolpus.. p. 29 Plut. Bacch. but without any effect. covered with very 30 mixed promiscuously. sound of musical instruments played by the Corybarites . who was not easily repulsed. received Ceres. appease the sorrows of Ceres..) The Thyrsis was a long pole adorned with garlands and ribbons. she at length changed her arts. Vid. or merely covered with a thin transparent garment. Ant. still continued her entreaties. the Sophocles addresses Bacchus as " Immortal leader of the maddening choir. The bacchantes are generally depicted on gems. some the sacred vessels. . solicitations. viii. Isid. however. a shepherd. v. intermixed with sprigs of the vine and leaves of ivy (Eurip.) that which pertaineth unto a man. (Savary's phallus amongst the Egyptians was the symbol of fertility.. et Osir. The initiated. 5. and endeavoured to soothe her sorrows by obsequious and flattering attendance.. iv." And in this she succeeded by an expedient too obscene to be detailed here. (Deut. therefore. vol. 29 while others. Hierophants. 6. 40. for a considerable period. The matron. for all that do so are abomination unto the Lord 28 thy God. 336. Baubo. wearied with complicated evils. and danced to the little clothing. xxii.) and having at the end a conrcal fruit like a pomegranate or pine.) says that they had the skins of beasts thrown over their naked bodies. and Cryers belonging to the sacred rites. 31 ..100 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and rejected the friendly officiousness of the hospitable dame. which points out the very early date of a custom which was the source of many " The woman shall not wear licentious pollutions. which were as obstinately resisted by Ceres. who was of the female sex. which was imitated in the initiations. It represented the phallus." 31 Wait.. v. ii.) Athenseus (1. i. Whose torches blaze with unextinguish'd fire .

p. Who. p. p. Come with thy Naxian maids.. 366." FRANCKLIN. Cohort. Great son of Jove. Protrept. vol.. The dance progressively increasing in rapidity and wildness. et Osir. a festive train. when lamenting that the Israelites ate the offerings of the dead. Wait. rushed amongst each other as if they were distracted . Idol. and hence Dr. we have foundit let us rejoice to36 for now the Euresis. 36 Athen. 34 and practised the most abominable filthiness. Cohort. and vociferating32 that their god had been murdered by the Titans.. p. Legat. et vide etiam Plut. 34 bols. The cry was Evoe Sabai Bacchi Hues Attes ! ! ! ! ! Hues ! all of which were names of Bacchus. Alex. 88 ... gether and it was announced that the mangled corpse was found. however.) August. 17. 33 It was of this period of . 35 Clem. 7. c... Ant. wild with joy and raging o'er the plain. living serpent was inserted into the bosom of the all this ! ! In the midst of affrighted candidate. (Fab. 33 threw themselves into lascivious postures. presidest o'er the nightly song the dance'prepare. Some say that a serpent of ductile gold was used. ad Gent. who guid'st the tuneful throng. (xxxiv. that Salutation to the first existent !" this species of invocation was borrowed from the patriarchal worship. 214. Dei. de Civ.. p. and restored from the darkness of death to life and hope.) thus writes the passage in the Sanscrit . p. as if under the influence confusion. soon degenerated into a scene of ment The whole party.) nated in the east. 37 Clem Alex. iv. a signal from the a sudden turn to the feelings and exhierophant gave pressions of the mystae . 9. Pag.. Aho! Sivl! 1st. 101 blended with the howlings of despair for the dismemberof their god. c. to thee devote the strain. p. Thou who For thee 33 37 which passing through his garments . 11.) by eleven appellations. incontinently threw off the remaining articles of their apparel.) where God himself announces his divinity initiation that David speaks. or discovery. Signs and Symgraceful worship of Baal Peor. their mourning was changed into joy. de Isid. vi. (Orient. and the aspirant was emancipated from his confinement amidst peals of laughter and deafening shouts of Ev^y. 178.a^ev. Alex.. of some supernatural fervour. 1. (Clem. 116.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. 28. Sic. Evyxatoopev. iii. during the dis(Psalm cvi. Diod. 3. Ad'histl Ady6 seva! which is thus translated. "Hail! O Siva! Lord! Supreme Lord! It is more probable. ad Gentes. See Exodus. These exclamations are said by Strabo to have origi1. 35 A confusion.. was celebrated. 6.

was initiated into the mysteries of Ceres. a multitude of disembodied spirits. vol. and affrightinent. who.. 44 shewn 38 This ceremony was said to be commemorative of the ravishment of Proserpine by Jupiter in the form of a serpent (Euseb.. preserved "is nothing but errors and uncertainties. allowed to ask any questions. v. 12 Warb. which are the reward of the virtuous initiaThe perturbation of his spirits was here allayed ted.. vi. and the shrieks of woe by which those lost creatures vented the unavailing sorrows of repentance. praep. JEn. 43 " Let no petitionary address be made at the mysteries. which possesses the power of self-regeneration by emerging periodically from its old skin and coining forth in all the beauty and vigour of youth so the aspirant was purified and born anew by the sympathetic efficacy of the same animal brought into close contact with his naked body.) .) 40 41 Fab. 1." (Andoc. Leg. stage of initiation. which represented the turbulent race of ante40 Then the aspirant. symbolized by a serpent. p.) or more properly to signify that as the parent of the present race of men was regenerated by his confinement in the ark. diluvians who perished in the Flood.. 225. before his descent into hell.. during the intervals of howling and lamentation. trembling. or betrayed the mysteries. i. thronging to clamorous at being procure a passage over the river. It is ail horror. evan. was shewn the torhaving ments of those miserable wretches. his attendant explained the nature of the crimes which led to this dreadful termination. Cab. crossed the river in a boat. and shining plains and flowery meads open on all hands . amongst which. 41 had been condemned to everlasting punishment. for their vices. when delivered from the Pastos. closes itself . 43 Leaving this place of horror and desthe sound of pair. But this scene once past. vol. Here. . 752. p. Div. de st. and refused . laborious wanderings a rude and fearful march through night and darkness. Mys. 838. the aspirant was conducted forward to music. a miraculous and divine light disfirst 4441 My The by Stobaeus. the descent into ducted onwards. 38 at the skirts of his robe. everything wears a dreadful aspect. 5.102 HISTORY OF INITIATION. sweating. or even to speak during the ceremonies. 39 the infernal regions was the next adventure he was to was taken out On the banks of a sluggish stream he was accomplish. and soon entered on the plains of ravishheavenly ing delight. 278. (Apollod." says an ancient writer.. Bibl. and being conwithout time to reflect. ii-> c. 39 Thus Hercules. . 1. i.. And now arrived on the verge of death and initiation. the highest degree of punishment was assigned to the impious race who either refused 42 But he was not initiation.

and celebrate the sacred mysteries at pleasure. and . and that this secret was laid open to him by Leo the great priest of Egyptian sacred things . Saturn. 46 as a striking symbol of the mind of the initiated. Tully. (c. 235. 48 " Augustine in the eighth book.. apud Warb. Div. &c. he was introduced into the sacellum. p. not far from the beginning. and no longer under restraints but crowned and triumphant. which served to distinguish the initiated from the rest of the world. p.verdant plain s of Elysium and the souls of the just were exhibited in the enjoyment of those pure delights which constitute the reward of piety and virtue. Orat. and that majorum gentium dii were such . Quaest.. brilliantly illuminated and shining with a divine splendour. Even Plato denominates the illuminated sacellum. (nocte medio vidi Solem candido coruscantem lumine). de Civitate Dei. were men ..) 47 Themist. i. At this stage of the initiation the hierophant delivered a lecture on the nature and design of the mysteries . Jupiter. vol. that the memory of their greater kings was preserved. converse with pure and (Warb. in his Tusculan Questions. and Atticus. in a famous volume. (Metam.. 273. and he enjoyed the exhilarating vision. Juno.. 1224. and hence arose the custom of sacrificing . they walk up and down the regions of the blessed. by scenes 103 in which were depicted the ever. holy men. Apuleius. the priest confessing to him this secret. in Patrem. And now become perfect and initiated. and having been purified.. the insignia of the Order. p. now emerged from pristine darkness into a full scientific and moral illumination 47 for he was greeted by the envied appellation of Epopt. before them. vol. they are FREE. in divis. The like Cyprian affirms. p. 46 45 (Pheed.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. i. accompanied by certain significant tests. I doubt not but Alexander. with the sublime doctrines of sacred knowledge. that even the gods of the higher rank.) says that at the close of his initiation he saw the sun at midnight shining with a glorious brightness. /uaxa()iav 6yirf a beatific vision. Here they are entertained with hymns and dances. and that almost all heaven was filled with men." Div.. 231. And.) tells us that Alexander wrote to his mother. that we may not suspect these Christian writers. only he saith it was written to his mother insigni tfolumine. The hero-gods passed in review before him. Cicero. Leg.) : Sopat. Leg. animated further by a hymn which was chanted on the subject of the prevailing mythology. The aspirant then underwent a 45 lustration. owns that those who are initiated must know that they worshipped men's souls departed from their bodies into heaven . . and with reverend and holy visions. requiring the letter to be burnt after it had revealed this to her. being fully instructed in the nature and attributes of the divinity 48 and the doctrine . 5.

Homer's rhapsodies be repeated.) of the return of the diluvian waters into their subterranean recesses. The unity of the godhead was inculof a future state. an ark.104 HISTORY OF INITIATION. might easily. de Veritate.. and Iphianassa. and Yarech. Bryant and Mr. cated . p. a thigh. in the religious initiations of the heathens .. enacted that at the celebration of the Panathenaea majora. be substituted the one for the other. Metam. and the preservation of Noah in the ark. except eight persons. c. 18. which was not communicated even to those that were initiated into the Lesser Mysteries. 1. (Apollod." (Cumb. i. and a series of mythological allegories that darkly shadowed out the events of the Deluge.. Cudw. which bears an inscription to the same purport. s.) 49 Euseb. Hesiod terms them gods. by the fanci.. he is the primitive source of all things there is ONE God .. as Mr.) The former by their impiety set at defiance the divine power and justice. The overthrow of Typhon was but a representation Bibl. 50 Proclus (in Tim. ONE power. 123. were admitted to be acquainted with the Greatest Mysteries. Iphinoe. Metam.. for the rebellious Titans were no other than the It is whole antediluvian race of mankind. Hi. Intell. 348." (Lycurg. The fable of the Titans making war on Jupiter was an instance of the allegorizing spirit of idolatry. and that they have truly told us that this worship of such great men as were the founders of arts and civil government. 838.) we have already seen. evan. Isis. Faber are decidedly of opinion the story of the birth of Bacchus amidst the thunder and lightning which destroyed his mother Semele . 1. p..) 53 To enumerate these legends would require a volume. The wanderings of lo. The murder of one of the Cabiri by one of his brothers. Diod. was the grand secret of it . 51 " 1. 95. as (Ovid. &c. were but figurative allegories of the erratic and desultory voyage of the ark and the same event is referred to in the fable of the wanderings of Lysippa.. Ceres. Rhea. the doctrines of purgatory. (Theog. like the death of Osiris and Bacchus. c. Sanch.. prasp. Bibl. ful genius of polytheism. who were hence sometimes distinguished by the appellation of the just Titans. xiii. 10.) and his being enclosed in the thigh of Jupiter. Many testimonies to this effect may be seen in Grotius. . transmigration. Syst. p. ONE Jupiter Serapis. and ONE Ruler over all!" 50 These disquisi51 tions were mixed up with the rhapsodies of Homer. The expedition of the Argonauts might have a reference to the Deluge. in which the latter were destroyed. was only the fable of the Deluge. Elian. 6. in Leocr. related to the symbolical death of Noah. 49 and during the process of celebration the following truth was repeatedly proclaimed: "Jupiter is King.) The descent of Hercules to hell. (Ovid. and were lost in the Flood.) mentions a gem of Serapis. (Vid. who were struck with madness for having despised the Bacchic mysteries. were derived from the regeneration of . Sanchoniatho also. 52 accompanied with diffuse and mys. 1.. Ets Zevs Zaqams. 1. iv. v. for Arcch. i. s. v. To the same effect was the tradition of the contest between Jupiter and the giants.. and the restoration of Hyppolitus to life. the three daughters of Pretus or Minyas...

Losing no time to provide the renovated globe with inhabitants. Thessaly. Thus if sickness were inflicted by a hostile god.) was exhibwith shameless impudence. or the mysterious doctrine that the ark was the common mother of the human race. Young persons wore enchanted girdles to excite love towards them in the other sex. I. and in like manner. and Noah. for a bull was the symbol of Noah. a relic. i. and the submersion of the island of Atlantis is a The account of the deluge of plain description of the same event. 177. (Ovid. i. 100. ritually consecrated. and suspended from the afflicted person's neck. i.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. (Apol. Mys. would speedily remove the disease. as the animals spontaneously followed Noah into the ark.. Amulets were then delivered to him as preser54 vatives against personal danger. was believed to insure the special favour and protection of the deity. so Orpheus is said to have drawn after him the brute creation by the force of Harmony.) The fable of the rape of Europa affords another view of the same transaction . The garments which ..clad in a purple vest with golden zones. p. and the cup was the ark . and.) It requires little ingenuity to interpret this fable . the legend of Hercules sailing over the world in a golden cup bears a decided reference to the Deluge. and destroyed the whole race of men except himself and Pyrrha his wife. 1. 53 This emblem was one of the abominations which defiled the mysteries. Cab. pronounced in a state of pure and ineffable light. a general 'deluge inundated the earth. by what name soever he might be distinguished. who were preserved in a ship which finally rested on the summit of Parnassus. When the waters had subsided. is less impregnated with mystery than any of the During the reign of this prince over the kingdom of preceding. (ut supra. or perfectly initiated candidate.) as a cow was an emblem of the ark itself. described as emblems of the mystical regeneration and new birth attained by the aspirant from the divine qualities of the 53 He was then crowned and enprocess of initiation. terious strictures on the abstruse points of 105 human gene- ration. Argon. we have already seen.. the father. this insulated pair were commanded by an oracle to restore the human race by casting behind them the bones of their mother. and were astonished to behold the crowds of men and women by whom they were speedily surrounded. and he was instructed Noah in the ark. as ited. Deucalion. with whom the priests were reputed to hold an intercourse. . 64 With this superstitious people. for Hercules was the arkite god. either from the sin of Ham. vol. even in public processions. Its origin has been variously explained but it certainly sprang. of which the visible symbols were Phalli. however. and throned. Metam.. and accordingly it was delivered without disguise to the Epopt. (Fab. as was also the descent of Orpheus in search of his wife. or the god of the ark. and safe from henceforth under the protection of the celestial deities. which referred to the loose stones which lay scattered on the surface of the earth. p. an amulet consecrated to a superior deity. they cast behind them a multitude of stones.

lunette floating on the surface of the ocean. because they believed that Noah's dove was of that . which subsequently became established principles in their system of mythology. and hovered over the retreating Hence a waters like a celestial harbinger of safety.) 55 Hence the incident of Christ walking on the sea is a striking proof of his divinity.. obligated aspirant by a grasshopper knowledge by an 55 ant . Res. in Plut. and encircled by a rainbow. p. and afterwards children were invested with the tattered remnants. and had been introduced with great propriety. a cloud. an . laps. the Saivas use this figure to signify emblematically.. 25.. because being alternately conjoined constitutes a figure of five lines. messenger of peace. vol. Schol.. The fable of Ixion bore this reference. . Lives. 62. which were denominated to vyeiai. (Gen. viii. p. for the morality of the in a series of visible symbols. as undoubted preservatives from the malign effect of all diseases to which their tender age is by nature exposed. the circumstance of the patriarch reaching out his hand to and bring it into the ark before the waters had subsided.) and Job says that God alone treadeth on the waves of the sea. (Matt. impossibility by two naked feet walking on the sea. xiv. vol. The emblem of vyeiai because they were thought Health. and leading them to conclusions widely distant from the truth. it triple triangle.) for what is impossible with man. in sal. Savi uniting in himself the three great attributes. and able to It was even commanded that protect the wearer in every emergency. It was also accounted lucky to collect remnants of the sacrifices. a crescent typified the Moon the omniscience of the deity was symbolized by an eye placed in the centre of an endless serpent. He is said to have attempted to deflower Juno.. 56 with an olive branch in its mouth. viii. formed a striking and expressive symbol. 27. apud Stanley. and held in sacVed reverence.) 66 The white dove was much esteemed by the Jews. amongst the Pythagoreans was a itself. 8. (Job ix.) These invaluable reli-cs were therefore used by the fortunate possessor until they were resolved to rags ." (Artetoph. 77. The dove was a conspicuous symbol. admiss. ^ (Lucian pro. conducive within health. but embraced in her stead. colour. which needs no explanation. Thus the figure of a hawk was used to represent the Sun . 67 From .) In India. iii. 57 After these and other had been worn during initiation were accounted sacred. for mysteries was involved the purpose of directing the enquiries of the uninitiated into a mistaken channel. (Asiat. attended by a dove. for this bird was the diluvian .. is possible with God (Mark x.106 HISTORY OF INITIATION in emblematical knowledge. " the initiated should dedicate the garments in which they were initiated at the temple of Ceres. 9.) the Greeks invented many fictions. for which offence seize the dove.

the Hades of the mysteries. Cab.... 58 profusion of symbols which adorned these mysteries may be found in the " Signs and Symbols. one called the descent to the other the ascent of the just . p. 86. Div. p.it is observed by Psellus. 156. masonry.. 83. p. torn. as a person and placed in future under the mysteriously regenerated." 59 The caverns of supra. of Free- A initiation had two gates . and delivered to them immediately by the gods a circumstance which makes it unlawful to translate them into the Greek language. Non. Thus Bacchus is described as having been taken from a chest or ark and as being the son of two mothers because Pharaoh's daughter was like a second mother to Moses. i. . Phil. or in other words the Epoptae. which. ''When the rites of the east were imported into Greece. vol.) . WATCH and ABSTAIN FROM EVIL. was elevated. Thus. On one occasion 61 he cast his rod upon the ground and it became a 62 and afterwards he struck the two rivers Orontes serpent and Hydaspes 63 with it. who hence have been dignified with the name of immortals. protection of the celestial gods.. vol. 61 63 Non. Pope has inverted the sense of the original. 1. are inaccurately described. 25. Bibl. 23. Faber. Mys.. he was cast into hell." (Mys. in Dionys. 3. It is admitted by many learned writers that the G recian mysteries contained many facts in the life of the Jewish lawgiver.. Cab. concerning which injunction.. p. Now Juno is Juneh. 116." and kC Theocr. ut hell. that there are sacred names of ineffable import.. vol. the aspirant was dismissed through the beautiful gate of the Temple59 with the two barbarous words Koy$ and Ofinal. In the Dionysiaca. and his circumambulating progress through the caverns of initiation. to perpetuate the remembrance of two re- markable miracles which were reputed to have been performed with this all-powerful instrument. . and mortals enter instead of descend. and his punishment on a rei. p. the thyrsis or Kod of Bacchus . in the passage already cited from Homer.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. Warb. merely referred to his descent into. Leg. (Vid. 1. i. 72. where he makes the gods. in Dionys. vi. and the waters immediately re. Exod. (Fab. which was seized by Noah. 58 107 illustrations of the like tendency. preserved in the mysteries of every nation.) 60 Vid. which are said to 60 mean. descend instead of ascend. 62 Vid..) volving wheel in hell. iv." says Mr. Mr. corrected. The deliverance of the Israelites from their bondage in Egypt is another remarkable coincidence. the dove. the reference is perfectly easy to the destruction of the antediluvians and the safety of the eight just persons. Univ. "a strong charge was given that barbaric names should never be changed.

. were scattered abroad at the dispersion of mankind. Exod. 6. Faber conDeluge . and adapted by each people to the peculiar character of their own superstitions. 65 68 69 Eurip. therefore. and the libation to the . inhabitants of this very spot. that this division of the Red Sea did once happen there . 7 71 Vid. Pag. referring. During the the purifying element was sometimes obtained initiations. vid. had a tradition from father to digenous son. and that after leaving its bottom some time . apud Boch. p. amongst whom. and children of all ranks. 171. to the plague 68 of fiery serpents 70 inflicted on the Israelites in the wilderness.. according to others. Such was the splendid importance attached ' to these Vid. Numb. Nothing. from the very earliest times. xiv. Atheneus. and under the protection of the divine Shekinah. 64 HISTORY OF INITIATION. 16. while it involved the Egyptian army in the shades of impenetrable darkness . 20. Exod. iii. who alone were irradiated with the beams of true and scientific light. 38. to the cloudy pillar which enlightened and directed the Israelites. Hi. Signs and Symbols.. and covered the land... it is said. 11. as some say. in allusion.. xiv.dry. the inSiculus has this remarkable observation. can be more clear than that a series of original traditions of the fundamental truths of religion." 66 67 Diod. 1.108 ceded. vol. and hence the emptying of them properly concludes the mystic festival. Can.. Diodorus " The Troglodytes. and he passed over dry-shod. The Bacchae by striking a rock with the magical rod. "and carried serpents in vases69 and baskets. 73 Exod. Numb. Mr. during the continuance of the festival. 73 and.. Speaking of the miraculous passage over the Red Sea. and represents the retiring of the diluvian waters. xii. 4. distinction was unknown. et. apud Fab. women. xxi. crowned their heads with serpents. the sea again came back with great fury. 72 Non. 66 This was intended to commemorate the manner of Israel's departing out of Egypt. Idol. accompanied by a mixed mul67 titude from all the neighbouring nations. ceives that the vases alluded to the ark. while the nations around them were involved in the hideous darkness of idolatry. 65 The assembly which celebrated these orgies was composed of men. Bibl. the doctrine was symbolical of the superior privileges enjoyed by the Israelites in the immediate presence. 71 And it was asserted by the hierophant that all mankind were in darkness 12 except the initiated. Lect. xx.

1. as an indispensable act of devotion without which they were accounted polluted or unclean. 75 and consequently fatal to the rause of virtue and morality. 109 qualified for the honour of officiating at the celebration of this miserable apology for religion. and served up his body as a banquet to the company. p. Laert. in Bacch.. Alex. 26 to end). 76 And yet. 77 The idea which these worthies entertained of personal purity may be correctly deduced from the following custom.. 19." 76 75 Vid." (Stanley's Lives. iv. 94. preserved by Herodotus. 19.. amongst them virgins before marriage used to gain a dower by ! .) in allusion to these and still more unnatural practices that induced St." say the laws of Solon. It is recorded that the daughters of Minya. Metam. without excepting the most dignified virgins. (Eurip. Clem. (Diog.) . as being fraught with a peculiar felicity. under the furious impetus of this diabolical fervour. which were under the protection of the civil magistrate. ad Gentes. vol. This writer tells us. iv. at least once in their lives. "to inquire whether every thing has been done decently and according to woman was deteriorated mysteries.. notwithstanding the above authorities. for their exertions to stem the torrent of depravity and licentiousness which pervaded every rank and description of people who were engaged in these celebra74 "An assembly of the senate shall convene in the Eleusinian temple on the day after the festival.) that all the female votaries of Mylitta. Orpheus and Pentheus78 are mytho79 said to have been torn in pieces by the Baclogical ly chantes. Cohort.) which they mistook for the inspiration of the jolly god. p. (Auton. strange to tell. slew a young man named Hippasus. i. ! It was prostituting themselves. 74 They were places of assignation to the lustful. J llM 1. 1. . no order. The most outrageous excesses were frequently committed by the female Bacchantes when inflamed with wine.) And the same intrepid Apostle enumerates these abominable siiis in his Epistle to the Romans. and enthusiastic fury. rather appears that he was killed by lightning . 12. v. 78 Yi rg. except she were able to testify on oath that she was free from all manner of pollution.. Paul to exclaim with indignation : "It is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret!" (Eph. 77 Several eminent men in different ages endeavoured to purge these orgies of their indecency. but without success.. iii. in the porch of the temple.THE MYSTERIES OF BACCHUS. 79 I say my Biologically. for the fact appears doubtful respecting the It violent death of Orpheus. Metam. esteemed by the ancients. lust. a death. x. (1.. Ov. "Amongst the Egyptians it is honourable for women to and those who have lain with many men used prostitute themselves Moreto wear a bracelet about their ankles as a badge of honour over.. were obliged to prostitute themselves. Prooem. who was the same with Ceres and Isis. Eph. xi.) (i.

(De Leg. The taminations. "In their heat I will make their feasts. of the Christian fathers roused the people to a sense of shame . and saw the whole city of Athens in a state of beastly drunkenness. (Jerem. however. rites passed. i. li.) Hence the prophetical figure used in the threatened destruction of Babylon. and soon afterwards they were altogether suppressed under heavy penalties. and not awake..110 tions. . says that he was present at one of these celebrations.) M . saith the Lord. long after the establishment of At length the bold and frequent censures Christianity. that they may rejoice. Plato. and I will make them drunken. 1. and remained a lasting stain to the empire. speaking of the abomination of the Dionysiaca. and sleep a perpetual sleep. by a public edict the excesses sanctioned by the mysteries were restrained within more decent bounds . 39. 80 HISTORY OF INITIATION. with all their confrom Greece to Rome..

as we find they have done. 4 they believed that the deity had selected 1 Ces. much more likely that they turned schoolmasters. where accurate instruction was alone to be obtained. The most commonly received opinion is. and applied to the same object. and. 4. because this tree was esteemed peculiarly sacred by the Druids.. fortunetellers. was customary who wished for the inhabitants of the latter country. quity of the science. which contains the essence and perfection of the system. and Freemasons also. Gal. "That the Druids of Britain were Brahmins is beyond the least shadow of a doubt but that they were all murdered and their sciences lost. 4 The misletoe was invested with a character so holy. Barrow said this. in this way.. 3 Plin. that it was accounted a profanation to touch it with the finger. 1.. part of their sciences might easily descend to posterity.) says. 12. but deteriorated. when the vital principle is wholly discarded. as all institutions must necessarily be. 1 The name of these extraordinary priests 2 has been variously derived. the second volume of the Asiatic Researches. in . (p. vi. nor does it in the least alter the character of his asserI shall consider the opinion as tending to illustrate the antition. 489. it is 2 Mr.. c. The Druids were schoolmasters." With what feeling towards Masonry Mr. Hist. c. I have not the means of determining. They certainly did practise a science derived from Freemasonry. 1. The ceremonies . for Cesar informs us that the principles of Druidism were better understood in Britain than in Gaul and that it . xvi. Reuben Barrow. Nat. PLACES OF INITIATION INTO THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. though the name was not known in the ages when they flourished. to pass over into Britain. an oak.Ill LECTURE VII. and fortunetellers. for more perfect information on the intricate subject of their mysterious doctrines and practies. that its origin must be ascribed to the Greek ^QVS. is out of all bounds of probability . the worship of the deity . de bel. Freemasons. exclusively to Druidism as practised in Britain. 3 and from its spontaneous production of the sacred misletoe. IN attempting to reduce the Celtic Mysteries to order and regularity. the inquiry will be confined almost.

and the seven pieces into which the body of Bacchus was torn by the Titans. 523. an old truth. v. 515. and these . who. Deru. p. 7 8 Sammes. Derw. from the German Trowis. and the divine. i. Hist.. The system used in gathering this mysterious plant were of a nature calculated to infuse a sacred reverence deeply into the mind . and happiness amongst mankind. Bibl. referred to other tongues One says it was derived for the etymology of this title. andOsir. an undoubted reference to the salvation of Noah and his 10 and were celebrated first seven companions in the Ark . Some authors have. 248. v. concurs with Major Vallancey in deriving Druid from Druidh. 10 It is a most remarkable fact.. p. is still the Gaelic term for philosophers or magicians. (Ibid. and had a further tendency to spread liberty.) the seven persons who returned from Caer Sidi. making each of these services one and the same profession. p. p. which in their own language signifies wise men. (Aratus. the magistrate. Introduction. can scarcely be ascribed to any event save that named in the Thus the seven text. it was reputed to possess every sanative virtue and was hence dignified with the appellation of All Heal. score Ogyrvens.) the seven Cabiri of the Phenicians . the trees of the grove as his own peculiar resiIn the ancient British dialect. vol. and hence the priests of all from dence.. the seven Amschaspands of the Parsees.. like the Druids and many other religious sects. i..) the seven Titans andTitanides . 9 Meyrick. pertain to the British muse . de Isid. an oak was termed in the Armorican. 9 The rites bore peace. Becan. (Plut. to have the same import with the name of the eastern magi. united the characters of the philosopher..U2 it HISTORY OF INITIATION.. Astron. It seems. 6 6 Owen's Diet. that we find in every system of antiquity a frequent reference to the number seven.) the seven Pleiades. (Dav.) the seven Hyades. the seven Heliades of the Greeks. Derwf the oak are said to have been denominated Derwydden. Cardigan. and that his first priests were hence called Truti? Mr. from its nature. Dru. the seven score knobs in the collar of the ox. (Ovid. which. Gerop. according to Taliesin. . Smith. however. 104. British name for the deity. Fast. 5. 368. 8 and of Druidism embraced every religious and philosophical pursuit which was then known in the island . 524. 1. in his Gaelic antiquities. or mystical personages. which. he says. vol. and when plucked and ritually consecrated. except it be to the institution of the Sabbath.) were equally the seven hero-gods who accompanied Noah in the Ark . (Diod. p. in the spoils of the deep. Hutchinson.. Brit. Cumb. which signified a revealer of 6 another thinks it sprang from Trutis.

and divine sacrifices were considered most efficacious when composed of this number.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES.) with the defective knowledge of the same people which circumscribed the whole earth within the compass of seven peninsulas. p.) the seven altars which burned continually before the god Mithras in many of his temples (Montf.. 159. ii. 22.. consisting of seven bullocks and seven rams. when the walls should fall into ruin. Sir W. 2. (Savary. viii. 4. ii. and for the same reason..) the seven planets of antithe Jewish Sephiroth consisting of seven splendours . of the above causes may be ascribed the origin of the seven vases in the temple of the sun near the ruins of Babian. Disc. the seven holy temples of the ancient Arabians. 5. derived. And Seven bullocks yet unyoked for Phoebus for Diana. 12.. 8. or dwipas .) by the express command of God. 10. and on the seventh to offered sacrifices Job and Balaam each proceed round it seven times. while the unclean were only admitted by pairs. denoted To one universality. (1 Kings . the quity seven Gothic deities . Noah received seven days notice of its commencement. in Maur. and was termed by the Pythagoreans slo/nsleia. Numb. clause. perhaps. accommodated to the peculiar genius of the people.. commensurate with the hebdomadal division of time the seven worlds of the Indians and Chaldeans . (Sacontala. in Upper Egypt. vii. seven unspotted ewes. Ind. and the temporary revolutions of manners and government.) and this was undoubtedly conformable with the usual practice of Jewish antiquity. Solomon was seven years building the Temple . (Sale.the Curetes. vol..) and Noah despatched his And even our own dove at the distance of seven days each time. and the seven Brahmadicas of Hindoo mythology . (Job xlii. arising from the accidental circumstances of local situation. 113 by the Pheryllt. the septenary number. vii. Ant. Signs and Symbols. corresponded with the seven Menus. 4. 7. 38. vi.. (Gen.) the seven bobuns of perfection exhibited in the Hindoo code . Jones. Works.) In a word. who correspond with the Telchines. 331.. 4. The cere- monies of initiation and worship also bore a character similar to those of the people whence they wort. viii... Ant. At the Deluge. seven was always considered as a number possessed of many mysterious properties . vi. amongst the Cabalists. DRYDEN.) On the seventh month the Ark rested on Ararat.) Koran. . (Gen. (Holwell. vol. (Gen. torn. and amditting of various minute modifications. (Josh. Scriptures abound with innumerable instances of the authorized use of this number. (Gen.) (1 Kings vi. Prelim. : . the seven Pitris or Kishis. 1. or the Idei Dactyli of other nntiniis. Letters on Egypt..) and was commanded to select dean beasts and fowls by sevens. p. for seven priests bearing seven rams' horns for trumpets. were directed by the Almighty to compass the city seven days. as these persons were the whole of mankind then living in' the world. 1. p. (Vid. and the seven virtues cardinal and theological...) which was dedicated in the seventh month. xxiii. The destruction of Jericho was miraculously effected by the use of this number.

which are the seven Spirits of God. Now the number four was esteemed to pospresent. 3. past. 6. And (Ib. 4. to represent probably the seven mountains on which Rome and Constantinople.) and in another place as a Lamb that had been slain having seven horns and seven eyes.) Idolatry is represented under the figure of a scarlet-coloured beast having seven heads. although we shall gather more information from the bardic than the classical writings on this Strabo informs us that the Druids abstruse subject. 3. More's ApoThe SECOND PERSON is described calypsis Apocalypsios. The Iconisms are almost all septenary. xv.. probably because the whole of the male kind in the Ark consisted of four persons. It signified universality amongst the Cabalists and Pythagoreans. 1. 2. 11 Mr. iv.) and revealed by seven thunders or oracular voices. p. He is attended by FOUR beasts full of (Ib. 12.) very extraordinary and universal application of the number seven. symbols of universal power and knowledge and receiving from the heavenly host a loud acknowledgment of seven potencies. in which they ascribe to Him seven degrees of beatitude. I . 92.) and seven idolatrous kings...) the THIRD PERSON is described as seven lamps of fire.) denounced by seven angels to the sound of seven trumpets. vii. p. 12.2.) as a majestic ancl venerable personage standing in the midst of seven golden candlesticks. seated on a throne encircled by a rainbow. 73. The whole machiviii. world. as . "to the arkite mysteries. (Ib.) Again. the two capital cities of " the mistress of the world" were respectively founded (Ib. the emblems of Light and Revelation. sess similar properties with the number seven. Respecting these ceremonies. . 5. 148. emblematical of their perfect knowledge of ALL things. 11 Strabo. and to come. 4. i. xvii.) and receiving from the assembly of saints a most profound adoration. iv.. (Ib. 1. xvii. 7. (Ib.." says this author. v. v. (Rev..) recorded in a book with seven seals. . of woes addressed to seven churches. x. Faber adduces practised other authorities in support of the same hypothesis. the Apocalypse contains seven Synchronisms.. (Ib..) and the public nery of the Apocalypse is conducted on precisely the same principle. the ancient historians are not wholly silent. respecting the institution of the Sabbath and it must be observed that almost all idolatrous nations kept holy the seventh day (Vid.. "With regard to the devotion of the Hyperboreans. 9.114 HISTORY OF INITIATION. 10.) or the seven herogods who were saved with Noah in the Ark. (Ib.. and holding in his hand seven stars. or seven forms of This polytheism are pointed out for destruction..) The wrath of God against the idolatrous . iv. and it formed the holy Tetragrammaton of the Jews. (Ib. (Rev. ii. 1. which were preceded by a succession. Here the FIRST PERSON in the sacred Trinity is represented under the figure of a glorious being clothed with surpassing brilliancy. viii. the rites of Samothrace. . is let loose by seven angels having seven plagues inclosed in seven golden vials. have already observed.) eyes... 1. Usher on the Sabbath. must have originated either in a tradition borne away from Shinar by every tribe who wandered in search of a new settlement. we are festival lasted seven days. (Vid. Geogr. (Ib.

" says Keysler. . a burying-stone . a cottage. the earth from Eretz.. with authorities. Septentr. a horn. Cromlech. This conformity. Arabicam. in Hindoostan as . From this list I shall select a few only which must carry conFor instance. fromCeremluach.) Ceres and Proserpine are venerated with rites similar to the Orgies of SamoThis island was dedicated. Ind. a sacrificial stone of the Druids. 214. is so striking and extraordinary. indeed. (by which. who can doubt viction of their primaeval derivation. and Sarph. "A celebrated grammarian has remarked. And both were derived from the same common source. rites of 11-5 plainly informed by Dionysius. i. In an island. says he.." 12 " Dr." (Maur. sed et Gothicam. he meant Anglesey. asserts.. p. the British Kern. Hence it evidently appears. 37. and Bacchus were reckoned in the number of these deities. Cab. that the gods of Britain were the same as the Cabiri of Samothrace and. from Dakar. will have it that the Persians and the Celts were originally one and the same people. Nee modo Indicam. alluding to the confusion of tongues . close to Britain. and he further informs us that Ceres. Brahmins Persia as 12 13 . doctrines.) 14 The Druid and the Dervise possessed many qualities in common. Hebrae junctissimas linguas. whatever observations are applicable to the latter are no less applicable to the former. a house. to babble.. that the Bacchus arose and Noah were duly celebrated in Britain. Proserpine. from the Hebrew Saraph. Hence their veneration for the bull. that Pelloutier. seu Celticam. a short sword. temporibus conservatum Dervis. from Cis. Fab.THfi CELTIC MYSTERIES.) . Cist. I shall add the authority of Artemidorus concerning those (mysteries) of two other Cabiric deities. and Roland. an old British word for serpent. Mys. of the British word Booth.. 36. linguam . in Magi Babylon and Syria as Chaldeans and in 14 and from thence came hither with that . 210. p. and worship of the Persian magi and the British Druids. Borlase has traced a surprising uniformity in the temples. the chosen seat of superstition. being derived from the Hebrew Beth. Persicam Syram. Ant. in all probability. as we learn from thrace. a chest . in his history of the Celts. 13 Major Vallancey is of the same opinion. vol. Dagger. or Corn." (Antiq. the constant symbol of the To the testimony of deity of the Ark Dionysius. et nomine et re Druidis. " " genus apud Turcas ab antiquissimus Sacerdotum. consequently. vi. in his Mona. priests. from Keren . that no less than three hundred Hebrew radices are to be found in the British tongue alone. from Babel. p. to the Cabiri . adding that the Druids first flourished in the east . Mnaseas. vol.

116 HISTORY OF INITIATION. Britain received its popuThe continent of Europe was lation very soon after the Dispersion. the surplus being pressed to the sea coast of Gaul. and confined their adoration to the solar fire . The second tribe who settled in the island were the Lloegrians. Its name was once more changed to Prydain or Britain and he subdivided it into three parts. and Alban. and took an undisputed possession. vol. according to the testimony of the Welsh Bards having been tempted to take possession of it. 17 The testimonies. under the command of Prydain. Prid. I have the authority of Sammes for saying that this took place about A. great body of Persian Scythians. Cymru. the grandson of Japheth . HutchPhenicians. division of the island which it has ever since retained . (Turn. and by the operation of some or all of the causes resulting from a redund- ant population. our island was discovered in the distance. in the adminispractice of similar rites and ceremonies tration of religious worship . Sax. 226. M. found it so rich and beautiful that they changed the name to the Honey Island. 14. for the Druids nourished in Gaul and Britain.. two sects which always entertained the utmost contempt and hatred for each many other's principles. descended Cymri. and were descended from the primitive nation of the The Brython. vol. peopled by the children of Dodanim. who came with Hu the mighty. made an inroad upon the island.. Cumb. The first people who settled in Britain are said to have been led hither by Gomer. came from the land of Llydaw.. Connect. i. p. and took possession of England. who. 247. collected by Mr.. from which theorists have conjec16 tured they might derive their original." 15 can only prove that the nations agreed as to the inson. These introduced arts and civilization. at least coeval with the planting of other nations. and called the several portions Lloeger. i. p.. . on a casual visit. the exact period when Ninus founded the kingdom of Assyria. and Hence the Britons adopted the ternary peopled Scotland. corresponding with . Besides. England. and inhabited Wales. others were magians. named it the Watergirt Green Plot. whom the Greeks call These opinions. are amply sufficient to point out the analogy which subsisted in early times between the mysterious institutions of those 15 16 Hist. some were Sabians. these several people paid their devotions to different objects of worship. at the head of their respective tribes.) If this be true. collecting together some scattered tribes of the Cymri who were friendly to his interests. They came from Gwasgwyn. This tribe was subsequently dispossessed by a stronger party. First the Cymri. 17 Vid. Wales. the son of Aedd the Great. i. however. and worshipped the host of heaven. 1910. and a wandering tribe called the Hord Gaeli. Angl. and Scotland. and placed in them as viceroys three of his most distinguished followers.. who. or some of his immediate descendants. from the same stock. vol. or a little before Abraham first went into the land of Canaan.

24 so enthuperties. 117 which were formed by the migration of the descendants of Noah and his family. 24 Dr. 212. vol. i. "were no more than large. ii. vol. 13.. a male and a female. i. i. 6. all melt into two." or. These deities." says Sale. . rough as when taken Betulia of the eastern nations.) 21 " Several of the idols of the old Arabs. Pag." Captain Hamilton describes one of the idols in the Indian Temple of Jagun-nath. 20 The Scandinavians had p. because they held that the divinity. 19 in retired places. and bore the same conspicuous character with the Egyptian Osiris and Isis the Grecian Bacchus and Rhea. 243. being invisible.. in his Preliminary Discourse to the Koran. ought to be adored without being seen. rude stones. a goddess of this name.. p. but at times of holiest festival The Druid leads his train. Cumb. pillar. so highly venerated. But we are told that they did occasionally erect. vol. the great father and mother. 340.) asserting the dignity of the great mother. marks the place Where. 19 Fab. (01. vol. " Bryant. (Hutch. by what variety of names soever they may have been designated. siastically adored. the worship of which the posterity of Ishmael first introduced These stones they at first only compassed out of devotion .. Mi supra. trous antiquity. Od. as being "a huge black stone of a pyramidal form . p. the Ishmaelites forgetting the religion left them by their father so far as to pay divine worship to any stone they met with. like the primitive Buddhists of the east. Anal. Gordon informs us that the Irish peasants still pay these stones an awful respect. statues of first have been gigantic from the quarry. whose abundant merits have been so extravagantly eulogized by the bards. were the representations of the great British deities.." MASON.) 25 We find Pindar (Nem. but at last it ended in rank idolatry . The mighty pile of magic planted rock Thus rang'd in mystic order. 18 Vid. 23 . ii. where he says that all the gods as well as men sprang from her fruitful womb... or any other supreme god and goddess who represented the great father and mother of mankind in the mysteries of idolaIsis 20 or Ceridwen . 22 the which are ritually consecrated. countries. 25 who were worshipped under the appellation of Hu and Ceridwen.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. 1. in other words. Idol. Rudbeck.. and invested with peculiar and distinctive proThese stones. p. which must 21 stones. 18 The Druids did not worship idols in the human shape. a stone 22 Atlant.

which were two hollow rocks. consecrated with holy oil. . at Bayon's Manor. considering the many lucrative juggles of the Druids. is a petra ambrosia consisting. M. in proportion with the supposed sanctity of the petrae. according to Stukeley. and has. D'Eyncourt. and on the reverse. was of inferior virtue to an artificial pastos. shaded by an olive tree and. to initiate and dedicate children to the offices of rockworship by drawing them through this hole. arising from the solemnity of the rites of consecration. on the ancient Tyrian coins we find these ambrosial petrse represented overshadowed by an olive tree. Thus a natural cavity in a rock unhallowed by the sacred ceremonial. near Market Rasen. All rocks containing an aperture..) p. A 20 On the estate of the Right Hon. resting on a slender basis. 27 This was the abomination referred to by the prophet Isaiah. provided that at a certain season of the moon. 167) thus explains the probable use of these Tolmen he says. Cornw. erected ritually. and also to purify the victim before it was sacrificed . because they equally shadowed out the door of the Ark through which the favoured few issued into a renovated world . " It is not improbable but the holed stone served for libations . where he denounces the holes of the rocks. and whilst a priest officiated at one of the stones adjoining. P. however. Hercules offering a sacrifice of . It stands in a commanding situation. that the same belief distinquished every ancient nation for all practised the helioarkite superstition.. C. they would draw their children through the hole. with pra}-ers adapted to the occasion. been used by the Druids in the performance of their sacred rites. 2 * considerable degree of sanctity was attached to small islands in the centre of a consecrated lake. and the caves of the earth.118 HISTORY OF INITIATION. . it acquired the distinguishing name of lapis ambrosius. considered as the residence of a happy and . it is not wholly improbable that some miraculous restoration to health might be promised to the people for themselves Borlase (Ant. whether natural or artificial. upon proper pecuniary gratifications. 26 were thought to convey purification. They varied. in Lincolnshire. of a gigantic upright stone. was built by Hercjalos on a spot where a petra ambrosias stood. doubtless. Floating islands. and dedicated to a religious use and as soon as a pastos was thus anointed. T. and all alike admitted the regenera27 ting properties of the consecrated orifice. and it is worthy of remark. as insufficient to avert the indignation of the Almighty." 28 The city of Tyre. ii 19. and. at the foot of which another stone has been placed. hollowed out so as to form an aperture of sufficient dimensions for a man to creep through. : and children. dedication. (Isai. accordingly. on the bold brow of a hill.

Here the heavens had exhausted their stores to confer gifts on their favoured and chosen residence. whicli was in reality an immense island . . put a flower. were conducted by a secret passage. that a sacrilegious wretch. where Adam dwelt in a state of absolute felicity .. a door in a rock near this lake. also to the then known world. entertained them with the most exquisite music. that Some time after this. 29 The interior recesses of the insular sanctuary were considered as the seat of every supernal delight. stored with the choicest fruits and flowers. it is said. had touched unhallowed ground. and invited them to stay as long as they should find their situation agreeable. Those who had the curiosity and resolution to enter. as the tale goes. As soon as he into his pocket but the theft boded him no good. The Hindoos have a tradition current amongst them. as we are told by Mr. after remarking that its contents are corroborated by a testimony from a quarter the least expected. though. lake. are described in strains of the most exaggerated panegyric. . door was closed as usual." (Dav.) . But the island was sacred. Davies has given a description of these distinguished privileges in the translation of a Mabinogion. "In ancient times. disclosed to them many events of futurity. or otherwise he would drown the . the flower vanished. 29 They bore a reference also to the Ark. They dismissed their guests with their accustomed courtesy. Mr. Only an indistinct mass was seen in the middle . an adventurous person attempted to draw off the water." It is added. and some broken strains of music are still heard at times. bore an allusion to the garden of Eden. which terminated in a small island. and he lost his senses. enchanting garden. 155. and inhabited by the Tylvvyth Teg. country. perhaps. when a terrific form arose from the midst of the commanding him to desist. in order to discover its contents. was found open upon a certain day every year. yet the door which led to the island has never re-appeared and. which I shall transcribe. I think it was May day. and the For But their resentment ran high. the places of mysterious celebration were frequently constructed in such situations. with which he had been presented. and. without the margin of the lake. whose beauty could be equalled only by the courtesy and affability which they exhibited to those who pleased them. Of this injury the fair family took no notice at the time. and it was observed that no bird would fly over the water. arid. when he was about to leave the garden. and nothing of its produce must be carried The whole of this scene was invisible to those who stood away. the Tylvvyth Teg and their garden undoubtedly occupy the spot to this day though the birds still keep at a respectful distance from the lake. Wilford. that the gardens of the Hesperides are situated in the British Isles and the beauties of this imaginary paradise. Dru. It happened upon one of these annual visits. the Cymri " have been unfortunate. in the centre of the Here the visitors were surprised with the prospect of a most lake. p. at times. and that a soft strain of music. therefore. breathed with rapturous sweetness in the breeze of the mountain. 119 perfect people. from the date of this sacrilegious act. They gathered fruit and flowers for each of their guests. greatly exceeding even the legend here subjoined.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. or fair family. a kind of fairies.

. and yet. 5. received no contamination. but when the stones. and existed before the Creation in unsullied purity . in Matt. which. lest they should be subject to defilement Mediator of the Christian covenant came into the world to restore the true religion. 6. in a greater or less degree. ablutions to cleanse ceremonial impurity. and contained the whole human race. he clothed his divinity with earthly flesh. 14 41. Lect.. as the external medium of purification by which the Mystas were ritually regeneIt was a maxim with the Druids. water was profusely used during the initiations. first. formed one of the principal rites of the Druidical religion. that water rated. most probably. and to show that ritual pollutions and purifications were at an end. had a twofold reference . this doctrine was implicitly received. and. which was considered the very principle of contamination . Signs and Symbols. many They taught that to perform even the common offices of life without washing. was the sole existing place of habitation.120 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and drawing it out of the lake with a yoke of oxen. 30 In every nation of the world. to the diluvian waters which cleansed the earth from its impurities by a general lustration 31 and secondly. Hist. and that every thing was polluted. 32 was the first principle of all things. but that it proceeded from the heart. and hence it was believed that water lost some portions of its purifying qualities by contact with the earth. 1 Pet. Each of these islands bore the mysterious name of Avanc. at the time of the Deluge. for he was free from every imputation of sin . iii. It was believed by the Druids that the earth was the great principle of contamination. originating. but that its perfect qualities were diminished when it became blended with the earth at its original formation out of chaos . and hence the propriety of the British custom of performing their celebrations in the centre of a lake. and in his doctrine strongly and constantly inculcated that man's defilement was not derived from anything The Pharisees used external. however diversified in other respects. Vid. from some uniform practice which accompanied the patriarchal performance of religious rites anterior to the general dispersion from Babel. From the plains of India to the utmost regions of the West. 20. of Beverley pp. 31 . 30 . by being born of a woman. which had communicaEven the stone deities were superincumbent on other tion with it. It . attended by many mystical ceremonies. and he openly proclaimed that their frequent washings could never atone for sin. Grot. held equally the necessity of repeated ablutions to cleanse the soul from moral defilement. was This doctrine was condemned by Him who knoweth the' most sinful. iii. 32 Nothing could be more universal than this practice. The Jewish religion and all the systems $f Paganism. 21. secret thoughts of every heart.

Geogr. c. because it led to disorder an/ prostitution. 355. b. and the Tales. " Mr. attended with all the machinery of initiaThe island in the lake called Loch Katrine (Ketturin). but their destruction was enjoined in every country which they conquered. 121 therefore. ... Quint. Sir Walter Scott has woven this superstition into a Poem (Lady views which it commanded. the Lady in the boat. and scenery.. xvi. there was a cave where an outlaw named Fletcher resided many years . These rock basons were hence invested with a peculiar degree of sanctity. the denunciations of heaven were launched against 36 The sacred grove was a primitive iv. when not situated on a lake or river of water. he made a consecrated grove. 524.) was nothing but a perversion of the patriarchal rites. or places of initi34 ation. xxiv. though he had searched for it with the utmost care. Notes... The Israelites were not only forbidden to plant them. The Britons had the utmost veneration for a grove of 35 oaks.. 33 snow to rain.. iii. xvii. 1. Sic. but the custom was subsequently xxi. (Lady 35 Lucan. xviii. groves of olive were planted in the most venerated situations. Ant.. 1. It was accounted sin in the Hebrew monarchs and it is said of Ahab. a grove of trees as a retreat of silence. 7." (Hogg's The island is called Rough Island. but. (Deut. .) Abraham planted consecrated groves in general.) of the Lake. idolatry vol. and their groves converted to the ing purposes. says. as to describe minutely the different Borl. 4. vol. and here the most sacred places of religious celebration were constructed f6 particularly if hills or moun- reached the ground.because. 26) .. that he if they presumed to sacrifice in groves did more to provoke the Lord to anger than any of his predecessors... c. 52. vi. Pharsal.contained. 29. 1. x. and the range of caverns which the island . 11. he said he had entirely lost the entrance of it. In the idolatrous nations a Isai. p. and Brownie's cavern (Coir Uriskin). are all indications of this fact. Curt. 13. and were always attached to their temples. In a wor. condemned..) Strabo.d. grove was essential to divine worship.. 12. 8. attendant spirit is like a satyr or goat. for the whole superstition of the brownies was but a remnant o the stories of initiation. The first patriarchs also worshipped in groves of oak (Gen. 150.. and ice to snow. Hosea 21. i. 14. but the same practice having been subsequently used by most horrible and revoltidolaters. though tradition is so particular with regard to its situation. the guide to this lake island. p. 1. 33 34 most beautiful of the Lake). Josh. and in India and some other countries was but another name for the Pastes . 1. Res. signifies the Gate of Hell. to secure to themselves a certain supply of this element unpolluted with any impure alloy. .) introduces Hercules as planting a sacred grove . Corn. (Asiat. place of devotional celebration. as I have many times observed. and in India.. amongst other acts of iniquity. and prayer. Stuart.. 33. they used to scoop hollows or cavities on the upper surface of certain elevated stones to catch the waters of heaven before they Kain was preferred to river water. p. iv. (Diod. In the bosom of a rock south of the Pass. iii. solitude.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. p. i. viii. which tion. Pindar (Olymp. 225...

and we are assured by Melanthes.122 tains for HISTORY OF INITIATION...) This custom was soon imitated by those nations which had "renounced the true God. to him who was accounted the highest god.) Cyrus sacrificed to the gods on a mountain So in the Iliad Hector does (Cyrop... ii. in Amer. though it was absolutely forbidden in the law of 37 It may be here remarked. xii. that mountain-worship was common with the antediluvian patriarchs. 1. v. The Israelites. 2. linding it inconvenient to go thither in person.. Cauc. on four great mountains. made war xxii. 27. or female principle. variously diversified. 1) and Sinai (ib. 244. 20) of mankind resided after their deliverance from danger by Abraham (Gen. 1. 521) and when the waters had sub sided. (Humvol. they remained firmly fixed on a rock. near their habitations. Res.." (Nat. Ezek. apud Fab Pag. 3).) . 57 but principally because the conical mountain. and probably of the burning bush. (Polyb. iii. every towering boldt's Research. The American savages used the same custom... 2). p. When the Ark. caused eminences representing these mountains to be erected by the hands of men. . was considered an apt representation of the union of the 4wo great generative principles 38 The mountain with one personified at the Deluge. xix.. xv.. p. 8). p. that it was the universal practice of the ancients to offer sacrifice on the highest mountains. adopted the same custom. ii.. When Philip II. Idol. at the express command of God (Gen.) hill was reckoned holy . with the whole human race in her womb. xxiii. i.) (Strabo. and again by Moses on Mounts Horeb (Ex. vol. were found within the compass of the inclosure well known that these eminences were highly venerated by the Druids in common with the rest of mankind partly from an idea that the tops of hills made a nearer approach to the heavens.) i. (Voyage of Macartney. The Persians worshipped on mountains the same. and 2300 years before our era.. 5 the idolatrous 'nations of the earth. viii. . vol. he sacrificed on the two mountains of Olympus and Eva.. on the mount where the Ark rested. on M. xxii. . which the superstition o Moses (Deut. 14. . who performed an act of worship on Mount Moriah. iii. 171.. p. ..) against the Spartans...) " In short. from whence the deity could more perfectly hear their prayers and partly from a faint remembrance of an old tradition of the Deluge. 10. called the four Yo. or the great and thus father. and where the parents viii. 28. sacrifices were offered in China to the supreme god Chan-Ti.. floated on the surface of the diluvian waters the male principle. vi..) just before his death. c. which induced a belief that mountains were the consecrated residence of the it is . 20. when they fell into idolatry.. . in Asiat. (Numb. vol. Corn.. deity. 38 This system of veneration was not peculiar to Britain. 2). 200. but was common to all . and was followed by Noah (Gen. 1. Jerem. vi. 1. too.. The sovereigns. 4. and worshipped the host of heaven on mountains (2 Kings xiv. 41. (II. xii. 58. xxii. was placed in the centre of the lunette as a mast the two principles united floated in safety over the earth (Wilf.

we find. This purgatory. Rajata-Dweep . therefore. the cromlech or the kistvaen. and is thought to have a reference to the celebrated Purgatory of St. )P 39 We . the seat . ii. and with three. according to the opinion of Mr. and worthy of superior veneration. says the same thing of some of the southern counties. Accordingly. vol. of justice or the sacred grove: all being unquestionable evidences of Druidical habitation. that the British Druids held mountains and . rocking stones and tumuli still exist in the Scilly islands. in Lough Derg. in the stupendous monuments with which these counties still abound. and I cannot but think that this part of the island was a favourite resort of the druids j for they contained every requisite in vast abundance for the The rivers and lakes . From this cave issued a long passage into the infernal regions. it was accounted perfect. (Yid. and are continued along the coast of Cornwall and Dorset." says this author. symbolized the female principle. whose opinions claim every attention and respect. the logan or the tumulus. Suvarna-Dweep. afforded such a combination of natural facilities for the exercise of their mysterious celebrations. 9. represented the male principle. Signs and Symbols. " Bri" was termed by the Indians. Scuteya-D weep. England was denominated. p. It will be remembered that the 12. was. Patrick. a place appropriated to the performance of the rites of Druidism. Here the souls of their deceased ancestors were invoked. A i. a Celtic origin. to the widely-extended plains of Wiltshire . and. were said to reside in Suvarna . and Ireland. Wilford for bringing to light a recorded tradition of the Hindoos. the figurative lunette or Ark." (Hoare's Ancient Wilts. whether consisting of stone or earthen temples. the most positive traces of Druidical ingenuity in all its several forms . or land. from its apt representation of this union of the sexes.. and their place of abode was either on the summit of a mountain. Tricatachel. doubtless. Lect. and Westmoreland. Cab." This is a correct account of a place of initiation. 39 each nation feigned to be within its own boundaries. whose waters were reputed bitter. in an island situate in the midst of a lake. or in a cave called Maha Dewa. lakes in superior veneration from the causes just enumerated. " Numerous remains of stone circles. that they could not be overlooked by that acute and politic order of men. with two peaks. bespeaking a very ancient. cromlechs. Cumberland. natural caverns and excavations the numerous specimens of the holy mountain in every possible variety . 392). primitive fathers.) are indebted to Capt. ScotThe pitris.. and corresponding in a very striking degree with those on the opposite shores of our mother country Gaul. the mountain with three peaks . and was hence considered as a place of peculiar sanctity. vol.. I may pronounce. which furnished the natural means by which the tain world was repeopted. into which no person was allowed to enter without first undergoing all the ceremonies of purification and preparation. the many practice of their religious rites. from their rudeness. When a mounwas adorned with three peaks.) Perfect specimens of all these varieties of mountains are frequent in the counties of Lancaster.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. learned and indefatigable writer. the two principles united. in Ireland. or tain. 123 peak only. all. Faber (Myst.

Lex. was the mundane circle and Faber says that the Ark was called. and every requisite for public worship and the celebration of the mysteries on a grand scale. Surrounded by a deep ditch and lofty mounds. 317. was constructed on two eminences . into three seperate inclosures . was thrown up. the first for the people. therefore.. the second for the priests. furnished with solar temples.) and about . Ant. thus constituting the sacred three-peaked temple.. . governed and preserved by an omnipresent deity. . and the third for the chief Druid alone. but the most stupendous specimen is exhibited at Stonehenge. (Hesych. for the \yhole extent of this magnificent establishment comprehended an area of more It than four miles in circumference. and an adytum . the interior space was divided. or the Great Cathedral. in Cornwall.) The usual appellation given by the bards to the sacred inclosure of an open temple. 41 Specimens of the circular temple are common in this country. that the grove was sacred to the celestial. which was anciently denominated Caer Gaur. Ind. vol. because a circle was a significant emblem of the universe. which to this day is accurately defined by a bank of earth on each side extending to a considerable distance from the temple. p. 375. the open circular temple was a representation of the Ark. so as to form a triangle with the other The hill at two. vol.) may be here observed. thrones. ii. 40 Ant. a gigantic mound. and hence became an early object of superstitious reverence. and the holy mountain was considered the sacred ascent to Elysium . phalli. .124 HISTORY OF INITIATION. Here was a consecrated grove of oaks. and to complete the allusion. At a short distance from the circle was a huge stone. 113. is furnished by Nature with three distinct and beautiful peaks. 42 in allusion to the mundane by the Druids . sixteen feet in height. ment of British antiquity at Abury.. and forming at the end a double avenue . and was intended probably as a place of general assembly for the detached communities throughout the kingdom at their grand triennial meetings. altars. the altar to the terrestrial. which was doubtless the presiding deity of the place . adyta. and whose circumference is no where and pointed out the unity of the godhead a doctrine distinctly asserted 41 or oval. (Borl. The either circular. Corn. which the Druids appear to have exhausted all their ingenuity in adorning with a profusion of sacred embellishments. a vestige of the Buddhic superstition . or the mundane ark. Karn-bre. as a circle were generally places of initiation and worship whose centre . in Wiltshire. apud. on Salisbury Plain. p. and the cell to the infernal deities. who is described in the writings of Hermes 4* Trismegistus. caverns of initiation. called Silbury hill. (Maur. The entrance to this wonderfuHemple was by an avenue towards the north-east. rock basons for the water of purification. is every where. p. ii. Fab. . an outer and inner court. like most other edifices of peculiar sanctity. The most ancient monucave or womb led downwards to Hades. inclosures. the circle of the world it follows. one branch of which communicated with what is now termed the Cursus but I should think that this space is probably the site of the sacred buildings.. Pag. Idol.

which encompassed the whole structure . (Stonehenge. enclosed with a stupendous vallum of earth. but now. It is considered to have been one of the earliest structures erected in Britain. at about the distance of twenty-three yards. five yards high. and whose loss is a national calamity. as being the perfection of all things. containing forty stones. 43 because a serpent was the rence. in allusion probably to the forty days The adytum was oval. 43 The temple of Abury. 43 tho south side. the inner circle between eighty and ninety feet in diameter. 1. On the interior bank was placed a circle of massive unhewn grey stones.* egg . each seven feet high. altar. because ten was a perfect number. and consisted of sixty stones. or serpentine. one of the most stupendous erections which ancient Britain could boast. severance. tenons must have been prepared to an extreme nicety and like the fabric of Solomon's Temple. and scarcely any Its name may probably have been vestiges of its existence remain. 125 though the instances of this form are of rare occur- adytum being more frequently oviform than the Temple. in the centre of an extensive plain. was constructed in the form of a circle. The remains of a small temple of this kind. derived from the Cabiri. called Long Meg and her daughters. and the inner oval contained nineteen stones. and neither axes nor hammers were heard upon the whole structure. in Cumberland. Within the ditch was a green walk of one hundred and five feet in breadth. and this was probably circumambulated by the aspiraut during the process of initiation. and amongst the Pythagoreans denoted Heaven. as Parkhurst. Cabiri. alluding to the sexagenary cycle of the Asiatics: one half being uprights and the other imposts. formed of upright and cross stones of gigantic size. egg was the constant symbol of the world the outer oval consisted of ten stones. referring to the cycle of the Sun and Moon. stands the stone called Long Meg.) that the mortaises and very great. eighty. alas totally desolated. the two great arkite deities." says Stukeley.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. . stones. which was the idol or object of worship. The building itself consisted of two concentric circles. to which a vast Serpent was attached. or Abiri. was erected on the summit of an eminence. every stone tallied. and of a proportionate breadth and thickness. . within which was a deep ditch. The adytum contained an . Within this principal circle were two Smaller double concentric circles of stones. the largest being twenty-five feet in height. the one hundred feet further in the entrance into the outer court was another stone of about twenty feet in height. signifies the Mighty Ones j and the mysteries were dedicated to those benevolent deities who invented and propagated the arts which elevated man from a savage to a civilized state of This extraordinary monument of British ingenuity and perbeing. The area of this part of the temple was twenty -eight acres. because an prevalence of the diluvian waters. and consisted of a great circle. "The bulk of the constituent part is so " c. The transverse diameter from east to west is one hundred yards and the conjugate from north to south." The outer circle was one hundred feet in diameter. generally ! On about twenty feet in height. and five yards in girt. in loc. consisting of sixty is still in existence at Addingham. In . ingeniously supposes j because the Cabiric rites were undoubtedly celebrated within its precincts.

one hundred and seventy feet in perpendicular height three hundred and sixteen feet in sloping height. or head. however. and letter to Mr. . or Ceridwen . because a cross was the the centre of one of these was a tall phallus. Ant. Pen. and from the south-west of the temple proceeded another avenue in a contrary direction. and Hoare's Anc. . Ind. which anciently derived its name from this circumstance. vol. Sir R. (Owen's Diet. or cruciform. Toland mentions a winged Druid-temple in one of the Shetland islands. which was curiously situated on the apex of Hackpen hill.. measuring two thousand and twenty-seven feet in circumference at the base. in Essex (Knave. in the old language. for more than a mile. and terminated in a chapel or cell . and within the other was a cell or adytum. the head of the snake.) and pen. facing the south-east the stones composing which are still called by the country people. or Kneph. an artificial mound of earth. Wilts to which works I have been principally indebted for the above account of this temple. The circle represented the Demiurgus or Creator . Faber. 44 Stukeley mentions a winged temple which he found at Navestock. the extremity. Silbury hill.) and says he doubts not but there are many such temples in the Britannic isles. . hac signifies a snake. according to the creed of all ancient nations.126 * HISTORY OF INITIATION. was erected in the middle. and the common emblem of a serpent entwining himself over an egg. who was no other than the diluvian the Druids under the patriarch .. is a specimen of this cruciform temple. an unquestionable emblem of the deity. v. and the serpent referred to the divine emanation. Hoare thinks it was a hill-altar. and the snake the great serpent-god Hu. (Maur.Noah. is of opinion that the ring represented iv. twenty-one feet in height. or winged. one hundred and twenty feet in diameter at the top. for. Thus it formed the compound figure of a snake transmitted through a circle. 45 At Classcrmss in the island of Lewis. and the little sanctuary which formed the serpent's head is still fresh A .) snake. About the centre of this latter avenue was placed a cove or pastos. 193. between the head and tale of the snake. p. the Devil's Quoits.. memory. (Pag. which continued in a curvilineal form.) the Ark. Gale . symbol of the deity. p. and terminating in the valley. i. proceeded from the south-east part of this circle. to whose wisdom the government of the universe was entrusted. Vid. 693. The whole length of this magnificent structure was nearly three miles. C. The country people still hold this hill in high veneration . and covering five acres of land. for about the same distance.. Scotland. vol. and in their . was intended to represent Hu preserved in the Ark . consecrated by name of Hu. grand avenue. The avenue terminated with the head of the Idol. one hundred in number on each side. a person advancing towards the temple would have on all sides a most advantageous view of it.) whence hac-pen. tapering towards the end. Each avenue being on an inclined plane. having only very lately been destroyed. from Canaph. (Hoare's Wiltshire. Stukeley's Abury. planted with large masses of stone.. 44 to figure the motion 45 of the divine spirit . the winged serpent deity of Egypt. and eight feet nine inches in diameter. at regular distances. It has a circle consisting of twelve stones . as an appendage to the temple.

(1 Kings vi. 127 variously They were constructed as to the materials used in their composition. lamented the destruction of the intended temple. Corn. the circle of rough stones. in an elevated situation. but where stone was scarce. 193.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. They were uncovered. (Borl. they were composed of immense lumps of that substance. west. forming a superb avenue. 46 unpolluted with a metal tool. 46 There appears to have been a peculiar pollution attached to the use of metal tools in the construction of the early temples. and the Temple was formed of a high vallum and ditch. 7. of twice nineteen stones in two perpendicular parallel lines.) The temple itself. of a different description. The Almighty commanded Moses from the mount to raise a simple altar of earth and if that should not prove sufficiently permanent.. was encompassed by a high embankment.. But in the great national Temples. he was directed to form it of unhewn stone.. is found at New Grange. and guarded generally by a deep ditch. p. Ant. in Ireland. lest it should be polluted by the use of an iron tool. xx.) / I v B I 'V / Another cruciform temple. 6.) .. which he foresaw would be effected by the axes and hammers of the surrounding idolaters. to which the adoration of the three each on the while on the north east. with a single elevated stone at the entrance. . and south sides placed is a double row worshippers was peculiarly directed. . though an unequalled monument /of riches and architectural magnificence. symbol of regeneration and life. the gigantic representative of the deity. rude banks of earth were' substituted. sixty. or any metal tool. long afterwards. In countries where stone was plentiful. (Psalm Ixxiv. because the Druids thought it absurd to confine the Omnipotent Deity within the walls in right lines . 25. unhewn. and the two forms were always united. The whole number of stones was In the centre of the temple stands. (Ex. trouble and expence were not considered. was put together without the assistance of ax hammer.) And David.

vol. according to Mr. the circle of the Zodiac. 65. p. ii. p. that at the present time it would cost 20. In one of the Triads. in Cumberland.. i. 15." ajid names them as follows : The Knight Iltuds Bangor in Caer Worgorn . iv. The two principal ones were doubtless that of Stonehenge or Abury for the southern division of Britain . the Ark in which the patriarch and his family were inclosed . for the most early patriarchal temples consisted of twelve stones placed in the open air.) was constructed on the plan of a serpent transmitted through a circle. (Itin. thirty to the famous age or generation of the Druids . 49 The monument called Long Meg. the sanctuary of the British Ceres. moon.000 to throw up such a mound as Silbury hill. by an increased number of stones.. and full two miles in length. secondly.) 51 In the poem called Kadair Teyrn On. f 47 This method of erecting temples consecrated to the celebration of divine rites. seven to the seven heavens which they taught were placed in the upper regions of the air . as Stukeley affirms. Cardig. 48 It is asserted by Stukeley. with which they were undoubtedly acquainted .. however. and one hundred and twenty stones.) but the Druids added to the magnifi( cence of their religious edifices. thirty. which represented both the Ark and the zodiac. Ex. twelve.. 4 Josh. (Meyrick.. was consonant with primitive usage.. 516. the sun. so called from the well known form of the Druidical temples." (Mytho. implies "in the first place. arranged with an allusion to astronomical calculations.) the Bard says. Hu Ceridwin Creirwy. Introd. xxiv. p. exclusive of the detached phalli which occupied Three referred to the divine triad places out of the circumference. for the northern division.. sixty. 9. which. 50 This phrase. and probably the Temple at Shap. They consisted chiefly of three. seven. and one hundred and twenty to the double sexagenary..) we are told that there are four grand sanctuaries in the British dominions.128 HISTORY OF INITIATION. It would have been highly satisfactory if the bard had enumerated them. . and were doubtless erected at of a religious edifice the instance and under the direction of this priesthood to add dignity and authority to the rites of the national religion and hence the most herculean labours were performed in their construction. 50 It appears ex51 tremely probable that this sanctuary consisted of a range . Davies. "there are three principal Choirs in Britain. Druid. which was worshipped as the 49 representative of the deity. The general name of the sanctuary where the peculiar mysteries of Ceridwen were formally celebrated was Cacr Sidij the circle of revolution . (Welch Arch. sixty to the sexagenary cycle of India. in which their luminous emblems. vol. is a fine specimen of this kind of idol. 48 Attached to the temple was generally placed a stone more elevated and of superior dimensions to the rest. nineteen to the Metonic cycle . . and planets revolved thirdly. twelve to the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Vid. nineteen.

53 1 once visited Poole's Hole. and long and artfully contrived passages. or ark of the mysteries was called a Cromlech. as well as to prevent the idle approach of the uninitiated. (Old Sarum. cells. so as to form a small The Carcell. with all the apparatus of terror which was used on these important occasions could not have been contained within a small compass. within the area of which the aspirant was immured. ) 63 The three great labours of the Britons are represented in a fa- mous cal Cromlech or adytum triad to be. adytum The all these solemn duties gray stones were preferred. near Buxton. and found the noise of In the waters to be absolutely stunning. Hades. Lect. a tomb. or raising the mound or cairn in honour of the dead. or the great receptacle of the diluvian waters. or constructing the mysti.) and Bangov Wydrin in the apple island. sepultra. raising the stone of Cetti. Erecting the Emrys. clear that initiation (Glamorganshire. consecrated with solemn rites to the service of the deity. although it is tolerably on a minor scale was performed in of the island within the inclosure of caverns many parts of moderate dimensions. or building the circular . 10 . Apartments of all sizes. I should rather think Stonehenge. (Signs and Symbols. vaults. Epoptas to represent the central cavity of the vast abyss. Temple with petrae ambrosiae or consecrated stones and Heaping tho mount of G-yvrangon.) and was used as a sacred pastes or place of reIt consisted of two or more upright stones as supporters generation. the cairn was more commonly composed of earth . attached to these awful inclosures. immediately &d|j pintheir most sacred temples 52 in the centre of an iming penetrable grove of oaks. 53 or. and in this case it was termed a tumulus or barrow : derived from the Celtic tumba. It is. Considerable space was necessary for the machinery of initiation on its largest and most comprehensive scale. (Arallon or Glastonbury. a cavern of horror.) The Choir of Emrys (Ambres) in Caer Caradac. and byrig. indeed. baths. 6. When used as a place of sepulture. In some parts of England the initiations were performed in the secret recesses of holy caverns formed by Nature with every convenience to give effect to for a cavern was understood by the their celebration .THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. in The peculiar degree of sanctity other words. nedd was a heap of stones rudely piled together over the summit of a mountain or high hill for sepulchral or commemorative purposes. and hallowed with the blood of human victims. 129 of buildings erected for the purpose. or byringenn. a mound of earth. was calculated to produce a lasting impression on the aspirant. says Meyrick. of a broad flat stone which was laid across them.

Briggs of Kendal. but in other The space within places they are loose and naked on both sides. vol.." adds the author. Here and there time has scattered a few shrubs and trees over the pebbles. and in height about twelve feet from the interior plain. which were of a complicated nature. p.) that the hardy knights of the Round Table ture. whence he was denominated by the ancient Celts.. b. i. Patrick. were all derived from occurrences that took place during the initiation of candidates into the highest mys. u Merlin was the same as the Irish Tailgin St. It is well known that what was pure mythology in one 54 and hence the fables age became romance in another current in this country about King Arthur and his knights connected with Merlin the enchanter 55 their imaginary combats. the remains of timber trees of great size appear on every side. an old man in neighborhood told me. and more than twenty -two feet in circumference at the middle. even to the present time. It consists of an eminence which rises gradually from the plain for about one hundred and forty paces. and. 310. save only an opening or entrance.. v. Mer-Lin. Mys. vol.. with its smaller end in the earth. 55 ' 54 437. . he . j Druidism. The former is a very striking specimen of the mixed architecture of the Druids. Comb. piled up to the ridge. and lies about four hundred yards to the west of Arthur's Table. or the principal Telchin. island to which the name of Arthur is attached was doubt56 and the same may less connected with the initiations. one hundred paces in diameter and inclining a little to the westward from the centre is a large column of unhewn stone standing erect. eleven feet and upwards in height. Arthur's Round Table. or more properly Mayburgh the other. " Not related the following anecdote respecting this Druidical circle years since. In a correspondence which I had some time ago with the late Mr. being composed of an immense quantity of loose* pebbles and flints which perhaps were gathered from the adjoining rivers. in other words. 8." (Ib. Cab. Idol.) The sacred character of this place has been handed down by tradition. c. composed of stones and an embankment of earth. abounding with transformations. no other than the infernal. The summit of the hill is fenced round.. forming the lower section or base of a regular cone the ascent is everywhere covered with wood. (Hutch. near twenty paces wide at the base. were in fact. ii. and fearful adHence every remarkable structure in this ventures. Pag.) 56 In the county of Westmoreland are two extraordinary monuments connected with each other. he was Noah. or the marine god of the Lake.. p. twelve paces in width to the east the fence is singular. . . p." " I am much inclined to conjec(Fab. teries of Vid. there were many : .. 429. No kind of mortar appears to have been used in this work the stones lie uncemented. the one called Maryborough. and discomfiture of giants and powerful magicians. consists of a fine plain of meadow ground exactly circular.130 HISTORY OF INITIATION. Fab. battles. or Cabiric deities. .

of Rosegill. His name was Isir.. It is now the theatre of an annual wrestling match. and is wholly covered with a fine greensward. one hundred and ten yards in diameter in the whole and has an elevated circular table in the centre of forty yards in diameter. during a certain part of the ceremony. Ant. for one of the men soon after hanged himself. are formally installed knights of the Round Table . like all other giants. and figurately said to be metamorphosed into spect is Arthur's fostered among Round Table is . p. Arch.. . at which those gentlemen of the county. added he. when such a striking relic of superstitious restill the peasantry of the neighborhood !" a circular earthwork. Those at the entrance he remembered very well. for candidates. tradition does not say . Esq. .. be 131 57 said -of all places to which a All giant was a party. where such conveniences could be placed in conjunction . Thomas Wyberg. adds. marks of dilapidation. The giant's name was strictly mythological.THE CELTIC MYSTERIES." ferred from mythology to romance. for the practice of all idolatrous nations was uniform in this particular. When he washed his face. ancient temples consecrated to religious worship. and to amuse the peo(Borl. fishes. Gr. nor does it appear that there ever was. and she is represented by Taliesin as a giantess. to whom I am indebted for this legend. "in the days its greatest glory. and he had heard old folks say that there had been four stones in the centre. says the tradition. and his servant man. which is surrounded by a ring twenty yards wide and the whole is encompassed by a fifteen yards ditch. they have a legend respecting a monster of this He is nature. died and went the way of all flesh. but he could not recollect them. 67 In Cumberland." exclaims Mr. but it does say that he was buried in Penrith churchyard and that the stones called the giant's gravestones. He subsisted by spoiling the neighbouring fields of their cattle. It was in such places as this that the Britons used periodically to assemble for the purpose of witnessing the sports and games which were instituted to prove the strength and agility of their youth. mark his grave and the This is evidently a legend of initiation translength of his body. of which order. When he died.) ple. represented to have been a terror to all the surrounding country. in whatever country. he placed his right foot on one side of the river. I think they did wrong to meddle with these ancient things. and the other lost his reason. The rites. It is composed wholly of earth. 195. did not hesitate to drag men into his cave and devour them. (Welch. and beside the pellucid waters of a running stream. and they were destroyed by the landlord of the public house by the side of Arthur's Round Table. as we have seen. The Rev. It is situated on a piece of elevated ground near Eamont It bears no bridge. were most commonly performed in caverns. " this giant. Briggs. But. who was the same as Ceres or Isis. had places of initiation con- four stones at the entrance. Corn. who resided in a cave on the banks of the river Eden. and his left on the other. and there is not a stone about it. who have not previously obtained the honour. and when hard pressed by hunger. What must have of been the veneration for this place. Hall. The mysteries of Britain were sacred to Ceridwen. were immersed. is the present Grand Master.

842. that the monster seized men and The cattle were cattle.. is. 166. and was represented by every candidate during the initiations. . about nine and some of them are or were formerly cemented with lime. Lect. signifying the commander of a ship or ark . A Antiquities of Masonry. then residing at Maryborough. 59 is sufficient to convince us tukeley. in the same neighbourhood. vol. they were no more sepulchral than were the pyramids of Egypt . infra. and some of them are nine or ten feet long." How could they be sepulchral if no remains were interred within them ? The fact is. (Vid. and broad stones set upon the top to cover them. and I have no hesitation in saying that they were constructed for the selfsame purpose. during the process of which the aspirants were figuratively said to be devoured by the giantess Ceridwen or Isis. and did not yield in interest and sublimity to those which have been so highly eulogised in the more polished and civilized nations of Egypt and Greece. as it is reported. as we have seen. and some shallower. but they found no thing but an old spur. that a giant named Tarquin lived at Brougham Castle. Some of them are deeper. and make search for some ancient remains. 58 . and the men for initiation. Gibson. them is two long stones set upon the sides. They were usually constructed on the principles of secrecy and re- 58 The husband of Isis was Osiris: a word derived. and most frequently these places were subterranean. some broader and They lie all together in a row The manner of larger than others. 107. (Col. as places of initiation into the mysteries." Sir R. which are thus described in Childrey's Britannia Bacconica. from two old Celtic words. Few caverns in this country remain to relate the wonders of Druidical initiation but the stu. 59 . Some very singular excavations have been discovered between Luckington and Badminster. viz. or the cavern of Isis the perilous . for the author before cited says. C. in number Aubrey MSS.) Respecting the giant's grave I must refer to my former volume of Signs and Symbols. nected with them. but I conceive the learned baronet to be mistaken in this point. were performed with the aid of complicated machinery. within these forty years. and some few other things not worth mentioning. and cited in the ** They are upon the top of a rising hill. grotto at Castleton. p. iii. Hoare pronounces them to be ancient sepulchres . and dragged them into his cave for a prey.) according to Vallancey. similar legend is recorded by Stukeley. attacked and slew him. the very name of our Cumberland giant who was no other than Osiris or Noah. in Camden. The least of these caves is four feet broad. or Is-Ir. evidently brought there for sacrifice. that these celebrations were of the most terrific nature. i. " the curiosity of some ingenious men. called by Eendous the Stygian Cave. VII. tempted them to dig into it. called the Giants' Caves. Eiss-Aire.) says that this giant's cave or grotto was denominated Isis Parlish.132 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and the current legend. in Derbyshire. and that Sir Lancelet du Lake. Wilts. 1. p.

THE CELTIC MYSTERIES. and in all practicable cases. and it is evident that as religion could not be practised distinct from initiation. . 133 tirement from public observation. Long. dark. so places for the performance of these important rites were always constructed within or near the edifices consecrated to religious worship. intricate passages were the united essentials of the mysterious precinct .

. The monthly celebrations took place when the moon was six days old . and went in open procession. Abury. the daystar. day. which burned all night to introduce the sports of May Round these fires choral dances4 were performed.. one of them being kindled on the cairn. &c. THE grand periods of initiation into these mysteries were quarterly. p. fires were kindled3 on all the cairns and cromlechs throughout the island. On the day of On the day of the Sun. in his History of the Druids. (vol. the great Stukeley. and the other on the ground. and peculiar rites were appropriated to certain days. 1. who assembled on the day of the Moon. and determined by the course of the sun. thus translated by Davies. vi. 19th 2 But the time of annual August. i.. 71. who is worshipped when the 2 1 "A . in May. Ind. five ships. vol. 6 Maur. The festival was phallic.134 LECTUKE Till. On the day of Mercury. song of dark import was composed by the distinguished Ogdoad.. de bel. the day of the great influx. On the day of Mars. 6 in honour of the Sun. they allotted wrath to their adversaries. as appears from an ancient British poem. celebration was May eve. and is dedicated to the goddess of generation. and 1st November. 1st May.) 5 Signs and Symbols. 68. corresponded with the 13th February. in honour of the Solar patriarch Hu. they were delivered from the detested usurpers." 3 Toland. i. falls on the sixth day of the new moon. 1 These. v. and the ceremonial preparations commenced at midnight. 89. 4 These were the fire dances mentioned by Porphyry. and his arrival at the equinoctial and solstitial points. or Noah. p. Lect. and when the initiations were over on May eve. they enjoyed full pomp. at the remote period now under our consideration. and five hundred of those who make supplication. vi. Gal. there truly assembled Saturn. CEREMONIES OF INITIATION IN BRITAIN. p. 94. on the 29th April.. they swam in the blood of men. On the day of Jove. Ant. On the day of Venus. p. . called that of Auruna. (Ces. " It is remarkable that one of the most remarkable feasts of the Hindoos. (1.) and were probably used to propitiate that element which they believed was destined to destroy the world. who was 5 at this season delivered from his confinement in the Ark.) says that two of these fires were kindled in every village of the nation between which the men and beasts to be sacrificed were obliged to pass .

every oxe having tied up to the tip of his homes. in Phot. bowers. hard by and feasting.INITIATION IN BRITAIN. p. p. under which the youth of both sexes performed certain mysterious revolutions." (Ibid. some to the hills and mountains. to leaping. 197. and these oxen drawe home the Mayover with flowers and hearbes. as thus . 93. (Anatomie of Abuses. they strawe the ground round about it. or dividing themselves into companies. every parish. and some to another. having two And thus men. Anglo Sax. they goe to the woods and groves. (Turn. bound poale. and the presiding Druid stood before a large stone in the centre. 9 in allusion to star appears.) 8 This was doubtless the origin of the festivities which were practised in many parts of England. for it was custo7 These contimary to adore the sun by circular dances.. about it as the heathen people did at the dedication of I have heard it credeblie reported. hundred maides going to the wood. which they bring home with great veneration. and children and either all together. The mythic circle had also a reference to the historical period. Bibl. they set up summer halles. p. boughs about it. nued till the luminary had attained his meridian height . where they spend all the night in pleasant pastimes. and children. commencing with the union of heaven and earth. and reputation. and sometimes it was or three hundred men. they have twentie or a sweete nosegaie of flowrs fourtie yoake of oxen.) most unequivocally points out their origin: "Against Maie-day. or at dawn of day. Res. which they covered all round with strings from the top to the bottome. while the sun remained above the horizon. 1595.t jewel they bring from thence is the maie-pole. and consisted in the elevation of long poles decorated with crowns of gold and garlands of flowers. But their chiefes. women.. for the propagation of children and to remove barrenness. vol. i.) 7 Vid. they bind green and arbours. or village assemble themselves. on equipped it was reared with handkerchiefes and flaggs streaming the top. ii. following it with great devotion... both men. and then fall they to banquetting and dancing. and ending with the return of Ulysses to Ithaca. credite. it. and then retiring to the woods. some to one place." parte of them returned home again 9 Their Gorseddaw were held in the open air. wopainted with variable colours. the most disgraceful orgies were perpetrated. The time of general meeting was figuratively said to be when the Sun was at its due meridian . and in the morning they return bringing with them birch boughes and branches of trees to deck their assemblies withal.. The following description of these games by Stubbs. that of fourtie. morning ^ . there have scarcelie the third as they went. p. by men of great their idols. at the same season of the year. The bards assembled within a circle of stones. 333.. vol. 135 source of generation. (Procl. and the festival ended with de8 bauchery and intoxication. down to a very recent period.) . Asiat. threescore. or a gravity. 982. town.

Corn. 166." (Dav.) These consecrated petrae are common all over England and Wales and the act of passing through them was thought to convey extraor11 . that the rites of the insular of its surface. for it was considered that without mental and bodily purification.) And in his poem of The Battle of the Trees. 12 They were purified by the Tolmen. "by Math before I became immortal. and then put to A Gododin. They contained three independent steps or degrees. which partook rather of the nature of a qualification process than of a distinct degree. makes the central Sun always at its meridian to some part The truth is. the first or lowest being the Eubates. I was exorcised by Gwidion the great purifier of the Brython. Thus Taliesin. the second the Bards." 10 was hailed with triumphant shouts and loud hosannas." (Dav. of Eurowys. the king who rises in light and ascends the sky." says he. 11 careful preparation was used previously to the admission of candidates into the first degree. Song xxii.) 12 The Tolmen was a perforated stone which was used for the purpose of regeneration in the mysteries and the hierophant or chief Druid was hence denominated Tola. commenced at daybreak. 541. speaks of "that lore which was four times reviewed in the quadrangular inclosure. before the eyes are permitted to discover the truths which often lie hid under significant emblems. which will make no return of fruit commensurate with the toil of cultivation. Borl. . which. and the rising of sanctuary their great deity. When the removal took place. (Vid.. of Euron and Medron. But the solemn initiations were performed at midnight. p. "I was exorcised. children of Math. 10 . of human industry . the same bard describes these four ceremonies of purification with great exactness. By the Sage of sages was I exorcised in the primitive world. the arcana of a sacred establishment could not safely be communicated. Ant. The heart must be prepared to conceal. This division did riot include the preparatory ceremony of the insular sanctuary. Druid.136 HISTORY OF INITIATION that astronomical paradox founded on the globular form of the earth. continually revolving on its axis. 518. else the labour of years may be unprofitably wasted in the thankless office of committing seed to a Barren soil. the instruments. and the third the Druids. in his poem of The Spoils of the Deep. Druid. of the multitude of scientific teachers. p. I was exorcised by the sovereign when he was half consumed. at which time I had a being. to invest them with a higher degree of dignity and importance. who was dignified with the appellation of "the god of victory. probably. p.

Sometimes the candidate was doomed to a seclusion of twenty years. genitors. remained an entire day enclosed. or dead in the of the mysteries. and which as well signifies any particular part of the day or night. p. which was very severe.. was clad in a robe 16 which striped alternately with white. that it 15 might never be banished from the recollection. and will rise again to judgment on the third or eternal day. Ax. vi. is said by the Hebrews to have lasted three days and three nights. 1. skyline. and green were the sacred colours of Druidism. i. Lect. dinary purity. In some parts of Britain they were denominated Main Ambres and the ingenious Dr.IN BRITAIN. and a part only of the preceding and following days. v. Cesar. (Manners of the Ancient Israelites. Stukeley conjectures that the primitive name of Stonehenge was "the Ambres. . 15 16 Owen's W. the night and the day. Ant. 137 their probation. 13 which was spent amidst the secret recesses of an inaccessible forest. and the practice of gymnastic ex- But this lengthened probation extended only to such as were regularly educated and initiated into the mysteries. These were instructed in all the sciences of which the Druids made profession. They were excited to emulate the heroic deeds of their proercises. he was placed in the pastos with the usual ceremonies on the evening of the 18 first day. p. whose bravery was inculcated in verse. a village in the immediate vicinity of that celebrated monument of antiquity.. Glain. 14 in a close and devoted application to study and reflection. or by these. vi. and hope. e. for the express purpose of occupying the most elevated situations in the civil or ecclesiastical departments of the state. during the continuance of the post-diluvian world. which the Greeks express by their nuchthemeron . Corn." whence was de. the world before the Flood being so esteemed remained in the tomb another day. And this is the reason why a thing that has lasted two nights and one whole day. 18 "It was customary with the Hebrews. c. truth. Diet. will remain for ever happy . 4.. and confined in a cromlech without food three days prior to his admission into each of the two first degrees 17 that is. 1. and was liberated for initialanguage 19 tion. 82. or in other words. . 14 13 Gollut. . and being purified from his corruptions. restored to life on the third. who died on one day. and emblematical of light. 3. Borl." 19 This was symbolical of the patriarch Adam. The aspirant for mere initiation. rived the name of Ambresbury. as the whole of it.) "to express a whole day by the terms. the evening and the morning . 17 Signs and Symbols." says the Ajbbe Fleury.

Again. (b. and three nights in the prison of Kud. The aspirant.. is supposed to have lived in the old was hence esteemed a venerable old man .. sustained the character of world. as the father of the female principle or Ark. and his mother. (Cudworth..' who entered into the Ark in one year . length in Faber's 20 21 Welsh Welsh Pagan Idolatry.138 HISTORY OF INITIATION who is there said to in the inclosure of nights Arthur.) The confusion this would necessarily create could not be reconciled without having recourse to a multiplication of deities. as her husband he was termed Jupiter. The Welsh triads contain a hint of this solitary confinement in the cromlech when speaking of the initiation of Oeth have been imprisoned "three arid Anoeth. ceremonially arranged. in which it is certain the candidate endured a confinement of much more extended duration. when a child. he became Apollo. the is Ark is his coffin . i. his cradle and when he supposed to sleep in deep repose during the prevalence of the waters. p. and they together floated over the all-pervading wave. 19. hence she was taken for his wife . and three nights with the lady of Pendragon. 50. and was emancipated from his confinement.) Archaeol. p. 1. Intel. is said to die. 4. i. under the flat stone of Echemeint .. Noak was termed Saturn. it is his bed. the Druids and their attendants. 281. remained inclosed a year. vol. 404. but he was united with the Ark. Druid.. Dav. c. When the sanctuary was prepared for the solemn business of initiation. the son of Cystenin. 10-12. Noah built the Ark. and place it entirely out of the reach of ordinary comprehension. and ultimately he was born from the Ark. like Noah. in which the hierophaut reduced all the complicated pantheon of idolatry to one single god. (Vid. which. a hymn to the sun was in a place of light. 20 The last of Goreu. 1. and the unravelment of this intricate machinery formed one grand secret of the Greater Mysteries. and therefore in Greece. or reborn. vol.. Syst. and as her son. and hence he was considered but an infant. as Noah was from the Ark. s.. crowned with ivy and protected by amulets . 21 before he was admitted to the last and most distinguished privilege of Druidism. namely. i. c. ii. Idol. Fab.) This subject is also handled at . his nephew. p. It was further symbolical of Noah. it is when he . in the third year. but he was new-born from the mysteries. and soon branched off into a number of collateral deities which peopled their imaginary heaven. and tended to mystify their system of religion. Archaeol. Pag. Bacchus and when the solar and the arkite superstitions were connected. from this circumstance. properly clothed." these prisons was evidently the cromlech. and it was consequently represented as his daughter . . Triad. Much confusion arose in the mythology of the ancient world from this doctrine. and one youth released him from the three prisons.

As the cauldron was a mystical word to express the whole circle of science taught in the mysteries. or the dance of the circle in India.. The ceremonies of initiation which I am about to describe and illustrate. in a poem of extraordinary merit. in their great festival of the cycle. Hind. I conjecture that the Druids. which was used during the initiations in honour of the solar orb. Druid. called Hanes Taliesin which contains a mytho24 . logical account of the candidate's progress through the different translation of this stages. 24 was appointed to kindle a fire under the cauldron. which they had learned in Egypt." Soon. In the Eaas Jattra. 213. and the same idolatrous dances were performed by the Israelites." amidst an awful and death. Signs and Symbols. accompanied by the singing of dithyrambic odes . dressed up a pageant of their own The same may be said order. earnestly implored. afterwards used by the Greeks. On " as it was the known this observation. so the act of kindling a fire under it must have had an evident reference to those preliminary ceremonies which were practised before the disclosure of any part of the august secrets of the Order. 229. 25 Diodorus informs us that the temple of Stonehenge was the peculiar abode of Apollo . according to their respective qualifications. like silence. in the celebration of the mysteries. vol. who was denominated a blind man. until they 22 23 were impelled into a rapid and furious motion Maur. A fives. p. as with the Greeks and Britons. viii. the performers proceeded sometimes from left to right. and conducted nine times round the sanctuary in circles from east to west by the south 25 proceeding at first "with solemn step and slow. personally to represent the sun and moon.IN BRITAIN. A . Davies remarks. 22 and three blessed drops The candidate was then introduced. and that the god amused himself with a dance once in nineteen years.. and placed under the care of the officer who was stationed to receive him "in the land of rest. Lect. amongst his established train. to his ultimate state of perfection. which was performed at the summer solstice. and of the Egyptian Pyrrhic dance. pageant was then formed. 170. 189. and his attendant planets. have been transmitted to us by Taliesin. and sevens. that practice for certain priests. 139 of the Spirit were chanted. The aspirant. and the several candidates were arranged in ranks consisting of threes. the active duties of initiation were commenced. and sometimes from right to left. poem may be found in Dav." of the dance called Betarmus. ii. as amongst the Romans . And the Greeks used a similar movement while their choruses were performing. to inspire a sacred feeling adapted to the reception of Divine truths . to personate this luminous divinity. at length the pace increased. p. however. Hist.

31 The dark cavern of initiation. arkite goddess. i. p. 65. and thus sealed. an oath of religion. 26 The dance was somewhat . or heart. in his History of the Druids. I have been a cock.. 32 Or in other words. the following characters were successively sustained by the Taliesih applies them to himself in his poem aspirant. Vindicat. Druid. . upon hens in Eidin. 28 In the prosecution of the consecutive ceremonies. 45. 34 similar to the wild ceremonial dances mentioned by Taliesin. vol. and elicit the fruits of morality and virtue'. Preiddeu Annwn. 31 that I might be compelled freely to 32 I was yield my corn. sembled train were dancing after the manner. 27 sacred vessel. and improve the 35 The a hen with red fangs. I have been a stallion upon a mare . with garlands (of ivy) on their brows loud was the clattering of shields round the ancient cauldron in frantic mirth. and then the reaper placed me in a smoky recess. of the Corybantes and is . Taliesin.. that similar canine phantoms were exhibited in the mysteries of Britain. and the screams of harsh and dissonant voices. in his poem of Kadair Teyrn On. that the austerity of initiation might humanize 30 We have Archaeol. I have been a stock of a tree . * Welsh : already witnessed the profuse use of this animal in the mysteries and we shall find as we proceed. p. of Angar Cyvyndawd. vol. was represented in the initiation as six days moon... Toland. Turn.. i. 36. and devoted friends and patrons of 26 This sacred ceremony completed. reciting in verse the praise of those heroes who had been brave in war. . p. secrecy was administered. vol. 34 Emblematical of the lunette. (Dav. (Welsh Archaeol. 98 Welsh Archaeol. when subjected to tribulation. and hence the waters of the cauldron were said to deprive the candidates of utterThe oath was ratified by drinking out of the ance. I have been a spade . I have been a buck of yellow hue in the act of feeding . 30 I have been a roebuck on the mountain . 576. received by a hen33 with red fangs and a divided crest. its violation could only by be expiated by death. courteous in peace.. I have been an axe in the hand. Ceridwen.) consulted on this ceremony and Borlase in his Antiquities of Corn27 wall." &c. may also be usefully p. variegated with white..140 HISTORY OF INITIATION the tumultuous clang of musical instruments. I have been a dog . and singing in cadence. 283.) and more par" The asticularly described in another poem. p. 29 I have been a blue salmon . where the bard says. I have been a pin in a forceps for a year and a half. i. I have been a grain of the arkites which vegetated on a hill.

44 I have been stars among the superior chiefs. Pococke says (Descrip. i. or his priest. 188. 39 It has been already observed that the aspirant was crowned with ivy. 95. the same poet gives a further account of his numerous adventures during the ceremony of initiation. human and divine. praise that is 40 I have been a leader. looking stern and grim. 40 mystical poverty was the characteristic of a candidate during the process of initiation.) Dr. Druid. 36 The 37 36 When helio-arkite god.) "There was or holiday sport down to a comparatively recent period. of which some are yet remaining. 41 Again was I instructed by the cherisher with red fangs. 43 Dav. "I have been a spotted adder on the mount . "strangely featured and ugly. 544." 43 85 Alluding to the pastes or cromlech. in which the aspirant suffered a mythological death and revivification. more numerous than those of Egypt. which usually took place in the Kalends of January. )5 Dav. p. Another allusion to the cromlech. Instruction in all 43 mysteries and sciences. of the East. a sport. 44 Serpents. or feasts of Saturn. that "the spectres of Britain were hellish. I have been an offering before the sovereign . after their usual manner. p. 41 A Ceridwen. I my have revived 38 ." saysStrutt. 46 Figures of men with the heads of animals are very common on the monuments of Egypt. and by my bounty I became poor. shaped like the heads of those animals 46 which the aspirant was feigned to repre47 sent. and garments composed of their skins.. and conspicuous with my ivy branch. 37 I have died . I have been a viper in the lake. Druid.) "common among the ancients. xxxv. (Sports. vol. It consisted in . presented to the archdruid after initiation. I have been the weigher of the falling drops. and still to be seen both within and without the forsaken walls. I remained nine 141 months an infant in her womb. were much used in all the ancient mysteries.IN BRITAIN. 85 I have been Aedd. the plates to Belzoni's Researches." says Gildas. 39 And in his poem of Cad Goddeu.) "in some of the temples I have observed that the human body has always on it the head of some bird or beast. what she gave me 42 scarcely can I utter the great Of due. (Vid." 45 These extraordinary transformations were undoubtedly effected by means of masks. 36 returning to former state . and probably formed a part of the Saturnalia. p. p." 4T From a tradition of this practice arose that prevailing opinion. drest in my priest's cloke and furnished with my bowl. as we have already seen.." The practice was continued as a mummery (Gibson's Camd. 573.

This was intended to shadow forth the genial effects of that great transition from darkness to light which the arkite patriarch experienced on emerging from the gloom of the Ark to the brightness of a pure and renovated The world. 51 Tale of Pywll. or domestic cattle. 177. I presume.142 HISTORY OF INITIATION of the ceremony The second part commenced with striking the blind man a violent blow on the head with an 43 oar. for the mummers were always decorated with ivy leaves. and was coming in an opposite direction. and the aspirant again involved in chaotic darkness. disguisements . Kadair On. typified by his confinement in the Ark.. saluted his astonished ears . was commemorated with every external mark of sorrow. 40 This was the origin of the coronach or funeral dirge. the characteristics of the priesthood. used by the Celts to a very recent period and even now imitated by the wild peasants of our sister country.) records this circumstance " Pywll entering fully upon the chase. The tale of Pwyll in the Cambrian Register (vol. and listening to the cry of the pack. stood highest in the estimation of his fellow. and the insignia of the mysteries. for the actors took upon themselves resemblance of wild beasts. indeed. however. . which was soon changed into a blaze of light which illuminated the whole area of the shrine. as above. i. and continued to be practised long after the establishment of It was. and a pitchy darkness immediately ensued. 49 This was succeeded by the howling and barking of dogs. and wandered about from one place to another. for now the fire was kindled. and was doubtless the remains of the system of metamorphosis which was used during the Druidical initiations the memory of which was retained long after the institution itself was buried in oblivion. light was. and lamentations. at the funeral of a deceased friend or rethe ." The whole of this tale is worth considering. p. 50 the blowing of horns. His heart thrilled The most dismal howlings." VIII. who best supported the character of the brute he imitated. and he. and the darkness represented the state of obscurity in which Hu was involved while confined within the gloomy recesses of the Ark. began to hear distinctly the cry of another pack which was of a different tone from that of his own dogs. mummings and lation. for now the death of their great progenitor. 48 The oar is an unequivocal emblem of the Deluge . The Christmas morris dances of the present day are perhaps the last remains of this idolatrous superstition. Taliesin. very common in the reign of Henry Christianity. suddenly withdrawn. enlightened by the rays of a meridian sun. This whimsical amusement was exceedingly popular. as it contains many plain intimations relative to the ceremonies of initiation. shrieks. : 50 Teyrn . 51 and the with horror.

p.) the slaughter of the Britons generally. 143 His timidity voices of men uttering discordant cries. he would naturally attempt to fly. The Druids were habited during the performance of these ceremonies in while vestments. lying by his sepulchre. into whose purifying stream he was immediately plunged by the attendant 56 priest. in his history of Algiers. .) was the patriarch Noah and his sea. compounded of a mare and a hen. emerging from behind the veil. (Dav. and by main force bore him away to the mythological sea of Dylan. without knowing where to look for safety. white dogs. and crowned with red diadems. without the semblance of a retreat. according to Mr. at Stonehenge. passage in the poem of Gododin. that the corpse of Heyradin Barbarosa was found. nor could they possibly makejiim lie quiet in his grave. and perhaps truly. after he had been there inhumed . 54 1 am inclined to think that the career of the aspirant was frequently contested by real or imaginary opponents to prove his perThese contests were probably of a nature somewhat sonal courage. he lay still. his exerted wisdom planned a defence against the pallid outcasts with their sharp pointed weapons. oft of the ground. . was said to be transformed into a hare j 53 evidently in allusion to the timidity which was the natural consequence of all the horrors to which he was necessarily exposed.IN BRITAIN. the Deluge and he cites the following passage from Taliesin's Cad Goddeu in support of his opinion. however.. Druid. son of the sea. and gave them no farther trouble. however. that "the Turks report. 54 The gigantic goddess.." 56 Or rather fiend mare. (Druid. referred to at the fatal banquet given by Hengist to Vortigern. till a Greek wizard counselled them to bury a black dog together with This done. Dogs were generally considered to be effective agents under supernatural circumstances. 365. Davies. p. gives a curious instance of this. Escape was. Embraced in the centre Between the royal kneee. similar to the subsequent practice of the Crasaders during the process The following of admission into the superior orders of knighthood. (Song xxii.) 56 Dylan." the body. She is here represented as a monstrous animal. as a certain truth. appeared to bay at his heels. " Truly I was in the ship With Dylan. Dav. now seized the astonished candidate. 53 Hanes Taliesin. with 52 Thus he shining red ears. on British Coins. Morgan. He says. 100. four or five times. in the form of a proud 55 mare. accumulating like a darkening swarm around him. Ceridwen. The tale of Pywll. . likens the aspirant to a stag. and hence he was said to be changed into a fish j 52 Tale of Pywll. increasing. impossible. for wherever he turned. which surrounded the candidate forcibly points out the probable danger " Whilst the assembled train were at this period of the initiation.

Song 4. and earnestly recommended the practice of fortitude to the exhausted aspirant . great and very high. taught that souls are immortal. and his pursuer. and preside in the deep in his character and person for one complete (Tale of Pywll. Poly-Olbion. another name for Dylan.) 59 ^Mela. the devil. his egress from the purifying wave. to . iii. 2. 1.144 HISTORY OF INITIATION and to remain a whole year in the deep. c. 58 This change produced in the attendants a corresponding emotion of joy and pleasure. Laert.. for the exercise of this virtue constituted.. and must live in a future state. seated on his throne of state. like the rushing The floods came forth of hostile spears. beheld the sign of the Rainbow glittering in all its brilliancy of colouring under the character of a lady mounted upon a horse of a pale. or in other words. who. the novice was said to become a bird who penetrates the regions of the air towards the lofty arch of heaven. is represented as the prince of darkness. threatens him with destruction. The aspirant was here presented to the Archdruid.) 57 "It was proposed that Pywll should assume the form of Arawn. as the legend is recorded by ark. (Drayton. imparted some portion of the cabalistical knowledge of Druidism . the darkness was removed. The same appalling noises secutors did not end here." 58 " At the completion of the year. and providing a solemn sacrifice. in the opinion of the 59 Druids. one leading trait of perfection. Prom heaven to the great deep. Pywll returns from the palace of the deep." (Tale of Pywll. . Christian writers. Procem. Diog. When. into his own dominions. the arkite. As Dylan was Noah. who expatiated on the design of the mysteries . transformed into an otter. bright colour. to figure out the high and supernal privileges he had just attained the favour of heaven and the protection of the He was now instructed in the morality of the gods. incited by precept to act bravely in war. After his lustration and subsequent enlightening. order. to testify their supreme felicity at the resuscitation of their god. 60 solemnly enjoined to the duties of divine worship. still assailed his ears . so Stonehenge was denominate cl the mundane which was feigned to have been conveyed across the Irish channel by Hu. which was expressed by shouts and loud paeans.) year. Emerging at length from the stream. and he found himself surrounded with the most brilliant coruscations of light. in the character 57 The pursuit of his terrible perof Arawn.

he underwent other and more arduous ceremonies of purification. or thrice born . for this degree was administered to none but persons of rank and consequence. after having surmounted the two former degrees. and few attained the character of esoteric. v. and its colour was merely the mark of distinction between the different orders. G-lain. Sometimes like a round bead of glass.) In each case it was a powerful talisman of protection. 62 badges of Druidism. poison.IN BRITAIN. The crystal. and committed to the secluded solitude of the cromlech for the space of nine months.103 Southey's Thalaba. Dav. The powerful gem condensed Primeval dews that upon Caucasus first it winter's frost. more perfectly. that the candidate might be prepared to understand. accompanied by the bardic harps. astronomy. Append. he was still deemed exoteric. logic. geography. iii. The Druids' crystal was white the bards' sky blue.. practise morality. i.) now glass boat.) at others. vol. contention. the mead was solemnly administered by the attendant officer. . and and ultimately was invested wilh some sacred folly. during which time he applied himself to the study of theology. and the aspirants' was distinguished by a mixture of all these colours. The secret of manufacturing them rested solely with the Druids. the sacred truths in which Diog. He was compared to a grain of pure wheat. an unequivocal test of initiation. (Owen's Die. three hymns were chanted to the honour of Hu and Ceridwen. 63 " Abdaldar wore 63 . Prooem. 84.) and now a glass house. . To blind or 11 may have charms vol. Laert.. cosmogra- phy. natural philosophy. This tedious period was devoted to study and reflection. as an undoubted preservative from all future dangers. and the initiated aspirant was dismissed with solemn ceremonies.. 37. No.. and music. 61 A crystal ring Felt the . and divination. he \vas brought before the sacred fire. rhetoric." p... Druid. (Kadeir Taliesin. (Ibid. like a crescent. This Amulet was variously shaped. it was denominated a glass circle. p. and if a noble candidate aspired to a higher degree of perfection than had been already communicated. 145 arid to avoid sloth. (Preiddeu Annwn. But. 63 was delivered to him. arithmetic. and if not intended for the highest offices of the priesthood. or Welsh Archaeol. i. the eubates' green. emblematical of his perfect fitness for the highest mysteries of Druidism.

who has seen 65 66 67 who knows him ?" &c.) a sheathed sword was placed. 68 The duty gate of hell. 50). He is said to have remained nine months in her womb... Remarks on British Coins. 19. while under the supposed symbols. p. or a secret retreat of light ? What supports the . Geridwen wrach. to denote equally a love of justice and peace. Vid. Davies. and was pronounced a regenerate person. excited by the pusillanimity.. to prevent unlawful intrusion. or unworthiness of the aspirant. vii. v. Append. and swallowed him. vol. was encountered by 65 in the shape of a highhis pursuer. No. 66 selected him from the heap amongst who crested hen. Druid. When his term of probation expired. W. would make 68 When the full earth.) and a certain retribution if the sanctuary were profaned by cowardice or irresolution. and to see that the candidate went through his probation with becoming fortitude and perseverance. (p. denominated by Taliesin. i. his qualifications were ascertained by propounding many abstruse queries in the branches of science to which his attention has been directed. It was the death and burial of the mysteries . Cromlec. Archseol. a mere soul. vol. which he lay. Ceridwen the fury. whose vindicative rage. of this relentless Janitor was. and who supported the curtain from the earth to the skies ? Knowest thou what thou art in the hour of sleep a mere body. and heaven itself tremble. Welsh Archseol. (Priddeu Annwn.146 HISTORY OF INITIATION he was now about to be fully instructed. (Owen's Diet.. retire during the winter ? Who carried the measuring line of the Lord of causes what scale was used when the heavens were reared aloft. which visit us in the summer. form of a grain of pure wheat. On the flat stone which covered this miserable place of penance. p. . 67 armed with a drawn sword. the door of which was reputed to be under the guardianship of the terrible divinity Buanawr. "At what time and to what extent will land be productive ? What is the extent and diameter of the earth? Who is the regulator between heaven and earth ? What brings forth the glain from the working of stones ? Where do the cuckoos. 45. cleansed from his former impurities by the mystical contents of her cauldron. the . fabric of the habitable earth ? Who is the Illuminator of the soul i. Dav. to depict the period of his seclusion from the world in the Pastes. hell. 64 The nature of this intellectual investigation may be estimated from the following specimen selected out of Davies's Druids.. and on its expiration he was said to be newly born from the womb of Ceridwen. 64 This confinement and subsequent emancipation was represented by a continuation of the former kind of The candidate.

which was the typical mountain where the Ark rested when the waters of the Deluge had subsided . the prospect before him was little less than certain death. and was obliged to depend on his own address and presence of mind to reach the opposite shore in safety. The candidate was actually set adrift 70 in the open sea on the evening of the 29th of April. " is a pledge that I receive. and the candidate was pronounced unworthy of a participation in the honours and distinctions to which he aspired . the aspirant was prepared for the consummation of his knowledge. and when their work is finished. the was A 69 This description of boat is still used by the fishermen of Wales. the dashing waves breaking on the wear at an immense and almost hopeless distance. on beholding across a stormy sea. he received the highest and most ineffable degree of light and purity which mortal man was esteemed able either to confer or This emblematically performed by placing new-born infant in a coracle. They are ribbed with light laths. and fish with the other. coracles. towards the broad end. p. after a very dangerous process had been successfully braved. 177. if either of these failed during the enterprise. in the manner of basket work. Idol. 147 period of gestation in the womb of Cericlwen was complete. bring their "These A boats 70 home on their backs. in his Tour through Wales..IN BRITAIN. at the approach of night. and to which. iii." says Wyndham." Fab. 69 or small boat. The men paddle them with one hand. and. their bottom is a little rounded. This dangerous nocturnal expedition was the closing act of initiation. Pag. and four feet broad . " Thy coming without external purity . or split twigs. and sometimes proved the closing scene of life. . and their shape is exactly oval. he might succeed in gaining the safe landing-place on Gwyddno's wear. but. and committing it to the mercy of the winds and waves. "are generally five feet and a half long. and abandon the undertaking refusal which brought on a formal and altogether. the timid probationer has frequently been induced to distrust his own courage. and are covered with a raw hide and strong canvass. covered with a skin. Hence. he was for ever ineligible." thus was he addressed in a prescribed formulary. contemptuous rejection from the hierophant. pitched in such a seat crossed just above the centre manner as to prevent leaking. from this moment. If he possessed a strong arm and a well fortified heart.. vol.

he pronounces himself thrice born after the concluding scene of his initiation. vol. p. Dav. which he seldom failed to exert to his own personal advantage. Druid. From steed. they conferred an actual superiority on the initiated. and unhesitatingly anhis own inspiration by proclaiming himself to foretell future events. L. "Near Clifton is a famous spring where xhe people go annually every May-day to drink. Cur. but also the inestimable gift of immortality.I 148 HISTORY OF INITIATION revenge upon the shoal of earthworms is. questionable soever these powers might be. But the three drops in which the accumulated virtues of the cauldron were concentrated. 251. Out of the recep71 tacle which is thy aversion did I obtain the Eainbow.) . or. The completion of the Three Degrees was termed being thrice born. Take out the territory have I alienated the gloomy useful one.. not only unlimited wisdom and knowledge. my nounced tion the impurities of which the renovated novice was now disburdened. 45. their hopeless longing for the pleasant allotment." (Stukeley. were reputed poisonous.. than the candidate received the undisputed power of vaticination in its 73 The fermented contents of the cauldron highest form. for the refuse of the concoc- my will not receive thee.. to which I have often referred." But the fearless aspirant who surmounted all these dangers was triumphantly received from the water on 72 May eve by the Arch-druid. Thus the three capable drops of efficacious water from the cauldron precious of Ceridwen . p. First he was born of his natural parent. for delivering us from the power of such a gross and dreadful superstition as that under which the first occupiers of our soil were enthralled 74 In a poem of Taliesin. the representative of G-widdno. the three mysterious degrees. in other words. 73 ii. had the reputation of conveying. then from the ! How p. The following custom may have originated from an indistinct tradition of this ceremony. the adept thenceforward was denomi- was supposed to be deeply impregnated with all Welsh Archseol. Let us raise our hands in devout gratitude to Him who brought life and immortality to light. after the three efficacious drops had been disengaged from the boiling vessel. they hold it an earnest of good luck in the ensuing year to be there and drink of the water before sunrise. were no sooner attained. vol.. by a custom beyond 71 72 remembrance . all Itin. and appropriated to the fortunate aspirant. 165. which referred to the doctrine of regeneration . and his companions.

) assigns perfection to the Yogee who womb A had accomplished many 75 76 births. civil. Every man is brutish by his knowledge. . thrice in. 149 nated Dedwydd. come not near me. (Jerem. according to the text of the Veda. li." (Ordin. was from an Ark.. and virtue. of Ceridwen. 17. Jones' Works. the second from the ligature of the zone . and had his understanding enriched with an elaborate system of his investigation . where he wus a representative of the Arkite patriarch.) born . 67.. morality. fortitude. of Menu. the mythological Ark. This superior knowledge was that particular species of worldly wisdom on which the Prophet pronounces this severe invective. and consisted of every species of instruction which had a tendency to store the mind with wisdom. I am benefits resulting from this and important. -(p. To this effect also the Brahmins say. p. 5. The Greeks also styled their Epopts. and the last birth. and lastly from the coracle. the third from the due performance of the sacrifice (of initiation) . or military dignity. (E^onr^} tude of the profane.. as amply to compensate for the danger necessarily incurred in the These benefits rendered the possessor eligible for any ecclesiastical. passage in the Geeta. 106. rgiyovos. and could say to the multiby. such are the births of him who is usually called thrice born. " The first birth is from a natural mother . vol. or Ark itself. Isaiah Ixv. Stand holier than ye! 75 and the privilege were so various process.) . like that of Taliesin.IN BRITAIN. Sir W. The whole circle of human science was open to 76 the knowledge of divine things was communicated without reserve he was now enabled to perform the mysterious \ites of worship.

Sir R. and by lots. Ant. being the most celebrated. or hydromancy. 3 Taliesin. as a decisive proof of his cabalistic attainments. vol. the adept was required to These mystical exhibit his skill in the art of divination. C. merit a brief description. Kadair Teyrn On. about three quarters of an inch one way. amidst trinkets. Being cast into a white napkin. They predicted future events from the 2 T flight of birds . symbol representing a word. which he supposes were used for casting lots. i. water.. 67. with many superstitious ceremonies were exactly of the same length. by half an inch the other. by white horses . Hoare discovered in a tumulus near Stonehenge. p. p. p. and at the rising of the sun. Borl. Corn. One side is flat and the other convex. .150 LECTURE IX. SYMBOLS AND DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. 65. Mic Dinbych. each being a .. or an idea. They are oblong. and considers them as forming a step towards the use of letters. THE initiations were finally completed at day-break . secret after certain incantations the divine will was ascertained on any specified subject by taking an indifferent number of these tallies indiscriminately from the napkin. this appears to 1 have been the most highly esteemed. and about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. i. These were the elementary principles by which the result was effected. Welsh Archseol. an awful period with those who practised the Sabian idolatry. a letter. 134. Welsh Archseol. and skilfully developing the mysterious ideas which they appeared to convey.. This great antiquary ranks them amongst the most eminent curiosities which he had been fortunate enough to discover in all his some ashes and burned bones. performances were of various liinds. Of all the secrets of Druidism.. may One hundred and forty-seven shoots were cut from the they could desire on they apple tree. four small bone laborious and comprehensive researches. On high occasions the entrails of sacrifices afforded them every information all subjects which came under their consideration. by the agitation of 3 The latter process. vol. It 2 Taliesin. but with a varied diversity of branchings and ramifications. and they are each adorned with a separate and distinguishing device.

2. 15. 75). p. and Scotland. were denominated Cymru. By hys wyf c Scotl. according to tradition (W. for we have it on record that these secrets were contained in 2(XOOO verses. which 7 Pennant's Tour in The required twenty years' study to understand perfectly.DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. 151 was celebrated by the bards in all the language of grave and lofty panegyric. fabulous king Brutus. 8 or procession from east to triads. 2. the Druids paid the most sacred regard to odd numbers. 1. p. p. for. Myrddin's Avallenau. the processions were formed three times round the sacred inclosure of Caer Sidi. 1. On solemn occasions. Druid. &c. the Druids. produced by multiplying the square of seven by the sacred number three. and Robert of Gloucester gives these names to the three sons of his 4 5 . and the Eubates. The public triads. and pure white blossoms. succeeded by delicious fruit. noble men and fre. ii. like the proverbs of every country in the world. of which little more than a third part have descended to our times (Dav. in Dav. In them. the institutional maxims of the bards.. Thus Gaul was divided into three provinces. as well calculated for being treasured up in the memory. Druids. and even their poetry was composed in 7 The ternary deiseal. Mela. Wales. Locryn and Kamber and Albanak al so... 2. P. was a prize more splendid and desirable than any temporal dignity or spiritual rank. and secure to the pious worshipper the blessing of divine protection. the Bards.. did not exceed three hundred.. The number three was held in peculiar veneration by this order of men and hence the arrangement of classes both in civil and religious polity 5 partook of a ternary form.) tered amongst the people. c. age. Arch.4 It is to be remarked that one hundred and forty-seven was a magical number.. the Druids. 108. (P. 3. with wide spreading branches. and the Plebs and the hierarchy consisted of three gradations. Nothing could be transacted without a reference to this number. some unusual charm was sup- posed to exist which would propitiate the favour of the deity. the sacred lore of Druidism . s Toland. 30). and the Celtae the inhabitants were of three classes. which were scatc.. triads of the bards. 465. But this noble prince sones had thre. like the rest of the world. the Belgae. Lloeger and Alban . Dm. 6. and it appears highly probable that many of the abstruse secrets of religion . Ces. and beauty. and even the possession of an orchard containing one hundred and forty-seven apple trees of equal size. . 6 their invocations were thrice repeated. . . were a series of truisms wrapt up in pithy sentences adapted to oral transmission. were communicated in this form. the Acquitani. however. p. Innogen. the Equites. p. vol. England.

stood a single upright stone which is now broken. 6. c. 7 in nota. or more properly. seeing." 10 Jamieson. or the arkite triad. 9 accompanied all their rites whether 10 and nothing was accounted sanctified civil or religious. still exists near Keswick. and night by motion from west to east. BlencArthur. appetite and aversion being added to hearing. . 9 This custom might probably have been adopted from the Pythagorean philosophy. and gave to man seven external senses. 12 13 A striking monument of Druidism. and Darkness by the contrary course. and others to some ancient. Diet. Vide ut supra. At about three paces without the inclosure on the west. . xii. 11 It may be added that this number was invested with peculiar properties. From this august temple a view was presented to the eye of the superstitions Briton. 11 without They entertained a similar veneration for the number 12 seven. Sic. two of which the sun touches in his annual course. Scot. Lect. Carrick Heigh with its two peaks and Saddleback. The adytum is situated Diod. with its single elevated peak soaring up to heaven . which represented Light by the circular motion from east to west. taught that the upper regions of the air contained seven heavens . Widdersinnis. seven and three were hence. Thus Timoeus the Locrian says. west by the south. and twenty-one (3x7) from north to south.152 HISTORY OF INITIATION.. 5 and consists of a quadrangular inclosure seven paces by three. and is about thirty paces (7-|-3x3) from east to west. tasting. The combinations of feeling. were all at the eastern extremity. and has been constructed with a due regard to the sacred numbers. some referring its origin to the three great circles in the heavens. which was familiar to the Druids of Britain. esteemed Thus their great period of thirty years was prosacred. Several Druid monuments are still in existence. in all their forms. both with respect to form and situation.. though mutilated tradition of either the Trinity. commonly called the Metonic 13 cycle. calculated to awaken all his enerThe holy mountain of gies. Skiddaw. by every nation under heaven. with its perfect character of three distinct peaks. which contains an adytum in complete preservation. It is called Carles or Castle Rigg. It was a representative of the deity. ber one hundred and forty-seven was so much esteemed because it proceeded from the square of 7x3. in allusion to the cycle of the sun and moon.-1. consisting of nineteen upright stones (7-J-3+3 2 ). "The sun maketh day in performing his course from east to west. duced by the sum of seven and three multiplied by three and we have already seen that the magical num. the performance of this preliminary ceremony. in a disquisition on the science of astronomy. so that the primitive elevation cannot be ascertained. and smelling. and the third he passes over. in vo. and rouse the latent sparks of devotion.

sacred Rocking Stones . though my guide. p. which. was a fearful engine of Druidical judgment. and consequently superintended all sacrifices. Chrys. viii. however. the fruit. exceeded that of the monarch. Corn. and even had the power of inflicting the punishment of death. 163 possession of the orchard containing one hundred trees above noticed was. Ant. that it was in allusion to the scriptural Bethel (Gen. erected by probability. born on the moors. each side. that Sanchoniatho mentions '' that Uranus contrived stones. vol. cited by Borlase. . great council of the realm was not competent to declare war or conclude peace without their concurrence. 79. from the effects of this curse. and sat on thrones of gold. Ill. 14 The sumptuous palaces. stupendous specimen of the Logan A is found at Brimham Craggs in Yorkshire. Faber (Mys.) and is supposed to be about one hundred tons in weight on pedestal. They possessed the power of excommunication. which possessed the power of motion as if they were instinct with life. which was unattainable by ordinary means. hoAvever. visible the from this consecrated spot lending alike their aid to light up and to expand his mind with veneration for the powerful author of such stupendous imagery. They resided in highest magistrate was not exempt. the apple trees were the Druids . 15 The Logan. which was the most horrible punishment that could be inflicted and. called Betulia. and hence they were referred to as oracles to determine the innocence or guilt of an accused person. upon my making trial round it. The orchard represented the place of initiafigurative. The astonishing increase of the motion with the little force I gave it. are to be found in various parts of our own island. in all numbers of which. their doctrine. I found it moved with great ease.DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. and well acquainted with these rocks. in many cases. They determined all disputes by a final and unalterable de15 cision .. their garments. the Druids. which is thus described by " It rests upon a kind of Mr. when 1 came to the middle of one side.. assured me that the stone had never been : known to rock.. for no private person was allowed to offer a sacrifice without their sanction. These were.) says. p. or rocking stone. Cab. who was about seventy years old. it appears to have been shaped to a small knob at the bottom to give it motion. the . They were the sole interpreters of reli- The and forty-seven apple gion. xxviii. fire of religion in his soul . and erected for the purpose of imposing a degree of reverence for the persons of the Druids. . This kind of artificial curiosity is of great antiquity. tion . Rock in the Archaeology (vol." The people were impressed with an idea that no power but the all-controlling fiat of the divinity could move these stones upon their basis. the white blossoms. On examining the stone... while the strong and vigorous branches represented their power and authority. 19). w Dion. i.

he should live but five All this came to pass. St. in his revelation to man. 67. on examining it. 21.. these glaring impositions on a superstitious and abused people. Cardig.) was ultimately prostituted by the . ii. as some think. ii. Corn. in which fraud and pecuniary emolument appear to be the most striking features. Corn. c. spoke to him to be of good cheer." The Druids practised 17 augury for the public service of the state . to be ready on all common occasions to satisfy the inquiries of the anxious and credulous. b." says Stukeley (Itin... Paul preached before him and Josephus speaks of his death agreeaI shall . Jud. which.." Dr. days. who put him in bonds. one of the Emperor's guards." 18 The system of vaticination Druids themselves to unworthy purposes. vol. class. The construction of this equipoised stone must have been by artists well skilled in the powers of mechanics. (Ant. . as is evident made me very apprehensive the equilibrium might be destroyed . Corn. and their business was to foretell future events . Introd. He was made king by Caligula . Meyrick. and their respective works may be referred to by those who feel any curiosity on the subject. many of which remain to this day. being derived from Tlwda. while the Eubates were merely fortune-tellers. As he stood leaning against a tree before the palace.. and they were the authors of an abundance of ridiculous superstitions and absurd ceremonies to promote good fortune or avert calamity. 4). 16 17 iii. u We have p. their name. Even the Deity himself. for he should be released from those bonds. 14). many instances.154 HISTORY OF INITIATION. as a system of mysterious communication. at great length. The lowest degree of the mysteries conveyed the power "of vaticination in its minor divisions. an owl perched upon that tree: a German Druid. to recover lost treasure. " of Druid men and women endued with the spirit of prophecy. 18 Symbolical instruction is recommended by the constant usage of antiquity . b. Ant. and arrive at great dignity and power but bid him remember that when he saw the bird again. or to excite the soft passion of love . mention but one out of Josephus (Ant. xviii.. condescended to adopt the use of material images for the purpose of enforcing sublime truths. Hist. p. Borlase has described these stones with much minuteness (Ant. Cur. I found it was so nicely balanced that there was no danger of it falling. but. commonly signifies magic. Borlase and Meyrick have enumerated.. Dr. bly to the prediction. c. and retained its influence throughout all ages.). amongst the Irish.. The Jewish Agrippa fell into the displeasure of Tiberius. Borlase 16 The Eubates or vates were of the third or lowest says. and dealers in charms and philtres.

" And again. 166. 210. says. repetition of the offence was punished by placing a conspicuous mark upon his robe. (Myth. This egg.. was imbedded in signs and symbols." 21 The symbols which could contain the learning and morality of the Druids. must have been both numerous and significant. " I am a silent proficient. to signify the superintending care which an eternal 22 It had the reputed Being affords to his worshippers. p. was caught in the vestment of the priest. and the Apocalypse.. in the poem called his Chair.) "was but so much dust thrown into the eyes of the profane multitude. p. vol. vol. and contained some highly mysterious allusions. From a multiplicity of these emblems. properly. expulsion ensued." The Druids were the serpents. the Parables of Our Saviour. and held within its inclosure every living creature. so did the Ark. 19 See. The method of its formation was. If a loquacious member incautiously violated the solemn stillness of their Ibid. i. meetings.. a still more severe and signal punishment. and. if genuine. to avoid the fury of its parents.. It was attended by a serpent entwined round the centre of the amulet. he says. and the eggs were crystals curiously contrived to conceal within their substance the mysterious tokens of the highest orders. and. I have selected the following. necessarily The anguinum ovum was a very important symbol. Lect. to use the words of Mr.. or Druids' egg. and declaring that the sword was naked against him. Dru. in exaggerated cases. to which no person was eligible as a candidate who could not produce one of these magical crystals. this serpent's egg referred. vii. p.. 19 155 initiation. and carried off with great rapidity. was said always to float. p. as being decidedly characteristic of the people and of the institution. i. fabulous. and in union with the solemn investiture of their ineffable degrees of perfection. Welsh Arch. without the use of audible language. the subject is copiously ex- plained. was said to be produced by a knot of serpents. mysterious knowledge of the Druids.. 21 20 Welsh Archyeol. 23 The anguinum. in like manner.DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. particularly. The Druids were great lovers of silence. 45. describing his " The secrets were imparted to me by 20 the old giantess. 37. to the Ark while it floated on the expanse of waters. he was publicly admonished three several times. Taliesin. as a token of due preparation and previous acceptance. but on full and substantial proof of his wisdom and prudence. or. A . and enforced the observance of it with much rigour at their public assemblies.) and if this failed to correct the impropriety of his conduct. Davies. (Priddeu Annwn. As an Egg is the fountain of life. the books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel . being propelled into the air. In the Theocratic Philosophy of Freemasonry. however. The throughout the prophetical and inspired writings. which were not even revealed to the person in whose custody they were placed.

surmounted by the meridian sun. 27 Marwnad Uthyr Pendragon. 559. Druids. and highly polished. in the form of a lozenge. This boat of glass was a sign or diploma of initiation. 1. 26 it The Rainbow was the Druidical emblem of protection. Hist. representative Ceridwen. to the successful probationer. C. than the fact.156 HISTORY OF INITIATION. They were considered equally potential in the communication of benefits.) 25 splendid variety of this amulet was found by Sir R. 60. It consists of a curious perforated stone of the kind called tabularia. From the situation in which this extraordinary amulet was found. of conveying a decided advantage in believed capable 24 The serpent and egg 25 was a any legal suit or process. vol. A which had been ritually consecrated by the Druids. also. as the same tumulus contained. to surround the aspirant delivered from his confinement in the pastes or " Thus the Bard belt has been a Rainsays. figuratively. p. xxix. moulded into the form of an egg. when Ark. an acknowledged symbol of the arkite egg. which Stukeley distinguished by the name of Bush Barrow.. Nat. p. The glain and anguinum were evidently artificial. as a testimony of his competence to be admitted to the 28 The Wheel was a famous Druidical superior degrees. My a reference to the Ark. Davies. which was capable of introducing the possessor to the 'sacred solemnities 28 without examination or proof . and was probably presented during the ceremonies of the insular sanctuary. 26 In war. 11 bow"* The Boat bore 23 24 Toland. that the Emperor Claudius Cesar actually put a gentleman of Rome to death for pleading a cause with the anguinum in his bosom. the secret of which was known only to the Druids.. 3. and. I should pronounce it to be the burial place of the Supreme Archdruid of the British dominions. and composed of some vitrified substance. So extensively was this belief propagated. was believed. i. personified in Hu and Ceridwen. and no other proof is wanting of the importance which the Druids attached to this emblem. the British armies were attended by a magical banner. that the temple of Abury. and highly decorated with carved work and devices. 23 and was virtue of procuring favour to the possessor. and containing. one of the most stupendous erections which ancient Britain could boast. in the veins of the fossil. a rich breastplate of gold. in a large tumulus in the vicinity of Stonehenge. Hoare. or its The glain was a boat of glass. (Plin.. was constructed in the precise form of a circle. an intricate mass of small serpents entwined together in every possible combination. In the centre was a serpent. Hist. symbol of the Ark and its tenant Hu. and supported by the great father and mother of the human species. c. and emblazoned with a symbolical device. more particularly. to which a vast serpent was attached.

The Spica. in every leaf. 1. dane circle. the goddess of the protection round the (Davies on Ancient The commencement and ages. A (Vid. (Gen. compacts were formed. preparation and initiation with patience and fortitude. Res. 33 This represented the central tree in the garden of Eden. he submitted to the chain. or ear of corn. and. of instability. a never-failing token of everlasting brotherhood. Hist.. p. an agreement was dissolved. or ark.DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. Arianrod (Iris) is silver wheel. from its resemblance to a boat. implied that he had endured the rigours of . Nat. 1. to be capable of destroying wild beasts and noxious animals . termed by the bards. 9. was an emblem of plenty and prosperity and a Wheat straw was an invaluable symbol. Res. and was considered as peculiarly sanctified by the 33 gods. if not their immediate residence. c. goodwill. 29 The ll'hittof union. candidate British Coins. Celt. the penance imposed on every candidate for initiation by his confinement in the pastos.) 3* Plin. solemnly consecrated to this . . esteem. 1..) 30 who throws her gracious beams of when his initiation is completed. 178. The phrase. and has been thought to refer to the astronomiIt was. by the same fragile article.. was supposed. by some inherent magical sympathies. in fact. p. a faint representation of the lunette. and the conservater of many potent virtues. Celt. a representation oi tin. xxv. Nat. 247. years. not only from the circumtrefoil was a symbol stance of its including the mystical triad but also because the Druids saw or pretended to see.) 32 Dav.. c. xii..) of their local divisions of time.muncal cycles.. 30 It was the powerful pledge or symbol which demanded and conveyed mutual aid in the moment of peril. The fairest tree 34 in the grove was. which was an object of their veneration. It had a further reference to the rainbow. formed into a dart. 31 The Oak was a symbol of an expanded mind. 31 wheat straw. and assistThe Chain was symbolical of ance. therefore. 44. ii.. as were also the round temples of JJrit. . Dav. of deceitfulness and the Aspen leaf. 29 Thus.. 157 symbol. as used by the idolaters for purification. months. or six days moon. by breaking the straw. (Plin. The oak tree was the visible representative of Don or Daron. world. (Isaiah Ixvi. even unto death. the 32 Reed. 17. by the moon when six days old.jiin. were regulated Hist.) and was a transcript of a similar superstition all over the Isaiah gives a curious illustration of this practice.

ascended the tree with naked feet. however... and prayers offered to the gods. i. whether mental or Its medicinal properties were so highly esticorporeal..) were provided as an offering of propitiation. lest it should sustain pollution in the act of gathering. Nat. 108. 40 The Druids had also a comprehensive system of symThus it was said of the uninitiated bolical language. that it acquired the comprehensive name of All Heal. and... in a great measure. Corn.. and the initiated." says Meyrick. and received it in the sagus or sacred vest. p. vol. 37 to prevent sterility.) 50 In Egypt. he very carefully purified himself with consecrated water. held in his left hand. (Gen." 38 Plin. it was esteemed a grand preservative against all evils. severed the plant with a golden hook. Card. 5. p. and invested with peculiar virtues. was divested of its collateral branches. 66. it mated. which had never before been used. emblem of truth.. 37 Its efficacy depended. or thrice born. and other medicinal plants. the archdruid. the language of the Chair. Introd. that Masonry is Bardism in disguise. that they would sanctify their own gift. it has been supposed by some. p. indeed. stitions } 1.) for it is certain that the ideas of science and immortality were combined in this sacred tree. and. Ant. were termed bees. Corn. (Hist.158 HISTORY OF INITIATION. vol. and one of the largest was so fixed as to preserve the form of a gigantic 36 The Misletoe of the oak was a symbol of proteccross. which origin- . the bee was an emblem of a prince ruling his subjects in prosperity and peace. and thus expose the whole nation to divine vengeance. clad in his white vestment and red tiara. (Welsh Archasol. on the super- used at the ceremony of detaching it from the tree. Acorns were offered in sacrifice xvi. and poison. by which they knew one another. c. iii. Ant. p. to their deities. 36 Borl. (Maur. and was considered a never-failing remedy for all It was reputed to counteract the effects of diseases. "like the Freemasons. 22. The Beehive was used as an emblem of industry. The archdruid. Ant. 33 The Sclago.. 41 a Cube was the : 35 Probably from an old tradition of the trees of knowledge and life in the garden of Eden. and when the moon was six days old. amidst the shouts and acclamations of the people. 39 Another symbol of the Ark was the Beaver. vi. was alone deemed worthy to pluck the rnisletoe. Two white bulls. Ind. tion in all dangers and difficulties. 35 Sometimes god with many superstitious ceremonies. " The Bards had a secret. The bulls were then sacrificed. 82. secured for the first time by the horns. were gathered with similar ceremonies..) 41 Thus the sacred phrase. 10 Borl. 85. Samolus. 44. moral and physical. but the hive referred to the Ark. Hist. himself. in a word. and.

43 which was practised during the initiwas said to be attended by three Cranes. the literal meaning of which is. because its name Ibis (is Fire. and Moon".. 169 " They know not on what day the stroke will be given. Append. near the tail. or the flaming Bull. ations. Taliesin. 42 iii. and received the significant appellation of Cadeiriaith. i. for the archdruid. with the thick headband. 189. which was otherwise termed Beer Lied. of which Hu was the representative. 43 This animal. and setting. another on the middle It A crane symbolized principal officers in the mysteries. Mys. 46 The Egyptian crane received it .) was consecrated to the god of Light .) 44 Borl. description of certain ceremonies characteristic of the Three Degrees through which the candidate has been successively passed. Ant." 42 Here we have . 44 one of which perched on his head. "was not unfrequently represented under the form of the Noetic symbol. adored in conjunction with the Sun . the same mythological characters as Osiris and Isis (or Hu and Ceridwen. 106. and instructed the Britons in the art of agriculture.m evident. The headband pointed out the state of subjection to which the animal . of his back. bore the figure of a heifer. and the third at the extremity..DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. vol. The ox with the thick headband had an undoubted reference to a peculiar ceremony. from whence he derived the name of Centaur. It referred also to the Sun. though concise.. at the time of his installation. perhaps from the colour of the bird. in a similar manner. ax Father. which rendered it sacred. They know not the brindled ox. as in Persia. Faber. the vigilant priesthood. was at length clothed with the highest degree of importance by being identified with the chief dignity of Druidism . who subjected him to the yoke. the Bull while the goddess Baal and Baaltis are Baaltis or Baalah. Corn. nor what hour the agitated person would be. The stroke and the new birth have been already explained. meridian. Priddeu Annwn. born.) whose symbols were. p. (xev ravgos) or the tamer of the bull. Dru." says Mr. the language of the chair. 45 Here we have in Britain. (Fab. without the actual pronunciation of words. or who prevented his going into the dales of Devvvy. Cab. the sun. "Baal. was invested with absolute sovereignty. personified in the three ally denoted the sacred method of communicating the most sublime mysteries of the Order. was a symbol of the patriarch Hu.. translated by Dav. having seen seven score knobs in his collar. and was sacred to the sun 4G and hence the strict propriety of the emblem. the emblem of the Bull and ' Sun. a Dull and a heifer . p. These birds emblematically represented the Sun'13 at his rising. and who were Noah and the Ark.

. Itin. vi.W.) the bursting of the lake referred to the description of the central abyss.I. 52 and they retained some knowledge of the redemption of mankind through the death of a mediator. and at length. p. the primitive religion of the Druids was purely patriarchal ." and the seven score knobs. Cur. where. and the sacred symbol used to express his Name was O. 43 They taught that time was only an intercepted fragment of eternity . was a combination of the sacred number sscvcn and three. alluding to the long and weary confinement of the candidate in the pastos. 50 a future state. 55 The legend preserved amongst the British Druids is inserted in Signs and Symbols. M Stukcley. it must necessarily be the deity . They admitted the doctrines of the immortality of the soul. ii. 1. vi. yet. 19. 5. in nota 14. the sacred Cow is uniformly depicted with a collar composed of a similar wreath of knobs. 11. they paid divine honours to deceased mortals.) 49 Couditum mundum credebant. though the most early Druids practised.. vol. (p. with some variations. and abounding with noxious insects and venomous reptiles. ((7-J-3+3 2 ) X7+7) and doubtless had some mysterious 'astronomical allusion. of Beverley. (Signs and Symbols.160 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and all the host of Heaven. ut supra. 11. (Ibid. et aliquando igni periso turum. But. the rites of true worship.. great vii. The divine unity was a doctrine admitted by the Druids. 51 and a day of judgment which will be conducted on the principle of man's responsibility. in process of time. says Cesar. other deities were introduced into the system . and there are strong grounds for believing that they held the Pythagorean hypothesis of an endless succession of worlds for it is well known that they believed the earth to have sustained one general destruction by water . Vide my 'Hist. (Lect. c.) the service performed by the Ychen 62 84 j . as this power was not matter.. in the " subjected to the yoke for language of the bard. Gal. Cesar.. 13. who were considered the representatives of the sun. Lect. . A t 47 In Maurice's Plates of the Indian Avaters. In a word. 14. 54 tradition of the Deluge 55 . he was 47 his affliction . Borl< AnL Co 98> 61 Cesar debel.. the moon.) and History of Beverley. 2. had been reduced.) where it is evident that the vessel without sails was the Ark of Noah (Gen. p. 14. and expected that it would un49 dergo another by fire. 48 We learn from Selden that their invocations were made to the ONE all-preserving power and they argued that. 53 Their place of eternal punishment was a quagmire of never-ending frost.

about 4000 years ago. has Owen appeared. (Aid. 13. Sic. Prince of Powis. 21. armed with destrucThis is amply illustrated in the poem of Cynddelw. rhetoric.) for Hu was the helio-arkite deity. 4.. and overwhelming the levelled ranks in the form of a dragon (banner) before the sovereign of Britain.) which at the era of their establishment. which was their grand annual festival. the 1. vir. 6. an Anglo-Saxon writer. p. (Strabo.DOCTRINES OP THE DRUIDS. de bel. and particularly astronomy. ix.) was undoubtedly symbolized in the Chair of Ceridwen. induced 1. Dru. geometry. commemorative of Noah's rainbow.. 3.. whether animate or inanimate. viii. the 19th August. cumstances attending this tradition appear to have pervaded their most solemn rites and ceremonies. that in these early times a liberal education . however. 331. 12 . 1. 13.comprised grammar. that at the period of the Roman invasion under Cesar. p. (Dav. and . and taught to their disciples. 508. 161 was perpetuated in these rites . (Ibid. c. and in the form of a daring wolf. ii. disin the construction of their religious edifices. par. addressed tion. was emblematical of the sun drying up the waters from the face of the earth. (Cesar. de laud. i. Pomp. . localized. apud Canis. like that of most other nations perverted. borne aloft on the shoulder of the leader in the form of a lion before the chief with the mighty wings in the form of a terrible spear with a glittering blade in the form of a bright sword spreading fame in the conflict. 59 played in which they attained a considerable Banawg. 1st November. c. p. music. 15. the people were still extremely rude in their diet and mode of life. (Ibid.. 58 many of the liberal sciences. indeed. Diod. The doctrine of transmigration formed a leading feature in the Druidical system.) Aldhelm extended it to the seven liberal sciences of Freemasonry. 1. Mela. 5. proficiency. Xiphil.) others were clothed in the skins of beasts.. 1. 4. (Herodian. Thus their ordinary times of devotion were regulated by the phases of the moon and the more solemn quarterly assemblages took place when the sun arrived at the equinoctial and solstitial points (Stukeley. could occupy his shield. torn. 3.) It must be confessed. c. corresponded with our 1st May. Romans to style them barbarians." 58 Alcuin... and astrology. Gram. 07 Hence a deceased friend could give force to a warrior's sword . The Druids cultivated.) form of a vibrating shield before the rising tumult. 68.) 59 The time of celebrating public worship sprang from an application of this science. or the oxen of Hu Gadarn. 14. 14. p. "In the to Owen Cyveiliawy..) Some^went entirely naked. 1. Abury. (Ale. Gal. vi. and and the cir.. says. and the assurance of preservation. 5(5 Cesar.. 56 and was extended to the belief that the departed soul of a virtuous individual possessed the secret power of infusing itself at pleasure into any sub57 stance. arithmetic. 1.) and the state in which they were found. or avert a flying javelin..

They considered day as the offspring of night. and to foretell the prominent events which were fated to distinguish the lives or fortunes of individuals . They investigated. Their ages were of thirty years' duration. (Plin. is still time retained among . de bel. Nat. Hydrev (Autumn). it is said. 5. 03 6 Cesar. and honey. for seven days are usually expressed fourteen days by fortnight. (Gen. and Ganav Camd. vi. us. and hence their computations were made by nights in 61 They divided the heavens into conpreference to days. Davies has given Mythology a copious collection of the moral precepts which were 13th February. The four seasons of the year were denominated Hav (Summer).. of the British Druids. The Druids used lunar observations. and another on the sea onion. he communicated to the Druids . each year containing twelve lunations. thus converting a noble science to the puerile purposes of judicial astrology. col.) 60 1 (Spring). according to Cesar and Tacitus.) The same practice was recommended by the Druids. Hist. and were the most complete anatomists 62 at that time existing in the world.de Abstin.. Their botanical knowledge was extensive. or 354 days. by the word sen'night . Page 76-79. and his instruction. and used the Greek character in their writings . Pythagoras wrote a treatise on medicinal herbs. . hence Pliny terms the Druids physicians. 64 Mr.) which. ( Apuleius) and practiced his own precepts by ueing the most temperate system of diet. stellations. and hence the longevity of this order of men is satisfactorily accounted for. 63 they cultivated the liberal sciences .. 62 It is presumed that they acquired much information on the subject of medicine from Pythagoras. &c. with great pre- cision. and applied chiefly to the art of healing. xv. (Porph. the structure of the human body.. his food being chiefly composed of bread. They understood foreign languages. from which they made celestial jbservations to determine the result of any important transaction. Gwanwyn (Winter.162 HISTORY OF INITIATION.) This mode of computing 6 Seld. herbs. and their system of morality may claim and ensure our appro- In the bation. who learned it in Chaldea. soon conferred on them a high and merited celebrity in the science of medicine. and were conversant with the laws and motions of the planets. and regulated their festivals by the aspect of the moon. because 60 night or chaos was in existence before day was created . in Gibs. Gal. The evening and the morning were the first day. The Hebrews had the same peculiarity. 1. i. if the Welsh triads are of any authority. added to their own sedulous investigations into the causes of diseases.

religious or political events which distinguished the times of which they profess to treat. . . may be depended on as containing an allusion to pure historical facts or moral precepts. 163 derived from the Druidical institution . 66 and it is even said that they would have had less reluctance in sacrificing their lives. and these precepts often produced a corresponding purity of thought.DOCTRINES OF THE DRUIDS. 65 Hence the records they have left behind them. for it is confidently asserted that the bards had such a sacred regard for the truth* 5 that it constituted the motto of their Order . whether in the form of triads or historical poems. as the depositories of moral. 68 Gerop. And though sometimes highly figurative. than in renouncing a strict adherence to the truth in every situation and transaction of life. yet they may be referred to with some degree of confidence. Becan.

was the same with Buddh. the . . 1 Mysteries were introduced by Sigge. Norway. At this period the religion of Europe may be divided into four grand divisions the Roman. became independent kingdoms." meaning. I am inclined to think. 425.. being of Gothic race. (Mai. (Asiat. abandoned his native Scythian prince country when it became oppressed by a population too dense for the comforts and necessities of a pastoral life . the mythology of the Eddas. i. ancient Germans. THE Gothic . Turner (Angl. who softened . Sax. Danes. North. wandered in search 2 of another settlement. vol. "we are not authorized to ascribe to the Saxon deities the apparatus and mythology which the northern Scalds of subsequent ages have transmitted to us from Denmark. who assumed the name of Odin a few years before the birth of Christ. p. and Segdeg East Saxony (Mai.) . because they had experienced its advantages in enslaving the minds of an ignorant and superstitious people. viz. Gothic race.. however. vol. p. and. him a part of Russia . it is said. as it was remodelled by Sigge.. with a chosen band of followers. i. North. which was in general the same with what prevailed among all the other Gothic or Teutonic people. after in the having established himself in Scandinavia. a who. though received much later by the Chinese. placed his sons after territory around him as viceroys. and Iceland .. Res. Baldeg had Western Saxony. Ant. Ant.. the supreme deity Europe. This celebrated individual. 1 The Gothic Mysteries were practised by all the northern nations of Europe. i they would. Note. and Saxons all practised the Gothic superstition.. 62) and they would. introduced the polytheism of their own nation. as the northern historians admit." &c.164 LECTURE X. Suarlami had assigned to his death. Travelling to the north-west of he assumed the name of Odin. that the Norwegians. p. HISTORY OF INITIATION INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. whose rites were probably imported into India nearly at the same time. professed' that system of polytheism afterwards' delivered in the Edda and the Franks and Saxons who afterwards settled in Gaul and Britain. Scandinavians. vol.. whose religion.. Intr. the Celtic.. introduce his system of Religion amongst their new subjects. was introduced into Scandinavia by a foreign race.. iv. his name into Fo. and their respective divisions. 18) says. and placing them implicitly under the control of their superiors. undoubtedly. Sclavonian. Mr. the Germans. doubtless.) 2 The Scythian and Hyperborean doctrines and mythology may be traced in every part of these eastern regions nor can we doubt that Wod or Odin. vi.

from whose decision there was no appeal.. from whose decision there was no appeal. (Mai. 5 Mai. the two great Sects into which primitive idolatry had been divided. as are wholly incredible. two immediate neighbours. and hence differed materially from the corresponding system practised by the hierophants of India.. for at the very next celebration it was almost sure to be offered up in sacrifice to the gods. 4. they were alike priests. vol. were profuse in their offerings and oblations .. c. 6 These sacrifices were all conducted on a principle of veneration for the sacred numbers three and nine . and performed such prodigies of valour. In a word. thrice three victims. In every country which he subdued. many of them human. except to the believers in Scandinavian tradition. Ant. All presents made . and judges. p. to serve the ambitious policy of their professors. on the plains of Chaldea. and invested them with uncontrollable authority . his life was held by a very uncertain tenure . consisting of the same number of men. From this order proceeded the establishment of British juries. North. Ant. 5 Their power was extended to its utmost limits. and Britain. 4 He placed over the celebrations twelve hierophants. on each of the thrice three in days of the festival's continuance. and counsellors of state.. probably. whence. Greece. whom he styled Drottes.. invested with similar powers. the Scandinavians derived their origin.) has long been held in great veneration among the Tartars. vol. when the blood of human victims6 was necessary to appease their sanguinary . for every thrice three months. he introduced the eastern mysteries. in the hope of averting a calamity so exceedingly dreadful. 133. vol. were practised by the Britons and the Saxons. This privilege was an abundant and never-failing source of wealth as well as influence . i. The fact is. 3 and in his progress founded many empires. modelled into a form subservient to his own secret purposes. were offered " sacrifice to the The number nine tri-une god. as they were. Even the monarch was not exempt from this choice.. p. who were ultimately blended into one and the same people. i. North. as the dreaded arbiters of life and death. Hence arose the necessity of cultivating the esteem of these sovereign for if an officer of the highest dignity in the pontiffs state became obnoxious to the Drottes. North. by being allowed a discretionary privilege of determining on the choice of human victims for sacrifice. that the system of the warlike Sacas was of a military cast. and in times of general calamity. for the superstitious people. i.THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. 165 of the Scandinavians. from the same source. derived. 3 4 Mai. Ant. 65.

which originally placed the people thus at the entire disposal of the priest. Cromlechs some stupendous monuments of rough stone which human fury was unable to destroy certain ranges . and some natural grottos which were. and will rather take nine of anything than a greater number. in general. accelerated their destruction. which. 129. ninety -nine vessels of brandy. 270. they became possessed of unbounded wealth. indeed. in proportion with the expected danger of the trembling suppliant. It was. they retaliated with dreadful severity on their persecutors. I have divided it into nine parts. artifice credulity on the one hand. and tyrannical. Even the roving Tartars rob the caravans by this rule .. annually commemorated by this to their princes consist. At all their feasts this number and its combinations are always attended to in their dishes of meat. as this order of men. &c. in the preface to his history.. and in their skins of wine. The palaces and temples. but a few . and.) 7 Mai. in the end. overbearing. of the solid rock for the purpose of initiation. was restricted to one family. Ant. " Abulgazi Khan. and other liquors. North. and erected These immunities splendid palaces for their residence. the inhabitants of Scandinavia embraced the offer of Christianity with enthusiasm . the statues of their gods. At one entertainment. and distinctions increasing their power in every age." p. and destroyed every vestige of the ancient religion. . who p.. (Rich. undoubtedly. Hence. like the Israelitish priesthood. says. mentioned by the Tartar king Abulgazi Khan. of caverns hewn out The great festivals. applied to the same purpose. to conform myself to the custom of other writers. . with minds thus prepared for any change which might promise to deliver them from the tyranny of priestly domination. all have this number i.166 HISTORY OF INITIATION deities. Dissert. nine hundred horses. as to be objects of terror to all other classes of the community. vol. but they at length grew weary of the increased oppressions under which they groaned . perished in one common ruin remains to show the character of this religion. they ultimately became so proud. as well as and imposture on the other. inspired with a fanatical spirit of vengeance for accumulated and longcontinued suffering. the oblations of the Drottes were of increased value. and all the paraphernalia of heathen super7 and nothing stition. and. there were nine thousand sheep. in particular esteem. of nine of each article.

358. conducted in the following manner: A chieftain sailed with a few ships for Britain. fyc. and all il weather. Diet. thunder.. eggs. 12 When Christianity was first promulgated in the northern nations. Ant. The candles of the Sun were said to illuminate the northern dwellings on the night before Yule . v. currants. or Yeol. this season were cakes of flour sweetened with honey. did cause lightning. Subjects at this festival presented their annual gifts or benevolences to their sovereign (Johnston. Johnson (Antiq.. &c. hee then bestowed upon them most fayre and seasonable weather . p. ancient inhabitants of the North were never at a loss for the means of celebrating their Yule. he says. This festival was denominated Yule. vi. for it was believed that the succeeding season would be fruitful or 13 or unpropitious. being the 9 longest night in the year. 230) . I am informed by a Danish Jamieson. p. Yule.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. 12 At the nocturnal meetings of this sacred celebration. Scott. hence Christmas-boxes. were three . Antiq." (Rest. of a particular form. and kept away from them the plague. In tell. v. i. Yule. sacred to Darkness. Diet. the missionaries found the inhabitants unwilling to relinquish this annual rejoicing. . that in the ayre hee gouerned the wyndes and and. and other . New-year-gifts. and hence the Yule Feast was denominated Christmas. Jamieson. Mai. were anciently its true light. and was celebrated in honour of Thor... Scot. being wel pleased by the adoration. the festival was. composed of the finest flour. They landed on the coast. hence the The peace-offerings dedicated to Thor at origin of our Yule-clog. the initiations were performed on a superb scale . applied to the nativity of Christ .1 . in fact. On the eve of the first day of the festival or Mother-Night. and all other evill and infectious 8 the clowdes . they assigned to it the formation of the world from primeval darkness. But. the prince of the power of the air. (Vid. with excessive rain.. hence the Yule-cake. and was a season of universal festivity. 1 Vid. whence our Yule-candles. in proportion with the sumptuous " VerstegSn says. p..) Brother. that cakes are still made in Denmark. Celto-Scand. and caused corne abundantly to growe as also all sortes of fruites. being displeased. 3 diseases. fires of wood blazed throughout the whole extent of northern Europe . therefore. sacrifice. and called it MOTHER-NIGHT. 167 people. North. . 8 It was commemorative of the creation.) has a note referring to this subject. that great and awful principle which was a stumbling-block to the whole heathen world. the most magnificent of which commenced at the winter solstice. and hence arose the custom of burning large candles at this solemnity for it boded ill luck to the family for the succeeding year if a second candle were lighted. and seruice of his supplyants. for. and are called Juule-Kdger. Dec. vol.) 9 The feast was. and formed a temporary ingredients is "The "- I . 11 Juul. at this season. and collected all the scattered adventurers he could find in his way. which exhibits their character in The Scandinavian expeditions. Celto-Normann. and tempests. 75.

) Hence excessive drinking introduced the attendant custom of vows and pledges. Spring. and stifled murmurs ot applause. instructed by her uncle. ii . presented to the aged prince a cup of spiced wine. (Mai.. North. The next inferior personage was drank to in the same manner. or. taking the Cup.. fortress. at a banquet prepared by him " in honour of Vortigern. 30.. for the purpose of securing his protection. ii. with smiles. Clav. made some vow to the tutelary deity of the festival. Nor yet unconscious. p.) 16 It was esteemed disgraceful in any individual to quit these festivals sober. Hence the origin of drinking Healths. to be fruitful. Scot. North. he e. after drinking. Her On " It was a custom of this people to indulge themselves in drinking a liquor made from honey for thirty days after the marriage of their principal men. Diet. and probably derived her name from Phree. Such an expedition was called Strandhoggua. and. the freebooters returned home. but the initiations were performed at innumerable other smaller festi. iii. p. having salted them. When this had been performed by the whole company. . by wond'ring gaze Unmov'd. through his interpreter. welcomed him with the words Waes heal hlaford Cyning . my lord king . 16 These were the three principal times of celebration . Rowena. and so the toast proceeded round the board.. 137. placed the cup in his hand. and. before he put the cup to his mouth. or a strand slaughter. Be answered. Ant.168 HISTORY OF INITIATION parsimonious manner in which this festival was conThe next celebration was dedicated to Frea. amid the festal pomp. 320. whence arose our phrase of the Honey-moon. Health to the King !'' the sparkling wine laugh'd up As eager 't were to touch so fair a lip. p. I drink your health.. vol. and. As she rais'd a fair clasp'd cup. Yule. vol. i. To this strong hold they drove all the cattle. Lord of the Bright city). as she said.) Or.) 14 v. Drinc heal." (Brady. Each person present. vol. . Sate loftiest. 15 Frea was esteemed equally the wife and daughter of Odin. 14 ducted. Cal. The president. called publicly on the next in rank to pledge him. This social custom was introduced into Britain by Hengist. i. At this feast. This goddess was the same as the Grecian Mylitta or Venus. Something of sweet confusion overspread features something tremulous Ibroke in her half-failing accents. or chief person. She... and was celebrated with great magnificence in the hope of a successful warfare in the ensuing campaign. as it is more poetically expressed by Milman (Samor. the ceremony of pledging each other commenced. (Mai." ( Jamieson. the goddess of pleasure 15 and commenced on the first quarter of the second moon in the new year . of health. the god of batIt commenced at the beginning of tles. Ant. where they spent their Jol [Yule] or brumal feast with much glee. slowly won her way To where the King. to which. and the third was celebrated in honour of Odin.

Mai. One of these caves was personally inspected by Bishop Pontoppidon. and. and then they felt a damp vapour . 48. of a clear. candle.. for a few paces after getting through the thicket.) Here we find my every characteristic which attended the process of initiation. then winds off to the right with ascents and descents. a lantern. like that of a burial vault. according to my admeasurement. and in others widening to double its former breadth. but flat in the middle. indeed. not far 'from thence a stream had been found. which issued through a rock from the side of a mountain called Limur. which. the passage continues in a forms. being extremely steep. with some small crevices through which the water may be seen. had this natural structure been raised by human skill. and sometimes we were hard put to it to clear our way through the hazel and alder-bushes. which was a compound mass.. Another thing remarkable. in the Peak of Derbyshire. followed the stream. we met with a rivulet streaming out. probably. grey marble. voL ii. but with several angles and protuberances. we were obliged to climb with our hands as well as feet. and the height about three thus two persons could go abreast. straight direction. with blueish veins. Hist. the course of which was what most excited my wonder. which is thus described in the 17 Edda. but about the conduit. formed purely by the force of the water through the solid rock. The northern nations abound with natural caverns which were admirably adapted to the purposes of initiation . p. in fact. was nothing more than a cavern 18 of initiation Fab. I furnished myself with a tinder-box. as if it had been a paste moulded into smooth. doubtless. in which the Druidical mysteries were 18 17 unquestionably celebrated. was the terrible roaring of the waters under us. as on my visitation to Nordal I was to pass near it.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. which . being a kind of natural conduit. p. I resolved to examine it myself. mostly consisting of grey pebbles. Norw. was about four or five ells. but of the length of which I could procure no account. one is surprised with a vaulted passage of pure marble. I shall make no apology for describing it in " that author's own words. all so polished. The palace of Thor. which directed us to the cavern. The roaring of the waters. globular About a hundred paces forward. 11. apud." (Pontop. which.. Ant. But. 65. something wonderful. It is. On the side of this laborious ascent. applied by this people to the celebration of their mysterious rites. it would have been a work of no small expense . that. in the district of the annexed chapelry of Strande. This prevented penetrating so far as I had intended. which almost hides the aperture of the cavern. and not above three fingers thick. without the least flaw or breach. could be held as frequently as individuals chose to subject themselves to the expense. and were. boat put me ashore at the foot of the aforesaid mountain of My Limur. as it bears a striking resemblance to our own cavern at Castleton. North. inclining a little like a vault on each side. the narrow subterranean passages. except that they were now and then obliged to stoop. and over it a cavern which. Hearing at the parsonage of Oerskoug. and even creep. 169 Veils . and in some places growing narrower. as over it lies a pavement of smooth stone. and a long line to serve me instead of Ariadne's clue.

thought that the fixed stars advanced at the rate of 54 minutes in the first sexagenary cycle. 1. and furnished withan apparatus capable of performing almost all the machinery of initiation. Monum. the emblem of which it undoubtedly was. The caverns of initiation were usually constructed with a variety of intricate windings and turnings excavated with great care and ingenuity. according as we find mentioned in the poem of Grimnis. It is not likely that this people would overlook a cavern which Nature had provided . The usual residence of this rude people consisted chiefly of wretched huts. It contained five hundred and forty halls. which gives exactly 540 minutes for the entire change in the great luni-solar period of 600 years. p. it was esteemed. i. The most is gods is Thor. still Dan. the mazes of which were difficult to thread. various distances from the sun. and the 540 Halls referred. fit for formed the descent into the bowels of the mountain . if it contained only a single apartment. He possesses there a palace in which are five hundred and It is the largest house that is known. Many of these stupendous works of art 20 21 remain in Norway and Sweden. 21 rooms it was termed a Palace. His kingdom illustrious among the called Thrudwanger. 19 Hence in the eastern nations they were frequently termed labyrinths. to the precession of the equinoxes. and I believe there is no where a greater fabric than this of the eldest of sons. 13.. or places of initiation. The eastern nations. always did. where they existed in almost a state of torpidity when unengaged in warlike Hence every habitation which excluded expeditions. in this inhospitable climate.170 HISTORY OF INITIATION " into the mysteries. most probably. replete with a damp vapour like that of 'a funeral vault." This magnificent structure is termed. the open air. p. the water of purification. ii. Bede. c. the pastes. it is called a winding palace . decorated with superb pillars of polished marble.. There are five hundred and forty halls in the winding palace of the god Thor .. from whom the Scandinavians derived their origin. as the Mithratic grottos. BeverK. 19 Worm. 38. . If an intricate cavern terminated in a spacious vault. except by those who were intimately acquainted with every private mark. was 20 if it included several dignified with the name of a Hall . placed as a clue to direct their progress. or burrows in the earth. or palace. forty halls. 6. Oliver's Hist. 1. This might also refer to the solar From the path of the planets moving in their orbits at system. a residence. a winding palace.

the great model on which the Scandinavian system was founded. and jewels. and a Mediator. 171 the reception of the celestial gods. who. 7. shining with gold. according to M. 1. as well as visibly represented 23 by the Sun. 26 Ibid. The enthusiastic recollections which the ceremonies of initiation never failed to inspire. could scarcely fail to leave an indelible impression on the mind of the astonished candidate.. is a place of Now the great Hall of this palace. into twelve compartments. and strongly illuminated Fab. saw the twelve Drottes. or the abode of joy. p. This luminary was a conspicuous object of adoration in all the ancient mysteries. had. in robes of exrites quisite richness. the one being consecrated to Thor-As. M Edda. North. It was situate in the kingdom of Thrudwanger . in reference to the twelve Signs of the Zodiafc. 25 they might naturally fancy themselves in 28 23 1. Mallet. 1 by flaming torches. particularly those of Persia. divided. and precious stones . Fab. for the candidates w'ere not introduced int. and. called. joined with the splendid appearance exhibited in the sacellum on these occasions. Gladheim. probably. Ant. possessed of the same attributes and almost the same name and alike esteemed by their respective votaries.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. at the portal of this sacellum. in language less metaphorical. Fab. vol. perhaps. the same god. which 22 is described in the Edda as glittering with burnished gold. ii. the Sun. Mai. were all finished .. but in the principal Hall of this palace or place of initiation. This palace was the residence of Thor. 2. consequently. or. And when introduced into the sacred presence.o it until the . Hence arose the veneration of the initiated for these grottos. they habited like the twelve celestial gods. as the first begotten Son. never entered an apartment which displayed any appearance of comfort or convenience. . the sacellum of the grotto of initiation. though the Eddas are wholly silent on the subject. seated on as many thrones. their fears would naturally subside. literally answered this description . 24 by way of eminence. before this time. the god was designated by a Plate of burnished gold placed conspicuously in the centre of the roof. and the other to Mi-Thr-As. refuge from terror. doubt not. the literal meaning of which.

he could walk round the outside of a boat. 23 with naked feet. 1. PonVitus. Viti) may not have had some connection with this ceremony. Sarnmes. Sigmund Brestesen used to practise these exercises with the king. has given engravings of the above deities. who were worshipped as deities. that the candidate. as the succeeding the avowed representation. upon the oars. of which this was. suffice it to say. ceremonies were all pleasurable. with five heads . viz. thus describes the robust exercises practised by the inhabitants of the northern " nations. yii. .. There were three Vituses amongst our Saxon ancestors. the canine pidity. and Swanto-(sancto) Vitus. This latter worthy was worshipped by a circular dance . and esteem this magnificent place as a palace of the gods in the ever-blessed kingdom of Thrudwanger. lar processions being accomplished. King Olaf Tryggeson was stronger and more nimble than any man in his dominions. and the usual preliminary ceremonies and sacrifices. in his History of Norway (p. and in swimming he had no equal. he excelled all the men of his time in shooting with the bow . and always kept two of them up. 248). dances. being duly 26 prepared by fasting and mortification. and dedicated to the sun. and probably also of the Hanoverian horse which still occupies a quarter of the escutcheon of pretence in the royal arms of Great Britian. It would be useless to repeat minutely the forms of initiation. swimming. 28 Strabo. and every He year. he was ambidexter. and circu27 he was introduced. ninety and nine persons were offered to him in sacrifice.172 HISTORY OF INITIATION the regions of the blessed ." 27 I am not sure whether the disease called St. shooting. after the many specimens you have already heard . whose fangs appeared to be smeared with the blood of some hardy adventurer. and none could come so near the king in all these. guardian of the holy sepulchre. in a thin flame of light. with four heads. climbing the rocks. and could cast two darts at once . who was represented with seven faces. had a white horse. indeed. And. amidst the shades of darkness and the terrific howling of dogs. in his Britannia. and conducted by a winding descent to the tomb of Volva the prophetess. alternately throwing them in the air. He could climb up the rock Smalserhorn^ and fix his shield upon the top of it . into the sacred cavern. as Sigmund. Passing onward. and all other manly exercises which heroes and warriors practised in those times. he could play with three darts. while he held the thircl in one of his hands . Rugi-Vitus. it is not surprising that they should adopt an hyperbolical phraseology. with resolute intrehe soon beheld. however. while the men were rowing . 26 Pontoppidan. which was placed in charge of the priests. Vitus's dance (chorea S. This horse is supposed by Schedius to be the -original of the silver horse in the shield of the Hengist .

Here the mysterious rites of invocation commenced . vol. " . the reluctant prophetess signified her intention of uttering an oracular response. and charmed rhymes of irresistible potency were repeated.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. a perfect master of all the arts of dissimulation. and. 173 whose life had recently paid the forfeit of his rash attempt to explore the forbidden recesses of the consecrated vault. by a sprig of misletoe in the hands of a suffer 29 " The dog who guards the gates of death. and barks a long time at the father of magic. in the centre of which was the Pastos or Tomb where 30 the oracle was immured. that Balder should by the intervention of Loke. triangles. His hreast and his jaws are stained with blood . nevertheless. was. and. (Ancient Poem.. The incantations being complete. all covered with snow. and he beheld a splendid throne which appeared de31 signed for some person of distinction . In the distance.) 33 This people believed in the existence of an evil principle. and in the east found a spacious apartment. his horse causes the infernal caverns to resound and tremble . though deemed invulnerable. To this demand the prophetess answered. Who is this unknown that dares disturb my repose. k . North. . a benevolent deity who was under the protection of the by celestial gods . he opens his voracious mouth to bite.) Runic Poem. 32 He sings to her verses adapted to call up the dead.. 32 The candidate was instructed to question her respecting the fate which awaited Balder.) 30 " Odin pursues his way . This pernicious deity was the prince of fraud and perfidy. 29 The hollow caverns re-echoed with ings. as above. He looks towards the north .'" &c. and circles . a vision of the regions of death (hela) was presented to his eyes. Ant. supposed to be in imminent danger from the unsuspected efforts of subtlety and malice. wherein I have lien dead so long. p. and moistened with the rains. and addicted solely to the prac. but it was empty. entered the portal. meets him. and thus utter the words of the dead. ii. and drag me from my grave. magical characters were inscribed in squares. and was esteemed the great adversary of gods and men. Regardless of the posture of defiance this hideous monster. passing this unreal shape. he engraves the Runic characters on her tomb he utters mysterious words he demands an answer until the prophetess is constrained to arise. 220. the candidate was his howlassumed by urged forward his conductor." (Ancient Runic Poem in Mai. at length he reaches the deep abode of death. and stopped near the eastern gate where stands the tomb of the pro- phetess. as above. who. who was named Loke. the adversary of the 33 gods." 31 (Ancient Poem.

and persuaded him to cast it at the devoted victim. evidently relates to the Deluge. Iswara. . married the daughter of the giantess Anger-Bode by whom he had three children of portentous character. that he was able to coil himself round the globe. shall inflict wounds producing instant death. The third dreadful issue of Loke and Anger-Bode. including the wanderings of the latter. The account in the text. vii. who fell. He (Messenger of Evil). 34 who was bitterly lamented by the deities who had been the innocent cause He was then confined within the of his destruction.) bent on mischief. who were doomed to destroy the whole host of deities. placed it in the hands of Hoder. . . called Midgard. It is true. and all nature be consumed in a general conflagration. the exact counterpart of all other systems of mysterious celebration. The candidate. pressing onwards. The fable of Balder and Loke. He was precipitated by Odin to the bottom of the sea. pierced through with mortal wounds. but I think the preceding fable unquestionably contains the identical incidents which were perpetuated in the Gothic mysteries. 13. always exception . privately procuring a sprig of this herb. who was tice of evil. from everything in nature.) with the Rainbow. . with the lamentations of the gods for the death of Balder. bears some resemblance to the wanderings of Ceres. In the self same day entered Noah into the ark and the Lord shut him in. 14. who was esteemed invulnerable.. called Fenris. there to await the appointed time of destruction. and set afloat on the waters.. which was omitted 011 account of its weak and contemptible qualities. The first-born was a gigactic wolf. where he attained so vast a bulk." ( Gen. His body was then placed in a ship or boat. 13. . and. and swallow the Sun. Cama. except the misletoe.174 HISTORY OF INITIATION blind man. Pastos. "And God said unto Noah. for Odin and Friga had previously exacted an oath of safety.. who was cast into hell by the gods. the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof. Loke. and to receive into her dismal abode all such as died of sickness or of old age. that I entertain no doubt but it constituted the legend of initiation . the door of make thee an ark of Gopher wood. discovered the (Edda. in casting darts and missiles . 35 The Pastos was a representation of the Ark of Noah. This monster was bound by the gods to a rock in indissoluble chains until the much-dreaded twilight of the gods shall arrive.. The next offspring of these two evil beings was an enormous serpent. who was destined to devour the supreme god Odin. indeed. as related in the Edda of Snorro. while all the gods mourned for his decease. Bacchus and the Titans. in favour of this god. was Hela. as it is. Fab. 16... or Death. at which the gods respectively exercised their skill and dexterity. 28. &c. the legend of Odin and Freya. . and Rhea . the destined destroyer of the god Thor. 34 It appears that Balder. . in connection vi. . bears such an obvious relation to those of Osiris and Typhon. soon heard the cries and bewailings for the death of Balder. 16. and repose with his tail in his mouth. 35 a cell composed of three sharp-edged stones. &c. and Isis. who was bereft of sight. when the ship Naglefara should be completed from the nails of dead men. had placed himself in sport as a mark in the general assembly.

out of hatred. The wolf Fenris will devour the sun a severe loss will it be found to mankind. Fab. 7). "In the first place. (Edda." dark. 37 Edda. Three others shall follow. no one shall globe. shall stain kindred shall forget the ties of themselves with brothers' blood consanguinity . A barbarous age an age of swords an age of The bucklers shall be broken iu pieces . will come the grand. and render her . every sound which assailed his ears. described in the Voluspa: 'Brothers becoming murderers. said to be situated at the foot of the bridge Bifrost (Edda. Fab. j therefore. and which celestials The sentinel was possessed of a trumpet of so only could ascend. away. during which war and discord will spread through the whole Brothers. 37 and to use his utmost endeavours to raise him from death to life. shall kill each other. that the sound might be heard through all the worlds. thunder was heard to reverberate through the hollow " passages. of burning torches gleamed through a fissure of the glare rock and imparted a temporary illumination to the dark cavern through which he passed. or his relations.' Then will happen such things as may well be called prodigies. Under a full persuasion that his mysterious conductor possessed the pow. damp. 29.' 15. See how it is spare either his parent. loud a blast. the frost will be very severe . during which the snow will fall from the four corners of the world . or the Rainbow. 'the desolating' winter. 32). he was instructed to search for the body of Balder. Fab. prepared for this dangerous expedition. and dismal.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES.) 38 The twilight of the gods is thus described in the Edda (Fab. in his progress through the regenerating medium. then descended through nine subterranean passages.er of raising the dead and commanding the elements. tempests an age of wolves and these calamities shall succeed each other till the world shall fall to ruin. the tempest violent and dangerous . attended by the usual guide. without being softened by one summer. adultery shall reign throughout the world. it was referred to the dreadful twilight of the 38 when all nature shall be involved in universal gods. every sight presented before his eyes. ! ! ! ! : . life shall become a burden . and He Three such winters shall pass the sun will withdraw his beams. was invested with the awe and If the terror attached to a supernatural occurrence. 36 This place of penance was termed the Celestial Fort. Another monster will carry off the moon. 175 and guarded by Heimdal. which reached from earth to heaven. or his child. Being. it presented to his inventive imagination the god descending in a sheet of If a sound resembling distant and continued flame. armed with a naked sword 36 and when the term of his penance was completed. the light-eared door-keeper of the gods. he was solemnly recommended to the protection of the gods.

and would reach still farther. he falls dead upon the spot. Vidar advances. this vessel is constructed of the nails of dead men reason great care should be taken not to die with unpared nails for he who dies so supplies materials towards the building of that vessel. who instantly assemble. which the sea breaking over The wolf Fenris. but this god cannot assist him. and with them all the Giants of the Frost. He is a monster dreadful even to the gods. before and behind him sparkles a His sword outshines the sun itself. . opens his its banks. In this confusion the heavens shall cleave asunder . Thither also repair Loke and the Giant Rymer. and by this breach the Genii of Fire enter on horseback. pressing down the totally useless . Thor beats down the Great Serpent to the earth. named Garmer. who follow Loke even to death. but at the same time recoiling back nine steps. which is an hundred degrees square on every side. wafts along with it. the earth and the mountains shall be seen violently agitated. advancing. The gods are clad in armour. he was directed to plunge into the waters of and explore the caverns situate on the oppopurification Soon his progress was intercepted by the site bank. were space itself found to admit of it. The Giant Rymer is the pilot of this vessel. HISTORY OF INITIATION Arriving. and. on the banks of a sluggish stream. Then Odin repairs to the fountain of Mimis. the dog. forming a most brilliant squadron on this plain. . he attacks Tyr. and his resplendent cuirass . till Frey is beat down he owes his defeat to his having formerly That day also is let loose given his sword. where they are joined by the wolf Fenris and the great Serpent. gains the shore. he grasps his sword. suffocated with floods of venom. which gods and men will wish were finished as late as possible. During these prodigies. for he himself fights with the Great Serpent. and marches directly against the wolf Fenris. he violently sounds his clanging trumpet to awaken the gods. .176 ruin. This terrible monster places himself by the side of the wolf. which overwhelm the air and the waters. Then is the wolf Fenris the sea rushes impetuously over the earth. . glowing fire. to consult what he ought to do. The Genii of Fire march first in battle array. at length. he and his army. Odin is devoured by the wolf Fenris. Odin puts on his golden helmet. and they kill each other. The great Serpent vomits forth floods of poison. . The burning fire flashes out from his eyes and nostrils. who hath hitherto been chained at the entrance of a cavern. because the great let loose Serpent. and terrible blows are exchanged on both sides. . break it in pieces thence they direct their course to a plain. Frey encounters Surtur. and his upper jaw to the heavens. nor is anything in heaven or earth exempt from fear and danger. which the serpent vomits forth upon him. Heimdal. enormous mouth his lower jaw reaches to the earth. changed into a spectre. passing on horseback over the bridge of heaven. : . the door-keeper of the gods. rises up . . He hath Thor at his side. The great Ash Tree Ydrasil is shaken . At the same instant. Surtur is at their head. The army bright. of these Genii. the trees torn up from the earth by the roots the tottering hills to tumall the chains and irons of the ble headlong from their foundations prisoners to be broken and dashed in pieces. The Naglefara is set for which afloat. the stars shall fly away and vanish from the heavens . to his attendant Skyrner.

Many princes intrusted them. arid the utmost cheerfulness was displayed in the rejoicings which took place for the resuscitation of the benevolent 59 god. the Deluge. 3) says. and found Balder enthroned in a situation of the highest distinction. them at his feasts above all other officers of his court. or passion for glory. and thus tears and rends him till he dies. 217. to the flute and harp.) " The historical monuments of the north are full of the honours paid to the Scalds both by princes and people . monster's lower jaw with his foot. They never set out on any considerable expedition without some of them in their train. : now 26. Olave. the earth is immerged remarkable passage in the sea . and history records that they sung each an ode to animate the soldiers before they engaged. both in peace and war. sword. even in heaven itself. Ant." tion of this event. 177 sacred door of expurgation . c.. xliii.) 40 41 Mai.. and dwelt on the immortal renown which his high achievements had secured. that the ancient Scythians wor- 13 . p. and the restoration of man. Justin (Hist. North. the aspirant was saluted with an anthem of congratulation . but what you are eye-witnesses of yourselves. cried out with spirit. had five celebrated poets along with him in that famous battle when the warriors of Jomsburg were defeated . Earl of Norway.. They celebrated in strains of highest panegyric the warlike acts of heroes.. i. North.' " (Mai. the shining stars fall from heaven j a fiery vapour ascends . 386. the Creation of the world. placed actions.INTO THE GOTHIC MYSTERIES. After that. with commissions of the utmost importance. Ant. which was used for this purpose. Hacon. vol. placing three of them one day around him in battle.. 389. seizes the other with his hand. because it was considered as a symbol of the 41 The aspirant entered into voluntary supreme god. he entered into the illuminated sacellum. chanted hymns descriptive of the generation of gods. 1. They were men especially honoured and caressed at the courts of those princes who distinguished themselves by their great Harold Harfager. Loke and Heimdal fight. the praise of wise and valiant chiefs. They sang the irresistible valour of Odin. concludes with the following very " The sun is darkened . the whole world is presently consumed. You shall not relate what you have only heard. a vehement heat prevails. 39 ' i. with a view of exciting in the candidate a spirit of emulation A solemn oath40 was then to great and warlike deeds. and mutually kill each other. for instance. pp. nor can the annals of poetry produce any age or country which reflects more glory or lustre upon it." (Goranson. The Scalds. on passing which. the fatal overthrow of hosts and hostile armies. in the Voluspa. apud Mallet. vol. Hist. % At his entrance into this enchanting place. administered on a naked. Surtur darts fire and flame over The descripall the earth . King of Norway.

178 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and. and to defend and protect his initiated companions. v. whether civil or religious . from all secret and open attacks of their enemies. Albin slew Cunimund.. de gestis Longobard. at the hazard of his life. but in the Latin language it has the name of patera. if slain. which. . and having carried away his head. of drinking out of the skulls of their enemies. which kind of cup is with us called schala. to avenge their death." ( Jamieson. Warnefrid. says. in his work. obligations to pay due submission to the chief officers of the state. 42 a practice common with all who practised The word skull was commonly used for a drinking vessel. The oath was sealed by drinking mead out of a human skull. 42 shipped swords and spears the Buddhic superstition. ETC. Skul. converted it into a drinking vessel . to practise devotion to the gods . received this name from the barbarous custom which prevailed among several ancient nations. " probably. Diet. Scot.

led. and providing for his own subsistence. even with the principal nobility of every ancient nation. and if he failed to distinguish himself probation in battle before the expiration of this term. 1 The word Niding. It was equal to giving the lie in our own country. 218. This privilege. and he was shunned by all 1 his former associates. the phrase Niding was applied to him. and declared equal to the toil of combat. Mallet. vol. did not often happen and when he had performed any distinguished achievement. Nothing but this unconquerable principle could have induced men to press forward through such a series of opposing difficulties as we have just enumerated. DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. however. from which latter duty his parents were henceforth wholly relieved. he was permitted to have a design painted on his shield. The candidate was now invested with a sword. A specified period was assigned for his expectation. and has now merged into the phrase i. although he had now only attained his fifteenth His shield was white. and loss of life in the process was preferred to the dishonour of remaining voluntarily amongst the uninitiated and profane.179 LECTURE XI. however. For this pur- pose every peril was braved. and termed "the shield ol year. into which no other formula could introduce them. that the high-born youth displayed the utmost anxiety to endure the fatigue and danger of initiation. that they might be THE them such assimilated with that distinguished society. a shield. and a lance. as a testimony of his prowess. } You are a good-for-nothing fellow. This. p. and every risk cheerfully encountered. amongst the Scandinavians. (Vid. was esteemed so contemptuous that it would provoke even a coward to single combat.) ." in arms. hunting. to innovations in the device and fashion of the shield which endangered . in process of time. splendour and importance of the mysteries gave a vast and overwhelming influence.

as a final charge. Germ. xxxiii. a code of directions became necessary to regulate the and the distinction of a painted shield was practice limited to the families of princes and heroes.. distinguished by particular marks . which possessed the miraculous power of producing. eight rings of equal weight and utility. 6) tells us. '" among More . v. and the important secret of preparing amulets and incantations. Ant. Thus. anciently. he was solemnly enjoined to make himself perfect in athletic exercises f and was assured that the sole method of being translated to the him the distinction between lord and vassal . 4 but it was also to be considered as an inexhaustible fund. &c.) . i. And. a serpent that of Cadmus. Diodorus Siculus adduces a corresponding custom in Egypt and the Greeks we observe that the shield of Agamemnon bore a lion's head that of Alcibiades. that the Germans distinguished their shields by different . he was taught mysterious doctrines wrapped up in hieroglyphical symbols . 2 This may. North. and that of Ulysses. as a token of remembrance. to sit firmly on horseback . as a concluding ceremony. to inure himself to swimming and skating. probably. he found the murdered deity occupying a distinguished situation in the palace of Death. to dart the lance.. was gift of Balder the good. ii. vol. 1. to procure his return to Valhall. through the artifices of Loke.. Hist. he was told. 2 The sacred sign of the Cross was then impressed upon . and failing. the distinguishing symbols were placed upon the helmet. a lion .. and Tacitus (de mor. s. vol. that when Hermod descended into hell to search for Balder. "to fight valiantly. have been the origin of patrimonial badges and armorial bearings with the northern nations of Europe. 1. p. the crest of Osiris was a hawk .." (Wait's Antiq. 149.). every ninth night. 237.. honours.. These were. and. a dolphin. Nat.180 HISTORY OF INITIATION. not only capable of affording him protection in times of imminent danger and adversity. 4 Plin. whence riches. c." (Ode of Harold the Valiant. of Horus. a Ring was deliv. the supernal palace of the gods. he bore a ring to Odin. a dragon . long before. from his deceased friend. the 3 This ring. and all other benefits would undoubtedly flow. 3 It is said in the Runic mythology. and. the Gauls used long shields. ered to him as a symbol of the divine protection.) . and to become skilful at the oar. 5 p. in Mai. . at length. the art of magic. as far as it was understood by this people. colours. which he was enjoined to preserve as an invaluable amulet. was now unfolded to the aspirant's view. The whole system of creation and providence. although it is well known that the Gauls and Germans had armorial distinctions Diodorus says (1.

JBifrost. 7 . (Fab. 9. The Edda (Fab.) Vid. North.. but as soon as the hour of repast approaches. hall of Odin. Lect. of hawks . p. 308.. Habroc. Slcipner. the emblem of Odin. p. Cab.DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. Mai. The most prominent symbols in these celebrations 7 were. and fall to eating and drinkTheir beverage is beer and mead their cups are the skulls ing crowd of virgins wait upon the of enemies they have slain. p. of horses . and Garmer. 181 was to die in battle. ut supra. of vessels . who were virgins of the most exquisite beauty. have every day the . " he would not wait the consequences of a lingering disease should put a period to that life which he had so often bravely hazarded in the field but. of ranging themselves in order of battle. and drinking hydromel or mead out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. " The Ash tree Udrasil. of bridges . Jamieson. vol.) Hence in battle the Scandinavians were inspired with the most furious bravery and contempt of death. 25 Worm. and be rewarded with an honourable seat in his presence there to enjoy a continual feast of warriors. v. which incited the barbarians of Northern Europe to court death in every violent shape ." . of passing in review. 20) thus describes these envied joys. and many other cuts in his skin with his sword. conformably to a custom introduced by himself into the north. Odin. under the impression that all who died bravely in the field would certainly be received by Odin into his paradise. he declared he was going back into Scythia to take his seat among the other gods 6 till . 120. the Cross and Ring already mentioned. the Ash the Point within a Circle. } p. ii. where. consoles himself with this reflection. covered with wounds. p. Ant. valiantly fighting against the enemies of his country. heroes at table. assembling the friends and companions of his fortune. Ant. they carried his body to Sigtuna (the ancient capital of Sweden). of scalds or poets. 203. Ant. vol. the Rainbow. "I shall soon drink beer from hollow cups made of skulls." (Mai. vol. 6. 265. As soon as he had breathed his who last. " is the Edda. he gave himself nine wounds in the form of a circle with the point of a lance. and inspired an undefined horror " The at the prospect of a death proceeding from disease or old age." 9 Fab. Diet.. Scot. of hounds. served up by the Valkyriae..) greatest of trees Skidbladner. p. where he would receive with great honours all should expose themselves intrepidly in battle." (St. i. until the destruction and final renovation of the earth and heavens. 9 When Odin perceived that his end drew nigh. pleasure of arming themselves. of gods . Liter.. 8 . they return on horseback. vol. Dan.. 20. A Hence Ragnor Lodbrok. and die bravely with their swords in their hands.. in his (Mai. at an eternal banquet. 232. serenaded with martial music. Mys.) death song. As he was dying. 8 and a Cube tree. back to the Hall of Odin. and of cutting one another in pieces . all safe and sound. Skul. 8. North. North.. and fill their cups as fast as they empty them. heroes who are received into the palace of Odin. Brage. i." says the Signs and Symbols. designated by the endearing appellation of Valhalla. his body was burned with much pomp and magnificence. i.

Widdersinnis. she cut the letters in the wood. when contending against Moses. 11) which were prohibited to the Israelites. v. a Scandinavian sorceress. by the repetition of a single rhyme. produced much real and imaginary evil amongst the inhabitants of Scandinavia. who acquired the reputation of being a skilful magician. Taking a knife in her hand. 661. apud Berthol. the forms of wild and ferocious beasts . to strike his adversary dead with a curse . in his Oriental Antiquities. she went backwards and contrary to the course of the sun around the tree. praying that it might be driven by the waves to the island Drangsa.182 HISTORY OF INITIATION. oc gech aufug rangsaelis urn treit. to inspire his foes with the utmost veneration for his person . the strongest chains of captivity . (Exod. is always of the greatest value. Gretter.) may be conceived to have arisen from the mysteries of Persia or Chaldea. p. even of his most intimate companions . 11 Odin. when wishing to give efficacy to some Eunic character for doing injury to others. which possessed the quality of conferring favour and protection on friends." 11 -A belief in the efficacy of these incantations. to calm tempests. to pass through the world with the rapidity of thought . 13 superstitious people." says "Wait. and even to raise the dead. <: Helga. by way of eminence. by the boasted power of composing charms. to burst. that " whatever is known 12 He only to one's self. (p. These are the enchantments which the Scriptures pronounce as ever attendant on the practice of a false worship. and of hurling destruction on This superstition was derived from their enemies. disconcert magicians. Then she procured that it should be cast into the sea.. vii.) Ancient Runic Poem. 13 5 12 . " 135. and was styled. 10 Magic in general. Mortes. the father of magic." (Hist. Caus. observed this mode. The Scalds and Diviners established a great reputation. to the system of Magic 10 inculcated by the Scandinavians. to assume at pleasure. for it was a maxim with him. are said to use enchantments. and from the various illusions to which the Epopts were submitted. and there be the cause of all evils to Gretter. Then singing her incantations. Jamieson. (Levit. or amulets. and besmeared them with her blood. Scot. Die. Contempt." himself capable of rendering the arms of his proclaimed enemies powerless . which he imvery high degree parted to but few. from his introduction of the mysteries with all their terrific machinery amongst this ignorant and We now come This potent individual boasted a of mystical knowledge. and consequent influence over the people. Thus the sorcerers of Egypt.

North. would naturally invest this politic prince with an authority which his successors would be desirous to retain. Hence he was called Run-Hofdi. 16 inscribed on a tablet made of the xix. Hence oracles. he taught them to believe that by their use he was empowered to work 16 miracles. and publicly charms. sanctioned by the timidity which superstition never fails to produce in an untaught mind. 186. to cure diseases. 1. Accordingly. the Drottes. and Runom-Fauthr. and hence the composers of such invaluable jewels rose in the public estimation. King of Spells and Father of Letters. and philtres were openly exposed for And as they were reputed to be effectual antidotes sale. with the name of prophets. They had oracles. the fire shall burn deliver themselves from the power of the announced by Isaiah: them. and to enable the possessor to work miracles . characters or letters. the Scalds." (Isai. Others dragged the ghosts of the departed from their tombs. individual was anxious to be furnished with a every charm which promised to counteract the secret machinations of his enemies. nor less famous than theirs. and a thousand practices of that kind quickly sprang up in crowds from this erroneous principle. converted to the purpose of emolument. Ant. 146. to whose custody the mysteries had been enIn succeeding ages these boasted powers were trusted. and from the ignorance of the people respecting their nature and effects. 14. and scarcely will be while superstition maintains its empire over the human . and they flame. 14 were vested in the three orders of men. and became finally invested with uncontrollable These amulets consisted chiefly of Runic authority. Letters were first introduced into Scandinavia by Odin. we see the northern nations extremely attached to this vain science. iv.shall 14 And the punishment of them is "Behold they not xlvii. 183 These pretensions. in a country where private disputes usually terminated in bloodshed .) 15 " Turn. like the people of Italy and Greece. amulets.. Sax. and the Diviners. against the effects of poison. p. 26.) shall be as stubble. p. and forced the dead to tell them what would happen... divinations. auguries. Hence they pronounced that the supernatural powers which Odin was believed to possess. in all our ancient fables and chronicles..DOCTRINES AND MORLAITY. and these oracles were not less Their diviners were honoured revered. to inspire 15 affection. 143. and whom they consulted under the form of little idols. Some of them were said to have familiar spirits who never left them. vol. which is not yet fully exploded." (Mai. Thus originated the custom of vaticination and fortune-telling .) . vol.. and revered as if they had been such. Ang.

to the circumstances of each peculiar case . 58. charms. " 18 Verstegan tells us. ii. p. the regard or observation of all the moones . . or by a retrograde movement from the bottom to the 17 according top . sword scabbards.. II. were called Favourable. Ant." (Rest. that is to say. which were used to avert calamity. that the way which the witches usually take for to afflict man or beast in this kind is. in his astrological practice of Physic. (b. Blagrave. 5. either in a circle described from east to west by the south . vol. ii. parties self doth languish to his end. Brand's Popul. many evidences of the prevalence of superstition. And The in that part where they the picture hit. in the implicit reliance placed by our rustic population in amulets. Ant. exhibits in every province. to prevent shipwreck.. 376.. (p. pricked into that limb or member of the body afflicted. and here hence is deryved the name of Almanack.) 19 In our own country this practice was very prevalent a century or two ago. p. 146. 17 Mai. vol. Int. pin.. King James. the persons that they bear the name of may be continually melted. as I conceive. and those which were invested with the Traces of this practice are still visible in most of the countries and even our own land. ful moones. Decad. ' : made at such hours and times when it shall work most powerupon them by thorn. c. fully " Witches Tvhich some murther do intend Doe make a picture and doe shoote at it . Son.184 HISTORY OF INITIATION. or from right to left. and incantations. the courses of the moones of the whole yeare.) . done by image or model. wood or bark of the birch tree.) tells us that the devil teacheth how to make pictures of wax or clay. North.. p. made in the likeness of that man or beast they intend to work mischief upon .. or shorter or longer as they pleased. or needle. as also their festival dayes j and such a carved stick they called an Al-mon-aght. 89) observes. to counteract the treachery of an enemy. that by roasting thereof. in magical form . in a direct line from the top to the bottom . to obtain the affections of a beloved female. from left to right. and by the subtility of the mind. and other articles of common implements of husbandry. though enlightened by the perfecof Europe tion of science. (Yid. They were 18 frequently carved on walking sticks. i. in his Dsemonology.. whereby they could alwayes certainly tel when the new moones." Constable's Diaria. &c. and changes should happen. 1594." devil. that the people used to engrave upon certain square sticks about a foot in length.. every form being adapted to its own particular service. in a triangle . Dec. or dried away by continual sickness. Those which were intended to bring woe and dethose struction on their enemies were termed Noxious. use. 2. Al-moon-heed. to wit.

the eternal. salt. that wheresoever any one goes with this dreadful instrument. The threshold of the door of the house and other places where the thieves might enter. counter charm which would deprive the Hand of Glory of its effects. and the blood of a screech owl. the fat of a white hen. . which required. North. 12. was said to be fatal to the artist himself. the 22 The name given to this being that never changeth.. In the strict observance of these childish particulars consisted that obscure and ridiculous art. Fab. saltpetre. the respectable name of priests and prophetesses. : . Hence it was used by housebreakers But there was a to enter houses at night without fear of opposition. to so many weak and wicked persons. by initiation. the whole well powdered leave it fifteen days in that vessel j afterwards take it. candle wifh the fat of the hanged man. out. and Then compose a kind of into an oven. had become perfectly instructed in the various ceremonies. put it days.) 22 Edda. and Popular Superstitions.) 21 The superstition of the " Hand of Glory" is still firmly believed " Its composition was as follows in some parts of Germany. or to endanger the life of his dearest friend and hence none dared to attempt the formation of a charm but he who. the ancient. The most trifling error in the composition21 of these wonder-working amulets. till it is thoroughly dry. and the present and future condition of man. vol. virgin wax and sesame of LapThe Hand of Glory is used as a candlestick to hold this candle land. who was "the author of every thing that existeth. p. Provincial Glossary. The early inhabitants of Scandinavia believed in a god. . Ant. the Deluge. in which let it be well squeezed to get out any small quantity of blood that may have remained in it. &c. then put it into an earthen vessel with zimat. which mixture must necessarily be prepared in the dog days. Take the hand of a person hanged and exposed on the highway wrap it up in a piece of a shroud or winding sheet. whether in the form of a circle. in the place where they were exposed." (Mai. heated with fern and vervain. were termed Medicinal. and expose it to the noontide sun in the dog if the sun is not sufficient. Its properties are. 316. merely for filling rude minds with jealousy. the creation of the world. the living and awful being. of a serpent. when lighted. which were indispensably attached to every particular service. the searcher into concealed things. was to be anointed with an unguent composed of the gall of a black cat. fear and hatred. i. The doctrines inculcated in these mysteries embraced disquisitions on the nature of the gods. in the manner in which the lines were drawn. . 185 property of curing diseaces." (Grose.DOCTRINES AND MORALITY." 20 "All these various kinds differed only in the ceremonies observed in writing them. or a triangle. and long pepper. in the material on which they were written.. the person to whom it is presented will be deprived of all power of motion.

Germ. at length. p. A writer on the scenery of America. and introduced arts formerly unknown." Verst. offered many of the week. to this Odin. every object of the creation soon became placed under the care of its presiding divinity. wind and rain. thus expresses himself respecting one of the vast woods of that continent: "When tlie air is calm. The comparison of a gothic cathedral to the grove. . From thenceforward this deified mortal became the chief object of the idolatrous worship of the Saxons and Danes in this island. he was also worshipped as the god of arts and artists. 23 most high god. assumed the name of ODIN. the countries which he conquered. scarcely a sound of anything is to be heard... de mor. overran the north of Europe. 35. 7. solemnity in a primitive grove. is old and trite . and he was directed to be worshipped in the lonely solitude of sequestered forests. he was believed to be the god of war. believed to have been the name of the one true God colonies who came from the East and peopled Germany and Scandinavia. 69. mans 26 of devotion. Having been a mighty and successful warrior. prayer and repentance. his deluded worshippers impiously ascribed all the attributes which belong only to the true God to him they built magnificent temples. for the few birds that flit athwart the gloom are dumb. The trees. 24 Idols and visible representations of the deity were originally forbidden. of Eng. was Odin. erected a great empire. which is still sacrifices. Having civilized. of which was assigned a particular dominion and. than in the greatest cathedrals with all their gorgeous talis- Mallet vol.. It is impossible for any one to enter such solitudes without dread . each hence. But. . as well as of many other nations.. the leader of a new army of adventurers from the East. nor can the traveller contemplate his condition without anxiety and fear. the houses. and among their posterity for several ages. in some measure. invisible and in perfect silence.186 HISTORY OF INITIATION. and even thunder and lightning. had each its protecting deity . but the associations which the vast forest aisles and embowered arches awaken. who was also believed to send plagues into the world when provoked by the wickedness of its inhabitants and his anger could only be appeased by human sacrifices. fire. water. . make the sense of a present divinity far more powerfully felt. ix. In a word. and in all the other countries where he was formerly worshipped." (Henry's Hist. sun. a mighty conqueror. other objects of adoration were introduced. where he was said to dwell.. and revived courage in the conflict.) 23 " Odin is among the first : 24 25 There is a peculiar degree of 1. in England. Tacit. c. c. who gave victory. 25 But after the irruption of Sigge and his fol26 to lowers. Rest. i. and consecrated the fourth day called by his name. and claimed the honours which had been formerly paid to that deity. ii. vol. stars.

i. p. On the right stood Odin. p. at length... of an equal stature. 29 and contained a representation of the Scandinavian triad Odin Thor Frea. that weighed each thirty The statue of Juno was in an erect posture. with two lions standing before her. 459... but was sculptured sitting on a throne of massy gold. and as courage. c. was decorated with a profusion of costly ornaments. . we find three prodigious statues of beaten gold. Juno the queen of heaven. 98. apud Maur.80 These deities were placed beside each other in a line.. 30 1. and of the weight of five hundred talents. and her left a golden sceptre incrusted with gems.. These inferior deities considered at first only as Mediators. Ant. weighed three hundred . Olaus Magnus. p. eight hundred talents her right hand grasped a serpent by the head. clad in vengeance as in a garment . vol. and bearing 27 28 29 " In the great temple of Belus built ples exceeds our comprehension. enabled to visit the good with benefits.. accompanied with two huge serpents in silver. strength. talents.) Mallet. representing Jupiter the father of all. North. altar stood two vast flagons weighing each thirty talents . 27 The splendid temple on the river Sala. and to punish the wicked with destruction. The statue of Jupiter appeared erect. and in a walking attitude . were.. that assigned to Jupiter. In the centre stood Thor. the Sword. vii. a gigantic figure bearing his emblematical characteristic. forty feet in length. and weighed a thousand Babylonian talents. united or individually. ii. each weighing five hundred talents . the first cause soon became compounded with the god of war. the present site of Upsal. On this fifteen in breadth. vi. and those to Juno and Rhea p. and superior valour were the chief traits of excellence in this rude people. six hundred talents. i. 86. it was forty feet in height. two censers for incense. and finally three vessels for the consecrated wine. 28 dating its existence from the time of Ninus. and the reputed mediator between God and man. which is said to be of great antiquity. as guardians of the statue. The astonishing riches exhibited in some of these heathen tem- ber of talents. and llhea the universal mother. of which the largest. 96. and was hence esteemed a sanguinary being. probably kept continually burning." (Diod. 187 who were thus. his first born son. plates and chains of burnished gold. by Semiramis.DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. p. vol. 104. vol. Sic. invested with supreme authority. Ant. Before these three colossal figures stood an altar of beaten gold. terrible to his enemies . Ind. slaughter and blood. and weighed talents. and delighting in desolation and carnage. The statue of llhea also weighed the same num- Mallet.

who. and the drying up of the waters of the Deluge is expressed under the Mr. the symbolical crown... but did not lead to the same scandalous excesses. del. Vile. p. 33 represented and parturition. 34 and adorned with a variety of symbolical decorations pointing out her dominion over marriage. 1. say. was sometimes confounded with . Intel. 74. Syst. Ant. vol. p.. 217. the Scandinavian Venus. twelve stars were 32 And on the left arranged in a circle round his head. Chaos was described as a vast abyss. gained the applause of all polished nations. Faber thinks it " not figure of the destruction of the monster. Verst.) 37 Or Bo. at length. was represented as a valorous chieftain. i. p. vii. So chaste were this otherwise barbarous people. v. 4..1S8 HISTORY OF INITIATION. he was slain by the sons of Bore Odin. These emblems bore a reference commensurate with the eastern phallus and linga. Idol. de gub. name Cai-Umersh. improbable that the gothic name Ymer or Umer is the same as the c. because they were equally thought to possess an influence over the increase of the human species and hence the time of the full moon was considered a most favourable period for marriages. issued from this monster. conception. Friga. Maur. Dec. Ind. Ant. i.. The copious perspiration which genial south wind. 35 as an hermaphrodite. produced a corrupt race of giants called the Hrimthussi. vol.) And Salvian says. Ind. 781. which being gradually tilled up by the formation of successive strata of congealed vapours. but not more so than those of some other idolatrous nations. himself. Germ. and his name was held in such dread for many centuries after his death as to Persic . and to depict his astronomical character. who. 1. rising in rebellion against their progenitor. and mace. and that they were literally the reformers of the Roman manners! (Salv." (Pag. the moon. 18. and Ve. an appellation which is applied to Adam. as to merit the most unqualified applause. v. in nota 2.. was placed Frea. who proceeded from The legends of the creation and the Deluge were rather fanciful.. 34 35 Cudw. or probably some successor of Sigge who assumed his name. that their continence and absolute deference to the weaker Intel.. that amongst this people the females were safe from personal insult j and the sanctity of the matrimonial bond was so devotedly venerated.. the giant Ymer or 36 Aurgelmer was formed of icy exhalations melted by a f 31 Maur. c.. p. that these barbarians were worthy of admiration on account of their continence . 33 33 vol. 782. sceptre. (Tacit. Even Tacitus could sex. 31 showing his unlimited dominion over the earth and elements .) 36 The giant Ymer was the same with Typhon or the ocean .. Rest.

undoubtedly. 40 Hence the Ash was sacred to Odin. the rocks of his teeth. and Japheth. as his three sons Odin. 40 It was taught in these mysterious institutions.DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. his parent. The land was formed from his flesh.. treason. and the arch of heaven of his scull. Ere yet from ocean rose the earth. 38 a creature formed from the particles of dissolved ice. the . that when the multiplied iniquities of men should overwhelm the earth with deeds of violence . Thrudgelmer was his father's name. when it was practice of this custom It is still used by the English rustic as an prohibited by authority. the latter of elm^ and called them Askus and Embla. Ham. the water from his blood. was deluged ly the ocean. while the earth preserved in the Edda of Saemund. proceeded Thrudgelmer (Lamech). North. as a war-cry to with a panic fear. He from great Aurgelmer came. West. 3. may be identical with Shem. 1. They afterwards created a man and woman of two logs of wood. when the parent should and the child against and ingratitude should arm his hand against his children. and teeming with clouds formed from his dispersed brains. surface. 2. 38 This cow was the ark. and South. the north wind and meant. be used by soldiers on the approach of an enemy. Bore was hellenic Boreas. Cottle's Version. and destroyed all the giants of the frost 39 and his (i. This is (Noah) sprang. the patriarch Noah. except Bore or Bergelmer who succeeded in keeping a boat afloat on the family. Birch to Thor. " When wintry storms o'erspread the sky. e. patriarch proceeded. 4. and the Elm to Frea." Song of Vafthrudnis. caused an inundation which overflowed the whole earth. the mountains were composed of his bones. 39 Thus was a tradition of the Deluge. The Irish continued the inspire their opponents till the reign of our Henry VII. as well as of the antediluvian From Aurgelmer (Adam). and Ve. Fab. the former of ash. The sons of Bore now formed the earth out of the body of Ymer which they dragged front the abyss of Ginnungagap for this especial purpose. when murder. the human race). 189 the cow Andumbla. Vile. Edda. whose names were East. from which the triple offspring of the . Great Bergelmer had his birth. 5. patriarchs preserved from whom Bergelmer they. the same mythological personage as the epithet of terror.. say in Scandinavia. supported at four equi-distant points by as many dwarfs. The torrents of blood issuing from his wounds.

enter his door." The heart alone knows what passes within the heart : and that which betrays the soul. unpitied and hopeless. in a Poem called the Havamaal. 206.190 HISTORY OF INITIATION. vol. Many are thought to be knit in the ties of sincere kindness : but when it comes to the proof. the earth swallows up inundations . p. the oak expels the stranguary . Ant. for be a man ever so rich. and all condemned to suffer various torments." " Where is there to be found a virtuous man without some failing ? or one so wicked as to have no good quality?" "The fire drives away diseases." "Whilst we live let us live well . although disguised by names and 41 The morality inculcated in these Mysteries has been preserved by Saemund surnamed the Learned. and all the gods as well as men shall perish in the general ruin . some plunged in rivers of liquid poison distilled from the mouths of serpents. stain the earth with blood . perhaps. than not to be content with " one's lot. probably. North." Hence." "There is no malady or sickness more sevtre.. And they afford an evident proof of the eastern derivation of their mysteries..) . a place of punishment shall also be formed. abounding with serpents and other noisome reptiles. Death may. and death extinguishes hatred and quarrels. where the pusillanimous and wicked shall be for ever entombed amidst pestiferous vapours . straw dissolve enchantments. how much are they deceived. while in the inhospitable regions of the north. is the soul itself. From this code I subjoin a few " extracts to shew the nature of their moral instruction. while the mysterious ship Naglefara floats amidst torrents of mixed fire and water. when a series of unmixed wickedness and vice should supersede piety and virtue . others perpetually bitten and devoured by ravenous wolves. where the brave and virtuous shall enjoy everlasting happiness and delight . adorned with stately palaces all glittering with gold and precious stones. or the Sublime Discourse of Odin. when he lights his fire. splendid as the meridian sun. Slander is the common vice of the age. is derived the custom of laying two straws crosswise in the path where a witch is expected to come. before it be burnt out. amidst the accumulated horrors of everlasting filth and nastiness. After which a new world shall arise like a phoenix from the ashes of its parent. &c." " Seek not to seduce another's wife with the alluring charms of Hunic incantations. Such were the secret doctrines taught to the aspirant by our Saxon ancestors in the wilds of Scandinavia. ii." (Mai. Even the host backbites his guest. " Runic characters destroy the effect of imprecations . 41 then the present system shall fall into annihilation. and defies the desolating tempest under the direction of its mighty pilot.

and confirm the veneration of the people by an appeal to the prevailing taste for patriotism. and a respect for the institutions of their country. and their anxiety to frame a system which should aid. by the correspondence of its doctrines. . to cement the military frame-work of society.DOCTRINES AND MORALITY. 191 circumstances which display the ingenuity of the hierophants.

did not take place till about half a century after that event . CEREMONIES OF INITIATION IN AMERICA. Others. AMERICA was evidently peopled from the old continent. because there were only eight persons saved at the Deluge and the principal part of their posterity. have conjectured that it was peopled by the Ten Tribes 2 Some think it received its at the dispersion of Israel. occupied the very centre of Asia.192 LECTURE XII. and if so. that it was colo. which are only three weeks sail from that Their ships. peopled (communibus aliis) with other parts of the earth equidistant from the spot whereon the Ark is acknowledged to have grounded. might miss the intended Islands. and that. 1. of various Nations. having women and children on continent. they would inevitably be driven by the Trade Winds to the coast of America. iii. 278. who penetrated into the trackless regions of North America by the straits of Ani'an. Some say that America was 1 peopled by the Carthaginians who possessed the Cape Verd Islands. consequently. the aborigines were antediluvians. as it were. and thus a subject that has uniformly puzzled the most learned historians and philosophers. and given ground for the most elaborate disserta- population from China or Japan 1 3 Rel. Phaleg.. c. Cerem. at the same time. board. Others suppose that there were few individuals preserved on this vast continent at the Deluge. after the Deluge. before the invention of the compass . judging from the similarity of some religious rites. . For the grand division of the Eastern and Western hemispheres through the natural effect of causes operating from the Deluge. 1. Bochart. that it might be without diffiAnd we are told. 3 Some have been bold enough to assert that America was not inundated at the Deluge. " that America was culty repeopled. others nized by some wandering tribes of Japheth. and the most ancient people on earth. z Ibid. . during the whole of the first century after that event.. p.

to the interior provinces. appears . which have been sent to the scientific institutions of Lima for investifemale was also found sitting in a chair. tions. 7 Humboldt. Humboldt 5 seems to insinuate that the " tribes of the Tartar race passed over to the north-west coast of America. in the midst of their daily avocations. articles of 4 3 furniture. vol. and A great number of antiappears to have been only half completed. whose gradual progress from the northern coast. 25. 83. vol. he found the walls of the edifices still standing. 193 namely. which ascribe their primitive amongst population to a horde from a remote country to the north-west. and many of them were singularly preserved. i. it and curious antiquities. One man. vol. A quities and curiosities found in this American Herculuneum grave have been sent to the museum of Lima. in the infancy of Christianity. The earthquake. and thence to the south and east towards the banks of Gila. by the exclusion of atmospheric air. Hist. in Amer. but very neatly fabricated) is about eight inches in diameter. p. in the folds of which coins were found. i.. iv. Sweden. Thompson deduces his theory from Genesis x. He infers. p. the infallible attestations of Holy Writ. coins. appears to have surprised the inhabitants like those of Pompeii.ire all those questions that are submitted to the ordeal of truth. on the coast of Peru. Research. which contained an unfinished piece of cotton stuff. the manner by which America was peoto be made simple and easy.HISTORY OF INITIATION IN AMERICA.." Robertson6 also supposes the Americans to have derived their original from the Asiatics and pled. b. The cotton-stuff (which is of a gaudy pattern. in the precise action or employment of the moment when overwhelmed.. before a loom. Amer. 5 6 Research. in the environs of Garvay. from the number and extent of them. 14 . standing up as if in the act of escaping. where they landed. was dressed in alight robe. " Peleg in his days was the earth divided". which she was in the act of weaving. that the population of the city could not have been less than 3000 souls. and those of the Missouri. . Mr. is And. Pamphl. has recently been discovered by the captain of an 'American vessel.is ... and Russia. Province of Fruscillo. v. and many of them in a complete state of preservation. conjecture by some ancient traditions the Mexicans. gation. named Kay. in an ancient buried city of considerable extent. in Amer. 147. by which would appear the city was engulfed. distinctly traced.. 4 M. Great numbers of skeletons and mummies in a perfect state of preservation were found among the private and sacred edifices. supports his New theory of the two hemispheres. A most interesting evidence of the early existence of the arts in these regions. and a great number of domestic utensils. Mexico is said to have been in a more advanced state of 7 civilization than Denmark. Following the course of some excavations which he made.

83. the chief of which were Teotl. is the most mysterious being of the whole Mexican mythology.. Pag. (Asiat." and hence originated the sanguinary rites that were offered to him. lofty mountains. 13 this deity. ii. and the deep gloom of eternal forests. Hist. Tescalipuca.. which. 13 8 Sir W. the Mexican Mercury. was almost entirely lost amongst the scattered tribes which led an From what people in . like the Sonyasis and Buddhists of Hindostan. bore a character of dark and gloomy " The priests were wont to select for their austerity. that in his right hand. yet many of the truths was founded. i. In a Mexican drawing in the Vatican library. Pilgr. vol. 12. Purch. c. He was a white and bearded man. . he came into the world with a dart It is said in an old tradition. as the name is spelt by Humboldt. vol. p. 244.. Displ. the n 12 invisible and supreme being Virococha. 39. whose name signifies Serpent clothed with green feathers. Ind. when 13. Idol. vol. 9 Fab.194 HISTORY OF INITIATION soever the Americans descended. ii. vol. (Humb. Res. or whatever manner that vast continent was originally it is certain that the first furnished with human beings inhabitants brought with them a system of mysteries which they applied to the purposes of religious worship 8 and though this system. Res.. i.) 14 " Quetzalcoatl. 176. though highly symbolical. green feathers. See also Maur. chief of a religious sect.. gods. in process of time. and Humb. b. Even Res. Amer. by the two great nations which had planted themselves on each side of the Isthmus of Panama. iii. vol. or god . p. high priest of Tula. I have seen a figure representing Quetzalcoatl appeasing by his penances the wrath of the gods.. the Scythic superstition as practised by the architects on the plain of Shinar. p. 268. were preserved in a deteriorated form. \?ol. p. .060 years after 11 Humb. and a buckler in his left. Vitzliputzli or Huitzilopochtli. legislator. Res.. Ind. erratic life in its deepest wilds. viii. the god of mercy vengeance . from coatl.." 9 They worship10 ped many deities. 200. . on which it rocky caverns. p.. The entire system adopted by the Mexicans. i.. the creator. the god of 14 Quetzalcoatl. vol. Jones says truly. His first feat at his birth was to kill his brothers and sisters . the benign attributes which some ascribe to him. 220. and his head covered with a helmet crowned with green feathers. Ant. religious incantations. i. Amer.) 1S Acosta.. inflicted on themselves the most cruel penances.. Amer. p. p! p.) And why should it not? It was evidently derived from the same source . serpent and quetzalli.. 10 Some say they had two thousand (Univ. is represented as delighting in the blood of human victims. that the religion of Mexico and Peru was substantially the same as that practised by the various nations of the eastern hemisphere. 380... with all ' .

this reptile two 30 particularly of the amphisbsena. supported on four long poles. and his left a buckler with arrows . He was said to be the offspring of a virgin. 19 His right hand grasped a snake. Faber thinks that the globe on which this go*d was said to be seated. who was impregnated by a Plume of Feathers which descended from heaven into her bosom invested with all the colours of the Rainbow. the creation of the world. The saint had chosen his place of retirement near Tlaxapuchicalo on the volcano Catcitapetl. vol. Tlalocwho corresponded with Neptune. Mr. of the human race who were miraculously preparents served from the effects of the Deluge by the intervention of Serpents. Pilg. (Fab. Mictlancihautl. b. Res. He was seated on a globe. each of which conveyed some mysterious signification. 18 which was a symbol of his universal power. 16 Hence a Rainbow with a serpent attached to each end of 17 it was a Mexican and referred to the two symbol. and Ixcuina. c. (Humb. Res... 11. to the Cholulans that he would return in a short time to govern them again and renew their happiness." (Humb. vol.. 16 17 18 Purch. with Venus. each end of which was ornamented with a serpent's head.) The temples of Mexico were replete with representations of . was in reality no other than the calix of the lotos.. i. . 131. p. over a lofty altar. p.. all charged with emblematical devices. and the deity himself was the triplicated great father. and inculcated some useful lesson upon the initiated. fo. after having declared. Clavigero. 228.IN AMERICA. the goddess of hell . Res. . famine and pestilence.. vol. viii.. Pag Idol...) a great famine prevailed in the province of Culan.. 19 ii... Purch. 20 The office of Tescalipuca was to punish the sins of men by the infliction of plague . 73. Vitzliputzli was represented in his temple by the figure of a man. or Noah. p. 15 To Vitzliputzli was ascribed the renovation of the world and his name was deemed ineffable. or mysterious serpent with heads. He was represented as a black man with a teutli. apud Huinb. the Sun. c. 12.. Mexico. disease and death. b. whose countenance was disfigured by certain black lines drawn across his forehead and nose. which was borne in procession during the celebration of the mysteries.) Codex Borgianus MSS. the river Goasacoalco. vol. and referred to the principal luminary. ix.) where he walked barefoot on agave He finally disappeared at the mouth of leaves armed with prickles. 15 i.) Pilg. p. (I follow the vague chronology of Rios. (Speaking mountain. 316. 92. i. 195 of the air.

and that As for the other all Heaven's plagues are the ministers of my wrath ? gods. and that as soon as every thing was ready. amidst the darkness of the night. by which the afflicted soul and repenting sinner was taught. Montezuma. : fearful Telcilepulca. which stretched from north to south. and a thousand of them picked out to immolate to their incensed god. surprised at the weakness of our gods. 77. or at the ruin which seems to 21 for sin. there hung an ear. and in his other His voice. like the sounds of storms rattled the fetters of captivity. We He : : : : : : : . thousand captives in one day lay slaughtered in my temple ? Its rock returned no other sound but groans and bitter wailings. signifying that nothing was hid from terrible picture of this insatiate monster has been drawn by (Incas.196 HISTORY OF INITIATION hideous countenance. the God of Evil. god. which His left hand held a golden mirpoverty." Montezuma gave instant orders that the captives should be surveyed. . vol. He held four darts in his right hand. held. who thus addresses him Sir.) which makes the reader shudder. and so bright as to receive the With the same hand he objects clearly and distinctly. His head reached up to Heaven. a fan made of feathers. the appeared to us over the pinnacle of the Temple. that they should be fattened up with all possible expedition . in "From his hair. behind this mirror. tied listen to his prayers. which rejoiced my heart altars swam in blood rich offerings lay scattered on my floor. of this terrible divinity was a blue feather. which was another symbol. who would was generally appended. about his person. extremely smooth.. i. " " I would not have you be. applies to the sovereign Pontiff for advice. and tempests. enthroned upon an altar. and famine." said he. have called up the mighty God of Evil. smote our ears Ye mock me my altars thirst in vain my victims are not fattened a few half starved wretches are all the Where is now the time when twenty offerings ye bestow on me. if he will their indulgence exawait your empire. p. that he might confide in the divine mercy. up with a golden fillet. seemed to incircle the whole earth from his mouth the poison of pestilence seemed ready to burst forth in his hollow eyes sparkled the devouring fire of madness and of famine he held in one hand the three darts of war. . in his distress. they should be offered up in solemn : : sacrifice. ror. . poses them to contempt by suffering it they encourage and deserve but let him know that it is folly in the extreme to neglect a jealous it Terrified at this portentous intelligence. Clouds rent by lightning were his seat. let him send them away empty. His 21 The anger could only be appeased by human sacrifices. his arms. war. which symbol some conspicuous situation. Heaven. and decorated with rich jewels and valuable trinkets. signifying the punishment man by plagues. Hath Montezuma forgotten that I am Telcalepulca. manifests itself to and the vengeance of A Marmontel. of all kinds and colours.

The passage is as follows. Sat.. we may trace its introduction into the legends of romance. depicted also as a winged snake. Lect. while she caresses a vast serpent. 316. Boiardo represents her as gliding beneath the waters of an enchanted lake. whom I hit on the head and killed him. and the Serpents. and threw it with all my strength at the great serpent. Round the idol were a great number of emblematical figures. was the diluvian vehicle of the great And again. and soon after I saw a winged serpent." he says. The other. and who is celebrated by the name of Morgana. p. who was wont to 23 23 denominate her the White Serpent. finding himself at liberty.IN AMERICA." said she to the caliph of " Bagdad. In one of these tales. contests between the good and evil demons are very frequently introduced. Their Temples were covered with reof monstrous serpents. myself down. p. or Viviana. said she. agreeably to the universal belief of all the east. and she had miraculously succeeded u I laid in gaining the land. Pag. i. the serpent whom you Mr. of Various Nations." 22 The System of the Mexicans was barbarous and bloody in the extreme. who is said to have been the sister of King Arthur. I looked a long while after him 'in the air.. and endeavouring to devour him. Faber. very large and long. we atry. For this idea I am indebted to Mr. iii. in universal Father. and I lay down again in another place in the shade. and shall transcribe from his elaborate work. after her sisters had cruelly thrown her overboard. a passage in support of the proposition. on the Origin of Pagan Idol" In British fiction." &c. And other romance writers describe her as the perfidious paramour of Merlin." (Fab. delivered not long since from my mortal enemy. who presided over the Sacred Lake. took to his wings and flew away.. When I awaked. I sat up and asked her who she was. thus endeavours to account for that universal degeneracy of principle which induced mankind to offer the rites of divine worship to this disgusting symbol. holding him by hurt. and. and sometimes they are represented in the form of serpents. and fell. Idol. " 4t were accounted the greatest of gods. I had compassion on him. the malignant serpent. and who. 197 that vindictive god. judge ho\v I was surprised to see by me a black woman. and hanging out his tongue.. the tail. Cerem. wriggling to the right and to the left..asleep.) From the general use of this hieroglyphic in systems of idolatry. instead of flying away. &c. as the navicular serpent. coming towards me. which made me think he had got some I arose and saw a larger serpent following him. is represented as endeavouring to destroy the beneficent genius. : . 321.) the Arabian Tales. 23 tigers and all sorts presentations Rel. or an evil genius in that form. 113. I had the boldness and courage to take up a stone that by chance lay by me. The temples of religion in most nations were decorated with serpents to indicate their sacred character. Faber.. have a Lady of the Lake. into which form she had metamorphosed one of her lovers. and see Signs and Symb. vol. 3. in a shade. as an extraordinary thing but he flew out of sight. I am. (Pers. whose opinions are entitled to considerable respect. Her character has been taken from that of the White Goddess. of a lively and agreeable complexion. and is an extraordinary incident which occurred to Zobeide.

And should the wretched candidate." (Humb. Gage. The candidate was subjected to all the terrors. vol. or the thorns of the cactus. 25 The celebration of their mysterious rites was preceded by long and painful fastings and mortification. and as such they were invariably introduced both into the Temples. leading principles of the universe .) . this being done. to symbolize the great father and the great mother. Vitzliputzli procured her divine honours by enjoining the Mexicans to demand her of her father." 24 Their sacred chapel at Mexico was decorated with the skulls of those unhappy wretches wr ho had been slain in sacrifice and their priests were clad in garments made of their skins.. It was in this manner she was stripped of her humanity. and a foot thick on the floors. victims were sacrificed in Tlacaxipehualitztli the first month of the Mexican year.198 HISTORY OF INITIATION of uncouth and horrible figures. in order that the blood might be seen to trickle more copiously. great and These were all small. and wrought of sundry metals. and of putting reeds into the wounds. p. even under the most excruciating infliction. 290. to be translated among the gods. and to cover a young man with her skin. And in this manner we find them venerated in every quarter of the globe. He was scourged with knotted cords . i. mortal extraction. c. . afterwards to flay her. Res. for their queen . and into the due celebration of the The real ground of their being accounted the greatest of Mysteries the gods was this : they were employed. Surv." " 26 Quetzalcoatl introduced the custom of piercing the lips and ears. that is to say.) volting custom may be found in the following legend. i. sufferings.. that many perished under it. according to their sexes. Pag. and many other severities was he compelled to undergo.. 26 or cauterized with red hot cinders . of the West Indies. 7. and penances which attended the purifications of the eastern world. that his fortitude might be fully proved before he was admitted to those distinctions which conferred the high The privilege of personally sacrificing his fellow men. bathed and washed with human blood an inch thick on the walls of the houses. 24 25 ii. they also commanded him to put her to death. probation was pressed with such unrelenting cruelty.. and lacerating the rest of the body with the prickles of the agave leaf. his flesh was cut with knives. p. "The Ceremonies and Religious Customs of various " Tozi. which is recorded in a folio. 12. (Humb. vol. was of Nations. who was King of Cul- Human hucacan. Idol. Res. entitled." (Fab. 310). b. compounded of men and animals. " They had dark houses full of idols. for the purpose of procuring their skins The origin of this refor the priests." (p. 92. p. our Grand Mother..

vol. (32. It was made of the juice of the most venomous creatures at the altar of the idol. and served. dediMicoatl. sufficient to strike with horror. 188. 28 " 27 8 leagues N. E. i. and invigorate courage. a groan. 31 Rel. 316. Res. p. (682.IN AMERICA.. which form Of streets in exact lines from north to south...) and the other 44 metres. of Various Nations.) w Univ. one is 55 metres. of Various Nations. and from that moment considered unworthy the honour of admission into the society of his equals." plates of gold. Pag." (Fab. or an impatient exclamation. v. (Humb. Faber says. in Mexico. iii. This is what they sition other venomous insects. even the most undaunted hearts. ment 29 They heightened this compowith a herb which has the property of disturbing the brain. that a city consisting of five hundred houses 31 might have been erected within the 32 Its form was that of a truncated compass of its walls. " their orgies appear to have been of a peculiarly gloomy and terrific nature.80916 feet) high. 29 Fab. and covered with Cortes. and these are surrounded by several hundreds of smaller pyramids.3603 feet. and from east to west. p. and mixed with tobacco. On the top of the great teocallis were two colossal statues of the sun and moon they were of stone.. according to the tradition of the natives. Pag. (144. of which they were stripped by the soldiers of . One striking shade of difference is observable between the preparations of the Mexicans... vol. The basis The small of the first is 208 metres. cated to the sun (Tonatiuh) and to the moon (Mextli). p. the other by blood. and those of other idolatrous nations. i. p.) . The purifications of the latter were performed with water. was of such an extraordinary magnitude. (180. 199 utter so much as a sigh. 190. pyramids are scarcely 10 metres. to which they added live scorpions. 33 " The group of pyramids of Teotihuacan is in the valley of Mexico. (he Path of the Dead. Idol.. in accordance with that ferocity of disposition which the habitual practice of sacrificing men must necessarily produce. sustenance of the gods 30 The Temple of Vitzliputzli. iii. Cerem. call the repast or Rel. Idol. Displayed. 27 The candidate's habit was also 28 instead of the white garments of other nations. in the plain that bears the name of There arc two large Pyramids.4306 feet in length.. and some ritually prepared. 84. 188. these two great teocallis. v. from the capital. p.450416 feet.)' in perpendicular height. black. Cerem. Before initiation he was anointed with an oint- which was said "to dispel fear. the ashes of which were pounded in a mortar. as also with soot and rosin. 318. p. he was dismissed with contempt. as burial places for the chiefs of the tribes.

p. There were forty or fifty victims at the least thus sacrificed." (Acosta'sHist. notwithstanding he had been anointed with a stupifying unguent. that the man who was to be sacrificed. to whom he did offer it. p. . the latter seized them. The high priest then opened his These abominable stomach with the knife. The young aspirant. reeking with their gore. and all the horrible phantasies of a dark and barbarous worship were exhibited in full perfection. 103. and the bodies afterwards precipitated down the stairs.. 82. 383. 100.. In this . was overwhelmed with horror at beholding his fellow creatures wantonly immolated under the pretence of explaining an otherwise incommu. ** Humb. of the Ind. two of them laying hold of the two feet. Res. which he elevated smoking towards the sun. and presently turning towards the idol. c." says M.. p.200 pyramid. Res. and two more of the two hands of the unhappy victim. 37 He now descended into the dark and cheerless caverns of initiation38 which had been excavated beneath the 33 35 Purch. the other four priests who assisted. numerous galleries built with stone. vol. brought forth such as had been taken in war." (Res. 102... another priest carried a collar of wood. read the descriptions which Herodotus and the Temple of Jupiter Belus. and caused them to mount up those large stairs in rank to the place where the ministers were prepared. Humboldt.) 33 j n p er sia. being laid thereon upon his back. wrought in the form of a snake . . and in this manner cast him upon his back upon the pointed stone.. arranged themselves in order adjoining the pyramidal stone . fill up the interior of the artificial hills. they incision of the knife. did cast the heart towards it. 12. without being blance of that Babylonian monument to the 37 "to i. 34 and it served for an observatory as well as for ty 35 Here it was that the Mexican mysteries were sacrifice. As they respectfully approached those ministers. viii.) Diodorus have left us of struck with the resemteocallis of Anahuac. tearing out his heart with his hand. vol. Pilg. while the fifth fastened round his neck the serpentine collar of wood.. b. nicable mystery. p. and communicating with each other by shafts. 82. vol. being directly against the door of the chapel of their idol." (Humb. 36 "It is impossible. Ibid.. p. with wonderful dexterity and nimbleness.. Two fine caves. 36 and here it was that all the celebrated on a grand scale crimes of a bloody and revolting superstition were concentrated.) Many of these excavations have been discovered in different parts of this continent. did bend in such sort as occasioned the stomach to separate upon the slightest When the sacrificers were thus in order. HISTORY OF INITIATION 33 on the flat top of which were one or two which contained the colossal idols of the divinichapels.. This stone was so pointed.manner were all the victims sacrificed. i. made of a sovereign priest flint. " The sacrifices were performed as follows : carried a large and sharp knife in his hand. besmearing his face with the blood. i.

for they could never reduce This traveller went it into a body. and the howlings of hopeless grief. on all sides. with an Indian for his guide. or that an incautious step might precipitate him into some deep and hidden pitfall. that in the interior of the pyramids there are considerable cavities. dungeons where religious victims were confined. Here he saw such sights as made his blood run cold.. fearful lest the knife of the sacrificing priest should be next applied to him . the shrieks of despair. appalling to his senses. It is certain. and in a place very proper for the generation of As he entered into it.. and found its situation was pretty high. 90. p. thither one morning. and that during the abode of Cortes in this city. and redoubled echoes. of a remarkable cave. the light of the candle soon discovered metals. The phantoms of slain victims passed before his eyes. him thereby left a free passage for some rays of light to enter. and the silence of the historians of those 'times. Now he heard the groans of the dying. and he proceeded with measured . some horrible object flitting across the 41 gloom met his eyes some sound. vol. i. which had eluded many Spaniards by its promising colour. a glittering canopy of these mineral leaves .) . vol. pace. it occasioned such thunderas. imagining he had been A ing and wrestling with some infernal ghosts. but the materials of which the teocalli is built. however. rendered still more dismaying by the ominous sound of the sacred 40 while he passed. p. i. These caverns were denominated. 201 foundations of this stupendous temple. their ancestors had concealed in the body of the pyramid a considerable number of warriors. (Gent's. which were used as sepulchres. 40 Univ. Humboldt. 194." says M. Every step he took. struck upon his ear. vol. that the inside of the pyramids is hollow . there fell down a great lump of sand. the next lost in the darkness. and serve for a better guide. have recently been found about twelve miles from Albany.. some leagues to the north-west of Mexico. where resembling the extraordinary caverns in the peak of Derbyshire. 1822. p." &c. (Res. the path of the dead. at which he greedily snatching. little probability to this latter assertion. but almost blinded him . Displayed.. in the Philosophical Transactions. and calling aloud to his Indian. who stood at the entrance of the cave. the horn. that not only put out his candle.IN AMERICA.. Jan." (Univ. that the poor fellow. i. either by quicksilver or fusion. Displayed. with tottering footsteps.) (! by some Indians of Cholula.. give bul. Mag. gilded all over with a sort of leaf-gold. who were to fall suddenly on the Spaniards .) 39 "I have been assured. which emblematically represented the wanderings of their god. 397. being afraid of spirits and hobgoblins. 41 U traveller of credit gives us an account. 39 and passed through the horrible mysteries of the Mexican religion. soon quitted his station. this moment seen. but especially over his head.

his cries


might not be heard. Thus was he conducted through caverns slippery with half congealed blood; damp, gloomy, and full of terror. His ears are saluted with heavy groans. His heart throbs as they seem to His fears are realized for rise from beneath his feet. here lay the quivering frame of a dying victim, whose heart had been violently rent from its living sepulchre, 42 and offered up in sacrifice to the sanguinary gods. 43 The candidate averts his eyes, and trembles for his own He turns to his guide and is about to break security. the strict injunction of silence which he received through at his entrance into these subterranean chambers of death. His guide, with an expressive look, lays his finger on his lips, and the candidate restrains his indignation. He pauses and looks around him. He finds himself in a spacious vault, through which an artificial sun or lambent flame darted its feeble lustre 44 and in the roof observes a small orifice, through which the wretched victim had been precipitated ; for they were now immediately beneath the high altar of Vitzliputzli. 45 Hurried on from one horror to another, it was only the rapidity of his movements that prevented him from sinking under the trial it was only the change of scene and situation which, dissipating reflection, supported him under the arduous ceremony. At length they arrived at
; ; ;


a narrow chasm or stone fissure at the termination of extensive range of caverns, through which the
have already seen that the priests were clothed in the skins and they had another disgusting practice of a similar nature, which is thus related. "It was a custom among them on certain festivals, to dress a man in the bloody skin, just reeking from the body A Spanish author assures us that even their of one of their victims. kings and grandees did not think it derogatory to their honour to disguise themselves in this manner, when the captive sacrificed was a person of distinction. Be that as it will, the disguised person used to run up and down the streets, and places of public resort of the city, to beg the charity of all those he met with, and to beat such as refused. This bloody kind of masquerade continued till such time as the skin coat began to stink. The money that was collected in this devout Not to mention another festival, ramble, was employed in pious uses. when they used to slay a woman, and clothe an Indian with her skin, who, thus equipped, danced for two days together with the rest of his
of victims



fellow-citizens." (Univ. Dis., vol. 43 Acosta. Hist. Ind., p. 382.


p. 189, 192.)

Fab. Pag.

Idol., vol.


p. 189.


Res., vol.


p. 222.



aspirant was formally protruded, and was received by a shouting multitude in the open air as a person regenerated or born again. 46 During the secret celebration of the rites, the females without, divesting themselves of the little clothing which 47 they usually wore, sang and danced in a state of nudity like the frantic Bacchantes. 43 This dance they repeated three times ; after which they welcomed the new-born aspirant at his deliverance from the sepulchral process of initiation, and gave themselves up to boundless licentiousness and prostitution. 49 The most outrageous acts of indecency were now committed and tolerated; and the services misnamed sacred, were stained with every 50 And thus were closed the primary species of impurity. initiations of this savage race. However the general doctrines of this religion might be communicated to the initiated, there were certain degrees of information respecting the most occult rites which were absolutely unattainable, except by the priests ; and not even by them until they were qualified to receive the distinguished appellation of Ministers of sacred things 51 by the sacrifice of a human victim ; and this dignity once attained, they were eligible to the highest offices of the priesthood. An hour was chosen for the performance
46 This was undoubtedly the Pastes of the eastern mysteries, and constitutes an additional proof that they were all derived from one common source ; for the cavern symbolized the Ark, and the chasm the door through which the great Father proceeded into the renovated world, and was hence said to be a second time born. 47 The quadrangle in which the temple of Vitzliputzli was situated was so extensive, that "eight or ten thousand persons used to dance therein on solemn days with the greatest ease." (Univ. Dis., vol. i.,

p. 187.)
49 Purch. Pilg., b. 8, c. 4. Rel. Cer. of Var. Nat., p. 289. Purchas (ut supra) tells us that the young females prostituted themselves without ceremony from 14 or 15 to about 20 years of age, when they were considered eligible to enter into the marriage 48



Prisoners of rank, or approved courage, had a faint chance afforded them of escaping the horrid rite of immolation, by publicly c: fighting If the prisoner were fortunate six Mexican warriors in succession.

enough to conquer them, his liberty was granted, and he was permitted to return to his own country ; if, on the contrary, he sunk under the strokes of one of his adversaries, a priest called Chalchiuhtepehua dragged him, dead or living, to the altar, and tore out his heart."


Ees., vol.


p. 267.)



of these solemn rites, and it was at midnight only that the most ineffable degrees of knowledge were communicated ; and that under severe obligations, whose penalty was death without remission. Their instruction was symbolical, and referred principally to the Deluge, and the wanderings and subsequent settlement of their ancestors on the lake in which Mexico was built. They were ignorant of the means used to create the world ; but asserted that four suns had been created and destroyed ; 52 the first was destroyed by
52 The Mexicans believed, according to a very ancient prediction, that the end of the world would take place at the termination of a cycle of fifty-two years ; that the sun would no more appear in the horizon ; and that mankind would be devoured by evil genii of hideous appearance, known under the name of Tzitzi mimes. This belief was, no doubt, connected with the Tolteck tradition of the Four (Suns or) Ages, according to which the earth had already undergone four great revolutions, three of which had taken place at the end of a cycle. The people passed in the deepest consternation the five complimentary days; and on the fifth the sacred fire was extinguished in the temples by order of the high priest; in the convents, the monks devoted themselves to prayer; at the approach of night, no person dared light the fire in his house ; the vessels of clay were broken, garments torn, and whatever was most precious was destroyed, because everything appeared useless at the tremendous moment of the last day. Amidst this frantic superstition, pregnant women became the objects of peculiar horror to the men ; their faces were hidden with masks they were imprisoned in the storehouses of maize, from a persuasion, that if the cataclysm took place, the women, transformed into tigers, would make common cause with the evil genii, to avenge themselves of the injustice of the men. In the evening of the last day began the festival of the new fire. The priests took the dresses of their gods ; and, followed by an immense crowd of people, went in solemn procession to the mountain of Huixachtecatl, two leagues from Mexico. This lugubrious march was termed the march of the gods (teonenemi), a denomination which reminded the Mexicans that the gods had quitted the city, and that, perhaps, they would see them no more. When the procession had reached the summit of the mountain, it waited the moment when the Pleiades ascended the middle of the sky, to begin the horrible sacrifice of a human victim. The body of the victim remained stretched on the ground, and the instrument made use of to kindle the fire by rubbing, was placed on the wound which the priest of Copulco, armed with a knife of obsidian, had made in the breast of the prisoner destined to be sacrificed. When the bits of wood detached by the rapid motion of the cylinder, had taken fire, an enormous pile, previously prepared to receive the body of the unfortunate victim] was kindled. The flames of the pile were seen from a great part of the valley of Mexico, on account of the height of the mountain on which this sanguinary rite was performed and the people filled the air with All those who were not able to follow joyful exclamations.





water; the second by giants; the third by fire, and the fourth by a tempest of wind, which was succeeded by a darkness of twenty-five years' duration. The sun which now enlightens the world they held to be the fifth smd he was the object of their adoration. 53 They spake of Tonacateuctli, the great father, and Cihuacohuatl, the 54 great mother of mankind, and her serpent, which was crushed by the mighty spirit Teotl ; they ultimately taught that, in the early ages, long before the Incas began to reign, the sea overflowed its banks, covered the whole continent with water, and drowned all the inhabitants except one family who were enclosed in a box. 55 After a confinement of some length, they sent

the procession, were stationed on the terraces of houses, or the tops of the teocallis, or the hills that arose in the middle of the lake; their eyes were fixed on the spot where the flame was to appear, a certain presage of the benevolence of the gods, and of the preservation of mankind during the course of a new cycle. Messengers posted at respective distances, holding branches of the wood of a very resinous pine, carried the new fire from village to village, to the distance of

twenty leagues; it was deposited in every temple, whence it was distributed to every private dwelling. When the sun began to appear on the horizon, the acclamations redoubled. The procession returned to the city, and the people thought that they beheld their gods return to their sanctuaries. The women were now released from prison every one put on new dresses, and everything went on in its
fifteen or

usual course." (Humb. Res., vol. i., p. 380.) 53 The Floridans worshipped the sun in a deep cavern, under the form of a cone or phallus. (Ban. Myth., vol. i., p. 144.) 54 Humb. Res., vol. i., p. 195. Evidently referring to our first parents in paradise, and the serpent tempter. 55 The cosmogony of the North American savages is thus given by " The Hennepin in his voyage to a country larger than Europe. world was created by a spirit to which the Iroquois have given the name of Otkon, those of Virginia, Okee, and other savages, who inhabit the mouth of St. Lawrence's river, Atahauta, and that one Messou destroyed it after the Flood. They tell us that, as Messou was one day hunting, his dogs lost themselves in a great lake, which happening to overflow, soon spread itself over all the earth. They add that, by the help of some animals, he restored the world. The savages that inhabit the head of St. Lawrence's river, and the Mississippi, tell us, that a woman descended from heaven, and hovered some time in the air, seeking where to rest her foot ; tnat the tortoise offered his back, which she accepted, and chose that place for her residence; that afterwards the filth of the sea gathered itself about the tortoise, and However, as insensibly expanded itself to a great extent of ground. this woman did not delight in solitude, a spirit descended from above j who, finding her asleep, drew near to her ; that the result of his approach was, her being with child ; that she was delivered of two sons.



out birds, by which it was ascertained that the waters had subsided, for one of them brought back in its mouth the branch of a tree when they quitted their asylum and repeopled the earth. They inculcated the immortality of the soul, and worshipped a triad consisting of Then followed an Tlaloc Tescalipuca. Vitzliputzli account of their original population, which bears such a striking analogy with the settling of the Israelites in the

promised land, as to induce some authors to suspect that it proceeded from a tradition of the deliverance of that people from their Egyptian captivity, and their subsewho came out of her side. When the children were grown up, they exercised themselves in hunting ; and as one of them was a much more skilful hunter than the other, jealousy soon occasioned discord. They lived together in irreconcilable hatred. The unskilful hunter, who was of a very savage temper, treated his brother so ill, as forced him to leave the earth, and withdraw to heaven. After he had thus withdrawn himself, the spirit returned again to the woman, and from this second interview a daughter was born, who is the grand parent of the North Americans." (Rel. Cerem. of Var Nat., p. 298.) In commenting on the above legends, it will be needless to say that they bear a decided reference to the Creation and the Deluge. The learned Grotius tells us (De verit., 1. i., s. 16), that " in many parts of America is preserved the memory of the Deluge, and the preservation of Messou and his dogs animals, particularly the raven and the dove." are but a transcript of Pwyll in the mysteries of Britain, for dogs were a legitimate token of the diluvian celebrations ; and it is remarkable how generally this belief has prevailed in every region of the world. The woman who descended from heaven resembles the Grecian Juno (Yuneh), or the dove; and the tortoise reminds us of the Courma Avater of the East, in which the same animal supports Vishnu on his back while the Deluge is produced. The contact of the Spirit with the sleeping woman is an evident specimen of the confusion which pervades every idolatrous system. The act of Creation is so intimately blended with the Deluge, as certainly to refer to the doctrine of an endless succession of worlds ; for destruction was ever considered but as a necessary prelude to reproduction ; and creation but the act of renewing matter which had been previously destroyed. The two sons thus begotten were the Cain and Abel of Moses and, perhaps, the manner in which they were born might have some indistinct reference to the creation or birth of Eve from the side of her husband. The second meeting of the Spirit and the woman produced a daughter, who corresponds with the Great Mother of the eastern world ; and the repeopling of the earth by means of these infant

deities was annually commemorated by a solemn sacrifice. The people assembled on a lake or river in innumerable canoes to witness the


priests, and, after certain

of great beauty were produced by the mysterious rites, they were placed in a leaky boat, and abandoned to the miserable fate of perishing in the waters. (Purch. Pilgr.. b. viii., c. 13. Fab. Pag. Idol., vol. i., p. 271.^


boy and

vii. 64 66 It will be altogether unnecessary here to point out the resemblance which the Ark. 17. 65 The Mexican tradition of the Deluge. which was esteemed the throne of God. and directed by the god Vitzliputzli. 8. (Deut. 2. during the continuance of an extended rest. the serpent-rod. In the midst of their encampments a tabernacle was erected.. how can I dispossess them ? Thou shalt not be affrighted at them for the Lord thy God is among you. vol. xl. and terrible. c. b. " If xi. 16..) Ixxx. (teoicpalli) the four angels of which were surmounted by serpents' heads. Res. 216... . These nations are more than I.. a fig-tree growing out of a rock. 6. 207 quent wanderings in the wilderness. under an experienced chief.. 2. 5.. called the throne of the 59 god.. Vid. 3. After a long and tedious expedition they arrived at the precise spot 56 Could this primitive people have any tradition that the Rod of Moses was changed into a serpent? (Exod. p. assured by the god that they should conquer every enemy who might be rash enough to a code of laws to be used when they had taken possession of the land of promise . and also distinctly marked the 65 place of their settlement to be upon a lake. s. Pilgr. A warlike tribe of North Americans. 38 Psalm And Moses was concealed in an Ark of Isai.. says the legend. 61 and thus protected. revealed the mode of wor4 ship* which was most acceptable to him . which contained an altar67 for the reception of the sacred ark. 60 The ark was borne by four priests. . 36. and the lake. iv. (Exod. (Exod. the horns of the Israelitish altar. 1 . Exod.. They marched and encamped . a mighty God. 1). These correspond with Vid..) 63 Robertson. Exod. xl. iv. and the building of a tower to reach the heavens. . iii. 3 Humb. 3. the people set out in quest of a settlement. vi.. Deut. holding in his hand a rod formed like a serpent. 8..) 61 Josh. b.) 57 The Israelites were accompanied by an Ark (Josh. by the bulrushes. reader of the preceding pages.. Lect. xxv. xxiv.IN AMERICA. and dictated 62 oppose their design. bear to the rites of the eastern world. 12.. xxxviii. made of reeds. viii." 62 .. may be found in Signs and Symbols. thou shalt say in thine heart. abounding 66 on the borders of which they should find with the lotos. 56 was seated in a 57 58 square Ark.. where was perched an eagle in the act of devouring its prey. It will be apparent to the most casual 7 Exod. i... 21. 10. the lotos. direction of Vitzliputzli w who. who. 58 60 Purch. xxxvi. 22 xl. Amer. on which their god was triumphantly seated.



which had been pointed out, and, finding the prescribed tokens, they built the city of Mexico on an island in the midst of the water ; GS furnished it with a pyramidal 69 and soon became a populous and flourishing temple, nation.
Their knowledge was wrapped up in hieroglyphical 70 and they were acquainted with a most comsymbols 71 plete system of picture writing, by the "use of which their history, as well as their philo they perpetuated sophy. Like all other early nations, they bore a particular affection for amulets, which were considered the habita;

68 69 70

Purch. Pilgr.,
Ibid. b. ix.,

b. viii..



c. 9.


Res., vol.


p. 81.

The Mexican temples were covered over with hieroglyphics sculptured in relief. Thus to express the rapid progress of time, they introduced a serpent; for suffering innocence, a rabbit was the sj'mbol. Drawings of feet denoted a public road. A living man was represented by a human figure with small tongues painted near his mouth a dead man had none of those appendages. To live is to speak, say they; and hence a volcano was symbolized by a cone with tongues over its

summit, to denote the mountain that speaks, &c.




used by this people, 32) but the imperfection of this system caused it soon to be abandoned, and hieroglyphics were introduced; and at the conquest of Cortes they formed an exclusive profession in which thousands of persons were employed. Their books were rolled in a zigzag form, and the paintings were executed on the folds. They had ''real simple hieroglyphics for water, earth, air, wind, day, night, the middle of the night, speech, motion they had also for numbers, for the days and the months of These signs, added to the painting of an event, the solar year. marked, in a very ingenious manner, whether the action passed during the day or night the age of the persons they wished to represent ; whether they had been conversing, and who among them had spoken most. We even find among them vestiges of that kind of hieroglyphics which is called phonetic, and which indicates relations, not with things, but with the language spoken. Among semi-barbarous nations, the names of individuals, of cities and mountains, have generally some allusion to objects that strike the senses, such as the form of plants and animals, fire, air, or earth. This circumstance has given the Azteck people the means of being able to write the names of cities

Warb. Div. Leg., vol. ii., p. 67.) p. 140. The first method of recording public events,

was by knots

or quippus


Incas., vol.






and those of

their sovereigns. The verbal translation of Axajacatl is, face of water; that of Ilhuicamina, arrow which pierces the sky; thus to represent the kings Monteuczoma Ilhuicamina and Axajacatl, the painter united the hieroglyphics of water and the sky to the figure of a head and of an arrow. In this manner the union of several simple

hieroglyphics indicated compound names, and by signs which spoke at the same time to the eye and to the ear." (Humb. Res., vol. i.,
p. 159.)



tion of benevolent spirits, whose intervention would preserve them from every species of calamity in this life; and convey them, after death, to a happy and
flourishing country; blest with perpetual pi-.-ici- and plenty; abounding with game and fish; free from storms and tempests, blight and mildew, and all the terrible judgments inflicted on the wicked by the agency and wrath of the vindictive Tescalipuca. "The Incas of Peru boasted of their descent from the two great luminaries of heaven ; or, in other words, from Noah and the Ark, worshipped in conjunction with the

Sun and Moon." 72 The rites of initiation were essentially the same as those of other nations; varied, indeed, in a succession of ages from the system of the original planters. They were said to have been introduced by Manco
Capac and

Mama O cello, 73 who were

descended from one

of the persons saved at the Deluge. 74 They taught the natives to worship a god called Pacha-Camac a name so venerable, that those who were intrusted with it were bound by solemn oaths never to expose it to profanation. 75 They termed the Creator Viracocha, which signifies "the froth of the sea;" and the evil power Cupai. 76
72 Fab. Mys. Cab., c. 4. " They worshipped every object in Nature from which they derived any advantage mountains, the sources of rivers, rivers themselves, and the fountains which watered and fertilized the earth; the trees which afforded them fuel; those animals of a gentle and timid nature upon which they fed the sea abounding with fish, and which they denominated their Nurse. But objects of Whatever was hideous, or terror had the most numerous votaries.


delighted to terrify himthe vulture, and large snakes ; they adored the elements, tempests, the winds, thunder, caverns, and precipices ; they prostrated themselves before torrents, the noise of which depressed them with fear ; before gloomy forests, and at the foot of those dreadful volcanos, which cast forth upon them torrents of flame and rocks of fire." (Incas, vol. ii., p. 4, 5.)

they converted to a god, as



They worshipped the





Raynal, Hist. Ind.,





Garcil., b.




These personages were the Osiris and and Ceridwen. &c., of the old world.


Bacchus and Rhea,


74 They say also that Manco Capac, like Mithras, was born from a Rock or Cave (Purch. Pilgr., b. ix., c. 9) but in all nations there was such an intimate connection between a cave and the Ark, that the

one was frequently mistaken for the other.

god the father of a family would offer his son as a vicarious from his family. (Acosta, p. 380.) He was also identified with the Sun. (Purch., b. ix., c. 10. 76 Cerem. of Var. Nat., p. 329.
sacrifice to avert sickness






of deity, for Acosta says, they had they called Tangatanga, which signiand paid divine fies, One in Three, and Three in One; honours to the Sun 79 as the fountain of Light, 80 and the

They worshipped a Triad
an idol


81 parent of the Incas. On their great annual festival, which was held on the first day of the September moon, their secret mysteries were celebrated, which they believed would convey a
77 78

Cerem. of Var. Nat., p. 412. Faber (Pag. Idol, vol. i.. p. 269) says they entertained a


consisted of Chuquilla Catuilla Intylappa, or the father-thunder, the son-thunder, and the brotherthunder the second of Apomti Churunti Intiquaoqui, the fatherSun, the son-Sun, and the brother-Sun." 79 " At Cusco was that wonderful temple of the sun, the beauty and I shall transcribe the descripriches whereof surpassed imagination. tion which one of their Incas. called Garcilasso, has given us thereof. The high altar of this pompous edifice His words are as follow stood eastward ; and the roof, which was made of timber, was thatched over, they having no tile or brick among them. The four walls of the temple, from the top downwards, were all covered over with plates of On the high altar was the gold, and the ceiling was also of gold. figure of the sun, represented on a gold plate, twice as thick as those which covered the walls. This figure, which was made of one continued piece, represented a round face, surrounded with rays and It flames, in the same manner as our painters usually draw the sun. was of so prodigious a breadth, that it almost covered one side of the This wall, on which there was no other representation of any kind. was the only one the Peruvians had, either in that or any other temOn each side of the image of the sun, the several bodies of their ple. deceased incas, or monarchs, were ranged in order, according to the course of their respective reigns, and 'so embalmed (the manner of which is not known to us) that they seemed to be alive. They were seated on thrones of gold, raised on plates of the same metal, with their faces looking towards the bottom of the temple. This temple had several gates, which were all covered with plates of gold, the chief of which looked towards the north, as it still does to this day. Moreover, round the walls of this temple, on the outside, was a cornice of gold, in the shape of a crown or garland, more than a yard broad. On one side of the temple was a cloister, built in a quadrangular form and in its highest enclosure a garland of pure gold, an ell broad, like the above-mentioned. Round this cloister were five square pavilions, or houses, covered over in the shape of a pyramid. The first was built for the habitation of the moon, the sun's wife, and stood the nearest to the great chapel of the temple. The doors and enclosures of it were covered with silver plates ; its white colour denoting that it was the apartment allotted to the moon, whose figure was represented like that of the sun ; but with this difference, that it stood upon a silver plate, and was represented with a woman's face."
' :

two other




(Univ. Dis., vol.

i., p. 268, 269.) liaynal. Hist. Ind., vol. iii., p. 20.



Incas, vol


p 40



general lustration, cleanse the soul from all its impurities, and render the body healthy and less susceptible of disease. They prepared for this solemnity by a fast of four and twenty hours' continuance; and then kneaded tin82 purifying element, which was a sort of dough mixed with blood, and called Cancu. 83 After washing their bodies, they anointed them with this dough, and fixed the remainder on the door of their habitation. Thus 84 purified, the people watched the rising of the sun with great emotion ; and when his radiance burst upon their view, the eastern doors of their temple were expanded, and his image in burnished gold was illuminated with the The whole multitude, blazing splendour of his beams. in devout prostration, chanted the sacred hymn, led by the High Priest. 85 After this, the mild and equitable laws of Peru, were rehearsed ; and the Inca, with the chief officers of the realm, swore to administer justice with strict impartiality. procession of young men and maidens succeeded, habited in white and spotless garments, and bearing garlands of flowers. These paraded round the temple until the Sun had attained his meridian height, 86 when the Inca and High Priest offered up a solemn prayer to that deity. The consecrated virgins then approached, and were presented to the Inca, and heard from the unpolluted lip of the High Priest, the awful denunciations attached to violated vows of


perpetual celibacy.
sa The night after the fast, they used to knead pieces or balls of a dough which they called cancu. They par-boiled these in earthen collected into one great lump. Of kettles, till such time as they were this they made two sorts, one of which was mixed with blood, which of young children." they drew from between the eyebrows and nostrils

Israelites "

rite practised by the idolatrous the fury of the Lord was ready to be poured upon The children gather wood and the fathers kindle the tire, them. and the women knead the dough to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may Jer. vii., 18. See also xliv., provoke me to anger, saith the Lord." (

(Univ. Dis.,





How similar is this ceremony to a


the names of the dynasties of Incas were dignified with 105. (Horn, de Orig. Gent. Amer., p. 85 Marm. Incas, vol. i., pp. 25-27. 86 u Upon twelve mountains that surrounded the city of Cusco, there were twelve stone columns, dedicated to the sun, and answering to



sun and moon.

the twelve months of the year."

(Fab. Pag. Idol.,







Four Incas then made a progress through the city, armed in the day with lances richly adorned, and at night 87 The inhabitants nocked furnished with blazing torches. around them, and hailed their arrival with loud and for this auspicious ceremony was joyful acclamations; believed to purge the city from disease and calamity for The lustration was closed with a the ensuing year. grand procession to the temple of the Sun, where the secret rites were concluded by public sacrifices, accompanied with divination, which it was not lawful for the

88 Priest to reveal but to the Inca alone.

Univ. Dis., vol. i., p. 272. Marmontel has furnished a beautiful specimen of divination from the setting of the sun after a public festival, which foretold the ap" The people and the grandees themselves proach of ihe Spaniards. waited in silence without the court. The king alone ascended the steps of the portico, where the High Priest was waiting for his sovesecrets of futurity were to be imparted. reign, to whom alone the The heaven was serene ; the air calm and without vapours and for the instant one might have taken the setting for the rising sun. On a sudden, however, from the bosom of the Pacific Ocean, there arises over the top of Mount Palmar, a cloud resembling a mass of bloody waves ; an appearance which, on a solemnity like this, was looked upon as an omen of calamity. The High Priest shuddered at the sight ; he comforted himself, however, with the hopes that, before the sun should be quite gone down, these vapours would be dispersed. Instead of that they increase, they pile themselves one upon another, in appearance like the tops of mountains, and, as they ascend, seem to brave the god as he approaches, and defy him to break the vast He descends with majesty, and, sumbarrier they oppose to him. moning forth to him all his rays, he rushes on the purple flood he opens through it many a flaming gulf ; but then on a sudden the abyss is closed. Twenty times he shakes off, as many times he seems to Overwhelmed awhile, then putting forth a sink under the burden. few scattered rays, he expends the whole remaining force of his enfeebled light, tiH at length, exhausted with the struggle, he remains phenomenon still more deluged, as it were, in a sea of blood. tremendous showed itself in the sky. It was one of those luminaries which were thought to wander without a plan, before the piercing eye of Astronomy had traced them in their course through the immensity of space. comet, resembling a dragon vomiting forth fire, and whose flaming mane bristles round upon his head, advances from the east, as if he were flying after the sun. To the eyes of the people it appears but as a spark in the blue firmament but the High Priest, more inquisitive, fancies he can distinguish all the lineaments of that portentous monster. He sees the flames issue out of his nostrils ; he sees him flap his fiery wings he sees his flaming eye-balls pursue the sun in his path from the zenith to the horizon, as if eager to get up with him and devour him. Dissembling, however, the terror which






36. i. and sometimes a sonne would be sacrificed to the Sunne for the life of the father." in prodigious numbers.." Thus. the friend of the swear to your majesty. Incas. 54. however. 213 The Peruvians. (Mann.. 380. the prodigy had struck into his soul.) 89 Las Casas was. King. were as innocent as lambs 89 and Columbus said. "I .IN AMERICA.' says the Pontiff to the " &c. according to the testimony of Bartholomew Las Casas. 'follow me into the temple.' pp. in a letter to the King of Spain.) they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils. a partial judge. to avert misfortune and procure blessings. &c. 53. more is not in the world a people or more inoffensive. Ind. vol. for Acosta tells us." The Inca was disgentle.) . * Prince. (Psalm cvi. tinguished by the title of Whaccacuyas. &c. there poor.. p. that they " sacrificed young children from foure to six yeares old unto tenne. "They did likewise sacrifice virgins. like the idolatrous Israelites of old.. (Hist.

We remarkable institutions. They were all funereal. and the initiations were performed in secret caverns. the doctrine of redemption by blood. their affections were interested. The doctrines of the mysteries formed another. by the efficacy of ^which. I have omitted to draw any formal comparison. and more decisive evidence of their common origin and primitive application. because the intelligent Brother will not fail to discover the points of resemblance wherever they occur. which were alike the object of horror and dread to the uninitiated. because the ceremonies. the famous mysteries of idolatry. which cannot be mistaken. monial. who should expiate sin by a voluntary death . bear a striking similarity to each other. Severe tests and probations accompanied the cere joy. terminating in. of the creation and fall of man . The legend celebrated the death and resurrection of some imaginary being in SUCH were whom. and the vehicles of a mystical regeneration to the epopt which conferred personal and political distinction. under the cover of which. in all cases. for designedly the purpose of shewing what portion of the true Freemasonry they retained amidst all their abominations. to whom The rites were always solemnized in lamentation. the enlightened candidate expected to surmount all the evils of life. It will appear evident that all the mysteries of antiquity originated in some common source. They exhibit traces. Ablutions and purifications formed a distinguishing feature in all these institutions . the promise of a Mediator. which was familiar to the primitive leader of every tribe that formed the nucleus of great and powerful nations .214 COROLLARY. and their devotions were directed to be paid. of the unity and trinity of the godhead . a single life would be discover. in these accepted as a sacrifice for all. of a vicarious sacrifice. fables which bear an undoubted . the efficacy of which was not a little augmented by the supposed virtues of amulets and talismans. that constituted a perpetual shield of protection.

or pol- luted by the abominations of an idolatrous worship. the mysterious institutions of antiquity. worshipping the same God . they must have been derived . to the sacrifice of Isaac. which are of the utmost importance to the present and future condition of man. and practising the same rites and ceremonies. and they could not have been derived from any system but that which had been revealed from heaven to the first race of men. before they were contaminated by error. but the torments of a place of punishment are broadly contrasted with the happiness of the final reward which good men are sure to enjoy after death. 215 reference to the sin of our first parents. and leave no doubt on the mind but they were learned by the planters of all nations. Nor did the heathen nations suspect when they were burning incense to the spurious deities of their teeming pantheon. where they were originally placed by their beneficent Creator a sin produced by the intervention of a serpent tempter . even by God's favourite people. to the destruction of the human race. for the repeopling of the earth . Above all. and that they were their own assumption of divine honours an unsuspected evidence to the cause of religifurnishing . to the Egyptian bondage. the reader will be struck with the remarkable fact. form a striking corroboration The evidence is of the Mosaic history and records. and many other facts in the early history of the world. where the candidate not only is figured to die and be restored to life. by the waters of a deluge. extremely valuable. and their exclusion from the garden of bliss. for their iniquities. These coincidences are remarkable. participating in the same privileges. and the salvation of one just family. and the deliverance under the conduct of the Jewish lawgiver . and the transactions of the antediluvian world . when the inhabitants of the earth dwelt together as one family . which were not perfectly understood. were embodied in the ceremonies of initiation . and fostering their secret institutions to uphold alike the supremacy of their religious and political creed. that the abstruse doctrines of the resurrection and a future state. to the first fratricide. because it is undesigned. It is impossible that the above truths could have been invented . In this view.COROLLARY. explained in these pages. in a boat or Ark.

and that the false Church. with singular propriety. and ultimately plunged into the infernal lake. of the Apocalypse. which brimstone. xix. at length. or riding on a terrific beast. by a corrupted channel was admitted into Paganism. without comment. is said to bo. which. 1 How diversified soever in It will be seen that every 1 I subjoin. who were represented in a precisely similar manner with reference to the lunar boat. should uproot their system. of this.. venerated with certain appropriate Mysteries. In this " Book. deemed the lake of Hades. in the representation of the false Church. together with her bestial supporter. against her offspring. and I believe it to have been derived from that received imagery of the Patriarchal Church. and under that of a harlot using a monstrous beast as her vehicle. and standing upon the crescent of the moon . plunged alive into an infernal lake. both under the image of a female floating upon the surface of many waters. which is similarly frustrated by the destruction of that monster.) I need scarcely remark that I am speaking solely of the apocalyptic machinery . under the mystic name into the centrical abyss. the lion. been studiously adopted. 1-5. but the earth opens its mouth. (Rev. from beginning to end. while. seems to me. system of mystery practised the world has been applied to religion and throughout the worship of the deity. has been reclaimed to its proper use . the very imagery and language of the Gentile hierophants has. at the appointed time. a deluge of water. which is frustrated by the Earth's absorption of the waters. which he thinks was borrowed from that of the mysteries. floating on the mighty waters. revived the old Gentile demonolatry. on the machinery of tbe Apocalypse. we find the pure Church described as a woman clothed with the sun. the origin will still be the same. plunged into the waters of a sacred lake. that the attack upon the woman and her offspring. an ancient is patriarchal scheme of symbolical machinery. and borrowed with the usual perverse misapplication by the contrivers of Paganism. burning with fire and I cannot but think it sufficiently clear.216 COROLLARY. perfectly analogous to the attack of the diluvian serpent Python or Typhon upon Latona and Horus. I take it. by the deluging serpent. The former of these women. of the false prophet. under a new name. that the whole of this machinery is palpably diluvian . very plainly. exhibits the very same aspect as the Great Mother of Paganism sailing over the ocean. is attacked by a monstrous serpent.. 20. xvii. which spouts out. and triumphantly found the true plan of human salvation on its ruins. to have been borrowed from the machinery of the ancient Mysteries : and . which. xii. It is impossible not to perceive that the woman standing upon the crescent is the very figure of the Samian Juno. and receives thie mighty inundation The latter of them. or of the Egyptian Isis. ous truth. riding on her usual vehicle. the following observations of the learned and intelligent Faber. derived most plainly from the events of the Deluge. while a corrupted Church is exhibited to us. that in the representation of the pure Church.. however we may The whole machinery interpret the prophecies which are built upon it. and during the celebration of those -Mysteries. when about to bring forth her first-born. bearing the name of Mystery.

which severally come up out of the sea and out of the earth. which prompts him to the belief and acknowledgment of a superior and superintending power. who plays the Here he witnesses the unsealing of a sacred book. who was terrific universally deemed the offspring of the sea. which seemed to rise out of the ground. : . Apuleius. 217 other respects. the well-known symbol of the Great Father and two portentous wild beasts. himself. . the images presented to his mind's eye closely resemble the pageants of the Mysteries.COROLLARY. and as she was always propitiated by literal fornication reduced to a religious system. upborne upon the marine wild beast. as this. the system remained pure and uncontaminated by error or delusion Religion. Like Isis. so called. it did to the learned Jew or the enlightened if we consider the nature of the subject. a vast serpent. the prophet. John. constantly attended by his angel-hierophant. amidst trackless woods and barren wastes. . Such hideous figures correspond with the canine phantoms of the Orgies. is conducted into the presence of a female. Among these are pre-eminently conspicuous. appears to float upon the surface of many waters. the system was false also and if the worship was directed to its true fountain. and into this he is invited to enter by the voice of one. hierophant. and spake the same lan- idolatry. the very name MYSTERY is . There is a principle implanted in the heart of man. was the ostensible design of each for. which flit in horrid succession before his eyes. The prophet first beholds a door opened in the magnificent temple of heaven . forthwith. and. he is appalled by a troup of ghastly apparitions. under whatever name he may have been personified endowed with attributes of infinite knowledge and infinite wisdom. accordingly. and with the polymorphic images of the principal hero god. just as the Great Mother was the declared female principle of fecundity . however the world may have been infested and overrun by . She is said to be an open and systematical harlot . guage to the ignorant savage. both in their nature. and to the proud philosopher of antiquity. St. . Passing these safety. and as the initiated were made to drink a prepared liquor out of a sacred goblet. . so this harlot is represented as intoxicating the kings of the earth with the golden cup of her prostitution. and exhibiting herself to the eyes of the aspirant. who acts the part of an interpreter. was done with the very strictest attention to poetical decorum. emerging from the sea. On her forehead. and. it has suffered little from professed atheism. is made to personate an aspirant about to be initiated . who is described as closely resembling monsters in the Great Mother of Pagan theology. Sophism cannot overwhelm it philosophy cannot succeed in erasing it from the heart it is engraven there in characters broad and deep. and in order of succession. If the deities were false. this female divinity. this is a broad and distinguishing feature which undisguisedly pervades the whole.

and the label teaches us that. and are equally designated by his appellation. and escape the punishment consequent on our actions. and an important prophecy is most curiously and artfully veiled under the very language and imagery of the Orgies. are the whole multitude of the profane. 640-643. however. After the prophet has beheld the enemies of God plunged into a dreadful lake. directs us how to worship this omnieyes potent Being. or Osiris. and. FINIS. dogs. wild beast is similarly ascribed a threefold state . corresponding in number with the seven ark-preserved Rishis. and the ten aboriginal Nor is this all as the worshippers of the Great Father patriarchs. he lives." (Fab. Pag. whether dead or alive. while. and whosoever loveth or maketh a lye.. Siva. While dead. and murderers. Idol vol. and he revived . and teaches man the doctrine of perAnd this is the extreme boundary sonal responsibility. or inundation of liquid fire. so as to attain the reward. or Vishnu. the first or doleful part of these sacred Mysteries draws to a close. in point of character. At length. so the worshippers of the maritime beast equally bear his mark. To the sea-born Great Father was ascribed a threefold state . and these changes To the sea-born of condition were duly exhibited in the Mysteries. and abhors But Kevelation. he lived. and he revives. he dies. which corresponds with the infernal lake. like those kindred deities. without the holy gate of admission. and instructs us how to walk in that pure and perfect way which leads to eternal life. just like Horus. he emerges from the waves . COROLLARY. inscribed . which opens our of Natural Keligion. . bore his special mark or stigma. iii. and idolaters. she is the great universal mother of idolatry. he died. and whoremongers.218 Christian. he is introduced into a splendidly illuminated region. It displays a God of Nature who loves virtue vice. expressly adorned with the characteristics of that Paradise which was the ultimate scope of the ancient aspirants . he bears seven heads and ten horns. and sorcerers. when he revives again. . and were distinguished by his name. to futurity. The nature of this Mystery the officiating hierophant undertakes to explain. he lies floating on the mighty ocean. p. . or deluge of the Orgies. and the last or joyful part is rapidly approaching.


314 High Holborn.. RICHARD SPENCER. LEONARD & Co. London. may be found which at their store. a topic that has up hosts of the Book Trade. New York. in Broadway- additions to are received by every steamer. by return of every mail steamer. . Respectfully inform the friends of Masonic Literature that they are prepared to execute all orders for single books or quantities. on sale in Europe and America. This agency is confined to the purchase of Books apper- taining to the subject of Freemasonry.IMPORTATION OF EUROPEAJST BOOKS JNO. W. 383 Broadway. and justifies a department in A large collection of Catalogues of all the Masonic Books published. called readers.

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&c. and a variety of other Masonic Information. &c. &c.6 Calcott. HISTOIRE PITTORESQUE. Republished from the London Edition of 1746. Translated from the French. Republished from the London Edition of 1776. A CANDID DISQUISITION of the Principles and Practices of the most ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons together with some Strictures on the Origin. 1776. Dalcho. to which is prefixed the Funeral Service. 113 and 195. [Full 400 pp. that Institution. Gustos. In Press. Lawrence. Dodd. William. 175 octavo. Republished from the old English edition. Dedicated by permission to the most noble and most worshipful Henry Duke of Beaufort. In Press. Cole. Selected by Brother John Cole. Past Master of Lodges No. from the London Edition of 1756. May 23. B. $1. 249. &c. In Press. Frederick. Clavel. Republished In Press. AHIMAN REZON. or a Help to a Brother. 466. ORATIONS. Dermot.] will be issued at the latter part of the year. Wellins. In Press. ORATION delivered at the Dedication of Freemasons' Hall. John. Eepublished from the London Edition of 1801. THE SUFFERINGS OF JOHN CUSTOS. In Press. J. John. . ILLUSTRATIONS OF MASONRY. Nature and Design of . London. pp.

Simon. and vindicating the design of Free- Republished from the Charlestown Edition of 1801. Three volumes. Translated and published In press. Masonry. Illustrating the prin- DISCOURSES masonry. Rob. C. In Press. THE SPIRIT OF MASONRY. Hutchinson. 400 pages. Harris. Six editions of this remarkable work (of which we own the copyright) have been published. THE HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. $1. Freemasonry. Thaddeus Mason. the most elaborate work ever issued upon the subject of It is a library of itself. Republished from the Edinburgh and London Edition of 1804. from the Leipsig Edition of 1822. LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF FREEMASONRY. Lawrie. Morris. In Press. Alexander. . William. This is ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF FREEMASONRY.7 Freemasonry for the Ladies. It has never before been translated into English. with notes by George Oliver. A BRIEF ENQUIRY into the origin and principles of Republished from the Portland Edition of 1820. In press. Greenleaf. delivered on public occasions. and the demand is steadily increasing. ciples. $1. displaying the tendency. In Press* Lenning. 230 pp. Kepublished from the London Edition of 1791.

In press. 13. with Notes by the Author.8 Oliver. 16. Republished from the With Notes by Dr. Salem. Webb. 75 cts. cts. Preston. In press. . $1. the year 1829 to 1841. In press. 12. $1. George. A new Edition. THE HISTORICAL LANDMARKS. 4. 7. THE FREEMASON'S MONITOR. $1. 107 pages. 75 cents. AN APOLOGY FOR THE FREEMASONS. of the early Masonic Writers. &c. HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. $1. Republished from the first edition. STAR IN THE EAST. In press. 1728. CONSTITUTIONS OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND. In press. A DICTIONARY OF SYMBOLICAL MASONRY. THE GOLDEN REMAINS SIGNS AND SYMBOLS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF WITHAM LODGE. L'Abbe De. A SYSTEM OF SPECULATIVE MASONRY. 298 pages. from the London edition of . ILLUSTRATIONS OF MASONRY. Thomas Smith. SYMBOL OF GLORY. vols. In press. 11. &c. first edition. . A MIRROR FOR THE JOHANNITE MASONS. THE HISTORY OF THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA. 1. With 13 Plates. Five 10. In press. 15.. In press. In press. 9. In press. . 14. OLIVER. 75 cts. 8. 293 pages. Republished from the London edition of 1853. Town. 5. Vertot. . William. 400 pages. 7& 6. In press. M. 3. In press. ACCOUNT OF THE SCHISM. BOOK OF THE LODGE. 2. In press. INSIGNIA OF THE EOYAL ARCH. MASONIC MANUAL (ASHE). THE HISTORY OF INITIATION. from Two vols. THE THE THE THE ANTIQUITIES OF FREEMASONRY. Republished in 5 vols.




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