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EIGHTH EDITION

BOOK YIELDS
the
FRANCIS T. LYNCH

of

Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services, or technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at 800-762-2974, outside the United States at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our Web site at http://www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Lynch, Francis Talyn, 1943The book of yields : accuracy in food costing and purchasing/Francis T. Lynch. — 8th ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-470-19749-3 1. Food—Analysis—Tables. 2. Food—Weights and measures—Tables. I. Title. TX531.L9596 2010 664’.07—dc22 2009027775 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

DEDICATION

I

dedicate this edition to my brother Dan Lynch and good friend Bill Cornick in appreciation for their constant friendship, helpful advice, and positive examples in living this wonderful life.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Cereals 58 Pasta 60 4…BAKING ITEMS . . . . . . . . . SCOOPS. . . . . . . . Bran. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OILS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Metric System 143 Measurement Conversions 146 14…SIMPLE FORMULAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SHEET TRAYS IN COSTING . . . . . . . . . . 151 Simple Formulas 152 v ix xi . . . . . .CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction PART I 1…DRY HERBS AND SPICES AND FRESH HERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Can Sizes 137 Scoop or Disher Sizes 138 Size and Capacities of Hotel Pans 139 13…MEASUREMENT CONVERSION . . . . . . AND CONDIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Fats and Oils 80 Condiments 81 6…LIQUIDS . . . . . . . . . 15 Vegetables 25 Fruit 38 Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) 45 Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume 49 3…STARCHY FOOD . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Dry Herbs and Spices 9 Fresh Herbs 19 2…PRODUCE . . . . . . 114 Seafood 121 11…POULTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Nuts and Seeds 67 Flour. . . . . 104 Meats 112 10…SEAFOOD . . . . . . and Cocoa 103 9…MEATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOTEL PANS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Coffee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Poultry 131 12…THE PROPER USE OF CANS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Crumbs 69 Sweeteners 71 Special Baking Items 73 5…FATS. . . . . Grains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Dairy Products 93 8…BEVERAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Dry Legumes 57 Rice. . . . . 83 Liquids 85 7…DAIRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 PW 1 PW 2 PW 3 PW 4 Dry Herbs and Spices 242 Fresh Herbs 245 Produce 248 Starchy Items 256 . . . . . . . . . 204 CW 1 CW 2 CW 3 CW 4 CW 5 CW 6 CW 7 CW 8 CW 9 CW 10 CW 11 CW 12 CW 13 CW 14 CW 15 CW 16 Weights to Volumes 205 Trimmed or Cooked Foods 206 Piece Counts 207 Volume (Fluid Ounce) Items 208 Dry Herbs and Spices 209 Fresh Herbs 210 Canned Goods 211 Pastas 213 Eggs 214 Brewed and Dispensed Beverages 215 Meats 217 Seafood 220 Poultry 221 Rendered. . . . . . 203 Guide to Using the Costing Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Guide to Using the Purchasing Worksheets . . . . . . . . and Others 229 Recipe Card for Costing 230 Purchasing Worksheet. . . . . . . . 165 PL 1 PL 2 PL 3 PL 4 PL 5 PL 6 PL 7 PL 8 PL 9 PL 10 PL 11 PL 12 PL 13 PL 14 Dry Herbs and Spices 166 Fresh Herbs 169 Vegetables 170 Fruit 174 Number-10 Cans 176 Starches 179 Nuts and Flours 181 Baking 183 Fats and Dairy 185 Condiments 188 Beverages 191 Meats 194 Poultry 198 Seafood 200 Costing Worksheet. .vi Contents 15…STANDARD PORTION SIZES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Sizes 154 PART II 153 The Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Price Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Clarified Items 228 Flavor Bases: Stocks. . . . . . . . . . . . Sauces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and Condiments 263 Bottled Liquids 266 Dairy Products 267 Brewed and Dispensed Beverages 273 Meat 275 Seafood 277 Poultry 278 Flavor Bases 283 Ingredient Aggregating Form 284 Purchase Unit Measures Aggregating Form 286 Amounts Needed versus Par 287 Inventory Form 288 Food Weight Log 290 Purchase Unit Measure to Purchase Unit Packs 292 Food Order Form 293 Trimmed versus Untrimmed Prices 294 . Oils.Contents vii PW 5 PW 6 PW 7 PW 8 PW 9 PW 10 PW 11 PW 12 PW 13 PW 14 PW 15 PW 16 PW 17 PW 18 PW 19 PW 20 PW 21 Baking Items 259 Fats.

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vice-president and publisher. as well as updating the wholesale prices of foods in Part II of the work. namely. Inc. and Richard DeLorenzo. have been particularly generous with their time and advice on day-to-day food costing and purchasing practices. Certainly. Terry Renuio of Sysco Foods and Brian Johnson.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T his edition was enhanced by a helpful group of professional and personal associates to whom I am very grateful. provided me with information and instruction on the identification and handling of their products. editorial assistant. Kara Borbely. Restaurateurs and chefs Eric Davis of the Diamondback Grill and Rob Bannwarth of Banny’s Café in Sonora. California.. have been key providers of guidance and encouragement. as well as key personnel in ethnic and organic markets in central and coastal California. have provided me with additional information on current industry cost-management practices. also of Sysco. ix . JoAnna Turtletaub. senior prodcution editor. my associates at John Wiley & Sons. Many food growers and producers.

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such as tablespoons. Baking Products. Meat. (That said. How much is left over after you have trimmed the food. in their recipes. and so on. It’s just quicker and easier to measure a cup of sugar or a tablespoon of salt than it is to weigh everything. and that are accurately costed out. the chapters in Part I of The Book of Yields are organized according to food type. This is called a trim yield. whereas most cooks prefer to use volume measures. cups. peeled carrots. The Book of Yields contains simple xi . The Book of Yields tells you how much food to buy! That will come in handy when you become responsible for ordering the food for your kitchen. the tricky part is costing out a volume of food that you buy by weight. for example. The Book of Yields tells you what these weight-to-volume equivalents are. for instance. Poultry. bakers generally do weigh most ingredients for extreme accuracy—but more on this later.) Although it is easy to write or follow a recipe that uses volume measures. for instance. This will enable you to cost a volume of trimmed or cooked food in recipes. but a cup of honey weighs 12 ounces. To help you access this essential information easily. Admittedly. How much food was produced after cooking—boiled rice. You do not want to order too much or too little. quarts. and so on. Why? Because a cup of one food does not weigh the same as a cup of another food. this sort of knowledge isn’t the most glamorous or exciting aspect of cookery. you’ll find tables for the various food categories that list food measurement facts: ✦ ✦ ✦ How much a volume of food weighs. In addition. it also tells you how much a volume of the trimmed or cooked food weighs and how many cups or pints of trimmed or cooked food you will end up with. This is called a cooking yield. Seafood. The Book of Yields lists the trim yields and the cooking yields for many foods. Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs. In many cases. For instance.INTRODUCTION T he Book of Yields is a collection of food measurements you can use to help you cost recipes and figure out how much food to buy. Knowing yields and equivalents will help you write recipes that are fast and easy to follow. So you have to know how many ounces of a food are in one cup in order to assign a cost to the cup of food in your recipe. pints. Just as important. This is called an equivalent. but knowing this information will help you be a more successful chef or food and beverage manager. a cup of cracked pepper weighs 4 ounces. Why is this so important? A chef buys most food by weight (by the pound or kilogram). such as a cup of sugar.

produce. Qualified instructors may also download an electronic version of the Instructor’s Manual from the companion Website. Candied fruits for holiday baking are now included plus the juice yields for many fruits are given. There are 23 new Pastas and 12 additional foods added to the list of Rice. NEW IN THIS EDITION More than 200 new foods have been added to The Book of Yields. 9 new foods are in the Special Baking Items Table. . a no-cal. Chapter 4: Baking Items. 47 new foods have been added to the table of Fruits. Oils and Condiments. 52 additional vegetable entries appear in this edition. condiments. including the juice yields enabling users to efficiently plan purchases and production of healthy drinks.com/college/lynch. reflecting the growing trend of fresh beverage menu offerings. Additions are particularly numerous in the lists of herbs and spices. primarily related to chocolate. Eighth Edition. sweeteners. Among these you will find more depth in the variety of general food types such as bananas. Additionally. which is partially filled in. If you don’t know who your representative is. The other. 3. step by step. Chapter 2: Produce. dairy foods and beverages. and oranges. can be used by instructors. 2. is for use by students. such as flavored syrups for hot and cold beverages. Chapter 5: Fats. has been added. the Workbook.wiley. One.com/college and click on Who’s My Rep? The Instructor’s Manual is composed of four parts: 1. 4. please visit www. These additions are more fully described as follows: Chapter 1: Herbs and Spices. tangerines. including dried and fresh Stevia. herbal sweetener. In Part II. Chapter 3: Starchy Foods. 24 new items have been added to these lists.wiley. Three quizzes based on The Book of Yields Introduction and General Measurements A set of food costing exercises or quizzes A section food purchasing exercises or quizzes Two sets of recipe cards.xii Introduction and easy-to-use formulas that tell you exactly how to use yields and equivalents to help you more accurately decide how much food to buy. Grains. An Instructor’s Manual (ISBN 978-0-470-25729-6) accompanies this book. Duck Fat. which is completely filled in. at www. and can be obtained by contacting your Wiley Sales Representative. 12 new items join the lists of foods related to baking and sweetening. starches. a very popular cooking medium and essential ingredient in the preparation of potted meats and confits. further expanding the scope and usefulness of this work. They show you how to think through the process and how to do the math. you’ll find food costing and food purchasing worksheets for all the different formulas for each type of food. and Cereals.

always use fluid ounce as the correct description. OUNCES VERSUS FLUID OUNCES In the United States. or gallon. Rather than make the entire book over.1). A volume refers to a space. or a gallon. a pint equals 16 fluid ounces—of anything.Introduction xiii 16 new condiments appear in this edition making this table an even richer compilation of multi-cultural flavorings. Chapter 15: Standard Portion Sizes. including many non-caffeinated herbals. Price Lists. a cup equals 8 fluid ounces of space. when working with weighed ounces. a quart. The explanatory principles and math examples remain clear and simple. However. pint. As just stated. The Instructor’s Manual has numerous additional recipes to facilitate costing exercises. Coincidentally. These ounces are properly known as avoirdupois ounces. Avoirdupois is a French term that means “goods of weight. Reflecting the surging popularity of teas on modern menus. no matter what food is in the cup. Chapter 7: Dairy. Of course. 32 fluid ounces. Why not? Because a fluid ounce is not a weighed ounce. quart. KEY CONCEPTS MEASURES The Book of Yields deals with measurements of weights and volumes. . a pint is not a pound.” Well.” The avoirdupois ounce and pound were assigned a particular value for use in general trade (commerce) and are different from the ounces and pounds used by professionals working in the jewelry and chemical (apothecary) fields. 14 new items appear in this table. it is felt that keeping this aspect of the text as it was will help instructors and students use this newly expanded edition most successfully. simply use the word ounce. New to this edition is a chapter on Standard Portion Sizes. Much of the text that introduces each chapter remains largely unchanged. a pint holds 16 fluid ounces of space. a cup. a pound equals 16 ounces. “A pint’s a pound the world around. when working with volumes rather than weights. That tells you how big the space is. 128 fluid ounces. so please read them carefully. and costing as well as planning food purchases for special events. not a weight. European-style yogurts now compliment this list of frequently used foods. Fluid ounces are measures of volume (see Figure I. the ounces they contain are fluid ounces and are always labeled as such. in fact. recipes development. the Wholesale Price Lists have been updated to reflect current market levels. The following paragraphs explain some very important things about weights and volumes. So it sounds like a pint is a pound—you’ve no doubt heard the familiar saying. When you are speaking of a volume. This reference list will help with menu planning. as in a tablespoon. The ounces that we measure by weight are simply called ounces. Chapter 8: Beverages. For instance. and a gallon.

xiv Volume Ounces Are Fluid Ounces Introduction 1 Gallon 128 fluid ounces Quart 32 fluid ounces Quart 32 fluid ounces Quart 32 fluid ounces Quart 32 fluid ounces Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Pint 16 fl oz Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces 1 Gallon = 4 Quarts 1 Quart = 2 Pints 1 Pint = 2 Cups 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces Figure I-1 3 teaspoons equal one tablespoon 2 tablespoons equal 1 fluid ounce 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 16 tablespoons = 48 teaspoons .

✦ ✦ 3 teaspoons make up 1 tablespoon. Cup = c. pint. Produce. quart. VOLUME MEASURES As noted previously. Quart = qt. (always lowercase) Tablespoon = tbsp. one American ounce equals 28. another metric unit of measure. in the United States we measure volumes using containers that hold a certain number of fluid ounces. Interestingly. The Costing sections explain how to carry out costing and conversion procedures.. Fluid ounce = fl. or Tbs. and weight based on the meter (you’ll learn more on this in Chapter 14). A meter is a measure of distance and is a little longer than a yard. 1 gallon contains 4 quarts (128 fluid ounces). as already noted. These containers or vessels are called the cup. Chapter 2. measure weight in ounces and pounds. and Canned Foods: Weight-to-Volume. 1 liter is defined as a cube whose sides are exactly one-tenth of a meter long. But fear not: We will be using the standard American measures in The Book of Yields because most people in the United States. Gallon = gal. PART I: THE TEXT Most of the chapters are divided into two primary sections: Costing and Purchasing. also gal. These measurements are typically abbreviated as follows: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED The Book of Yields is divided into two parts: the text and the Workbook.Introduction xv NOTE In the equations. rather than grams and kilograms. called tables. OUNCES AND POUNDS The Book of Yields uses the standard American measures of weight (mass): ounces and pounds. by the way. oz. contains four tables: Vegetables. One American pound equals 16 ounces. 1 quart contains 2 pints (32 fluid ounces). oz. including cooks and chefs. In addition. The metric system weighs things in grams and kilograms. and gallon. Fruit. The metric system measures volume. known as the metric system. for fluid ounce. is a unit of measure in another system of measurement used around the world. distance. and so on. fl. Due to its logical and precise nature. of volume.349 grams. for instance. is used in the Dry Herbs and Spices table because . 1 cup contains 8 fluid ounces. their abbreviations are used only in equations. and volumes by the liter. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ NOTE In text. 2 tablespoons make up 1 fluid ounce. the Purchasing section provides purchasing formulas and examples to help you plan your food purchases accurately. which holds 1.000 milliliters.573 milliliters. Canned Produce. for ease of use. Small amounts are measured in teaspoons and tablespoons. it is used in the United States by engineers and the scientific community in general. 1 pint contains 2 cups (16 fluid ounces). Teaspoons = tsp. many of the chapters contain pertinent food lists. The type of food in a table determines the measurement unit used in that table.. A liter is just a little bigger than a quart. for gallon. for instance. or cup Pint = pt. A gram.. ounce is abbreviated as oz. A measure of tablespoons per ounce. and pound as lb. NOTE One American fluid ounce equals 29. all these units of measure are spelled out. one milliliter of water does equal one gram (at 68 degrees Fahrenheit at sea level).

the Weight-to-Volume Worksheet will show you how to go from the price of a 50-pound sack of sugar to the cost of a cup. Tables for foods such as fresh produce or fresh meats show the trim yield percentages because it is important to know this factor when figuring out the true cost of a recipe ingredient that has been trimmed before using it in a recipe. This last part also contains forms you can use to take inventory and make out an actual order. you need to become familiar with these wholesale purchase units. and concepts. the Workbook. Each food listed shows how it is typically packaged for the professional food service trade. These worksheets make simple work of understanding the costing of recipes. or teaspoon. as well as for day-to-day use. whose meanings are very important to understand. PART II: THE WORKBOOK To make the formulas introduced in Part I easier to understand and use in recipe costing or food purchasing. so be aware that these prices are intended to give you a sense of how much foods cost. phrases. food prices vary from region to region and change with the seasons of the year. Both processes use similar words. tablespoon. Canned or bottled foods are sold by the case rather than by the can. as is purchasing the right amount of food. directing you when and what to multiply or divide. Each worksheet also demonstrates how to do the math in each step. This section is very useful for estimating your food costs for special banquets. you will see. Each worksheet takes you from a purchase unit to a recipe unit. The final part of the Workbook contains purchasing worksheets. even the multiplication and division symbols are supplied. Many other tables measure foods by the cup or pint because they are used in larger quantities. 40-. (Note. Most foods come in relatively large quantities like 20-. To cost these foods and to plan your purchases. to give more information about the foods listed. 25-. The next part of the Workbook contains costing worksheets. organized as follows: ✦ ✦ ✦ Price lists Costing worksheets Purchasing worksheets The Workbook begins with price lists of wholesale foods. Additional notes often follow a table. not in actual buying or costing situations. Similarly.xvi Introduction cooks often measure these foods by the tablespoon. They will help you learn to do your food buying in an organized way. and where to plug in data from the tables in Part I to complete the formula. For example. Each of the formulas is clearly laid out so that all you have to do is some simple math. Here are the key words and . list the typical cooking yield percentages. which demonstrate how to use the data presented in Part I to cost ingredients. as well as the weight of a cup or pint of these items so that they can be costed before or after cooking. you will turn to Part II of The Book of Yields. or 50-pound bags or boxes— you won’t be buying 2-pound boxes of sugar in the restaurant business. other food tables. is a pretty straightforward process. they should be used only to help you learn about food costing and purchasing. such as for rices and grains.) These price lists follow the sequence of the tables in the main section. TERMINOLOGY USED IN THE BOOK Costing recipe ingredients. which illustrate how to plan food purchases.

68 ounces. for the following reasons: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Trimming food makes it smaller. a very important part of your job will be to figure out how much food to buy.” you have just stated an equivalent. AS-PURCHASED As a chef or food and beverage (F&B) manager. “1 cup of dill weed equals 1.Introduction xvii NOTE: EDIBLE PORTION VERSUS AS-SERVED Edible portion (EP) is the amount you expect a guest to actually eat. But. raw. the amount of a food that goes into a recipe. 2 each. assume a 5-ounce container of dill weed costs $12. cases. An AP amount can be measured in many ways: pounds. When you say. One ounce would cost one-fifth of . the actual edible portion will be less. and grains increase in weight and size when cooked. they often are not. or apples. cans. the AP amount. Therefore. and they are necessary to know in order to cost out recipe ingredients that are measured by volume. Fresh food tends to dry up or spoil the longer it is stored. phrases used throughout The Book of Yields: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ As-served (abbreviated in equations as AS) As-purchased (abbreviated in equations as AP) Weight-to-volume equivalents Yield percentages Each is defined in turn in the following subsections. For example. as-served (AS) refers to the amount of food that is either served or used—put into a recipe—typically. To illustrate. fat. if you serve a 10-ounce steak. AS-SERVED As the term implies. such as a cup of dill weed. because it is sold by weight. the amount of a food that comes in the door before you do anything to it. ounces. certain events are going to change many of these foods in ways that make them shrink or grow as you (or just their environment) process them. bottles.28. For instance. Once you have established your edible portion and as-served amounts. a recipe may call for two apples. And. you should use the AS amount when figuring out how much to buy. after trimming or cooking. and the 7 ounces of trimmed. or gristle. Pieces can be many things: a steak. so it weighs less. Canned foods are often packed in water or syrup and may be drained before use. lettuce leaves. and can be measured in many different ways: by a volume measure. not just a trimmed portion of a meat or other item that goes directly onto a customer’s plate. a cup of dry dill weed weighs 1. WEIGHT-TO-VOLUME EQUIVALENTS NOTE The AP and the AS amounts are usually very different. split cases. and ready-to-cook steak is the edible portion. a weight. an equivalent defines how one type of measure equals a related measure. we are saying that those things are equal to each other in some way. The recipe would read: Apples. not by volume. it has an as-served weight of 10 ounces. When we say something is equivalent to something else. You will do this based on the amounts of food you expect to use or serve. flats—the variety of packaging possibilities is enormous. Regardless of how the food comes in the door. For instance. such as a trimmed steak.68 ounces. in The Book of Yields the asserved amount can also mean as-used—that is. pastas. Some foods such as rice. a chicken breast. or a cup of peeled and sliced carrots. Pieces are usually measured in recipes by the “each. the aforementioned 10-ounce steak is the AS amount. sacks. However. 7 ounces. for instance. It is a clearer measure of what you need to know when deciding on your purchase amount. because some of the steak may be bone. The as-purchased (AP) value is the amount of food you buy. These are known as weight-to-volume equivalents. however. You should base your as-served amount decision on the edible portion amount that you want to prepare for your guest. the as-served amount is all you’ll usually need to make purchasing decisions. or a piece count. such as how a particular volume measure (like a cup) equals a weight of food (in the cup). the EP and the AS can be the same (the steak may be completely boneless and trimmed of all fat and gristle). remember. for example. It can be a whole piece of food. parsley sprigs.” For example. In case you’re wondering. In cooking.

Divide the AS amount by the yield percentage: 180 oz. It is the most important one in the book.06 lb. and the chef can figure the recipe’s cost just as quickly and accurately. . That calculates to $2.80. Its yield percentage is 697%. by dividing the number of ounces by 16. Convert the 225 ounces to pounds. as it will save you money! AS Y% AP It says that you divide the as-served or used amount by the food’s yield percentage to see how much as-purchased food you need to cost out or buy. divide the amount you end up with after processing by the amount you started with. In cooking. All it takes is knowing your equivalents! YIELD PERCENTAGES Yield percentage is abbreviated in the equations in the book as Y%. which is the same as 80%: NOTE Recall from your early arithmetic training that a decimal number can be written as a percentage number. 180 oz. we already know that the trim yield percentage for medium carrots is 80%. The yield percentage is found by dividing the AS amount by the AP amount—that is. The yield percentage formula is: AS AP Y% (Amount served or used Yield percentage) Amount purchased = Here is an example of how this formula works: Given: You peel and trim 25 pounds of medium carrots.xviii Introduction $12. (There are 16 ounces in 1 pound. for instance. remember. .80 Why are yield percentages important? Because we use them to calculate how much food to buy! Learn this next formula—the “how much to buy” formula—well. Multiplying the 1.80 225 oz. 20 25 . if you cook a pound of oatmeal.68 ounces of dill weed found in 1 cup gives you a cup cost of $4. The 20 AS pounds divided by the 25 AP pounds equals . draining. If you peel a medium carrot. Cooks can follow them quickly and accurately. you will end up with roughly 80% of its original weight. That 80% is the trim yield percentage. ending up with 20 pounds of usable carrots. you will often be thinking in percentages but dealing with decimals as you do the math. and/or cooking. Continuing with the carrot example.12. Now do the following calculations: 1. Add up how much peeled and trimmed carrots you need (assume here that you want to serve 60 3-ounce portions of peeled and trimmed carrots): 60 3 oz. a yield percentage is the measure of the factor by which an item changes because of trimming. you will end up with nearly 7 pounds of cooked oatmeal. Using volume measures is very helpful when writing recipes.80 becomes 80%.) 225 16 14.45 per ounce. if you like. This is how . In working with foodservice formulas. 2. In another example.28. The formula tells you to start with 225 ounces of raw carrots to have 180 trimmed ounces for use. Just move the decimal point two places to the right and place the % symbol at the righthand side of the numbers.

Multiply the number of measures needed times the weight per measure to calculate the AS amount in ounces. the formula tells you to start with (or buy) just over 14 pounds of aspurchased carrots in order to have 60 3-ounce portions of trimmed and peeled carrots ready to use or serve. grains. and measured. as well as as-used.8 oz.1 oz. Making purchasing decisions about these foods is pretty easy. honey.) The AP formula for static foods is: AS number of measures Weight per measure AP To explain how to use the formula to convert an AS volume back to an AP weight. The Sweeteners table in Chapter 4 shows 1 cup of granulated sugar weighs 7. dry basil. and so on. if you know their weight-to-volume equivalents.8 oz. Take these steps: 1. more successful foodservice professional. they are used as is. in recipes. yeast. To finish (and get the AP answer in pounds). flour. and they reflect the differences in food types and how they are counted. And here is more good news: This same formula works just as well for foods that increase in size and weight during preparation.8 oz. this formula for calculating how much food to buy or cost out works perfectly for foods that get trimmed in their preparation. cups. FOR STATIC FOOD The term static foods refers to those that are used just as they are bought—foods like sugar. In this example of granulated sugar. (Remember: AS means as-served. and you need to make 18 recipes in one large batch. used. cereals.). divide the number of ounces by 16: 766. 3. coffee grounds. you’ll need to convert the recipe’s total AS volume back into an equivalent AP weight in order to calculate an appropriate amount to buy or cost out. In this case. 16 oz. you would multiply the 108 cups of sugar times the weight per cup of 7. . quarts. In this example. 47. etc. None of these variations are hard to learn and use.Introduction xix Thus. Therefore. assume a recipe calls for 6 cups of granulated sugar.1 766. It will save you countless hours and make you a smarter. when a recipe lists these static foods in volume measurements.1 ounces.1 ounces. you would multiply the 6 cups times 18 to get the AS number of measures: 18 recipes 6 cups per recipe 108 total AS cups 2. like this: 108 7. rice. As you can see. Determine the volume-to-weight equivalent for one measure. Determine the total AS number of measures you need. per cup 766. such as rices. 4. calling for 18 recipes of 6 cups of sugar per recipe. the formula looks like this: 108 cups 7. and pastas! OTHER PURCHASING FORMULAS AP FORMULA NOTE There are a number of variations to this basic formula of AS Y% = AP.9 lb. These foods are usually purchased by weight but are often used in recipes by volume (tablespoons. Keep this book with you as you advance in your studies and move on in your career.

What is the cost per steak? $45 18 $2. Here is the formula: Portion count needed Pieces per purchase unit AP NOTE You’ll notice that The B ook of Yields often lists the purchase unit as a pound or an each. The larger items are often the actual items you purchase. rather than a case or some other large unit. or portion count. converting the ounces to pounds: 766. you will use this formula. or a tomato from a flat of tomatoes.50 . You need to know how many pieces or portions you expect to get from the purchase unit. AP cost Portion count Cost per portion For example.8 oz. such as the number of steaks you get from a loin. PIECE-YIELD PURCHASING FORMULA When you are going to use or serve an ingredient that is simply a piece from a larger item. the portion count needed is 75 and the number of pieces per purchase unit is 15. let’s determine how many whole prime ribs you would have to buy if you intend to serve prime rib portions to 75 guests. Why? A case can vary in size or weight. you need to buy exactly five whole prime ribs. These larger items are called purchase units. then. an apple from a case of apples. you need nearly an entire 50-pound sack of sugar to make this recipe batch. Here. The piece-yield formula tells you to divide the number of portions you need to serve your guests by the number of pieces you normally get from the purchase unit. you divide the purchase unit’s AP cost by the count that you get from it.1 ounces is the weight per measure. Therefore. A portion size. Again. or case of tomatoes. assume that a New York strip loin costs $45 and yields 18 cut-andtrimmed 8-ounce steaks.9 lb. 16 oz. therefore: 75 15 5 So. and the 7. or a portion.xx Introduction The 108 cups is the number of AS measures. When you have a known yield count. can be many different things— for example. but a pound is always a pound. case of apples. such as the whole prime rib. 47. A piece. and you normally get 15 portions from each whole prime rib. is something you decide when you create your recipes and menu items. USING YIELD FACTORS TO DETERMINE COSTS FORMULA FOR THE COST PER PORTION BY COUNT A yield count is simply the number of portions you typically get from a whole food item. This tells you how many purchase units to buy. As an example of how to use the piece-yield formula. a slice of prime rib.

Each succeeding chapter contains formulas that are based on the fundamental information and the logic used in the formulas outlined on the preceding pages. I hope you’ll find the formulas logical and easy to follow. To begin.50 The new cost per pound of servable carrots is 50 cents. These formulas are all somewhat similar in that they ask you to find the cost of a basic unit of measure such as an ounce. you will encounter new formulas that will enable you to master the skills needed for success in running a food service operation. When prices change.Introduction xxi FORMULA FOR COST PER SERVABLE POUND (OR UNIT) To determine the cost per servable pound or unit.60 . This will speed up your searches for foods. step by step. you divide the cost per purchased pound (the AP cost per pound on your invoice) by the food’s yield percentage. you can use the same formula: simply change the cost of the AP unit. It will save you time and help you become prosperous.40 . or a single piece and employ that in your calculations. if the price of carrots drops from 60 cents to 40 cents per pound: $0. the best approach is to look through the book in its entirety. You will learn how it is organized and start to become familiar with its content and scope. the cost per servable pound of trimmed carrots is 75 cents. not just pounds.80 $0. GETTING STARTED Understanding the facts. They are laid out in a way that leads you through each formula. Yield % Cost per servable pound Assume that carrots cost 60 cents per pound and their trimmed yield is 80%. This book is not just a tool for learning how to cost foods and plan purchases. principles. showing you how to do the math. then: $0. This works for any measure. For example.80 $0. You may find it helpful to buy some self-sticking page tabs that you can label with each chapter’s food type. Be sure to use the worksheets in Part II when you start doing the math. a fluid ounce. and concepts presented in this introductory section will set you up for success as you proceed with the following chapters. As you go forward with your food costing and purchasing activities. .75 Thus. that is: AP cost per lb. It is a tool you will keep by your side throughout your career as a chef or food service manager.

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PART I .

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simply IN THE WORKBOOK divide the tablespoon-equivalent amount (the first column of Part II.1 DRY HERBS AND SPICES AND FRESH HERBS his chapter covers dry herbs and spices plus fresh herbs. Costing Worksheet 6 tablespoon or cup) to cost out the volume measures in question. chives. and French cuisine features tarragon. Herbs and spices flavor other foods and are very important aspects of developing the character of a recipe. The key measures are: Number of tablespoons per ounce Number of ounces per tablespoon ✦ Number of ounces that a cup of the item weighs ✦ Count per ounce (such as whole bay leaves) ✦ Count per tablespoon (such as whole peppercorns) If.77. for instance. and oregano. you need to cost a teaspoon of an item. whereas Scandinavian recipes often call for dill weed. ✦ ✦ Example Given: A 22-ounce container of dry whole leaf basil costs $24. Some texts on costing suggest that you simply add 5% to the cost of the recipe to account for the herbs and spices expense. Once you know that amount. Italian recipes. you look up the number of volume measures (tablespoons per ounce or ounces per ✦ Dry Herbs and Spices. As important as they are in cookery. A few key herbs or spices distinguish many ethnic and national cuisines from others. whether they are fresh or dry. because there are 3 teaspoons per tablespoon. sweet basil. herbs and spices can be troublesome to cost out. The same is true for planning purchases of these items. for example. 3 . the Workbook. T COSTING DRY HERBS The Dry Herbs and Spices table uses relatively small measures because these foods are often used in fairly small amounts. This chapter will show you that it is quite simple (and far more accurate) to cost these items. rosemary. and curly parsley. Costing Worksheet 5 ✦ Fresh Herbs. All help you with costing dry herbs and spices costing procedures begin by determining the cost per ounce of a and fresh herbs: food item. has two worksheets to numbers) by 3. often have flat parsley.

The table shows that there are 11.126. substitute 1/3rd the volume of dry. 16 oz.4 $1. 2. oz. 4 qt. 3. Divide the ounce cost by the count per ounce. oz. This calculation comes in handy for recipes calling for 10 whole cloves or 25 peppercorns. There are two steps in calculating the cost of 1 tablespoon: 1.4 $0. For instance. whole leaf basil. oz. Divide the cost of 1 ounce ($1. To calculate the cost of a single item listed in the Number Each per Tablespoon column.4 ounces.5764 As you can see. 8 fl. 4 c.4 tablespoons of whole leaf basil per ounce. Having this data on hand will save you the trouble of doing the calculation yourself.77) by the number of ounces in the container (22): $24.4): $1.58.126 1. take the following steps: 1. 2 pt. The table shows this is 1. 16 fl. Refer to the Dry Herbs and Spices table to learn the number of tablespoons per ounce of whole leaf basil. ✦ 1 pt. rounded. Look up the number of ounces that 1 cup weighs. 2 tbsp. Two types of these items are listed: counts by the ounce and counts per tablespoon. 16 tbsp. 2. for instance. whole leaf herb called for fresh. they find their way into recipes as flavorings and again as garnishes. ✦ 1 fl. COSTING FRESH HERBS Fresh herbs can be used as garnishes of whole leaves or whole leafy stems. 2 c.4 Chapter 1 Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs To calculate the cost of 1 ounce: 1. 2. use 1 tablespoon. dry. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 32 fl. $1. ✦ 1 tbsp. use 1/6th the volume of fresh herb to replace. you’ll need an additional step: 1. oz.126 11. 1 c. 16 c. They are also used whole in stocks and some roasting recipes. ✦ 1 qt. 2. Again. 1 cup of whole dry leaf basil costs $1. 1 gal. When stemmed and chopped. when 3 tablespoons of fresh chopped basil are called for. Calculate the cost per ounce. When it comes to calculating the cost of a single item. Divide the cost per tablespoon by the number found in 1 tablespoon. NOTE When substituting dry herbs for fresh. Calculate the cost per tablespoon.4): NOTE The table also shows the number of ounces per tablespoon because some recipe-costing software programs ask for this value when entering a food into their databases. calculate the cost of one ounce. such as whole chilies or peppercorns. are used in recipes by the count.126) by the number of tablespoons in 1 ounce (11.1259 Therefore. chopped leaf. oz. a few items. To calculate the cost of a single item listed in the Number Each per Ounce column. ✦ . ground herb for fresh. or each. To calculate the cost of 1 cup: 1. 128 fl.126) by the number of ounces in 1 cup (1.0988 That means that 1 tablespoon costs a little less than a dime. If substituting dry. Find the cost per cup by multiplying the cost per ounce ($1. Divide the cost of the container ($24. rounded.77 22 $1. 1 ounce costs $1.

03776 Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . To help you in this regard. which probably is not going to be the case. you first determine the cost of the as-purchased (AP) ounce. rounded. Notice the column in the Fresh Herbs table labeled Yield of Tablespoons of Chopped Leaf per Purchased Ounce. assume that the average bunch weighs 3.4 $0.62 $0.62. the number of chopped tablespoons obtained from 1 AP ounce is shown as 6. Therefore.62): $0. 1 usable curly parsley garnish leaf costs a little over 1 cent. To cost a tablespoon of chopped fresh parsley: 1.86 per bunch. The Fresh Herbs table shows that. This was calculated by measuring the number of cups of cleaned.25.4 ounces and costs $0. One supplier may ship smaller bunches than another. but it is important to keep in mind that the size of the bunches will vary for one reason or another. and chopped leaf obtained from one bunch. the size of a bunch can vary as seasons change. Taking curly parsley as an example. meaning that you have no spoilage and that you use every bit of parsley. It’s important to point out that this is a mathematical ideal cost. it’s a good idea to keep a record of the various weights of your fresh herb bunches.25 6.25) by the number of chopped tablespoons obtained from 1 AP ounce (6. too. That number was then multiplied by 16 (there are 16 tablespoons in 1 cup). For curly parsley. To calculate the cost of 1 garnish leaf: 1.Costing Fresh Herbs 5 Fresh herbs are often sold by the bunch.25) by the number of garnish leaves per AP ounce (22): $0.25 22 $0. large garnish leaves per purchased (AP) ounce. Divide the cost per bunch by the number of ounces in 1 bunch: $0. stemmed. you will obtain 22 lovely.86 3.2529 The cost per AP ounce is $0. Divide the cost per ounce ($0. and even if you only buy from one source. you may want to “pad” the cost of your fresh herbs a bit to reflect the real conditions in your operation. Divide the cost of 1 AP ounce ($0. and dividing that result by the AP ounces in the bunch. COSTING GARNISH LEAVES NOTE Over the course of time. To calculate the cost per AP ounce: 1. the Fresh Herbs table gives you yield information based both on a bunch and on an as-purchased (AP) ounce.0114 As you can see. we’ll use curly parsley as an example. (I recommend that you use the data based on the AP ounce. COSTING CHOPPED FRESH HERBS Here. You can use the Food Weight Log in the Workbook section for this purpose. on average.) To cost whole leaves or volumes of chopped leaves.

so be aware that you may well pay much more for the same item in the winter than you do in the summer or fall.62): 3. FORMULA 1 The purchasing formula for dry herbs measured in tablespoons is as follows: AS # of tablespoons # of tablespoons per ounce AP in ounces Example Given: You need a total of 37 tablespoons of ground basil.038 16 $0. 1 c. ✦ . Purchasing Worksheet 2 ✦ DRY HERBS This section gives you four purchasing formulas for dry herbs.406 $0. To cost a cup of fresh chopped parsley: 1. 16 c. ✦ 1 qt. 16 oz. Or you can use this three-step alternate method for costing a cup: 1. 2 pt.4 6. with an example of each. 128 fl.608 A cup of chopped curly parsley costs $0. rounded.406 cups of chopped parsley.4-ounce bunch yielded 1. ✦ 1 tbsp. ✦ 1 lb. vegetables. oz.62 22.038. rounded. oz. oz. 16 fl. Multiply the cost per tablespoon by 16: $0. 3.406 The 3. 4 qt.86) by the number of cups yielded (1. 2.5 16 1. oz. 2 c. Multiply the number of AP ounces in the bunch (3. 32 fl.406): $0.86 1. To find out how many ounces you will need: 1 gal.61 PURCHASING DRY AND FRESH HERBS Fresh produce (herbs. the Workbook. Purchasing Worksheet 1 ✦ Fresh Herbs.6 Chapter 1 Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs In this case. IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. 16 tbsp. oz. Divide the yield in tablespoons (22.4) by the number of tablespoons of chopped herb obtained from each AP ounce (6. 4 c. 1 tablespoon of chopped curly parsley costs $0.5 tablespoons of chopped parsley.508 The entire bunch yielded 22. ✦ 1 fl. has two worksheets to help you plan your purchases of dry herbs and spices and fresh herbs: Dry Herbs and Spices. and fruit) prices fluctuate widely as the seasons change. Now divide the cost of the bunch ($0. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 pt. 8 fl. 3 tsp.61.5) by the number of tablespoons in 1 cup (16): 22.

Multiply the weight per cup times the number of cups needed.Purchasing Dry and Fresh Herbs 7 NOTE The # symbol stands for “number” or “the number of” in the formulas that follow here and in later chapters.57 tablespoons Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Divide the number of pods per ounce into the total pods needed. The Dry Herbs and Spices table shows that there are 175 peppercorns per tablespoon: 1. you will need nearly 6. The Dry Herbs and Spices table shows there are 5. The Dry Herbs and Spices table shows that there are 2 Pasilla chile pods in 1 ounce: 12 2 6 Thus. FORMULA 3 The purchasing formula for dry herbs count to weight is as follows: # each per ounce AP in ounces Count needed Example Given: You need 12 dry Pasilla chile pods.62 Therefore.81 ounces per cup for ground basil. 37 5. 1. so you get this result: 2 2. That means here you divide 800 by 175 to find the number of tablespoons needed: 800 175 4. dry Pasilla chile pods. FORMULA 2 Next is the purchasing formula for dry herbs (volume-to-weight for cups): AS # of cups # ounces per cup AP in ounces Example Given: You need 2 cups of ground basil.81 5. you will need 6 ounces of whole. 1. Divide the tablespoons needed by the number of tablespoons in 1 ounce.7 tablespoons of ground basil per ounce. 1.62 ounces of ground basil. Find how many ounces you need. FORMULA 4 The last formula is for a dry spice-count-per-tablespoon to AP number of tablespoons: AS count needed Count per tablespoon AP tablespoons Example Given: You need 800 whole black peppercorns. Divide the number needed by the count per tablespoon. you will need 5.5 ounces of ground basil.49 Thus. The Dry Herbs and Spices table shows that there are 2.7 6.

so you use this equation: 16 3. 8 fl. The last formula in this section is based on the number of cups of chopped leaf needed: FORMULA 3 (# Chopped cups needed # Ounces to buy 16) # Chopped tablespoons per AP ounce Example You need 3 cups of chopped mint leaf. Therefore. 1 c. you need to order or cost 1. For peppercorns.12 Therefore. ✦ 1 qt. again.88 4.14 Therefore. 2 tbsp. 2 c. FORMULA 2 The second formula is based on the number of chopped tablespoons needed: # Chopped tablespoons needed # Ounces to buy # Chopped tablespoons per AP ounce Example You need 16 tablespoons of chopped mint leaf. FORMULA 1 The first formula is based on the number of garnish leaves needed: # of leaves per AP ounce Ounces to buy # of leaves needed Example You need 120 mint leaves. 16 tbsp. the table shows there are 4 tablespoons per ounce. 16 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. the equation is: 120 24 5 which means you need to buy 5 ounces of fresh mint. ✦ 1 lb. 3 tsp. FRESH HERBS For fresh herbs there are three formulas. the table shows there are 3. and the Fresh Herbs table shows that there are 24 garnish leaves of mint per AP ounce. 16 fl. 4 c. oz.57 4 1. 4 qt. Here. each formula is illustrated with an example. ✦ 1 fl. ✦ 1 pt.88 tablespoons of chopped mint per AP ounce. ✦ . oz. oz.8 Chapter 1 Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs To convert to the number of ounces needed. 128 fl. 16 c. oz. Follow this two-step process: 1 gal. So the calculation is as follows: 4. you need to buy just over 4 ounces of fresh mint. 2 pt. and the Fresh Herbs table shows that there are 3. 32 fl. oz.88 tablespoons of chopped mint per AP ounce. too. just divide this answer by the value in the column headed Number of Tablespoons per Ounce in the table.14 ounces of whole peppercorns.

Dry Herbs and Spices

9

1. Multiply the number of cups needed by 16. 3 16 48

2. Divide that answer by the number of chopped tablespoons per AP ounce: 3.88. 48 3.88 12.37

The result indicates that you need to buy 12.37 ounces of fresh mint.

Dry Herbs and Spices
Number of Tablespoons per Ounce Number of Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Ounces per Cup Number Each per Ounce Number Each per Tablespoon

Item Name Achiote (Annato) Powder Allspice, ground Anise Seed, whole Basil, ground Basil, whole leaf Bay Leaf, whole Bay Leaves, ground Bee Pollen Caraway Seed, whole Cardamom, ground Cayenne Pepper Celery Salt Celery Seed, whole Chervil, whole Chicory Root, ground as for coffee Chile Flakes, green Chile Flakes, red Chile Pods, Casabel Chile Pods, California and New Mexico Chile Pods, de Arbol Chile Pods, Guajillo Chile Pods, Japones (Japanese)

3.08 4.92 5.00 5.70 11.40

0.325 0.203 0.200 0.175 0.088

5.20 3.25 3.20 2.81 1.40 130

4.21 2.81 4.23 4.88 5.30 1.95 3.90 13.00 4.00 5.90 5.90

0.238 0.356 0.236 0.205 0.189 0.513 0.256 0.077 0.250 0.169 0.169

3.80 5.70 3.78 3.28 3.02 8.21 4.10 1.23 4.00 2.71 2.71 9 4 52 5 81

Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit

Y%

10

Chapter 1

Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs

Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued)
Number of Tablespoons per Ounce Number of Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Ounces per Cup Number Each per Ounce Number Each per Tablespoon

Item Name Chile Pods, Morita Chile Pods, Pasilla Chile Pods, Pequin Chile Powder Chile Powder (Ancho) Chile Powder (Chipotle) Chinese Five-Spice Chives, chopped Cilantro Cinnamon, ground Cinnamon, whole sticks, 5 long Cinnamon Chips (bark flakes) Cloves, ground Cloves, whole Coriander Seed, ground Coriander Seed, whole Cream of Tartar Cumin Seed, whole Cumin, ground Curry Powder Dashi No Moto (no MSG) Dashi No Moto (with MSG) Dill Seed, whole Dill Weed Epazote Fennel Seed, whole Fenugreek Seed, whole Galangal Root, dry shredded

9 2 511 4.25 3.87 3.35 4.25 56.00 36.00 4.00 0.235 0.258 0.298 0.235 0.018 0.028 0.250 3.76 4.13 4.77 3.76 0.29 0.44 4.00 3 3.33 4.30 5.33 4.58 5.68 2.46 4.72 4.80 4.50 2.32 2.50 4.50 9.50 10.06 4.20 2.55 6.27 0.300 0.233 0.188 0.218 0.176 0.407 0.212 0.208 0.222 0.431 0.400 0.222 0.105 0.099 0.238 0.392 0.159 4.80 3.72 3.00 3.49 2.82 6.50 3.39 3.33 3.56 6.90 6.40 3.56 1.68 1.59 3.81 6.27 2.55 266 50

1 gal.

4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz.

128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

Dry Herbs and Spices

11

Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued)
Number of Tablespoons per Ounce Number of Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Ounces per Cup Number Each per Ounce Number Each per Tablespoon

Item Name Garlic Powder Garlic Salt Garlic, granulated Garum Masala Ginger, ground Herbs de Provence Hibiscus Flowers, whole Juniper Berries, whole Kelp Powder Lavender Flowers, broken Lemon Balm Lemon Grass, shredded Lemon Peel pieces (bits) Lemon Pepper, lightly salted Lemon Thyme Lemon Verbena Licorice Root, shredded Mace, ground Marjoram, ground Marjoram, whole leaf Mexican, Seasonings, Green Mint, whole leaf Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mustard Seed, whole Mustard, ground (powder) Nori (Seaweed) sheets 8 Nutmeg, ground Nutmeg, whole 8.5

4.32 2.00 2.66 4.57 4.20 9.70

0.231 0.500 0.376 0.219 0.238 0.103

3.70 8.00 6.02 3.50 3.81 1.65 40

5.33 3.20 22.54 17.78 16.84 5.08 3.23 21.33 14.55 7.27 5.25 5.93 10.60 6.53 34.00 2.86 2.50 5.16

0.188 0.313 0.044 0.056 0.059 0.197 0.309 0.047 0.069 0.138 0.190 0.169 0.094 0.153 0.029 0.350 0.400 0.194

3.00 5.00 0.71 0.90 0.95 3.15 4.95 0.75 1.10 2.20 3.05 2.70 1.51 2.45 0.47 5.60 6.40 3.10

331

62

10 4.25 0.235 3.76 6.50

Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit

Y%

12

Chapter 1

Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs

Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued)
Number of Tablespoons per Ounce Number of Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Ounces per Cup Number Each per Ounce Number Each per Tablespoon

Item Name Onion Powder Orange Peel pieces (bits) Oregano, ground Oregano, whole leaf Paprika, ground Parsley Flakes, whole Pepper, Black, whole Pepper, Black, coarse-cut Pepper, Black, cracked Pepper, Black, table grind Pepper, Red, crushed (flakes) Pepper, Szechuan, whole Pepper, White, ground Pepper, White, whole Peppermint, flaked Poppy Seed, whole Poultry Seasoning Pumpkin Pie Seasoning Mix Rose Blossoms Rosemary, ground Rosemary, whole leaf Saffron, whole Sage, rubbed Salt, Hawaiian, white Salt: French, Sea: (Sel Gris, fine) Salt, kosher, (Diamond Crystal) Salt, kosher (Morton coarse) Salt, kosher flake

4.32 6.15 5.70 10.00 4.10 22.00 4.00 4.32 4.00 4.20 5.90 8.27 3.55 3.08 15.24 3.20 7.66 5.06 24.24 5.70 11.85 13.50 11.00 1.79 2.06 3.40 1.87 1.70

0.231 0.163 0.175 0.100 0.244 0.045 0.250 0.231 0.250 0.238 0.169 0.121 0.282 0.325 0.066 0.313 0.131 0.198 0.041 0.175 0.084 0.074 0.091 0.559 0.484 0.294 0.534 0.588

3.70 2.60 2.81 1.60 3.90 0.73 4.00 3.70 4.00 3.81 2.71 1.93 4.51 5.20 1.05 5.00 2.09 3.16 0.66 2.81 1.35 1.19 1.45 8.95 7.75 4.70 8.55 9.41 590 192 700 175

1 gal.

4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz.

128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

Dry Herbs and Spices

13

Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued)
Number of Tablespoons per Ounce Number of Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Ounces per Cup Number Each per Ounce Number Each per Tablespoon

Item Name Salt, Red Hawaiian, medium grain Salt, regular Salt, Seasoning Savory, ground Sesame Seed, whole Spearmint, flaked Stevia Leaf Stevia Leaf Powder Tarragon, ground Tarragon, whole leaf Thyme, ground Thyme, whole leaf Tulsi (Holy Basil) Turmeric, powder Wasabi, powder

1.77 1.55 1.95 6.45 3.00 17.78 12.31 5.52 5.90 13.00 6.60 10.00 9.41 3.75 5.90

0.566 0.645 0.513 0.155 0.333 0.056 0.081 0.181 0.169 0.077 0.152 0.100 0.106 0.267 0.169

9.05 10.32 8.21 2.48 5.33 0.9 1.3 2.9 2.71 1.23 2.42 1.60 1.70 4.27 2.71

Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit

Y%

14

Chapter 1

Dry Herbs and Spices and Fresh Herbs

Fresh Herbs
Ounces per Bunch or AP Unit Garnish Leaves or Sprigs per Bunch Garnish Leaves or Sprigs per AP Ounce Ounces of Stemless Leaf per Bunch Weight Yield Percent: Stemless Leaf per Bunch Ounce Weight of 1 Tablespoon Chopped Yield: Tablespoons of Chopped Leaf per Purchased Ounce Ounce Weight of 1 Cup, Chopped

Item Basil, Sweet Bay Leaves Chives, 6 lengths Cilantro Dill Weed Marjoram Mint Oregano Parsley, curly Parsley, Italian Rosemary Sage, green Stevia Tarragon Thyme Watercress Notes

2.5 0.6 1 2.8 4.5 1 3.35 1 3.4 5.7 1 1 2.6 1 1 6.1

59 68 115 93 105 38 80 40 75 91 22 68 90 48 43 25

23.6 113 115 33 23 38 24 40 22 16 22 68 34.6 48 43 4.1

1.4 0.48 0.95 1.3 2 0.76 1.4 0.78 1.8 2.3 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.8 0.65 1.65

56.00% 80.00% 95.00% 46.43% 44.44% 76.00% 41.79% 78.00% 52.94% 40.35% 80.00% 60.00% 42.31% 80.00% 65.00% 27.05%

0.088 0.113 0.095 0.093 0.112 0.069 0.108 0.065 0.080 0.113 0.150 0.075 0.069 0.114 0.100 0.092

6.40 7.10 10 5 41 11 3.88 12 6.62 3.51 5.33 8 6.15 7 6.50 2.95

1.408 1.803 1.520 1.486 1.785 1.105 1.724 1.040 1.280 1.800 2.400 1.200 1.100 1.828 1.600 1.470

1. Ginger yields 70% when peeled. 2. These measurements are based on herbs of normal commercial size and quality with respect to their size, maturity, freshness, moisture, and conformation. 3. Leaves for garnish are large and attractive. 4. Stemless leaf yield includes the garnish leaves plus remaining good leaves. 5. Leaves were stripped from stems before chopping. 6. Chopped leaves were cut chiffonade, then cross-cut and chopped a bit more. 7. Volume measures of chopped leaves were tapped down but not pressed down hard. 8. The Yield: Tablespoons of Chopped Leaf per Purchased Ounce column was obtained by physically measuring (in cups) the total yield of the purchased amount after stemming and chopping, then multiplying that amount by 16 and dividing the answer by the ounces purchased.

1 gal.

4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz.

128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

you should perform your own winter yield tests on those produce items that come in the door showing signs of spoilage or shrinkage. too. 4.” These volume measures of trimmed and cut produce are easy to cost out (and plan for purchases) when you follow the formulas and use the food tables in this chapter. because they are fairly easy to cost and buy correctly. but not in depth. or counts. try to buy local fresh produce in season.. you will find the data in this chapter of significant help when costing ingredients and planning purchases. try to modify your menu in a way that makes it less reliant on foods that have to travel from far away. yielded) of these processed foods from the AP unit 15 . while fruit is a common ingredient on the baking and pastry side of the kitchen. 3.2 PRODUCE P roduce refers to fruit and vegetables.e. If you cannot do this with all your produce needs (and it is probable that you cannot). Of course this is not going to happen in the dead of winter in colder climates. the number of ounces a cup of the trimmed food weighs after further prepping. Each shows you the following: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ An initial as-purchased (AP) unit (typically a pound) The number of ounces. Vegetables are part of most recipes on the savory side of the kitchen. As you read through the chapter. Regarding fresh vegetables and fresh fruit. For instance. many recipes call for “2 cups of diced onion” or “1 pint of sliced strawberries. Quality. This chapter addresses fresh produce as well as canned. Vegetables Fruit Canned Foods (in Number-10 cans) Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume Note that the Vegetables and Fruit tables are identical in layout. and these products are sold by weight. Be aware that wholesale prices for fresh produce vary widely over the course of a year. This can affect your yields. Frozen vegetables and fruit are addressed briefly. the yield percentage (Y%) When applicable. There is little or no waste. Whenever possible. you’ll be referred to four tables: 1. 2. can fluctuate significantly due to the seasons and distances the food must travel from farm to market. In those situations. such as dicing or slicing The number of cups obtained (i. in the AP unit The number of ounces left over after trimming The percentage of the trimmed amount to the AP amount—that is.

Therefore.023625 Thus. oz. has two worksheets to help you with costing fresh produce: Trimmed or Cooked Foods. use the Trimmed or Cooked Foods worksheet (Costing Worksheet 2). 4 c.16 Chapter 2 Produce The last two items are shown in the two columns on the right.3 percent. thaw completely before using it. 16 c. Divide the cost of one pound by 16 to get the cost per AP ounce: $0. For produce items that are used without trimming. 16 oz. 2 tbsp. the costing is simple. in the section on purchasing. we’ll use a 25-pound bag of medium-size carrots that costs $9. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 1. This gives you the cost per pound. 16 fl. Divide that by 16 to get the cost per AS ounce.45. 1 c. ✦ 1 fl. 2 c. 2. oz. COSTING TRIMMED FOODS Here are the steps to follow for costing those produce items that are trimmed before use. It will step you through the process of converting from a purchase unit cost to a cost per trimmed ounce or pound to a cost per volume measure of the trimmed and cut food. COSTING A TRIMMED WEIGHT Now the yield percentage comes into play. Frozen vegetables and fruit are packaged by weight. you will get the cost of the pound or ounce after trimming. ✦ 1 lb. the Vegetables table shows the trim yield percentage for medium carrots as 81. To determine how much an AP pound and ounce costs. The loss is due to the heat melting away any water glaze that may have been clinging to the frozen vegetables as well as some minor evaporation. ✦ 1 tbsp. oz. yielding close to 100 percent of its weight. Costing Worksheet 3 ✦ NOTE: FROZEN V E G E TA B L E S A N D F R U I T The vegetable and fruit tables in this chapter are devoted almost entirely to fresh produce. Multiply that ounce cost by the ounces called for in the recipe. 3 tsp. For this exercise. (This ✦ 128 fl. ✦ 1 qt. such as a case or a pound. COSTING FRESH PRODUCE IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. divide the cost of the bag by the number of pounds in the bag to get the cost per pound: $9. In particular.378. For example. 8 fl. When a recipe calls for a weight of a frozen item. 1 gal. There is no trim or waste if the items are cooked or used when still frozen. 32 fl. 16 tbsp. you may find the Piece Counts worksheet (Costing Worksheet 3) helpful. Whole-kernel corn is an exception. the yield percentages will be extremely helpful as you go about planning how much food to buy. Whenever possible. the cost of one AP ounce of medium carrots is slightly less than 2. the Workbook. If you let frozen produce. It guides you through the process of finding the cost of a usable whole piece of fruit or a single vegetable from an entire purchase unit. The longer the produce remains thawed before use.378 16 $0. do not let frozen produce thaw completely before incorporating it in a recipe. If the recipe calls for a volume measure. Fresh produce is typically trimmed for use in recipes. 4 qt. Costing Worksheet 2 ✦ Piece Counts. If you divide the cost of an AP unit of measure (such as a pound or an ounce) by the food’s trim yield percentage. you will have a fair amount of weight loss due to the juices flowing out of the food.45 25 $0.378 So one pound costs $0. you will have to weigh the volume amount in order to cost it. oz. to do cost breakdowns for fresh produce or produce items that are used after some trimming.4 cents. more on that later. particularly fruit. Steaming frozen vegetables will generally yield a weight of cooked product that is approximately 92 percent of the original frozen weight. 2 pt. the greater the loss. . Divide the cost of the wholesale unit (usually a case) by the number of pounds in the case.

you would divide the cup cost by 16 and multiply that answer by 2 (or just divide the cup cost by 8.60 Thus.9 cents. there may be some settling or compacting of the food in the vessel and you may want to consider adding from 3 percent to a half-gallon measure and up to 7 percent to the calculated cost of a gallon to reflect possible compaction. if the math is obvious to you). not 165.4 cents to a trimmed cost per ounce of 2. In that case. COSTING A TRIMMED VOLUME The Vegetables table shows that a cup of diced carrots weighs 5 ounces. To assign a cost to 1 cup of diced carrots. a cherry tomato or two lemons—you will need to know how many pieces came in the AP unit or in a pound. such as a half or whole gallon. The cost of a cup of diced carrots is 14. you just divide that amount by the trim yield percentage to calculate the cost for the trimmed food. the cost for the trimmed carrots in ounces is calculated as follows: (AP cost per ounce) $0. so $0.13 pounds of usable carrots. 2. such as a pint or quart. you calculate the cost for one piece by dividing the AP unit cost by the number of pieces that came in the AP unit. Example Given: A 40-pound case of “165 count” lemons (165 lemons per case) costs $24. consult the Fruit table to find that there are 4 lemons per pound. you may need to cost out an amount smaller than a cup. 1 pound of lemons cost 60 cents.029): 5 $0. To determine the cost of one piece (1 lemon) first calculate the cost of 1 pound: $24 40 $0.60 4 $0. Use this two-step process to find the cost of one lemon: 1. call for 2 tablespoons of chopped garlic. A recipe may. But 40 times 4 equals 160 lemons.145 NOTE Unless you deliberately pack or tamp down produce.813 (0. On occasion. COSTING PRODUCE BY THE PIECE When recipes call for a whole piece—say. To illustrate. Just be aware that when you use even larger quantities.0236 $0.029 0. The Fruit table shows that there are 4 lemons per AP pound.813 is the trim Y% expressed as a decimal) The cost of the trimmed carrots has risen from an AP cost per ounce of about 2. Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit .5 cents.Costing Fresh Produce 17 percentage means that if you start with 10 pounds of carrots.15 One lemon costs 15 cents. That means. with simple multiplication. for example. you can use the cup cost to calculate the price of these larger vessels. trim off their ends. so what about the other 5 lemons? They were deducted from the AP unit to account for discarded lemons due to spoilage. Next.029 $0. If it is a count per case. you will end up with 8. and peel them. you just multiply the number of ounces in 1 cup of diced carrots (5) by the cost of a trimmed ounce ($0.) Regardless of what the beginning cost amount is. it does not compact very much when placed in a slightly larger container.

✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.18 NOTE Chapter 2 Produce Discarded items called culls are common with fresh produce. which lists the yield as 73 ounces. 16 c. 1 gal. 2 pt. 4 c. The Piece Counts worksheet (Costing Worksheet 3) shows you how to adjust the cost per each after discarding your culled items. This is simply because. they usually contain fewer than 13 cups of food—12 to 12. That said. 16 fl. the canner simply put more than the minimum amount in the test can.” In food service. The point is. it is a good idea to do your own can-cutting tests to determine what your actual yields are. rather than screens are used for draining. juice. oz. 32 fl. foods in the independent test kitchen study were also given a final shake or two to simulate how most cooks drain canned items. 128 fl. ✦ 1 qt. However. ✦ 1 pt. A soup recipe. (By the way. other times you will drain the liquid before use.5 cups is the norm. ✦ 1 fl. Sometimes you will serve or use the food with the liquid in which it was canned. oz. you might find that they measure more than 13 cups. Generally. Why? The canning process requires that some airspace be left in the container to allow for the expansion of food during the canning process. colanders. 4 qt. ✦ 1 tbsp. As noted earlier. in this case. this section is divided into two subsections: “Costing Drained Canned Foods” and “Costing Undrained Canned Foods. or syrup. to comply with USDA practices. you have jumbled the contents and caused them to pack less densely than they were originally positioned in the can. more common to use the solid contents after draining off the packing liquid. sometimes there is extra food in the can and sometimes there is less than the stated minimum. ✦ . You can use the USDA figures to calculate the cost of a drained ounce by dividing the cost of a can by the minimum number of drained ounces it must contain. Next. when you empty the contents of a number-10 can into another container. Number-10 cans are said to have a capacity of 13 cups. To address both possibilities. oz. Probably. the typical-size can is the number-10 can. 3 tsp. leaving what is called the drained weight. 8 fl. 2 tbsp. for instance. may call for using the liquid along with the solids in the can.) COSTING CANNED FOODS Many canned foods are packed in water. Take a look now at the USDA Recommended Drained Weight table and you’ll see that a number-10 can of corn is supposed to yield 70 ounces of drained corn. It is. 16 tbsp. But be aware that in most kitchens. In addition. however. compare that to the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table. This table is supplemented by the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table. oz. moreover. oz. produce prices vary widely from season to season and from one region of the country to another. this is pretty inexpensive for lemons. but in fact. 2 c. independent yield tests show that the minimum USDA weights are not always met. COSTING DRAINED CANNED FOODS In the Canned Foods table you will find the minimum number of drained ounces allowed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). foods must be drained for two minutes over a screen. in the transfer. rely on these two tables as a reference point. 1 c.

$3. therefore. say you want to cost a cup.91 NOTE: SERVING SIZES AND NUTRITION 73 oz. a quart weighs 23. you will be overportioning will weigh more than eight times the cup weight. This is caused by the solid. 1 ounce of drained corn costs 6.7 cents. assume a six-can case of corn kernels costs $29. quart.Costing Canned Foods 19 For our purposes here. drained foods. To cost these foods.7 ounces: $0. and a half gallon weighs 48.7 ounces. the Canned Foods Weight-toVolume table also lists various volume-to-weight equivalents. use the following formulas.7 oz. These so-called serving-size weights placed in a quart or half-gallon container instead of in a singlealmost always include the packing liquid. a quart weighs more than four times that. $0.91) by the drained ounces (73): $4. weigh more (per cubic inch) when in grams. There are often brined or marinated foods and are packed in containers other than number-10 cans.45.55 ounces. half gallons. Cost per container Drained ounces per container Cost per drained ounce Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . To begin. ✦ To cost a cup. $0. multiply the drained ounce cost by 23.91 Now divide the cost of the can ($4. as shown in the table. FORMULA 1 The formula for costing a drained weight is really a variation of the drained weight formula for number-10 cans. Although a cup of corn kernels weighs 5. To illustrate.4 oz.55 are not serving the liquid.65 ounces: $0.067 23. As you no doubt noticed.067 5.4 ounces.588 ✦ To cost a half gallon. If you cup container. and half-gallon measerving size that is stated as a volume (or a sures of canned foods.55 ounces: $0.45 6 cans $4. but the suggested ounces. and a half gallon weight. You already know that a drained ounce costs $0.55 oz. multiply the ounce cost by 50. When costing quarts or practices. and half gallon of corn niblets (kernels). and the table shows that a cup weighs 5. Take note that most canned foods will piece count). and The labels on canned foods show a “suggested” these can be of help in costing cup. $1.067 48. quart. multiply the cost per drained ounce by the number of ounces held in either the quart or half gallon. we’ll go with the 73-ounce yield to proceed with the costing process. along with an equivalent weight become denser and. which means one can costs approximately $4.067 Thus. drained.372 ✦ To cost a quart.91: $29.067. multiply the drained ounce cost by 5.243 OR COSTING MISCELLANEOUS CANNED PRODUCE ITEMS BOTTLED The produce tables also include some new items that are canned or bottled. Be sure to do your the compaction of the food and by relatively less interference nutritional analysis based on your actual serving with the walls of the larger containers.

20 Chapter 2 Produce Example Given: A 60-ounce jar of marinated artichoke hearts costs $4.7 ounces. 16 c. 107 oz. oz. oz. ✦ 1 qt.86) by the actual weighed ounces it holds (107): $2.7). Therefore. 4 c. use the formula for costing a trimmed volume: # Ounces per cup Cost per ounce Cost per drained cup Example Given: A 7-ounce jar of capers costs $5. . 32 fl.15. For instance. 3 tsp. then you use the cost per ounce times the number of ounces in your portion or recipe to cost the amount in question.20 COSTING UNDRAINED CANNED FOODS Certain canned items are not drained. 16 tbsp.30 43 oz. You divide the cost per container by the number of usable pieces it contains. ✦ 1 tbsp. if a case of six number-10 cans of tomato puree costs $17. The Canned Food Weight-to-Volume table shows that the actual contents of a single number-10 can of tomato puree weighs 107 ounces. you follow the drained food procedure just described. $0.30 80 $0. ✦ 1 fl. multiply the cost per drained ounce $1. The Vegetables table shows that this jar yields 4. FORMULA 2 Costing canned produce by piece count is just like costing fresh produce by the piece. pastes. Do the math: $4. 16 fl. 1 c. First.20. or 2. then one can costs $2.7 oz. oz. to calculate the cost per weighed ounce.30. Sauces.054 One artichoke heart piece costs 5.7 ounces. $5. 2 pt.7. $1.106 The table shows that a cup of drained capers also coincidentally weighs 4. with one caveat: You must know how many ounces of food were in the entire can. 128 fl. To cost volumes of these items. You use that number to divide into the cost of the can to get the cost per ounce.4 cents.0267. 2 c.20) by the drained ounces per container (4. drained. ✦ 1 lb.20 4. ✦ 1 pt.106 by 4. divide the cost of the can ($2. Example Given: The table shows that there are 80 usable hearts per container.7 $5. FORMULA 3 To cost a cup of drained food. So. oz.106 4. 16 oz. 2 tbsp.86. 8 fl. purees. soups. calculate the cost per drained ounce by dividing the cost per container ($5.86 1 gal.10 per oz. and stews are examples.67 cents ✦ 4 qt. The cost per container is $4. $0.30: $4. oz. The Vegetables table shows the drained weight is 43 ounces. $1.

0267) by the 8. textural. The yield percentage for medium carrots is 81.813 221. and flavor attributes as much as possible. you multiply the cost per ounce ($.3 percent. Keep a close eye on the condition of your fresh produce.0267 8. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . you need to purchase 221.4 ounces of raw medium carrots.9 oz.4 oz.9 ounces: $0.Purchasing Fresh Produce and Canned Foods 21 The table also shows that a cup of tomato puree weighs 8.9 oz.5 ounces. $0. or 97 cents (rounded) ✦ A half gallon weighs 72. Avoid overtrimming and overcooking produce. this is true of all foods. To cost a cup. can shrink as much as 75 percent in volume when cooked to golden colors. here are a few guidelines to help you better control your produce costs: ✦ ✦ ✦ Keep your inventory levels low and rotating quickly on a first-in/first-out (FIFO) system. 180 oz. $1.0267 72. kale.969.9 ounces in a cup: $0. by contrast. Onions and mushrooms. and chard lose 90 percent of their volume when cooked but actually gain a bit of weight because of water absorption. 0. as some foods have very short shelf lives. The Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table provides this information: ✦ A quart of tomato puree weighs 36. ✦ Before we get into the actual calculations. but it is essential with leafy vegetables because their volume reduces so dramatically when cooked.0267 36. or 24 cents (rounded) Be aware that there can be some slight compaction of the food when measured in quart and half-gallon containers. Produce is varied.2376. or $1. Learn how to store all of your produce items correctly to retain their nutritional.9 ounces. To cost portions of these leafy greens. count the cooked portions obtained from a known AP amount. ✦ A standard portion weight of cooked vegetables on an entrée plate is 3. PURCHASING AND F RUIT FRESH VEGETABLES We cover four formulas in this section. ✦ Leafy vegetables such as spinach.95 (rounded) PURCHASING FRESH PRODUCE AND CANNED FOODS Miscellaneous Notes on Produce A standard dinner salad (non-entrée) weight is 3 ounces of greens. $0. Of course. ✦ Root vegetables change little in weight or volume when cooked.3 ounces: $0. and so are the ways it should be stored. as either extreme can reduce servable yields appreciably. FORMULA 1 The amount to purchase formula for converting a trimmed weight to an AP weight is as follows: Amount needed in trimmed ounces Amount to buy (AP) Y% Example Given: You need to serve 180 ounces of trimmed carrots.0 to 3.946. so use the quart and half-gallon ounce weights to calculate the costs for those larger amounts. Therefore.3 oz.

0. oz. 6. and 7 percent to a gallon measure. weighing 34 ounces.22 Chapter 2 Produce IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. and 20 cups times 3. FORMULA 3 To convert AP ounces of carrots to AP pounds. 81.42 lb. you need 1.9 ounces equals 78 ounces.105 cups of shredded cabbage. of a purchase unit.239 heads of cabbage (weighing 34 ounces per head). 2 tbsp. in the previous example. medium table carrots.813 95. The Vegetables table shows that this head yields 12. which may be a pound or any other measure. The worksheet reminds you to do this. such as a gallon. lettuce can be used by individual leaf counts. 3 tsp. This gives you an answer measured by purchase unit. Therefore. add 2 percent to a quart. oz. The actual amount of compaction depends on a number of factors. piece counts. You need to buy or cost 6. the Workbook. Some produce items may be portioned by pieces. 16 oz.5 percent to the half-gallon/ 8-cup weight equivalent and 7 percent to the gallon equivalent to account for compaction in these larger vessels.105 0.3 to get an answer that “builds in” the compaction factor: 83. 16 fl. or grated foods. irregular cuts such as a coarse paysanne cut compact less than small. 16 c. oz. 16 oz. 16 tbsp. (1 Trimmed cups per purchase unit) Cups needed AP units to buy Example Given: You need 15 cups of shredded Napa cabbage. 102.0826 15 cups 1. ✦ 1 qt. ✦ 1 pt.46 oz.3 percent: 78 oz. FORMULA 4 Then divide that by the trim yield percentage of 81.3 1 gal. 1 c.239 purchase units Therefore. Example (using the answer in the compaction factor note) 102. has one worksheet to help you make your calculations when going from a trimmed produce item. 32 fl. red radishes may be portioned or called for in a recipe as a count of individual. The formula application goes like this: 1 12. the 20 cups of grated carrots is 1.9 ounces. they will compact a little so it’s a good idea to add to the calculated amount to account for this compaction. add 3. Likewise.25 gallons. Worksheet 3 Example NOTE When a formula involves a cup measure and you are dealing with large quantities such as a half gallon. 2 c. you should buy 95. Large. The Vegetables table shows that 1 cup of grated carrots weighs 3. For example. To determine how much to buy. uniform cuts such as a quarter-inch dice. 8 fl. NOTE A base item refers to the basic food used to produce the cut item.0826 0. or parts. The base item in the following example would be the raw AP medium table carrots.42 pounds of AP medium carrots. 4 c. brunoise.9 oz. 128 fl. 2 pt. .46 oz. ✦ 1 fl. first add up all the items (like radishes or lettuce leaves) you need to serve. you simply divide the AP ounces by 16. 3. so you would add 7 percent to the 78 ounces: 78 oz. or drained weights to a purchase unit: ✦ FORMULA 2 The formula for converting as-served cups to an as-purchased weight using ounces is as follows: (Cups needed Trimmed ounce weight per cup Trimmed ounces needed) Trim yield percentage for the base item AP amount in ounces Produce. The percentage yield of the base item (medium table carrots) is 81.5 percent to a halfgallon measure. C o m p a c t i o n Fa c t o r When cut vegetables are put into larger containers. whole radishes.7 oz. and the purchase unit of Napa cabbage is 1 head. oz. 107% 83. Purchasing. Another way to compute the amount to buy based on the number of cups yielded is to use the Number of Trimmed/Cleaned Cups per AP Unit column in the Vegetables table. ✦ 1 tbsp.7 oz. shredded. For example. Next go to that ✦ 4 qt. Given: You need to serve 20 cups of grated carrots. In general. ✦ 1 lb.9 ounces of fresh. oz.

The formula for making purchases using piece. The Vegetables table tells you that Bibb lettuce type yields nine such leaves per head. Then simply divide the number of pieces obtained from that purchase unit into the number of individual pieces you need to serve. based on the contents of food sold in number-10 cans. you will need two number-10 cans of tomato sauce. then. divide 45 by 9 to compute how many heads you will need to buy: 45 9 5 You need to buy or use five heads of Bibb lettuce to serve 45 Bibb lettuce leaves. you will need three whole number-10 cans of pimento pieces. The Canned Foods Weight-toVolume table shows that a number-10 can of tomato sauce contains 104. FORMULA 2 This formula is used to convert undrained ounces to the quantity of number-10 cans needed: AS undrained ounces needed AP # of cans Total net (actual) ounces per can Example Given: You need 210 ounces of tomato sauce. FORMULA 1 The formula for computing the quantity of number-10 cans needed based on USDA minimum drained weights is as follows: AS weight in drained ounces USDA drained weight per #10 can AP #10 cans Example Given: You are serving 222 ounces of canned pimento pieces.9 2 (rounded) Hence. or individual item. 1.9 ounces. counts is this: AS # of leaves or pieces Trimmed and/or culled count AP units to buy Example Given: You need 45 Bibb lettuce leaves for underliners. So. Divide the AS amount of 222 ounces by the USDA drained weight per can (74 ounces): 222 74 3 Clearly. FORMULA 3 To convert a volume of drained or undrained canned food to number10 cans. use this formula: (AS volumes needed Ounces per volume) Net or drained ounces per number-10 can AP number-10 cans Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . 210 104. PURCHASING FORMULAS FOR CANNED FOODS This section on canned foods contains three formulas.Purchasing Fresh Produce and Canned Foods 23 food’s listing in the appropriate table and see how many pieces are in the whole purchase unit. The Canned Foods (in number-10 cans) table shows there are 74 ounces of drained pimento pieces per number-10 can.

43 2.146 You need 14. The table shows that a cup of drained diced beets weighs 5.6 percent of a number-10 can. 2 pt. you need three jars. ✦ 1 fl.4 ounces.4 0. Drained ounces per AP container AP containers Ounces needed Example Given: You need 108 ounces of drained.67%).24 Chapter 2 Produce Use the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table for the data on the measurements. drained. The Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table shows that the can of diced beets contains 72. To calculate the number of AP jars to buy or use. FORMULA 1 You can use the drained weight method. PURCHASING MISCELLANEOUS CANNED BOTTLED PRODUCE ITEMS OR The Produce table includes some items that are canned or bottled.3 ounces. ✦ 1 lb. 16 c.51 You need two and a half jars. To determine how much of these foods to buy (or use). 2 c. 1 c. (Ounces needed Y%) Ounces per AP container AP containers Example 108 oz. 1 gal. 150.3 ounces equals 10. 180 60 3 Thus. Example Given: You need two cups of diced beets.6 ounces. These are often brined or marinated foods and are packed in containers other than number-10 cans. 16 tbsp. oz. 16 oz.6 72. 2 cups at 5. 4 c. divide the total ounces needed (108) by the drained ounces per jar. and then divide that amount by the ounces per AP container (60). oz. 2.7 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. FORMULA 3 0. The table shows that there are 60 pieces per container.7 oz.7167 60 150. oz.51 Count per Container method Count per AP container AP containers Count needed Example Given: You need 180 marinated artichoke hearts. FORMULA 2 Use the yield percentage method to determine the amount of jars to buy by dividing the number of ounces needed (108) by the Y%: (71. marinated artichoke hearts and you buy these in 60-ounce jars. Therefore. 3 tsp. 32 fl. 4 qt. 16 fl. ✦ 1 qt. oz. 2 tbsp. The Produce table shows that a 60 ounce jar of artichoke hearts yields 43 ounces. drained: 10. use the following formulae. ✦ . Divide 180 by 60. oz. 8 fl. 108 oz. 128 fl. ✦ 1 pt.

02 34 each 16 each 10.336 8.5 5.55 15.09% 97.6% 78. sliced.333 6. jumbo trimmed Asparagus.1 100.95 3.4% 57.52 8.158 8.9 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce each each each ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce each ounce each ounce each ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 16 15. white. standard whole Asparagus.9 15. long Asparagus. standard trimmed Asparagus. 8 in. long.00% 95.110 4.25 15. cooked Bamboo Shoot. green.10 4.75 5.3% 97.31% 96. puree Bamboo Root. white.844 5. cut AP Unit pound bag case case pound jar jar pound bag bag pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each each each each pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 16 18 36 9 60 60 16 5.5 each 9.5 5. sliced from whole.1% 3.250 2.8 4. whole Avocados.20 2. 1 in.5 0. for sprouting Alfalfa Sprouts Artichokes #18 (1 lb. 1/2 in.6% 56.00 1.25% 72.75 1.67% 96.5% 0. trimmed.19% 78. jumbo whole Asparagus. cleaned. drained Arugula Sprouts Arugula.95 0.67% 95.567 16.Ve g e t a b l e s 25 Vegetables Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Alfalfa seeds.4% 89. drained Artichoke Hearts.15 16 9 16 16 16 38 16 16 7 7 7 25.5% 94.5 14.1% 90. green Beans.019 0.85 1.94% 97.09% 59.5 each 35 each 9 each 43 80 each 15. Avocado. cleaned Arugula.2% 97.1% 88.920 5.971 71.053 4. 8 in. thin export whole Asparagus.866 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .6% 78.615 4. each) Artichokes #36 (8 oz.13 14. young leaves.5 13.70 2. marinated.85 1. chopped Asparagus.90 3.5 each 9. baby Artichoke Hearts.1 14.50 16.40 8. cored Basil Sprouts Bean Sprouts (Mung) Beans.15 5.800 67.6 0. peeled.25 17. sliced from whole piece Bamboo Shoot. dice Avocados.19% 95.679 2. cut to 5 in. marinated. each) Artichokes. young leaves. thin export trimmed Asparagus.9% 88.35 5 5 9.4 11.2% 6.6% 53.

667 97.38% 80. 2 tbsp. 8 fl.5 13. each Cabbage.653 2.00% 3.0% 80. chopped Carrots. oz.5 12. whole Broccoli.000 2.10 6 2.5 16 20 each 16. for sprouting Broccolini.977 5.3% 4.600 1 gal. bunch.9% 82.30 2.25 11 21 13. florets—chopped Broccoli seeds.800 9.2 17. green/red—shredded Cabbage.15 12 24 21.7 11. oz. florets Broccoli. drained Cardoon.59% 88. oz. regular Broccoli. shredded ~1/4 Capers.8% 82. 2 c. Savoy. 4 qt. Savoy Cabbage. 16 oz.8 13.47 12. nonpareil.8% 93. 16 c.000 81. ✦ . 2 pt.20 3.79 14.8% 67.2 20 15.9 29.50 4. green/red—chopped Cabbage.9 32 32 32 29. Chinese Broccoli.14% 51.2 16 20 16 40 40 40 34 34 36 36 7 35 16 16 16 ounce ounce each ounce each ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce each ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 10.8% 3. medium. baby. large Carrots.920 1.8% 100. cut and peeled Carrots. 32 fl.5 16 17. 16 tbsp. leaves Bitter Melon.30 12. ✦ 1 lb.105 2.9% 87. oz.5% 80.26 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Beets.3 12 leaves 12. Napa.99 8.7% 87. 16 fl. AP Unit pound head head each pound head each bunch each each pound bunch bunch pound pound bag head head head head head head head jar head pound pound pound 16 4 1 15. sliced Bok Choy. whole 2 in.0% 87.50 3. Sweet baby broccoli Broccolini.50 3.438 99.90 5. 1 c.7 21.20 4. Sweet baby broccoli.43% 62.8 4. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. baby Bok Choy. green/red Cabbage.5 13. Coleslaw mix Cabbage.9 29. diced 1/3 to 1/2 in.8% 62. ✦ 1 pt.5% 62.7 18 66 each 13 13 66.86% 91.00 2.4% 1.355 2. ✦ 1 fl.5 21. Napa Cabbage.828 4. trimmed Brussel Sprouts Brussel Sprouts. oz.0% 82.56 3. 4 c.3% 81. shredded ~1/4 Cabbage.400 4. diameter Belgian Endive Belgian Endive.697 2. 128 fl.0% 80.8 29. ✦ 1 qt.

75 16. medium. chopped Chard. chopped Chicory (Curly Endive) Cilantro Sprouts Cocktail Onions.5 4.81% 91.833 4.5 14 14 18.33 3.Ve g e t a b l e s 27 Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Carrots.00 3.944 1. juice yield of 1 lb.31% 56.095 8. stemmed.01 0. Red Swiss. Celery.1% 91.1% 85.543 16.1 30 30 19 19 32 32 16 1 32 15. sliced about 1/4 in.3% 62.55 10 each 81. long (slender).0% 65.75 12. whole Carrots.0% 83.5% 68.939 1. cut 1 florets Celeriac (Celery Root) Celeriac.60 5.20 12.00 8. large.550 4.22% 95.20 3.227 9 ounce top 28.5 22 22 10. scrubbed Carrots. jumbo Carrots.9 16. drained. grated Carrots. ground Carrots. whole.5% 60. long (slender).169 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . table. large.5 11.11 9.006 16. whole.3% 81.34% 3. large.20 1.172 2.0% 60. tops per bunch Chard. medium Carrots. stalks per bunch Celery. 6 in. medium Cauliflower Cauliflower. Swiss Chard. drained Cocktail Onions.25 9.90 5.3% 91.6% 81.3% 60.8 each 13 13 10. Carrots.08 35 each 4.8% 65.8 65.30 1. drained. cup count Cocktail Onions.15 15.3 18 18 11.80% 2. julienne Celery Celery.0% 10. 6 in.6 3. Carrots. baby Carrots.439 81.94% 4.9 12 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce each ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 13 13 14. petite.0% 60.70 3.500 1.830 3.95 16 16.8% 68. jar count Collard Greens AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each each head head head head bunch bunch pound bunch bunch bunch bunch bunch head pound jar jar jar bunch 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 5.6 24 each 48 each 7.95 5. Celery.61 13.9 16. whole. petite. Swiss. table.3% 81. diced 1/3 to 1/2 in. juice yield of 1 lb. topped.60 6.333 2.98% 99.9 4.

75 12. sliced Cucumber.85 1.0% 55.21 6. Edamame.041 90. 1 c.1% 47. ✦ 1 lb. sliced Dandelion Greens Dandelion Greens. 2 pt. whole.1% 98. whole. 16 tbsp.80 4.80 0. Japanese. peeled. ✦ 1 pt. cubed Eggplant.7% 2.28 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Collard Greens.2% 84.667 3.792 4.24 16 10 10 10 10 16 16 12.4 16 16 9 each 11.90 4. chopped 1/2 in.8 150 each 8.8 7.5 5. oz. fresh Garlic.05 2.7 4.05 14 14 14 16 11.5 5.1 2. ✦ 1 tbsp. chopped Fennel with 6 in.20 1.992 2.5 15.30% 83.6 13 7.05 17.50 3.000 73. stemmed Fennel. seeded.89% 92. Thai. 2 c. whole Eggplant.6 16 16 9.1% cloves 98.0% 93. peeled.7 15.402 5. ✦ 1 qt.05 6.78 4. diced Cucumber.30 1. sliced Garlic Garlic. 128 fl.0% 29.0% 98. Indian.068 1 gal.3 19 19 7.75 5. Fiddlehead Ferns Galangal. 16 fl.75 19.489 1.44% 95.770 9.45 19. oz.05 4.33 3. Indian. 4 qt.8 65.3 2. hulled (fresh Soybeans) Eggplant.7% 55. fresh niblets Cranberry Beans in pods Cucumber Cucumber.32% 84. oz.3 each 8.40 5.105 0.1 1.0% 88.5 9. cubed Eggplant. oz.1 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 7. quartered Escarole. ✦ 1 fl.44% 1.0% 95. sliced Eggplant.2% 90.8 5 8.140 2.870 1.7 6. ✦ .85 12 15. 8 fl.2 5. sliced Cucumber. 32 fl.75% 3.90 5. cloves per head Garlic Cloves.159 1. peeled.95 9. 2 tbsp. stemmed. peeled Eggplant.0% 53. 4 c. English Cucumber.60% 60. chopped Corn Cob. English. oz.15 3.90 2.9% 55.979 2. peeled.6 14.1 2. stem Fennel.517 1. chopped.68 3.693 4.45% 47. 3 tsp. 16 oz. already peeled AP Unit bunch whole pound each each each each each each bunch bunch carton pound pound bag each each bag head head head head pound piece head head head jar 12 17.55 9.455 4.45% 90. 16 c.0% 55. sliced 1/4 in. seeded.

peeled and roasted Garlic.05 42 each 13.50% 93.9% 46. whole Hojas (dry corn husks) Horseradish Root. 1 in.36 5. bagged AP Unit jar jar each jar bag bag pound bag pound pound pound pound pound bunch bunch bunch pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound head head head bag 16 16 7.4 14. Lemon Grass.7 98.63% 90.00% 100.8 4. minced Lemon Grass. green.075 2.95 1.28% 1.7 15. for sprouting Lettuce.5 7.6 11 11 13 24 leaves 12 12 7.05 2.0% 98.05 252 each 64 each 11.40 2.50% 68. leaves on Kohlrabi.5 7 7 10.336 3.640 60. Butter/Bibb 5 in. peeled.8% 65.5 4. whole Lentil seeds.4 16 8 16 16 16 16 16 12 20 20 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 6 6 6 5. peeled Horseradish Root. flowering. leaves Lettuce. Bibb.50% 72.085 80.8% 81. European Baby Greens.38% 6.00% 100.596 2.30 2.8 5.8% 43. cross-sliced 1/4 in. leaves Kale.595 1.0% 46.2 2.8 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 15. shredded Jerusalem Artichoke Jerusalem Artichoke.10 3. sliced Leeks Leeks. chopped Kohlrabi.6 7.6 11. trimmed Lemon Grass.0% 60.696 90. green Kale.3% 5.Ve g e t a b l e s 29 Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Garlic Cloves.35 3.13% 97.8% 68.896 72.63% 3. Butter/Bibb.0% 80.05 13. Lettuce.462 4.00% 65. in oil Garlic.4 6 each 16 9 leaves 4. Elephant Grape Leaves.55 8 14.70 1.410 4. lengths Haricots Verts. chopped.071 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .00% 6.4 10.258 3. bottled Haricots Verts Haricots Verts. sliced Jicama Kale.9% 43.05 9.85 2. chopped Lettuce.

385 1.56% 74. leaves Lotus Root Malanga. 16 oz.13 16 9.667 73. 128 fl. 16 c. Iceberg. 2 pt.00 22 each 416 each 72 each 5. red cabbage mix. Oyster. Morels.89 14.50 1.83% 94. Redleaf Lettuce. Crimini. 8 fl.94 4. stemmed Mushrooms.0% 75.5 10.5 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 13 13 12 leaves 19 24 19 5.7 85. oz.89 12 each 15.6 26 5.56% 73. whole Mushrooms. 1 c. Greenleaf Lettuce. Crimini. peeled Malanga.4 15 each 81.30 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Lettuce. Greenleaf. ✦ . Romaine.6 5. stems tipped Mushrooms.000 80.80 2. Portobello 2 in.95 6. medium. Crimini.405 4.619 2.95 5. w/stems. carrot. large. chopped Lettuce.00 9.895 7.67% 3.616 93. oz. leaves Lettuce. oz.56% 73. AP Unit head head head head bag head bag head head head head head head each pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound bag pound basket basket bag pound 16 16 16 26 24. Lion’s Mane.5 7.2 5.95 1. ✦ 1 pt.3% 81. dry Mushrooms.893 1 gal.4 14 14 14 24 24 24 5 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 5.1% 99. Oyster. Morels. chopped Lettuce.35 10. Mâche Blend: (Mâche. Iceberg Lettuce. fresh Mushrooms.00% 94. 3 tsp.5 12 leaves 18 18 16 leaves 4 11. 32 fl. ✦ 1 tbsp. Romaine Lettuce. ✦ 1 qt.31% 2.85 75. Iceberg.0% 75. 16 tbsp. Redleaf. 2 c.0% 2.744 3. sliced Mushrooms.0% 1. leaves Lettuce. 2 tbsp.77 11. each Mushrooms. oz.38 74.5 5.1% 97. sliced Mushrooms.77 11. oz. Romaine.3% 1.31% 89.200 2.8 7. Greenleaf. Redleaf. sliced 1/2 in. bagged Lettuce.8 5. dry Mushrooms. pieces Mushrooms.3 11. each Mushrooms. chopped Lettuce. peeled.10 1. 4 c. ✦ 1 fl.5 2.07% 75. ✦ 1 lb.90 0. thinly sliced Mushrooms. chopped Lettuce. Frisee. 16 fl. 4 qt. Porcini.83% 98.769 0.75% 2.0% 73. Radicchio) Lettuce.

00 5.963 93.5 14.4 10 each 14.50 3. white Mushrooms. Cipollini. Kalamata.4 2.833 90.5 13.8% 93.Ve g e t a b l e s 31 Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Mushrooms. Shiitake.45 3.000 4.38% 84. Kalamata.6% 90. whole Olives. with pits Onions.0% 91. diced Onions. bulb.85 13.600 2.6% 90. dried Mushrooms. peeled Onions. stem trimmed Mushrooms. whole Mustard Greens Mustard Greens.9% 3. bulb Onions.5 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 46 each 12.8% 75.8 3.50 3. small.5 14.00% 5. sliced Onions. boiling. each large Onions.0% 75.9 100.15% 1. trimmed Okra.2 2.38% 3. bulb. white.0% 89. dried Mushrooms.40 6. dehydrated. Shiitake. culled.8% 93. pitted Olives.6 16 16 16 16 12 12 22. Okra. trimmed.5 25 each 45 each 15 ounce 15 ounce 15 ounce 9 9 19.330 90.718 3.48 13 each 16 12.5 15. boiling. each Mushrooms. white.5 6.75% 3.86 2. peeled Onions. peeled Onions.750 4.6 2.6% 90.083 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .2% 88. whole Onions. chopped Nopales (Cactus leaves) Okra. bulb. 1/2 in.412 80. sliced Mushrooms.1 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 13.38% 96. each small Onions.82% 84.6% 96.9 2. Green AP Unit pound pound package package pound pound pound pound bunch bunch bag pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each each bunch 16 16 2. Shiitake Mushrooms. sliced 1/2 in.90 4.5 46 each 184 each 92 each 14.857 2.5% 82.5 3.00 3. chopped Onions.5 14. Cipollini. diced Onions.7 7. 1/4 in. Shiitake.

50% 93.9% 2.04 14.56% 81. Pearl Parsnips Parsnips.10 3.75% 87. Habañero.4 1.16 82. 7 oz. Jalapeño. chopped Peas.3% 81. whole. cored. 1 c.96 14. ✦ 1 qt.5% 84. Snow. Green. diced Peppers.8% 4.500 4.143 86.50 2. oz. 128 fl.063 6.400 76.04 52 each 6.96 26 each 12.85 13 13 13 14. Brunoise Peppers.25 3. whole Peppers. Habañero.872 6. Jalapeño Rings. 16 oz. seedless Peppers. sliced Peas. Jalapeño.618 12 14. canned. sliced Peppers. sliced w/seeds Peppers.20 2. oz.455 3.04 14. Snap. 2 tbsp.5 13.9 2.00 1. Pasilla.96 14. each Onions.32 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Onions.647 55.70 2. stemmed Peppers. Anaheim 7 in. ✦ 1 lb. Green. Jalapeño. rings Peppers. seeded. ✦ 1 pt. each Peas. Green. seeded AP Unit bunch bunch basket pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound can can pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 3.0% 7.96 14.3% 87. drained Peppers. 16 tbsp. chopped. chopped Peppers. chopped Peppers. Habañero. Jalapeño.50% 93. sliced. Jalapeño Rings. seedless Peppers. ✦ 1 tbsp.00% 93.686 3. chopped w/seeds Peppers.50% 93. chopped Onions. 3 tsp. 4 qt.3 13. 32 fl.96 14. 2 pt.450 84. Green Bells. each Peppers. Peppers.286 50. Habañero.50% 4.75% 3. whole Peppers.3% 81. Jalapeño. 16 c.75% 87.5 15 15 90 each 120 each 8 8 each 13.20 3. 2 c.80 3.989 3.818 4. stemmed Peppers. 4 c. canned undrained Peppers. ✦ 1 fl. oz.4% 93.00% 1 gal.85 2. 1/6 in.55 8. Green. all. 16 fl.8% 93.5 11 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 2.50% 93.8 3.645 5. Jalapeño. oz.75 3. ✦ .455 1. oz. 8 fl. Snap Peas.00 1.20 3.343 4.5 3. Anaheim. Snap. whole. Peppers.836 5.9 7 each 9.15% 100.4% 84.

Serrano.4% 86. 2 to 2-3/4 in. peeled. White Rose. White Rose. cubed into eighths Potatoes. Serrano.25 3. whole Potatoes.17% 5.50 1. Black. each) Pumpkin. whole Peppers.87 8 4 each 76.75% 4.022 63. Red.16 5 each 13. stemmed Radicchio Radish. sliced Peppers.537 99.1% 78.200 84.1% 78.5 13.000 6. new.30 3.0% 5.000 3.404 5.336 2.500 2.250 97. fingerling.00 5.88 13.1% 100.60 3. julienne Peppers.60 2. size A. Baker-Russet Potato. Serrano.15 2.0% 1. Red.5 12 8.5 13.44% 92. Potatoes.5 16 16 14 each 15.1% 78. peeled.8 3.Ve g e t a b l e s 33 Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Peppers.75% 86.50 3.00% 3.000 2.5 12. dehyd. miniature (6. whole Purslane Purslane. whole Potatoes.4 3. Pasilla. chopped fine w/seeds Peppers.20 7. Peppers.091 3. stemmed Peppers.4% 84.10 2. whole Potato.653 78.77 each 15. Red.7 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 12. Red.0% 55. peeled. 10 oz. chopped Peppers.8 3.87 4 each 11 each 2. diced Peppers.5 13.00 6. Red. granules Potatoes. sliced Potatoes.0% 100.00 8. flakes Potatoes. diced 3/8 in. size A. Pasilla.0% 75.083 2. whole Peppers.88 106 each 32 each 12.5 13. Small Creamers Pumpkins. whole Potatoes. dehyd.4% 84.35 each 60. diameter AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each pound pound head pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 96 16 16 8.4% 84. diced Potato.5 12.8 oz.667 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . shredded Potato.20 3. Red Bells.5 12.50% 6. new. Yellow-Hot.750 4.

21% 63. sliced—trimmed Radish. sliced Ramps (Wild Leeks) Rhubarb Rhubarb.5 10. Red.1 5.00% 3. oz.80 75. diced Shallots. Baby.96% 75. diced 1/4 in.130 9. ✦ 1 pt.6% 76.6% 98. 16 c.3% 81. Stemmed.83 10. diameter Radish.10% 98.5 12. firm. Daikon Radish.21% 80.68 1. Easter Egg.3% 81. 16 tbsp.45 3.83 12. cubed Rutabaga Rutabaga.30 17 each 12 each 79. 16 oz.514 2. 2 tbsp.3% 81. oz. ✦ .200 14.889 3.096 11. 4 c.10% 63.33% 96. 3/4 in.738 4. oz. stemmed. ✦ 1 tbsp. Brunoise Rutabaga. 1 c. 2 in.7 13 13 13 13 14 9. whole Radish. julienne Salsify (Oyster Plant) Shallots. 16 fl.6 each 12.675 4. grated Radish.1 88. large 1 3/8 in.60 0.117 3.60% 3. Acorn Squash.85 1.50 3. Banana AP Unit pound each bunch bunch bunch bunch pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound package pound pound bag pound pound each 16 16 11.619 3.70 3. stemmed Sorrel leaves. Rutabaga.quartered lengthwise Radish. peeled.000 2.5 9.40 4.10 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 12 16 16 9.955 2.6 16 16 116 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 8. 128 fl.2 1.34 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Radish.1 92.00% 4. Watermelon. sliced crosswise Sorrel leaves.8 15.5% 4.00 45 each 4 stalks 14.68 14 7. oz. whole Shallots. ✦ 1 qt.9% 65. peeled.630 1 gal. Red.0% 81. ✦ 1 fl. chopped Soy Bean Curd (Tofu).000 3.3 ounce ounce ounce ounce 12.9 4. 2 pt.096 10.3 11. 3 tsp. cubed Squash. Acorn.1 12.25% 87. bagged Squash.3% 87.868 2.5% 64.145 6. Radish. Watermelon.77 80. oz.50 4. 32 fl.6 each 12. 2 c.Easter Egg.5 2. 8 fl. peeled. 4 qt. cubes Soybean Sprouts Spinach Spinach. Black.0% 92.6% 75.178 2. ✦ 1 lb.

Butternut.4 11. dice Taro Root.4 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 22.25 22.1 2.94% 94.51% 68. 1/4 in.4 14.75 15.5 19.90 4.10 2.Ve g e t a b l e s 35 Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Squash.2 15.4 6 each 19.797 3. peeled Squash.5% 71. whole Taro Root Taro Root. Kabocha.000 4.885 6.70 2.05 19.0% 95. dice Taro Root. Crookneck.62% 85.75 4. seeded Squash.947 3. sliced Squash.95 3.7 11.8% 93.431 3. Hubbard.05 19.62% 85. Patty Pan (Summer) Squash.6 15. Patty Pan sliced Squash.0% 77.25 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 13. diameter Tomato.25 22. large AP Unit pound pound bag pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each each each each pound pound pound 16 16 24.0% 93.50% 4.60 4.62% 87. Zucchini Squash.927 95.0% 5.80 3.2 15 15 15 12 12 12.64% 97.67 15.5% 4.4% 84.05 19. Hubbard Squash. sliced Sweet Potato Sweet Potato.5 11 15.897 2. 1/2 in.8 16 16 16 16 16 16 16.8% 93. Zucchini.62% 85.5% 97.90 3. chopped Squash.3% 71.202 85.20 3.935 4. Crookneck Squash. Cherry.536 4. Peeled.70 5.254 4. cubed Squash.88% 72.4% 79.553 2.95 5. sliced Squash. sliced Taro Corm. cubed Taro Corm. Butternut Squash. cubed Squash.5 15. seeded. Spaghetti Squash.3% 91. shredded Tomatillos Tomatillos. Zucchini.00 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Summer.5 13.0% 75.4 16. Kabocha.51% 94. 1 in.90 2. sliced Squash.8% 95. each 1 1/2 in.6 11.780 3.8% 75.25 22. Summer Squash.05 14 10 each 22 each 84. Chayote.

Garnet. peeled Yuca. peeled. drained Tomatoes.777 92.31% 71.75 6. 16 c. pieces Yam. oz.76 12. dice AP Unit pound pint pound jar jar pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 11.8% 81.514 1.724 1 gal.73 11. oz. sliced Yam. Roma Tomatoes.8 2. Tomatoes.48% 5.127 87. 2 tbsp.2 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 66 each 82 each 16 12.50 3.8% 93. sliced Turnips Turnips. julienne. ✦ 1 fl.327 16 15.00% 98.00 5. Roma. Cherry. Roma. 16 tbsp. Sun-dried. whole.20 2. seeded.75 0. oz. 8 fl.5 14. 2 pt. ✦ .85 2.5 11. peeled. oz. 4 qt. peeled.9% 71. 2 c. chopped Tomatoes. 32 fl.8% 93. cored and peeled Tomatoes. (5 6) cored Tomatoes. Turnips.50% 4.53 12. grated very fine Water Chestnuts Water Chestnuts.571 5. 16 oz.75 2. ✦ 1 qt. (5 6) per pound Tomatoes.4% 93.0% 77.3% 81.6 2.00 1. 4 c. 1/4 in.31% 4.70 4.31% 78.632 3.36 Chapter 2 Produce Vegetables (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Units Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight or Count Yield Percent Trimmed/ Cleaned Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Tomato.80 3 each 14. 128 fl. Garnet.13 4.9 each 14 12.4% 42. 1 c. julienne Wasabi Root.3% 78.00% 100.3% 73. 3 tsp.435 4. peeled Yuca.04% 100. ✦ 1 lb.000 2. Garnet.326 2. diced Tomatoes. Sun-dried—dry Tomatoes. oz.55 15 15 15 13 13 13 11. julienne. Grape Tomato.3% 81. juice yield of 1 lb. 1/3 in. ✦ 1 pt. 5 6.333 5.53 95. whole Yam.310 8.614 2. Sun-dried.3 7.70 8.0% 98.5% 78. peeled. cut in 1 1/2 in.90 2.40 5. small Tomato.177 8. diced.9% 87.889 3.35 2. in oil Tomatoes. ✦ 1 tbsp. 16 fl.

Asparagus: Whole asparagus items show the yield after culling (discarding unservable stalks) but before trimming off the stalk ends. and a pint of cleaned pearl onions weighs 9 ounces. and so on—are based on medium table-size carrots. Bibb. 5.Trimming the ends yields about 63% of the whole asparagus. Carrots: Breakdowns of carrots—diced. Strings and trim: 12%. Pearl: There are about 30 trimmed. grated. Potato: Russet. peeled pearl onions per pint. 8. Lettuce. Tomatoes. 3. 4. trimmed asparagus item yields reflect both the culling and stalk-end trimming. Roma: Trim is from removing the ends. but not trimming.There are 66 each 4–6 inch beans per pound. exclusive of heart leaves. Onion.Ve g e t a b l e s Notes 37 1. AP. 2. Beans. 9. Green: Green beans are the Blue Lake variety. whereas the “whole” asparagus item yields reflect just that amount remaining after culling. So. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . peeled and eyed. Leaves: All lettuce leaf values are large leaves. 7. Peppers: Brunoise: Interior membrane of peppers has been sliced off as part of the cutting. 6. Cucumber: Ends are trimmed to obtain the yield percentage.

peeled.38 14. oz.3 4.58 2. diced Apples.788 3.49 6. Red. Golden Delicious. Red Delicious. cored.979 4.85 14.770 2. cored.25% 72.82 11.883 69.88% 73.88% 73. 3 tsp.69 3. diced Apples. cored.11 14.6 12. 88 count.9% 100.2 15.61% 69.56 11. oz. 80 count.81% 92. cored. Red Delicious. Macintosh. Dwarf (finger). 88 count Apples. peeled.3 1.905 1. Fiji. Red Delicious. 88 count.1 8. sliced Apples.88% 89.81% 92.44% 74. 1 c.73 3.91 11.38 14.042 3. sliced Bananas.44% 56.58 10.25% 89. Chips.96 62. sliced Bananas. cored.58 5 each 99. peeled. ✦ 1 qt.38 Chapter 2 Produce Fruit Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Applesauce Apples.85 14. 88 count. Dwarf (finger) Bananas. Fuji. 80 count. ✦ 1 tbsp. 2 pt. diced Apples.3 2. sliced Apples. 80 count Apples.169 4 3.3% 8.56 14. peeled. Burro.7 14.55 2. dry Banana. juice yield of 1 Lb.92 3.2 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 110 11.91 11.88% 72. sliced Apples. 16 fl.88% 89.88% 91.6 4 each 9. peeled.0% 100. peeled. Fiji. cored. Macintosh.73 3. 16 oz.25% 72. ✦ . 88 count. ✦ 1 lb.2 21. 88 count. 2 c. sliced Apples.38 14. ✦ 1 pt.890 2. 5 in. peeled Bananas.56 11.344 3.98 11 each 10.0% 74. peeled. peeled.88 2. 80 count. cored. oz. ✦ 1 fl.85 11.046 3. cored.2 3.46 4. Fiji. 4 c. 88 count Apples.88 3.82 11.325 1 gal. oz. 80 count.91 9.81% 73. cored.38% 5.3 4.61% 4.82 11. 16 c. 2 tbsp.2 15. Golden Delicious.0% 66. diced Apples. Golden Delicious.9% 91.981 3.44% 74. 16 tbsp.80 4. long AP Unit #10 can pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound bunch pound bunch bunch bunch bunch 111 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 19. 8 fl. 32 fl. Apples. Granny Smith. diced Apples. cored. Macintosh. 88 count. oz. dry Bananas Bananas. peeled. 128 fl. Granny Smith.424 5. peeled. 88 count Apples.75 2. Burro.97% 92. Dwarf (finger). Granny Smith.15 16 15.7 16 16 10. 80 count Apples. 4 qt. peeled. each Bananas. sliced Apricots Apricots. peeled. halves Apricots. halves.

8% 51.38% 42.60 3.4 2.2 5.5 14.29 5 5.93 1.74 2. Cranberries.83 3. juice yield of 1 lb.04 3.0% 100.38 5. whole Cranberries. juice yield of 1 lb.28 10.4 3.95 3.47 15. sweet Citron.16 3.0% 96. long. Red and White Dates Dates.9% 100. chopped Dates.20 0. candied.9% 90.0% 87.6 15.859 2.02 1.3% 100.945 2. pitted.08 4. whole Currants. juice yield of 1 lb.56% 100.2 16 12.Fruit 39 Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Bananas. pitted.80 3.0% 90.1 70.46 4.4 14.92 5.25 3.11 6.64 14.07 3.30 16 4.0% 41.0% 100.61 7.47 15.3 16 14 15. frozen Blackberries.0% 100.91% 96.50% 89.3 7.00 3.0% 78.56% 42.4 11.08 2.3 5.5 19.5 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 11. sliced Bananas.4 16 15.3 16 16 6.532 4.5 5. Dry Zante Currants. 5 in.5% 99.35 5.0% 40.27 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .73 5.75 1.0% 90. dried Cherries.0% 27.52% 66.0% 93.371 5 8.44% 95.20 3.56 2. dried Blueberries. Blueberries Blueberries.48 15 8.544 2. grated Coconut. fresh.1 4. frozen Blueberries.4 14. Boysenberries Boysenberries.4% 100.3% 95. fresh. whole Feijoa AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each each pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 19.02 0.14 3. dried Cranberries. Red.73 5 5. sliced Blackberries Blackberries.2 16 6.368 3.9 8.5 1.3 7.0% 69. frozen Breadfruit Carambola (StarFruit) Cherimoya Cherries.30 8.80 5. diced Coconut.

3 tsp. oz.4% 66. juice.3 8. Red.8 16 15.38% 99.18 69.3% 41.95 4.0% 99. seedless.8% 41. oz. seedless Grapes. yield of 1 pound Limes. ✦ .68 12. Red.4 3.8% 100.3 0.8 2. Lemons.62 4 each 1. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 qt.4% 6.65 6 7.20 0.02 6.650 0. 16 c.1 15.796 each 11.3 0.76 4. 4 c.7 each 42. ✦ 1 pt. 32 fl. 4 qt. juice. 2 tbsp.27 1.80 84.45 2. 8 fl. juice yield of 1 lb. yield of 1 each Limes. 2 c. ✦ 1 lb. oz.9 7 15 14. juice.4 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce cup ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 9. yield 1 pound Lemons.3 15 each 13. by cup Kumquats. 2 in.3 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 1 16 4 16 16 4 16 16 3. yield 1 each Lemons.187 2.17 0. by pound Lemons. 165 count whole Lemons.5 16 each 15 1.96 6. flesh Lemons.8 5. ✦ 1 fl. 16 oz. 16 fl.0% 43.5 6.38% 5.391 2. sliced Kumquats.9 4 each 1.5 13.77% 80.165.81 49.5 5. 1 c.0% 34.6% 93.35 9 5. Meyer. Meyer. whole Limes.24 3. oz. diameter AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound each pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound cup pound each pound pound each pound pound each pound pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 13.4% 34.3 10.38% 98. juice yield 1 lb. 2 pt.3% 8. crystallized.037 1 gal.9 15. oz. by count Feijoa. sliced Key Lime.63 4.4% 8. chips Grapefruit Grapes.28 2.4% 39. juice.67 0. peeled and sliced Figs Figs. Green.3 8. candied Ginger.821 93.40 0. juice yield of 1 pound Key Limes Kiwi Fruit Kiwi Fruit.65 6.4% 84.13% 8. ✦ 1 tbsp.97 7. seedless Grapes.21 5.2 5 2.40 Chapter 2 Produce Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Feijoa.38% 52. dried Fruit Cake mix. Guava Jackfruit Jackfruit.4% 42.44 6.8% 89. 128 fl.

3 6.38% 57. Watermelon Melon.58 6.4% 49.2 9. cubed Melon. peeled.5% 58.3 16 16 16 16 8.1% 37.7 8. Honeydew.8 3 each 7. Honeydew Melon.3% 57. Sweet Tuscan 3/4 in.6 9.709 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . whole Melon. cubed Melon. Crenshaw.69% 61. sliced Oranges.89 49.24 12 12 6.8 1.5 10. peeled AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound each pound pound pound pound each pound pound pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 90.8% 68.5% 57.0% 37. cubed Melon. Cantaloupe.6% 37. sliced Melon.5 5.9 9. Pepino.4% 59.39% 63.5 9.1% 43.Fruit 41 Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Litchi Nut Loquats Mango Mango.05 0. juice yield 1 lb. Casaba Melon.14 0.65 0. Blood. diced Melon Pepino.3 6.817 2.0% 68.23 9.0% 75.3 2.21% 39.2 15.9 62. diced Oranges.6 10.5% 80.4% 66.47 10. Cantaloupe Melon.94 10. Melon.96 1. juice yield of 1 lb. cubed Melon.8% 58. juice yield 1# (pound) 72 count Oranges.00% 5.2 8.4% 69.25 5.8 1.3% 66. Cantaloupe.3 6 9.39 2.50% 59.83 6 1. Oranges. 72 count Orange Peel. Watermelon. cubed Melon. juice yield of 1 lb. ball Melon.965 0.36 5.00% 75. Crenshaw Melon.4 11 11 9. seedless.9 5 1.72 0.0% 65.565 1. seeded.2 12. cubed Melon.82 1.9 7. seedless. juice yield of 1.56 2. Watermelon.6% 99.112 5.50 6. cubed Melon.560 5.012 5. Casaba.5 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 9. Cantaloupe. candied.65 8.89 60.6 10.16 9.3 8.6 8. Nectarines Nectarines.81% 5. Watermelon. Blood. Cantaloupe.01 3.

cored.55 2. diced Pears.00% 81.815 each 10. ✦ .92 14.663 5. cored. slices—dry Pears. peeled.61 5.702 5. 32 fl. 4 qt. Blood. 2 tbsp. seeded Peaches. oz. 72 count Oranges.56% 81.44 13.47 2.0% 74. 8 fl. sliced Persimmon. ✦ 1 lb. ✦ 1 tbsp. Comice. oz. sliced Pears.819 6.477 2. 90 count. Valencia.8 2. 16 oz. Valencia.46 0.24 14. 1/2 in. Comice. 100 count.24 12.02 2.3 5. 100 count.1% 78. 16 tbsp. Asian.8 1. oz.92 11. 90 count Pears. Comice.1 4. Fuyu Persimmon. cored. cubed Passion Fruit Paw Paw. diced Pears. no membrane Oranges. cored.56% 81.9 8. Oranges. peeled.30 0.509 2. 1 c. seeded Peaches. peeled.61 12. Navel.9% 66. Bosc. diced Pears. Bosc. 90 count. whole Papaya Papaya.61 12.81% 78. 16 c.00% 89. peeled. 90 count.00% 89.81% 34.08 4. cored.1% 100. 100 count Pears.05 2.24 14. juice yield of 1 Lb.7 10.5 12. Asian.6% 42. 90 count.559 2. oz. peeled.98 2. 128 fl.52% 66.88% 63. 2 c. sliced Pears. whole Oranges.618 5.7 11.13% 78.2 5.859 6 4 4.00% 78. sliced Peaches.75 4.50% 89. sections.190 62..42 Chapter 2 Produce Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Oranges.3 each 10 5. juice yield of 1 lb.573 0. cored.75 4.1 0. d’Anjou. Pears.81% 78.96 93. 72 count Oranges. diced Pears.05 13.8% 37.96 each 14. peeled.05 13.9% 74.00 2.94 12. ✦ 1 pt. 72 count. 90 count Pears. Mexican (large).50% 8.620 8. 1/4 in.50% 74.5 16 11.9 2. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. cubed Papaya. Bosc. 16 fl.90 1 gal.5 10. oz. Fuyu AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 3.201 2.4% 65. Comice. 4 c. peeled. 72 count. d’Anjou. 3 tsp.56% 5.5% 34. slices Pears.73 4.5 6. ✦ 1 fl. peeled. d’Anjou. Valencia.98 10.

4 2.75 16 16 15. whole Red Cherries.9% 28.25 8. fresh. by count Sapotes Soursop Strawberries Strawberries. Red Cherries.6% 24. Red Tamarind.55 1.88 6.36 6. pitted Quince Raisins.0% 60.67 7. sectioned (membranes removed) Prickly Pear Fruit Prunes.651 70.Fruit 43 Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Persimmon.614 each 14. peeled.5 3.25 6.970 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .7 24 whole 5.7 14. whole.825 8.9 5.14 2.3 7. Hachiya Pineapple.9% 100.9% 5. sliced Pomegranates Pomelo.99 15.55 30.7 10 14.0% 90. peeled and cored.5 14.9% 91. packed down Raspberries Raspberries.373 4.51 92.9% 66.7 14.8 4.7 3.48 1.7 14. cubed Plantains Plums Plums. Candied.1 5.1 4.9 98 each 11.9% 91.0% 95.93 11 16 9.76 3.9% 90.74 1.9% 62.35 10. juice yield of 1 lb. whole.0% 55.500 1. pureed Strawberries.46% 45.9% 91.85 2.55 27.94% 99. not packed Raisins. medium Tamarillo. Pineapple.45 0.8 5.81 81.4 9. halves Strawberries.56 5.80 11.50% 91.55 5.8% 100.4 14.86% 68. sliced Strawberries.98% 73.56 0.88 11. Red Tamarillo.89% 24.88 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 13.6 16 16 16 16. Strawberries.56% 71.762 0.0% 100.533 5. juice yield of 1 lb. juice yield of 1 lb.506 2.86 2.38% 5. peeled with seeds AP Unit pound pound each pound pound pound each each pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 16 67.3 3.81% 7. Candied.

oz. 16 fl.00 1. 3. ✦ 1 qt. paste with seeds Tangelo. 2. oz. 16 oz.5 each 12. Lemons: One pound of raw lemons yields 6. sectioned Tangerines. peeled. Mineola Tangelo.01 avoirdupois ounces juice (or 5. oz.73% 12. use the cups purchasing formula for more efficiency in determining how much raw citrus to buy for an as-served volume of juice.677 1.317 77. fresh. whole Tangerine. Citrus Juices—Purchasing Formulas: The ounce measures shown are ounces by weight. ✦ 1 pt. count Tangerine. oz. ✦ 1 lb. 2 c.76 fluid ounces). multiply the number of weighed ounces by 0. 4 c. Apricots: These are pitted to obtain the yield. Fluid ounces can be substituted. Coconuts: Coconut water yield is approximately 20% of its AP weight. Use waste if possible. ✦ 1 tbsp.25% 5. 1 gal. 6. Clementine variety. Satsuma.74 each 3.When working with fluid ounces. 128 fl.38% 98.96 to arrive at its fluid-ounce equivalent. peeled. 3 tsp. Oranges: There are 10 to 12 sections in an orange (10 of full size). whole Tangerines. Limes: One pound of limes yields 6.There are usually 10 sections in a lemon. sections each Notes AP Unit pound pound pound pound pound pound pound pound 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce ounce 5.36 11 per each 35. 8 fl. seedless Tamarind. ✦ 1 fl. ✦ .75% 66.247 1. There are usually 10 sections in a lime.62 avoirdupois ounces juice (or 6. One pound of 72-count oranges yields 6. 2. 5.35 fluid ounces). 4 qt.5 2. Satsuma. 2 tbsp. 4. 16 c. 32 fl.8 10. Satsuma. Melon Balls: Balling reduces melon yields from 55–60% to 35–40%. 1 c.89 each 3.66 15. One cup equals 13 standard balls. 16 tbsp. but remember that a weighed ounce is about 95% of a fluid ounce of juice.44 Chapter 2 Produce Fruit (Continued) Number of Measures per AP Unit Measure per AP Unit Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight or Count per AP Unit Yield Percent Trimmed/Cleaned Avoirdupois Ounce Weight per Cup Number of Trimmed/ Cleaned Cups per AP Unit Item Name Tamarind. 2 pt. To convert a weight ounce (avoirdupois) to a fluid ounce.49 fluid ounces). Mineola.76 avoirdupois ounces juice (or 6. oz.

julienne 96 62 64 60. size 1 to 3 Beets. regular pack in heavy syrup Carrots.Fruit 45 Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) USDA Recommended Drained Weight Minimum in Ounces per #10 Can Item Apples. whole. mixed or short cut Beans. unpeeled in heavy syrup Apricots. whole. Green or Wax. heavy pack in light syrup or water Boysenberry. or water Asparagus. french cut Beans. cut Beans. juice. 1.2 68 60 59 63 57. whole. 1/4 in. unpeeled in light syrup. whole.5 60. whole Beans. halves or slices. Lima. juice. whole. juice. Green or Wax. center cuts and tips Beans. Green or Wax. peeled in light syrup. peeled in heavy syrup Apricots. sliced Apricots. Carrots. 3/8 in. Beets. Beets. diced.4 62 60 61. size 4 to 6 Blackberries. sliced medium. halves or slices in heavy syrup Apricots. heavy pack in light syrup or water Blackberries. fresh Beans. regular pack in heavy syrup Blueberries Blueberries. whole. or water Apricots. julienne Beets. Kidney Beans. diced.5 68 72 68 72 68 68 69 68 74 62 55 70 55 72 68 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .5 in. Green or Wax. light syrup. or water Apricots. Pinto Beets. 3/8 in. Garbanzo Beans.

Tart. 1 c. pitted in water or juice Cherries. diced. ripe. or water Corn. dark and light.15 64. 70 count or less Figs. super-colossal Olives. whole. ripe. 128 fl. sliced Carrots. colossal. oz. Sweet. regular pack in light syrup or water Mushrooms. super-colossal Olives. pitted. whole Cherries. colossal. 23 count or less in light syrup. oz. large.2 72 66. 16 oz. chopped Olives. ripe. ✦ 1 tbsp. Kadota. ✦ 1 fl.46 Chapter 2 Produce Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) (Continued) USDA Recommended Drained Weight Minimum in Ounces per #10 Can Item Carrots. grade A Corn. light. Sweet. whole. medium. pitted. ✦ . 2 tbsp. grades B and C Figs. 4 c. small. Red. Kadota. 8 fl. sliced. halves. Clingstone. or water 68 68 70. all media Peaches. 16 c. 23 count or less in heavy syrup Peaches. 71 count or more Fruit Cocktail (in all packing media) Fruits for salad (in all media) Grapes. seedless (in all packing media) Hominy. halves. 100 to 199 count (small) Onions. ripe.5 62 72 60 61 90 49 51 64 66 55 63 64 60 70 65 67 1 gal.5 70 70 72 63 66 71. juice. unpitted in light syrup. 2 pt. small. 16 fl. oz. ✦ 1 lb. Clingstone. whole. large. pitted in syrup Cherries. Tart. 200 count (tiny) Onions. stems and pieces Olives. extra-large Olives. extra-large Olives. whole kernel. whole. whole. juice. oz. ripe. medium. 3 tsp. jumbo. 80 to 99 count (medium) Peaches. 32 fl. jumbo. ✦ 1 pt. 4 qt. whole kernel. pitted in heavy syrup Cherries. 2 c. 16 tbsp. style I Loganberry. oz. whole. quartered Onions. ✦ 1 qt. wedges. Red. Clingstone.

light syrup.5 68. diced in all media Pears. Freestone. Clingstone.5 71 70 72 70 72 74 74 71.1 65. halves. light syrup. Field and Blackeye Peas Peas.5 68. halves.75 71. mixed pieces of irregular shape in all media Peaches. slices or quarters in all media Peas and Carrots (diced carrots) Peas and Carrots (sliced carrots) Peas. 25 count or more in all media Pears. pieces (irregular) in light syrup. or water Peaches. grade B Pimentos. or water Peaches.Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) 47 Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) (Continued) USDA Recommended Drained Weight Minimum in Ounces per #10 Can Item Peaches. halves. chunks in all media Pineapple. slices in heavy syrup.25 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . whole—pieces Pineapple.5 62. cubes in all media 66. or water Pears.5 61 67 62. 23 count or less. juice. Freestone. Freestone. or water Peaches. pieces (irregular) in heavy syrup Peaches. light syrup. Clingstone. solid pack. juice. Clingstone. juice. chopped Pimentos. quarters. Clingstone. unsweetened Peaches. sliced Pimentos. quarters. all media Peaches. or water Peaches. juice. slices in heavy syrup Peaches. halves.5 68. 24 count or more in heavy syrup Peaches. slices in light syrup.5 76 66.7 64. 24 count or more.7 72. 24 count in light syrup.5 64. pieces Pimentos.5 92 61.2 65. 25 count or less in all media Pears. or water Peaches. heavy pack. Clingstone. juice. heavy syrup. diced. Freestone. halves. Clingstone. whole—halves Pimentos. heavy syrup. halves. Clingstone. quarters.7 70.5 66. Clingstone. grade A Peas. juice.

in all media Plums.3 85. 16 c. peeled. purple. grade C in water Raspberries. 4 c.7 73 76 75 74 110 70 60 53 80 58. 32 fl.5 54. 2 tbsp. oz.White. sliced Potatoes.4 63.48 Chapter 2 Produce Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) (Continued) USDA Recommended Drained Weight Minimum in Ounces per #10 Can Item Pineapple.75 69. Sweet Potatoes. 16 tbsp. grade A or B in syrup Sauerkraut Spinach Tomatoes. peeled. sliced. crushed in syrup (minimum is 63% of weight by content) Pineapple. halves in all media Plums. 3 tsp. 16 fl. crushed. ✦ 1 fl. solid pack (minimum is 78% of weight by content) Pineapple. 2 pt. oz.7 1 gal. 2 c. whole Prunes. 8 fl. Red. ✦ 1 pt.8 61. ✦ 1 qt.5 60. whole. whole in all media Potatoes. heavy pack in all media Prunes. ✦ 1 lb. oz. oz. whole.2 54. ✦ .White. 16 oz. oz. grade C 65. 128 fl. regular pack in all media Raspberries. diced Potatoes. ✦ 1 tbsp. tidbits in all media Pineapple.White. grade B Tomatoes. 1 c. 4 qt. purple.

55 22. pitted.8 22.55 109. whole.05 8.8 7.6 105. with brown sugar and bacon Beets. in water Pineapple.8 109.6 102 111 110 95.59% 64. whole.9 4.10% 98. sliced.3 107.85 65.8 9.95 111.9 106.2 23. dark red. stemmed.4 6. sliced.66% 45.35 21.).65 104. halves.45 9.9 5.).55 5.6 107.3 34. sweet.54% 58.9 26.09% 58. white Ketchup Kidney Beans.49% 100%* 8.Canned Foods (in Number-10 Cans) 49 Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume Total Ounces per #10 Can Net or Drained Weight in Ounces Drained Weight Yield Percentage Ounces per Single Cup Ounces per Quart Ounces per Half Gallon Product Applesauce Apples.8 108. in light syrup Pears.00%* 63.65 9.6 5.85 5.75 47. cut 1.65 63.9 8. in water Garbanzo Beans.34% 100.85 24. in water Cheese Sauce for Nachos Cherries.9 25.95 66.3 5.15 50 76.7 5. in water Sauerkraut.29% 71.8 112.4 48.7 107.25 76.4 76.6 5. diced (3/8 in.75 21. diced (3/8 in.8 108. in water Spinach.95 107.43% 65.4 111 99. 90 to 110 count.3 70.75 108. Blue Lake.95 61.3 108.1 46 76.25 51.8 56 63.23 47.97 65 54 69.9 106. dry pack in juice Baked Beans. in water (grade B) Hominy.35 7.65 3.5 in. sliced.4 48.21% 100%* 60.7 23.3 30.75 73 68. in juice Potatoes.5 76.85 102.6 37. peeled.6 23.5 in.7 109. in light syrup Peas.1 9.9 5.14% 100%* 67.6 111.75% 56.83% 100%* 60.95 32. crushed.2 72 54.89% 70. in water Green Beans.35 76. sliced.43% 65.9 5.75 37.71% 63.35 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . whole. in water Peaches. solid pack. in water (grade A) Green Beans. Blue Lake.76% 100%* 67.95 110. tidbits.65 7. in water Carrots.8 109. in heavy syrup Pears. diced. Dark Sweet.25 104 112. in water Beets.7 22.65 72.05 72 48.15 36.7 72. whole yellow kernels.5 62.3 111.8 53.75 18 24.1 79.95 51.6 38 68. 35 count.9 36 23.4 33.4 70.5 62. with juice Pineapple.25 50.65 85.89 5.2 6.55% 58.15 5. heavy syrup Chili con Carne. with beans Corn.95 5.22% 61.03% 81. green. leaf.05 16.5 107.85 108.154 5.6 30. cut 1.95 69. in water Tomato Paste 111 97 112.45 112.8 46.15 27. in water Menudo Mushrooms.1 104 67.75 3.3 70.2 35.5 31.1 39.21% 70% 67.4 24.9 47 73.

55 17. oz. chopped.5 104.05 60.15 4. 16 oz.9 72. ✦ 1 qt. 16 fl. ✦ 1 tbsp. ✦ 1 pt.9 104.55 108.5 72.35 36.5 in.9 104.75 8. ✦ 1 lb.35 35. Yellow. 2 tbsp.95 100%* 100%* 100%* 100%* 61.50 Chapter 2 Produce Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume (Continued) Total Ounces per #10 Can Net or Drained Weight in Ounces Drained Weight Yield Percentage Ounces per Single Cup Ounces per Quart Ounces per Half-Gallon Product Tomato Purée Tomato Sauce Tomatoes. 4 qt. 2 c.25 101.58 7.3 36.1 70 67.9 8. oz. oz. pieces.55 67. ✦ 1 fl. 4 c. crushed.15 29. 1. ✦ . 2 pt.8 79. in water 107 104. oz. in own juice Tomatoes. 32 fl. 16 c.13% 8.2 35.1 *The last three columns list drained weights unless noted by an asterisk.8% 58. diced. 3 tsp.85 107 104. in purée Tomatoes. oz.45 8. in juice Wax Beans.05 36. 128 fl. 8 fl. 1 c.25 101. 1 gal. 16 tbsp.

Happily. some starchy foods can easily double and may even triple in size when cooked. They show the following: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ The raw (AP) ounce weight per cup The number of AP cups that equal 1 pound The number of ounces a cooked cup weighs The number of cooked cups 1 AP cup yields The number of cooked cups 1 AP pound yields The number of cooked pounds one AP pound yields The AP-to-cooked-weight increase percentage 51 . a pasta entrée will utilize more pasta than a side dish. Regardless of how they are used. some Caribbean cuisines cover an entire plate with cooked rice and use that as an underliner for the rest of the dish! Similarly. For instance. grains. milk. these foods are both popular and inexpensive to purchase.3 STARCHY FOOD A ll starchy foods—which include legumes (beans and peas). Grains. As you read through this chapter you’ll be referred to these three tables: 1. Dry Legumes 2. and pasta—expand when cooked. stock. you will find it useful to know the cost of a cooked weight and a cooked volume of these foods—and that is the purpose of this chapter: to illustrate how to obtain that information. you use very expensive cooking liquids like a rich. rice.) that they are cooked with. and become even less expensive when cooked because of their increased cooking yield. Rice. starchy food will vary in size from region to region and will vary according to the type of cuisine. as well as its presentation. This happens because they absorb the liquid (water. however. Pasta These tables all have the same format. and Cereals 3. etc. This makes their original weights and volumes increase considerably by the time they are fully prepared.) A portion of cooked. cereals. a bean salad may utilize an amount that is less or more than a portion of beans on an entrée plate. if at all. highly reduced stock or premium wine in your recipe. (If. In fact. the cost of the cooked item may not decrease much. wine.

multiply the cup cost by 2. ✦ 1 pt. 32 fl.035) by 7. in both weight and volume: Weights to Volumes. 16 c.20. 1 gal. follow this process: 1.52 Chapter 3 Starchy Food COSTING DRY LEGUMES. 2 tbsp. oz. Example Given: A 20-pound box of small white beans costs $11. 16 tbsp. 1 AP ounce costs $0. Calculate the cost of a raw AP pound. AND CEREALS IN THE WORKBOOK Part II.265. 3. For a gallon.20 20 $0. you may add 7 percent to the gallon cost to account for compaction. divide the 20-pound box cost by 20: NOTE There may be some compaction.035 So.56 Thus. Multiply the AP cost per ounce by the AP ounces in 1 cup.30 $4. 3 tsp. RICE. Look up the number of AP (raw) ounces in 1 cup in the appropriate table. oz.035.265 1 pint costs $0.5 percent at the half-gallon measure and 7 percent or so as you approach the gallon measure. The Dry Legumes table shows there are 7. Costing Worksheet 1 ✦ Trimmed or Cooked Foods. ✦ 1 lb. 1 AP pound costs $0. multiply by 16. Costing Worksheet 2 ✦ COSTING BY VOLUME OF A RAW STARCHY ITEM To calculate the cost of a volume of a raw. 4 c. 2 c. 1 c. 128 fl. 2. AP starchy item. 16 oz. divide the pound cost by 16 (the number of ounces in 1 pound): $0. 8 fl. ✦ . To find the AP pound cost. oz.54 per gallon COSTING BY COOKED OUNCE OR POUND To calculate the cost of 1 cooked ounce or 1 cooked pound. 4 qt. so: 1 cup costs $0. as shown here: $4. oz.2968 (round this to $0. follow this procedure: 1. ✦ 1 fl.58 ounces. 4. ✦ 1 tbsp. 2 pt.06 1 gallon costs $4. By multiplying the AP ounce cost ($0.53 1 quart costs $1. as well as cooked yields. you get $0. For a quart. Divide the AP pound or ounce cost by the cooked yield weight increase percentage. GRAINS.07 $0. Do this by dividing the cost of the AP unit by the number of pounds it contains.24 Don’t forget. of 3. has two worksheets to help you cost volumes of raw ingredients. multiply by 4. so feel free to add these percentages to the calculated larger volume costs. Here are the various multiples: ✦ ✦ ✦ For a pint cost.30) $0. oz.56 16 $0.24 $4. ✦ 1 qt. 16 fl.56. Divide the AP pound cost by 16 to determine the cost of 1 AP ounce. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ $11. the Workbook. To determine the AP ounce cost.58 ounces of small white beans in 1 AP cup.24 .

544 times 1. as these calculations demonstrate: $0. tions.108 $1.0965 So.2445 16 BY $0.544 $1. The Dry Legumes table shows that 1 cup of cooked small white beans weighs 6. and Cereals 53 2. Remember to move the decimal point two places to the left. Grains.31 ounces.65 A gallon of cooked small white beans costs $1.Costing Dry Legumes. Example Given: You have cooked a quantity of small white beans. Convert these percentages to decimals so you can use them in calculations.07 to get the same answer. plus 7 percent for compaction.) Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Rice. ✦ ✦ Again.544 . you put the decimal place after the first 2 (2. $0. follow these guidelines: For 1 cup. (You could just multiply the $1. multiply the number of ounces in one cooked cup by the cost per cooked ounce.65.544 $0.108 $1. 3. The cost per cooked pound is calculated this way: $0.29 $0. For a quart. or packs or presses the food into the container. multiply by 4. The cost per cooked ounce is calculated this way: Divide the cooked pound cost by 16. For instance. 1 cup of cooked small white beans costs 9.65 cents. A gallon would cost 16 times as much. then you will have to weigh the contents of the packed vessel and multiply that by the cost of 1 cooked pound. To do the math. Follow this process to find the cost of 1 cup and the cost of 1 gallon of cooked small white beans: 1. multiply the cup cost by 2.0153 by the 6.07 $0. vigorously tamps the vessel after filling.0153.0153 COSTING ✦ VOLUME OF A COOKED STARCHY ITEM To calculate the cost of a volume of a cooked starchy item. the small white bean percentage increase number is 229%. For a pint.0153 6. Multiply the cost per cooked ounce of $0.56 2. From previous calculaNOTE The yield values of the cooked cups in The Book of Yields were spoonfilled and then slightly tamped down.31 cooked ounces in 1 cup. If the cook shakes down the food. drop the percent symbol. 2.31 $0. and then do your division.2445 4. you know that 1 ounce of cooked white beans costs $0. $0.29)— and then do the division. The amount of compaction depends on how the cook fills the larger vessel. there may be some compaction of the cooked food when you measure a quart to a gallon or more.0965 16 $1.

2. Determine the cost of 1 pound. However. AP. Multiply the number of ounces per cup or quart (from the Pasta table) by the cost per AP ounce. The dry volumes in the Pasta table do. 2 pt. 32 fl. For our purposes here. divide $0. 16 tbsp.0578 $0. will usually double or just slightly more than double in weight when cooked to the al dente stage. Two brands may both label their pasta product as large. enable you to cost AP volume amounts in your recipes more easily. many overcooked legumes can be sold as soups or used as purées. COSTING DRY PASTA Follow this procedure for costing a volume of dry pasta: 1. ✦ 1 lb. use this process: 1. Divide the AP cost per pound by 16 to get the cost per ounce. 2 c. 4 c. $0. oz. Fresh pasta. Fortunately. We have seen weight-per-quart differences of as much as 30 percent between brands of the same type of pasta. For example. 2. ✦ 1 tbsp.50 20 $0. 4 qt. the Pasta table shows that 1 quart of large elbow macaroni weighs 13. multiply the number of ounces in 1 cup or 1 quart (from the Pasta table) by the cost per AP ounce. COSTING COOKED PASTA Dry pasta cooked al dente will increase in weight between 2. we will go with a weight increase factor of 2. it is not possible to compare uncooked to cooked volumes. 20: $18. 1 AP pound of elbow macaroni costs 92.925 So. you can increase the yield on pastas just by cooking them a bit longer than called for. But this is never a good idea. 3 tsp. however. as pasta is inexpensive to begin with and its enjoyment depends on it being properly cooked— which means not mushy and broken. 1 c.925 16 $0.5 and 3. especially if you sell a lot of pasta and use volume measures in your recipes. To determine the cost of a particular volume. NOTE Dry pasta manufacturers are not consistent in their product specifications. so we can figure out the cost: 13. but one may be larger or smaller than the other. divide the box cost of $18.75 ounces. To calculate the cost per AP ounce. To get the cost. oz. it is wise to do a volume-to-weight test of the actual pasta you are using. It is up to you to choose which degree of doneness you prefer and determine the weight increase that fits your standards in taste and texture.3 times.925 by 16. 8 fl. because it already contains quite a bit of moisture. this often results in a mushy product that may not be salable in the form intended. oz. 16 oz.50 by the number of pounds it contains. oz. Likewise. To get the cost per AP pound. 3. 2 tbsp. 16 c. ✦ 1 pt.54 NOTE Chapter 3 Starchy Food COSTING PASTA Because pasta shapes are so varied. . and they change as a result of softening while cooking. oz. in this case.50. by dividing the cost of the AP container of pasta by the number of pounds it contains. ✦ 1 qt. 128 fl. Adding extra liquid to rice and bean recipes can result in greater cooked yields and thus lower your costs on paper. 16 fl.5 cents. ✦ 1 fl.0578 3.5 cents.795 The result is that 1 quart of large elbow macaroni costs 79. Example Given: A 20-pound box of large elbow macaroni costs $18. You calculate the weight increase percentage by dividing the weight of the cooked pasta by the weight of the uncooked ✦ 1 gal.0 for fresh pasta. Therefore.5 for dry pasta and 2.75 $0.

1 cups cooked. $0. rice.03 You’ll need a bit over 4 pounds of raw lentils as your AP amount. has one worksheet to help you with purchasing starchy products: Starchy Items.00 $0. is as follows: Amount needed to serve in cooked pounds AP weight Cooked yield of 1 pound raw Example Given: You need to serve 40 five-ounce portions of cooked lentils. 200 16 12. or 200% To cost a pound of cooked pasta. For example. $0. GRAINS. AND CEREALS There are three formulas you’ll use to help plan your purchases of dry legumes.04375 per ounce An 8-ounce serving would cost $0. 200 oz. The table shows that 1 pound of raw black-eyed peas yields 7. FORMULA 2 This formula is for determining cooked AS cups to raw AP weight: # of cups cooked yielded from 1 pound AP weight AS # of cooked cups Example Given: You are to serve 48 half-cup portions of cooked black-eyed peas. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . So you need 12. 40 5 oz. The Dry Legumes table shows 1 pound of AP lentils yields 3. grains. Purchasing Worksheet 4 ✦ FORMULA 1 The first formula. Assume.1 4. you divide the AP cost per pound by the cooking increase percentage. you have a cooking yield of 200 percent: 8 4 2.40: $1.70 The cooked pasta costs 70 cents per pound. An ounce costs one-sixteenth of the pound cost.70 16 oz. and cereals. for cooked weight yield to raw AP weight. that the AP cost per pound is $1.35 PURCHASING STARCHY ITEMS DRY LEGUMES. and its cooked weight is 8 pounds.5 3.35: $0.Purchasing Starchy Items 55 pasta. IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. the Workbook.5 lb.40 2. if you start with 4 pounds of fresh pasta. for example.04375 8 $0.1 pounds cooked: 12.5 pounds of cooked lentils. RICE.

cooked. 16 oz.1 cooked cups per lb. 2 pt. dried rotini. 16 c. because fresh pasta increases by two times (or slightly more) in weight when cooked. 3. 3 tsp. 32 fl. oz. if you cook your pasta softer than al dente. 16 tbsp. 16 fl. And remember. 1 gal. Divide 72 by 32 to determine how many pounds to buy: 72 32 2. ✦ 1 fl. so.25 You need to buy 2. The 2.5 Amount of dry pasta to buy (AP dry) weight: Amount of cooked pasta This formula shows how to calculate the weight of dry pasta to buy based on an as-served cooked weight. AP Therefore. 4 qt. oz. Divide the weight you need to serve by 2. 128 fl.38 pounds of raw black-eyed peas to serve 48 half cups.38 lb. ✦ 1 pt. Example Given: You need to serve 18 pounds of cooked. and Cereals table shows that there are 32 cups of puffed rice per pound.2 pounds of dry rotini in order to serve 18 pounds cooked.5: 18 2. Convert your half cups to whole cups by dividing 48 by 2.1 cups per pound.5 7. 8 fl.25 pounds of puffed rice to serve 72 cups. 2 tbsp.5 factor is the conservative multiplier representing how many times a weight of dry pasta increases in cooking. it’s a good idea to do your own pasta yield tests to determine the exact amount of the raw-to-cooked weight increase that results from your own cooking method and desired texture outcome. oz. you need 3. This raw starch or cold cereal purchasing formula for converting AS cups to AP pounds is defined as follows: FORMULA 3 AS raw starch or cold cereal in cups # of cups per pound AP in pounds Example Given: You need to serve 72 cups of puffed rice. 4 c. but change the 2. FORMULA 2 The second formula shows how to convert a cooked pasta weight to a fresh pasta weight: AS cooked weight 2 AP weight of fresh pasta Here.2 You need to buy 7. 24 cups 7. ✦ 1 lb. you will get an increased yield. FORMULA 1 This is the formula for converting a cooked pasta weight to a dry pasta 2. ✦ 1 tbsp.56 Chapter 3 Starchy Food 1. oz. 1. 1.) Then divide the serving size by 7. 2 c. oz. ✦ . 1 c. PURCHASING PASTA The two formulas defined here will come in handy for planning your pasta purchases. The Rice. (You need 24 cups.5 to 2. Grains. ✦ 1 qt. Then use that weight-increase factor in your calculations. to reiterate. you simply follow the format of the formula for dry pasta.

4 5.12 6.00 3.45 2.75 2.00 3.98 5.5 5.55 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.6 6.56 2.00 5.49 5.75 2.00 3.72 6.9 2.0 2.4 2.8 6.5 6.24 6.24 6.97 6.7 4.00 2.77 7 7.17 2.92 4.7 2.2 2.95 6. large Mung Beans Mung Beans.03 5.42 6.5 2.60 2.1 2.85 7.28 7.29 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.31 6. Florida Canalini Beans Cranberry Beans Fava Beans.84 2.03 5.05 3.7 3.7 2.13 6.2 3.3 3.46 6.1 2.8 7.37 3.4 2.3 2. Baby Lima Beans.31 2.50 2.95 6.5 2.Dry Legumes 57 Dry Legumes Raw: Number of Ounces per Cup Raw: Number of Cups per Pound Cooked: Number of Ounces per Cup 1 Cup Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Pounds Cooked Raw to Cooked Weight Increase Percentage Item Name Adzuki Beans Anasazi Beans Black Beans (Turtle) Black-Eyed Peas Butter Beans.22 2.2 8.4 6.1 6.6 3.76 3.58 6.96 6.90 2.61 5.29 3.44 2.56 6.7 5.29 6.50 2.11 2.88 5.56 2. Broadbean Flageolets Garbanzo Beans Great Northern Beans Kidney Beans Lentils Lentils.5 2.7 5.75 3.9 7.34 6.45 6.55 6.75 5.3 2.35 6.5 2.2 2.2 2.20 2.93 7.8 6.81 6.49 6.5 3.9 2.4 4.90 7.10 5.8 2.95 7.3 2.4 7.45 6.11 1.25 6.8 6.21 2.30 5.42 2.7 2.89 6.7 6.41 6.7 3.25 7.5 6.00 2.5 2.7 7.65 6.00 2.33 7.0 2.0 14.07 6.52 6.75 5.00 3.24 6.48 2.13 2. Baby Lima Beans.75 6.15 7.75 2.3 6.23 2.6 6.46 2 3.1 2.42 5.41 2.0 8.5 7.4 291% 229% 301% 266% 211% 165% 272% 329% 223% 222% 266% 264% 309% 240% 270% 317% 308% 231% 241% 484% 241% 283% 217% 255% 229% 254% 200% 243% Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .2 2.1 5.6 6.63 7.8 6. Thai Scarlet Runner Beans Small White Beans Soybeans Split Peas White Beans 6.35 6.40 2.85 5.32 2.6 6. split Navy Beans Peruano Beans Pink Beans Pinto Beans Red Beans.31 2.00 2.65 2. peeled.

71 5.20 1.6 6.49 3.80 6.00 14.50 6.60 3.55 6. 32 fl.25 2.24 3. 1 c.64 7. short grain Buckwheat Grain (Kasha) Buckwheat Groats. 4 qt.3 6.7 5.91 379% 349% 350% 242% 216% 272% 390% 325% 291% 8.50 3.88 6.77 2.24 2. ✦ .42 6.02 3.67 16.40 2.78 9. ✦ 1 pt.8 8.86 7. oz.3 3.54 2.5 5.60 4.50 1. ✦ 1 tbsp.42 2.39 2.00 2.14 3.86 2.85 6.15 2.90 6.2 5.7 11.00 4. 16 c.1 8. 4 c.13 8.00 4.35 6.54 7.42 2.58 Chapter 3 Starchy Food Rice. raw Buckwheat Groats. ✦ 1 lb.50 2.15 1.15 4.20 6. and Cereals Raw: Number of Ounces per Cup Raw: Number of Cups per Pound Cooked: Number of Ounces per Cup 1 Cup Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Pounds Cooked Raw to Cooked Weight Increase Percentage Items Name All-Bran Cereal Amaranth Arborio Rice Barley.2 9.4 9.03 10.06 5.67 2.7 8.62 3. oz.36 3. long grain Brown Rice.00 6. 2 tbsp.00 7 6.4 10.26 4. medium grain Brown Rice.44 2.00 6.54 2. Aromatic.50 8. Post Brown Rice.90 3.31 8.52 2.54 4.98 6.50 6.75 5. 2 c.70 6.50 4.36 9.1 7.88 6.00 8.42 6. Grains.50 12. hand-crushed Cornflakes Cornmeal/Polenta Cous Cous Cream of Rice Cream of Wheat Hominy Grits 3. 128 fl. 2 pt.72 3.51 2.40 3.35 2. ✦ 1 fl.94 4.39 2.94 6.33 2. 16 fl. whole.00 10.60 0.21 3.57 6.12 5.42 20. fine Cornflake Crumbs.00 2. Kellogg’s Bran Flakes.30 6.27 2. ✦ 1 qt.16 2. Wheat-soaked Calif.1 8. 16 tbsp. 16 oz.67 2.31 3.00 6.02 7.29 2.93 536% 371% 557% 626% 493% 6.82 3.80 1.40 1.00 3. 8 fl.33 1.05 6.39 2.78 6. long grain rice Cheerios Corn Bran Corn Chex Cornflake Crumbs.00 4.35 2.91 235% 262% 314% 351% 291% 1 gal.00 2. whole.50 11. oz.35 8.79 3.5 2.44 16. cooked Bulgur. 3 tsp.40 3.75 5.25 6.70 7.00 3.50 3. oz. roasted Bulgur. pearled Basmati Brown Rice Basmati Rice Bran Flakes. oz.

87 3.30 3.00 6.55 8.16 32.6 4.10 2.36 6.4 3. and Cereals 59 Rice.00 1. Grains: Individual grain yields do vary according to the recipe ratios and soaking/cooking times.62 5.25 2. precooked Jasmine Rice.76 6. short grain Wild and White Rice. Pearl Wheat Berries.00 2.41 5.45 2.52 6.14 1. whole Oats.1 3.50 5.8 5.25 7.20 3.25 5.4 5.54 2.9 5.39 2. Cooked yields are for standard recipe ratios.5 7.50 5.6 6.50 8.91 5.45 8.96 3.03 420% 305% 627% 357% 240% 169% 697% 403% 7.03 2.12 2.65 7.80 3. Grains.5 2.00 2.80 3.5 7. 2.27 2.52 11. long grain mix Wild Rice Notes 2.12 3.68 352% 225% 334% 303% 287% 310% 268% 1.44 2.00 6. and Cereals (Continued) Raw: Number of Ounces per Cup Raw: Number of Cups per Pound Cooked: Number of Ounces per Cup 1 Cup Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Cups Cooked 1 Pound Raw Yields This Number of Pounds Cooked Raw to Cooked Weight Increase Percentage Items Name Instant Rice.20 13.1 0.05 6.38 1.05 6.27 2.72 11.35 1. medium grain White Rice.40 1. Rice: Raw weights get a bit lighter as rice ages.00 2. parboiled White Rice. Red.10 5.34 1. white Malt-o-Meal Millet Oat Groats.45 2.49 4.23 6.55 7.97 4.99 2. old-fashioned Puffed Rice or Wheat Quinoa Rice Crispies Spelt Berries Sushi rice Tapioca.72 112% 276% 634% 172% 8.4 7.4 8.00 5.33 2.08 4.69 6.55 8.21 6. glutinous White Rice.08 2.10 4.3 8.42 4.30 6.96 7.82 4. long grain White Rice.50 2. long-grained.27 3.52 2.46 2. steel cut Oatmeal (Quick) Oatmeal. Grains.25 8. long grain.23 6.05 6.00 2.14 314% 5.57 2.25 3.67 16.6 10.10 2.00 2.95 3.46 2.Rice.40 6.80 3.34 3.7 6. hard Wheat Germ White Rice.80 4.50 6.10 2.22 6.25 3.52 6.21 2. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .70 2.00 2.52 2.90 6.45 8.00 3.50 6.73 6.60 6.0 6.88 7.50 1.9 7.79 11.

1 in. ✦ 1 pt.48 16.25 0. Dry pastas: Volume yields of pastas depend on the degree of doneness and pasta shape and are not given. cooked.10 5.60 2.5 12. whole wheat (1.15 2.95 6. cooked.75 3. 4 c.625 1.) 8.5 10. one pound of dry pasta yields 2.95 3.8 18.6 3.65 11.55 9. 1 c. 4.95 4. mini (1 0.8 3.) Mostaccioli or Penne Noodles.45 23.3 2.30 4.) Penne Rigate Penne Rigate.15 2. 32 fl.7 cups. small Elbow Macaroni. wide) Penne. 2 c.6875 in.25 2.1875 in. Rice shape #26 Pappardelle. 128 fl.43 4.25 in. 2 tbsp. small Stars. Melon Seeds Orzo. whole wheat.62 25. egg. 0.80 13 Farfalle.05 20.4 3.33 4.8 7.92 21.5 15. egg noodle.1 6. (1.80 24.5 17 16.05 4. Dry pasta dries (as much as 50% less weight) with age in very dry conditions.1875 in.6 1. ✦ 1 tbsp.60 Chapter 3 Starchy Food Pasta Item Bow Ties Campanelle Ditalini #45 Elbow Macaroni. 8 fl.75 18. 3. (1.6 15.5 0.5 24. cooked. large (0. Pasta recipes are typically based on weights.45 4.3 13.20 14. 16 fl. 16 tbsp. whole wheat.50 11.1 2.2 20. One pound of elbow macaroni yields approximately 8 cups. oz. 1 in. wide Noodles. thin Wheels Ziti (1. mini (0.5 0. ✦ 1 qt.) Pipe Rigate Rigatoni #24 Rotini.50 2.45 11. 0.60 10.4 2.00 .5 pounds.875 0.375 in.75 in.) Farfalle. 3 tsp. cooked. 16 oz.9 4. On average.25 in.55 4.1 2.85 2. small (1. oz.95 15. 4 qt.05 5. ✦ 1 lb. oz.9 9. One pound of spaghetti yields approximately 10. The Pasta conversion table lists a few that may be used by volume.30 6.) Ounces per Cup Ounces per Quart 1. (alphabet) small Letters.) Ounces per Cup Ounces per Quart Item Orecchiette Orzo.55 2.35 5.8 4 2. high) Macaroni Elbow. 5.5 11. 2. whole wheat Shells.55 10. small Farfalle #93 (1.45 Letters.40 1. ✦ 1 fl.75 2. oz.5 to 3 pounds. cheese-filled Tubini Vermicelli.56 17.5 in.) Fideo. 16 c.30 5.625 in. oz.2 13.25 1 in.85 4.7 12.1 19.25 4. dry.7 15.375 0.65 3. long strands Fiori Fregala (medium Cous Cous) Fusilli Gemelli #90 (1.95 9.4 3.25 1 in. one pound of fresh pasta yields 2 to 2.50 3. large Elbow Macaroni.) Farfalle. extra wide Notes 1. By weight.20 3 14.36 30. 2 pt.90 17. medium Shells. a cup of cooked pasta weighs between 5 and 6 ounces. spirals Rotini. By weight. thick Vermicelli. large Shells.25 3.875 in.70 11. small Strozzapreti Tortellini. ✦ .25 in.. salad style (short) Mezze Penne Rigate (1.62 8.. 1 gal.30 6.53 1.

5 per ounce. 10.5-inch.5-inch. square won ton wrappers: There are approximately 4. rice-based. or 40 per pound.5-inch. round won ton wrappers: There are approximately 5 per ounce. 6. 7. round spring roll wrappers: There are approximately 7 per ounce. By weight.5 per ounce.3 per ounce. 11. 8.4 pounds. or 112 per pound. or 80 per pound. One pound of dry udon noodles yields 2. and egg-based. or 18 per pound.6 pounds cooked. wheat. square egg roll wrappers: There are approximately 1. wheat. wheat-based. wheat. cooked. 9.4 pounds cooked. or 72 per pound.15 per ounce. Dry. and egg-based. wheat-based. One pound of dry wheat somen yields 3. Fresh. and egg-based. square spring roll wrappers: There are approximately 2. 8. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . or 36 per pound. Dry.Pasta 61 6. Fresh. 8. round egg roll wrappers: There are approximately 2. 3-inch. 6-inch. Fresh. Dry.7 pounds. One pound of dry buckwheat somen yields 2. 1 pound of dry mung bean threads yields 4. 12.5-inch. 3.

3. for example—can be tamped down as much as 20 percent! This chapter makes reference to four tables: 1. baking formulas measure most ingredients by weight rather than by volume. and so on. spices. conversely. Bran. airy products—sifted powdered sugar. in addition to breaking up lumps. salads. then top off the measuring vessel with more food. and pastries are really chemical and physical events that must begin with precise ratios of ingredients to ensure a successful outcome. 2. Similarly. you use the measuring device as a scoop. Moreover. it is typical for the amount in a cup to weigh less. Weighing ingredients is simply more accurate than using cups. then scraped level. after filling a container. bakers also use volume measures for some ingredients. will vigorously tamp or shake the ingredients down. incorporates air into the food. Nuts and Seeds Flour. you may create air pockets that result in less than a full amount. mong professionals. cakes. When presifted powdery foods such as flours and sugars are measured by volume. entrées. How much less depends on how many times the food was sifted. Meal.4 BAKING ITEMS A NOTE The items described in this chapter were spooned into the containers and gently tapped to settle the ingredients. 4. Light. thereby adding extra food to the container and throwing off the ratio. the tables show the weight-to-volume equivalents for ease of use for those cooks. Why is it more accurate to weigh most baking items? Primarily because of the way a cook fills a measuring container such as a cup or a gallon container. so it is not surprising that the sifted ingredients weigh less per cup. The reason is that formulas for breads. and savory-side cooks prefer to use volume measures rather than weigh all their ingredients. All that said. For this reason. you can easily jam an excessive amount of the food into the container if you scoop too forcefully. because unlike savory recipes such as soups. Sifting. some cooks. such as ground or chopped nuts. and certain leaveners. pints. baking recipes are known as formulas. and so forth. and Crumbs Sweeteners Special Baking Items Each table lists the following: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ The number of ounces contained in 1 cup The number of cups equal to 1 pound The number of ounces contained in 1 pint The number of pints equal to 1 pound The number of pounds equal to 1 pint 62 . for example. If. some recipes that use ingredients commonly found in the bakery are executed on the savory side of the kitchen.

It follows.33). 3. For example. according to the Nuts and Seeds table—by the cost per AP ounce ($0. thusly: ✦ ✦ If the purchase unit is measured in pounds. Costing Worksheet 1 ✦ As usual. that: Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . multiply the cup weight by 16 and add 7 percent. 3. multiply the cup weight by 4 and add 1. For a half gallon.5 percent to the answer. is an ideal cost. the total pounds purchased is 6: 3 2 6 Now divide the cost of the case ($30) by the total pounds in the case (6): $30 6 $5 The sliced almonds cost $5 per pound. and gallon. The cost per ounce is found by dividing the cost per AP pound by 16. it is first necessary to determine the cost of an ounce of the food in question. To do so: ✦ ✦ ✦ For a quart. For a gallon. the Workbook. half gallon. $5 16 $0.3125 NOTE Small quantities may not be quite precise when measuring irregularly shaped foods like sliced almonds. if a case of sliced almonds costs $30.35 ounces.33 $1. such as a 50-pound sack of granulated sugar. there will be some compaction of the foods as you work with volumes. In general. then divide that answer by 16 to get the cost per AP ounce. or simply eaten by your staff—or by you! Accordingly. $0.33 cost per AP ounce to cost out volume measures of the sliced almonds. One ounce of AP sliced almonds costs 31. ranging from a quart to a gallon.25 cents. burned. because you may not be able to use all of the almonds. and each case contains three bags holding 2 pounds of sliced almonds. as purchased.Costing Baking Items 63 If you are using larger vessels to measure the more powdery foods. Say you “bump up” the cost per AP ounce to 33 cents to account for snacking by you and/or your staff. multiply the cup weight by 8 and add 3. as purchased.35 oz. but they do work well for costing small measures of ground or finely milled items.5 percent. Now you can use this $0. To calculate the cost of sliced almonds per cup. ground cinnamon—divide the cost of the container by the number of ounces it contains. If the purchase unit is measured in ounces—say. you can see that a cup of sliced almonds costs approximately $1. Ideal. has one worksheet to help you cost volumes of baking items: Weights to Volumes. COSTING BAKING ITEMS IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. by the way. Some may be spilled. you multiply the number of ounces in 1 cup—in this case. then. This.11. you simply divide the cost of the bag by 50 to get the cost per AP pound. you may want to add a penny or two to the cost per AP ounce to account for these factors.106 Thus. you can use the cup measures to mathematically figure the contents of a quart.

Divide 12 by 16 to determine that 1 tablespoon of honey weighs 0. since there are 16 tablespoons in a cup.75 oz. whereas honey and preserves are often sold by weight.22. 2 c. (Why divide by 16? Because there are 16 tablespoons in 1 cup. 1.5 oz.8 ounces. Multiply 22 tablespoons times 0. per tbsp. The Nuts and Seeds table shows that 1 cup of these weighs 4.) 2. ✦ 1 fl. plus 3. Divide 65. 16 fl. 2 tbsp. you would divide the cup cost by 16. To cost a fluid ounce amount for a food sold by weight. ✦ 1 lb. 3 tsp. you multiply the ounce cost by the number of ounces in your measuring container—without making any adjustments for compaction.1908 ✦ A gallon would cost 16 times the cup cost.64 Chapter 4 Baking Items ✦ ✦ Heavy Liquids Liquids commonly used in baking—including syrups.88 $0. preserves. ✦ 1 tbsp.2432 $19. To cost a teaspoon. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. If an item is sold by fluid ounces. the weight of a tablespoon. The Sweeteners table shows that honey weighs 12 ounces per cup. 1.75. oz. PURCHASING BAKING ITEMS We’re going to cover five formulas in this section for purchasing baking items. oz. 16 c.44 $0.75 of an ounce. Purchasing Worksheet 5 ✦ (Ounce-weight per cup Example Given: You need 22 tablespoons of honey. 0. 16 oz. 4 c.5 percent to account for compaction: $4. ✦ 1 pt.0666 $4. and honey—weigh a lot more than other liquid foods. Syrups are often sold by fluid ounces.76 $1.8 by 16 to determine that you need to buy (or use) 4. has one worksheet to help you purchase baking items: Baking Items. A quart would cost four times the cup cost. 2. because these liquids do not compact. plus 7 percent: $17.5066 ✦ A half gallon would cost eight times the cup cost. 1 c.1 pounds. plus 1. you would either divide the tablespoon cost by 3 (since there are 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon) or just divide the cup cost by 48 (since there are 48 teaspoons in a cup). It is used to calculate the number of pounds to buy based on the number of cups you need to serve or use. 16 tbsp. oz. ✦ 1 gal. FORMULA 2 The formula for converting AS tablespoons to AP ounces is as follows: 16) Tablespoons needed AP in ounces IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. oz. oz. molasses. (Number of AS cups Ounces per cup) 16 AP in pounds Example Given: You need 14 cups of whole. A pint cost would be double that: $2. FORMULA 1 First we’ll address the formula for converting AS cups to AP pounds. Multiply 14 cups by 4.0032 To compute the cost of a tablespoon. costing a fluid ounce is just a matter of dividing the cost of the purchase unit by the number of fluid ounces it contains. 128 fl.3108 $9.7 to find that you need 65.7 ounces. 32 fl. 8 fl. 4 qt. the Workbook. shelled pine nuts (pignoli nuts). .5 percent: $8. 22 tbsp. 16.

5 lb.5 oz. Therefore. Because there is about a 1. or milled foods that do compact in larger containers. ground. NOTE Formulas 4 and 5 include compaction factors of 1. 0. Example Given: You need 13 pints of Japanese bread crumbs. FORMULA 4 Converting AS quarts to AP pounds is our fourth formula: (2 pounds per pint)] 1. the compacted quart weight is actually: 1.Purchasing Baking Items 65 You’ll need 16. FORMULA 3 The third formula is for converting AS pints to AP pounds: Pounds per pint AP in pounds AS pints To make this conversion. per quart (mathematically) 2.5225 9 13. The Flour. Now multiply 1. respectively.5% compaction (increase in weight per volume) when going to a quart measure. Divide by 16.75 1.015 0. 1. Converting to pounds is a two-step process: 1. Meal. Do not use the compaction factors when dealing with liquids or dense foods such as packed brown sugar. 0.35. Determine how many pounds of crumbs you need. The Flour.5 percent for a quart and 7 percent for a gallon. Your answer is the number of pounds to buy or cost.75 by 2 to get a quart weight—because there are 2 pints per quart: 2 0. Bran.0225 lb. and Crumbs table shows there are 0.5225 lb. you multiply the number of pints needed by the number of pounds per pint (from the right-hand column in the Baking Items tables). Use the compaction factors when dealing with powdery. Multiply 0. Multiply 13 pints times 0.5% AP in pounds [AS quarts Example Given: You need 9 quarts of cornmeal mix.75 pounds per pint for this item. You will need 4.0225 lb. Divide once more by 16 to convert the AP ounces to AP pounds: 16. Here are the steps: 1. 1.5 lb./lb. 16 oz. because there are 16 tablespoons in a cup (the first part of this formula is a repeat of the preceding formula): [(Ounce-weight per cup 16) Tablespoons needed] 16 AP in ounces 2.7025 You need to buy or use 13. The result? You need just over 1 pound of honey.7 pounds of cornmeal mix.5 ounces of honey. 3. Meal.015 by the computed quart weight and add it to your quart weight.03 lb.55 pounds of crumbs. and Crumbs table shows there are 0. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .5225 times the 9 quarts you need: 1. Bran. 1.35 pounds per pint for this item.50 lb. you need to multiply 0.

✦ 1 qt.52 pounds per pint for this item. oz.16 pounds that represents the mathematically computed gallon weight. Multiply the weight per pint (.16 lb. Thus. 0.48 pounds of graham cracker crumbs.48 lb. 16 fl. 12. 2 tbsp. due to compaction. 4.16 lb. oz. 8 fl. if you need 40 ounces of shelled almonds.4512 The compacted gallon weight is 4. 16 c. you would add 7 percent to the 4. ground. oz. 4 qt. Meal. you need to buy or use 12.48 pounds calculated above.66 Chapter 4 Baking Items FORMULA 5 The final formula in this section is for converting AS gallons to AP pounds (see the previous note regarding the compaction factor of 7 percent): [AS gallons (8 Pounds per pint) 7%] AP in pounds Example Given: You need 3 gallons of graham cracker crumbs. 1. 4 c. oz. 1 gal. so: 3 4. ✦ 1 pt. you’re not done yet. 13. 40 5 8 So the compacted gallon weight is now calculated as: 4. 2. you need to buy 8 pounds of unshelled almonds to have 40 ounces shelled. and Crumbs table shows there are 0. 1 c.16 0. 3 tsp. Thus.52 8 4.35 pounds. 2 pt. For example. divide the yieldper-pound weights into the weight you need. Bran. The Flour. divide the yield per pound of 5 ounces into 40. oz. you need 13.4512 lb. To calculate the weight of raw.16 pounds by 3 to get the number of pounds that equals 3 gallons: 3 4. There are 8 pints in a gallon. ✦ 1 fl. 16 oz.2912 4.2912 Purchasing Shelled versus Unshelled Nuts Notice at the end of the Nuts and Seeds table the statements on the shelled yields of various unshelled nuts.52 pounds) by 8. or milled foods). 2 c. So. 128 fl. Multiply 4. rather than the 12. Because we are working with a food that does compact in a larger container (powdery.07 . 32 fl. ✦ 1 lb. and you need 3 gallons. unshelled nuts to buy based on the amount of shelled nuts you need to use or serve. ✦ 1 tbsp.16 . ✦ . 16 tbsp. But.3536 lb.4512 pounds.

70 4.0 11.8 4.6 10.8 4. sliced Almonds.50 0.00 4.0 6.0 5.50 4.5 3.69 0. ground Almonds.60 4.53 0.9 2.0 3.80 5.59 0. roasted.00 4.47 5.5 9.7 1.0 1.9 3. ground Pecans. peeled Coconut. shelled Pistachios.55 5.6 0. whole.6 4. shelled.6 1. shelled Macadamia Nuts. packaged.2 1.8 5.4 7.4 2.4 6.66 0.8 9.00 8.0 2. halves Pine Nuts.5 2.44 6.50 2.30 3.8 2. chopped Hazelnuts.Nuts and Seeds 67 Nuts and Seeds Item Almonds.0 5.3 3.72 0.0 4.42 0.35 3. whole and halves Mixed Nuts.57 6.50 4.59 0.59 0.3 1. shelled Peanuts.00 3.20 3. whole.9 10.7 1. salted Peanut Butter Peanuts.70 5. roasted. whole. shelled Brazil Nuts.3 4. golden Hazelnuts.3 4. roasted Pistachios. whole.4 8.50 4.0 8.7 7.61 0.63 0.6 7.44 0.9 3.75 4.63 0.50 0.0 8. chopped Peanuts. brown Flax seed. roasted. unshelled Pecans.70 3.0 16.53 0.2 1. shelled Cashews.44 0.46 0.2 3.3 3.58 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .6 1. halves and pieces Cashews. slivered Almonds.0 7.2 8.91 4.9 2.4 2.88 2.69 0.00 4.35 0.6 3.90 4. roasted Chestnuts.4 3.2 3. shelled Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 3.38 0.58 0.7 1.0 9.4 2.65 4. whole. ground Hazelnuts.7 1.6 5. whole.3 2. whole.2 1.48 0.29 2.0 9.06 0. unshelled.20 3.42 0.0 9.2 3.4 10.9 1.4 9.00 3.8 4.4 3.4 3.7 2. shredded Coconut.6 1. European. chopped Pecans.44 1.50 5.1 1. fresh. raw.0 10.45 2. shredded Flax seed.35 3.00 5.56 0.3 3.7 6.31 0.7 1.70 4. roasted Pumpkin seeds.38 0.0 9.63 1.1 11.

6 5. lightly salted Walnuts. Walnuts.4 1. shelled. salted Sesame Seeds. 5. shelled. oz. 16 oz. hulled Sesame Seeds Sesame Seeds.33 4. roasted.1 10.7 3.11 4.44 3.95 3.78 1.56 0. raw. Pecans: 1 pound whole pecans yields about 8 ounces. hulled Sesame Seeds.0 10. 10. shelled. chopped Walnuts. 4. Pistachios: 1 pound whole roasted pistachios yields about 8 ounces. 7.56 3. ground Walnuts. 3 tsp. roasted Sunflower Seeds. ✦ 1 tbsp. black.2 10. ✦ 1 qt. 2. 1 gal.88 0.6 1. unhulled Soy Nuts. shelled. shelled. roasted. 2 c. roasted.67 0. hulled Sunflower Seeds.05 5. black: 1 pound black walnuts yields about 4 ounces.3 7. 9. shelled. Walnuts. 4 qt.63 0. 8 fl.00 5.2 3.15 3. ✦ 1 pt.0 9 9. 2 pt.0 3. 16 tbsp. oz. 16 c. Coconuts: Coconut yields about half its original weight after hulling and draining. roasted. 32 fl.3 3.30 2. 128 fl. halved Walnuts.51 0.7 4.00 4. oz.4 1. shelled.9 0. Macadamia nuts: 1 pound whole macadamia nuts yields about 5 ounces. ✦ .8 8.7 8.6 4.43 0. ✦ 1 lb. Peanuts: 1 pound whole roasted peanuts yields about 11 ounces. roasted.7 5.20 2. oz.7 1.8 14. 8.80 3.60 5.40 4. shelled.35 0. Almonds: 1 pound whole almonds in the shell yields about 5 ounces.98 1.6 1.55 2. Chestnuts: 1 pound whole chestnuts in the shell yields about 10 ounces. shelled and cleaned. Hazelnuts: 1 pound whole hazelnuts (filberts) yields about 7. 6.2 8. English: 1 pound English walnuts yields about 9 ounces.45 0. oz.54 0.58 0.9 2. 2 tbsp.5 4. 1 c. shelled. peeled—if you are careful! 3. pieces Notes Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 7. ✦ 1 fl.5 ounces. shelled. shelled and cleaned.6 6. 16 fl.5 3.9 2.64 0.68 Chapter 4 Baking Items Nuts and Seeds (Continued) Item Pumpkin seeds.53 1.1 1. 4 c.22 1.

5 1.40 8.15 2.30 4.9 1. Bran. Masa (Corn) Flour. dry Bread Crumbs. a n d C r u m b s 69 Flour.3 1. defatted Flour.63 0.50 0.4 6.0 6.0 8.70 4.8 2.9 2.5 12.9 7.15 4.50 3.7 1. dry Bisquick Mix Bread Crumbs.F l o u r.3 8.54 0. Japanese Cornflake Crumbs.60 4.9 3.3 3.4 1. white Flour. Rye.00 4.0 3.30 4.79 0.5 1.50 3.3 1.52 0.9 1.6 8.6 5. brown Flour.53 0.7 3. and Crumbs Item Barley. Soybean.0 9.75 0.3 2.60 0. dark Flour.5 3. Pastry Flour.40 3.4 3. Rice.7 1.7 12.35 0.0 2.4 4.3 12.0 7.2 1. Meal.6 1.0 4. Bread Flour.85 6.79 0. Rye. Triticale.70 0.4 5.48 3. Buckwheat.1 1. light and medium Flour.2 3. hand crushed Cornmeal Mix Cornmeal.6 8.5 7.00 3.69 0.15 6. coarse Cornmeal.00 4.1 3.61 0. full-fat Flour.20 4.35 5.0 5. Soybean.44 0.2 9.2 9. coarse Cornstarch Cracker Crumbs.8 4.9 1.58 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Rice.5 2.6 8.45 0.27 0.60 4.70 3.52 0.7 0. whole grain. self-rising wheat.60 3. B r a n .7 3.90 5.00 4.4 2.7 2.50 5.80 4.25 6.0 7.49 0.9 3.74 1.3 3.8 7. fine Cornflake Crumbs.4 9.53 0.80 4.59 0.8 2.3 4. saltine Flour.50 2.9 3. fine Cornmeal.2 1. all-purpose Flour. Cake Flour.6 4.2 8.7 1.9 1.3 2. whole groat Flour.57 0. whole grain Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 4. M e a l .59 0.6 1.7 11.60 4.7 2.8 2. high-gluten Flour.8 10. degermed.7 3.0 11.55 0.40 0. pressed.6 9.3 2.25 3.44 0.9 2.3 1.6 5. Potato Flour.56 0.38 0.5 9. white Flour.6 4.0 9.

6 8. 4 c.50 0. and Crumbs (Continued) Item Flour.90 3. ✦ .44 1.50 4.54 0. 2 tbsp. Flour: Volumes are spooned. whole wheat Graham Crackers.52 0. not sifted. oz.89 2. 16 c. oz. whole.84 0.3 1.03 0. 8 fl.37 8.0 8.44 3.9 1.81 3.41 0.25 0.30 4.6 6. Bran. 16 oz.59 0.78 3.75 2.3 3.5 3. 4 qt. Sifting flours can reduce a volume’s weight by 7%.0 1. defatted Spelt Flour Tapioca Starch Wheat Bran Wheat Germ Wheat Grains.53 0.25 4.00 4.15 4.9 3.0 8.5 8.35 4.7 1.65 5.9 4.4 1.95 3.72 1.3 9.6 12.70 Chapter 4 Baking Items Flour. crude Rice Bran.0 10.8 8.2 1.8 3.68 4.4 11.39 1.66 0.8 7. 128 fl.00 3. fine Semolina Soy Meal.78 2.72 0.16 1.4 2. soft Wheat Starch Powder Note Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 4. oz.2 13. Meal.38 0. rolled Oyster Crackers Pancake Mix Potato Starch Rice Bran.8 5. 2 c.49 1.65 4.5 4.79 0.10 6.00 5.70 5.23 0.7 4.9 1. oz. instant Matzo Meal Oat Bran Oats. 3 tsp.5 8. ✦ 1 tbsp.00 2. ✦ 1 qt.3 11.30 3. crumbs Masa Harina.6 9.7 3.80 6.0 4. ✦ 1 fl.3 6.74 0. ✦ 1 lb.7 9.0 1.56 4. 1 gal.4 2. 2 pt. ✦ 1 pt.00 3.4 2. 1 c. 16 tbsp.52 0.9 1.58 0.5 2.05 8.0 2.58 0.29 0.9 1.56 0.30 4.6 6. hard Wheat Grains. oz. 16 fl.9 2. 32 fl.3 9. quick Oats.30 3.7 3.75 4.0 4. whole.4 2.51 0.

75 1.727 1.708 0.20 10.50 0.50 10.231 0.83 0.40 5.6 11.727 1.80 0. unpacked Butterscotch Topping Chocolate Fudge Topping Chocolate Sprinkles Corn Syrup.00 13.75 0.06 3.67 1.16 21.20 8.42 1.60 1.10 10.00 22.50 11.00 11.78 9.50 18. Equal Pineapple Topping Powdered Sugar.696 0.39 0.51 1.96 3.67 1.19 1.16 0.60 9.10 11.20 22.44 3.00 22. Demerara Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 10.84 0.667 1.727 2.721 1.48 2.60 6.80 0.54 0.80 7.45 2.280 0.68 2.74 1.42 1.20 23.032 1.38 7.37 2.30 12.35 6.333 0.690 1. unpacked Molasses Nutrasweet.220 1.60 21.33 2.45 0.10 11.38 0.64 1.00 6.44 1.Sweeteners 71 Sweeteners Item Blue Agave Syrup.41 1.38 2.45 4.6 12.569 0.45 0.08 10.20 22.75 5.71 2.39 1.839 1.33 9.00 7. unsifted Rainbow Colors Sprinkles Stevia Liquid Extract Stevia Powder Stevia Powder with Maltodextrin Strawberry Topping Sugar.00 7.41 4.89 10.45 2.00 13.33 1.2 2.569 0.60 4.41 1.38 0.81 1. packed Brown Sugar.14 1.20 19.4 1.127 0.75 7.00 14.91 7.25 1.7 11.25 9.97 0.46 1.74 5.00 3.51 1. High-Fructose Fructose Powder Granulated Sugar Grenadine Syrup (Rose’s) Honey Jam Preserves Jelly Preserves Lime Juice.20 24. sifted Powdered Sugar.40 22.00 6.50 1.50 14.00 23.32 1.40 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .30 10. dark or light Corn Syrup.87 2.10 5.708 0.00 22. raw Brown Sugar.60 15.96 3.70 12.20 12.20 2.50 11.56 1.755 0.20 21.64 1.00 11.70 1.60 1. Sweetened (Rose’s) Maple and Pancake Syrup Maple Sugar.14 1.667 0.60 24.44 3.

71 9.15 0.13 1. oz.10 14.30 0. 1 c.09 1. ✦ .87 11. 2. 4 c.54 2. Turbinado Sugar.or 6-ounce cone of Piloncillo. 8 fl. not fluid ounces.18 2.85 11.Toriani assorted flavors Xylitol Notes Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 7. Bakers’ Sugar Cane Syrup Splenda Syrups.41 0. ✦ 1 qt.90 22.1 10.08 14.35 0. ✦ 1 fl. Turbinado Sugar.4 7.95 11.72 Chapter 4 Baking Items Sweeteners (Continued) Item Sugar. 16 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. A common size is 5.27 2.35 6.70 22. 4 qt.88 7. oz.42 18. substitute an equal weight of dark brown sugar and two teaspoons of molasses. 32 fl. 2 tbsp. The size of the cone varies from . Ultrafine.60 1. 16 c.77 1.80 15.20 20. 16 fl. oz.10 10. 2 pt. oz.75 ounce to 9 ounces. 1 gal.44 1. Piloncillo is an unrefined Mexican brown sugar produced in a rather hard cone.11 11.04 0. It is also known as Panela and Panocha. oz.7 2. Monin assorted flavors Syrups.82 1.S.30 1.5 ounces.70 13. Weights are avoirdupois (U.72 0. 128 fl.) ounces. ✦ 1 pt. ✦ 1 lb. 3 tsp.3 0. If you do not have a 5.70 1. Liquids are often sold by fluid ounces. 16 tbsp. 2 c.40 7.05 7.40 1.

6 10.50 3.8 2. unsweetened. sweetened Gelatin.85 10. 22% fat Cream of Tartar Egg White Powder Gelatin.67 1.10 1.57 1.1 1.35 5.86 1. table grind Yeast.8 1.73 1.33 3.20 9.6 2.42 0.45 5. kosher.54 2.85 0.16 10.4 4.31 1.0 22. flake Salt.4 5.78 1.08 5.75 1.77 1. powdered Salt.Special Baking Items 73 Special Baking Items Item Almond Paste.50 6.76 2.90 3.0 2.99 1.81 0.7 1. White.36 0.78 1.0 0.3 1.54 0. powdered Pectin.18 1.91 0.33 1.15 10.30 20.3 21.40 5. dry active Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 8.55 0.7 16.23 2. White Chocolate chips.30 0.33 0.64 0.60 10.64 3.0 9.1 4. 22% sifted Cocoa.70 21.000 count Chocolate chips.30 0.95 1.6 12.1 6.65 1.64 0. dark.7 13. flavored.8 5.80 11.8 20.35 6. 1.30 5.00 5.00 2.16 0.71 1.20 8.8 10.76 1.9 10.77 1.00 4.01 0.74 1.2 12.37 0.52 2.29 0.42 0.00 11.14 3. Milk Chocolate chips.10 14.50 1.25 2.05 0.82 1.57 1.5 6. melted Cocoa. retail size Chocolate chips.75 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .4 18.31 0.9 3.7 11.73 1.15 2. 4.31 0.00 12.60 0.47 1.8 16. Nonfat.41 10.5 5.76 0.0 6.9 3.19 3. packed Ammonium Bicarbonate Apricot Glaze.56 0.7 1.90 8.32 6.67 0.000 count Chocolate Chips.76 2. melted Chocolate chips.5 2. unsweetened powder Milk. melted Chocolate chips.38 0.05 7.52 5.39 1.0 13.10 6.8 6.62 2. dark.6 2.68 0.38 0.80 9.65 10.60 1. Milk.62 1.20 12.0 2.5 4. firm gel Arrowroot Baking Powder Baking Soda Brewers Yeast Cacoa Nibs Carob Powder Chocolate Chips. unsweetened.5 3.

9 tablespoons per ounce).33333* 85. 16 fl. Fresh Yeast: Use 2. 128 fl. 16 tbsp. oz. 1 tablespoon dry yeast weighs .3 tablespoons per ounce).5 6. You need 5. 1 c.64 oz.64 5.1 oz. 4 c. you’ll see that 1 ounce of sweetened gelatin powder yields 5. Above.33333* fluid ounces of finished gelatin. oz. 1 cup of powdered gelatin weighs 5.15 cups.12 oz. 85. Divide the number of tablespoons needed by the number of tablespoons per ounce.43 ounces (2. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3.375 ounces (2.333 fluid ounces to quarts by dividing it by 32. Sweetened Gelatin: 24 ounces of sweetened gelatin yields 1 gallon of finished gelatin. simply multiply the number of ounces in 1 pound (16) times the yield of 1 ounce (5.333 32 2. 4 qt.666 So. Method 1: Given: You need 8 tablespoons of salt.56 tablespoons per ounce).525 ounces (1. 1 pound of powdered gelatin 3. Method 2: Again. ✦ 1 qt.) To determine how much 1 pound of the powder yields in finished gelatin. you need 8 tablespoons of salt.5 tablespoons per ounce). 8 1. oz. So. per tablespoon. 1 ounce 9. weighs .4 gallons of plain gelatin. it is seen that there are 1. Tablespoons: 1 tablespoon baking soda weighs .1 ounces of salt to equal 8 tablespoons. 1 ounce powder yields 51. 2. oz. 2. 8 fl.56 5. the number of fluid ounces in 1 quart. ✦ 1 pt. oz.66 quarts (or . 2 pt. Salt.08 ounce. 1 tablespoon of powdered gelatin weighs . 2. oz. as seen above. 1 pound of plain gelatin powder yields 6.2 fluid ounces. ✦ 1 fl.66 gallons) of finished gelatin. 4. 1 pound of sweetened gelatin powder yields 2. 16 oz.317 ounces.4 sheets.66 tablespoons per ounce).4 times the weight called for dry.5 ounces of plain powdered gelatin yields 1 gallon plain gelatin.64 ounces (1. Multiply the number of tablespoons needed by the weight per tablespoon. If you divide the 1 gallon (128 fluid ounces) by 24. To calculate the weight needed based on a number of tablespoons you can either: 1. 1 tablespoon salt weighs . 8 . Gelatin: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Gelatin Sheet: 1 3 grams. 1 gal.333 fl. ✦ . 1 tablespoon baking powder weighs . 2 c. (The asterisk after the last 3 signifies that this series of 3s is infinite.4 ounces (2.4. 1 tablespoon cream of tartar weighs . 2 tbsp. There are 3 tablespoons powdered gelatin per ounce. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. Convert the 85.33333*). 32 fl. Plain Gelatin—Unsweetened: 2. 16 5.56 tablespoons of salt per ounce.74 Notes Chapter 4 Baking Items 1. 16 c. 16 ounces (1 pound) 5.

cups. AND CONDIMENTS F ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ats such as shortening. AND CONDIMENTS This section addresses fats first. tablespoons. Like liquids. these items do not pack down in larger measuring containers. so it is not necessary to add any compaction factors to quarts. and lard are sold in units measured by the pound. OILS. follow this procedure: 1. Divide the number of pounds in the purchase unit into the cost of the purchase unit. broken into two subsections—solid and liquid— followed by the Costing Condiments section. The discussion in this chapter makes reference to the following tables: Fats and Oils Condiments The Fats and Oils table shows the following: Ounce weight per cup Cups per pound Fluid ounces per cup.5 FATS. frying oil. 75 . half gallons. butter. or gallons. 2. COSTING SOLID FATS To cost a volume of fat. or cups). OILS. Many recipes—though not all—measure these ingredients using volumes such as tablespoons. which is eight in all cases Because many condiments are used sparingly (in quantities of teaspoons. or quarts. the Condiments table lists the following measures: Ounces per tablespoon Tablespoons per ounce Teaspoons per ounce Ounces per cup COSTING FATS. Divide that result by 16 (because there are 16 ounces in 1 pound) to get the cost per AP ounce.

Oils. This is the cost per AP fluid ounce. and Clarified Items.1 cents. For pints. oz. 3. Example Given: A 50-pound box of shortening costs $24. 16 c. oz. Divide $24. has three worksheets to help you cost volumes of fats. 384 $0. COSTING FLUID FATS Some special oils. so no compaction factor has to be added to these answers. Example Given: A case of pure olive oil consists of three 1-gallon jugs and costs $56. multiply the cup cost by 2. or the tablespoon cost by 3. Multiply 128 by 3 to calculate the total number of fluid ounces purchased: 128 fl. For teaspoons. Multiply the cost per AP ounce by the number of ounces in 1 cup. like walnut or olive.22475 So. divide the cup cost by 48.) For tablespoons.70 by 50 to get the cost per pound.76 Chapter 5 Fats. for a quart. you will be understating your costs. 2 pt. quart. Multiply the cost per AP fluid ounce by 8 for 1 cup. 1 c. Costing Worksheet 14 ✦ 3.494 So. however. ✦ 1 lb. 4. 2. and Condiments IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. 4 qt. ✦ 1 tbsp. One AP ounce costs 3. are sold by the pint. oz.25 oz.25 ounces in 1 cup of shortening: 7. 1 pound costs $0. Divide the cost of the case by the total number of fluid ounces it contained: $56 1 gal. (As already noted. oils. ✦ 1 fl. oz. Costing Worksheet 4 ✦ Rendered. Reduced. If you do. round down. 4 c. fats do not compact in larger vessels. 8 fl. Divide the cost per AP pound by 16 to calculate the cost per AP ounce: $0. 32 fl. 2 tbsp. . Look up the ounces contained in 1 cup from the Fats and Oils table.494 16 $0. From there. 16 oz. Do not. Divide the cost of the container(s) by the number of fluid ounces it (or they) contain(s). Costing Worksheet 4 will come in handy for costing a volume of these items. oz. oz. Costing Worksheet 1 ✦ Volume (Fluid Ounce) Items. and condiments: Weights to Volumes. 3 tsp. by 4. or they may be packaged in odd-sized containers such as an 18-ounce bottle. There are 128 fluid ounces in 1 gallon. Determine the total fluid ounces purchased—just look on the container(s). for a gallon. by 16. $24. 4. 3 384 fl. it’s simply a matter of following these four steps: 1.031 $0.030875 NOTE It is perfectly acceptable to round up slightly in order to account for the small bits of shortening that cling to containers and often go unused. the Workbook.14583 ✦ 128 fl. 16 fl. Do the math: 1. ✦ 1 qt. divide the cup cost by 16. or gallon. $0.5 cents. 16 tbsp. rounded. oz. Costing volume measures of these fats and oils is fairly straightforward. ✦ 1 pt. 2. The fats are already sold by fluid ounces or by a volume measure that can be divided by the number of fluid ounces contained in the purchase unit.70: 1.70 50 $0. This is the cost per cup. 2. 2 c. 1 cup of shortening costs approximately 22.494. The table states that there are 7. Follow the instructions already given for larger and smaller volumes.

or 18. and 12. 3. cups.6 cents (after rounding up). either. Oils. Multiply the ounces in 1 cup by the cost per AP ounce. The reason is that.87. so costing them is simple math.857 fluid ounces of space. rounded If your recipe calls for. Therefore. but you cannot use the ounce weight cost already given to cost a fluid ounce. You won’t find soup bases there. (Whole butter is approximately 75 percent butterfat by weight.15 0. the butterfat is relatively light. and Condiments 77 One fluid ounce of pure olive oil costs 14.4 percent.857 is approximately 80. and so it is called for in many sauté preparations. the 15 cents AP cost per ounce of whole butter now becomes: $0.15 0. and some baking formulas. their volume yields are printed on their containers.804 $0. meaning that these 12 weighed ounces will occupy 12. Divide the tablespoon cost by 3 to get the cost of a teaspoon. The other 25 percent is the water and milk solids.3 percent less. A fluid ounce of clarified butter weighs less than a weighed ounce—about 9. COSTING CONDIMENTS Condiments encompass a broad range of foods. a cup’s cost will be eight times the cost of 1 fluid ounce.Costing Fats. Thus. from prepared sauces like ketchup and mustard to salad dressings or soup bases. the total cost will be $1. Divide the cost of an AP ounce of whole butter by 0. because you are using less butter. Again.20— and your recipe calls for a weight of 10 ounces of clarified butter: 10 oz. Part II does address costing (Costing Worksheet 15) and purchasing (Purchasing Worksheet 13) flavor and stock bases. say. Costing a Volume of Clarified Butter NOTE Dressings are not listed in the Condiments table because they are both bought and used by volume.20 $2 The 10 ounces by weight will cost you $2. $0. 2. 10 fluid ounces of clarified butter. you cost a volume measure by following these steps: 1. whole butter. say an ounce of whole butter costs 15 cents—$0. This tells you the cost of an ounce of clarified butter. Divide the cup cost by 16 for a tablespoon cost. roux making. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . costing fluid ounces uses a factor of 80. This is logical. Yes.75 $0. However. and so forth. To cost an ounce of clarified butter. For condiments that are sold by weight but used by volume. 2. the 10 fluid ounces of clarified butter costs less than the 10 weighed ounces of clarified butter. 4.7 cents. take these two steps: 1.75. For instance. Multiply that by the number of ounces you need to complete costing the ingredient. Many recipes measure clarified butter in tablespoons. instead of using the factor of 75 percent for costing weighed ounces. because a fluid ounce of clarified butter weighs less than an ounce.18657. Costing a Weight of Clarified Butter Clarified butter is simply the pure butterfat rendered by heating whole butter to separate out the water and milk solids. or pints. Calculate the cost per AP ounce (divide purchase unit cost by ounces in unit).) The resulting butterfat is far less susceptible to scorching or smoking than hot.4 percent of the original 16 ounces. although a pound of whole butter yields 12 ounces (75 percent of 16) of weighed clarified butter. because they are bought by weight.

✦ 1 lb. Purchasing Worksheet 6 ✦ As in the Costing section. oz.0228 PURCHASING FATS. 128 fl. whole butter 1 gal.5 cents and one tablespoon costs one-sixteenth of a cup’s cost: $0. too. ✦ 1 qt. 16 c. the Workbook. 16 oz. Therefore. PURCHASING FATS AND OILS There are three formulas you’ll need to learn for purchasing fats and oils. The answer is 4 pounds.804 AP ounce weight. FORMULA 1 First is the formula for converting clarified butter weights to whole 0. and Condiments Example Given: A case of ketchup consists of six number-10 cans and costs $27. 2 tbsp. this section. Find how many AP pounds you need to start with. This equals 64 ounces. ✦ 1 pt. oz. 1 ounce costs 3. FORMULA 2 The second formula is used to convert a volume of clarified butter to a weight of whole butter.8 cents (after rounding up). ✦ 1 fl. oz. Example Given: You need 48 weighed ounces of clarified butter.75 (the raw-to-clarified weight yield percentage). The Condiments table shows there are 9.6 oz $0. you need to begin with 4 pounds of whole butter to end up with 48 ounces (3 pounds) of clarified butter. AND CONDIMENTS IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. Oils.75 AP ounce weight. 16 fl. 32 fl. oz. has one worksheet to help you plan your purchases of fats. Divide 48 by 75 percent.365 One cup costs 36.6 ounces of ketchup in 1 cup. separates fats and oils from condiments for the purpose of illustrating purchasing formulas. ✦ .66 So. 2. 8 fl. oz.95 ✦ One can contains 124 ounces: 124 $0. 16 tbsp. or 0. Here’s the breakdown: ✦ One can costs one-sixth of the case cost: 6 $4. whole butter butter weights. Since there are 16 ounces in 1 pound.95. and Condiments. 4 qt. whole butter yields 75 percent of its weight in clarified butter. 4 c.78 Chapter 5 Fats.365 16 $0.038 $0. oils. 3 tsp.66 $27. 2 pt. Oils. divide 64 by 16. 1. and condiments: Fats. 9.0376 $4. AS ounce weight of clarified butter Don’t forget. AS fluid ounces of clarified butter 0. ✦ 1 tbsp. 2 c. 1 c. OILS.

Divide 159. 2.21 cups of lard per pound.43 You need to buy and/or use 5.6 18 Therefore. Multiply 30 tablespoons times . 12 2. Here’s the calculation: 1. AS tablespoons Weight of 1 tablespoon AP in ounces Example Given: You need to use 30 tablespoons of ketchup. you’ll want the formula for converting AS tablespoons to AP ounces. Do the math: 1. The Condiments table shows that horseradish weighs 9. so you need to start with 159.21 to determine how many pounds of lard to buy or use.Purchasing Fats. The Fats and Oils table shows that there are 2. Divide 12 by 2. given that 1 gallon equals 128 fluid ounces? 1. How many pounds of raw butter should you start with. FORMULA 1 First.28 ounces per cup: Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . The answer is 9. Example Given: You need a gallon of clarified butter. Oils.804. FORMULA 2 Next you’ll need the formula for converting AS cups to AP ounces: AP ounces AS cups Weight of 1 cup Example Given: You are going to use 3 cups of horseradish.4 percent of its original volume in clarified butter. PURCHASING CONDIMENTS You’ll find two formulas of use for planning your condiments purchases.95 pounds.2. Divide 128 by 0.21 5.6 to determine the weight needed: 30 .43 pounds of lard.2 by 16 (the number of ounces in a pound).6 ounces. The Condiments table shows that 1 tablespoon of ketchup weighs 0. and Condiments 79 Note that whole butter yields 80.2 ounces of whole butter. FORMULA 3 The final formula is used to convert AS cups of fat to AP pounds of fat: Cups needed Cups per pound AP in pounds Example Given: You need to use 12 cups of lard. you will buy or use 18 ounces of ketchup (by weight). The result is 159. meaning you will need nearly 10 pounds of whole butter to get 1 gallon of clarified butterfat.

25 8.4% yield. 3 tsp. Fats and Oils U.00 5. 3 9. 2 c.70 2. whipped Butter. 16 tbsp.25 7.08 1. 4 qt. Lamb.21 2. 16 fl. 16 c.00 2. a 75% yield.25 2. W h ole Bu t te r: 1 pound of whole butter yields 12 ounces (by weight) of clarified butter. oz.864 fluid ounces of clarified butter. butter-based Shortening Notes 8. oz.80 Chapter 5 Fats.30 7. oz. 32 fl. ✦ 1 lb. you need to buy and/or use nearly 28 ounces of horseradish.60 7. ✦ 1 qt. Multiply 3 cups by 9.5 ounces.02 2. 3. Avoirdupois Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Fluid Ounces per Cup Item Butter Butter. Oils. ✦ .28 27. Chicken. 16 oz.00 3. and Condiments 1. an 80.70 9. R o u x : 1 cup of cooked.28 to determine the weight needed. oz.21 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1. Cl a ri f i e d Bu t te r: 1 cup of clarified butter weighs 7.84 Therefore. worked (anhydrous) Duck Fat Fat: Beef. 128 fl. 2. 1 pound of whole butter yields 12. consisting of six parts clarified butter to seven parts flour. butter-based roux is based on making a “tight” roux. Pork Lard Margarine Oil.21 2. 1 gal. ✦ 1 pt.00 7. 2 tbsp. 8 fl. by weight. oz.25 7. 4 c.S.40 7.11 2. 2 pt. ✦ 1 tbsp.21 2. 1 c. Vegetable Roux. ✦ 1 fl.

66 4.71 4.80 9.70 8.00 1.58 0. sweet rice cooking wine Barbeque Sauce Belecan (dried shrimp paste) Black Bean and Garlic Sauce Chili Sauce Chipotles in Adobo Cocktail Sauce (ketchup plus horseradish) Coconut Cream.95 5.71 4.89 1.20 9.00 3.70 9.66 1.31 1.22 4.64 4.50 0.00 6.20 9.00 4. 33% solids Mayonnaise.75 6.40 9.20 10. ordinary Oyster Sauce.95 4.48 1.61 0.62 1.63 0.64 0.68 0.58 2.74 1.10 8. canned Coconut Milk.00 4. canned Curry Paste Curry Sauce.60 0.48 0.61 0.62 5.74 1.55 1.54 1.63 2.25 9.66 4.58 0.03 1.63 0.23 5.35 10.68 0.49 4.00 9.58 0.90 8.83 1. whole egg Miso Paste Mustard Sauce Nori Paste.88 8.57 1.70 10.20 10.80 4.22 4.94 1.28 11.30 10.80 10.63 1.85 5.60 9.52 0.49 0.60 7.65 10.95 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .37 1.10 4.60 1.47 2.55 1. various flavors Oyster Sauce.00 9.90 6.50 0.72 1.17 4.80 7.61 0.65 1.08 5.61 0.53 0.65 0.Condiments 81 Condiments Ounces per Tablespoon Tablespoons per Ounce Teaspoons per Ounce Ounces per Cup Item Adobo Paste Aji-Mirin.97 4.90 8.41 6.67 2.64 0.65 1.32 4.73 0.65 0.62 0.11 1. premium Pho (Vietnamese Beef) Base Pickle Relish Pico de Gallo 0.82 5. Lee Kum Kee Fish Sauce Ginger Purée Hoisin Sauce Horseradish Sauce Kecap Manis Kecap Sambal Ketchup.60 0.55 0.57 1.00 9.44 4.75 9.70 10.90 5.48 10.64 0.

00 5. White.35 8. 32 fl.84 5.57 0.60 0. ✦ 1 pt. dried Siracha Hot Sauce Soy Sauce. Kikoman Soy Sauce. oz.93 1. 16 c.52 0.61 1.78 5.59 0. oz.00 5. 128 fl.59 0. 8 fl.74 1.58 1.40 9.67 1.68 1. Bay. Ponzu flavored Steak Sauce Sweet and Sour Sauce Tamari.00 1. 1 gal.63 0.00 9.40 4.10 5. oz.40 3. ✦ .60 9. 2 c. oz. Oils. and ginger are in standard prepared condiment forms.92 1.60 9.45 5.58 0.85 9. 16 tbsp. 2 tbsp.81 1.50 0.82 1.71 5. medium.90 2.50 11.22 5.63 0.20 9.31 16.82 Chapter 5 Fats. wet. 16 fl. and Condiments Condiments (Continued) Ounces per Tablespoon Tablespoons per Ounce Teaspoons per Ounce Ounces per Cup Item Ponzu Flavored Vinegar Plum Sauce Sambal Goreng Udong.10 8.00 8. 4 c. dried Sambal Oelek Sesame Tahini Shoyu Sauce.18 0. ✦ 1 fl.75 1. ✦ 1 qt. Kikoman Shrimp Paste Shrimp.00 8.75 5.25 5.35 10.60 1. low-sodium Tapenade Tabasco Sauce Vinegar. 5% Worcestershire Sauce Note 0.11 5.21 12.58 5.27 5.33 6. Rice Vinegar.24 0.80 5.35 1. dried Shrimp. 1 c. 3 tsp. not dry. 16 oz.75 17.67 1.13 4.76 1.58 0.85 9.17 0.05 4. ✦ 1 tbsp.42 5. oz.10 2.11 4.78 2.70 1. ✦ 1 lb.13 9.59 0. 4 qt.40 10.30 9. small.52 0.71 1.60 0.57 0. 2 pt.00 5.70 1.15 9.56 0. Light Sodium Soy Sauce. Mustard. horseradish.55 0.75 9.71 0.

liqueurs.) Calculate how many fluid ounces are contained in a standard wine bottle: 1.574: 750 29.36. Beer is sold by the fluid ounce or larger standard American volume measures. which holds 12 bottles. Why? There are 29. a standard 750-mL wine bottle is also a 25. rounded One fluid ounce of this wine costs 30 cents.29968. is abbreviated mL (with no ending period).60: $7. NOTE A milliliter. 83 . (Labels on other liquid beverages or liquid foods list the contents in both American and metric units of measure.30.574.60 25.6 LIQUIDS W ✦ ines and spirits (the latter of which includes hard liquor. Divide 750 by 29. Costing Worksheet 4 ✦ How: Divide the number of milliliters by 29.30. one-thousandth of a liter. and that each standard wine bottle contains 750 milliliters. which lists the capacities of wine and spirits bottles in both fluid ounces and milliliters COSTING LIQUIDS PACKAGED IN METRIC VOLUME MEASURES Let’s start this discussion by assuming that you have a standard case of wine. say a bottle of wine costs $7.574 25. and fortified wines) are sold by the liter or milliliter in the United States.36 $0.36 Thus. For example.36-fluid-ounce bottle. the Workbook. or $0. has one worksheet to help you cost volumes of liquids: Volume (Fluid Ounce) Items.57353 milliliters in 1 fluid ounce. Determine the cost of 1 fluid ounce: 1.57353. A cup would cost 8 times that. and so on.) The discussion in this chapter includes reference to one table: Liquids. (You can round this to 29. You want to convert the milliliters to fluid ounces: ✦ ✦ IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. Divide the cost of a bottle by 25. a pint 16 times $0.

oz. Just be aware that some spirits bottles are labeled as being common measures like pint. 2 tbsp.997 You will need to order. ✦ 1 tbsp. the Workbook.84 Chapter 6 Liquids To speed up this process. To avoid confusion. 16 c. It shows you how many fluid ounces are contained in standard bottles of wines and spirits. Your answer will be the number of bottles to buy or cost. 32 fl. 3 tsp. pints. use the Liquids table. use the table or simply read the label and divide the milliliters by 29. 8 fl. ✦ 1 qt.574 to convert to fluid ounces. half pint. or cost. or half gallon. FORMULA 1 Here is the formula for converting U. 16 fl. 1 c. ✦ . 2 pt. has one worksheet to help you plan your purchases of liquids: Bottled Liquids. fluid ounces to bottles: Fluid ounces per bottle # of AP bottles U. ✦ 1 lb. fluid ounces needed Example Given: A recipe calls for 76 fluid ounces of wine. 2. oz.S. Determine how many fluid ounces you plan to use or serve.36 fluid ounces in one 750 mL bottle: 76 25.S. 4 c.36 2. oz. You buy this wine in 750 mL bottles. Divide that number by the number of fluid ounces in one bottle of the type you will be ordering. 4 qt. Purchasing Worksheet 7 ✦ 1. 1 gal. 128 fl. PURCHASING LIQUIDS PACKAGED IN METRIC VOLUME MEASURES Planning your purchases of liquids is a two-step process: IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. three full 750 mL bottles. oz. 2 c. but they are not true half-pints. 16 oz. 16 tbsp. oz. ✦ 1 pt. or half gallons. ✦ 1 fl. The Liquids table shows that there are 25.

✦ 1 U. 4 liters 1. This equals 8. The U. two-tenths of 1% above avoirdupois. There are 25.68 25.481 gallons. the British pint. These are fluid ounces.S.S.S. fluid ounce of water equals 29. spirits Liter. fluid ounce is 29. 16 per pint.) ✦ 1 quart equals 0. To find the U.) Spirits Bottle (U.57. fluid ounces) equals 3.36.81 1. quarts. divide the number of milliliters by 29.588 grams (or 236.S.57 milliliters).S.S. not weight.72 59. a pint is not a pound the world around. spirits 6.S.946 3.S. ✦ 2 cups equal 1 pint.S. cups. Fluid Ounces Bottle Type Wine Bottle Wine Bottle Wine Bottle Wine Bottle Wine Bottle Wine Bottle Spirits Bottle (U.35 grams.692 ounces. 4.346 pounds. But fluid ounces measure liquid volume.36 12.S.S. U. avoirdupois.785 liters. or.S. 28. 1 avoirdupois ounce equals 28. there are 3. avoirdupois. A U. 4 quarts 0.” spirits “Half Pint.81 50.946 liters. ✦ 1 U. (A liter is about 5. 2 8.750 200 375 750 1. and Metric Volume Conversion Notes: ✦ 1 liter equals 1. 40 per quart. a wine bottle contains 750 mL.” spirits “Pint.946.413 grams and/or milliliters. or 33.To find liters from U.” spirits Fifth.S. ✦ 1 Cubic Foot of water equals 7. a British fluid ounce.76 12. gallon.536 ounces. 20 per pint.S. The avoirdupois ounce is the unit of measure used to state the ounce weight of goods like food. Thus.8 fluid ounces.0568. 3.) 1. Always use units of liquid measure to express measurements pertaining to liquid capacities. 160 per gallon.Liquids 85 Liquids U.) Spirits Bottle (U.346 ounces equals 16. fluid ounces in a standard 750 mL wine bottle. is a bit larger than an imperial fluid ounce. quart. counterparts. gallons. multiply the number of liters by 1. quarts.000 1.000 50 (Refer to the Measurement Conversions page (page 141) for more data regarding liquid measures. for example. 32 per quart.57.692 ounces! Thus.413.) Spirits Bottle (U. and gallon are all about 20% larger than their U.056688 U. 750 milliliters 29. for example.) Spirits Bottle (U.57 grams (29. spirits Miniature.785 liters. avoirdupois—not 16. . This equals 1.346 ounces. For example. ✦ 1 imperial fluid ounce of water equals 28.S. quarts.6% bigger than a quart.0568 4.000 750 375 1.) Notes Bottle Size Milliliters Champagne Split (Twentieth) Double Magnum Fifth (Regular Wine Bottle) Half-Bottle (Tenth) Liter Magnum “Half Gallon.57 25. In the United States there are 8 fluid ounces per cup.S. avoirdupois.S.) Spirits Bottle (U. To find quarts from liters.44 25.S.S.500 1.043 ounces. and both the U.S.36 33.785 liters in 1 U. contrary to the old saying. fluid cup of water weighs 236. and liters.18 6. 2.68 33. gallon (128 U.69 187 3. fluid ounce. 128 per gallon. milliliters. In the imperial (British) system there are 8 fluid ounces per cup.36 U. Since there are 4 quarts in a gallon. fluid ounces in a bottle sold by milliliters. multiply quarts by . 133. ✦ The U. and imperial fluid ounces weigh more than the avoirdupois ounce.22 quarts. pints.32 101.588 milliliters).S. One gallon of water weighs 8. however. ✦ 1 pound equals 16 ounces.

eggs. While not listed in the table.12 4 $2. pints. half gallons. Liquid dairy products are typically sold in amounts measured by volume: half pints. has two worksheets to help you cost volumes of dairy products: Weights to Volumes. and yogurt. Costing Worksheet 1 ✦ Eggs. half gallons. and gallons—so it’s a simple matter of dividing the cost of the container by the number of fluid ounces in the container. for instance) are sold by the count.S. pints. like milk or cream. A few dairy items (butter pats and individual creamers. The Dairy Products table lists the volume-to-weight relationships for liquids as well as cheese and egg products and will facilitate the costing and purchasing of dairy items. Then 1 gallon will cost one-fourth of the case cost: $11. you first determine the cost of 1 fluid ounce. cheeses. making the costing and purchasing calculations rather simple. or gallons.78 86 . the Workbook.12. Say that a 4-gallon case of whole milk costs $11. Baking recipes. This chapter makes reference to one table: ✦ Dairy Products This table lists the following measures: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Ounces per cup Cups per pound Ounces per pint Pints per pound Pounds per pint IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. This is pretty simple because these foods are sold in volume measures based on the U. quarts. however. fluid ounce—half pints. whether they are sold by volume or by weight. often measure these (and other dairy products) by weight. cream. Costing Worksheet 9 ✦ COSTING DAIRY PRODUCTS COSTING LIQUID DAIRY PRODUCTS When you are dealing with liquid dairy products. and most of the time these liquids are also measured in recipes by volume. the correct procedures for costing and purchasing count items is addressed in this chapter as well.7 DAIRY T he dairy category includes a variety of products: milk. quarts.

0217 40 $0. or 87 cents.78. To cost 1 cup. Dairy products like shredded or creamed cheese are sold by the pound but are measured in some recipes in cups. or 2. multiply the cost per ounce ($0. 2. Determine the cost per ounce by dividing the cost of the purchase unit. and a standard purchase unit is a 6-flat case. To cost a volume amount. And because there are 128 fluid ounces in 1 gallon. for instance. 3.23 4. a case.021718. COSTING EGGS Recipes typically call for a specific number of eggs. The Dairy Products table shows that 1 cup of bleu cheese crumbles weighs 4. or 180 eggs. rounded 2. 5. One ounce costs one-sixteenth of the cost per pound: $3.0925 One cup of bleu cheese crumbles costs a little over $1. Multiply the cost per cup or pint by the number of cups or pints needed.68. NOTE Formerly. Multiply the cost per ounce by the number of ounces per cup or pint.75): $0. In the Dairy Products table. Costing one egg requires simple division: Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit .23) times the ounces per cup (4.17 cents. or cottage cheese.868. They do not compact in larger vessels. Divide the case cost of $73. or quarts. you divide the gallon cost ($2. almost-liquid foods like melted cheese. which are usually packed in numbers divisible by 12—one dozen.55 by 20 pounds to get the cost per AP pound: $73.78 128 $0. or $3.6775. cream cheese.68 16 $0. or block. So there are 20 pounds in the case (four bags times 5 pounds per bag equals 20 pounds). and gallons apply to loose foods such as shredded or diced cheeses. Divide the cost per pound by 16 to get the cost per ounce.75 $1.09.23 3.55 and contains four each 5-pound bags of crumbles. 1. look up the number of ounces found in 1 cup or pint to determine the cost per cup or pint.55 20 $3. A commercial flat of eggs holds 30 eggs. Example Given: A case of crumbled bleu cheese costs $73. but the 6-flat case has become the norm today. by number of pounds in the purchase unit. because they behave like liquids. 4.Costing Dairy Products 87 One gallon costs $2.75 ounces. you multiply the cost per fluid ounce times the number of fluid ounces needed: $0. make these calculations: 1.78) by 128 to get the cost per fluid ounce: $2. pints. rounded COSTING CHEESES NOTE The compaction factors for quarts. a case held 12 flats. half gallons. but not to dense. rounded If your recipe calls for 40 fluid ounces of milk.

you divide 512 by 128: 512 128 4 You need 4 gallons of whole milk.44 large eggs. 2 pt. complicating the use of eggs is that they are sold in different sizes. and cheese slices are sold by the count.10. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 c. Divide the cost of the purchase unit by the number of eggs it contains. but recipes generally call for “large” eggs. 32 fl. 1 c. 16 fl.) One creamer will cost: $8. oz. To use pooled eggs properly. 128 fl. To cost these items.10. (Creamer packaging is now more varied but is near 400/case. Some recipes call for shelled eggs. 2 tbsp. cheeses. If a 180-egg case costs $18. 1 gal. oz. eggs.88 Chapter 7 Dairy 1. assume a case of creamers costs $8. oz.944.90.95 400 $0. 4 c. ✦ . Since 1 gallon equals 128 fluid ounces. oz. 3 tsp. The formula is: AS fluid ounces needed # of purchase units Fluid ounces in a purchase unit Example Given: Your production plan calls for an aggregate of 512 fluid ounces of whole milk. ✦ 1 pt. meaning that if one egg costs $0.95 and holds 400 creamers. you just divide the purchase unit cost by the number in the unit. ✦ 1 qt. 8 fl. ✦ 1 lb. coffee creamers. will be designated as having a certain number of creamers inside. A whole large egg weighs 2 ounces and holds 1. 1 pound costs $0. PURCHASING DAIRY LIQUIDS The formula for determining a correct volume of dairy liquid to buy is quite simple if your recipes are expressed in volume measures.777 ounces of shelled egg—the yolk and white.6 percent) of the whole shelled egg. 16 tbsp. usually described as pooled eggs. Whites constitute two-thirds (66.24 cents. and miscellaneous. then one egg costs 10 cents: $18 180 $0. That is. you need to know that a quart of pooled eggs equals 19. ✦ 1 tbsp.02237 So one creamer costs about 2. then. and the yolks one-third (33. A pound of pooled eggs equals nine large eggs. 16 c. 4 qt. As an example. PURCHASING DAIRY PRODUCTS As with the Costing Dairy Products section. we’ll go through the purchasing formulas for the dairy foods category in the same order: liquids. Your experience tells you that you buy whole milk in gallon containers. 16 oz.10 That said. COSTING MISCELLANEOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy products such as individual butter pats. a case of creamers.3 percent). so if one egg costs $0. for instance. then a quart costs $1.

58) by the number of pints in the purchase unit (4): 5.395 You will need about 1.4 half gallons of 2 percent milk. has one worksheet to help you plan your purchases of dairy products: Dairy products. Convert the 6 pounds to ounces: 6 16 96 2. Divide the ounces needed by ounces per pint. 2. Example Given: A recipe calls for 6 pounds of 2 percent milk.58 pints 4. Since there are 64 fluid ounces in a half gallon and 16 ounces per pint.58 4 1. Pints per purchase unit Pints needed Purchase units needed Ounces per pint # of pints needed 1. Divide the total weighed ounces needed by the Ounces per Pint column value. PURCHASING CHEESES The formula you’ll need to use to plan your cheese purchases has two variations. Your answer will be the number of purchase units needed. half gallon. or gallon) by dividing the number of pints in the purchase unit into the number of pints needed. Determine the number of purchase units needed. Convert the number of pints to the purchase unit for this item (typically a quart.2 ounces of 2 percent milk in one pint. divide the 64 by 16 to calculate the number of pints in the purchase unit. Divide the total pints needed (5. AS ounces needed Stage 2: 2. 64 16 4 5. 17. if necessary. Convert.Purchasing Dairy Products 89 FORMULA If the quantities in your recipes are expressed in weight but you buy the dairy product by volume. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . The Dairy Products table shows that there are 17.2 oz. Purchasing Worksheet 8 ✦ 1. any pound measures of the dairy liquid to ounces by multiplying the pounds by 16. per pint 5. IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. the Workbook. 4. 3. 96 oz. 3. the procedure for converting a weight of dairy liquid to a volume is done in two stages: Stage 1: 1. and you buy this milk in half gallons. Determine the number of pints needed. Your answer will be the number of pints needed. Look up the item’s volume-to-weight relationship in the Dairy table using the Ounces per Pint column.

oz.035: 8 0.28 1 gal. you will use 8. 2 c. 8.441).035 0.5 oz. per cup 38. 16 oz. you need approximately 0.65 oz.90 Chapter 7 Dairy FORMULA 1 The first version of the formula for converting AS cups to AP weight in pounds is: (AS cups Ounce weight per cup) 16 AP in pounds Basically.65): 2 cups 4. Multiply the number of cups needed (2) by the weight per cup (4. The compaction factors are: ✦ ✦ ✦ 1. instead. 16 oz. 16 fl. 2 tbsp. oz. ✦ 1 pt. ✦ 1 fl. 2 pt. 1. you need to add a factor of 3.28 cups 4. that you need a half gallon of diced cheddar. all you are doing here is multiplying the ounce weight of a cup by the number of cups needed and then converting that answer (which will be a number of ounces) to pounds. it appears that you will need 2. 2. Example Given: You need 2 cups of diced cheddar. 38. 1 c. Divide 9. Because the cheese in this form will pack down a bit in a half-gallon container. ✦ 1 lb. 16 tbsp.28 2.5 percent for a half gallon 7 percent for a gallon 1.3 oz.5 percent to the number of cups you are going to use before proceeding. oz.28 to the 8-cup multiplier and proceed as just shown.3 ounces by 16 to convert the ounces to pounds: 9. 16 c. 4 c. FORMULA 2 The alternate method for converting AS cups per pound to AP pounds is as follows: AS cups Cups per pound AP pounds Example Given: You need a half gallon of diced cheddar. 8. 3.406 ✦ 128 fl. oz. Thus. Do the math: 1.441 2.3 16 0. ✦ 1 qt.5 oz. 2.28 cups rather than 8 cups.58125 lb. Multiply the 8 cups in the half gallon by 0. The Dairy Products table shows that a cup of diced cheddar weighs 4. oz. 4 qt. Divide the 8. 9. But say. ✦ 1 tbsp.441 individual cups of diced cheddar per pound. After rounding.58 pounds of cheddar cheese. 3 tsp. 8 fl.5 percent for a quart 3. Add the 0. .406 lb.65 oz. by dividing the ounces needed by 16. The Dairy Products table shows that there are 3.28 cups you need by the number of cups per pound (3.41 pounds of cheddar. 32 fl. Factoring compaction.65 ounces.

PURCHASING EGGS There are three formulas that will come in handy for planning your egg purchases.44 58. FORMULA 3 The third egg formula is for converting a weight of large eggs to a count: AS pounds of large eggs 9 AP count Example Given: You need 6 pounds of pooled large eggs.32 Thus.32 large eggs to obtain 3 quarts. Formula 1 table indicates that there are 19. Determine how many eggs to buy to get 3 quarts. ✦ To convert your egg count to dozens. divide the eggs needed by 12.44: 3 19. There are 6 flats in a case and 30 eggs in a flat. Note 5 of the Dairy table states that there are 9 large shelled eggs in 1 pound. 2. Note 4 of the Dairy table shows that there are 22 pooled medium eggs per quart. pooled. 1.44 AP large eggs AS quarts of pooled large eggs Example Given: You need 3 quarts of pooled large eggs. 1. FORMULA 2 The second egg formula is for converting quarts of pooled eggs to AP medium eggs: AS quarts of pooled medium eggs 22 AP medium eggs Example Given: You need 3 quarts of pooled medium eggs. you need 66 medium eggs to obtain 3 quarts. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Multiply the quarts by 19. 1. pooled.41 pounds of cheddar cheese.44 shelled large eggs per quart.Purchasing Dairy Products 91 Notice that this is the same answer as the first method: You need to buy and/or use 2. Multiply the number of quarts by 22: 3 22 66 Therefore. so there are 180 eggs per case. you need 58. Multiply the number of pounds you need by 9 to determine how many eggs to buy: 6 9 54 You need 54 large eggs. Determine how many eggs to buy to get 3 quarts. FORMULA 1 This is the formula for converting quarts of pooled eggs to AP large eggs: 19.

you need 1. To plan a purchase for this type of food. divide by 30. oz. 1 gal. Presliced cheeses. 16 tbsp.92 Chapter 7 Dairy ✦ ✦ To convert to flats needed. ✦ 1 lb. 4 c. To convert to cases. ✦ 1 fl. 16 fl. oz.200 pats (2 times 600). 32 fl. 2 tbsp. 4 qt. ✦ 1 qt. Divide the butter pat count by the count per case. and butter pats are three such products sold this way. individual coffee creamers. You buy a case that has an exact count of the product inside. 8 fl. Your answer will be the number of purchase units required to fulfill your need. FORMULA: This is the formula for converting piece counts to AP units: Total count needed Count per purchase unit AP units Example Given: A banquet for 600 guests requires two butter pats for each. oz. 128 fl.200 pats needed 400 pats per case 3 cases Order 3 cases—or more. 3 tsp. and 400 pats come in one case: 1. precounted packs. 16 oz. 16 c. In all. divide by 180. ✦ 1 tbsp. oz. certain dairy products come in specific. oz. ✦ . 1 c. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 1. PURCHASING MISCELLANEOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS As noted in the costing section. 2 pt. you divide the number you need by the count per case. because mistakes happen and some of the guests will want extra butter.

98 0.08 0.07 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . crumbled Brie or Camembert. Drained. sifted Egg Substitute Eggs.500 16.93 2.400 17.02 1.92 1.019 5.368 1.68 0. 1/3 in.963 1.51 2.06 1.300 16.15 10.882 1.000 16. hard-cooked. dice Double Devon Cream Dulce de Leche.02 0. pooled Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 4.667 1.000 17.93 2.57 3.00 8.72 0.000 10.400 17.08 1.75 8.300 17. large curd Cottage.5 5.154 3.20 8.08 0.140 1.025 1.867 9.20 7.6 4.982 0.845 1.Dairy Products 93 Dairy Products Item American Process.09 1.33 0.000 3.00 3. shelled.59 1.000 5. 1% Buttermilk. diced Cheddar.800 16.925 0.982 0.000 6.06 1.93 1.59 1.000 9.880 17.850 1.800 15.15 8.077 1.50 8.300 21.860 4.50 0.905 1.50 0.58 1. whole.08 0.75 8.65 8.3 12.340 17.441 1.982 1. chopped Eggs.38 1.920 0.94 0. melted American Process.00 1.62 1. diced American Process.60 4.30 3.86 3.00 2.200 8.08 1.02 1.000 17.62 0.889 1.00 4. pasteurized.162 2.67 0.92 0.94 8. small curd Cottage Cheese.31 0.500 16.940 17.762 1.963 3.85 2. 2% Cheddar. nonfat Cream Cheese Crema Mexicana Crème Fraiche Curds.66 0.368 1.600 6.93 0. shredded Cool Whip Cotijo.53 0.60 4. pasteurized.333 1.400 14.810 2.65 8.99 1.860 4.200 8. canned Edam.300 9.08 0.684 0.00 8.239 1. pasteurized.15 4.963 1.60 4.839 1.03 1.300 17. shredded Blue.65 6.33 0. shredded Egg Powder.941 0.08 1. crumbled Cottage.70 8.01 0. packed Buttermilk.93 0.47 8.75 1. melted Cheddar.200 8.40 7.90 8. lowfat Cottage Cheese.951 1. melted Brie or Camembert.524 3.20 9.67 8.

556 1. diced Monterey Jack. fat-free Parmesan.08 1.25 4.50 0. fruit-flavored Media Crema Milk.77 3.00 0.333 3.00 4. fresh Provolone. 8 fl.904 0.800 2.40 8.000 17.65 4. shredded Half and Half Half and Half. shredded Non-Dairy Creamer Non-Dairy Creamer.55 8.78 0.08 0. 4% Milk. part skim. ✦ 1 fl.53 0.94 0.100 17.441 4.1 17. evaporated Milk.00 2.60 3.86 1. 128 fl.800 6. powdered (from whole milk) Milk.38 0.11 1.00 4.65 4.000 17. 4 c.50 1.600 9.90 4.808 1.72 2.11 1.08 1.481 3.000 4.43 1 gal. grated.930 2.67 1.11 0.11 0. 16 c. 16 tbsp.800 17.798 3. 16 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp.000 1.00 8. 16 fl.800 8.48 1.14 1. whole.87 1. ✦ 1 lb. oz.60 8.07 1.824 4.706 5.58 0.758 1. oz. shredded Mozzarella.58 0.93 0.939 1.94 Chapter 7 Dairy Dairy Products (Continued) Item Fontina.912 2.60 8.50 1.25 9.55 8.50 10. ✦ 1 pt.40 3.800 17.500 9.000 8.10 8. low-fat.000 9.879 0.74 1.10 0. 2 tbsp.03 1.43 0.20 17.706 7. shredded Fromage Blanc (Bakers’ Cheese) Goat's Milk.35 2.600 17.905 1. sweetened condensed Monterey Jack.211 1.353 0.40 4. shredded Quark–European Bakers' Cheese Queso Fresco.700 7.1 17.07 1.200 16.00 2. 4 qt.936 0.80 8. 3 tsp.80 8.85 3. evaporated Gruyere.000 1. dry Parmesan.48 1.07 1. fat free IMO–Sour Cream Substitute Kefir.35 0.952 0.500 18.441 4.899 0.970 0.808 4.72 2.600 17.904 2.300 8.000 8.86 1.798 1. oz.11 0. 1% Milk.00 8.05 1. oz. diced Provolone.00 0.55 8.85 8.88 1.11 0.56 1.000 4.90 8. 1 c.90 1. ✦ 1 qt.871 1. 2 c. powdered (from nonfat milk) Milk.765 3.87 1.93 0. ✦ . 32 fl.700 16.50 0.300 8.860 4.94 0.200 6. oz.000 21.20 17. shredded Muenster.00 4.540 6. shredded Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 3. 2 pt. grated. 2% Milk.80 4.211 1.

930 0.50 8.941 0.778 1.200 17. • Heavy whipping cream weighs 33. 1%.300 17.000 17. or 1.6).05 1.080 17.8 16.860 17.06 1.400 18. • 1 quart of pooled eggs equals 19. • Egg substitutes weigh 34. • Yield of 1 large egg.60 8. melted Swiss.60 4. diced Swiss.880 17.860 1.800 17.925 0. 2. or 14 ounces whites and 7 ounces yolks. E g g s : Size of Eggs Shelled Ounce Weight Each Jumbo 2.07 1.839 1.00 8.50 1.08 1.000 16.09 1. • 1 pound of pooled (shelled) eggs equals 9 large eggs (1.33% (or two-thirds white.68 8.40 8.44 large eggs or 22 medium eggs. yolks.30 • Whites constitute 66. shelled: 1. European Style Yogurt.13 1. heavy Yogurt.850 1.3 Extra-Large 2. fresh Soy "Milk" Swiss.300 9.239 1.93 2.95 0. fat-free Sour Cream.00 8. • 1 dozen large eggs yields about 21 ounces pooled eggs.70 9. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .2 and 0. European Style Yogurts Notes Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Ounces per Pint Pints per Pound Pounds per Pint 8.4 ounces per quart.843 1.86 cups). Plain. Sweetened.94 8.60 1. • Whole milk weighs 34. 33.586 ounce yolk (roughly: 1.Dairy Products 95 Dairy Products (Continued) Item Rice "Milk" Drink Ricotta.200 8.40 8.92 0.9 1.94 0.09 1.93 1.889 0.777 Medium 1.920 0.000 1.62 1. shredded Whipping Cream Whipping Cream.905 1.08 0.55 Small 1. M i l ks a n d Cr e a m s : • Nonfat.200 0.08 1.875 cups.882 1.08 1.66%. Mexican.952 0.174 ounces white and . one-third yolk).05 1.2 ounces per quart.05 Large 1. and 2% buttermilk all weigh 34. whole or part skim Sour Cream Sour Cream.850 3.08 0.65 8.6 ounces per quart.62 0.6 ounces per quart.360 17.925 1. 2% milks.00 0.860 4.000 17.54 8.874 1.65 4. • 1 pound of whole milk equals 15 fluid ounces.

frozen juice concentrates. your sales will total $10 per gallon. 2. From a gallon you can pour eight 16-fluid-ounce sodas without even deducting cup space for the ice. Add the condiment and packaging costs.8 BEVERAGES B everages are wonderful money-making menu items for those in the food service industry. and soda are enormous. 3. and Cocoa COSTING BEVERAGES This simple costing approach works equally well for dispensed sodas. These may include: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Condiments (sugar. They provide a good profit margin and require very little labor to prepare and serve.25 or more. The potential profits on nonalcoholic drinks like coffee. creamers) Paper or styrofoam cups Cup lids Straws Stir sticks Napkins Filters There is one table connected to the discussion in this chapter: ✦ Coffee. iced tea. and brewed beverages such as coffee. Multiply it by the ounces poured. A gallon of dispensed soda will run you about $2 to make. cocoa. 96 . That’s a 500 percent markup! Of course. Determine the cost per fluid ounce. For instance: ✦ ✦ A 12-fluid-ounce serving of iced tea will cost you only about 3 cents for the tea. there are other expenses that you have to add to the total menu item cost when working with beverages.25. If you sell these drinks for $1. and iced tea: 1. and you will probably sell it for $1. Tea.

002 128 $0. To demonstrate this process.2337 But don’t forget to add the cost of the gas and water to the syrup cost: ✦ ✦ Water costs about 2 mills per gallon.0005.5 cents.4 cents.10 and yields 30 gallons of mixed drink. to avoid spillage. Why not? First.064.87 per gal.0000156 A cylinder of gas costs about $16 and carbonates 250 gallons of soda. If the beverage is served cold. and tea. rounded. rounded. plus 25 gallons of water. calculate as follows: 1. Divide the cost per gallon by 128 (1 gallon equals 128 fluid ounces): $1. a 5-gallon box of syrup will yield its own 5 gallons. However. Soda-dispensing machines mix syrup or concentrate with filtered water and carbon dioxide gas to make the finished drink.87 128 $0. 16 $0. So you need to deduct at least 1 fluid ounce. the cost per fluid ounce of the mixed drink is 1. Divide the cost of a container of syrup by the container’s yield. To get the cost per fluid ounce. Adding the water and gas costs. A fluid ounce costs 128th of that: $0. The cost for the gas to produce a gallon of mixed drink is $0. you will not pour a beverage to the very top of the cup or glass. 2. has one worksheet to help you cost beverages: Brewed and Dispensed Beverages. Hence. Soda syrups are generally mixed with five parts water and are packaged in 5-gallon “bag-in-box” containers. This is then poured into a glass or take-out cup.0146 $0. or $0. coffee. Therefore.10 30 gal. COSTING DISPENSED SODAS The word dispensed means that the beverage is mixed in a machine at the time the order is filled. In this case. How much? That depends on how much ice you put into the cup before dispensing the drink. you will not actually pour 16 fluid ounces into a 16-ounce cup. you will be able Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . If you fill a 16-fluid-ounce cup to the top with ice.10) by the yield (30 gallons): $56. we break down beverage costing into three categories: dispensed sodas. 16 fluid ounces costs 23. Costing Worksheet 10 ✦ Voilá! You have your product cost. to cost a dispensed drink: 1. Divide the cost of the syrup ($56. 5 gallons of syrup will become 30 gallons of mixed drink: 5 parts syrup 25 parts water 30 parts soda Example Given: A 5-gallon container of syrup costs $56.0000156 per fluid ounce (a mill is 1/10 of 1 cent): $0.46 cents. for a total yield per box of 30 gallons. Second. the Workbook. $1. the ice will displace some of the soda.Costing Beverages 97 IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. the cup or glass is at least partially filled with ice cubes.0146 The results are as follows: ✦ ✦ 1 fluid ounce of dispensed soda costs 1.

16 $0. 16 oz. Here’s the math: 1. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 pt. because you are not going to fill the cup to the brim. oz. 2 tbsp. Weigh the amount of coffee that you use to brew a pot (or other amount) and multiply the cost per ounce of grounds by the ounces used. 8 fl. . 16 fl. 4 c. rather weak coffee was acceptable in the marketplace.5 cents. BULK COFFEE Let’s begin with the costing process for bulk coffee: 1.3219. fluid ounces in a brewing cycle.2 cents per AP ounce. 2 pt. whereas standard coffee machines produce closer to 60. 2 c. 3. In the past. 16 c. you will be able to pour a little more than 11 fluid ounces of soda—again. ✦ 1 fl. to the top. by the pound. If the ice comes up two-thirds of the way. Deduct 1 fluid ounce.015 per drink—a 532 percent markup! COSTING COFFEE Commercial food service operators buy coffee either in bulk. 2. Example Given: A 16-ounce paper cup is filled two-thirds of the way up with ice. lid.50 24 $5. most folks want their coffee stronger and more robust.015) equals $0. To get the cost per brewed fluid ounce. you will make a profit of $1. this leaves you with a 16-fluid-ounce container holding 9 fluid ounces of dispensed soda. Divide the cost of the grounds by the number of fluid ounces brewed. ✦ 1 qt. not 64. 1 c. follow three steps: 1. oz. This will be your cost per brewed fluid ounce. Your total food and packaging cost is 23. ✦ Example Given: A case of coffee contains twelve 2-pound bags of grounds and costs $123. you’ll pour about 10 fluid ounces. a 60-fluid-ounce pot of coffee today requires about 1. 4 qt. you’ll want to keep these points in mind: The standard coffeepot holds 64 fluid ounces of liquid. Divide that by 16 to get the cost per AP ounce.5 cents. oz. Today. oz.15 1 gal.98 Chapter 8 Beverages to pour about 7 fluid ounces of soda to the brim. or 32. In addition.50. ✦ 1 tbsp.5 ounces of fairly dark-roasted grounds to produce good flavor—and you may find your customers want it even stronger.25. rounded 2. So. Determine the cost per pound. oz. 32 fl. or 13.15. 3 tsp. If you sell this drink for $1. or in packets for brewing one pot at a time. 2. 9 times the cost per fluid ounce ($0. and napkin. Divide the cost per pound by 16: $5.135. 4. ✦ 1 lb. That produces a “pour” of 10 fluid ounces to the top. straw. ✦ 128 fl. If you fill the cup halfway with ice. Therefore. Add 10 cents to cover the cost of the cup. ✦ Tastes in coffee have changed over the years. Divide the case cost by the pounds in the case (12 2-pound bags equals 24 pounds): $123.

then add the average sale’s condiment/paper costs. has a low food cost. Divide this coffee production cost by the number of sales. etc. COSTING TEA This popular drink is a real winner for the house. determine your cost per poured fluid ounce and multiply that by the ounces poured per drink. if any.008 9.). or 0. 3. or a packet might be damaged or stolen.322 $0.Costing Beverages 99 Using 1.483 3. Each packet cost will represent the ideal cost of a brewed pot of coffee—ideal meaning that every packet was successfully used to brew a pot of coffee. Add this amount to the average cost per sale for the coffee itself.00805 per brewed fl. so be mindful of these factors. To cost iced coffee. medium. But mistakes happen: Someone might forget to put the pot in the machine. and you have your total average product cost per sale. PACKET COFFEE Costing coffee sold in packets is pretty straightforward. the coffee costs: 1. Likewise.6 cents To determine your actual costs for brewing coffee. You derive the cost of a packet by dividing the cost of a case of packets by the number of packets in the case. Subtract the closing inventory from the opening inventory (plus purchases) to get the usage.483 60 fl. one brewed fluid ounce costs 8 mills.5 ounces of grounds for a 60-fluid-ounce yield. 3. Divide the coffee cost by the fluid ounces yielded: $0. Take a beginning and closing inventory of these items. waste. use this common approach: 1. Take a particular period of time and record the coffee sales made and the number of pots brewed during this period. If your business is all take-out. Then cost each item’s usage and total these expenses. 2. So. The tea bags used in commercial ICED TEA Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . 2. coffee that was tossed out. Add your condiment and packaging costs to calculate your total product cost.8 cent—that is. Calculate a total production cost by multiplying the cost per brewed pot by the number of pots brewed. $0. oz. 4. It is easy to make. less than a penny.5 $0. This enables you to price these items accordingly.6 cents: 12 $0. oz. and produces little. and large cup sales (from your cash register tape) and cost them individually based on the fluid ounces poured for each size. This tells you your average cost per sale and includes the cost of all the coffee made during this period (even coffee your staff drank. to cost your condiment and paper expenses for this period: 1. you can refine this by separating the small. refills. Divide that amount by the number of total sales to arrive at your average paper and condiment costs per sale. A 12-fluid-ounce cup will cost you 9.

23 cents per fl. the product cost will remain low. 8 fl. and sugar substitute packets cost about a penny. brew 2 ounces of tea leaf to 1 gallon of water. So.046 NOTE The Book of Yields recommends using two tea bags per gallon of iced tea. as a percentage of the menu price. Divide the cost of a case of tea bags by the number of bags in the case. this means you can serve a generous portion of iced tea for less than a nickel! Even if you.75 cents. one tea bag produces a gallon of brewed tea. oz. Bulk (loose) tea leaves are seldom used. ✦ 1 pt. follow these steps: 1. 1 c. however. Divide the 2-ounce tea-leaf cost by 128 ounces to calculate the cost per fluid ounce. ✦ 1 qt.20 96 $0.294 128 $0. Taking an average cost of 30 cents and cutting each lemon into 8 wedges gives you a cost per wedge of 3. 3. oz. ✦ 1 gal. They cost about 2 cents each.25. brew your iced tea stronger. oz. Tea bags vary in cost from about 5 to 12 cents each. which is obviously higher for the betterquality.15. with refills.20) by the number of bags in the case (96): $28. Thus. Divide the cost per bag. ✦ 1 tbsp.6 cents. $0.29375. 16 fl. Divide the case cost ($28. 2 pt. a couple of offsetting expenses for this very profitable drink: lemon and sugar: Lemons can cost as much as 50 cents a piece or as little as 15 cents. There are. oz. oz. rounded 2. Multiply the cost per fluid ounce by the number of fluid ounces in a serving. Creamers may be used as well. $0. and use two tea bags per gallon—meaning your portion cost doubles to just under a dime—if you sell the drink for $1. you still have a substantial margin of profit: $1. According to the manufacturers.20. handpicked varieties. lemon). . Yes.4 cents. or 29. ✦ But even factoring in these costs. you pour 20 ounces of iced tea per serving: 20 fl.0022968. 2. 4 qt. the total iced tea cost is 4. This is less than a fourth of a cent! Now assume. 16 c. oz. cream. Such teas are. 4 c. 3 tsp. 2 c. or 0. 16 tbsp. Divide the cost per gallon by 128 to get the cost of 1 fluid ounce.100 Chapter 8 Beverages food service come in rather large sizes: 1 ounce each. ✦ 1 lb. oz. This represents the food cost for 1 gallon. ✦ Sugar packets run about a half-cent each. by 128: $0. 16 oz. 128 fl. ✦ 1 fl. where they are most likely priced at an astronomical markup.294. like some operators. to cost iced tea. Thus. Example Given: A case of 96 commercial tea bags costs $28. To determine the cost per fluid ounce: 1.0023 $0. but if you use bulk tea rather than bagged tea. served primarily in upscale restaurants. iced tea remains a highly profitable menu item for restaurateurs. however. so you cost these drinks by adding the cost of a tea bag to the condiment costs (sugar. HOT TEA Hot tea orders are filled using individual tea bags. 2 tbsp. 32 fl.

rounded) coffee grounds FORMULA 2 This formula is for converting gallons of brewed iced tea to an AP bulk weight: NOTE This formula makes strong iced tea. Purchasing Worksheet 9 ✦ For the first formula. and Cocoa table. .2 oz./gal. AS gallons 2 ounces per gallon AP ounces bulk tea Example Given: You need 4 gallons of brewed iced tea.0 ounces: 4 gal.875 percent of a gallon. and Cocoa table shows that 2 ounces of tea leaf yields 1 gallon of strong tea.2 ounces per gallon AP ounces coffee grounds The example explains how we arrive at this formula.5 ounces and yields 60 fluid ounces of fairly robust coffee. Given: You need 8 gallons of brewed coffee. You can use 1 ounce in the formula for weaker tea. each using a different beverage item. Tea. we’ll learn how to convert gallons of brewed coffee to an AP bulk weight..2 oz. To find the ounce weight of bulk tea needed.5 oz. 25. 8 oz. FORMULA 1 AS gallons 3.Purchasing Beverage Items 101 PURCHASING BEVERAGE ITEMS We’ll demonstrate five purchasing formulas in this section. and Cocoa table tells you that 1 cup of cocoa weighs 3. Here you’ll learn how to convert gallons of hot cocoa to an AP bulk weight of cocoa powder: FORMULA 3 AS gallons 3.35 ounces and that you will need one cup of cocoa powder to make 1 gallon of brewed cocoa. The Coffee. Sixty fluid ounces is 46. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . multiply the number of gallons of brewed tea needed by 2. bulk tea This equates to eight each 1-ounce bags of tea leaf. 3. 3.46875 3.35 ounces per gallon AP ounces cocoa powder Example Given: You need 2 gallons of brewed cocoa./gal. IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. We need to find how many ounces of coffee grounds are needed for 1 gallon of coffee. Example NOTE Formula 1 is based on the yield of 1 slightly rounded cup of darkroasted grounds yielding 1 gallon of coffee. the Workbook.2 ounces of coffee grounds yield 1 gallon of brewed coffee.6 (or 26 oz. Tea. The Coffee. 1. 2 oz. According to Note 1 of the Coffee. Therefore. a rounded half cup of drip-grind coffee grounds weighs 1. has 1 worksheet to help you plan your beverage purchases: Brewed and Dispensed Beverages. Tea. 8 gal.

These powders come in bags that are added to a cocoa dispensing machine.728 fluid ounces of brewed cocoa. oz. 1 gal. per drink 32. The fluid-ounce yield of a bag can be calculated from the product description on its case or invoice. This equals 432 fluid ounces (54 8 432).000) by the fluid-ounce yield per box (3. of cocoa powder NOTE Cocoa is often sold in a powdered form that includes a sweetener and powdered dairy whitener or milk. follow these steps: 1. FORMULA 4 For converting gallons of brewed cocoa to packages of premixed cocoa drink.35 oz. oz. ✦ 1 tbsp.600 drinks 20 fl.000 3. To fulfill your sales projection. 3 tsp. 16 tbsp. NOTE Most drink suppliers provide the dispensing machines and set them up correctly as a part of their marketing strategy.840 fluid ounces. 2 c. 6. 8 fl.7 oz. ✦ 1 lb. oz. Hence. ✦ 1 qt. ✦ 1 pt. 2 gal. Calculate the total fluid ounces you’ll serve: 1.35. 16 oz. 2 tbsp.333 boxes You’ll need to have nine boxes on hand. 1 c. oz. To find the number of bags you’ll need: 1. 16 fl.840): 32. In contrast. Multiply the number of brewed gallons needed times 3. oz. 4 c. 128 fl. resulting in a yield of 6 parts. FORMULA 5 Our final formula is for converting fluid ounces of dispensed soda to AP units: AS fluid ounces dispensed soda Fluid-ounce yield of 1 AP unit AP units As described in the Costing section.840 8. 32 fl. Divide the AS fluid ounces (432) by the fluid-ounce yield of 1 bag (144): 432 144 3 You will need three bags of premixed cocoa. for a total yield per box of 30 gallons. oz. Example Given: You anticipate selling 1. 1 bag yields 144 fluid ounces (1. dispensed sodas come in boxed bags of syrup concentrate and are mixed on site with water and gas to produce a mixed drink. ✦ 1 fl.102 Chapter 8 Beverages 1. a 5-gallon box of syrup will yield its own 5 gallons plus 25 gallons of water./gal. You anticipate selling 54 8-fluid-ounce portions. ✦ . oz. 4 qt. 16 c.000 fl. The syrupto-water ratio is generally 1 part syrup to 5 parts water. Use the ratio for your product as noted on your invoice or as stated on the container. Divide the AS fluid ounces (32. juice concentrates often have a mixing ratio of 1 to 3 or 1 to 4.728 12 144). 2 pt. One box of syrup yields 30 gallons.600 20-fluid-ounce root beer drinks over the next week. brewed cocoa 3. to make the process easy for you. follow this formula: AS fluid ounces brewed cocoa AP packs Fluid-ounce yield from 1 pack of premix Example Given: A case of 12 bags of premixed cocoa yields 1. which equals 3. 2.

50 2.80 2.10 2. Red Rose Petals Tea.70 7. 60 fluid ounces.82 4. use 2 ounces tea to 1 gallon water.90 4. Japanese Tea.16 7.27 93. There are approximately 210 individual coffee beans in one AP ounce. Lapsang Souchong Tea.40 91. Wa t e r . 1 rounded cup (3.00 128.88 134.37 91.15 2. Co f fe e : A rounded half cup of dark-roast.49 1.80 3.85 3.00 18. Pour 1 quart boiling water over tea.14 106. Oolong Tea.00 0.66 1.45 4.67 5. Leaf.75 3. English Breakfast Tea.38 6. and extend with 3 parts hot milk. Lighter roasts will yield about 3 gallons of coffee of the same strength or weaker coffee of the same volume. Hibuscus Flowers Tea. .36 106. Liquefy with 1 part hot water.5 ounces) yields 1 standard pot of coffee. by volume.40 2. drip-grind coffee yields a gallon of brewed coffee. Rooibos (Red Bush) Tea.00 301.60 0. Chai Blend Tea. Jasmine Green Tea. Gunpowder Green Tea.26 6. steep 5 minutes.65 2. Chamomile Tea. 3.18 70.43 82. Leaf and Bu l k : Three single-use tea bags equal 1 tablespoon bulk tea. Green.35 2.15 24. Te a . Mix the cocoa with sugar.46 387.27 6.53 76. and Cocoa Item Cocoa Coffee Beans Coffee Coffee Tea. Genmaichi Tea. Leaf. Rosehips. For strong iced tea. 2. So. Yerba Matte Notes Ounces per Cup Cups per Pound Tablespoons per Pound 3.21 5. flakes Tea. Green. drip-grind coffee grounds yields 4.40 102. roasted.82 4.44 4. The weight of one cup of whole roasted beans may well vary from 2. 1 pound of dark.09 67.07 68. 4.to-ice-cub e Y i e l d : 1 gallon of water yields approximately 30 cups of small to medium ice cubes.70 8.75 2.08 5. fine Tea. more lightly roasted beans weigh less than small. bulk Tea.9 gallons of brewed coffee. Co co a : One cup of cocoa yields 1 gallon of hot cocoa drink.80 2.C o f f e e .80 6.58 116.20 2.24 8. drip-grind coffee grounds (1.67 81.71 5.3 to 2.15 3.74 59. Leaf.72 6.9 ounces depending on the size of the beans and the darkness of the roast.53 104.70 119. strain. Japanese.40 3.30 2.26 98. Te a . add 3 quarts cold water.42 3. dark-roasted beans. Larger. a n d C o c o a 103 Coffee. Tea. Green Sencha Tea.40 5. 1 tea bag equals 1 teaspoon tea.2 oz) of dark.

) Average as-purchased weight for the item in pounds Trim loss in pounds Primary yield after trimming in pounds Primary yield percentage based on the AP weight Number of primary usable ounces per AP pound Usable trim in pounds You’ll find the Meats table to be a useful guide for comparing your actual yields as well as costing your portions. pork. and poultry is covered in Chapter 11. or sinew that can be ground or used for sauces. poultry. nimal protein products (beef. seafood is given its own chapter. lists the weight of scraps. or stocks. Trim: Miscellaneous Use in Pounds. stews. we’ll first address procedures for costing meats according to these delineations: ✦ Preportioned meats 104 . seafood. etc. controlling the purchasing. COSTING MEATS In this section. lamb. most fat and connective tissue have been removed in order to obtain the weight labeled as the Primary-Use Yield (fourth column in the table). Note that the trim yields reflect standard trimming practices for slightly above-average restaurants. Consequently. storage. The last column. Specifically. brochettes.9 MEATS A NOTE Although defined as animal protein products here. Chapter 10.) obviously are popular menu items. and production of these expensive foods and intelligently pricing them on menus is critical to a food service operation’s financial success. bones. They are also expensive to buy when compared to the produce and starchy items that generally make up the balance of food offered on menus. The discussion in this chapter makes reference to one table: ✦ Meats It lists the following information: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Common name for the item North American Meat Processors (NAMP) number (See the note on page 105.

We’ll use a primary item. and packed for immediate use on the cooking line. and pork. Costing Worksheet 11 ✦ COSTING TRIMMED MEATS When you cost meats that you trim before cooking. too. Be sure to have other recipes that will use up these leftovers. say you are going to grind some of the trimmings into beef patties. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . or will you deduct its value from the cost of the primary item? The Meats. Ground beef costs less per pound than strip loins. therefore. and still others do some cutting in-house and order certain meat products precut. (Your meat supplier can tell you Y% ✦ NOTE Because breakfast meats are often cooked ahead. You cost these products as follows: 1. Divide the cost of the purchase unit by the number of pieces or portions it contains. too. note that the Meats table shows that a 10-pound strip loin with a 1-inch “tail” (from which New York steaks are cut) has a usable trim weight of 1 pound. or patty. the cost of the steaks will include the cost of the trimmings. We’ll also assume that you do use these meaty trimmings in other recipes. others order their meat products precut. lamb. Bacon strips. ✦ ✦ Trimmed meats Cooked meats The discussion continues with notes and guidelines on specific meat products: prime rib. By using the NAMP number (the first column in the Meats table). you can be certain of the cut or piece you are ordering. the Workbook. in this case) cost per AP pound. You pick the size you want for your menu. bones. you may end up with unsold leftovers. which means each link weighs 2 ounces). etc. in which standard specifications are listed for the cuts and market forms of beef. many operations cut their meat in-house. Divide the cost of 1 pound by the number of pieces in a pound. Will you include it in the cost of the primary item (steaks. Many breakfast and lunch meats fall into the preportioned category. COSTING PREPORTIONED MEATS When it comes to cutting meat. To start. Your answer will be both the AP and AS cost per item. and so on. which is stated by the meat supplier as a particular number of pieces per pound (such as eight links per pound. a simple one-step calculation: 1. steaks. such as breakfast gravies. If you do not deduct the value of the trimmings from the cost of the strip loin. New York steak. Therefore. Costing Worksheet 11. shows you how to do both. quiche. Canadian bacon slices. It is now possible to buy most meat menu items—beef patties. Deducting the value of the trimmings from the cost of the strip loin reduces the cost of the loin by an amount equal to the value of the trimmings. and some whole roasts—already trimmed. veal. lamb. chops. and standard brochette meats. bacon dressings. link. The procedure for costing these items is. pork. Your answer will be the cost of one slice. and ham steaks are all sold by size. The usable trimmings value will seldom be as high as the base item value (strip loin. This is so for stew meats. portioned. and poultry products sold in the United States. and the recipes that use these trimmings will show no cost for the trimmed meat. sausage links or patties. scraps for stocks. IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. roasts.). chops. To illustrate. you really should take the deduction from the primary item and apply the value of the trimmings to the recipes in which they are used. wherever you may be in the United States. club sandwiches. has one worksheet to help you cost many types of meat products: Meats. you have to decide how to handle the cost of the trimmed-away but still usable meat. Multiply that cost by the number you put on a plate to get your portion cost.Costing Meats 105 NOTE The North American Meat Processors (NAMP) Association is an organization that wrote the Meat Buyers Guide. 2. to explain the costing process for trimmed meats.

so after a little experience the operator knows how many steaks of a certain weight can be obtained from one larger piece. 1 c. Divide the cost of the larger piece by the number of steaks or chops it yields. The Meats table shows that one 7. from which they cut their steaks. for instance.5 pounds by the trim yield percentage of 58. oz. Tenderloins are sold pretrimmed or untrimmed. The trim yield percentage here doesn’t matter much. 4. if you don’t already know. a 6-ounce steak costs 6 times $0. Divide that by 16 for the cost per trimmed ounce: $11. oz. Filet mignon is cut from beef tenderloin. 3 tsp. and a 10-ounce steak costs $7.587 4. 2 c. For instance. 16 fl. food service operators usually place steaks and chops on their menus based on a fixed weight—an 8-ounce sirloin steak. ✦ 1 tbsp. 128 fl. 32 fl.71 One trimmed ounce of tenderloin costs 71 cents.) You can only deduct the market value of the trimmings as determined by the way you are going to use them—ground meat. 10-.106 Chapter 9 Meats what those items sell for. or $4. 1 gal.4 pounds of ready-to-cook. oz. 16 oz.36 16 $0. 0. 4 qt. oz. 2 tbsp. stew meat. To cost these steaks or chops takes one step: 1. you have 4. follow this four-step process: USING THE TRIM YIELD PERCENTAGE TO HELP IN COSTING 1. Multiply the AP weight of 7. After trimming. and a half-pound of sinew (for stocks) with no market value. 16 c.4 lb. 16 tbsp.7 percent: 7. but once that is done.4 $11. trimmed tenderloin. The muscle. bones for stock. Assume this tenderloin costs $54 and that the trimmings consist of 1 pound of meat with a value of $4. the operator has to know the value of a trimmed ounce of meat in order to put a sensible (profitable) menu price on each size of steak. or 12-ounce filet mignon.7 percent and a usable trim of 1.26. trimmed ounce of filet mignon.10. 8-.36 The $11. ✦ 1 pt. To calculate the cost of one usable. 2 pt. ✦ 1 qt. In this case. ✦ . Divide the adjusted AP cost of the whole tenderloin ($50) by 4. just do the simple division to get your chop or steak cost. Deducting the cost of usable trim from the AP cost of the larger unit should come into play. 4 c. The answer is the cost per steak or chop.36 is the cost of a trimmed pound of tenderloin. is typically a consistent size.5 lb. ✦ 1 lb. a menu may offer a 6-.4 pounds: $50 4. Some operators sell meats by a weight that varies from order to order. ✦ 1 fl. or piece.5 pounds.5-pound whole tenderloin has a trim yield percentage of 58. 3. or whatever.71. oz. Deduct the value of the usable trim ($4) from the whole tenderloin’s cost ($54): $54 4 $50 2. COSTING USING A PORTIONS-PER-PIECE APPROACH When the trim yield percentage is not used. 8 fl.

Costing Meats

107

Example

Given: A 10-pound New York strip loin costs $64 and has a usable trim of 1 pound
and the usable trim has a value of $4. 1. Deduct the $4 from the $64: $60. Assume that you get 15 steaks from the loin. 2. Divide the adjusted cost of the loin ($60) by the number of steaks it yields (15): $60 15 $4.00

Each steak costs $4.

COSTING COOKED MEATS
Costing a weight of cooked meat is a simple two-step process: 1. Determine the cost of a trimmed pound or ounce, as shown in the first example. 2. Divide the trimmed pound or ounce cost by the cooking yield percentage. That’s it. Your answer will be the cost of a trimmed and cooked weight. To determine your cooking yield percentage, do these calculations: 1. Weigh the meat in its oven-ready state (after trimming but before cooking). 2. Weigh it after it is cooked and has rested. 3. Divide the cooked weight by the raw weight. The answer is your cooking yield percentage.

Example

Given: Your oven-ready roast weighs 12 pounds. After cooking and resting, it weighs 10.2 pounds.
1. Divide the cooked weight of 10.2 pounds by the raw weight of 12 pounds. 10.2 12 0.85

After multiplying 0.85 by 100 to get the percent, you have a cooking yield percentage of 85 percent.

Example

Given: You want to know the cost of 4 ounces of trimmed and cooked beef top
round. The roast had an AP weight of 16 pounds, cost $51, and had 1 pound of usable trim. The usable trim has a value of $3 per pound. 1. Deduct the usable trim value ($3) from the AP cost ($51): $51 $3 $48

The roast now has a value of $48. 2. The Meats table shows that a top round will trim out to 75 percent of its AP weight (16 pounds), and 75 percent of 16 pounds equals 12 pounds, so divide the roast’s adjusted AP cost of $48 by the trimmed roast’s weight of 12 pounds: $48 12 lb. $4

Thus, 1 pound of oven-ready top round costs $4.
Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y%

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Chapter 9

Meats

Now, given that the cooked roast weighs 10.2 pounds, do the math. 1. Divide the cooked weight by the oven-ready weight to calculate the cooking yield percentage: 10.2 12 0.85, or 85%

2. Divide the cost per trimmed pound ($4) by the cooking yield percentage (0.85): $4 0.85 $4.70

In this case, 1 pound of trimmed and cooked top round costs $4.70. 3. Divide the pound cost by 16 to get the cost per ounce: $4.70 16 $0.294, or 29.4 cents

A portion of 4 ounces of cooked top round will cost four times 29.4 cents: $1.18, rounded.

PURCHASING MEATS
We’ll step through three formulas and several examples to familiarize you with methods for accurately planning your meat purchases. IN THE WORKBOOK
Part II, the Workbook, has one worksheet to help you plan your purchases of many types of meat products: Meats, Purchasing Worksheet 10

The first formula details how to use portion yields to determine how many whole pieces to buy:
FORMULA 1

Portions needed

Portions yielded per piece

AP pieces

The term piece or whole piece refers to a relatively large muscle or muscle group from which smaller cuts (portions) are made. The whole piece is ordinarily a purchase unit, such as a New York strip loin. The smaller pieces (portions) are steaks, cutlets, chops, and the like. Use this formula when you know two things: 1. How many portions you need 2. The number of portions you usually get from a whole piece

Example

Given: You need 48 trimmed and portioned New York steaks, weighing 7 ounces
each, and you know that 1 whole piece—1 New York strip loin—yields 16 steaks of 7 ounces each. Do the math: 48 16 3

You see that you need three whole strip loins.
FORMULA 2

You can convert a trimmed raw weight to a raw purchase weight using

this equation: # of pounds trimmed, raw meat Trim yield percentage AP weight

Use this formula when you want to calculate the number of pounds to purchase or use and you know the trim yield percentage for the raw, as-purchased piece of meat.
1 gal. 4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz. 128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

Purchasing Meats

109

Meat Matters
This sidebar contains notes on prime rib, lamb, and pork. Prime Rib Notice that the prime rib in the Meats table has an NAMP number of 109. This is virtually untrimmed except for a bit of meat that is removed from under the fat-cap. A 109 prime rib comes with a thick layer of fat, partial backbones, rib bones, and a fair amount of sinew, some or all of which have to be trimmed off for roasting. This used to be the most popular market form of prime rib because of its relatively low cost per pound. As you can see from the table, half of the purchased weight of a 109 must be trimmed away if you want to have a boneless, oven-ready roast that is perfect for carving on a buffet line. Today, many chefs prefer to order prime ribs that have been partially or completely trimmed. The NAMP 109D and the NAMP 112 are examples of pretrimmed prime ribs. Because these are now quite popular market forms of prime rib, the cost per usable pound has come down considerably. In fact, a 109 can actually cost more than an oven-ready, boneless 112! Of course, the 109 does provide the kitchen with meat trimmings, sinew, and bones, which can then be used in other recipes; but their value is not great enough to entice as many chefs into using a 109 as in the past. Dealing with unsold cooked roasts such as prime rib has become easier for those chefs who have modern “cook-and hold” ovens that cook at low temperatures and produce better cooking yields. Another important advantage these ovens have over other ovens is their holding capability: they can safely hold a cooked roast for a full day at a medium to medium-rare serving temperature! Leftover prime rib can be cut up and made into a hash, a menu item that has become rather popular for breakfast and lunch.The meat can also be cleaned and the “eye” meat used for sandwiches, salad, or sautés.The outer meat, though a bit loose, can be added to hash, soups, and salads.These leftovers, however, can be very expensive after trimming away all the fat and connective tissue. A cold, leftover, boneless prime rib, for example, will yield only about 59 percent of its cooked and chilled weight in usable meat—and that is after the trim loss and cooking loss! These meats can easily cost double the AP price per pound.The lesson is: Learn to accurately predict your sales and prepare accordingly. Overproducing is costly! Lamb The split lamb rack in the Meats table has had its spine and chine bones removed and then has been frenched. This means that the shoulder blade was also removed and the rib bones were cleaned of all meat and tissue up to the small muscle, just in front of the primary loin muscle. The top layer of fat was also removed. Lamb racks can be sold whole (usually for two guests) or sectioned into smaller pieces. There will be at least seven ribs per rack, usually eight. Veal ✦ Veal is often sold in preportioned or precut forms: cube steaks, slices, chops, cutlets, foreshanks, hindshanks (whole or cross-cut), ground and calf’s liver, as well as sweetbreads (thymus and pancreas). ✦ Veal breasts, after some defatting and detissuing, trim out to around 13 ounces per AP pound. They are often braised and served as-is in some of their braising liquor. ✦ Veal legs are boned, defatted, and detissued, yielding 7.1 ounces per AP pound. The various muscles are then sliced into cutlets or scaloppine. Veal leg can be roasted, but it tends to be dry. ✦ Veal racks are marketed with either six or seven ribs.They can be cut into individual chops; a single chop is a typical portion. Pork Pork is available in scores of precut and preportioned market forms (breakfast meats were addressed earlier).Most market forms of preprocessed or precut pork products can be costed using one of the methods already described.

Pork shoulder (Boston butt) can be used for stews and braises and is also often used for making sausage. When used for sausage, the blade bone is removed, along with dense cartilage, but all of the remaining meat and fat find their way into the grinder. When used in moist cooking recipes, much of the fat is removed, along with the blade bone and heavy cartilage, resulting in a trim yield of 12 ounces per AP pound. Spare ribs: There are 14 rib bones on each side of the pig. These ribs are sold in two forms: back ribs (NAMP 422) and spare ribs (NAMP 416). As their name implies, the back ribs (often called baby back ribs) are cut near the top of the back. A rack of back ribs must have at least eight ribs. Spare ribs are of two types: regular and St. Louis-style (NAMP 416A). St. Louis-style ribs are cut just beneath the back ribs and are just ribs. Plain spare ribs are longer and may include portions of the sternum and diaphragm, as well as flank meat. A rack of spare ribs must have at least 11 ribs.
Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y%

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Example

Given: You are prepping 48 New York strip steaks weighing 7 ounces each. Follow
these steps: 1. Multiply 48 times 7 to compute the total ounces of trimmed weight needed: 48 7 336 oz.

2. Convert this to pounds by dividing the ounces by 16: 336 16 21 lb.

3. The Meats table shows the yield percentage for New York strip loin is 70 percent. 21 lb. 0.70 30 lb.

Therefore, you need to buy or use 30 pounds of raw New York strip loin. If, then, your AP strip loin steaks weigh 10 pounds each, you need three of them. NOTE
Convection ovens can easily shrink meat cooked to medium-rare in the center by 20 percent, resulting in a cooked yield percentage of 80 percent. In contrast, a slow-cooking oven may shrink meat cooked to medium-rare by only 9 percent, resulting in a cooked yield percentage of 91 percent. FORMULA 3

Here’s the formula for converting a trimmed and cooked weight to a

raw AP weight: AS trimmed and cooked weight (Trim yield percentage Cooking yield percentage) AP weight To complete this formula, you need to know what your cooking yield percentage is for the meat in question. This percentage depends on the degree of doneness desired, combined with the shape of the meat and your oven’s tendency to shrink meats as they cook. That means you must use your experience to determine this cooked yield percentage. To execute the formula, follow three steps: 1. Calculate the total weight you need to serve or use. 2. Multiply your meat’s trim yield percentage (from The Book of Yields or your own experience) by the cooked yield percentage. This will result in a new, combined percentage that is smaller than either of the two original percentages. It is called a finished yield percentage. 3. Divide the trimmed and cooked weight you need to serve by the finished yield percentage. Your answer will be the number of pounds of raw, as-purchased meat you need to buy or cost out.
FORMULA 3a Here is the same formula restated, using the finished yield percentage in lieu of the parenthetical Formula 3:

AS trimmed and cooked weight

Finished yield percentage

AP weight

Proceed to complete this formula in two steps: 1. Determine what the finished yield percentage is by multiplying your trim yield percentage by your cooking yield percentage. 2. Divide the number of pounds of trimmed and cooked meat you need by the finished yield percentage.
1 gal. 4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz. 128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

Purchasing Meats

111

Again, your answer will be the number of pounds of raw, as-purchased meat you need to buy, use, or cost out.

Example

Given: You need to serve 85 portions of 7-ounce cooked, boneless prime rib.
Determine the amount of trimmed, cooked meat you need to serve or use. 1. Multiply 85 by 7 ounces: 85 7 595 oz.

2. Convert this to pounds by dividing 595 by 16: 595 oz. 16 37.2 lb.

So, you need to serve 37.2 pounds of boneless, trimmed, and cooked prime rib.

Given: You have an NAMP 109 prime rib and want to determine the trim yield percentage. This is provided in the Meats table, which shows the 109 rib yields 50 percent: raw, boned, defatted, and detissued. Thus, the trim yield percentage is 50 percent. Given: Now you have a 22-pound, 109 prime rib that, after trimming, weighs 11 pounds, and you want to calculate the cooking yield percentage. Assume here that your experience shows that, in your ovens, cooking a trimmed 109 prime rib weighing 11 pounds yields 9.65 pounds when slow-cooked to medium-rare.
1. Divide the cooking yield weight (9.65 pounds) by the oven–ready weight (11 pounds): 9.65 11 0.877, or 87.7%

Your cooking yield percentage is 87.7 percent. 2. To calculate the finished yield percentage, multiply the trim yield percentage (0.50) by the cooking yield percentage (0.877): 0.50 0.877 0.4385, or 43.85%

3. Finally, to use the finished yield percentage to determine the necessary AP weight, divide the AS weight (37.2 pounds) by the finished yield percentage (43.85%): 37.2 lb. 0.4385 84.8 lb.

You need to start with 84.8 pounds of 109 prime rib in order to serve 37.2 pounds of trimmed, cooked beef. If all your 109 roasts weigh 22 pounds, you will need just under four of them on hand to produce the 37.2 pounds of cooked meat. But do not assume they all weigh 22 pounds; they might all weigh 20 pounds, leaving you short. The point is, weigh the raw roasts before deciding how many to cook.

Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit

Y%

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Meats
NAMP Number AP Weight in Pounds Trim Loss in Pounds Primary-Use Yield in Pounds Yield Percent Number of Usable Ounces per AP Pound Trim: Miscellaneous Use in Pounds

Item Name Beef Ball Tip—Bottom Sirloin Butt Beef Bottom Round Beef Prime Rib (See note 1.) Beef Strip Loin (New York) 1 in. tail Beef Tenderloin, Pismo, defatted Beef Tenderloin, whole Beef Top Round Beef Top Sirloin Butt Beef Tri-Tip, Bottom Sirloin Butt Lamb Foreshank Lamb Leg, defatted; leg and shank bones intact Lamb Leg, trimmed of fat and bone, imported Lamb Leg, fully defatted, boned, shank-off Lamb Leg, shank off, boneless; defatted, detissued Lamb Loin, short-cut, trimmed, 2 in. tail; trimmed to loin and tender Lamb Rack Double, trimmed french Lamb Rack, split & chined, trimmed to french Lamb Ribs, breast bones off Lamb Shoulder, outside, boned, detissued, defatted Pork Leg, boned, skinned, defatted Pork Leg, boned, skinned, defatted Pork Loin, boneless, defatted Pork loin, whole, boned, defatted Pork Shoulder, Boston Butt

185B 170 109 180 189A 189 168 184 185C 210 233A 233A 233A 234A 232A 204 204A 209A 207A 401A 401C 413 412A 406

14 21 20 10 7 7.5 16 15 3 1.05 10.87 7.5 10.87 5.76 2.93 7 3.38 1.02 9.37 14 14 7 9 8

3.0 4.5 10.0 3.0 0.9 3.1 4.0 4.4 1.1 0.00 3.41 3.70 5.17 0.874 1.93 3.0 1.84 0.09 4.90 5.25 2.60 1.75 4.25 1.50

11 16.5 10 7 6.1 4.4 12 10.6 1.9 1.05 7.46 3.8 5.70 4.89 1.00 4 1.54 0.93 4.48 8.75 11.4 5.25 4.75 6.5

78.6% 78.6% 50.0% 70.0% 87.1% 58.7% 75.0% 70.7% 63.3% 100.0% 68.6% 50.7% 52.4% 84.8% 34.1% 57.1% 45.5% 91.4% 47.8% 62.5% 81.4% 75.0% 52.8% 81.3%

12.6 12.6 8.0 11.2 13.9 9.4 12.0 11.3 10.1 16.0 11.0 8.1 8.4 13.6 5.4 9.1 7.3 14.6 7.6 10.0 13.0 12.0 8.4 13.0

2.0 3.0 5.0 1.0 0.4 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.00 1.33 2.5 2.77 0.00 0.71 1.25 0.82 0.14 2.40 3.25 0.75 0.75 2.75 1.5

1 gal.

4 qt. 16 c. 1 c. 8 fl. oz.

128 fl. oz. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 4 c. 32 fl. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 16 fl. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 lb. 16 oz.

All lamb items are U. removed.125 2.3% 14. backstrap.S. tail. domestic unless noted as Imported. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . slow cooking will reduce the servable weight another 12% at medium-rare.5 0.0 9. plus most exterior connective tissue. P r ime R i b ( 1 0 9 ) : 109s in the table had the cap. trimmed of fat and bone Notes 415 313 306 334 1 10 16 35 0.875 8. and all bones.0% 39.5% 80.0 12. 3.5 87. Thus.25 15. 2. Low.3 7.75 19.1 0.Meats 113 Meats (Continued) NAMP Number AP Weight in Pounds Trim Loss in Pounds Primary-Use Yield in Pounds Yield Percent Number of Usable Ounces per AP Pound Trim: Miscellaneous Use in Pounds Item Name Pork Tenderloins Veal Breast Veal Double Rack.1 1.0 16. frenched Veal Leg.8 6. Convection ovens will increase the shrink (cooking loss) by 20 or 25 percent.0 6.5 7. well-trimmed cooked meat—a 44% yield.1% 44. 1 pound of raw 109 yields 7 ounces.0 1.

a steak is a crosscut of the fish. fins. basses. For fresh seafood. there are many new additions to the Seafood table that are described as H&G and G&G (described later in this list). The scales and fins will not have 114 . Steaks are composed of both sides of the fish and include skin and bones. be even faster about cooking and serving it. salmon. Dressed fish. and tail intact. Fish steak. Fish fillet. This is similar to a dressed fish in that the fish will have had its head removed and will have been gutted. Therefore. two rules apply: 1. A fish fillet is cut from one side of the fish and has no skin or bones. Many fish lend themselves very well to cooking with the skin on. Before we get into the costing and purchasing procedures for seafood. The Seafood table gives you the yield percentages obtained from preparing fish fillets from a dressed or drawn finfish. once it has thawed. for instance. This is a fish that has been gutted and has had its scales removed and the head. They soon deteriorate in both texture and flavor. H&G (headed and gutted). and tail trimmed away. breams and pike. when you are dealing with seafood. seafood has to be used soon after it is harvested. one table is referenced: ✦ Seafood: In addition to being of use for costing and purchasing purposes. fins. This is a fish that has been eviscerated (gutted) but has its head. Note that many chefs have come to prefer receiving their fillets with the skin on because it better preserves the quality of the fillet. trout. For frozen seafood. Drawn fish. Examples include salmon. you’ll find the notes in this table helpful for understanding the various types of fish. In contrast to a fillet. If allowed to age for more than a few days. In this chapter. which are aged for weeks to improve their flavor and texture. these are fish that have fins.10 SEAFOOD U nlike red meats. and halibut. a definition of terms as used in this chapter is in order: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Finfish. fish and shellfish begin to lose weight due to moisture loss. trout. buy it just before you need it and use it fast! 2. As the name implies. In addition. to the point of spoilage.

divide the cost of the AP fish by the number of ounces of fillets it yields. fins.60 16 $0.40.60 3. and piece counts. and 1 ounce is one-sixteenth of the pound cost. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .20 per AP lb. COSTING FILLETS IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. 2.75 $5. Example Given: A dressed salmon weighs 7 pounds and costs $29. $4. If. follow three steps: 1. This is a fish whose gills and guts have been removed but heads. so divide $5. and scales are intact. Costing Worksheet 12 ✦ If all your fillets are the same weight. steaks.60 is the AS cost per pound of your fillets. fillets are generally more expensive than steaks. 2. so divide the AP cost per pound ($4.35 One as-served (or as-used) ounce of salmon fillet costs 35 cents. COSTING FINFISH PORTIONS We’ll tackle the costing procedures for finfish in the following order: fillets. Discern the number of fillets obtained from an AP amount of fish. To do this. G&G (gilled and gutted).20) by the yield percentage (0. a dressed fish will be more expensive per AP pound than the same fish in a drawn form.40. however.35. Sometimes the tail and collars will have been removed. the Workbook. fillet portions are usually smaller than portions of fish steaks. or use your own fillet yield test results. To cost an ounce of fish fillet. Determine the cost per AP pound from the invoice. Divide the number of fillets into the cost of the AP fish.20 0. Because fillets require extra processing and yield less weight from the AP fish compared to steaks. The Seafood table shows that a dressed salmon yields 75 percent of its weight in fillets. the simplest way to cost them is to take two steps: 1. Look up the fillet yield percentages in the Seafood table. The answer is your average cost per fillet.40 7 lb. your fillets vary in size. Consequently.60 by 16: $5. The $5. do these calculations: 1. 2.Costing Finfish Portions 115 ✦ been removed.75): $4. or divide the total AP cost by the AP pounds: $29. but this is not a given. tails. or $1. In terms of cost. has one worksheet to help you cost seafood products: Seafood. Determine the fillet cost per ounce. A raw 4-ounce salmon fillet portion will be 4 times $0.

16 c. headless Black Tiger shrimp are usually packed in 4-pound blocks. oz. Determine an average count per pound. 32 fl. and crawfish are popular examples. COSTING SHRIMP Shrimp is the most commonly served crustacean and is very often sold frozen. the steaks would have an average value of $2. 4 qt. ✦ 1 fl. Vendors offer these products in a variety of sizes.90 10 $2. say. 2 tbsp.5-pound bags. rather than an exact count per pound. Calculate the number of shrimp in the box: 4 22 88 2. 1. shell-on. Divide that into the cost per pound.50 (10 ounces $0. ✦ 1 tbsp. Many crustaceans and mollusks are also sold by counts per pound. you cut 10 ounces of tail fillets from the salmon in the previous example. you would deduct $3. 2 c. 3 tsp. lobster crab. COSTING CRUSTACEANS Crustaceans are shellfish: shrimp. Here’s the math. ✦ . 2 pt. such as 21–25. Divide the cost of the fish (minus the value of any fillets you cut from it) by the number of steaks it produces. 8 fl. 16 tbsp. The area near the tail is too narrow to cut into steaks so it has to be cut into fillets.90. ✦ 1 pt. The reason you deduct the value of fillets is because you can’t get all steaks from a fish. ✦ 1 qt. If. COSTING PIECE COUNTS Finfish are now commonly sold in frozen. precut portions of steaks or fillets and as whole fish. 1 c. 1 gal. This leaves the remaining fish with a value of $25. oz. Peeled and deveined shrimp are often IQF (individually quick frozen) and packaged in 2. Frozen Gulf White shrimp are typically marketed in 5-pound blocks. If you then cut 10 steaks from the remaining fish.35 $3. 2.or 2. 16 oz. Therefore. the number of shrimp per pound is expressed as a range.59 ($25.59).116 Chapter 10 Seafood COSTING STEAKS Costing fish steaks is a simple.40). one-step process: 1. Frozen. 128 fl.50) from the cost of the fish ($29. Example Given: A 4-pound. However packaged. such as boned trout. oz. Divide the cost of the box by the number of shrimp in the box: $40 88 $0. ✦ 1 lb. to cost an individual shrimp: 1. 4 c. 16 fl. You cost these portions simply by dividing the cost of the purchase unit by the number of portions it contains. 21–25 count box of shrimp averages 22 shrimp per pound and costs $40.4545 Each shrimp will cost a little over 45 cents. oz. oz.

2. oysters. sold by the pound. The first four types are bivalves. You cost peeled and cooked shrimp by dividing the AP cost per pound by 65 percent. do your own tests for cooked meat yields. Divide the cost per AP pound by 16 to get the AP cost per ounce. whole but cooked. (Divide 16 by the ounces per tail to get the number of tails per pound. be sure they are alive. Cost whole lobsters by dividing the total cost by the pounds purchased. To cost crawfish tails: 1. Bad weather that makes it impossible to harvest lobsters may mean you cannot put them on your menu at all until the weather improves. mussels. canned. Multiply that by the ounces in a portion or recipe. How you cost the type of crab you sell depends on how you feature them on your menu: ✦ ✦ If you sell the cooked meat in various recipes. or nearly so.80. scallops. conch. Lobsters are marketed either as frozen tails or as whole. Their shells should be closed. so costing a tail is just a matter of dividing the cost per pound by the number of tails in a pound. To cost this meat by the ounce: 1.26). COSTING CRAWFISH Crawfish (or crayfish) are commonly marketed as cleaned tails. and they should react to being tapped by closing. COSTING LOBSTER NOTE Whole lobsters are often priced on menus on a daily basis because the purchase prices you will pay vary widely. raw shrimp is done by dividing the AP cost per pound by 0. which means they have two opposing shells. A fresh Maine lobster will yield an average of 26 percent of its live weight in cooked meat. 2. cooked and partially cleaned. even from day to day. COSTING MOLLUSKS Mollusks include clams. If you sell them whole. headless shrimp will yield about 80 percent of its original weight after peeling but before cooking and about 65 percent of its original weight after both peeling and cooking. Divide the AP cost per pound by its yield percentage (0. COSTING CRABS Crabs come in many market forms and types. When you buy these fresh. live animals. cost them by the each.) Live lobster prices vary with seasons and locality. Lobster tails are marketed by size. just legs. costing peeled. Therefore. The type of crab your menu features often depends on your locale and the time of year. Live clams and oysters are sold by weight and Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Divide that amount by 16. and snails.Costing Mollusks 117 A pound of ordinary (green). and frozen. This gives you the cost per pound. You can buy them live.

The Seafood table shows that a loin yields 90 percent after trimming. use the cost per can as your recipe unit cost. ✦ 1 fl. which usually holds 66 to 67 ounces of tuna. Treat them as you would any other item you buy as a count-per-pound. cost them in the normal piece-count fashion. If your recipe calls for one or more whole cans of tuna. Multiply the cost per ounce by the number of ounces in your recipe. and a quart. tuna salad for luncheon plates. Count the number you bought and divide that number into the purchase price to get the cost for one. the Workbook.7 ounces. either water or oil. oz. Canned tuna is often either described as “chunk light yellowtail” or a “solid white albacore. 16 c. Purchasing Worksheet 11 ✦ We’ll cover two formulas and two methods that you’ll find of use when you’re planning your seafood purchases. This will give you the cost per drained ounce. Otherwise. 1 c. Divide the cost of the can by 48. Keep in mind that if your sales of these mollusks are not brisk. 2. The typical pack is a number-5 squat can. ✦ . 2 pt. Scallops are fairly expensive. 4 c. ✦ 1 qt. a cup of either type will weigh approximately 5. Although many fine restaurant menus feature fresh tuna. Accordingly. like shrimp. Scallops are sold already shucked and. oz. including the packing medium. 8 fl. many more food service operators use canned tuna. are packed by size. PURCHASING SEAFOOD IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. That is: 1. 32 fl. 16 oz. The more expensive solid albacore is used in recipes whose presentations feature the whole pieces of tuna. complete these steps: 1. FORMULA 1 First the formula for converting trimmed fillet weights to purchase weights: AS fillet weight in pounds Yield percentage AP in pounds Example Given: You are to serve 640 ounces of swordfish loin. oz. 2 c. but if you must. as they do not live long after harvesting. cost the number that you actually have available to serve against the entire purchase price. 2 tbsp. and tuna melts (grilled sandwiches with cheese). 16 fl. ✦ 1 pt. approximately 23 ounces. ✦ 1 tbsp. ✦ 1 lb. 128 fl. 2. 4 qt. COSTING CANNED TUNA NOTE It is not common practice to cost drained tuna by the cup or quart. Multiply that cost by the count used in your portion or recipe. 3 tsp. has one worksheet to help you plan your purchases of seafood products: Seafood. and counts can vary from stated amounts. oz. Do a physical count per pound in order to verify that your count is what you expected. so be watchful.6 ounces. oz.118 Chapter 10 Seafood come in a number of varieties and sizes.” Both types will yield nearly identical drained weights of 48 to 49 ounces per number-5 squat can. Most operators buy the water-packed tuna. The less expensive chunk light tuna is used for making tuna fish sandwich spreads. 16 tbsp. you may well lose some to spoilage. 1 gal. To cost either type of tuna by weight.

20 lb. You need to buy approximately 44. Subtract 10 from 100: 100 10 90 Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit .5 pounds of swordfish loin. you need 5 boxes: 20 lb. 4 lb. per box 5 boxes METHOD FOR CONVERTING AP COSTS TO R EFLECT CULLS If you want to account for any culls (items that you find unusable due to spoilage or defects). Convert the purchase unit measure to the purchase unit—a box of shrimp. Divide the AS of 40 pounds by 90 percent (0.Purchasing Seafood 119 NOTE Swordfish portions are usually boneless “steaks” but are costed like fillets. 1. FORMULA 2 The second formula shows you how to convert an as-served count to a purchase unit measure: Pieces needed Count per AP unit measure # of AP unit measures Here. the AP unit measure refers to how the purchase unit is measured. and each portion contains 5 shrimp.90): 40 0. To convert the 640 ounces to pounds.90 44.44 lb. 2. of shrimp 3. so the purchase unit measure is a pound. Divide that number by the original weight or count. Calculate the total number needed—88 portions times 5 shrimp each: 88 5 440 each 2. Use three steps to determine how many boxes to buy: 1. Your purchase unit is a 4-pound box. This is usually pounds. You need 20 pounds of shrimp. Also assume the shrimp used for the cocktail averages 22 per pound. Divide the pieces needed (440) by the count per pound (22): 440 shrimp 22 shrimp per lb. The answer will be your culled yield percentage. you have a loss of 10 oysters per 100 purchased. divide by 16: 640 16 40 lb. (This is a lot like a trim yield percentage. 2. use this method: 1. Your AS amount is 40 pounds. and since there are 4 pounds per box. Do the math: 1.) Example Given: Due to spoilage and defects. Subtract the cull weight or count from the AP weight or count. Example Given: You are serving 88 shrimp cocktails.

20 by its culled yield percentage (0.90 $0. ✦ 1 lb. 1 c. Divide the culled count (90) by the AP count (100): 90 100 0.90 Use this culled yield percentage of 90 percent to cost the remainder of your oysters. costs 20 cents: $20 100 $0. 2 c. ✦ 1 fl.222 Your culled. To convert these AS pounds to AP units. At some point. therefore. 16 fl. If scallops come in 5-pound boxes. 32 fl. 8 fl. ✦ 1 tbsp. Example Given: You need to serve 320 AS ounces of sea scallops: 320 oz. Can you guess how? Yes. you will be converting the total ounces of as-served food to pounds. 5 lb. ✦ 1 pt.90): $0. Each AP oyster. 4 qt. oz. oz. how many boxes do you need? Four boxes.20 2. ✦ .120 Chapter 10 Seafood 2. oz. 16 c. Assume the 100 oysters cost $20. as follows: 1. you divide the ounces by 16 to convert the ounces to pounds. oz. You have seen this before. ✦ 1 qt. 128 fl. 3 tsp. 20 lb. 4 c. 2 tbsp. METHOD FOR CONVERTING PORTION WEIGHTS IN O UNCES TO AP W EIGHTS IN P OUNDS This is a practice common to nearly every purchasing process. oz. 16 tbsp.20 0. 16 oz. usable oysters actually cost 22. but here it is again as a reminder. 2 pt. You need 20 pounds of scallops. because: 20 lb. 16 oz. you divide the AS pounds by the number of pounds in an AP unit. per box 4 boxes 1 gal. Divide the AP cost per each of $0.2 cents each.

whole fish Bass. Hawaiian Wahoo. drawn Flounder.6 7.8 11.0 9. H&G Bass. drawn Halibut. H&G Halibut. G&G Sand Dabs. H&G Albacore Tuna.2 8. whole fish Bass.6 7.0 4. Sea.2 7. Atlantic.2 8. center cut Ahi Tuna. dressed Salmon. drawn Salmon. drawn Cod.2 9. drawn Bass. whole fish 60% 45% 70% 55% 70% 45% 50% 60% 45% 45% 35% 45% 60% 70% 55% 30% 65% 70% 65% 65% 65% 35% 45% 75% 70% 50% 40% 9. Striped.2 10.2 12 11.6 7.6 11. dressed Halibut.4 10. Pacific. Hawaiian Moonfish.2 8.2 5.4 5.0 6. H&G.2 11.4 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . center cut. whole fish Snappers. H&G Mahi Mahi.2 8. drawn Catfish. H&G Petrale Sole.6 7.Seafood 121 Seafood Fillet Yield Percent* Edible Ounces per AP Pound Item Ahi Tuna. whole fish John Dory.8 10. H&G Monkfish Tails Ono. drawn Cod. bloodline trimmed Ahi Tuna. H&G Opah. H&G.2 7. whole fish Ling Cod. whole fish Pompano.4 10.4 11.

✦ Crab yields vary according to species and handling.122 Chapter 10 Seafood Seafood (Continued) Item Spearfish. H&G Swordfish. 16 tbsp. oz. 2 c. Generally. 16 c. oz. H&G Swordfish. Sometimes the tail and collars will have been removed.5-pound Maine lobster. Most are eviscerated (gutted) and are called drawn fish. The yield percentages listed in this table are. whole and very fresh.4 7. Crustaceans—Crab. The edible portion yield of drawn finfish ranges from 35% to 75%. ✦ Crayfish sized an average of 10 per pound.4 9. ✦ A dressed fish is scaled and eviscerated. dressed Trout. tails. 2 tbsp. and distance in shipping all affect yields. drawn Tuna. ✦ G&G (Gilled and Gutted): This is a fish whose gills and guts have been removed but heads. and has had its head and fins removed.4 9. and backfin crabmeat are considered the best meat and are priced accordingly. and includes bones and skin. The count per pound does vary but should not exceed 15 to 18. 1 gal.6 14. Lobster. 32 fl. 4 c.The percentage of tail meat to purchased weight is 15 to 20%. time.to 9-ounce tail. 16 oz. cooked meat. It is boneless and often skinless.0 15.6 10. ✦ A steak is a crosscut of the fish. claw. Raw. center cut Swordfish. when briefly cooked. 2. H&G. Crayfish. temperature. peeled shrimp. therefore. 2 pt. ✦ .2 8. 1 c. Finfish: Finfish are seldom sold whole (called round). yield 65 to 70% of their original headless weight. the larger the fish. Crabmeat marked special is the least expensive. oz. 3 tsp. cleaned meat. loin Fillet Yield Percent* Edible Ounces per AP Pound 65% 60% 65% 60% 90% 45% 50% 95% 10. for restaurant use. ✦ Fresh lobster (Maine or spiny) yields between 20 and 33% picked. Smaller crayfish actually have a 5% larger tail meat yield than larger sizes because of the extra shell weight found with larger sizes. oz. ✦ 1 tbsp.2 *Fishing/harvesting methods. Notes 1. ✦ 1 pt. cooked meat. Counts up to 30 per pound are not uncommon in very casual Louisiana-style establishments. in good condition. approximate. Fresh Dungeness crab yields 15 to 25% picked. the higher the yield. ✦ 1 fl. The scales and fins will not have been removed. 128 fl. loin Tilapia. are about as large as is marketed. deveined meat. A 1. 4 qt. Lobsters lose weight very fast once out of water. ✦ 1 qt. 16 fl. ✦ Headless shrimp yield 80 to 85% peeled. 8 fl. fins. but this is not a given. Whole. dressed Swordfish. Shrimp: These seafood products are commonly sold frozen by weight or a count per pound. if very fresh. ✦ A fillet may be a whole side or a part of a side. oz. ✦ 1 lb. Lump. will yield an 8. cooked Dungeness crab yields 20 to 25% picked. and scales are intact. ✦ H&G (Headed and Gutted): This is similar to a dressed fish in that the fish will have had its head removed and been gutted.

Sea scallops are relatively large. Mollusks—Clams. with counts up to 90 per pound. Manila clams measure 1. Dry scallops are also known as Day Boats and divers. ✦ Green New Zealand mussels are larger and meatier than the blues. Wet scallops.24 to 1. ✦ Oyster varieties are numerous and are packed according to sizes. ✦ Fresh scallops (typically sea scallops) are sold as dry or wet and are also packaged by a count (range) per pound. Soft-shell steamer clams range in market size from 1. and texture. Most conch processed in the United States is actually whelk. Olympia oysters are 400 per bushel—1 gallon represents 500 or more.5 Chowders (average 125 to 180) Under 200 Over 3. One pound of blue mussels averages 16 mussels. whiten their color.5 inches. ✦ Blue mussels yield 25 to 55% meat. Mussels: Clams Littlenecks Cherrystones Topnecks Count per Bushel 450–600 300–400 200–250 Inch Size 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 3. Bluepoint oysters are 220 to the bushel—1 gallon meat represents one bushel. and firm their texture. ✦ Conch yields about 50% of its in-shell weight. a sticky or tacky feel. depending on feed. Geoduck clams grow to over 9 inches and are usually harvested at 3 pounds but grow larger and yield 50% meat. Bay scallops are much smaller. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . and are more expensive than bay scallops.5 to 4 inches long. For example. when cooked. Conch.Seafood 123 3. yielding 45 to 55% meat. which vary widely. appearance.000 animals. and spawning cycle. Meat yield of one bushel ranges from 10 to 30 pounds. Sea scallops have better flavor. ✦ Frozen scallops are typically packaged in 4-pound blocks and are sized as a range count per pound. ranging from U-10 to about 30 per pound. Wet (or processed) scallops are less expensive and will have been dipped in a solution of sodium tripolyphosphate to extend their shelf life. which makes it more difficult to caramelize their surfaces. weep more than the dry type. U-10 (under 10 per pound) is the largest size. Divers are harvested by hand in the winter months. Quahog clams are harvested around 3 to 6 inches long. Oysters. and a slightly grayish color to them. Dry scallops will have the scent of the ocean. Surf clams are sold processed as frozen strips or chopped in cans. An 8-gallon bushel yields 800 to 1. season. Day Boats are often hand harvested and are available most of the year. Chowders are the toughest and least expensive.5 ✦ Littleneck clams are the most tender and most expensive.

11 POULTRY C IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. Legs and thighs are available joined. poultry processors “fabricate” whole birds into market forms such as breasts. Chicken. legs. You will find the Poultry Costing Worksheet 13 of help in calculating the 124 . half breasts. in particular. geese. When sold without giblets. known as a tender or tenderloin. simply. small birds. has one worksheet to help you cost poultry products: Poultry. turkey. quail. or marinated. It also lists piece yields for three weights of turkeys. the Workbook. Because many menus do not market every part of a bird. thighs. and duckling. separated. you can buy a whole chicken with or without its giblets. the neck is also typically included with giblets. Costing Worksheet 13 ✦ hicken. One table is referenced in the discussion in this chapter: ✦ Poultry COSTING CHICKEN Chicken is by far the most popular type of poultry and is marketed in numerous ways. This chapter will explain how to make decisions about selecting the market forms of various poultry items that are most suitable for your operation. Finally. You can even buy just the interior breast muscle. you can order these items with further refinements. COSTING POULTRY This section covers costing procedures in this order: chicken. with giblets. or completely skinned and boned. Giblets consist of the heart. and wings. Wings are sold whole and in pieces: the first joint is called a drumette. For example. game hen. gizzard. and liver. although the latter is not as popular as chicken. the second joint is called. you can buy half chickens or quarters as well. the second joint. you can buy these special market forms already breaded. Of course. as is turkey. is tremendously profitable. and duckling are among the most popular types of poultry on menus today. Additionally. the bird is designated as a WOG (“without giblets”). The Poultry table lists the yields that you can obtain from a whole fryer/broiler chicken weighing nearly 59 ounces. Breasts can be had without skin or bones or with skin but no bones. seasoned. It also addresses the options you have when assigning costs to poultry items. turkey. as well as planning your purchases.

the North American Meat Processors Association (NAMP) publishes a Poultry Buyers Guide that clearly defines poultry marketing terminology and describes various cuts and market forms of poultry items.04 0. 2. for instance) in your recipes.95 Then.95 0. 2. Remember. Now do the math. and thighs. the whole breast (both halves with skin and bones). are usually sold as half breasts (a standard portion) and are often packaged in boxes of 24 pieces. thighs. You simply designate the exact size and trim you want to receive and do a piece-count costing. This approach works as well when you first deduct the dollar value of the usable trim. so be sure to have that reference handy when you are costing and planning purchases of poultry. These are available in various sizes and with or without bones or skin.Costing Poultry 125 NOTE As it does for meat. buy those particular items—that is.7 percent of the AP weight: 0. Its breasts. When you buy just the parts (pieces) your menu calls for. when you want to calculate the cost of a certain part.95. costing is easy. so: $5. The Poultry table on chicken shows the weight yields of these parts. You use this percentage to “adjust” the purchase price of the bird. legs. PIECE COUNTS If you process whole birds into their respective parts—breasts.95 This is the adjusted cost per bird. if you are going to use only one or two parts (breasts and wings. for instance.679 $5. you multiply the whole breast’s yield percentage of 29.9 percent of its original weight.296 $1. legs. so to speak. ✦ The yield for both wings is 10.679): $4. wings. thighs. For instance. 1.9 percent of the original AP weight.95: COSTING PARTS OF WHOLE BIRDS $4.04 coming in the door.9 percent to arrive at the adjusted cost per bird. whereby you simply divide the cost of the box by 24 to get the cost per each.04 0.04 (not deducting giblet costs).76 Therefore. and thighs represent 67. They add up to 67. its adjusted cost will be $5. say. The Poultry table shows the yield for both breast halves is 29. Multiply the various parts’ yield percentage by the adjusted cost of $5. those costs will add up to the original price of the bird. if a bird costs $4. legs. Divide by the total yield percentage of 67.6 percent of the AP weight. Subtract the value of those usable items from the AP cost per bird. Example Given: One AP chicken costs $4.95 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . Adjust the AP cost by dividing the AP cost ($4.6 percent by the adjusted cost of the whole bird. the giblets. costs for the breasts.679 $5. pieces—and be done with it. and wings obtained from whole birds. and legs—you cost these parts by dividing the adjusted cost of the bird by the part’s yield percentages. If you do this with the wings.04) by the parts’ yield percentage (0.107 $0. though. Simply follow two steps: 1. wings.64 Y% ✦ $5. and backs from the AP cost. Breasts.

bone-in breast yields 73. and back from the original AP cost of the bird. boneless meat. divide the AP cost per pound by 0.79. but note that the tom listed in the table is bigger and more mature. COSTING COOKED TURKEY ✦ A cooked ounce will cost one-sixteenth of the cooked pound cost: $2. divide the cost per pound by the cooked meat yield percentage. $0. oz. Without rounding. and you cost these by the each using the piece-count approach: Divide the cost of the purchase unit. ✦ 1 tbsp. oz.68 $5.) COSTING TURKEY The method just described for chicken works for costing turkey parts as well. more developed breast than the smaller. As a percentage of its weight. ✦ 1 lb. Legs are typically packed whole.176 per lb. younger hens. 4 c. the breasts are often sold as separate items. Breasts are sold with or without the skin and bones and with or without wing meat or rib meat attached. The carving yield for a cooked 22-pound hen is 36. by the number of legs in the case.05. 16 c. these totals add up to $4. 8 fl. 32 fl. 16 fl.79 per lb.126 Chapter 11 Poultry ✦ The yield for both drumsticks is 11. (The Poultry Costing Worksheet shows you how to cost these parts even further. oz. which equals the AP cost of the bird.163 $0. they add up to $4. oz.4 percent of the AP weight: 0. the results will still add up to the lower adjusted cost of the AP bird.6 percent of its AP weight in raw. If you first deduct the cost of the giblets. The ratio of light to dark meat is 1. oz.to 24-pound range. If the AP cost per pound is $0.114 $0. ✦ 1 pt.6 to 1 for a hen of equal size.68. ✦ 1 qt. divide that cost by the cooked and carved yield percentage: $0. 3 tsp. Simply plug in the yield percentages for the turkey parts to cost the turkey’s various pieces. skinless. When pricing a banquet featuring cooked turkey meat.04. a tom has more dark meat than a hen and a hen more light meat than a tom. COSTING PARTS OF TURKEY Because of the popularity of turkey breast meat. 16 tbsp. The same breast will yield 50 percent of its AP weight in cooked meat.97 $5.3 percent of the AP weight: 0.176 per lb.136 per cooked oz. You will get a 41 percent cooked meat yield from a roasted turkey if you not only carve the meat from the cooked bird but also hand-pull the remaining meat from its bones. or $0. 128 fl.95 ✦ The yield for both thighs is 16.50. A tom is generally larger than a hen./lb. 16 oz.3 to 1 for a tom and 1. A raw. 4 qt. 1 gal. ✦ 1 fl. 2 c. 2 tbsp. 1 c. 0. so to cost the cooked meat. such as a case of legs. neck. The Poultry table indicates that the tom has more breast meat than a hen. though hens are now marketed in the 22. ✦ A 5-ounce portion will cost you five times that. 2 pt. as are legs.363 $2. resulting in a larger.95 When rounded.736. which is well into the market weight range for toms. 16 oz.3 percent. divide the cost per AP pound by 0. ✦ . including deducting the giblet costs first. Turkeys are sold as hens (females) and as toms (males). To cost this meat. Hens generally yield more usable meat per AP pound because their bones are smaller than those of toms.

heart: 5 percent Liver: 3 percent (unless purposefully fattened for duck foie gras) Cost duckling pieces just as you would chicken pieces. $0. and squab (young pigeons) are sold whole or halved. Use the piece-count approach to cost these items. COSTING DUCKLING Ducklings. gizzard. 1. As percentages of its body weight.1176.76 percent. simply divide the whole duckling’s cost by 2. carved. you can buy half duckling already cooked and with the rib bones removed. Today. legs.12 per cooked oz. this approach to preparing turkey banquets is used by chefs who preplate their foods.79 by the 41 percent cooked. including the bone and skin (Actual breast meat is about 12 percent.08 divided by the original portion cost of $0. COSTING GEESE A young goose weighing 11 pounds will be composed of the following cuts as percentages of its AP weight: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Back and ribs: 21 percent Breasts: 24 percent.93 per lb. a rather popular poultry item. the AP cost per pound is $0. Divide $0. a duckling breaks down this way: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Breasts: 30 percent Legs and thighs: 25 percent Back and ribs: 25 percent Neck. COSTING SMALL BIRDS Quail. Again.60. 0.Costing Poultry 127 This increase in the yield will result in a lower cost per ounce. If a portion is a half duckling. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . which is 11. are sold whole and halved./lb. $1. 16 oz. How so? The savings of $0. Cornish game hens. Because of the lower food cost. and thighs.41 $1. It is also 30 percent bone and 38 percent skin and fat.93 per lb.68 equals 0.) Legs and thighs: 22 percent Wings: 16 percent Neck.79. heart: 14 percent Liver: 3 percent (unless purposefully fattened for sale as foie gras) Cost the various pieces by using the same method described for chicken or turkey pieces. A 5-ounce portion will now cost $0. rather than carve and plate them on a buffet line. A standard portion is either a half duckling or a rather large half breast. The meat yield from a whole duckling is 32 percent. The following equations show how using a 41 percent yield will lower the food cost for the 5-ounce portion in the preceding example. as well as in breast halves. gizzard. which is 8 cents less and translates to a reduction in cost of nearly 12 percent.79 per lb. and pulled meat yield: $0.

3 pounds of bone-in/skin-on half breasts. Purchasing Worksheet 12 ✦ When you are buying whole chickens. skinless half breast weighs 5. If you are not going to use equal numbers of a bird’s parts. 2 tbsp. If. oz. the Workbook.128 Chapter 11 Poultry PURCHASING POULTRY IN THE WORKBOOK Part II. 4 qt. you’ll need 550 ounces. ✦ 1 pt. Here’s how to find the whole breast weight needed: 1. 3 tsp. skinless turkey breast weight to whole turkey breast weight: FORMULA 2 AS weight of full. The Poultry table shows that a tom turkey breast weighs 144 ounces whole. wings.5 percent) 2. 4 c.7361 ✦ 128 fl. order just the parts you need rather than whole birds. Therefore. Obtain the yield percentage of boneless. 16 c. poultry processors market the various parts in different ways. oz. 2 c. 8. Divide the AS amount by the yield percentage (Y%) to determine the AP amount. you must add up all the part types needed and divide by 2. thighs. therefore. Divide the AS weight of 360 ounces by 0. ✦ 1 fl.7 ounces. 16 fl.655 (65. oz. skinless breast halves. or 34. 16 oz. ✦ 1 lb. 2 pt. or other birds for the purpose of processing them into equal numbers of breasts. and 106 ounces. As noted earlier.7 0. these parts can be ordered skinless and boneless. boneless. skinless half breasts to untrimmed half breasts is this: AS weight breast meat Breast meat yield percentage AP weight of whole breast halves Example Given: You need 360 ounces of boneless. ✦ 1 qt. . 2. and the untrimmed half breast. This formula approach works the same for the legs and thighs. 1 c. boneless. oz. turkeys. and drumsticks.) The Poultry table shows that a boneless. you feel it is advantageous to order whole parts and then skin and bone them yourself. So: 5. however. skinless turkey breast AP whole breast weight Yield percentage Example Given: You need an AS amount of 312 ounces of boned. ✦ 1 tbsp. the following four formulas show you how to go about it. oz. Except for wings. In order to calculate how many whole birds to order. 8 fl. skinless: 106 1 gal. skinned turkey breast meat. 32 fl.655 and you get 550 ounces. Divide the trimmed weight by the untrimmed weight to find the Y%. To determine how many ounces of untrimmed half breasts you need to get 360 ounces: 1. keep in mind that each bird yields two of each type of part. (This is the trimmed weight divided by the untrimmed weight. FORMULA 1 The formula for converting boneless.7 ounces. 144 0.7 8. has one worksheet to help you more accurately plan your poultry purchases: Poultry. Here’s the formula for converting boneless. skinless half breasts. 16 tbsp. so you can specify exactly the size and amount of trim you want.

5).9 pounds) by the carved meat yield (0.9 ounces of whole turkey breast to have 312 ounces to use.3 percent carved meat yield factor to calculate how many pounds of raw turkey to buy.363): 46.9 lb. You should order 114. 150 750). Example (Carved Meat Only) Given: You are going to serve turkey carved on a buffet line in 5-ounce portions of cooked meat to 150 guests. the cooked turkey will yield 36.3 lb. Thus. is 41 percent. Many chefs pad the calculated AP weight by 5 percent or more. cooked in a conventional oven at 325 F to an internal thigh temperature of 165 F. FORMULA 3 This is the formula for converting AS weight of cooked.363 129.2 pounds of raw turkey./lb. Divide the number of ounces by 16: 750 oz. 0. follow these steps: 1. It’s a good idea to order a bit more than the formula indicates. Divide the 46.9 ounces.7361 to get 423. and pulled turkey to an AP raw weight: AS weight of carved and pulled turkey AP weight of raw turkey NOTE If the meat is precarved and the extra pulled meat is added to the amount being served. 16 oz. After a brief rest.Purchasing Poultry 129 This is the poultry Y%.9 pounds by 41 percent: 46.363 AP weight of raw turkey Holiday banquets often feature roast turkey.41 114.9 lb. you’ll need to buy 423.3 percent of its AP weight (including neck and giblets) in carved meat. however. 2. If you are going to carve and pull off all the remaining carcass meat and then reheat it for service.) If you are carving the turkeys on a buffet line. You will need 26. You’ll need to order 129. 46. Divide the weight needed (46. 0. to account for possible mistakes in production or on the serving line or to accommodate extra guests. carved turkey to AP whole turkey weight: AS weight of cooked. carved. use the 41 percent yield formula (Formula 4). and extensive testing shows that the best yield of cooked meat comes from a 20. including meat that is hand-pulled from the carcass after carving.9 16 26. The total weight served will be 750 ounces (5 To convert the ounces to pounds. (The total yield.3 pounds of raw turkey. 3. use the 41 percent yield factor.41 1. 0. FORMULA 4 Here is the final formula is for converting cooked.2 lb. carved turkey 0.9 lb. Y% ✦ Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit .5 pounds (423.to 24-pound hen. use the 36. Divide 312 by 0.

) 1 gal. meaning that the trimmed food is the better buy.9317. In comparison. that is: 10 lb. ✦ 1 tbsp. and boneless. skinless breasts cost $2. 2 pt. 128 fl. How? Say you need 10 pounds of boneless. $41.92 per pound. or 93. the trim yield percentage means that you will only get 65. 4 qt. 16 oz.27 pounds of whole breasts to end up with 10 pounds of cleaned breasts.73) by the trimmed cost ($2.4 17. although a trimmed food’s cost per pound will always be more than an untrimmed food’s cost.5 percent. ✦ 1 qt.73/lb.93): $2. 2.68 0. Example Given: Whole chicken breasts cost $2. oz.73 per pound. boneless breasts at $2. (The Purchasing Worksheets contain a worksheet called Trimmed versus Untrimmed Prices that explains this in more detail. 2 tbsp. 16 fl. 8 fl.4 ounces) by the whole weight (17.73 $2.5 percent. divide the whole breast cost ($2. here’s a simple test you can do to help you decide: Divide the cost per pound of an untrimmed food by the cost per pound of the trimmed item. skinless breasts is 65. 1 c.655 15. To calculate the percentage of the untrimmed price per pound to the trimmed price per pound. ✦ 1 lb. 4 c. ✦ 1 pt.4 ounces): 11. you should buy the trimmed food. Because of the amount of trimming you would have to do. Remember. ✦ . 16 tbsp. 16 c.93 per pound will cost $29.27 lb. 10 pounds of skinless. divide the trimmed weight given in the Poultry table (11. oz. oz.2 percent. ✦ 1 fl. 3 tsp. but also in labor costs. rounded The untrimmed price percentage of 93.655 to calculate how many pounds of whole breast to start with. If this untrimmed price percentage (the untrimmed price expressed as a percentage of the trimmed price) is greater than the food’s trim yield percentage. 2 c. you would have to buy 15. oz. So.27 lb.4 0. You are better off with the trimmed meat not only in food cost. skinless breast meat. you have to divide the 10 pounds by 0.5 percent of any weight that you start with in cleaned breast meat.2 percent is larger than the trim yield percentage of 65.655 Thus. and includes a table you can use to help make decisions of this sort. oz. To determine the trim yield percentage for breasts. and: 15. if you want to end up with 10 pounds.93 0. the trim yield percentage for whole to boneless.30. 1. you will be buying or using less of it and may be spending less on the trimmed food. $2. The reason is that.130 Chapter 11 Poultry DECIDING BETWEEN TRIMMED AND UNTRIMMED If you are not sure whether to buy an item already trimmed. 32 fl.

25 1.90 1.25 0.80 3.8% 2.50 1.8 28.0% 13. whole (drum and thigh) Drumsticks. skinless Neck. with skin Water. Large Fryer Whole Clean Meat Bones Skin Separable Fat Gizzard Heart Liver Neck.2 3.9% 4. each Legs. first joint (drumette) Wings.70 1.6% 19.6% 2. blood.4% 10. each Breast.6 2.1% 0.3% 18.2 21.5% 5.5% 5.0 2.1% 4.4 2.0% 48. tenderloins. skinless Drumstick Meat.4% 2. both Breast Half.10 9.9% 2. whole Wings. boneless.40 5. boneless.15 1.5 0. detissued Legs.4% 4.3% 1. tips Breast.0 7. each Whole Bird General General General General General General General General General General General Wings Wings Wings Wings Breast Breast Breast Breast Breast Breast Legs Legs Legs Legs Legs 58. tenderloins.6% 11. whole (both halves) Breast.4 10.4% 29.10 1.3 3.4% 8. skinless Breast Half.0% 35.4% 1.7% 14.70 8.1% 3.9% 3.60 0.10 10.0 100.7% 5.70 2. whole. second joint (middle) Wings.4 11.8 17.8% Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .7% 12.2 27. skinless Breast.2 6. whole.7 6. whole Drumsticks.4% 0.20 16. and cutting loss Back Wings.8% 5.Poultry 131 Poultry Ounce Weight Percent of Original Weight Ounce Weight of Each Each: Percent of Original Weight Item Name Part Type Chicken.7% 6.0% 0.

3% 13. each Cleaned Meat from 1 Drumstick Drumstick. ✦ 1 lb. 32 fl. 4 qt.0 32.10 1. boneless Thighs. boneless.0 46. 4 c.8% 3.5% 26.0 3. skinless. each Thighs. whole Thighs. 16 oz.0% 11.95 8.0% 29. full. 2 tbsp.0 35. skinless. 1 c. oz. each Thighs. ✦ 1 tbsp.0 79. hen (10 pounds) Whole Legs and thighs Breast.5 59.7% 5. skinless.0 47. ✦ 1 fl.9% 20. 2 c.8% 1 gal.0 6. 16 tbsp.3 6.0 25. oz. ✦ 1 pt.9% 3. skinless Legs and Thighs Back and Ribs Wings Gizzard Whole bird General General General General General General 224.8% 10. skinless. 16 fl.4% 29. 128 fl.5% 11.9 6. oz.4% Turkey.3% 2.7% 4. skinless Back and Ribs Wings Gizzard Neck Liver Heart Whole bird General General General General General General General General General 160.3% 2.0% 3. 2 pt. whole. ✦ 1 qt.60 3. full.4% 21.35 5.0 47. boneless. hen (14 pounds) Hen (14 pounds) Breast.9% 5. whole Breast.0% Turkey.05 2.6% 25. whole Breast. 8 fl. each Thighs.132 Chapter 11 Poultry Poultry (Continued) Ounce Weight Percent of Original Weight Ounce Weight of Each Each: Percent of Original Weight Item Name Drumstick.3 100.6 100. skinless Thighs.8% 2. boneless.0 19. oz.1 6. oz.6 8.0% 35.4 0. each Part Type Legs Legs Legs Thighs Thighs Thighs Thighs Thighs Thighs 9. ✦ . 16 c.2% 6.4% 20.6 57. whole.1 5. 3 tsp.1% 0.80 4.

boneless.0 6.1% 23. and Heart Liver Whole 7-pound Duckling Percent 30% 25% 25% 12% 5% 3% 100% Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .8% 1. whole Breast.4% 1.8 33.4 3.4 100.6% 0.0 64.7 2.5% 3.4% 1.3 4.0 106. Ducklings: Yield 30% bone. 38% skin and fat.4% 9. skinless Legs and Thighs Back and Ribs Wings Neck Gizzard Liver Heart Notes Whole bird General General General General General General General General General 352.3% 0. 2. tom (22 pounds) Tom Breast.3% Turkey. Body Composition Breasts Legs and Thighs Back and Ribs Wings Neck.9% 18.Poultry 133 Poultry (Continued) Ounce Weight Percent of Original Weight Ounce Weight of Each Each: Percent of Original Weight Item Name Neck Liver Heart Part Type General General General 5. Chicken: 1 cup of cooked chicken liver weighs 5 ounces.5 1. A whole raw chicken without giblets or neck will yield about 83% of its original weight when roasted.4 12.9% 30.6 0.0% 40. Gizzard. full.0 84.4% 1. meat yield is 32%.0 144.

Sizes and Capacities of Hotel Pans A CANS Obviously. scoops. this chapter addresses how to properly account for such containers and utensils as cans. refer to the Can Sizes table.S. and sheet trays. hotel pans. Scoop or Disher Sizes 3. which lists the maximum capacities of various can sizes measured in the following ways: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ U. To help you with that. cups Imperial (British) cups If you are using all of the ingredients in a can and want to cost the value of one of the measures listed. accurate costing of certain items can be affected by factors other than weight and size— specifically. 134 . S COOPS . multiply the number of measures in your recipe by the cost of one measure. divide the number of measures into the cost of one can. fluid ounces Milliliters U. kitchen utensils and cans. Can Sizes 2. AND S HEET T RAYS IN C OSTING s noted where appropriate in Chapters 1 through 11 of The Book of Yields. Three tables are referenced in the discussion in this chapter: 1. HOTEL PANS. If your recipe calls for more than one measure.12 THE PROPER USE OF C ANS . the size of the can in which a food item is packaged will have to be factored in to any costing process. Therefore.S.

023 U. To cost a cup.Hotel Pans 135 Example Given: A number-303 can of tomato paste costs $2.S.18 fluid ounces.90. also called steam table pans. are made out of stainless steel (or heatproof. Just be scoop to serve it. or 2.The reason is that ounces). Each size comes in three depths: shallow.90 by the 2. The Scoop or Disher Sizes table tells you how many fluid NOTE ounces equal one level scoop. are handheld. dishes.023 cups that equal the capacity of the number-303 can: $2. cups. but use your own food. 2. the cost per fluid ounce (9 cents) by the fluid-ounce capacity (4) to get the cost of the when necessary.90 2. metal half-rounds used to portion out fairly exact volumes of foods onto serving If you frequently use a particular canned food. The Sizes and Capacities of Hotel Pans table gives you all these variations for stainless-steel hotel pans.90 16. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . approach to cost ladles Say that a fluid ounce of some food costs 9 cents. it is a good idea “blade” on the inside of the bowl. oz. divide the cost of the can ($2. and that you are using a number-8 of food as well.023 $1. The Can Sizes table shows that one 303 can holds 16.09 4 $0. Use the When you know the cost of one fluid ounce of a particular methods just described. food-grade plastic) in eight standard sizes with respect to their length and width.18 $0.43 SCOOPS Scoops. capacity and your cooks may not be gleaning every morsel of food from every can. medium. also called dishers. you can cost the value of any single scoop of that food by yields to do your actual costing. either multiply that answer times 8 ($1. A number-4 scoop will hold one-fourth of a quart—that your cans may not be filled to maximum is. level scoopful: NOTE $0. tomato paste (no draining). To get the cost per fluid ounce.179 per fl.36 HOTEL PANS Hotel pans. Every scoop has a number stamped onto the curved say. and deep. multiplying its capacity in fluid ounces by the cost per fluid ounce. 8 fluid ounces. It also lists their capacities in quarts and liters in two ways: when the pans are filled to the brim and when they are filled to what is called a nonspill capacity. 1.18: $2.90) by 16.43) or divide $2. The key word here is level: You have to scrape the food across the edge of the container from which you are scooping the food in order to get You can use this same a level scoop. This number tells you how to actually measure the fluid ounces and cups many scoops of that size will equal a single quart (32 fluid that you obtain in your kitchen. Multiply sure to scrape the food to the top of the ladle. The table shows that a number-8 scoop holds 4 fluid ounces.

Be sure to keep just enough soup in your tureens to ensure that the flavors stay fresh. Sheet cakes and various pastry bars are examples. Probably you’ll know the cost of the soup (by the fluid ounce and serving size) from your recipe development. 1. However. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 qt. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. using the second approach. 16 tbsp. 2 pt. ✦ 1 pt. 2 c. 4 qt. 32 fl. ✦ 1 fl. 2. NOTE OF SOUP TUREENS Soup is often held for service on a steam table or in a stand-alone soup-warmer. multiply the cost per portion by the number of portions the pan contains. Example Given: A hotel pan holds 16 portions of salmon fillet. ✦ . oz. and your yield may shrink after a few hours. soup evaporates in these warming units. ✦ 1 lb. increasing your portion costs and often causing your soup to become salty or too thick or to just taste overdone. a n d S h e e t Tr a y s i n C o s t i n g Hotel pans are used to hold a number of single portions or a mass of food that should equal a known number of portions. oz. To cost the value of a hotel pan’s contents. Use this information to cost portions by dividing the number of portions you get from a tray into the cost of one sheet tray recipe. 16 fl. H o t e l P a n s . and you get 12 portions from one pan. 1 gal. The Pans and Trays table identifies types of sheet trays and gives you a variety of standard portion sizes and number of portions that can be cut from a full sheet tray. 128 fl. divide the pan content’s value (food cost) by the portions you get from it. the cost of the entire pan will be $32: $2 16 $32 If. and portioned off. sheet trays. 8 fl.136 Chapter 12 T h e P r o p e r U s e o f C a n s . 1 c. oz. you have a hotel pan of baked lasagna worth $12. S c o o p s . Using the first approach. 16 oz. If you know the value of the whole pan but don’t know the value of a portion. oz. and each fillet costs $2. 4 c. the cost per portion is $1: $12 12 $1 SHEET TRAYS Many recipes are baked on. 16 c. oz. however.

320 5.S.500 431.461 2.113 13.998 10.195 3. Food packers sometimes use near-standard custom-size cans that contain less volume.S. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .Can Sizes 137 Can Sizes Standard U.263 3102.303 478.729 10.040 0.310 1.052 172.091 0.918 5.824 1.023 1.353 1.560 28. Read the can label for precise weight or volume data regarding its contents.550 19.263 13.590 12.180 14.900 104.158 2.519 1.866 0. Fluid Ounces Milliliters U.607 The fluid ounces and milliliters above specify the capacity of these cans to contain liquids.690 16.S.569 2.900 56.075 6.478 384.625 1. Can U.830 3102.684 1.972 2. Cups Imperial Cups Nu Number 10 10 Number 5 Number 3 cylinder Number 2 1/2 Number 2 Number 303 Number 300 Number 211 cylinder Number 1 picnic 8 ounce 6 ounce Note 104.600 49.931 246.414 7.113 10.862 1465.664 844.049 1.324 582.480 8.918 1673.397 309.891 5.

400 0.271 157.000 15.333 4. 2 c.200 2.002 7. 16 oz. S c o o p s .250 0.S.505 10. 4 qt. a n d S h e e t Tr a y s i n C o s t i n g Scoop or Disher Sizes Disher Size Number 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 30 40 60 Note U.533 236.000 0. 128 fl. 16 tbsp. 3 tsp. H o t e l P a n s . 32 fl.659 15.333 0. 2 tbsp. 16 fl. 1 c. 8 fl.500 3.001 4. ✦ 1 pt.333 1.800 0.000 2.200 0.716 118.138 Chapter 12 T h e P r o p e r U s e o f C a n s .525 23. oz.600 1.009 Accurate portioning with dishers requires level scraping across the top of the disher cup.000 6. ✦ .667 0.000 5.500 2. oz. The number imprinted on the blade of the scoop states how many level scoops of that size are in one 32-fluid-ounce quart.000 6. ✦ 1 lb.000 1. oz.635 78.666 2. ✦ 1 fl. oz.843 59.250 1.066 0. ✦ 1 qt.000 1.167 0.318 39.763 1.133 0.800 0. Fluid Ounces Milliliters Cups per Scoop Scoops per Cup 8. 4 c. 1 gal.147 47.067 1. oz.400 5.294 94.000 3. 16 c.100 0.422 31. 2 pt.588 189.500 0. ✦ 1 tbsp.

0 2.5 1.0 18. a full shallow pan is actually 12.5 4 6 2.5 4 6 2.36 1. deep Ninth Ninth.79 5. deep Fourth Fourth.3 14.68 8.5 8.55 0.25 19. For instance.5 4 6 1.0 4.25 2. the less the plastic material reduces the Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .50 5.36 17.0 12. 1 inch Long half.37 3.56 0. medium Fourth.5 4 6 2.84 4.Sizes and Capacities of Hotel Pans 139 Sizes and Capacities of Hotel Pans Stainless Steam Table Pans.76 3.18 Standard Half Half shallow Half medium Half deep Long Half Long half.37 4.6 1. medium Two-thirds. deep Third Third.9 1.39 7.1 1. shallow Third.26 1.5 6.89 3. General Size Full Dimension (Inches) Width Length Depth Brimful Capacity Quarts Liters Nonspill Capacity Quarts Liters Common Name Full shallow Full medium Full deep 12 12 12 12 12 12 6. medium Long half.77 1.32 2.1 3.5 4 6 2.0 9.3 5.07 6.0 4. shallow Two-thirds.2 1.5 6.80 13.0 3.75 pan’s capacity compared to stainless.0 2.03 2.8 0.46 1.30 8.0 12. medium Note Pan dimensions are rounded.75 2.57 11.57 1.7 0.0 1.46 3.5 25.25 2.52 1. shallow Fourth. shallow Long half. deep Sixth Sixth.5 1.88 5.6 9.5 5. shallow Ninth.42 2.5 6. The larger the pan.25 2.47 1. medium Third.7 5. deep Two-Thirds Two-thirds.0 5.68 11. 1 inch Two-thirds.5 4 6 2.62 2.70 2.1 6.26 6.8 3.0 3.85 1.0 21.99 3.0 6.5 1.5 4 8.5 1.34 9.5 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 20 20 20 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 14 14 14 14 7 7 7 10 10 10 7 7 7 7 7 2.3 6.31 5.0 3.2 4.32 0.3 14. shallow Sixth.51 6.26 7.87 4.20 1.5 in.0 2.7 8.85 13.42 1.6 4.0 4.5 7.14 1.7 10. medium Sixth. 20.84 5.8 2.84 4.4 2.6 7.4 0. Hard plastic food pans hold be- tween 5 and 20 percent less because of thicker wall construction.70 2.0 4.5 3.5 4 6 1.

baking pans. oz. tables. A half size measures 13 18 in. 8 fl. H o t e l P a n s . ✦ 1 pt. S c o o p s . 1 c. The area of 1 full sheet tray is 468 in2 (3.5 6. a n d S h e e t Tr a y s i n C o s t i n g Standard sheet trays (also called sheet pans.0 28. Commercial kitchen ovens.140 Sheet Trays Chapter 12 T h e P r o p e r U s e o f C a n s .2 38. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt. 32 fl.6 2 2 2 Length Length Number of Cuts per Width 4 7 6 8 9 13 10 13 13 13 Length Piece Size (Square Inches) 9. 46 cm). 16 tbsp.036 cm2).0 42. refrigerators.6 5. oz.4 7.25 2 Width 11. ✦ 1 lb.5 3 2.5 4.0 6. 3 tsp. 128 fl. 26 in. ✦ . bun pans) are of two primary sizes.0 Number of Pieces 52 70 78 104 117 Number of Pieces 52 70 778 104 117 26 in. 4 c. 16 c.7 5 5 6. 16 fl.0 4.4 6. racks. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 4 qt.5 2.6 5 5 5 2 2. oz. 16 oz. oz. ✦ 1 fl.5 25. and so on Number of Cuts per Width 4 7 6 8 9 13 10 13 13 13 Length (Centimeters) 1 gal. (33 are designed to fit the full sheet tray: 18 Full Sheet Tray Cutting Yields Width (Inches) 4. A full sheet tray is 18 (46 66 cm).0 Piece Size (Square Centimeters) 57. oz. 2 c.

length.35 grams per avoirdupois ounce. an ancient unit of measure for weighing gold.413. while the imperial weighs 28. the English abandoned both these gallon measures in favor of a standard British imperial gallon. Here’s the math: 1 cubic inch equals 16. Metric System 2. The reason lies in history. and was calculated to be 277. 1 gram equals 15. weight. a French term roughly translated as “goods of weight.43236 grains in 1 gram. and temperature. fluid ounce of water weighs 29. there are 28.546. thus. American (United States) 3. it equals 28. 1. However. whereas the English used both the wine gallon and an ale gallon. Measurement Conversions AMERICAN AND IMPERIAL SYSTEMS NOTE The term grain in the avoirdupois system actually refers to a grain of wheat.13 MEASUREMENT CONVERSION WESTERN SYSTEMS OF MEASURE In the food service profession.34952. the measurements of greatest concern are volume. of 282 cubic inches. There are three Western measurement systems: NOTE Of course.5 grains in 1 ounce by 15.000 grains and is divided into 16 ounces.387064 277. time is an important measurement in food service. When you divide 437. so: 16.” Avoirdupois pounds and ounces are used to measure weight (mass). This system is referred to as avoirdupois. and specify that a pound equals 7. when it comes to fluid ounces. The imperial and U.5 grains.08 141 . the American and imperial systems differ: the U. systems both use equivalent pounds and ounces to measure weights. Further delineations in the avoirdupois system are as follows: ✦ ✦ 1 ounce equals 437.387064 cubic centimeters.42 4. which is a slight overstatement. British (imperial) This chapter references two tables: 1. Metric 2.79891 milligrams).S.43236 grains (1 standard grain equals 64. but the system for that— fortunately—is universal and so is not covered here. The American colonists adopted the wine gallon measure of 231 cubic inches to measure liquids.573 grams.S. But in 1824.42 cubic inches. The imperial gallon was defined as the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 degrees Fahrenheit.

and volume are measured. oz. ✦ A liter is defined as one-tenth of a meter.08 divided by 160 ounces equals 28. ✦ ✦ The liter is. 16 c. ✦ 1 qt. by definition. fluid ounce. 128 fl.92 grams.535. weight. hence.S.413 grams per ounce.000 cu cm So there are 1.4 (1 cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram). Ten pounds (avoirdupois) equals 160 ounces of 28. whereas the imperial pint.000 grams (1 kilogram). Now here’s the liter–meter–gram connection: NOTE By international agreement. oz. composed of 1.000 milliliters. fluid ounces.546. In summary: 1 milliliter equals 1 cubic centimeter (of water) equals 1 gram. oz. 16 oz. However. 8 fl.3495 grams per ounce: 4. Thus. the imperial gallon was assigned a weight of 4. 1 kilogram equals 1 liter of water. 1 liter of water contains 1. and each of these weighs 1 gram (1. A liter measures liquid volume. ✦ . 2 c. 2 tbsp. 4 c. oz.000 milliliters. the liter was assigned a mass (weight) of 1. 1 c. and gallon because they contain more ounces. 32 fl. Consequently.573 grams per U. the U. the metric. 4 qt. quart. and gallon are about 20 percent larger than the U. cubed. pint. A gram measures mass (weight). 2 pt. therefore.6799047 cubic inches to equal 28. which was divided into 128 ounces: ✦ ✦ 231 cubic inches times 16. The United States stayed with the 231 cubic-inch gallon. 16 fl. METRIC SYSTEM The third system. fluid ounce is a full 1. A cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram. 16 tbsp.S.4 grams divided by 128 fluid ounces equals 29. and cups are about 4 percent larger than their imperial counterparts. 1 liter contains 1.35 grams per fluid ounce.000 milliliters. 3 tsp. 1 gal. This means a gallon is determined by its cubic inches. measuring spoons. The imperial gallon would have to be 276.387 cubic centimeters equals 3. ✦ 1 tbsp. Picture a square box (a cube) that is about 4 inches long on all sides.000 grams equals 1 kilogram). and 4.22 grams heavier than the avoirdupois ounce.S.08 grams (10 grams extra).063 gram per ounce. ✦ 1 pt. the imperial fluid ounce exceeds the avoirdupois ounce by a slight 0.546. area. One-tenth of a meter equals 10 centimeters (cm): 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm 1. The Metric System table summarizes all this and provides abbreviations and equivalent measures. 3.142 NOTE Chapter 13 Measurement Conversion Volume measures—such as gallons—are defined by volume (cubic) standards. ✦ 1 lb. U.785. not its stated weight. ✦ 1 fl. quart.S. It links the way distance. is far more simple and logical. each weighing 1 gram and occupying 1 cubic centimeter exactly.785.000 cm3 (cubic centimeters) in 1 liter. oz. Here’s how it works: ✦ ✦ ✦ A meter measures length (this is the unifying measure for the entire metric system).

035 oz.S.056 U. Measure Length Area Liquid volume Volume Mass (weight) m m2 L m3 g/kg Feet.814 29.1959 sq.000th or . Gallon Liter Note Equivalent U. Pint U. yards 33.Metric System 143 Metric System This Unit Meter Square Meter Liter Cubic Meter Gram/Kilogram Measures Abbreviation Relates to Equivalent U. Teaspoon U.166666 16 32 128 33.805 14.02374 Equals 1.75 231 61. quarts One 8-U.3 cu. yd.S. Fluid Ounce U. (1.796 grams. Measuring Cup U. (1.-fluid-ounce (29.6 grams. each.000 liters Volume Items U.3 28.S.786765 4. Quart U.S. 2 cups per pint 2 pints per quart Equals .43 0.5 0.17648 946.056 qt. Metric System Prefixes (Using Liters as Sample Application) Prefix milli centi deci The item: Liter deka hecto kilo Meaning Example Abbreviation Number Expressions One-thousandth One-hundredth One-tenth One.8 fl./1 kg 2. 8 ounces avoirdupois equals 226.S.S.) 35.S.S.41184 1000 1.573 mL) cup equals 236. per tbsp.S.01 liter 1/10th or . Tablespoon U.58824 14.2 lb.9023 0. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . per cup 16 tbsp.001 liter 1/100th or . (1. oz. oz.875 57.S. whole Ten Hundred Thousand Milliliter Centiliter Deciliter Liter Dekaliter Hectoliter Kiloliter mL cL dL L daL hL kL 1/1.307 cu.37 in.041 imperial ounce 8 fl.S.57353 236.) 1g .) 1.09 yd. yards Square yard Quart Cubic yard Ounce/pound 39. per cup 3 tsp.833 imperial gallon Equals 1.35296 3785.1 liter 1 liter 10 liters 100 liters 1. Fluid Ounces Equivalent Milliliters Equivalent Cubic Inches Equivalent Measure 1 8 0.928921667 473. ft.

16 c.02374 Equals .000 0. Oz.20655 4. Measuring Cup U.S. 4 qt. Fl.002204623 2. 8 fl. 32 fl. cup 16 per imperial cup Equals 1.166667 0. .23223 0.786765 4.04 imperial cup 2.78680 4. 16 fl. Fluid Ounces Equivalent Milliliters Equivalent Cubic Inches Equivalent Measure 1 8 0. Oz.46446 1.264 U. ✦ 1 fl.0833335 0. ✦ 1 tbsp.45359 0. Imperial Fl.5 1. oz.9607 U. ✦ 1 qt.86659 0.19508 28. 1 c. contain the following: Spoon Size (U. 16 tbsp.) Tablespoon Teaspoon Half Teaspoon Quarter Teaspoon Milliliters (rounded) Milliliters (exact) U.04166675 0. Liquid Imperial Tablespoon Imperial Teaspoon U.00100 1.S.02835 0.520421 0.S.58824 14.59237 1 1. 16 oz.9025 0. 2 c.961 U. 15 5 2.00000 1 16 0.S.28886 14.5 imperial cups per pint 20 imperial cups per imperial gallon Equals 0.S.25 14. oz. fl. . ✦ 1 lb.204623 1 gal. oz.03527396 35.52 0. oz.17 20 40 160 35. 4 c.S.3 34.1666666 8. Equals .42 61.52 4545. 128 fl. gallon Measuring Spoons . ✦ .928921667 568.734 13. Tablespoon U.173474 0.87 0.677 69. ✦ 1 pt.27396 0.0625 1 0. 2 pt.92 1000 1.92892 2.413 227.S.0433685 Mass (Weight) Unit of Measurement Ounce Pound Gram Kilogram Grams Kilograms Ounces (avoirdupois) Pounds (avoirdupois) 28.144 Chapter 13 Measurement Conversion Volume (Continued) Items Imperial Fluid Ounce Imperial Cup.S.73551 236. 3 tsp. Teaspoon Imperial Pint Imperial Quart Imperial Gallon Liter Equivalent U.354 277. oz.304 14.33 0.5 0. 2 tbsp.S. oz.43 0.5 0.34952313 453.26 1136.086737 0.

609. or 1.6 32 71. 1 inch equals 2. 32 40.6. In Celsius. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . there are 180 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water. multiply the Celsius value by 180/100 (use 9/5). To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit. To convert from one system to the other. In the Celsius (Centigrade) system. To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius. or 3 feet. first reduce the 180 and 100 figures to 9 and 5.914 meter. In Fahrenheit. to change 22 C to Fahrenheit: 22 9 198. or 1.3 meters. 1 yard equals 36 inches. then multiply by 5/9. change 72 F to Celsius: 72 Length 1 mile equals 5. 39. water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 (at sea level).54 centimeters. 1 foot equals 12 inches. For example. or 3.6 F.333) yard.Metric System 145 Temperature In the Fahrenheit system.2 C. or 1. 1 meter equals 39. then add 32. or 0.28 feet.0936 yards.280 feet. first subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit.760 yards. water freezes at 0 and boils at 100. 200/9 22. 40 5 200. or one-third (. or . For example. 198/5 39. The 32 is either added or subtracted within the formulas.3048 meter.37 inches. there are 100 degrees between freezing and boiling.

S. Pint U. oz.S.75975 0.08 0. cup U. 2 c.879877 0.028413 0. gallon Liters Milliliters Imperial fluid ounce Imperial cup. 4 c. ✦ .S. 2 pt.0351951 0. fluid ounce U. 2 tbsp.113 1. quart U.S. 128 fl.S.04084 1.208169 1 gal.416337 0.033814 0.3529 3785. 16 oz.304 568.33938 1.S.130105 0. Fluid Ounce U. oz. fluid ounce U. Quart U.22675 2.S.832674 Imperial cup.0002641721 Imperial gallon 33.S.00439938 0. ✦ 1 tbsp. liquid Imperial pint Imperial quart Imperial gallon 29. Cup.83267 0.26417 0.S.S.04084 0.001056688 Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Imperial fluid ounce Cup of imperial fluid ounce Imperial pint Imperial quart 0.832674 0.S.0017952 0. Gallon Imperial Fluid Ounce Imperial Cup. pint U. pint U. to convert to: Multiply A by: Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters U. 16 fl.236588 0. oz. Pint U. ✦ 1 pt.002113376 0.219969 0. gallon U.785412 0. ✦ 1 qt. Liquid Imperial Pint Imperial Quart Imperial Gallon Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Milliliters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Milliliters Liters U. oz. Quart U. 8 fl.195 4.413 227.473176 0.000219961248 35. Fluid Ounce U.52 4546.S. Cup. 3 tsp. oz.S.814 4.S. Liquid U.54608 0. ✦ 1 fl. Gallon B: Into this item B Multiply A by: Or. liquid Imperial pint Imperial quart Imperial gallon Imperial fluid ounce Imperial cup Imperial pint Imperial quart Imperial gallon 0.05669 0.S.588 473.001 1000 1. fluid ounce Cup of U.26 1136.146 Chapter 13 Measurement Conversion Measurement Conversions A: To convert this item LIQUID VOLUME U. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 lb.S.02957353 0.94635 3.0042265 0.0008796 0.S.13652 4.41 28.57353 236. quart U.S.S.1765 946.56826 1. 4 qt.227304 0. 32 fl. Liquid U. 16 c. 1 c.416337 0.S.

20095 1. Quart U.S.S.S.25 20 4 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . quart 0.S. cup U.96076 0.00625 0. quart U.4 0. pint U.5 0.S.025 8 0. Pint U. Cup U.125 5 0.S.125 0.S. fluid ounce U.S. gallon 0.S. liquid U.25 16 4 Imperial cup Imperial quart Imperial fluid ounce Imperial quart Imperial fluid ounce Imperial quart Imperial fluid ounce Imperial pint Imperial fluid ounce Imperial pint 0.125 4 0.25 16 0. cup. to convert to: Multiply A by: U. cup U.S.S. Quart U.S. quart U. Gallon U.S.S.S.20095 U.S.S.S. cup U. quart U.48038 0.S.S.S.0078125 0. quart U.S. pint U.S.S. gallon U.5 32 2 128 8 U. gallon U. cup. fluid ounce U.2 20 0.5 40 2 160 8 Imperial pint Imperial gallon Imperial pint Imperial gallon Imperial cup Imperial gallon Imperial cup Imperial gallon Imperial cup Imperial quart 0.0625 2 0.S.20095 1. fluid ounce U. liquid U.5 0.Basic Sizes 147 Measurement Conversions (Continued) A: To convert this item Imperial Fluid Ounce Imperial Cup. gallon 0. gallon U.S.S.03125 8 0. quart U.0625 0. Fluid Ounce U. fluid ounce U. fluid ounce U. Pint U.S.S.S. SYSTEM U. cup U. pint U.125 0.300327 U. pint 0. Fluid Ounce U.96076 1. Cup U.S. pint U.S. gallon U.S.S.S.600475 0.120095 0.S.S.05 0.S. Liquid Imperial Pint Imperial Quart Imperial Gallon U.S. pint U.S.05 2. Gallon IMPERIAL SYSTEM Imperial Fluid Ounce Imperial Fluid Ounce Imperial Cup Imperial Cup Imperial Pint Imperial Pint Imperial Quart Imperial Quart Imperial Gallon Imperial Gallon B: Into this item B Multiply A by: Or.

07039 Teaspoons Teaspoons 6 48 U.96076 1.5 0.33333 3 0. 128 fl. oz.21117 Pound (avoirdupois) Gram Kilogram Ounce (avoirdupois) Gram Kilogram Gram Ounce (avoirdupois) Pound (avoirdupois) 0.S.65346195 15. fluid ounces U. ✦ 1 fl.0625 14.S.27396 2.S.173474 0. 2 pt. cup. teaspoons Imperial cup.204623 1 gal. ✦ 1 tbsp. teaspoons Imperial teaspoons 0. tablespoons Imperial tablespoons 2 16 0.16666666 0. oz.S.S. oz. 1 c. 32 fl. ✦ 1 qt.4803806 0.S.5 0. 16 oz. 4 c. tablespoons U.372179107 0.735516 0. ✦ 1 lb.04084 0. liquid U.S.592 0.78677 4.0625 28. ✦ 1 pt.04084 14. Cup (Liquid) 237 mL Imperial Cup (Liquid) 227 mL Milliliters Milliliters WEIGHT (MASS) Ounce (avoirdupois) Ounce (avoirdupois) Ounce (avoirdupois) Pound (avoirdupois) Pound (avoirdupois) Pound (avoirdupois) Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram B: Into this item B Multiply A by: Or.067628 0. tablespoons U.04084 1.1666666 0.S.S. fluid ounces Imperial fluid ounces Imperial fluid ounces Imperial fluid ounces Imperial fluid ounces U. 2 c.S.20655 4. 16 tbsp. ✦ .S.S.20288 0.S. 3 tsp. oz.96076 0. 4 qt.028349523125 16 453.S.92892 1.96076 0.5204 0. to convert to: Multiply A by: Tablespoons Tablespoons Tablespoons Teaspoons Cup Milliliters Milliliters Imperial Tablespoons Imperial teaspoons Milliliters Milliliters U.45359237 1000 35. Tablespoon U. 16 fl. 8 fl. Tablespoon U.1601268 16. 2 tbsp.148 Chapter 13 Measurement Conversion Measurement Conversions (Continued) A: To convert this item CUPS AND SPOONS Fluid Ounce Cups Teaspoons Tablespoons Tablespoons U.S. Teaspoon U. oz. liquid U. fluid ounces Imperial tablespoons U. 16 c.349523125 0. fluid ounces U. Teaspoon Imperial Tablespoon Imperial Teaspoon Imperial Tablespoon Imperial Teaspoon U.

28084 100 Square centimeter Square feet Square centimeter Square inch Square centimeter Square inch Square inch Square yard Square inch Square yard 6.03280841 0.0001 10.7639 10000 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .002204623 Feet Centimeter Inch Centimeter Inch Centimeter Inch Yard Inch Yard 0.000119599 1550 1.00107639 0.0833334 2.4516 0.393701 0.0304 144 8361.09361 Yard Meter Yard Meter Feet Meter Feet Meter Feet Centimeter 0.836128 9 0.3048 3 0.000771605 0.0109361 39.9144 0.54 12 30.44 0.0254 0. to convert to: Multiply A by: Kilogram Ounce (avoirdupois) Pound (avoirdupois) 0.0277778 0.19599 Square meter Square yard Square meter Square yard Square meter Square feet Square feet Square meter Square feet Square centimeter 0.Basic Sizes 149 Measurement Conversions (Continued) A: To convert this item Gram Gram Gram LENGTH Inch Inch Feet Feet Yard Yard Centimeter Centimeter Meter Meter AREA Square Inch Square Inch Square Feet Square Feet Square Yard Square Yard Square Centimeter Square Centimeter Square Meter Square Meter B: Into this item B Multiply A by: Or.111111 0.48 36 91.33333 0.00064516 0.0069444 929.0929034 0.035274 0.2736 1296 0.155 0.3701 1.001 0.01 3.

150 Chapter 13 Measurement Conversion Measurement Conversions (Continued) A: To convert this item LENGTH Inch Centimeter Foot Meter TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS B: Into this item B Multiply A by: Or.3048 3. 60 C 140 F. 128 fl. 2 pt. oz. ✦ 1 qt.0254 0. Fahrenheit to Celsius: Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature. 3 tsp. 1 c. ✦ 1 pt. 140 F 60 C 32 F) Fahrenheit equivalents: (Sample: At 0 Celsius. to convert to: Multiply A by: Centimeter Inch Centimeter Inch 2. 16 oz. oz. oz.48 39. Examples: Fahrenheit Celsius 10 C 60 C 140 140 32 108 108 5 540 540/9 60 So. 2 tbsp. 16 c. oz. 32 fl. ✦ . Multiply the answer times 5/9. ✦ 1 tbsp.3937 30.28 Celsius to Fahrenheit: (C 9/5) 32 F Multiply the Celsius temperature times 9/5 and add 32 to that answer. Fahrenheit equals 32: 0 C 50 F 20 C 140 F 70 C 68 F 30 C 158 F 80 C 86 F 40 C 104 F 50 C 122 F 212 F 176 F 90 C 194 F 100 C 1 gal. oz. ✦ 1 lb. 16 fl.37008 Meter Foot Meter Foot 0.54 0. 2 c. 8 fl. Examples: Celsius (F 32) 60 5/9 60 C 9 540 540/5 108 108 32 140 So. 4 c.0328 0. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. 4 qt.

151 . as you do your food costing conversions and plan your purchases of the products you need to complete your recipes.14 SIMPLE FORMULAS T his chapter contains 18 simple formulas you might use on a regular basis.

128 fl. ✦ 1 qt. Divide grams per tablespoon by 28. ✦ . 2 c. ✦ 1 pt. 3 tsp. Divide cups per kilo by 2. Fluid Ounces per Quart Milliliters per liter Multiply the ounces by 29. oz. then multiply that answer by 4.2267. ✦ 1 tbsp.349. Divide milliliters per tablespoon by 29. 32 fl. Fluid Ounces per Tablespoon Milliliters per Tablespoon Fluid Ounces per Cup Milliliters per tablespoon Fluid ounces per tablespoon Milliliters per liter Multiply fluid ounces by 29.2046.2046.05669.349. Multiply tablespoons by 28. oz. Multiply the ounces by 28.573.2267.23658.2046. then multiply that answer by 1. then multiply that answer by 1. Ounces (avoirdupois) per Quart Grams per liter Multiply the ounces by 28. 16 c. 16 oz. ✦ 1 fl. 2 tbsp. Multiply the ounces by 29.573.573. 1 gal. 16 fl. 1 c.349. Multiply answer A by 1. Cups Liter Cups per Pound Cups per Kilogram Pints per Pound Quarts per Pound Pounds per Pint or Quart Liters Cups Cups per kilogram Cups per pound Pints per kilogram Quarts per kilogram Kilograms per pint or quart Multiply the number of cups by . 4 qt. Multiply the cups per pound by 2. 4 c. Multiply the pints per pound by 2. Multiply the number of liters by 4. 2 pt.349. then multiply that answer by 4. oz.) Tablespoons per Ounce (avoirdupois) Tablespoons per Ounce (avoirdupois) Ounces (avoirdupois) per Tablespoon Grams per Tablespoon Ounces (avoirdupois) per Cup Tablespoons per 100 grams Tablespoons per kilogram Grams per tablespoon Ounces (avoirdupois) per tablespoon Grams per liter Multiply answer A by 100.000.152 Simple Formulas Simple Formulas To Convert This Tablespoons per Ounce (avoirdupois) To This Do This Tablespoons per gram Divide the number of tablespoons per ounce by 28.573. oz. (This is answer A. 8 fl.2046. Multiply the quarts per pound by 2. ✦ 1 lb.22675.349.45359. oz. 16 tbsp. Multiply the “pounds per” by .05669.

knowing your market. City dwellers may eat smaller portions than their “country cousins”. Social and economic influences.15 STANDARD PORTION SIZES T his section lists Standard Serving Sizes frequently used by food service operators when plating foods. . Serve your particular market! 153 . so may need larger portions. Finally. The affluent tend to eat smaller portions than the less affluent. Guests at an afternoon reception may have skipped lunch and be hungrier. Pay attention . and also check the quality of the food to be sure it is palatable. When you see a pattern of large amounts of uneaten leftover foods. Males tend to have bigger appetites than females. consider using smaller portions in the future . VARIANCES Factors that cause chefs and managers to use portion sizes other than those shown below are: The age and gender of the guests: ✦ ✦ Young adults are likely to require larger portions than seniors. Planning a menu or a particular menu item involves deciding how big a portion of food will be on the plate. . to the food that is left on the plates after clearing. The chart shows an average size plus a range of sizes from small to large. The activity level of the guests: ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Athletes burn more fuel than sedentary diners. Key food and production costs are determined by the quantity you serve. . This list is a guide but your portion sizes may differ because of various factors. . the eating customs of your clientele is the key in determining how large your portions should be. A cocktail reception that is followed by a full meal dictates smaller portions. The time lapse between meals.e.. so it is to be relied on as a good starting point but is by no means rigid. i.

4 oz. 5 oz. oz. ✦ 1 fl. 3 fl. 16 tbsp. 10 fl. Skin-on Wings Quarter Half SEAFOOD ENTREES Fish Filets Fish Steaks Shrimp. 16 oz. 1. 1 fl. 3 oz. 8 oz. 4 oz. 6 oz. 4 c. 5 each 8 oz. 7 oz. 2 tbsp. 18 oz. oz. oz.5 fl. 7 oz.5 oz. 3 tsp.16-20 Average Measure Low Range High Range 6 fl. 6 oz. Large. 4 fl. 2 c. 5 each 4 oz. SALAD. boneless Sirloin Steak Falt Iron Steak Culotte Steak Tri-Tip Steak Tri-Tip. 32 fl. 6 each 1/4th whole 3 lb. oz. 6 oz. 6 oz. 8 oz. 9 oz. entrée Salad Greens Salad Dressing Bread Bread Roll. 4 qt. fryer 1/2 whole 3 lb. 6 oz. Roasted. 2 pt. 8 oz. ✦ 1 qt. 6 oz. sliced CHICKEN ENTREES Breast. 2 each 1. 6 oz. Skinless Breast. Boneless. 3 each 2 oz. 7 each 1/4th half 7 oz. 1 c. 8 oz. 10 oz. oz. 7 oz. 10 oz. 3 oz. oz. 7 oz. 5 oz. boneless Prime Rib. ✦ 1 lb. 3 oz. 6 oz. oz. oz. 12 oz. 8 oz. ✦ . oz. oz. 2 oz. 6 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. 12 oz. 16 fl. 9 oz. 14 oz.154 Chapter 15 Standard Portion Sizes Basic Sizes Menu Item SOUP. 8 fl. oz. 8 oz. ✦ 1 pt. 5 oz. each Butter BEEF ENTREES Filet Mignon New York Steak Prime Rib. 4 each 1/4th half 8 oz. 7 each 1 gal. 12 fl. 128 fl. oz. 10 oz. oz. 8 fl. 16 c. 1 each 1 oz. 1. fryer 4 oz. 8 oz. 5 oz. 16 oz. oz. BREAD Soup Soup.5 oz. 8 fl.

7 oz. oz. 5 oz. 6 oz. oz. 7 oz.Basic Sizes 155 Basic Sizes (Continued) Menu Item Scallops. 8 oz. 6 oz. oz. whole. 7 oz. 8 oz. 3 oz. oz. 1 each 10 oz. 9 oz. 4 oz. 9 oz. Shellfish in shells PORK ENTREES Chop. 9 oz. 3 oz. 9 inch Average Measure Low Range High Range 5 oz. 12 oz. 5 oz. 7 oz. bone-on Tenderloin Medallions Roast Loin. 1/8th pie. 1 each 12 oz. sliced Pulled Pork Baby Back Ribs St. 5 fl. slice 1/10th pie 1/6th pie Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . 2 fl. 5 oz. 5 oz. 8 oz. 4 oz. 3 fl. 12 oz. 5 oz. 8 oz. oz. 10 oz. 2. 1 each 3 oz. 6 fl. 3 oz. 6 oz.5 fl. 6 oz. 4 oz. 1 each 5 oz. 6 oz. 1 each 4 oz. 12 oz. 5 oz. 70 or 80 Count Red Rose. Louis Style Ribs Ham Steak VEAL Loin Chops Rib Chops. 10 oz. 8 oz. 4 oz. 6 oz. oz. Creamers Mashed Scalloped Rices & Grains DESSERTS Pie. 16 oz. 4 oz. 10 oz. 7 oz. 10 oz. Sea Trout. 8 oz. 7 oz. 4 fl. 4 oz. 1 each 16 oz. 8 oz. 4 oz. 9 oz. 12 oz. bone in Scallopini (leg) Entrée Sauces PASTA ENTRÉE Cooked Pasta Pasta Sauce Vegetables POTATOES Baker.

oz. ✦ 1 fl. oz. 16 oz. oz. 32 fl. 5 oz. 4 qt. oz. oz. oz. 1 each. 8 fl. 2 each 2 slices 1 each 1 each 4 each 4 each 1 each 6 oz. oz. Average Measure Low Range High Range 2x3” piece 1/10th cake. 16 c. oz. round Ice Cream Pudding. 32 fl. 1. 1. 12 fl. oz. oz.156 Chapter 15 Standard Portion Sizes Basic Sizes (Continued) Menu Item Cake. 32 fl. oz. 16 fl. 1 each 2 oz. oz. 3 each 6 oz. oz. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 24 fl. oz. 8 inch. oz. oz. 3 fl. Alc. 12 fl. oz. 20 fl. 4 c. 1. 4 fl. 3 tsp. 6 fl. 2 each 3x3” piece 1/8th slice 8 fl. 2 each 2 slices 1 each. ✦ . 1 C water 4. oz. 10 fl. 1 c. Ham Steak Eggs. 3 each 3 slices 1 each 4 each 1 gal. ✦ 1 lb. 2 tbsp. 1 bag. Alcohol 20 fl oz. 2 each 4 oz. 1 each. 1 ounce BEVERAGES Water Iced tea Coffee Hot Tea Wine Beer Cocktail Soft Drink BREAKFAST ITEMS Bacon Strips Sausage Links Sausage Patties. oz. split 2 each 2 each 2 each 1 each 3 oz. oz. oz. 4 fl. 2 C water 5 fl. Large Hash Browns Country Fried Potatoes Country Gravy Biscuits Toast English Muffin Butter pats. mix 12 fl. 1. oz.5 fl. oz. 6 fl. oz. 2 c.5 fl. Alc. Sheet Cake. 7 oz. oz. Oz 12 fl. 1 each 6 oz. oz. 128 fl. .5 oz. 32 fl. 16 tbsp. 12 fl.5 bags.5 oz. 16 oz. slice 6 fl.25 fl. 2 pt. oz. 8 fl. oz. 2. 4 each 20 fl. 3 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. 4 oz. 1 bag. 4 oz. 3 each 3 each 1 each 5 oz. oz.75 fl. 3 each 2x2” piece 1/12th slice 4 fl. ✦ 1 qt. 3 C water 6 fl. oz. Custard Pastries Cookies. oz. 16 fl.

5 oz. 4 oz. 5 oz. 6 oz. 2 oz. oz. Juice Pancake Batter LUNCH ITEMS Sandwich Meats.5 oz. oz. oz. 2 oz. 3 fl. 8 oz. fresh Sandwich Meats. 6 oz. 2. 8 oz. 6 oz. tortilla Baguette Slices Average Measure Low Range High Range 2 each 5 fl. 1/2 oz. 3 oz. 2 fl. oz. 4 each 5 oz. 1. 1 oz. oz. 2 oz. 2 oz.5 oz. sliced French Fries. 2. 3 each 3 oz. 1 each 4 fl. 4 oz.5 oz. 1 oz. oz. 2 slices 3 oz. 3 oz. 4 oz. 1 oz. 6 oz. cured Hamburger patty Cheese. 2.5 fl. oz. 3 oz.5 oz. oz.5 oz. 4 oz. 16-20 Fresh Fruit pieces Dips and Spreads Salsa Chips. 6 fl.5 oz. 5 oz. 4 oz. 1. 3 slices 1 oz. 4 each 8 fl. 3 oz. 1. 2 oz. 4 fl. oz. 1/2 oz. oz.5 oz. 10 fl. 1. 3 oz. 5 slices Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .5 oz. 2 fl. oz. 3. 3 oz. 3 fl.Basic Sizes 157 Basic Sizes (Continued) Menu Item Jam/Jelly P. 2 each 2 oz. 3 oz. 3. oz. 3 oz. 1/4” French Fries. 4 oz. shoestring Steak Fries Potato Salad Cole Slaw Garden Salad HORS D’OEUVRE ITEMS Crudites (raw veggies) Olives Cheeses Cured Meats Shrimp.C. 4 fl. 2 oz. 1 oz.

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PART II .

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The sequence of foods in the price lists is the same as that in the tables in Part I. Recipe Card for Costing. These purchase unit measures are a very important part of the price list. number 16. COSTING WORKSHEETS The Costing Worksheets contain a set of cost-breakdown worksheets. and frozen foods. bases. tests. Costing Worksheets 3. included in this section is a recipecosting worksheet—that is. and of the entire workbook. Price Lists 2. HOW THE WORKBOOK IS ORGANIZED The Workbook is divided into three sections: 1. Part I contains useful food measurement facts and formulas that can make this learning process easier and faster.THE WORKBOOK T he purpose of the Workbook is to help you learn food costing and purchasing in conjunction with Part I of The Book of Yields. Included on these lists are the food name. The object of these worksheets is to step you through the process of costing out an ingredient’s recipe unit measure and an entire recipe. its standard wholesale package size and price. (Note: The price lists contain food items beyond those covered in Part I. and the measures of purchase units that you would typically use to order and receive products from a wholesale vendor.) The prices and worksheets that follow are also used in a set of quizzes and exercises that your instructor may assign as homework. such as bottled condiments. Part II will help you understand the reasoning behind this process and how to do the math required to accurately and efficiently cost recipes and order the right amount of food. or classroom drills. Purchasing Worksheets PRICE LISTS The first section contains fairly comprehensive lists of foods used in the food service industry in the United States. 161 . Therefore.

9. 7. ✦ 1 tbsp. From the Dry Herbs and Spices table. making it easy for you to follow which columns to multiply in order to extend an ingredient’s unit cost to a total cost for that ingredient. At the bottom of the worksheet are a variety of yield measurements by which the total amount produced from the recipe can be measured. or a cooking yield. 4. Enter the price and pack information on the worksheet. Each line on every costing worksheet gives a precise instruction regarding where to get the information you need or how to do the math in that step. Before you begin using the worksheets. in order to complete the costing process. 12 loaves. where necessary. From that point you complete the cost breakdown following the instructions on the right-hand side of the worksheet. 2. ✦ 1 lb. Refer to the price list for the purchase unit and price. This will be your total recipe cost. 1 c. 8. etc. 4 qt. As you do. notice that each one follows the same logical approach to doing a cost breakdown. ✦ 1 qt. 1 gal. 20 portions. Select the appropriate worksheet for the food type and enter the food name at the top. It then instructs you to get the cost of the purchase unit from the price list and enter it on the worksheet. another for items you trim and then use by volume measures.. The other costing worksheets are designed to be used with specific foods or types of foods. 16 fl. 128 fl. when. oz. Here. The top of the Dry Herbs and Spices costing worksheet first shows you how to calculate the cost of 1 ounce of basil. oz. 2 c. At a certain point in the worksheets it is often necessary to “plug in” a measure from a table in Part I. step by step. 8 fl. ✦ 1 fl. Complete this process for all ingredients and add up the Unit Cost column on the recipe card. 16 tbsp. 3. Using simple division (as noted on the recipe card). 16 oz. For instance. This simple format makes it possible to determine the cost(s) of any yield measure(s). there is a worksheet for dry herbs and spices. one for poultry. 11. a weight-to-volume equivalent. the purchase unit. as it shows you exactly where. Then you can enter the dry herb or spice cost for that recipe unit (tablespoon) cost on any recipe card. Start with a list of ingredients on a recipe card. 2 pt. you find the number of tablespoons of basil in 1 ounce and write that number on the worksheet. is how to use the costing worksheets: 1. and many others. and how to use the tables in Part I. 10. Each starts with the food item in an as-purchased (AP) amount—that is. 6. 2 tbsp.162 T h e Wo r k b o o k The Recipe Card worksheet (Costing Worksheet 16) follows a standard format. 3 tsp. 2 gallons. This is usually a trim yield percentage. whole-leaf basil. ✦ . Plug in the conversion or yield amount from the Part I tables. 16 c. calculate the cost per yield unit of measure. 4 c. then follow the instruction to divide the ounce cost by that number in order to get the cost per tablespoon. Enter the recipe yield information you want to use on the recipe card (e. 32 fl. oz. say your recipe calls for 5 tablespoons of dry. at which point you will have arrived at the cost of the recipe unit measure. oz. Complete the worksheet. another for going from a dry good bought by weight but used by volume.g. ✦ 1 pt. For instance.). Break down the food measures and costs following the step-by-step instructions on the worksheet. Enter the recipe unit measure on the recipe card. 5. This is a critical step. oz. it’s a good idea to take some time to familiarize yourself with them.

bags. special event. piece counts. In short. Combine all the same ingredients from your recipes. etc. Recipe Card for Costing (CW 16) 2. Moreover. Along the way. .). ounces. Purchase Unit Measures (PW 15) 4. You’ll finish by filling out a Food Order Form. and the yield data are always provided on the product container.) to an equivalent number of purchase unit measures (pounds. etc. they can really speed up the process of learning recipe costing. Ingredient Aggregating Form (PW 14) 3. in the order you’ll be using them. Recipe Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Measures Conversion worksheets (PW 1–13) 3a. 1. The mathematical operators ( . or ) are supplied between the boxes on each line. and so on. They organize the process. Part I does not address these products because their yields are specific to the brand of flavor base being used. you will be able to compare the purchase unit measure amounts that you need for a production plan against your current inventory and par stock levels. . They show you how to do the math. during the purchasing process. Convert the needed number of recipe unit measures (tablespoons. Briefly. Here is a list of the worksheets and forms you will be using in the purchasing process. are found in the purchasing sections in the chapters in Part I. Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit . This makes it very easy to follow the formula. The purchase unit prices are only used in the final step of filling out the Food Order Form (Purchasing Worksheet 20). or period of time. such as cases. tubs. 3. Amounts Needed versus Par (PW 16) 4a. where CW stands for Costing Worksheet and PW stands for Purchasing Worksheet. showing you how to logically go from a purchase unit to a recipe unit. take these steps: 1. NOTE Flavor Bases (Purchasing Worksheet 13) is different from the others in that it does not rely on the yields and equivalents in Part I to complete. for two important reasons: 1. the Purchasing section begins with an overview that explains the procedure in detail. containers. provided as Purchasing Worksheet 20. the worksheets show you how to convert recipe units back to purchase units. portions. Because the purchasing process is a little more complicated than the costing process. (These formulas. Inventory Form (PW 17) 4b.) Each purchasing conversion worksheet states the formula for that food or type of food and gives the instruction for filling in a short series of boxes that lead you to the answer. which are clearly identified. . PURCHASING WORKSHEETS The Purchasing Worksheets contain both worksheets and forms to help you figure out how much of a given food to buy so that you can supply all the recipes you might use for a particular banquet. The worksheet explains all this completely to enable you to determine how much to buy or cost out—just like the other conversion worksheets. gallons. The formulas that enable you to convert a recipe unit back to a purchase unit are on each worksheet. Food Weight Log (PW 18) Y% ✦ NOTE You do not need prices to complete the purchasing worksheets. along with examples of how to use them. The purchasing worksheets (like the costing worksheets) are intended to be used with specific types of foods. 2. 2. Convert those measures to actual purchase unit packs—the as-purchased (AP) units.H o w t h e Wo r k b o o k I s O r g a n i z e d 163 The costing worksheets make it easier to use the data and formulas given in Part I.

oz. 1 gal. ✦ 1 fl. 16 c. 1 c. 4 c. ✦ 1 pt. 16 fl. 32 fl. oz. It will help you understand the concept and will come in handy when your job requires you to choose between buying a pretrimmed and an untrimmed food. ✦ . oz. 3 tsp. ✦ 1 qt. as such. will help you to understand the entire purchasing process more fully. oz. Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs (PW 19) 6. 128 fl. 2 c. 2 pt. they are optional. A form for completing this calculation is provided at the end of that worksheet. 4 qt. untrimmed state. Food Order Form (PW 20) You may not need the subordinate forms (labeled “a” or “b”) in all situations. 2 tbsp. they do complete the process and. However.164 T h e Wo r k b o o k 5. Purchasing Worksheet 21. 8 fl. 16 oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 lb. ✦ 1 tbsp. oz. Trimmed versus Untrimmed. addresses the problem of determining the price point at which the food cost of a pretrimmed food is lower than the cost of buying the same food in a raw.

PRICE LISTS 165 .

2 tbsp.75 $69.90 $170. Ancho Chile Powder. Habanero Chile Powder. ✦ .50 $21. ✦ 1 qt.03 $14. whole leaf Bay Leaf. whole Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Container Jar Container Container Container Container Container Container Case Case Container Container Container Container Box Container Pound Pound Container Container Container Container Container Case Container Container Container Container 16 oz. oz. 2 pt.85 $8. 14 oz.71 $24. ground Cardamom. Chipotle Chile Flakes. 16 oz. ✦ 1 fl. Habanero Chile Powder.75 $43. ✦ 1 lb. 4 c.60 $22. 160 oz. 16 oz. 16 c. whole leaf Chile Flakes. 12 oz.75 $38. 4 qt. 18 oz. ground Basil.83 $9. 12 oz. ground Cloves. 30 oz.50 $26. 6 oz. oz.47 $28. Red Chinese 5 Spice Chives. oz.40 $8.: 8 oz.166 Price Lists 1 Dry Herbs and Spices Item Allspice Anise.74 $19. Chipotle Chile Powder. oz. 30 oz. ✦ 1 pt. $20.23 $11. 4 Cloves. 16 tbsp. ✦ 1 tbsp. 32 fl. oz.85 $61.12 $26. 16 oz.30 $13. container 6 ea. 16 oz. ground Caraway Seed.85 $72. crushed Chile Pods. container 18 oz. whole Cayenne. 160 oz. 12 oz. ground Celery Salt Celery Seed Chervil. 128 fl. Dry Cinnamon. 3 tsp.69 $16. 16 oz.22 $23. whole Cardamom. 8 fl. 16 fl.00 $67. 16 oz.10 $22. 6 ea. 1 c. 10 lb.20 $236. 160 oz.20 $6.08 $21.: 1 oz. cans 16 oz.30 1 gal. 16 oz. 8 oz. whole Bay Leaf. ground Cinnamon Sticks. 2 c. dry—various Chile Pods. Star Anise Seed Basil. 14 oz.43 $21. 8 oz. 12 ea. 4 oz.: 16 oz.

40 oz.41 $16. whole leaf Mustard. Black. granulated Onion. jars 3 oz.40 $6. Chopped.75 $15.52 $11. ground Fennel Seed Fenugreek Seed Garlic. containers 16 oz. 21 oz.90 $11. 16 oz. 16 oz. 12 oz.95 $8. $9.34 $34.08 $11. 10 oz.93 $10. ground Cream of Tartar Cumin. 6 ea.03 $40.82 $39. cracked Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Case Bag Container Container Container Container Case Container Box Container Container Container Container Container Container Container 12 oz. 14 oz.87 $10. whole Nutmeg.58 $76. 13 oz.60 $6. 28 oz.29 $66. ground Mustard Seed.15 $15. ground Gumbo Filé Powder Hibiscus Flowers Lemon Pepper Mace.5 lb. ground Oregano. whole leaf Paprika. 24 oz. 26 oz. powdered Garlic Salt Ginger. 16 oz. 16 oz.02 $24.55 $11.98 $25. 6 ea. 4. granulated Garlic. powdered Oregano.98 $11.03 $3. 240 oz.: 24 oz. ground Onion.15 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . ground Marjoram.: 12 oz. 5 oz.75 $12. 20 oz. 20 oz.18 $18.64 $8. 25 oz. ground Parsley Flakes Pepper.15 $10.Dry Herbs and Spices 167 Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued) Item Coriander. ground Curry Powder Dill Weed Epazote.01 $5.19 $10. 16 oz. 3 lb. 10 oz. 16 oz. dehydrated Onion.

✦ 1 qt. Red Hawaiian Salt. 12 ea.168 Price Lists Dry Herbs and Spices (Continued) Item Pepper. White. Black. 6 oz. 11 oz. 16 c.49 $19.60 $12. whole leaf Turmeric. ✦ 1 lb. oz. green Pepper. 32 fl. 18 oz. 6 ea. Black. 20 oz. 4 c. 18 oz. rubbed Salt. 2 pt. 16 oz.03 $8.22 $18.04 $8. 3. whole Poultry Seasoning Pumpkin Pie Spice Mix Rosemary. 16 oz. Sea Salt. ground Pickling Spice. containers 4 oz.07 $5.00 $21. 6 oz. ✦ .: 14 oz. 6 ea.: 35 oz. 2 tbsp. 6 oz.04 $139. ✦ 1 tbsp. oz. $12. 16 tbsp.55 $68. Sea. coarse grind Pepper. whole Saffron. 13 oz. ✦ 1 fl.09 $11. whole Poppy Seed.55 $11. whole Pepper Corns.72 $22. 4 ea.68 $2.95 $7.: 5 lb.93 $9. ground Rosemary. ✦ 1 pt.60 $14. 16 fl. Regular Salt.15 $12. 8 fl. 1 c. oz. 1 oz. oz. 11 oz.67 $54. ground Wasabi Powder Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Container Case Bag Case Container Case Container Container Container Container Container Case 16 oz.13 1 gal.35 $11. boxes 18 oz. 2 c.53 $9. Seasoning (Lawry’s) Sesame Seed Tarragon. 6 oz. Kosher Flake Salt.5 oz. 18 oz. whole Sage. 128 fl.06 $47.52 $18. Black. boxes 25 lb. 4 qt. 3 tsp.: 48 oz.55 $12. 16 oz. oz. 18 oz. table grind Pepper. leaf Thyme. ground Thyme.

55 $3. Italian (flat leaf) Rosemary Sage Tarragon Thyme Watercress Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Box (4 lb.90 $11.) Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bunch Bag Loose 12 count 6 count 6 oz. 6 bunches 6 bunches 6 bunches 6 oz.00 $12. 2 oz. 6 bunches 6 bunches 6 bunches 6 bunches 6 count.76 $22. 12 bunches 21.28 $12.95 $11.40 $12.70 $12.Fresh Herbs 169 2 Fresh Herbs Item Arugula Basil Chervil Chives Cilantro Dill Weed Marjoram Mint Oregano Parsley.) Box (1 lb. curly Parsley.68 $11. ea. 3. 16 oz.5 oz.65 $11.40 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .35 $11.50 $9.65 $4.10 $9.84 $10.

65 $22. 3 tsp. 48 count 2 ea. quartered Artichokes. heads 10 lb. jars 1 lb.170 Price Lists 3 Vegetables Item Alfalfa Sprouts Artichoke Hearts.25 Seasonal $18–$48/case Seasonal $18–$48/case $20. ✦ . 18 count 20 lb. quartered. florets Cauliflower.90 $11. oz. ✦ 1 fl. whole Celery. Green Broccolini Broccoli Crowns Broccoli Florets Broccoli. 16 tbsp. 26 ea.: 40 oz. diced 1/2 in. 8 fl.55 $19.: 3 lb. Celery. 36 count Arugula Asparagus: jumbo.: 7 oz. 16 oz.00 $17. 2 c. 2 ea. oz. Guajillo Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Bag Case Case Case Case Box Case Case Box Case Box Case Case Case Bag Case Bag Bag Bag Box Bag Box Bag Bag Bag Case Bag Bag 1 lb. whole Chile Pepper. 10 lb.95 $18. Baby Carrots.: 5 lb.50 $22.56 $55.20 $27. 16 c. standard. thin Avocados. bags 30 lb: 20 bunches 3 ea.: 3 kilo cans 6 ea. Napa Cabbage. $4. whole Cabbage.45 $35. ✦ 1 qt. Anaheim Chile Peppers. marinated Artichoke Hearts. ✦ 1 tbsp. 4 ea. 4 lb. medium Cauliflower.75 $14. ✦ 1 lb.20 $32. table.40 Seasonal $25–$45/case Seasonal $40–$85/case $6. Chipotle Morita Chile Peppers. 18 count Artichokes.05 $24.: 3 lb. Serrano Chile Peppers.65 $21. 16 fl. 1 c. bags 25 lb.25 $10. heads 20 lb.50 1 gal. heads 4 ea. Haas Bean Sprouts Beans.05 $88.90 $76.: 40 oz.: 30 oz.: 5 lb. 2 pt. 15 lb. 128 fl. oz. bags 3 ea. 12 ea. 2 tbsp. 6 ea. Chipotle in Adobo Chile Peppers. 4 qt.: 2 lb.: 3 kilo cans 18 ea. Red Carrots. Green Cabbage.65 $20. heads 30 lb. ✦ 1 pt. 3 ea. 25 lb. bags 9 ea.45 $9. oz.05 $20. oz. 32 fl.40 $29. 4 c. 1 lb.15 $23.

83 $46.34 $67.65 $68. ea.40 $29.60 $14. Pequin Cucumber Eggplant Garlic Paste Garlic. Flowering Kale. 10 lb. Red Leaf Lettuce. Iceberg. 2 ea.55 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .15 $18. Chanterelle Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Bag Bag Bag Bag Box Box Box Box Box Box Bag Bag Case Tub Case Box Case Bag Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Box Box Bag 10 lb. 24 count: 12 oz.70 $134. Japones Chile Peppers. ea. natural Lettuce. ea.85 $65. Crimini Mushrooms. chopped Garlic. Chipotle Morita Chile.45 $21. 6 count: 19 oz. $21. Dry.: 1 lb.: 3. Dry. jars 1.00 $25. tubes 5 lb. Pasilla Chile. Dry Cascabel Chile.83 $47. Dried. 4 ea.Ve g e t a b l e s 171 Vegetables (Continued) Item Chile Peppers. Dry.02 $5. Guajillo Chile.16 $19. 10 lb 10 lb 25 lb. 1 lb.65 $39. 12 count 24 heads 24 heads 24 heads 24 heads 10 lb. Green Leaf Lettuce.60 $25. peeled Garlic.15 $31.70 $22. bags 6 count: 10 oz. Dry. 12 ea.25 $84.90 $85.95 $16.45 $35. Pasilla/Poblano Chile Peppers. Dry.: 16 oz. Japones Chile. tubs 5 lb.40 $122.55 $21. 24 count: 20 oz. 12 ea.50 $21.15 oz. Green Leeks Lettuce.: 5 lb. 1 lb. Romaine Mushrooms. 10 lb. 1 lb. whole Grape Leaves in Brine Hoyas (Corn Husks) Kale. Pequin Chile. ea.75 $17. 10 lb. Button Mushrooms.5 lb.45 $22. 10 lb. Jalapeno Chile Peppers.95 $28.

Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Jar Container Case Case Box Box Bag Bag Bag Box Box Bag Bag Case Box Case Case 1 lb. 12 ea.90 $62. 5 lb. bags 5 lb. Oyster. bag 50 lb. 5 lb. 16 fl.) Potato. dried Mushrooms. Yellow Bell Potato Pearls (instant) 600 Svg/Cse Potato. White.90 $34.00 $59. 50 lb. 12 lb. Morels. 10 lb. pitted Olives. 10 lb.67 $25. #2 Potato. Green Bell Peppers. ✦ 1 fl.10 $25.20 1 gal.95 $12.172 Price Lists Vegetables (Continued) Item Mushrooms. $228. 5 lb. premium Okra Olive Tapenade Olive. Yellow. Oyster Mushrooms. medium Mushrooms.. ✦ 1 lb. 32 fl. Shiitake Mushrooms. Sugar Snap Peppers.40 $5. 2 lb. chopped Onions. ✦ 1 pt.80 $26. 4 oz. 12 ea. Red Creamer (1.70 $702.: 32 oz. 1 c. ✦ 1 qt.75 $36.55 $27.02 $24. Snow Peas. Dried. Portobello Mushrooms. Dehydrated.10 $30. 10 lb. Morels Mushrooms. jars 12 ea. Green Onions.30 $25. 3 tsp.12 $9.: 8 oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. 2 ea.85 $124. 1 lb.50 $20. medium Peas. 16 tbsp. 10 lb. 25 lb. 2 c.60 $28. 50 lb. per bunch 5 lb. 128 fl. Jumbo Onions. oz. oz. 16 c. oz.: 1 lb.: 28 oz. 2 tbsp. 1 gallon 4. 5 lb. Porcini.75 $20. Red.13 $56. Kalamata.05 $15. 8 fl.56 $68. 50 lb.50 $48. in brine Onions.10 $50.60 $34. Russet (Baker) 70 ct. oz. jars 15 lb. sliced Mushrooms. oz. 4 qt.25 diam. dried Mushrooms.80 $69. dried Mushrooms. 10 lb. 4 c. 25 lb. Cocktail Onions. Red Bell Peppers.90 $20. Kalamata. 16 oz. ✦ . 2 pt. Red.4 lb.

60 $21.60 $13. 4 lb.: 2.10 $20.60 $28. Zucchini.50 $18. 10 lb.45 $26. 10 lb. untrimmed Squash. Roma Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . 20 lb. Grape Tomato. Banana Squash.35 $24.45 $22.) Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Bag Box Box Bag Box Box Box Box Box Case Lug Flat Flat Flat 5 lb. 4 ea. two-layer (60 ct.68 $8.35 $20. 25 lb. Red Shallots. Cherry Tomato.30 $26. peeled. $16. fresh Shallots.10 Tomato. medium Tomatillo Tomato. 5 lb. 25 lb. whole Spinach.5 lb. 12 pt. clipped Spinach.00 $27. fancy Squash.95 $25. 20 lb. 4 lb. 30 lb. 5 6.Ve g e t a b l e s 173 Vegetables (Continued) Item Radishes. bags 20 lb. Yellow. baby Spinach.

Red Delicious. oz. 88 count Apples. 200 count size Melon. 5 lb. 36 count 40 lb. seedless Grapes. 1 c. diced. 2 tbsp. ✦ 1 qt. oz. California.85 $53. $34.10 $62.55 $33.85 $26. Ruby Grapes. 128 fl. 16 fl.90 $20. 5 lb. Cantaloupe. Calimyrna. ✦ 1 fl. IQF* Blueberries. 32 fl. 25 lb. 3 tsp. 40 lb. IQF* Currants. Green. Seasonal $17. 3 ea. 150 count Blackberries. oz. 5 lb. 10 lb. 3/4 in. whole Melon. Cantaloupe.35 $28. Seasonal: Avg: $4 ea.45 $22.90 $21. dried Figs. 40 lb. 40 lb.174 Price Lists 4 Fruit Item Apples. 40 count 16–21 lb. oz. 20 lb. 115 count Lemons. 4 c.55 $13. 16 c. seedless Kiwifruit Lemons. Melon.20 $24. 16 tbsp.50/lb. Watermelon Melons.25 1 gal. 5 lb. Black. Medjool. 10 lb. ✦ 1 lb.95 $17. Musk varieties Nectarines Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Case Case Case Box Bag Case Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Case Flat Flat Flat Box Box Bag Box Pail Varies Varies Lug 40 lb.10 $46. dry Banana Chips Bananas. 16–21 lb. pitted Dates. Varies Varies 64 count. Fuji.60 $26. 5 lb. 8 fl.64 Seasonal: Hi: $. 2 pt. IQF* Boysenberries.95 $82. ✦ . 4 qt. 40 lb. oz. 30 lb. 5 lb.70 $23. 5 lb. 88 count Apricots. ✦ 1 pt. 16 oz.95 $45.80 $34. Zante Dates.95 $37. Mission Grapefruit.05 $27. ✦ 1 tbsp. Granny Smith.75 $12. whole Figs. 165 count Limes. 5 lb. 88 count Apples. 2 c.70 $28. Red.70 $26.

75 $29.95 *IQF: individually quick frozen Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .10 $27.85 $48. 5 lb.40 $45. 25 lb. 14 count 44 lb. 12 pt. Dark Raisins.65 $18. 135 count Pears.Fruit 175 Fruit (Continued) Item Oranges.80 $18. 8 count 30 lb. 10 lb. 88 count Papaya.65 $27.55 $27. IQF* Strawberries Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Case Case Lug Flat Case Flat Box Box Box Box Flat 40 lb. 10 lb./9–12 count 64 count.00 $24. Red Pineapple Raisins.25 Seasonal: $17. Asian Pears. 20 lb. d'Anjou. seasonal $22. Hawaiian Peaches Pears. Light Raspberries.

fancy Beans. 16 fl. Ripe Pitted. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. ✦ 1 tbsp.65 $33. Blue Lake. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 16 c.85 $28. fancy Apples. 16 tbsp.05 $24. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.45 $31. 4 c. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 32 fl. 2 c.95 $70. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. ✦ 1 lb. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 1 c.45 $40. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. ✦ 1 qt. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. fancy Beans. 16 oz. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.40 $29.40 $29. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. Italian Beans.80 $27. Diced Carrots. Sliced Chili con Carne with Beans Corn Niblets Fruit Cocktail Fruit for Salad Hominy. oz.90 $26.15 $32.35 $30. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.40 $40. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. oz. 128 fl. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 2 tbsp. in juice Apricot Preserves Apricots. Garbanzo Beans. 4 qt. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.28 $39. White Menudo Stew Mushroom Pieces and Stems Nopalitos (Cactus leaf pads) Olives. medium Pack Price Case: 6 ea.10 $47. 3 tsp. oz. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. Pinto Beets. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.85 $27. sliced in water Apricot Halves. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.10 $17. Green.80 $69. Julienne Beets.05 $37. Diced Beets. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. Ripe Pitted. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. diced in light syrup Beans. 8 fl. oz. ✦ 1 fl. Kidney Beans.50 1 gal.80 $67. jumbo Olives. oz. Sliced Carrots. Baked. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.61 $26.30 $39. ✦ 1 pt. 2 pt. ✦ .176 Price Lists 5 Number-10 Cans Item Apple Pie Filling Applesauce. Green Beans. #10 cans $56. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.15 $65.60 $28.75 $26.90 $62. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.45 $39.

#10 cans Case: 6 ea. Green Chile.85 $32. Ripe. sliced.65 $34.90 $41. crushed Tomato Paste.90 $49. in juice Pears. sliced in juice Pears. sliced Olives. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.30 $41.10 $68.10 $36. sliced Peppers. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. Green Chile. 30–35 count Peaches. diced Peppers. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. Crushed Pineapple. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 66 count Plums. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. julienned in light syrup Peaches.40 $36. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.90 $40. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.60 $46. Diced in Light Syrup Peaches. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.80 $45. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. whole Peppers. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.75 $59. 190–220 count Sauerkraut Spinach Tomatillos.50 $31.75 $35.10 $41. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.Number-10 Cans 177 Number-10 Cans (Continued) Item Olives.40 $32.40 $66. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. sliced in light syrup Pear Halves. Green Chile. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. whole. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.85 $41. strips Peppers. wedged Peaches. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. halves Potatoes. White.20 $36. whole Pineapple Chunks Pineapple Tidbits Pineapple. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.05 $40. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.60 $29.00 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .65 $38. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.90 $34. Jalapeno. Ripe. pitted in juice.35 $25. Sweet Peppers. 26% Tomato Purée Pack Price Case: 6 ea. #10 cans $51. sliced in syrup Peas. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.20 $42. halves in juice. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 120–150 count Prunes. Jalapeno.75 $32. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. diced in light syrup Pears.50 $104.

4 qt. 3 tsp. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 1 c. 4 c. whole Yams.65 1 gal.19 $21.25 $25. 2 c. oz. ✦ 1 tbsp. 16 tbsp. cut Yams. 16 oz. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. #10 cans $24. oz. 16 fl. 128 fl. oz. 16 c. ✦ 1 fl. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. whole. oz. oz. #10 cans Case: 6 ea.178 Price Lists Number-10 Cans (Continued) Item Tomato Sauce Tomatoes.30 $20. crushed Tomatoes. 30–40 count Pack Price Case: 6 ea.95 $41. #10 cans Case: 6 ea. 2 pt. ✦ 1 pt. ✦ . ✦ 1 lb. diced Tomatoes. ✦ 1 qt. 2 tbsp. 8 fl.65 $45. 32 fl.

41 $22. 20 lb. 10 lb. 50 lb. $41. 10 lb. Domestic Arborio. 10 lb. small Small White Beans Split Peas RICE. 10 lb. $26.10 $46.: 24 oz. 12 ea.10 $40. Standard Mung Beans Navy Beans Red Beans. 20 lb.20 Bag Bag Box Box Box Box Case Box Box 10 lb. 10 lb.95 $23.25 $40.65 $28. 20 lb.Starches 179 6 Starches Starchy Items LEGUMES.50 $33. fancy Lentils.25 $25.60 $38.2 lb.35 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .20 $32.30 $8.75 $38.30 $47.30 $51. 20 lb. Pearled Basmati Rice Bulgur Wheat. 10 lb. 10 lb. boxes 25 lb. imported. 10 lb. Imported Barley. 10 lb.10 $27. DRY Adzuki Beans Anasazi Beans Black Turtle Beans Cannellini Beans. 22. fine Cous Cous Hominy Grits. 10 lb.65 $28. Organic Cranberry Beans Fava Beans Flageolet Beans Great Northern Beans Kidney Beans Lima Beans Lentils. 20 lb. 20 lb. 20 lb. GRAIN Arborio Rice.35 $38.41 $18. 10 lb. quick Long Grain Parboiled White Rice Long Grain White Rice Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box 10 lb.55 $38.S. 20 lb.50 $28.47 $25.30 $31.95 $47. U. 10 lb.45 $39.

35 $48. 4 ea.: 4 lb.: 5 lb. 16 c. 2 ea. 3 tsp.95 $27. frozen Tortellini-Cheese-filled.: 10 lb.6 mm). wide Fettuccini. 2 ea.95 $15.00 $21. 2 ea. frozen. 16 oz. 10-in.8 mm) Tortellini. $24.: 4 lb.05 $12.: 10 lb. 10 lb. oz.80 $21.75 Case Case Case Case Box Box Box Box Case Box Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 1 gal. 20-in.25 $13. 2 tbsp. 4 c. natural color Penne.50 $23.00 $85. ✦ 1 pt. 10-inch Macaroni.10 $13. ✦ 1 qt.: 10 lb.: 10 lb. 10 lb. 2 ea.: 5 lb. 2 2-inch Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Bag Case Bag Bag Box Box 50 lb.65 $24.180 Price Lists Starches (Continued) Starchy Items Medium Grain White Rice Oatmeal.: 10 lb.: 5 lb. 20 lb.60 $16. 1 c. Elbow Manicotti Orzo Penne.G. Linguini. Cheese-filled. Lasagna. 8 fl. 2 ea. 2 ea. . oz. Egg Noodles. 2 ea. 2 ea.05 $24. $49. 3 ea.45 $31. oz. 2 ea. oz. boxes 25 lb. 2 ea. Fettuccini. Garden. 2 c.65 $50.10 $24. 25 lb.: 10 lb. tri-color Vermicelli (1. 10-in. 20 lb. tri-color Rigatoni. quick Uncle Ben’s Brown Rice Uncle Ben’s Converted L.: 42 oz. ✦ 1 lb.70 $24. broken PASTA Angel Hair Bow Ties Cappellini.: 10 lb.00 $48. 2 pt. packs 2 ea. 16 tbsp. 2 ea.: 5 lb. ridged. 2 lb. small Spaghetti (1. Ziti 128 fl.75 $21. White Rice Uncle Ben’s Short-Grain Rice Wild Rice. 20 lb.25 $28.25 $37. (tri-color) Shells. packs 3 ea. oz. 10-in.: 10 lb.50 $18. 20-in.90 $21.20 ✦ Rotini.: 10 lb.35 $32. 2 ea. ✦ 1 tbsp. 20 lb. 4 qt.95 $23. ✦ 1 fl. 32 fl. 16 fl.40 $23. medium Shells. 10 lb. 12 ea.: 10 lb.

50 $81.80 $58.: 5 lb. 6 ea.: 2 lb. raw Walnut Halves and Pieces FLOURS. $22. 25 lb.: 2 lb.25 $38.98 $19. 50 lb.95 $30. blanched.75 $107. whole. CRUMBS All-Purpose Flour Big Loaf Bread Flour Bread Crumbs.: 2 lb. 5 lb. bags 3 ea.Nuts and Flours 181 7 Nuts and Flours Starchy Item NUTS Almond Flour Almonds. coarse Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Case Case Case Box Box Box Case Case Case Case Box Container Container Container Box Case 2 ea.35 $46.25 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .15 Bag Bag Case Bag Bag Case Box Bag 50 lb.20 $41.50 $74.: 2 lb. dry-roasted Pecan Pieces Pine Nuts.70 $54.: 5 lb. bags 10 lb. bags 3 ea.: 5 lb. plain Buckwheat Groats Cake Flour Cornmeal Mix Cornmeal.40 $69. 5 lb.25 $88. 50 lb. bags 3 ea. bags 3 ea.: 2 lb.50 $20. GRAINS.16 $22. bags $135. shelled Sesame Seed. bags 3 ea.85 $20. 50 lb. Blue Cornmeal. peeled Macadamia Nuts Peanut Butter Peanuts.10 $22. cans 3 ea.56 $27.: 2 lb.50 $62. 10 lb.40 $22.: 2 lb. 6 ea. bags 10 lb. 50 lb.95 $35. Toasted Sesame Seed. White Sunflower Seed Kernels. sliced Cashews. 5 lb. roasted Coconut. pieces. Black Sesame Seed. bags 5 lb. shredded Hazelnuts. shelled Pistachio Nuts.35 $68. 5 lb. 3 ea.90 $16.

✦ . oz. 8 fl.182 Price Lists Nuts and Flours (Continued) Starchy Item Cornmeal. 16 oz.90 $20. oz. 32 fl.15 $36. 4 c. 50 lb. ✦ 1 fl. 16 tbsp.25 $21. 16 c. 2 pt. ✦ 1 tbsp. 10 lb. 50 lb. 50 lb. 25 lb.20 $28. 2 c. 25 lb. Quaker. 10 lb. 2 tbsp. fine Cracker Crumbs Graham Cracker Crumbs High Gluten Flour Japanese Breadcrumbs Masa Harina.80 $23.05 $21. 128 fl.15 1 gal.95 $22. ✦ 1 pt. oz. 1 c. ✦ 1 qt. ✦ 1 lb. 10 lb.05 $26. 4 qt.65 $18. 50 lb. 3 tsp. oz.30 $29. 10 lb. unbleached Wheatberries Whole Wheat Flour Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Bag Bag Box Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Bag Box Bag 25 lb. 15 lb. oz. 16 fl.50 $23. $22. Corn Flour Oreo Cookie Crumbs Pastry Flour Polenta Semolina Flour.

6 ea.60 $107.: 24 oz.75 Can Case Case Box 20 oz.45 $23.000 ea. boxes 25 lb. 6 ea. cartons 25 lb.45 $23. 6 ea.65 $26.: 6 lb. 1.10 $35.: 5 lb.000 count Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Tub Case Case Case Bag Case Case Case Bag Bag Case Bag Case Case Case Box Box Case Case Case 20 lb. 1.200 ea.20 $44. Pancake SPECIAL ITEMS Arrowroot Baking Powder Baking Soda Chocolate Chips.45 $23.Baking 183 8 Baking Item SWEETENERS Apricot Glaze Butterscotch Topping Caramel Topping Chocolate Sprinkles Confectioner’s Sugar 6X Corn Syrup.000 ea.: 750 mL bottles 4 ea.: 1 gallon 2.15 $39. cans 50 lb. $17.: #10 cans 50 lb.15 $28.5 grams Sweet ’n Low Packets Syrup.: #5 cans 4 ea. fine. cartons 2. Turbinado.: #5 cans 4 ea.45 $42. 3. 6 ea. 6 ea. 4.75 $91.80 $49.: 6 lb. assorted flavors for drinks Syrup.: 5 lb.40 $18.05 $37. $63.: #5 cans 6 ea. 4 ea. 3.: 1 gal. 50 lb. cane Honey Light Brown Sugar Pineapple Topping Rainbow Sprinkles Splenda Packets Sugar Packets Sugar Packets.65 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .75 $24.70 $38. Beet Granulated Sugar.65 $40.15 $45.000 count 6 ea. cans 12 ea.20 $35.10 $23. Light Equal Packets Fudge Topping Granulated Sugar.40 $63.000 ea.75 $19.

2 tbsp. ✦ 1 fl. 4 qt. instant dry Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Box Tub Case Can Case Bag Case Bag Box Case Case Case 25 lb.90 $63. 8 fl. oz. bags 25 lb. oz. 24 ea. boxes 25 oz. 16 c. plain. ✦ 1 pt. dry Yeast.: #10 cans 12 ea. Imitation. bags 20 ea. 22% fat Cornstarch Cream of Tartar Gelatin.60 $49. 16 fl. 128 fl.80 $9. 12 ea. 2 pt. ✦ .: 16 oz. bags $45. oz. 12 ea.75 $24.70 $18.60 $86. 6 ea. 4 c. ✦ 1 tbsp. boxes 50 lb.20 $22. 1 c.184 Price Lists Baking (Continued) Item Chocolate Chips.75 $25. ✦ 1 lb. oz. ✦ 1 qt. granulated Milk.: 3 lb.35 $22. 2 c. SAF.95 $34. active.: 16 oz. cans 6 ea. oz.: 14 oz. 3 tsp. 32 fl. 5 lb. Kosher Flake Salt.: 2 lb.95 1 gal.: 16 oz. plain Spray Pan Coating Strawberry Glaze Yeast. Nonfat Dry Powder Salt.000 count Cocoa Powder. 16 oz. 4. 16 tbsp.02 $110.

Pomace.35 $87.05 $98. 3 ea.30 $50. 35 lb.80 $38.: 1 gal. 6 ea.: 1 gal.: 1-liter bottles 6 ea.05 $109. spray aerosol Peanut Oil Shortening. Grapeseed Oil. 30 lb. 50 lb. 6 ea. Black Truffle Oil.75 $21.15 $86. Butter. Toasted Sesame Oil.90 $36.90 $25.60 $62.: 1-liter bottles 1 liter 1 liter 6 ea. Extra Virgin Italian Olive Oil. 61.: 5 lb. Avocado Oil.: 3.60 $113. 4 ea.Fats and Dairy 185 9 Fats and Dairy Item FATS Butter. gal. cartons 12 lb.5 per lb.: 14 oz.85 $52. 1 lb.45 $21. Reddie Pats.90 $21. prints* Oil.90 $36. Pure Pan Coating. roasted Oil.90 $13. prints* Butter. Italian Olive Oil. oz. 90 per lb.25-lb.: 1 gal. Unsalted. 50 lb.40 $42. 1 lb. $35. solid Shortening. Whipped Butter-It (for griddle frying) Corn Oil Cottonseed Oil Fry Max Liquid Shortening Margarine. 3 ea. Salted.: 1-liter bottles 8 fl. Hazelnut Oil.70 $108.35 $83. 3 ea. Foil.: 1-liter bottles 3 ea.65 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . 30 lb.15 $64. 1 lb. White Truffle Oil. 6 ea. Almond. cake Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Case Case Case Case Tub Case Jug Case Jug Case Case Case Case Case Case Bottle Bottle Case Case Case Case Case Jug Box Box 4 ea. 8 fl.00 $95.53 $64. oz. 30 lb.20 $57. 2 ea.: 1 gal. all-purpose. Walnut Olive Oil. Pats. prints* Butter.60 $39. cans 35 lb. Butter. 35 lb.

oz. whole Blue Cheese Blue Cheese. 2% Cream Cheese Cream. 32 fl. all veg. large Feta Cheese Goat Cheese Gorgonzola Gouda Cheese Gruyère Cheese Half-and-Half Margarine. ✦ 1 lb. whole in shell. ✦ 1 tbsp. 288 ea.: 3/8 oz. prints $64. powdered 2.35 $26.62 $22. 2 ea. 35 lb.: 5 lb. Liquid. 4 c. 16 c. standard Whipped Butter DAIRY Asiago.32 $22. 1 lb. 15 dozen 2 ea.8g Eggs.94 $17. PCs** Creamers.25 $5. premium Shortening. 128 fl.65 $36. ✦ .57 $25. 16 oz. oz. Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Jug Jug Box 35 lb.: 120 slices ea. Liquid. 1 qt. 2 pt. ✦ 1 pt. 2 ea.50 $35. oz.000 ea. tubs 2 kilos 7 lb. 1 lb. 3 tsp.: 8 lb.70 $31.20 $29. all flavors.: quarts 390 ea. oz. ✦ 1 qt. bags 1 kilo 10 lb.90 $66. solid. blocks half gallon 12 ea.55 $14. 2 tbsp. 16 tbsp. 16 fl.05 $3. 6 lb. 2.40 $5.28 $4.81 $1.186 Price Lists Fats and Dairy (Continued) Item Shortening. oz.25 $10.99 $7. 4 qt.60 1 gal. 2 c. 4 ea.82 $18. pails $57.: 5 lb. Sharp Cheese Slices.: 3 lb.: 5 lb. nondairy. 400 ea.40 $57. Swiss or American Cotija Cheese Cottage Cheese. 1 lb.35 $30.60 $27. Mild Cheddar Cheese. 1 lb. ✦ 1 fl.45 $73. crumbles Brie Cheese (60% fat) Cheddar Cheese.62 $14. Small Curd. individual PCs** Creamers. 8 fl. nondairy.40 $7. 4 ea.75 Wheel Wheel Case Wheel Block Pound Case Pound Box Case Half gallon Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Box Wheel Pound Pound Quart Case 12 lb. 30 1 lb. Heavy 34–36% fat Creamer. Nondairy Creamers (half-and-half). 1 c. tubs 4 ea. PCs** Creamers.

14 $54.95 $5. 6 ea.: 32 oz. pieces 1 lb.85 $26. natural Yogurt.86 $19. whole Pizza Cheese.: 5 lb.: 5 lb. fresh Mozzarella Cheese. 4 ea. natural Parmesan Cheese. brick (of butter) **PC: portion control Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . whole egg Milk.: 14 oz. 1 lb.60 *1-lb. heavy duty.: 5 lb. cartons $33.60 $3.95 $10. sweetened Milk. 24 ea.85 $6.: 5 lb.90 $28. tubs 1 lb. blocks 2 ea. 2 percent Milk. plain Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Price Case Pail Gallon Case Case Bag Gallon Case Container Pound Pound Case Pound Case Pound Box Pound Case 4 ea.: 1 gal.Fats and Dairy 187 Fats and Dairy (Continued) Item Mayonnaise. cans 48 ea.30 $1. condensed. 2 ea.35 $28. fresh. 6 ea. evaporated Milk.: 3 lb.55 $5. bags 1 lb.15 $33. dry granules Milk. Natural Mozzarella Cheese. Nonfat. 1 gal. 30 lb. whole.: 12 oz. 2 ea.60 $3. 80/10/10 Provolone Ricotta Romano Cheese Sour Cream Swiss Cheese. print (of butter): 1-lb.45 $2. cans 25 lb. whole egg Mayonnaise. tubs 1 lb. 4 percent Monterey Jack.10 $50.90 $36. 1 gal.60 $62.

4 ea. ✦ 1 pt.: 1 gal.: 1 lb. 4 ea. 4 ea. Clam. 16 fl.: 5 lb. oz. jars 4 ea. 16 c. tubs 6 ea. jars 4 ea.: 4 lb. 2 tbsp. 128 fl. ✦ 1 fl.: gal. oz.55 $23.45 $193. Cattlemans Base.: gal.: gal. ✦ 1 qt. 2 pt.30 1 gal.: #10 cans 6 ea.60 $45. 3 tsp.70 $88. oz.65 $52. jars 6 ea.: #10 cans 6 ea. yields 5 gallons 1:5) Base. jars 6 ea.: gal. 4 qt. 1:5 Base.: 9 oz. cans 12 ea.) 4 ea.70 $145.: 5 lb.90 $47. 8 fl.: gal.95 $52. 4 ea.90 $54.19 $47.) Purchase Unit Price Case Can Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 24 ea. $58.: 5 fl.50 $47.: 1 lb. ✦ 1 lb. Oz.50 $46.: gal. oz. oz.2 lb. Non Pareil Chili Sauce Cranberry Sauce.85 $38.41 $94. jars 6 ea. 4 c. 1:4 Base. tubs 3 ea.60 $49.25 $38. oz. 4 ea. Marinated (Cara Mia) Bar-B-Que Sauce.95 $46.: gal. 2 c. Beef (1 lb.: #10 cans 6 ea. 1:4 Capers. whole Curry Paste Dressing: French Dressing: Bleu Cheese Dressing: Catalina Dressing: Creamy Caesar Dressing: Italian (Oil and Vinegar) Dressing: Ranch Dressing: Ranch Packets (Yield: 36 gal. jars 4 ea. jars 6 ea.75 $61. ✦ 1 tbsp.) Dressing: Thousand Island Enchilada Sauce Hoisin Sauce Horseradish.: #10 cans 6 ea.95 $56.: 1 lb.90 $48. 16 oz.-Fl. 6 ea.: 1 lb.: 32 oz. 4 ea.10 $36. 1:5 Base. 6 ea.: gal. Ham.25 $35.00 $42.: half gal.70 $27. Vegetable Stock. 32 fl. Au Jus (1 lb. 6 ea. yields 4 gallons 1:4) Base. Chicken. bottles 2. 16 tbsp. prepared Purchase Unit Pack (Oz.188 Price Lists 10 Condiments Item A-1 Sauce Achiote Paste Adobo Sauce Artichoke Hearts. 1 c. ✦ . (80 ct. jellied Cranberry Sauce. 18 envelopes 4 ea.: gal.95 $32.90 $73. prepared Horseradish.: 32 oz.45 $36.

: 50 count 4 ea.: 17.90 $33.68 $30. cans $26.15 $42.49 $21.: 2 lb.25 $7.) Pesto Sauce Pickle Relish.20 $142. 1 ea. prepared. Delux Mayonnaise.5 oz.50 $47.67 $46.10 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . oz. whole egg Mayonnaise. jars 2 ea.: gal. 6 ea. julienned Tahini (Sesame) Paste Purchase Unit Pack (Oz. cans 4 ea. 6 ea.50 $51. Green Dried Nori Soy Sauce Sriracha Hot Sauce Steak Sauce.08 $26. assorted fruit flavors (0. oz.63 $102. 30 lb.: 28 oz.: 5 lb.60 $37. 12 ea.90 $51. whole grain Nacho Cheese Sauce (576 fl.) Lea & Perrin’s Worcestershire Marinara Sauce Marinara Sauce.: #10 cans 6 ea.: 32 oz. bottles 4 ea. whole egg Mustard. Gulden’s Mustard.: gal. 33 percent Kitchen Bouquet Knorr Swiss Demi Glace Base (33 gal. Cholula Jelly PCs. crock 6 ea. Oz.: #10 cans 30 lb.07 $23. 4 ea. oz.20 $33.6 oz. 4 ea. Heinz Sun-Dried Tomato Pesto Sun-Dried Tomato Halves in Olive Oil Sun-Dried Tomatoes.: 30 oz.30 $28.) Purchase Unit Price Case Case Case Bottle Case Case Case Case Pail Pail Case Can Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Box Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 12 ea. Brown. bags 12 ea.69 $64. Dijon Mustard.: #10 cans 6 ea.: 30 oz. Picante Seaweed.) Ketchup. heavy duty. bottles 400 ea.55 $136.: #10 cans 1 qt.: 5 fl.: 16 oz.85 $114. 24 ea.45 $22.: gal.: gal.31 $43.10 $27. sweet Pizza Sauce Ponzu Sauce Salsa.55 $64. plain Mustard.: #10 cans 3 ea.: 9 lb.: 5 fl. oz. 4 ea.43 $46. bottles 6 ea. jars 12 ea. cans 24 ea. 12 ea.Condiments 189 Condiments (Continued) Item Hot Sauce.: gal.-Fl. 6 ea.: 5 fl.07 $99.60 $50.85 $27. bottles 3 ea.: half gal.

) Purchase Unit Price Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 6 ea. White Distilled.72 $45. 16 c.: gal. oz. oz. 2 tbsp. 4 c.50 $34. 12 ea. 50 grain Vinegar.: 16. Oz. 8 fl. ✦ 1 pt. 4 ea.: 30 oz. ✦ .: gal. oz. White Wine. Tarragon.10 1 gal. 3 tsp.60 $42.35 $12. oz. bottles 12 ea. ✦ 1 tbsp. 16 tbsp. $144. 128 fl. Wine-based Imported. 50 grain Vinegar.89 $46.: gal. 4 qt.80 $22. bottles 4 ea.-Fl. 2 c.: 5 fl. 1 c. seasoned Vinegar. Balsamic Vinegar.65 $18. ✦ 1 fl. Raspberry Vinegar. frozen Teriyaki Sauce Tabasco Sauce Vinegar.75 fl. Cider. 6 ea. 70 grain Worcestershire Sauce Purchase Unit Pack (Oz. Japanese Rice Wine. 32 fl. oz.15 $29. 2 pt.40 $34. 4 ea. 16 fl. 4 ea.: gal.190 Price Lists Condiments (Continued) Item Tamarind Purée. ✦ 1 lb.: gal. ✦ 1 qt.: gal.80 $127.75 oz. 4 ea.: 500-mL bottles 4 ea. Red Wine.25 $19. oz.: gal. oz. 12 ea. 50 grain Vinegar. 16 oz. 50 grain Vinegar.: 16. bottles 4 ea.

50 $18. Green. cans 12 ea. Lipton (individual) Tomato Juice Tropical Fruit Juice.5 lb.90 $46.80 $45. 12 ea.15 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .: 5 lb. oz.80 $62.25 oz. bags 192 envelopes 12 ea. cans 4 boxes: 24 ea. bags 6 boxes: 28 bags in ea.45 Case 24 sleeves: 25 count $43.: 2 lb. China Tea Bags.: 46 fl. oz.84 $40.: 32 fl.65 $26. Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Box Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 6 ea.: 1.30 $75.Beverages 191 11 Beverages Item Apple Juice.55 $143. cans 12 ea. cans 6 ea.75 $38.30 $18.: 1. oz.00 $80. Chamomile Tea Bags. concentrate (3:1) V-8 Juice PAPER PRODUCTS FOR BEVERAGES Cup. oz. 2 oz. Tips. concentrate (4:1) Cranberry Juice.: 64 fl.75 $37. 6 boxes: 28 bags 6 boxes. cans 12 ea. oz. cans 12 ea.50 $209. oz.: 16 fl. packs Coffee Grounds.30 $63. cans 12 ea.: 46 fl.35 $31. concentrate (5:1) Clam Juice Clamato Juice Cocoa Mix—Carnation (1728 fl.60 $22.: 64 fl.: 46 fl.75 $47. Arabica Coffee Grounds. Bigelow (individual) Constant Comment Tea Bags. oz.70 $23.: 64 fl. bags 12 ea. oz.85 $27.: 32 fl. cans 5 gal.: 46 fl.: 32 fl. concentrate (4:1) Pineapple Juice Prune Juice Sanka Brand Decaf Grounds Tea Bags. oz. cans 19 ea.: 8. concentrate (6:1) Orange Juice. bags 6 ea.: 46 fl.: 46 fl. 12 oz. decaf Cranberry Juice. dark roast Coffee Grounds. foam. oz.30 $17. 12 ea. bags 6 ea. 1 oz. Ocean Spray Fountain Syrups (5:1 Mix) Grapefruit Juice Iced Tea Lemonade. yield) Coffee Grounds.40 $106. oz. oz. cans 128 ea. cans 12 ea. cans 12 ea.05 $30.10 $123. cans 12 ea.35 $83. oz.75 oz. 24 count 10 boxes: 100 bags in ea. oz. cans $133.

192 Price Lists Beverages (Continued) Item Cup. hot cup Lid. Cup.50 Each Each Each Each Each Each Case Case Box Each Each Each Each Each Each 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 24 ea. oz. 16 tbsp. ✦ . Coffee (60 oz. Cup. 128 fl. 16. paper. 1 c.55 $13.58 $29.95 1 gal. Beer. 4 qt.55 $16. 32 fl. hot. hot cup Straws. 16 c. 4 c. 2 pt. 20 oz.15 $95.00 $20. cold cup Lid.70 $9.50 $78.44 $9. 8 fl. 8 oz.35 $59.72 $33. pot) Filters. poly.65 $93. hot. oz. ✦ 1 pt. 32-oz. 32 oz. foam. 16 oz. ✦ 1 lb. 16 fl.95 $22. oz. White or Dark Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 10 sleeves: 100 count 24 sleeves: 25 count 40 sleeves: 25 count 1.99 $6. 16 oz.000 count 2 packs: 500 filters in ea. 16 oz.35 $41.56 $18. Cup. Cup. paper. oz. Imported (Prices can vary!) Boxed Wine (bag in box) Canadian Club Champagne Ordinaire Clan MacGregor Scotch Cointreau Couvosier VS Cognac Crème de Cacao. oz. 2 tbsp.S.: 12 fl. foam.85 $21. black.: 12 fl. Domestic U. ✦ 1 tbsp. 12 oz. 12.55 $44. plastic. Filters. Cup. bottles 5 liters 1 liter 750 mL 1 liter 750 mL 1 liter 1 liter $22. ✦ 1 qt. foam. cold. 10 sleeves: 100 count 8 sleeves: 120 count 10 sleeves: 100 count 24 boxes: 500 count $54.67 $8. 3 tsp. bottles 24 ea.33 $20. 16 oz. paper. 2 packs: 250 filters in ea. 2 c. oz.95 $78. Iced Tea Lid for 12. or 20 oz.49 $17. wrapped BEVERAGES WITH ALCOHOL Absolute Vodka Amaretto di Saronno Bacardi 151 Rum Bacardi Light Rum Bailey’s Irish Cream Beefeater’s Gin Beer. dome. oz.00 $9.40 $20.35 $170. ✦ 1 fl.000 count 600 count 1.83 $9.

55 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .67 $11.85 $22.33 $8.00 $19.25 $9.25 $15.33 $25.58 $11.83 $9. White or Green Cuervo Gold Tequila Cutty Sark Scotch Dry Sack Sherry Frangelico Galliano Glenfiddich Single Malt Scotch Grand Marnier Harvey’s Bristol Cream Jack Daniel’s Sour Mash Jim Beam Bourbon Johnnie Walker Red (Scotch) Kahlua Korbel Brandy Meyers Rum Old Bushmill’s Irish Whiskey Old Crow Bourbon Ouzo Peppermint Schnapps Pernod Port Sake Southern Comfort Tia Maria Vermouth.90 $12.31 $23.67 $17.13 $24.90 $55.09 $18.50 $19.50 $12.99 $5.Beverages 193 Beverages (Continued) Item Crème de Cassis Crème de Menthe.33 $15.84 $14.00 $7.75 liter 750 mL 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 750 mL 750 mL 750 mL 1 liter 1 liter 750 mL $9.29 $33.20 $17.84 $20.50 $12. Dry Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each Each 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter 750 mL 750 mL 750 mL 1 liter 1.

flat round.50 $75. 15 lb. 30 ea. 13 lb. 80/20 Ground Beef. avg. 80/20 Ground Beef Patties. ✦ 1 lb. 1 lb. 4 per lb. 15% Pastrami. 13 lb. ea. ✦ 1 qt. 32 fl. Angus. Preportioned Steaks New York Striploin (180) 1 New York Striploin (180A) 1 Oxtails. Cap-Off (NAMP 184B) 1 1 1 Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Case Pound Case Case Pound Box Case Case Case Case Case Case Piece Box Piece Piece Case Pound Case Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Case Pound 60 lb. Prime Rib (112A) Select Short Loin (for T-bones) (174) 0 Sirloin Butt (184) Sirloin Butt. oz. 1 lb. 4 c. 1 lb. 4 qt. fat round 15% Corned Beef. 10 lb. 3 ea.20 $30. 2 tbsp. 3 tsp. pieces 1 lb. sliced Prime Rib (109) 23 lb. slices 13 lb. 1 lb. ✦ .56 $68. ea. 12 zip-bags 8 oz.69 $7.63 $37.95 $19. 10 lb. 1 c. Choice Prime Rib (109) 23 lb. oz. 1 lb. 1 lb. 2 pt. 8 fl. Prime Rib (112A) Angus. Deckle Off Corned Beef.95 $5. Femur (for Stocks) Brisket..54 $79. 75/25 Ground Beef.00 $4.61 $2. 128 fl. 40 ea. 15 lb.27 $59.75 $124. avg. 16 oz. 16 tbsp.64 $4.38 $146.: 4 oz.20 $43.97 $30. patties 4 ea. oz. 16 c. Franks.95 $43.47 $42.24 $18. patties 40 ea. 80/20 Inside Top Round (NAMP 168) Liver. Select Prime Rib (112A) 13 lb.51 $4.78 $8.: 5 lb. sliced Franks. 12 zip-bags 8 oz.: 13 lb. ✦ 1 tbsp.07 $8. avg. ✦ 1 pt. Ground Beef Patties.95 $32.194 Price Lists 12 Meats Item BEEF Back Ribs Ball Tip. 6–8” ea. 6 in. Bottom Sirloin Butt 185B Bones. 1 lb.. 1 lb. 2 c. All Beef. 25 lb. $53.: 4 oz. 50 lb. 16 fl.70 $19. 8 in. All Beef. ✦ 1 fl. cut (frozen) Pastrami.64 $5.: 5 1/3 oz. 23 lb. oz. oz.65 1 gal.58 $3. bags 20 lb. 8 per lb.

5 lb. 12 oz.74 $12. 2 lb.60 $4. 1 lb.: 5 lb. 191A) Tenderloin. whole (NAMP 233A) Loin. ea.. defatted (189A) select Tenderloin. Knuckle. 15 lb. Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Box Pound Piece Piece Piece Piece Case Case Pound 2 ea. $7.36 $3.97 $3. average 1 lb. 18/22 Strips per lb. Whole (189). Provimi Ground Veal Top Round. 2 in. bone-in.30 $28. defatted (189A) choice Tenderloin. $4. 6 lb. 6 lb. 6 ea. fat-on Top Round.50 $4. (NAMP 185C) Tri Tip. Frenched (NAMP 204C) Shanks (NAMP 210).80 $53.78 Case Case Piece Pound Pound 50 lb. trim Rack. 8 pieces/26 lb. fat). 1 lb. 1 lb. Select (NAMP 349A) LAMB Chops (NAMP 1204B) Ground Lamb Leg.46 $41.18 $8. 1. rolled. boned. 1 lb. bags 1 lb.81 $6. $189.94 $139.50 $62. 16 chops. tied. cut Chop.00 $141. 1 lb. 5 lb. 1 lb.42 $7.5–2 lb.20 Pound Pound Box Piece Box Pound Pound Pound Pound 1 lb. Frenched. peeled (NAMP 185D) VEAL Bones. ea.: 9 lb. 2 ea. 4 ea. Stew Meat Top Round PORK Back Ribs (NAMP 422) Bacon. pieces 30 lb. split.45 Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . ea.12 $136.89 Pound Case 1 lb.82 $3.Meats 195 Meats (Continued) Item Stew Meat Tender Tips Tenderloin Butt (defatted. tied (234) Leg. 7 lb.65 $21. 1” fat (169) Tri-Tip (1/2 in. $34.. 1 lb.82 $58.33 $79. 1 lb.66 $56. (1306E) Eye of Round. 12 oz.00 $240.

1 lb. (10 oz. chops) Chorizo Links Franks. Serrano.* (NAMP 402B) Leg. 1 lb. 1 lb.68 $2. 1 lb. B. 1 lb. Buffet Carving.69 $47.11 $299. 8 fl. ✦ . Ends and Pieces Boston Butt (NAMP 406 Shoulder) Canadian Bacon Chop. ✦ 1 fl. whole (NAMP 401A) Loin.79 $2. oz.59 $2. whole (NAMP 410) NY Hot Italian Links Pork Meat for Stewing Salt Pork Sausage Links. Bulk Spare Ribs (NAMP 416) Tenderloin (NAMP 415) DELI MEATS Bologna Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Case Pound Piece Pound Pound Case Pound Pound Pound Piece Case Each Pound Piece Piece Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Box Pound Pound 15 lb. $17. 128 fl. 16 c.76 $33. 2 ea. 1 lb.28 $2. oz. 1 lb. 16 oz. 2 tbsp. Prosciutto. 4 c. Ham Hocks Ham Shanks Ham Steaks Ham. 1 lb. 1 lb. 32 fl.75 $1.96 $1. 6 per lb.99 $1. Boneless. 18 lb.41 Pound 1 lb. ✦ 1 lb.44 $37. $2. oz. ea.89 $3. 1 lb. 6 in. 3 tsp. oz. 1 in.: 12 lb. 1 lb. 1 oz.29 $2.41 $238 $26. 1 lb. water added Ham.45 $23.92 $10. Pork & Beef.T. Di Parma Ham. Boneless.88 1 gal. Boneless. Boneless Leg. 1 lb.15 $3. 10 lb. Cure 81 Ham. ✦ 1 tbsp.45 $7.. 16 tbsp. 1 lb. 16 fl.25 $1. boneless Ham. pieces 8 lb. boneless (NAMP 413) Loin.25 $2. 4 qt. oz. 7 lb. 1 lb. 1 lb. Prosciutto.R.196 Price Lists Meats (Continued) Item Bacon.95 $77. 10 lb. 2 pt. Sausage.49 $1. 1 lb. 1 c.38 $4. ✦ 1 qt.17 $4. 15 lb. 2 c. 1 lb. ✦ 1 pt. Hormel Ham.

1 lb. 1 lb.R. rolled. 1 lb. raw Corned Beef Brisket.67 $2.59 *B. 1 lb.: boned.69 $2. domestic Prosciutto de Parma Smoked Pork Loin Smoked Turkey Breast Tavern Ham. flat Toscano Salami Turkey Ham or Pastrami White Turkey Roll Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Can Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound 5 lb.39 $6. 1 lb.93 $9.24 $1.69 $2.T. 1 lb.95 $3. 1 lb. 1 lb. $7.Meats 197 Meats (Continued) Item Canned Ham Cooked Corned Beef Cooked Top Round Coppa. 1 lb.22 $2.95 $1.49 $2. 1 lb.89 $2. tied Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . 1 lb.57 $1. 1 lb.89 $4. 1 lb.12 $2.50 $10.59 $4. 1 lb. 1 lb.59 $3. 1 lb. uncooked Danish Ham Dry Salami Mortadella Olive Loaf Pepperoni Prosciutto. mild and hot Corned Beef Bottom Round.39 $3. 1 lb. 1 lb.

4 c. boneless 4 oz. boneless 6 oz. boneless 5 oz. skinless. ea.35 $53. ea.75 $30.75 lb. 4 ea. 128 fl. ✦ 1 qt. 6 ea. 4 qt. 18. $2. oz. Breast. Breast./96 pieces 15. cooked & pulled Whole Fryers (2.60 $58. boneless. oz. 24 ea. tubs 10 lb. IQF* Wing Drumettes Liver Meat.00 $22. 48 ea. 1 lb.46 $21. 1 c. cooked.3 oz. IQF* Whole Legs/6. 2 tbsp. IQF* Thighs/3. 24 ea.95 $59. 3 tsp.15 $33. boneless 6 oz.: 5 lb. ea.13 $4. 16 oz.05 $57.5 lb./48 pieces 24. 16 fl.80 $42. 16 tbsp. 48 ea.14 $3. blocks 24 ea.25 $28. 2 pt.90 $33./24 pieces 30 lb. 32 fl.25 $29. ✦ 1 lb. oz. bags 27 lb. White Meat.40 $45.05 Pound Pound Pound Pound Pound 1 lb. 1 lb.63 $1. ✦ 1 fl.75 oz. 24 ea. ✦ 1 tbsp. Breast. ea. skinless Drumstick Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Pound Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Bag Case Case Case Case 1 lb. bone in with ribs Breast.05 $42. cooked and smoked. Leg.29 $0. oz. 1 lb. 16 c. skin on.90 $123. skinless.40 $49. Gizzards.75 $36. oz. frozen IQF* All 8 Pieces IQF* Drumsticks/2.) WOG TURKEY Breast.69 1 gal. frozen. ea. IQF* Halves/17 oz.6 oz. ea. bone in Dark Meat./200–240 pc.30 $46. ea.5 oz.35 $31. ✦ ./96 pieces 19 lb. IQF* Quarters/8. Breast. boneless Breast. skinless.198 Price Lists 13 Poultry Item CHICKEN FRYERS Backs and Necks Breast. 4 ea. boneless 7 oz./48 pieces 15 lb. 8 fl. IQF* Half Breasts/6.50 $28. 1 lb.9 lb. skinless.5 lb./14 birds $0./60 pieces 40 lb. boneless 5 oz. 38. 2 c.: 5 lb.: 5 lb. bulk Thighs.5 lb. pulled Tenderloins. 10 lb. ✦ 1 pt.5 oz.

loaves 1 lb. Whole Toms 30 lb. 1 lb. 1 lb.91 $32. Tenderloins Thighs Turkey Ham. 1 lb.: 7 lb. Whole.“Gourmet Flavors. 24 ea.” 4 per lb.26 $1.06 $1. Petite 9 lb.20 * IQF: individually quick frozen Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ .Poultry 199 Poultry (Continued) Item Ground.: 9 oz. Game Hens Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Pound Pound Pound Pound Box Pound Pound Pound Case 1 lb.49 $2. halves $1. 2 ea.44 $44. Tavern Loaf Whole Hens 18 lb. 5% fat Links. 1 lb.95 $2. 1 lb.85 $0.23 $1.

fresh Lobster Tail. Striped Filet. warm water. Canadian. surf Clams. 128 fl. oz.00 $239. 2 pt. IQF* Crab Legs. fresh Opah Filet. 16 c.60 $37. fresh Bass.68 $149. oz. 4 ea. 16 tbsp.: 10 lb. 10 lb. skin-on.83 $103. chopped. IQF* Monkfish Tail. filets. Salmon Fillets.11 1 gal. 10 lb.00 $792.: 2 lb. IQF* Halibut Steaks. IQF* 6 oz. fresh Mussels.: 51 fl. 4 oz. 10 lb. 3 tsp. 4 blocks: 5 lb. Snow crab. oz.89 $297. 10–20 lb. 16 fl. cooked Ono Filet. fresh Mahi Mahi. bags 10 lb. 10 lb. filets. each. skin-on. ✦ 1 tbsp. Sea.35 $118. IQF* Halibut. 10 lb.98 $72. whole in shell Clams. Lobster Tail.15 $84. $122. fillets. IQF* Halibut Steaks.. 10 lb. Mahi Mahi Filet.30 $73. Lobster Tail.89 $53.90 $182. 10 ea.200 Price Lists 14 Seafood Item FROZEN or CANNED (unless marked fresh) Bass.50 $110. 5 ea.99 $211. 8 oz. Whole. H&G. Hawaiian Salmon Fillets. Farm-raised. ea. IQF* Clams. headed. ✦ 1 qt. 7–8 oz. Salmon filets.99 $68. IQF* 8 oz. canned Cod. 20 lb.79 $66. Coho. 10 lb.: 10 lb. 65% body/35% leg Halibut Steaks.: 5 lb. 10 lb. Chilean.00 $817. 4-oz. 32 fl. bags 12 ea. ✦ 1 pt. 3–6 lb.79 $29. 15 lb. oz. 15 lb. 8–10 oz. 4 c. IQF* 8 oz. IQF* Crabmeat.45 $105.55 $141. 10–12 oz.65 $61. oz. Australian. 5–6 oz. 16 oz. boxes 20 lb. cans 10 lb. skinless. ✦ 1 lb. 2 c. imitation Crabmeat. Lobster Tail.98 $60. 6 ea. 1 c. 2 tbsp. ea. Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Box Each Case Case Box Case Case Case Case Box Case Case Case Each Box Box Case Case Carton Case Carton Case Carton Carton Case Case Case 10 lb. 10 lb. 10 lb. boxes 4 ea. warm water. 6 oz. 8 fl.. boxes 5 lb.30 $90. ✦ .. skinless. 10 lb. gutted. 5 oz. 8 oz. oz.80 $103. 4 qt.: 1 lb. 15 lb.. ✦ 1 fl. fresh Catfish.45 $96.65 $57. snow.

5 lb.15 $115.38 $168.90 $96. Yellowfin.5 oz. boxes 2 ea. Bay.93 $93. Bay. fillets. ea.Seafood 201 Seafood (Continued) Item Salmon.30 $58. Tuna Steaks. chunk light in water Tuna. ea. Side. ea. fillet.95 $62. fresh Tuna. fresh Scallops.5 lb. 150–250 (cooked) Shrimp.45 $94. Atlantic. fillet. medium. fillet. 10 lb.30 $68. boxes 2 ea. Norway Salmon. 80–120 count Scallops.55 $198. 4 boxes: 2.60 $85. 0 lb. fillets. boxes 10 lb.66 $92. 1 lb. 20 lb. fresh Swordfish Steaks. Trout.65 $48. 2.5 oz.: 5 lb. ea. fresh Shrimp. IQF* Trout. 5 lb.5 lb. Tiger 21/25 (raw) Shrimp. Petrale.90 $45. IQF* Sole (“Dover”) 5 oz. 10 lb. under 10 count. 250–350 (cooked) Shrimp. 6–8 oz. ea. 6 bags: 5 lb. Canned.49 $45. Scottish Snapper.30 *IQF: individually quick frozen Y% means yield percentage ✦ AS means as served (or used) ✦ AP means as purchased ✦ AS AP AS Y% AP ✦ AP Y% AS ✦ Cost per AP unit Y% Cost per servable unit Y% ✦ . Petrale. IQF* Sole. boxes 8 lb. Albacore in water Purchase Unit Pack Purchase Unit Cost Side Each Case Case Box Box Case Case Case Case Side Filleted side Filleted side Case Case Carton Case Carton Case Case Case Case Carton Carton Case Case 2.42 $310.: 5 lb. Tuna. 6 cans: 66. boned. 20–30 count Scallops. $85. Tiger 21/25 (cooked) Shrimp. 6 ea. 5 oz. 10 lb. 2 ea. ea.S.: 5 lb.70 $55. loin. 10 lb. 20 lb. skin-on. Smoked Salmon.99 $88. 2 bags: 5 lb.90 $58. 6 boxes: 4 lb. 10 lb.22 $110. fresh Sole. ea. Bay.95 $136. 6 oz. butterfly.00 $29. boneless. 8 oz.10 $132. IQF* Swordfish Loin. fresh Tuna.90 $53. 6 cans: 66. 12 lb. Tiger 16/20 (raw) Smoked Salmon. 6 boxes: 4 lb.50 $107. smoked. Ahi #2. Canned. Ahi #1. domestic U.: 5 lb. 8 oz. IQF*. Norwegian Smoked Salmon. whole.79 $103.

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COSTING WORKSHEETS 203 .

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Dry Herbs and Spices Fresh Herbs Canned Goods Pastas Eggs Brewed and Dispensed Beverages Meats Seafood Poultry Use to cost dry herbs and spices. meal. some crustaceans and mollusks. Sauces. turkey. and some poultry. Use for costing flour. nuts and seeds. . Use to cost meats: beef. some sweeteners. cereals.204 G u i d e t o U s i n g t h e C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t s Guide to Using the Costing Worksheets Worksheet Number Worksheet Title Guide to Selecting a Worksheet 1 Weights to Volumes Use Use to find the worksheet you need. and fats and oils. bottled items. Use to cost pastas. special baking items. some crustaceans. Use to cost coffee. and Others Recipe Card for Costing Use to cost clarified butter. rendered fats. 14 Rendered. Use to cost poultry: chicken. crumbs. 3 Piece Counts Use to cost vegetables and fruit. and Clarified Items 15 16 Flavor Bases: Stocks. grains. Use to determine recipe costs and yields. sweeteners. Use to cost stock and sauce bases. Use to cost eggs. 2 Trimmed or Cooked Foods Use to cost vegetables and fruit. tea. bran. Use to cost fresh herbs. pork. Use to cost foods packaged in number-10 cans. dairy products. 4 Volume (Fluid Ounce) Items Use to cost condiments. and other birds. rice. Reduced. and other similar products. and dispensed drinks. packaged beverages. and lamb. and mollusks. and dry legumes. veal. Use to cost finfish. and fats and oils.

multiply the cup cost by 2. for a gallon. multiply by 16 and add 7 percent for compaction. multiply by 4 and add 1.) Cost of the AP Unit: $ _________________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Fill in the next two lines if the AP package is measured in pounds. multiply by 8 and add 3. Box.5 percent for compaction. oils. for a quart. fats. for a halfgallon. Do not add compaction factors for liquids. etc.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 205 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 1 Weights to Volumes Item Name: __________________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased (AP) Unit: ________________________________________ (Package Type: Bag. Pounds per AP Unit: ___________________________________________ (Invoice or Package Weight) Cost per Pound: $ _____________________________________________ (AP unit cost AP pounds) OUNCE MEASURES Ounces per AP Unit: ___________________________________________ (Package Weight or AP pounds 16) Ounces per unit) Cost per AP Ounce: $ __________________________________________ (AP unit cost Ounces per Cup: ______________________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Cup: $ _______________________________________________ (Ounces per cup Cost per ounce) (For a pint cost. Skip to “Ounce Measures” below if the item is sold in ounces.) Pint Cost: $ ________________ Quart Cost: $ ________________ Gallon Cost: $ __________________ Cost per Tablespoon: $ __________________________________________________ (Cost per cup 16) 3) Cost per Teaspoon: $ ____________________________________________________ (Tablespoon cost NOTES: . or condiments.5 percent for compaction.

pints.5 percent to a quart cost.) . Processed Ounces per Cup: ____________________________________ (Cooked or Trimmed Weight per Cup from Part I) Cost per Processed Cup: $ _____________________________________ (Processed ounces per cup Processed ounce cost) Cost per Processed Tablespoon: $ _______________________________ (Cost per processed cup Pint Cost: (Cup cost Quart Cost: (Cup cost 2): $ ___________________________________ 4) 1. or 16) Cost per AP pound Yield %) Yield %. 3. when using these larger units add 1.206 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 2 Trimmed or Cooked Foods Processed Recipe Item Name: __________________________________ (Given) Raw Item Name: _____________________________________________ (Given) Raw Purchase Unit (AP): ______________________________________ (Package Description) Cost per Raw AP Unit: $ ______________________________________ (Invoice or Price List Amount) Pounds per Raw AP Unit: _____________________________________ (Pounds in AP Unit) and/or Ounces per Raw AP Unit: _____________________________________ (Ounces in AP unit or AP pounds 16) AP pounds) Cost per Raw AP Pound: $ ____________________________________ (AP unit cost and/or Cost per Raw Ounce: $ _______________________________________ (AP unit cost Yield Percentage: (Decimal) or % _______________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Processed Pound: $ ___________________________________ (AP pound cost Ounces in unit.5%: $ __________________________ 8) 3. or 16) Cost per Processed Ounce: $ ___________________________________ (Raw ounce cost Processed pound cost Continue if the trimmed or cooked item is also measured by volume (cups.5%: $ _____________________ 7%: $ __________________________ 16) Half Gallon Cost: (Cup cost Gallon Cost: (Cup Cost 16) (Note: To account for possible compaction of produce cut into small bits.5 percent to a 2-quart volume cost. spoons). and 7 percent to a full-gallon measure cost.

C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 207 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 3 Piece Counts Name: Recipe Item Description: _________________________________ (Given) Raw Item Name: ______________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased (AP) Unit: ________________________________________ (Package Type or Measure) Cost of AP Unit: $ ____________________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Total Raw Count in AP Unit: ____________________________________ (AP Pack Count) Cost of Each. Raw: $ ___________________________________________ (AP cost Total count) Usable (Culled) Count: _________________________________________ (From Part I) Yield Percentage: (Decimal) or % __________________________________ (From Part I. or Culled count Raw count) Cost of Each Culled: $ _________________________________________ (AP cost each raw Culled count. or Cost of Yield %) NOTES: .

multiply the cup cost by 2.) Pint Cost $ ________________ Quart Cost $ __________________ Gallon Cost $ __________________ NOTES: . multiply by 16.208 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 4 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 4 Volume (Fluid Ounce) Items Item Name: ________________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased (AP) Unit: ______________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Containers in AP Unit: ______________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Cost of One Container: $ ____________________________________ (AP unit cost (To convert milliliters to fluid ounces. multiply by 4.574. divide the milliliters in the container by 29.) Fluid Ounces in One Container: _______________________________ (From Invoice or Container Label) Cost per Fluid Ounce: $ _____________________________________ (Container cost Cost per Cup: $ ____________________________________________ (8 Cost per Pint: $ _____________________________________________ (2 Cost per Quart: $ ___________________________________________ (4 Cost per Gallon: $ __________________________________________ (16 For “Wet” Items Measured by Weight Cost per Container: $ ________________________________________ (From Above) Total Ounces in Container: ___________________________________ (From Invoice or Label) Cost per Ounce: $ __________________________________________ (Container cost Ounce Weight per Cup: ______________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Cup: $ ____________________________________________ (Ounce cost Ounces per cup) Total ounces) Fluid ounces in 1) Number of containers) Fluid-ounce cost) Cup cost) Cup cost or 2 Cup cost or 4 Pint cost) Quart cost) (For a pint cost. for a gallon. for a quart.

Ounces per cup) Cost per teaspoon: $ ____________________________________ (Cost per tablespoon ITEMS USED BY COUNT Number per Ounce Count per Ounce: _______________________________________ (Number each per ounce from Part I) Cost per Each: $ ________________________________________ (Ounce cost Count per ounce) Number per Tablespoon: Count per Tablespoon: ___________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Tablespoon: $ ___________________________________ (From above) Cost per Each: $ ________________________________________ (Cost per tablespoon 4 Count per tablespoon) .C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 5 209 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 5 Dry Herbs and Spices Item Name: ____________________________________________ (Given) As-purchased (AP) Unit: __________________________________ (Package Type or measure) Cost of AP Unit: $ ______________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Total Ounces in AP Unit: _________________________________ (Ounces in AP container) Cost per AP Ounce: $ ____________________________________ (AP unit cost Total ounces) ITEMS USED BY WEIGHT-TO-VOLUME Cup Cost Ounces per Cup: ________________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Cup: $ _________________________________________ (Ounce cost Spoon Costs Tablespoons per Ounce: __________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Tablespoon: $ ___________________________________ (Cost per ounce or Cup cost 16) 3) Tablespoons per ounce.

or from Part I) Cost per Garnish Leaf: $ ___________________________________ (Cost per ounce per ounce) Number of leaves Tablespoons of Chopped Leaf per AP Ounce: _________________ (From Part I data. or Total AP unit weight Number of bunches) Cost per AP Ounce: $ _____________________________________ (Cost per AP bunch bunch) Ounces per Number of Garnish Leaves per AP Ounce: ____________________ (Your count.210 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 6 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 6 Fresh Herbs Item Name: _____________________________________________ (Given) As-purchased Unit: _______________________________________ (Pack type or measure) Cost per AP Unit: $ _______________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Bunches per AP Unit: ___________________________ (Number of bunches in AP unit) Cost per Bunch: $ ________________________________________ (AP unit cost in unit) Number of bunches Ounces per Bunch: _______________________________________ (From Part I. or use method in note 8 at bottom of Fresh Herbs table) Cost per Chopped Tablespoon: $ ____________________________ (Cost per AP ounce AP ounce) Tablespoons per Cost per Chopped Cup: $ _________________________________ (Cost per chopped tablespoon 3 16) NOTES: .

UNDRAINED WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES Number-10 Can Item Name: ______________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (Invoice package) AP Unit Cost: $ ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Cans in AP Unit: _____________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost per Can: $ ________________________________________ (AP unit cost Number of cans) Actual Ounce Weight per Can: ____________________________ (From volumes table) Actual Cost per Ounce: $ ________________________________ (Can cost Actual ounces per can) Actual cost per ounce) Actual cost per ounce) Actual cost per Cost per Cup: $ ________________________________________ (Ounces per cup Cost per Quart: $________________________________________ (Ounces per quart ounce) Cost per Half Gallon: $ __________________________________ (Ounces per half gallon DRAINED WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES Use the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table in Part I for the measurement data. or half gallon of either a drained or undrained canned product.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 7 211 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 7 Canned Goods DRAINED WEIGHTS Use with the USDA list of Minimum Drained Weights. Number-10 Can Item Name: ______________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (Invoice package) AP Unit Cost: $ ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Cans in AP Unit: _____________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost per Can: $ ________________________________________ (AP unit cost Number of cans) Minimum Drained Ounce Weight: _________________________ (From Part I USDA list) Cost per drained ounce: $ ________________________________ (Can cost drained ounces per can) Note: To cost an undrained weight of canned food. and to cost a cup. use the Canned Food Weight-to-Volume table in Part I. quart. Number-10 Can Item Name: ______________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (Invoice package) AP Unit Cost: $ ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Cans in AP Unit: _____________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost per Can: $ ________________________________________ (AP unit cost Number of cans) .

212 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 7 Drained Ounces per Can: ________________________________ (From weight-to-volumes table in Part I) Drained Cost per Ounce: $ _______________________________ (Can cost Drained ounce per can) Drained cost per ounce) Drained cost per ounce) Drained cost Cost per Drained Cup: $ _________________________________ (Ounce per cup Cost per Drained Quart: $ _______________________________ (Ounce per quart per ounce) Cost per Drained Half Gallon: $ __________________________ (Ounce per half gallon Miscellaneous Canned or Bottled Produce Items DRAINED WEIGHTS Item Name: ____________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (Invoice package) AP Unit Cost: $ ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Containers in AP Unit: ________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost per Container: $ ___________________________________ (AP unit cost Drained Ounces: _______________________________________ (From part I) Cost per Drained Ounce: $ _______________________________ (Container cost drained ounces) Containers in AP unit) PIECE COUNTS Item Name: ____________________________________________ (Given) Cost per Container: $ ___________________________________ (From Above) Piece Count in AP Unit: _________________________________ (From Part 1) Cost per Piece: _________________________________________ (Container Cost Piece count) DRAINED VOLUMES Item Name: ____________________________________________ (Given) Cost per Drained Ounce: $ _______________________________ (From above) Drained Ounces per Cup: ________________________________ (From part 1) Cost per Cup: $_________________________________________ (Cost per Drained ounce Ounces per cup) .

0 yield factor from Part I) DRY WEIGHT TO DRY VOLUME COSTING Pasta Name: ______________________________________________ (Given) Ounce Weight per Cup: _____________________________________ (From Part I) Ounce Weight per Quart: ___________________________________ (From Part I) Cost per Raw Cup: $ _______________________________________ (Raw ounce cost. the shape of the raw pasta. above. conduct your own cooked-volume yields test.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 8 213 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 8 Pastas Name: Pasta Type: _________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: _________________________________________ (Package type from invoice) Cost per AP Unit: $ ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Pounds in AP Unit: ________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost per Raw AP Pound: $ __________________________________ (AP unit cost Cost per Raw AP Ounce: $ __________________________________ (AP pound cost Pounds in unit) 16) RAW WEIGHT TO COOKED WEIGHT COSTING Cost per Cooked Pound (Dry Pasta): $ ________________________ (Raw pound cost Part I) 2.To determine a volume yield and then cost that volume of cooked pasta based on a raw volume. Cost per Raw Quart: $ ______________________________________ (Raw ounce cost. whereas volume-tovolume outcomes are less precise.5 yield factor from Cost per Cooked Pound (Fresh Pasta): $ ________________________ Raw cost 2. Raw ounces per cup for pasta type from Part I) Raw ounces per quart for pasta type from Part I) (Note: Raw weight to cooked weight or to dry volume conversions are fairly predictable. above. Outcomes vary according to the degree of doneness desired and.) NOTES: . more importantly.

LARGE EGGS Cost of 1 Quart of Large Shelled (Pooled) Eggs According to Part I. so use this formula: $ Cost of 1 large egg Thus.214 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 9 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 9 Eggs Egg Size: _______________________________________________ (Given or from invoice) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (From invoice: case.44 = $ Cost per quart Cost of 1 Pound of Large Shelled (Pooled) Eggs According to Part I. cost per quart: Cost of 1 egg $ _______________ 19.) Purchase Unit Cost: $ ____________________________________ (From invoice or price list) AP Subunit: ____________________________________________ (Flat. so use this formula: $ Cost of 1 large egg Thus.44 large shelled eggs per quart. etc.44 $ _______________ Cost per quart of large shelled eggs 19. cost per pound: Cost of 1 egg $ _______________ 9 $ _______________ Cost of 1 pound of large shelled eggs 9 $ Cost per pound NOTES: . etc. or physical count) Cost of 1 Egg: $ _________________________________________ (Subunit cost Number eggs in 1 subunit) Note: If you know how many eggs are in the entire AP unit.) Number of Subunits in AP Unit: ___________________________ (From invoice or AP unit pack) Cost per Subunit: $ ______________________________________ (AP unit cost AP unit) Number of subunits in Number of Eggs in 1 Subunit: _____________________________ (From invoice. pack. 36-pack. 36-pack. there are 19. there are 9 large shelled eggs per pound. carton of 12. you can determine the cost of 1 egg rather quickly: Simply divide the AP unit cost by the total egg count.

5 ounces yields 60 fluid ounces. carton. or 16 Your 1-ounce yield test) ICED TEA As-Purchased Unit: ___________________________________________ (From invoice) Cost of AP Unit: $ ___________________________________________ (From Invoice) Total Ounces in AP Unit: _____________________________________ (From pack or invoice) Cost per Ounce of Tea Leaf: $ _________________________________ (AP unit cost Total ounces) Fluid Ounce Yield of 1-Ounce Tea Leaf: _________________________ (From Part I: 64.. etc. 1. from invoice) Cost per AP Unit: $ __________________________________________ (From invoice) Total Pounds in AP Unit: ______________________________________ (Invoice.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 0 215 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 10 Brewed and Dispensed Beverages COFFEE (PREPORTIONED PACKAGING) One package brews a predetermined amount of coffee. or computed from pack) Cost per Pound: $ ___________________________________________ (AP unit cost Cost per Ounce: $ ___________________________________________ (Pound cost Total pounds) 16) Fluid Ounce Yield of 1 Ounce Grounds: _________________________ (Your yield test result. from invoice) Cost per AP Unit: $ __________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Number of Packages in As-Purchased Unit: _______________________ (From invoice or AP unit) Cost per Package: $ __________________________________________ (AP unit cost packages) Number of Yield in Fluid Ounces per Package: ______________________________ (Manufacturer’s yield instruction. As-Purchased Unit: ___________________________________________ (Case. etc. from Part I. or use your own yield test results) Cost of 1 Brewed Fluid Ounce: $ _______________________________ (Fluid ounce yield Ounce cost) . or your brewing results) Cost per Brewed Fluid Ounce: $ _________________________________(Package cost Fluid ounce yield) COFFEE (BULKLOOSE GROUNDS) As-Purchased Unit: ___________________________________________ (Case. or from Part I.. or 1 ounce yields 40 fluid ounces) Cost per Brewed Fluid Ounce: $ ________________________________ (Ounce cost Fluid ounce yield) Cost per Brewed 6-Ounce Cup: $ _______________________________ (Brewed fluid ounce cost 6) Yield of 1 Pound Grounds: ____________________________________ (5 Gallons. carton.

0006) . Final cost per mixed fluid ounce: $ _______________________ (Cost per mixed fluid ounce plus $0.0006 per fluid ounce below. or 128) Mix Ratio Syrup to water: ________ parts syrup to________ parts water (From package instructions) Fluid ounce yield after mixing: _________________________ (Multiply fluid ounce in AP unit times parts water. Add this to fluid ounces in AP unit.216 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 0 DISPENSED DRINKS As-Purchased Unit: ___________________________________________________ (Product description) Cost of AP Unit: $ ___________________________________________________ (From invoice) Fluid Ounces in AP Unit: _____________________________________________ (Calculate from invoice: Number of quarts Number of gallons 32.) Cost per mixed fluid ounce: $ __________________________ Divide cost of AP unit by the mixed fluid ounce yield. Add the CO2 and water costs of $0.

include the blood weight in your initial AP weight. it has no other salable (menu) or cooking use in your operation. and unusable trim weights plus usable trim weight and the trimmed piece weight should equal the AP weight. bones. brochette meat. . not even for stocks or employee meals. or Invoice amount) Trimmed Weight (Pounds): ________________________________ (Weigh out or use yield % from Part I weight) AP Trimmed Yield Percentage: (Decimal) ________ or ________ % (Trimmed pounds use Part I %) AP pounds. This method is quicker but is used only when the trim from the primary piece is not really put to use—that is.) obtained from the trimming remains with the primary piece. use this process. or Cost per Pound of Trimmed Piece: $ ________________________ (AP pound cost Trim % or AP cost Trimmed pounds) *If loose blood was in the meat package. stew meat. all of the value of any usable trim (sinew. RAW MEAT TO TRIMMED PIECE: METHOD A With this method. When the value of the usable trim is not deducted from the AP cost. ground meat. Prepared Meat Item Name: ________________________________ (Given) Base Meat Name: ________________________________________ (Original meat item) Base Meat NAMP Number: _______________________________ (NAMP guide or invoice) As-Purchased (AP) Piece Weight in Pounds: ___________________ (Invoice amount or weigh out*) Cost per AP Pound: $ ____________________________________ (From invoice or price list) A: Total Cost of Raw AP Piece: $ ___________________________ (AP pounds Cost per pound. etc.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 1 217 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 11 Meats There are two ways to cost trimmed meats: ✦ Method A: This method does not deduct the value of the trimmings (usable or not) from the cost of the trimmed piece. loose blood. ✦ Method B: This method does deduct the value of the usable trim from the cost of the trimmed piece. Cutting loss. This results in the trimmed piece being relatively more expensive but assigns a zero value to the trimmings.

The cost values assigned to your usable trim items are what you would pay had you bought them. (You might also order these trimmed items. or AP pounds cost) Pound Minus Value of Usable Trim: $ _______________________________ (Enter Total Trim Deductions) B: Cost of Trimmed Piece: $ _________________________________ (AP cost – Trim value) Trimmed Weight (Pounds): __________________________________ (Weigh out. USABLE TRIM DEDUCTIONS Item Bones and Sinew Ground Meat Stew Meat Brochette Meat Pounds Market Price per Pound $ Total Value $ TOTAL: Here is how to plug in the usable trim total value to the worksheet: Prepared Meat Item Name: __________________________________ (Given) Base Meat Name: __________________________________________ (Original Meat Item) $ Base Meat NAMP Number: _________________________________ (NAMP Guide or Invoice) As-Purchased (AP) Piece Weight in Pounds _____________________ (Invoice Amount or Weigh Out) Cost per AP Pound: $ ______________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Total Cost of Raw AP Piece: $ ________________________________ (From invoice. such as extra bones or brochette meat. or use yield % from Part I AP weight) Cost per Pound of Trimmed Piece: $ __________________________ (Trimmed piece cost weight in pounds) Trimmed . add up the value of the trimmings and deduct their assigned value from your cost of the entire piece. but the point is that these trimmings are going to be used and have a usable value. as purchased.) After completing your normal trimming of the meat item.218 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 1 RAW MEAT TO TRIMMED PIECE: METHOD B This method is used when the usable trim is put to use in your operation in lieu of having to order the trimmed items separately.

Meat Item: _______________________________________________ (Given. Trimmed: $ ____________________________ (Cost of whole raw. 7-ounce steak) Name of AP Piece: ________________________________________ (Given. Name of Portioned Item: ___________________________________ (Given. Invoice. or Weigh Out) Cost per Pound Raw. e. It can also be used to complete the costing of a trimmed piece from above. or raw pound cost yield %) Cooked Cooked Cost per Ounce of Cooked Piece: $ __________________________ (Cooked pound cost 16) PORTION COST Use this section when known portions are obtained from a single piece (item). or from Above. Trimmed Piece: $ ______________________________ (Invoice. Trimmed Piece: ________________________ (From Above.g. or invoice name) Cost of Raw AP Piece: $ ____________________________________ (From above) Number of Servable Portions from Piece: ______________________ (Your estimate or count) Cost per Servable Portion: $ ________________________________ (Cost per AP piece Portions per piece) NOTES: . A or B) Pound Weight of Raw. or from Above) Cost of Raw. trimmed piece Pound weight of trimmed piece) Pound Weight of Cooked Piece: _____________________________ (Weight after cooking and resting) Cooked Yield Percentage: (Decimal) ________ or ________% (Cooked weight weight) Raw trimmed Cost per Pound of Cooked Piece: $ __________________________ (Cost of raw trimmed piece pounds..C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 1 219 COOKED MEAT BY WEIGHT This section can be used by itself if you buy ready-to-cook meats (pretrimmed).

g. or Middle of count range on invoice) Cost of Each: $ ____________________________________________ (Pound cost Per pound count) . Here. tail.) Yield Percentage: (Decimal) ______________________ or ________ % (From Part I. and fins removed.. Dressed Salmon) As-Purchased Unit: _________________________________________ (Package Description) As-Purchased Unit Cost: $ ___________________________________ (From Invoice or Price List) Pounds in AP Unit: ________________________________________ (From invoice or weighout) Net Pounds after Filleting: ___________________________________ Actual weight. after boning and skinning. e.. head. Fillet portions are dealt with in the next section. e. or from invoice) Cost per AP Pound: $ ______________________________________ (Cost of AP unit AP unit) Number of pounds in Average Count per Pound: ___________________________________ (Actual count. or Net weight Purchased weight) Cost per Filleted Pound: $ ___________________________________ (AP pound cost Yield %) Cost per Filleted Ounce: $ ___________________________________ (Fillet pound cost 16) Number of Ounces per Filleted Portion: _______________________ (Recipe specification) Cost per Filleted Portion: $ __________________________________ (Fillet ounce cost Ounce per portion) SEAFOOD BOUGHT BY COUNT PER POUND Item Name: _______________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: _________________________________________ (From invoice. or given) Cost of AP Unit: $ _________________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Pounds in AP Unit: ________________________________________ (Count.g.220 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 2 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 12 Seafood FINFISH: DRESSED FISH AND FILLETS A dressed fish has its intestines. or yield % from Part I Original AP lbs. the word fillet refers to a whole side. Processed Item Name: ______________________________________ (Given. Salmon Fillet) Raw Item Name: __________________________________________ (Given. scales.

Use the sections that follow for costing individual poultry pieces. gizzard. are often packed in ice for shipping. neck. Name of Poultry Item: ____________________________________ (Given) Size or Type of Bird: ______________________________________ (Given or from invoice) As-Purchased Unit: _______________________________________ (Given or from invoice) Total AP Unit Cost: $ _____________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Pound Weight of AP Unit: _________________________________ (From invoice or weigh out) Cost per AP Pound: $ _____________________________________ (AP unit cost AP pounds) Number of Birds in AP Unit: _______________________________ (Count or from invoice) Actual Average Weight per Bird: _____________________________ (Total AP weight Cost per Bird: $ __________________________________________ (AP unit cost Cost per AP Ounce: $ _____________________________________ (AP pound cost Total number of birds) Bird count) 16) Note: Fresh poultry. Whole poultry is sold with giblets (heart. If you do not use the giblets. Compare their drained weight to the invoice weight. The usable giblet costs would then be added to the recipes in which they are used. Be sure you clean off the ice and briefly drain the wet chickens before weighing. If you do use the giblets. buy poultry WOG. . The giblet values are the market prices for the respective items. especially chickens. then you should deduct the total value of the giblets from the as-purchased unit cost before proceeding with further costing. because the total cost is usually less than that for whole birds with giblets.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 221 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 13 Poultry BASIC POULTRY COSTING WORKSHEET (A) Use this first section of the worksheet if your poultry has no giblets or you want to include the cost of giblets in your costing. and/or liver) or without giblets (called WOG).

) Net Weight (Pounds) of Poultry. Pounds Market Price per Pound $ Total Value $ $ WORKSHEET SHOWING DEDUCTION OF GIBLET COSTS (B) Name of Poultry Item: ______________________________________ (Given) Size or Type of Bird: ________________________________________ (Given or from invoice) As-Purchased Unit: _________________________________________ (Given or from invoice) Total AP Unit Cost: $ _______________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Pound Weight of As-Purchased Unit: __________________________ (From invoice or weigh out) Cost per AP Pound: $ _______________________________________ (AP unit cost Cost per AP Ounce: $ ______________________________________ (AP pound cost AP pounds) 16) Usable Giblets Value: $ ______________________________________ (From giblet value box. This is the adjusted cost of AP unit. WOG: $ _______________________________ (WOG pound cost Cost per Individual WOG Bird: $ _____________________________ (Adjusted cost Total number of birds) . WOG: ________________________ (Weight after removing giblets) Total Cost per Pound. and weigh each giblet type. USABLE GIBLET DEDUCTIONS* Item Necks Gizzards Hearts Livers Backs TOTAL: *Remove.222 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 Use the Usable Giblet Deductions form below to determine the value of the usable giblets. WOG: $ _______________________________ (Adjusted cost Net pounds) 16) Total Cost per Ounce. above) AP Unit Cost Less Giblet Value: $ _____________________________ (AP unit cost Giblet value. separate.

Second Section.1% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Breast.4% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Wing. and thighs from the AP bird. First Section. divide the average cost of one AP whole bird by 67.9 percent is the combined yield of the breasts.9 percent to get the new adjusted cost. To cost the total cleaned meat. Each: $ ___________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 2. To cost each part. multiply its yield percentage by the adjusted cost. legs. just enter the AP bird’s original cost.6% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Wing.6% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Breast. legs. Each: $ ___________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 14. wings. Both: $ ______________________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 10.679 Adjusted cost: $ __________ PARTS: LARGE FRYER WITH OR WITHOUT GIBLETS Cost of Whole Large Fryer: $ __________________________________ (Given or from above.) If you do deduct the dollar value of the giblets. Whole/Half. first subtract that amount from the original AP cost per bird before calculating the adjusted cost. Original Cost of one AP Bird $__________ Divided by 0.8% Adjusted cost) . Each: $ ________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 2. Whole.7% Adjusted cost Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Wings. A or B) Total Clean Meat: $ __________________________________________ (Enter the AP cost of 1 whole bird) Wings. LARGE FRYERS: PARTS If you do not deduct the value of the giblets and are simply assigning the cost of the whole bird to the breasts.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 223 CHICKEN. Both Halves: $ _________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 29. wings. Each: $ ______________________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 5. (The 67. and thighs.

(This assumes that each of your sample birds has two wings. Write that percentage in column C. Put this answer in column E. If you buy fryers without giblets. Both: $ ________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 27. The answer is the yield percentage for that type of part. Both: $ _______________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 16. etc. Add up the total ounce weight of all the fryers in your sample test group and enter that weight below. legs. blood. (Put their part or bird section name in column A. Just skip column D and put your first costing answer in column E. Enter the average cost of a whole fryer (given.6% Adjusted cost Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Drumsticks. breast halves. Cut your sample birds into their parts (breasts. 2. Cutting losses of 3 to 5 percent of the original weight are common. Weigh each total set of the same parts and put the answer in column B. Multiply the yield percentage in column C by the cost of one whole fryer. Put this answer in column D. Both: $ ___________________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 5. or from worksheets or your invoice).) 4. Divide each set’s weight by the total weight of all the birds in your sample. Whole. two breasts.224 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 Leg and Thigh.3% from Part I: 10% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost) Thigh Meat. This answer will show the cost value of two wings. legs. Both: $ ___________________________________ (% of original weight from Part I: 11. and thighs. etc. Use this form to weigh single backs. Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 percent due to cutting losses of bird bits. and water.) 6.). 5. Here is how to figure out the cost of each type of fryer part from scratch: 1. That will be the cost of one part.4% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Adjusted cost Thighs. 3. you have to determine the percentage of the whole fryer’s weight that your respective fryer parts represent. too. Divide column D by 2. . Whole. Whole. Both: $ _________________________________________ (% of original weight PARTS: LARGE FRYERS WITHOUT GIBLETS The chicken yields and percentages listed in Part I are based on a whole fryer with giblets.4% Adjusted cost) Adjusted cost Leg Meat.

) Average Cost of One Whole Fryer: $ _____________________ Cost per Pound: $ Total Ounce Weight of All Whole Fryers in Sample: _________ Ounce Cost: $ A Bird Section (Part Name) B Ounce Weight: Set C Percent of Whole D Cost of 2 Parts $ E Cost of 1 Part $ .C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 225 Here is the form to fill out to determine the yield percentages and to calculate your costs: (Fill in average costs from known values or from worksheets above.

and thighs. This answer will show the cost value of two wings. blood. The answer is the yield percentage for that type of part. These are the steps to follow to figure out the cost of each type of bird part from scratch: 1. 3. Multiply the yield percentage in column C by the cost of one whole bird. breast halves. Add up the total ounce weight of all the birds in your sample test group and enter that weight on the following form. Use this form to weigh single backs. Cut your sample birds into their parts (breasts. and so on. Divide each set’s weight by the total weight of all the birds in your sample. Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 percent due to cutting losses of bird bits. goose. That will be the cost of one part.). duckling.226 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 POULTRY. Weigh each total set of the same parts and put the answer in column B. 2. Divide column D by 2. and so on. Put this answer in column E. legs. . legs. Here is another version of that worksheet. Just skip column D and put your first costing answer in column E.) 4. Write that percentage in column C. and water. (Put their part or bird section name in column A. Cutting losses of 3 to 5 percent of the original are common.) 6. Enter the average costs of a whole bird on the following form (given. (This assumes that each of your sample birds has two wings. Put this answer in column D. etc. two breasts. GENERAL The preceding worksheet for a large chicken fryer without giblets works for any bird: turkey. omitting references to fryers. 5. or from worksheets or your invoice).

C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3 227 Here is the form to fill out to determine the yield percentages and calculate your costs. Bird Type and Description: Average Cost of One Whole Bird: $ ______________________ Cost per pound $ Total Ounce Weight of all Whole Birds in Sample: __________ Cost per ounce: $ A Bird Section (Part Name) B Ounce Weight: Set C Percent of Whole D Cost of 2 Parts $ E Cost of 1 Part $ .

double the cup cost. which is 80. bacon fat. Cup cost: $ To cost a pint of clarified butter.*) Pounds per AP Unit: _____________________________________ (Given. Gallon cost: $ *It may be difficult to assign an as-purchased cost per pound to some fats.864) ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ To cost a cup of clarified butter. whole duck fat) As-Purchased Unit: _______________________________________ (Given. for instance. or from invoice) Cost of AP Unit: $ _______________________________________ (Given.228 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 4 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 14 Rendered. or from invoice) Cost per AP Pound: $ ____________________________________ (AP unit cost AP pounds) Ounce Yield per AP Pound: ________________________________ (From Part I or your measure) Ounce Cost: $ ___________________________________________ (AP pound cost Fluid Ounce Cost: $ ______________________________________ (AP unit cost Ounce yield per pound) Total fluid ounce yield) The clarified butter yield of 75 percent as stated in Part I is a weighed yield. Fluid ounce cost: $ (AP pound cost 12. the fluid ounce yield is greater because butterfat is lighter than whole butter. multiply the cup cost by 4.4 percent of the original 2-cup volume that 1 pound of whole butter equals. from invoice. One pound of whole butter yields 12 weighed ounces of clear butterfat. However. or comparable vendor price. . Pint cost: $ To cost a quart of clarified butter.864.) Base Item Name: ________________________________________ (Food being rendered. In these cases. assign an AP cost per pound that you would have had to pay had you purchased these items from a vendor. divide the cost of 1 pound of raw butter by 12.864 fluid ounces of clarified butter. multiply the cup cost by 16. or pork. ✦ To cost a fluid ounce of clarified butter. multiply the fluid ounce cost by 8. duck fat. etc. May be a price per pound. Reduced. e.Your meat vendor or a local butcher can give you those prices. and Clarified Items Name of Rendered Item: __________________________________ (Clarified butter. Quart cost: $ To cost a gallon of clarified butter. One pound of whole butter will yield 12. This happens when you render fats trimmed out of ducks.. geese. whole butter.g.

If the AP unit contains subunits or smaller containers. determine the cost per subunit and then proceed with the cost breakdown to determine the cost per prepared fluid ounce. jars. Number of Subunits in AP Unit: __________________________ (From invoice or package) Cost per Subunit: $ _____________________________________ (AP unit cost Number of subunits) Fluid Ounce Yield of 1 Subunit: ___________________________ (From label or package recipe) Cost of 1 Prepared Fluid Ounce: $ _________________________ (Subunit cost Subunit fluid ounce yield) 8) 16) 32) 128) Cost per Cup: $ _________________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Pint: $ ________________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Quart: $ _______________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Gallon: $ ______________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost . next. Sauces. and Others Item Name: ____________________________________________ (Given) As-Purchased Unit: ______________________________________ (From invoice or price list) Cost of AP Unit: $ ______________________________________ (From invoice or price list) If the AP unit is a single container. proceed here. Total Pounds in AP Unit: _________________________________ (From package description) Cost per Pound: $ ______________________________________ (AP unit cost Cost per Ounce AP Base: $ _______________________________ (AP pound cost Total pounds) 16) Fluid Ounce Yield of 1 Pound: ____________________________ (Recipe on package) Cost of 1 Prepared Fluid Ounce: $ _________________________ (Pound cost Fluid ounce yield per pound) 8) 16) 32) 128) Cost per Cup: $ _________________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Pint: $ ________________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Quart: $ _______________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost Cost per Gallon: $ ______________________________________ (Fluid ounce cost SUBUNITS BREAKDOWN If the AP unit contains smaller (sub-) units such as boxes. skip to the Subunits Breakdown. or cans.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 5 229 Measurement Conversion and Costing Worksheet 15 Flavor Bases: Stocks.

230 C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 6 Costing Worksheet 16 Recipe Card for Costing Recipe Name: ______________________ Recipe Number: ___________________ *To calculate Total Cost per Item in column E: Multiply column A by column D. Column F is for Volume Equivalents. A Amount B Recipe Unit C Item D Recipe Unit Cost $ E Total Cost per Item $ F Ounce Weight (Optional) Total Ounce Weight Total Cost of Recipe $ Total Recipe Cost $ ________________ .

3. State prep and cooking times. 4. . Follow a practical sequence. plus all temperatures. and plating instructions. List initial preparations first. 5.C o s t i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 6 231 YIELD COSTING Formula Total recipe cost Yield Types A B C D E F G H I J K L M Fluid ounces Cups Quarts Gallons Liters Ounces by weight Pounds Kilos Portions Pieces Containers Servings per Container Total servings (Yield # of K times L) Just fill in #: Number yielded Number Yielded Cost of One Yield Type $ Recipe Name: _______________________________________ Recipe Number: ____________ Recipe Method or Procedure 1. Include holding. 2. storing. Identify the tools and equipment used. Be complete but brief.

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PURCHASING WORKSHEETS 233 .

4 Starchy Items Use to plan purchases of legumes. and special items. Beverages and soda. 9 Brewed and Dispensed Beverages 10 11 Meats Seafood Use to plan purchases of coffee. cocoa. flour. yogurt. Use to plan purchases of finfish. meal. and lamb. some crustaceans. . bran. sweeteners. Use to plan purchases of beef. milk. oils. and some condiments.234 G u i d e t o U s i n g t h e P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t s Guide to Using the Purchasing Worksheets Worksheet Number Worksheet or Form Name Purchasing Worksheet List Purchasing Process Overview 1 2 3 Dry Herbs and Spices Fresh Herbs Produce Use Use to find the purchasing worksheet you need. sauces. etc. turkey. cereals. and some condiments. 14 Ingredient Aggregating Form Use to combine same recipe ingredients. and mollusks. 12 Poultry Use to plan purchases of chicken. veal. spirits. 6 Fats. Condiments Use to plan purchases of fats. eggs. 5 Baking Products Use to plan purchases of nuts and seeds. Use to plan purchases of dry herbs and spices. Oils. Use to plan purchases of fresh and canned vegetables and fruit. Introduces the purchasing process. cream. grains. and pastas. 13 Flavor Bases Use to plan purchases of bases for stocks. tea. wines. 8 Dairy Products Use to plan purchases of cheeses. and soups. pork. 7 Bottled Liquids Use to plan purchases of fluids in general. rice. and other fowl. Use to plan purchases of fresh herbs. crumbs.

Use to record variations in food weights of same item over time to get an average. Use to record needed purchase measures and compare to inventory and pars.G u i d e t o U s i n g t h e P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t s 235 15 Purchase Unit Measure Aggregating Form Use to combine conversion answers from other purchasing worksheets. Use as food ordering form. 20 21 Food Order Form Trimmed versus Untrimmed Prices . 16 Amounts Needed versus Par 17 18 Inventory Form (Optional) Food Weight Log (Optional) Use to count current inventory. Use to decide whether a pretrimmed food is a better buy. 19 Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs Use to convert purchase unit measures needed to purchase unit packs.

based on any amount of food you plan to prepare. meats. figure out . Go through the recipes and add up all the total recipe unit measure amounts for each identical ingredient. To use them. steaks. boxes. and so on. etc. 6. these forms will help you to figure out how much food to buy to meet a food production plan and maintain par levels of inventory. Order the food amounts you need. Combine all the identical ingredients in your recipes and total how much you need of each ingredient. you begin with the recipe unit amount of food you need to serve or use. 3. Compare your plan’s food needs to your current inventory and par inventory levels. 4. In short. 7. ounces. For the event or period of time for which you are making up your production plan. heads. The purchasing process and order forms are used to convert your purchase unit measures (like pounds.) into purchase unit packs such as cases. Assemble the recipes needed for the production plan. 5. ounces. or counts). Using these forms. pieces. trimmed produce.) in order to execute your plan and maintain your minimum par inventory levels. This tells you how much to order to produce your plan and maintain your minimum inventory levels after the production plan’s foods have been used up. Use the individual purchasing worksheets to convert your ingredients from recipe unit measures (like cups. 2. pieces. Here are more detailed instructions for completing a purchasing procedure: Step 1. cooked pasta.) back to purchase unit measures (like pounds. etc. Forms you’ll use to manage the purchasing process and order food Each conversion worksheet is used for a particular type of food: produce. you then compare your current inventory (and par inventory needs) against the needed purchase unit packs. Take a physical inventory to compare how much of these items you have on hand. Here is a summary of the steps to take in order to do just that: 1. Recipe unit to purchase unit conversion worksheets 2. make a food order with a vendor(s). Gather your recipes. ultimately.236 Overview Overview The purchasing process described here uses the information from Part I and the following set of worksheets to help you determine how much food to buy or cost out. and. Step 2. and so on. canned goods. poultry. There are two kinds of documents in the purchasing worksheets set: 1. bags. As you fill in the worksheet. you will convert your recipe unit measures to purchase unit measures. Convert the purchase unit measures of the foods you need back to their equivalent purchase unit packs (cases. etc.

In this case. pieces. Complete your conversions going from the recipe unit measures to the purchase unit measures. This form helps you combine all needs for each item on one page. Select the formula that converts your recipe units back to a purchase unit measure. a purchase unit pack will contain a specific number of purchase unit measures. For instance. heads. if one recipe calls for a whole onion. The instructions for making these conversions are on each worksheet. to make it easier to find any food and its conversion equivalents or yield percentages. or ounces. gallons. you will use the Produce conversion worksheet (Worksheet 3) for both ways of measuring the onion. or multiply. rather than just a “bag. fluid ounces. For instance. Each formula is followed by a series of boxes called tables to fill in. with specific ways of measuring that type of food. starchy items. to help you find the worksheet (numbered 1 to 21) most useful for the foods or activity you are dealing with at the time. It’s fairly common for the pack to state how many purchase unit measures it contains. Record your totals on a scratch pad or use the Ingredient Aggregating Form (Purchasing Worksheet 14). pints. You will total each food’s needs by the type of recipe unit measure. and so on. while another calls for 2 cups of chopped onion. ✦ Purchase unit measures are usually bigger: pounds. When you do so. canned goods. you may find the Purchase . bag. note the following: ✦ Recipe unit measures are often small measures such as tablespoons. and so on. The purchasing conversion worksheets are organized by food types: fresh herbs. In this regard. you complete the conversion formula. steaks. step by step.) ✦ A purchase unit pack is an even bigger unit: a case. you may use medium onions in five recipes. a pound is the purchase unit measure and a bag is the purchase unit pack.) On each purchasing worksheet there are conversion formulas to use. the bag of onions would be called a 50-pound bag. Use the various purchasing conversion worksheets to convert your ingredients’ recipe unit measures back to purchase unit measures. For instance a bag (the pack) of onions may weigh 50 pounds. (They are categorized like the food tables in Part I. So in this case. you need to multiply your ingredient measures by 10.Overview 237 how many times you will need to make each recipe in order to serve the total number of customers expected. by the way. For instance. NOTE The Purchasing worksheet section begins with a guide to the rest of the worksheets. Step 3.” It makes things clearer for everyone. vegetables. and so on. This form will help you record the amounts needed for ingredients that are used in more than one recipe. box. subtract. These are usually called as-purchased units or purchase units. cups. divide. if a recipe serves 60 but you expect 600 guests. You may have to make more than one conversion for the same food. and the forms indicate what to add. For instance. (These measures are often used to count inventory.

subtract column D from column B. If the number in column G is equal to or bigger than your minimum par level in column F. your plan will wipe out your . You must order enough food to get column E to zero or higher. Step 4. the amount in column E states how much you will still have in inventory after your production plan needs are met. Amounts Needed versus Par. How much higher? It depends on your minimum par level for the food in question.) If you are taking a full inventory of all the foods in your kitchen. Write the food names in column A and the purchase unit measure amounts in column D. columns B and C. Again. (You are subtracting the number of purchase unit measures that you need for your production plan from the number of purchase unit measures in your current inventory. consider using the Inventory sheet first and then transfer your totals to Purchasing Worksheet 16. Count the inventory by the number of purchase unit measures. If you do not have a minimum par for this food. Take and record the inventory. If you have 25 pounds of onions on hand. you can enter your inventory totals directly into columns B and C of the Amounts Needed versus Par worksheet. Enter this difference in column G. On the Amounts Needed versus Par worksheet. Step 5. If column E is less than zero. you do not have to order this food. counting inventory by purchase unit packs is also a fairly common practice. Note: If column E is zero. This is the amount of food you need to order to make your plan and maintain your minimum par level. of some help. This involves physically counting the quantity of the needed food items you have on hand. Subtract the amount in column E from your minimum par level in column F.) Record this answer in column E. Compare your minimum par levels (the amount of food that you want to always have on hand) to the amounts needed. this amount should be stated in the same unit of measure as the others: the purchase unit measure. If it is zero. you might count onions by the pound or by the number of 50-pound bags on hand. Fill in your minimum par inventory level for each food in column F. For instance. Worksheet 15.238 Overview Unit Measure form. you could enter that amount in your inventory count as either 25 pounds or as half of a 50-pound bag. you don’t have enough food on hand to meet your plan. It provides a place to record and combine all the recipe unit measures-to-purchase unit measure conversions for the same food. If you are taking an inventory of only the items you currently need for your production plan. Now record your purchase-unitmeasure conversion—answers for each food on the Amount Needed versus Par worksheet (Worksheet 16). You will have enough to make your production plan and still maintain your minimum par. This is the amount that you will still have in inventory after using the food needed for your production plan. this means your current inventory is exactly equal to the amount you need for your production plan. Inventory lists often contain a mix of purchase unit measures and purchase unit packs. (By the way.

use column G to record the amount in column E that is less than zero. you will need to monitor the relative weights of these food items and order a count using an average weight. Say you are short 10 pounds of an item. be aware that purchase unit packs for some foods can vary regarding how much a unit weighs. If it is less than zero. That said. Converting a need for 10 or 30 pounds of rice to a number of 20-pound boxes (a purchase unit pack for rice) is pretty straightforward. then. This is the amount you need to buy in order to simply produce your plan. Convert your purchase unit measures to purchase unit packs. the units of measure have to be identical. The purchase unit packs are found in the accompanying Price Lists at the beginning of the Workbook. you are dividing the number of purchase unit measures you need by the number of purchase unit measures contained in one purchase unit pack. for instance—are often sold by the bunch and vary in weight from week to week or even in the same delivery. This step is usually pretty simple. Assume. Often. that rice is sold in 20-pound boxes.Overview 239 inventory. you should buy even more. Many produce items—fresh herbs. the answer is 1. Why? The purchasing formulas for fresh produce often result in an answer expressed as a weight. you will have to order the amount in column E to just make your plan—but you should order more or you will still be out of that food as soon as you produce your plan. If you have no minimum par. to get 0. If your food item is not listed there. (There is an example for rice already filled in on the worksheet to help you see how this goes. If the food in question is one you normally use in your operation.5 boxes. which equals a half box. you would divide 10 by 20. If you are sold these items by the bunch or count rather than by a weight. That item may only be sold in purchase unit packs of 20 pounds. you have to use pounds as a purchase unit measure if your purchase unit pack is a 20-pound box or a 40-pound case.5. Therefore. Obviously. For 10 pounds. because some of these foods . for example. For instance. You divide the number of pounds you need by the number of pounds in the purchase unit pack.) In this step. Use the Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Pack worksheet (Worksheet 19) to convert the numbers in column G on the Amounts Needed versus Par worksheet (Worksheet 16) to the amounts you need stated in purchase unit packs. For 30 pounds. Answers from the purchasing worksheets are often measured in pounds and ounces. you will have to order 20 pounds just to obtain the 10 pounds you need. you don’t have much choice in the matter. Step 6. refer to a vendor’s invoice or contact a vendor to determine that food’s price and pack.

Use the Food Order Form to write up the number of purchase unit packs you need to order. Clear instructions for completing step 6 are printed on the Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs worksheet. Step 7. you need to ask your vendor for current weights of the items in question when doing your ordering. Ingredient Aggregating Form . Your supplier will advise you if a case cannot be broken down. or you are just starting out as a chef. are typically called as-purchased units or. NOTE It is often possible to order broken cases of foods. From there. and it will make a difference in your profits.) Note that you will have to round off many of the AP unit amounts because you usually have to order whole cases. (The instructions on the Food Order Form tell you how to complete the item costing and totaling of your order. price quotes from your vendor(s). SUMMARY Many chefs learn to do much of this work on the fly. the cost per pound or per count goes up. you will go to the last purchasing worksheet. you will have to buy 40 pounds if that item is sold only in 20-pound boxes. Record the final food order. from start to finish. However. on which you will round off the number of purchase unit packs needed to arrive at a practical order. Therefore. 1. or boxes. despite the fact that you may need only 30 pounds of an item. If you do order an amount that is a partial pack—a broken case— expect to pay a premium for the amount you do buy. when a special event comes up. as-purchased units) of this item you’ll need. However. So. cartons. or you are planning for a new food service operation. Filling it in tells you exactly how many purchase unit packs you need to order. as you know by now.240 Overview (such as fresh herbs or bunches of radishes or heads of cauliflower) differ in the size of their as-purchased weight from one delivery to the next.) You would then enter your average weight of the item from your log in column E of the Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs worksheet to help you determine how many purchase unit packs (or. Use the Price List. but if you do. it’s a good idea to follow these steps carefully before attempting to fly through them. It does get easier with practice. Here is a list of the forms you will be using in the purchasing process. AP units. (Instructions for doing this are included with the log. These. Recipe cards (Costing Worksheet 16) 2. the Food Order Form. You can use the Food Weight Log (Worksheet 18) to keep these records. your salesperson may not know what the weights in question are. or 50 pounds if it only comes in 50-pound containers. Fresh produce or canned goods may sometimes be ordered this way. more commonly. so you need to keep your own records of average weights for items of this type. or earlier invoices to fill in the cost of one purchase unit.

Inventory Aggregating Form 4b. they do make the process complete and will help you explore the entire purchasing process more fully. However. Purchase Unit Measures aggregating form 4. Amounts Needed versus Par worksheet 4a. Food Order Form You may not need the subordinate forms (labeled “a” or “b”) in all situations. they are optional. . Recipe Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Measures conversion worksheets 3a. Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs 6. Food Weight Log 5.Overview 241 3.

The answer (AP in ounces) will be the number of ounces of dry herb or spice you need to buy or cost out. Name of Item Tablespoons Needed Tablespoons per Ounce AP in Ounces Converting Cups to Ounces FORMULA: AS # of cups Ounces per cup AP ounces Multiply the total cups needed by the ounces per cup from Part I. Name of Item Cups Needed Ounce per Cup AP in Ounces .242 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 Purchasing Worksheet 1 Dry Herbs and Spices # of tablespoons per ounce AP ounces Converting Tablespoons to Ounces FORMULA: AS # of tablespoons Divide the total number of tablespoons needed by the number of tablespoons per ounce from Part I.The answer (AP in ounces) will be the number of ounces of dry herb to buy or cost out.

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 243 Converting Piece Counts to Ounces FORMULA: Count needed Count per ounce AP ounce Divide the total count of items needed by the number of that item per ounce from Part I. Name of Item Count Needed Count per Ounce AP in Ounces . The answer will be the equivalent number of ounces needed.

2. divide the tablespoons needed by the tablespoons per ounce from Part I.244 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 Converting Count per Tablespoon to Number of Tablespoons FORMULA (Step 1): Count needed Count per tablespoon Number of tablespoons needed Converting Number of Tablespoons Needed to Ounces FORMULA (Step 2): Tablespoons needed Tablespoons per ounce AP ounces 1. Divide the count needed by the count per tablespoon from Part I. This answer is the as-purchased amount of dry herb or spice you need to buy or cost out. Step 1 Table Name of Item Count Needed Count per Tablespoon Tablespoons Needed Step 2 Table Name of Item Tablespoons Needed Tablespoons per Ounce AP in Ounces . To convert the number of tablespoons needed to ounces. The answer will be the number of tablespoons needed.

The answer (AP in ounces) will be the equivalent number of ounces of fresh herb you need to buy or cost out.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 245 Purchasing Worksheet 2 Fresh Herbs Determining Ounces to Buy Based on the Number of Garnish Leaves Needed FORMULA 1: Leaves needed Leaves per AP ounce AP ounces Divide the number of leaves needed by the number of garnish leaves per as-purchased ounce from Part I. Name of Herb Number of Leaves Needed Number of Leaves per AP Ounce AP in Ounces Determining Ounces to Buy Based on Number of Tablespoons of Chopped Leaf Needed FORMULA 2: Chopped tablespoons needed Chopped tablespoons per AP ounce AP ounces Divide the number of chopped tablespoons needed by the number of tablespoons of chopped leaf per purchased ounce from Part I. Number of Chopped Tablespoons Needed Number of Tablespoons Chopped Leaf per AP Ounce Name of Herb AP in Ounces . The answer (AP in ounces) will be the equivalent number of ounces of fresh herb you need to buy or cost out.

246 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 Determining Ounces to Buy Based on the Number of Cups of Chopped Leaf Needed FORMULA 3: (Chopped cups needed 16) Chopped tablespoons per AP ounce AP ounce Multiply the number of cups of chopped leaf you need by 16. Number of Chopped Cups Needed # of Tbsp.The answer (AP in ounces) will be the equivalent number of ounces of fresh herb you need to buy or cost out. Chopped Leaf Needed Number of Tablespoons Chopped Leaf per AP Ounce Name of Herb 16 AP in Ounces 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 . divide that answer by the number of tablespoons of chopped leaf per purchased ounce from Part I.

Your answer will be the number of as-purchased ounces you need to buy or cost out.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 247 Converting a Stemless Weight to an As-Purchased Weight FORMULA 4: Stemless weight needed Weight yield percentage AP weight Divide the number of ounces of stemless herb needed by its weight yield percentage for stemless leaf per bunch (from Part I). Stemless Ounces Needed Weight Yield Percentage Name of Herb AP in Ounces .

248 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 Purchasing Worksheet 3 Produce Converting a Trimmed Produce Item Weight to a Raw As-Purchased Weight FORMULA 1: Amount needed in trimmed ounces Yield % Raw AP weight in ounces Divide the number of ounces needed after trimming by that food’s yield percentage found in Part I. Name of Herb Trimmed Ounces Needed Yield Percentage Raw AP Ounces . untrimmed produce you need to buy or cost out. The answer (raw AP weight in ounces) will be the number of ounces of fresh.

This will reflect the compaction of foods in these larger vessels.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 249 Converting As-Served Cups of Trimmed.to 8-cup amounts. (Get the trimmed weight per cup and the yield percentages from Part I. Divide this answer by the trim yield percentage of the same item. . Cut Produce to a Raw AP Weight FORMULA 2: (AS cups needed Yield % of base item Trimmed. Divide that by 16 to arrive at an AP pound equivalent. cleaned ounce weight per cup Trimmed ounces needed) AP in ounces Multiply the needed number of cups of the trimmed and cut produce item by the ounce weight per cup. Name of Herb Number of Cups Needed Ounces per Cup Yield % AP Ounces AP Pounds 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 N OTE O N C O M PA C T I O N Add 3 percent to your answers when dealing with 6.) The answer is the ounce weight you need to buy or cost out. and 7 percent when dealing with 16-cup (gallon) amounts.

either in weight or other AP unit measure. (Locate this in the right-hand column of the Part I Produce table. and cut item Divide the needed number of cups of the trimmed and cut item by the number of cups that are obtained from a single purchase unit of the raw item. etc. Item Name Number of AS Cups Needed of Item Number of Cups of Cut Item from 1 AP Unit Number of AP Units Converting a Piece Count Needed to a Purchase Unit FORMULA 4: AS pieces Trimmed count per AP unit AP units Divide the number of pieces (leaves.) needed by the count yield per AP unit stated in Part I. cleaned.) The answer will be the number of purchase units you need to buy or cost out. Cut item to a Purchase Unit Other than a Weight FORMULA 3: AS cups of the trimmed.250 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 Converting Cups of the Trimmed. and cut item per purchase unit AP purchase units Cups of the trimmed. Name of Item Number of Pieces Needed Number of Pieces per AP Unit Number of AP Units . stalks. The answer will be the number of purchase units needed. each. cleaned.

Drained Ounces Needed Minimum Drained Ounces per Number-10 Can Number of AP Number-10 Cans Item Name .P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 251 Converting Drained Ounces to Number-10 Cans Needed FORMULA FOR DRAINED CANNED GOODS: AS ounces needed Drained ounce weight per can AP # of cans Divide the ounces needed by the USDA minimum drained weight in ounces per can from Part I.The answer will be the number of number-10 cans you need to buy or cost out.

The answer will be the amount of number-10 cans you need to buy or cost out. Undrained Ounces Needed Total Ounces per Number-10 Can AP Number-10 Cans Needed Item Name .252 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 Converting Undrained Ounces to Number-10 Cans Needed FORMULA FOR UNDRAINED CANNED GOODS: AS ounces needed Total ounces (actual) per can AP # of cans Divide the undrained ounces needed by the total ounces per can (locate on the Canned Food Weight-to-Volume table in Part I).

multiply the number of ounces per cup. quarts. Step 1 Table: Multiply the number of cups. quarts. Half Gallon Number of Measures Needed Ounces per Measure Total Ounces Needed Step 2 Table: Divide the total ounces needed by the net or drained ounces per can (from the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table). Item Name Total Ounces Needed (Step 1 Answer) Net Drained Ounces per Can Number of AP Cans Needed . Your answer will be the amount of number-10 cans needed to buy or cost out. Second. or half gallons by its ounce weight to get the total ounces needed. Item Name Measure: Cup. Your answer will be the number of cans to buy or cost out. divide the answer by the net or drained ounces per number-10 can from the same table. Quart.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 253 Converting a Volume of Canned Food to Number-10 Cans Needed FORMULA FOR VOLUMES OF DRAINED OR UNDRAINED CANNED GOODS: (AS volumes needed Ounces per volume measure) Net or drained ounces per can AP # of cans First. or half gallon (from the Canned Foods Weight-to-Volume table in Part I) by the number of cups. or half gallons needed. quart.

or cost. use.254 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 Miscellaneous Canned or Bottled Produce Items FORMULA FOR CONVERTING DRAINED OUNCES NEEDED TO AP CONTAINERS: Drained ounces needed Drained ounces per AP container AP containers Divide the drained ounces needed by the drained ounces per AP container from Part 1. Item Name Drained Ounces Needed Yield % AP Ounces needed AP ounces per container AP Containers . The answer will be the number of containers to buy. Item Name Drained Ounces Needed Drained Ounces per Container # AP Containers FORMULA FOR USING YIELD PERCENTAGES TO COMPUTE AP CONTAINERS NEEDED: (Drained ounces needed Yield % Ounces needed) AP ounces per container AP containers Divide the number of drained ounces needed by the drained yield percentage from Part 1. or cost. Divide that answer by the AP ounces per AP container. use. The answer will be the number of purchase units to buy.

Item Name Count Needed Count per AP Container # AP Containers . or cost.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 3 255 FORMULA FOR CONVERTING A PIECE COUNT TO AP CONTAINERS: Count needed Count per AP container AP containers needed Divide the total count needed by the number of pieces in one container (from Part 1). use.The answer will be the number of purchase units to buy.

Number of Cooked Pounds Needed Number of Cooked Pounds Yielded from 1 Pound Raw Raw AP Pounds Item Name FORMULA 1a: Alternate method using the yield percentage factor: Cooked pounds needed Cooking yield percentage Raw AP pounds Divide the number of pounds of the cooked item needed (the as-served amount) by the cooking yield percentage.256 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 4 Purchasing Worksheet 4 Starchy Items Starchy items discussed here include legumes. 291% becomes 2. Grains.” When using this figure. and pastas. Converting a Cooked Weight to a Raw AP Weight FORMULA 1: AS cooked pounds Cooked pounds yield of 1 raw pound AP weight Divide the number of cooked pounds you need by the number of cooked pounds that 1 raw pound will yield (from Part I). For example. All formulas here use any of the corresponding tables in Part I. rices. cereals.91. Cereals table labeled “Raw to Cooked Weight Increase Percentage. remember to move the decimal figure two places to the left. for example. you will use 2.) Item Name Number of Cooked Pounds Needed Cooked Yield Percentage Raw AP Pounds NOTE Using the percentage method is a bit more accurate because there is less rounding involved.91 instead of 2.9 as a formula factor. Your answer will be the number of raw pounds you need to buy or cost out. . grains. (Locate this percentage in the right-hand column in the Part I Legumes table or Rice.

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 4 257 Converting Cooked Cups Needed to a Raw AP Weight FORMULA 2: Cooked cups needed Cooked cups yielded from 1 pound raw AP pounds Divide the number of cups of the cooked item you need (the as-served amount) by the number of cooked cups that 1 pound raw will yield (from Part I). uncooked cereal. Item Name Number of Raw Cups Needed (AS Cups) Number of Cups per Raw Pound AP in Pounds . or for a meal calling for a specific number of cups of cold.The answer will be the number of raw pounds you need to buy or cost out. Your answer will be the equivalent number of raw pounds to buy or cost out. Number of Cooked Cups Needed (AS Cups) Number Cooked Cups Yielded from 1 Pound Raw Raw AP Pounds Item Name Converting Cups of Cold Cereal or Raw Starch Needed to As-Purchased Pounds FORMULA 3: Cups of raw starch or cold cereal item needed Cups per pound AP pounds This formula can be used to calculate how many pounds of raw rice or other grain or cereal you need for a recipe that calls for that food in raw cups. Divide the number of cups needed of the raw or uncooked item by the number of cups per pound (raw) from Part I.

0 2.5 2.0 used here.0 2.0 2.5 and/or 2.258 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 4 Pasta Purchasing Formulas FORMULA 1: Dry pasta: AS cooked pounds FORMULA 2: Fresh pasta: AS cooked pounds 2.0 2.5 pounds cooked).5 (1 pound dry pasta yields 2.0 2. the as-served weight. ✦ ✦ The conversion factor for dry pasta is 2. The conversion factor for fresh pasta is 2.5 2. Results vary.0 Item Name or or or or or or or or or or AP Pounds NOTE You can use different conversion factors if your pasta products and cooking methods result in bigger or smaller cooked yields.0 AP pounds AP pounds Both formulas use the same format: You divide the number of pounds of cooked pasta you need. It is not uncommon for cooks to obtain 3 pounds of cooked pasta from every pound of dry pasta.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.5 2. .0 2. As-Served Pounds Needed Dry Pasta 2. by a specific conversion factor.0 2. Just substitute your conversion factors for the 2.0 2.0 (1 pound fresh pasta yields 2 pounds cooked).5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Fresh Pasta 2.

This final answer will be the number of pounds you need to buy or cost out. Number of Cups Needed Ounces per Cup Total AP Ounces Needed Item Name 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 AP in Pounds . meal. flour. Divide that answer by 16 to convert the ounces to pounds. sweeteners. brans and crumbs. Converting Cups to Pounds FORMULA 1: (As-served or used cups Ounces per cup) 16 AP pounds First multiply the number of cups needed by the ounce weight of 1 cup (ounces per cup from Part I). and other special items.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 5 259 Purchasing Worksheet 5 Baking Items Baking items discussed here include nuts and seeds. All formulas here use any of the corresponding tables in Part I.

by the number of tablespoons needed. Item Name Number Pints Needed Pounds per Pint AP in Pounds .260 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 5 Converting Tablespoons to AP Ounces FORMULA 2a: (Ounces per cup 16) Tablespoons needed AP in ounces Converting Tablespoons from AP Ounces to AP Pounds FORMULA 2b: AP in ounces 16 AP in pounds Divide the number of ounces per cup (as stated in Part I) by 16. Multiply this answer. Your answer is the number of pounds you need to buy or cost out. which is actually the ounce weight per tablespoon.Your answer will be the number of ounces you need to buy or cost out. To convert ounces to pounds. Item Name Ounces per Cup Ounces per Tablespoon Number of Tablespoons Needed AP in Ounces AP in 16 Pounds 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 Converting As-Served (or As-Used) Pints to Pounds FORMULA 3: AS pints Pounds per pint AP pounds Multiply the number of pints you need by the number of pounds per pint from Part I. divide the number of ounces by 16.

compaction of 1. this step converts the pint weight to a quart weight.5%] AP pounds First multiply the number of pounds per pint (from Part I) times 2. remember. But.) Pounds per Total Pounds Quart Last Two per Quart 1.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 5 261 Converting As-Served (or As-Used) Quarts to Pounds FORMULA 4: [AS quarts (2 Pounds per pint) 1.5% Columns Number of Quarts Needed Item Name Pounds per Pint 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 AP in Pounds . Now multiply the number of quarts you need by that answer—the compacted quart weight.The final answer is the number of pounds you need to buy or cost out.5 percent occurs at a quart volume. (See following note.5 percent to the calculated quart weight. Why? Because there are 2 pints per quart. so add 1.

262 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 5 Converting As-Served (or As-Used) Gallons to Pounds FORMULA 5: [AS gallons (8 Pounds per pint) 7%] AP pounds First multiply the number of pounds per pint (from Part I) by 8. Use the compaction factors when dealing with powdery or loose foods such as flours. (See following note. such as liquids or very dense foods like packed brown sugar. because there are 8 pints per gallon. . But. Now multiply the number of gallons you need by that answer—the compacted gallon weight. this step converts the pint weight to a gallon weight. so add 7 percent to the computed gallon weight. powdered sugar. and ground or milled foods. The final answer is the number of pounds you need to buy or cost out. compaction of about 7 percent occurs with a gallon volume. remember.) Item Name Pounds per Pint Pounds Pounds per Total: Add per Gallon Last Two Gallon 7% Columns Number of Gallons Needed AP in Pounds 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 NOTE It is not necessary to add the compaction factors to the last two formulas when dealing with foods that do not compact.

To convert this answer to pounds. The answer will be the number of ounces of raw.804 AP ounce weight. divide it by 16.75 .804 .804 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 .75 .75 .75 . Fluid Ounces Needed AP in Ounces. and Condiments Fats and Oils: Converting Clarified Butter Weights to Whole Butter Weights FORMULA 1: AS ounce weight of clarified butter 0.75 .804 . To convert this answer to pounds. Whole Butter Fats and Oils: Converting Clarified Butter Volumes to Whole Butter Weights FORMULA 2: AS fluid ounces of clarified butter 0. Oils.4 percent. divide it by 16. Clarified Butter Fat Ounces Needed . The answer will be the number of ounces of raw.75 AP ounce weight.804 .75 . Whole Butter Clarified Butter Fat .804 . whole butter you need to buy or cost out. whole butter Divide the number of weighed ounces of clarified butter needed by its conversion factor of 75 percent (from Part I).804 . whole butter Divide the number of fluid ounces of clarified butter needed by its conversion factor of 80. Whole Butter 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 AP Pounds. Whole Butter AP Pounds.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 6 263 Purchasing Worksheet 6 Fats.75 AP in Ounces. whole butter you need to buy or cost out.804 .804 .75 .

Item Name Number of Cups Needed Cups per Pound AP in Pounds Condiments: Converting AS Tablespoons to AP Ounces FORMULA 1: AS tablespoons needed Ounce weight of 1 tablespoon AP ounces Multiply the number of tablespoons needed by the ounce weight of 1 tablespoon.) Item Name Number of Tablespoons Needed Ounce Weight of 1 Tablespoon AP in Ounces . not fluid ounces. (These ounces are ounces by weight. The answer will be the number of pounds of as-purchased fat you need to buy or cost out. Condiments table. The answer will be the number of as-purchased ounces you need to buy or cost out. as stated in Part I.264 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 6 Fats and Oils: Converting AS Cups of Fat to AP Pounds of Fat FORMULA 3: Cups needed Cups per pound AP in pounds of fat Divide the number of cups of fat you need by the number of cups per pound stated for that fat in Part I.

Item Name Number of Cups Needed Ounce Weight of 1 Cup AP in Ounces 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 AP in Pounds .P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 6 265 Condiments: Converting As-Served Cups to As-Purchased Ounces FORMULA 2: AS cups Ounce weight of 1 cup AP ounces Multiply the number of cups needed times the ounce weight of 1 cup (from Part I).The answer will be the number of ounces you need to buy or cost out. Divide that answer by 16 to convert ounces to pounds.

and your recipe calls for U. convert milliliters to U. First.5735 U.) Container Name or Size Fluid Ounces Needed U. Locate the number of fluid ounces per wine or spirit bottle type or size in the Liquids table in Part I. Sauce. Your answer will be the number of bottles or containers you need to buy or cost out. Item Name (Wine.5735. fluid ounces. fluid ounces needed Fluid ounces per container AP containers If the container is measured in liters or milliliters. Spirit. fluid ounces by dividing the number of milliliters in the container by 29.S.266 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 7 Purchasing Worksheet 7 Bottled Liquids Converting U.S. Locate the number of fluid ounces for condiments on the container itself or on the Price List. divide the number of fluid ounces needed by the number of fluid ounces contained in one container. Fluid Ounces to Bottles or Other Containers FORMULA: U.S. fluid ounces. Item Name Number of Milliliters in Container 29. Fluid Ounces per Container Number of AP Containers . convert the number of milliliters to U. etc.S.S.S.S. Fluid Ounces Now.

and you purchase these items (milks. 2. yogurts) by volume.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 8 267 Purchasing Worksheet 8 Dairy Products The dairy products category includes cheeses. Divide the total fluid ounces needed by the number of fluid ounces in one purchase unit. Add all of the fluid ounces in your recipes and enter that amount in column two. creams. 4. 5. such as a quart or half gallon. milk products. eggs. and yogurt. Purchasing Dairy Liquids When your as-served (or as-used) recipe measurements are expressed as volumes. Total Fluid Ounces Fluid Ounces in Purchase Unit # of Purchase Units Item Name . follow this formula: AS fluid ounces needed Fluid ounces in a purchase unit Purchase units First convert all your recipe unit measures to fluid ounces. Then: 1. Enter your answer in the last column. 3. Enter the dairy liquid’s name in the first column. Enter the fluid ounces contained in one purchase unit in the fourth column.

Divide the total pints needed by the number of pints in a purchase unit and enter your answer in column 6. and enter the answer in column 6. Item Name Total Ounces Needed Ounces per Pint Number Pints Needed Step 2: Converting pints needed to purchase units. Look up the ounces per pint in the Dairy Items table and enter that number in column 4. Enter the item’s name in column 1. Divide the total ounces needed by the ounces per pint. 3. Convert all the pounds needed to ounces and enter the result in column 2. 1. 2. Enter the number of pints contained in your purchase unit in column 4. Step 1: Converting weights needed to equivalent pints. Item Name # Pints Needed # Pints in Purchase Unit Purchase Units Needed . 2. Enter the total pints needed from Step 1 in column 2.268 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 8 If your recipes call for weights of dairy liquids (baking recipes typically do call for weights rather than volumes). Enter the item’s name in column 1. 1. follow this two-step procedure to convert dairy liquid weights to volumes. 4. 3. 4.

If your needs are expressed in quarts. first convert them to cups by multiplying: ✦ ✦ ✦ NOTE No compaction factor is needed for dense. simply divide it by 16. then add 7 percent for compaction.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 8 269 Converting As-Served (or As-Used) Cups to As-Purchased Pounds There are two methods to make this conversion: 1. Number of AS Cups Needed Ounce Weight per Cup AP in Ounces AP in Pounds Item Name 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 . Both methods produce the same answer: the weight of the as-purchased item you need to buy or cost out. Multiply the number of cups you need by the weight per cup from Part I. from Part I. Number of quarts you need by 4. Ounces per cup) 16 AP pounds FORMULA 1: (AS cups Multiply the number of cups you need times the ounce weight per cup. or gallons. half gallons. That answer will be in ounces. Divide the number of cups you need by the number of cups per pound for that item (from Part I). then add 3. 2. Number of half gallons you need by 8. soft. Number of gallons you need by 16. Use compaction factors for shredded or crumbled items. then add 1. To convert to pounds.5 percent for compaction. or wet items such as yogurt and sour cream.5 percent for compaction.

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FORMULA 2: AS cups

Cups per pound

AP pounds

Divide the number of cups needed by the number of cups per pound, from Part I. That answer will be in pounds. (When converting from quarts, half gallons, or gallons, add the compaction factors given above to the number of AS cups needed.)
Item Name Number of AS Cups Needed Number of Cups per Pound AP in Pounds

Eggs: Converting Quarts of Pooled Eggs to an AP Count of Whole Large Eggs
FORMULA 1: Quarts needed of pooled large eggs 19.44 AP count of large eggs

Multiply the number of quarts of shelled (pooled) large eggs you need times 19.44 (the number of large shelled eggs contained in 1 quart, as stated in Part I). The answer will be the count of large eggs you need to buy or cost out. To convert this number to dozens, divide it by 12. (To convert it to flats, divide it by 30.)
Number of Quarts of Large Eggs Needed AP Count Each AP Count in Dozens AP Count in Flats

19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44 19.44

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Or Or Or Or Or Or Or Or Or

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

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271

Eggs: Converting Quarts of Pooled Eggs to an AP Count of Whole Medium Eggs
FORMULA 2: Quarts needed of pooled medium eggs 22 AP count of medium eggs

Multiply the number of quarts of shelled medium eggs you need by 22 (the number of medium shelled eggs contained in 1 quart, as stated in Part I).The answer will be the count of medium eggs you need to buy or cost out. To convert this number to dozens, divide it by 12. (To convert it to flats, divide it by 30.)
Number of Quarts of Large Eggs Needed 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 AP Count Each 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 AP Count in Dozens Or Or Or Or Or Or Or 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 AP Count in Flats

Eggs: Converting a Weight of Large Eggs to an AP Count
FORMULA 3: Pounds of large eggs needed 9 AP count

Multiply the number of pounds of large eggs needed by 9 (the number of shelled large eggs per pound from Part I). The answer will be the count, or number, of large shelled eggs you need to buy or cost out. To convert this number to dozens, divide it by 12. (To convert it to flats, divide it by 30.)
Number of Quarts of Large Eggs Needed 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 AP Count Each 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 AP Count in Dozens Or Or Or Or Or Or Or 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 AP Count in Flats

NOTE
There are 180 eggs in a case. One case equals 15 dozen eggs, or 6 flats. To convert dozens to a number of cases, divide the number of dozens needed by 15. To convert flats to cases, divide the number of flats you need by 6.

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Miscellaneous Dairy: Converting a Count Needed to a Purchase Unit Count
FORMULA: Count needed Count per purchase unit Purchase units required

Determine how many individual pieces are needed. Divide this number by the number of pieces that come in a purchase unit. This is specified on the purchase unit or invoice. The answer will be the number of purchase units required.
Total Count Needed Count per Purchase Unit

Item Name

Purchase Units Required

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 9

273

Purchasing Worksheet 9

Brewed and Dispensed Beverages
Converting Brewed Coffee Needs to an As-Purchased Weight of Grounds
FORMULA 1: AS gallons 3.25 AP grounds in ounces

Part I shows that a standard 60-fluid-ounce pot of brewed coffee requires 1.5 ounces of coffee grounds. Therefore, a full gallon requires slightly more than twice that amount, or 3.25 ounces per gallon. So, to determine the number of ounces of coffee grounds you’ll need to make any number of as-served gallons of brewed coffee, you multiply the number of gallons you need times 3.25. The answer will be the number of ounces of grounds you need to buy or cost out. (If you want a stronger coffee, increase the 3.25 to a higher amount—3.75 ounces of grounds per gallon, for instance, yields a stronger coffee.)
Number of Gallons Needed Regular Strength 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 Or Extra-Strong 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 AP in Ounces 16 16 16 16 16 AP in Pounds

Converting Brewed Iced Tea Needs to an AP Weight of Tea Leaf
FORMULA 2: AS gallons 2 AP tea leaf in ounces

Part I states that you need 2 ounces of tea leaves to brew 1 gallon of tea, strong enough to be suitable for iced tea. You can use less, and some tea companies suggest using less, but your iced tea may be weak if you do so, particularly after some of the ice melts in the glass. So, to determine how much tea leaf you will need to make any number of as-served gallons of brewed tea, you multiply the number of gallons of tea you want (before adding the ice) by 2. The answer will be the number of ounces of tea leaf you will need to buy or cost out. Remember, when estimating the total number of gallons needed, the ice in a glass will reduce its capacity by at least 25 percent, and you will not fill a glass to the rim; therefore, a 16-ounce glass may only hold 10 ounces of actual brewed tea. (This is roughly 60 percent of the capacity of the glass.)
Number of Gallons Needed 2 2 2 2 2 AP in Ounces 16 16 16 16 16 AP in Pounds

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P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 9

Converting Brewed Hot Cocoa Needs to an AP Weight of Cocoa Powder
FORMULA 3: AS gallons needed 3.35 AP ounces of cocoa powder

Part I states that 1 cup of cocoa powder weighing 3.35 ounces is needed to brew 1 gallon of cocoa. So, multiply the number of gallons you need times 3.35. The answer will be the number of ounces of cocoa powder you need to buy or cost out.
Number of Gallons Needed 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 AP in Ounces 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 AP in Pounds

Converting Dispensed Soda Needs to AP Number of Syrup Boxes
FORMULA 4: Fluid ounces of soda needed 3,840 # of syrup boxes

A 5-gallon box of soda syrup will yield 3,840 fluid ounces of dispensed soda.To calculate how many boxes of syrup to order or have on hand, multiply the number of drinks needed by the number of fluid ounces of soda in each drink. Then divide the total fluid ounces needed by the fluid-ounce yield of one box of syrup (3,840). The answer will be the number of boxes of syrup to buy or cost.
Fluid Ounces per Drink Total Fluid Ounces Number of AP Syrup Boxes (5 Gallons Each)

Number of Gallons Needed

3,840

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 0

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Purchasing Worksheet 10

Meat
Converting Portions per Piece to Whole As-Purchased Pieces
Portion count per piece Number of pieces, AP

FORMULA 1: Total portion count needed

Divide the total number of portions needed by the number of portions you get from 1 whole piece.The number of portions you get from 1 piece is dictated primarily by the size of the portion in question. The formula answer will be the number of whole pieces (whole tenderloins, sirloins, strip loins, prime ribs, etc.) you need to buy or cost out.
Name of Basic Piece Portion Name and Size Number of Portions Needed Number of Portions per Piece AP in Whole Pieces

Converting a Trimmed Raw Weight to an Untrimmed Raw Purchase Weight
FORMULA 2: Number of pounds of trimmed meat Yield percentage AP in pounds

Divide the number of pounds of raw meat you will need after trimming by its yield percentage, from Part I. The answer will be the number of pounds of raw, untrimmed meat you need to buy or cost out.
Name of Meat Item Number of Raw Pounds Needed, Trimmed Yield % AP in Pounds

Cooked and Trimmed Finished Yield Percentage AP in Pounds . 2. combined with the shape of the meat and your oven’s tendency to shrink meats as they cook. Multiply your trim yield percentage (from Part I or based on your experience) by the cooked yield percentage. Step 1 Table Meat Item Name Trim Yield % Cooked Yield % Finished Yield Percentage Step 2 Table Meat Item Name Number of Pounds Needed. Divide the trimmed and cooked weight you need to serve by the finished yield percentage. you must determine this percentage yourself by experience. as-purchased meat you need to buy or cost out. The answer will be the number of pounds of raw. combined percentage that is smaller than either of the two original percentages. This percentage depends on the degree of doneness desired. This will result in a new. resulting in a cooked yield percentage of 80 percent. (For example: Convection ovens can easily shrink meat that is cooked to medium rare in the center by 20 percent.) To complete the formula: 1. you need to know what your cooked yield percentage is for the meat in question. a slowcooking oven may shrink meat cooked to medium rare by only 9 percent. Therefore. It is called a finished yield percentage. resulting in a cooked yield percentage of 91 percent. In contrast.276 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 0 Converting a Trimmed and Cooked Weight to a Raw As-Purchased Weight FORMULA 3: AS trimmed and cooked weight (Trim yield % Cooked yield %) AP weight To complete this formula.

The answer will be the number of pounds of fish you need to buy or cost out. At some point. you should do exact counts to determine the true average counts for the items you buy by count.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 1 277 Purchasing Worksheet 11 Seafood Finfish: Converting a Trimmed Fillet Weight to a Particular Market Form's Weight Fillet yield percentage AP pounds FORMULA 1: AS pounds Divide the number of pounds of raw.To be clear. fill in the name of the purchase unit measure in the form below. NOTE It is common practice among seafood processors to list a range count such as 16–20. you need to decide on the specific number to use in order to make the purchasing formula work. It is up to you to decide.This measure may not. In these situations. be the actual pack (or purchase unit) you have to order. . See the shrimp example in the form. Many food service professionals use a mid-range number (such as 18 in the example just given). Name of Fish Number of Pounds of Trimmed Fillet Needed Fillet Yield Percentage AP in Pounds Seafood Items Bought by Count FORMULA 2: Items needed Count per AP unit measure AP in purchase unit measures Divide the total count needed by the number of items per purchase unit measure. Purchase Unit Measure 4 lb. rather than an exact number of items per purchase unit or purchase unit measure. box Count Needed 144 Count per Purchase Unit Measure 72 per box AP in Purchase Unit Measures 2 Item Name Shrimp. a purchase unit measure will be 1 pound.The final answer will be the number of purchase unit measures you need to buy or cost out. For instance. shrimp is often categorized by count per pound but is sold in 4-pound boxes rather than by individual pounds.Typically. however. 16–20 ct. but it may be another pack that weighs something other than a pound. trimmed fillet you need by its yield percentage. Part I indicates what market form the fish in question is. from Part I.

. and therefore not very cost-efficient process. When these dark meats are cleaned in house. Another reason is that it is unusual for modern menus to feature all parts of the chicken: breasts. Those operators who do order whole breasts process them in house. and use the bones and skins in their stocks. However. They may also feature these “as-is” breasts on their menus as whole or “whole-halves. the operator usually does so in order to obtain leg and thigh meat that has less sinew or cartilage than is usually found in “factory-bought” dark meat. Wing tips are often sold by themselves for use in stocks. operators do offer half. Consequently. and further specify it to be boneless and/or skinless. wings. They normally order a specific count of a particular size of chicken breast. Certainly. serve them boneless and skinless.” Wings are sold by size and may be whole or sectioned into drumettes (the first joint) and the second joint. few operators buy whole chickens anymore.278 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 2 Purchasing Worksheet 12 Poultry CHICKEN Food service professionals today often order their chicken already sized and cut up. and legs. typically only breasts and wings are found on today’s menus. thighs. The poultry formulas in this worksheet will enable you to determine the relationship between whole chicken parts and the same parts trimmed (boneless/skinless).or quarter-chickens as menu items. this is a very laborious. as they are sold by specific size and count per case and are offered on menus in much the same form without further cutting. some operators do order whole drumsticks and thighs and remove the bones and skins in house. but there is little need to perform purchasing formula calculations for those items. That said. They use the bones and skins for stocks and put the cleaned meat into dishes on their menus. for a very good reason: Modern poultry processors are very efficient and can sell individually cut and sized chicken parts at prices below what it would cost an independent food service operator to process from whole chickens (when the operator’s labor costs are added to the base cost of the chicken).

Go to Part I to find that the untrimmed weight is 8.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 2 279 Chicken: Converting Boneless.7 ounces and the trimmed weight is 5. so: 5. The answer will be the number of untrimmed ounces you need to buy or cost out.5 percent.5%) The yield percentage for half breasts is 65. then determine the yield percentage for the boneless/skinless pieces by dividing the trimmed weight by the untrimmed weight. 2. skinless pieces needed Yield percentage AP in ounces Here you add up the total ounce weight of the boneless/skinless pieces needed.7 0. Divide the total number of ounces needed by the yield percentage.7 ounces. to compute this percentage for half breasts: 1. For example. Skinless Pieces to Untrimmed.7 8. from Part I.655 (or 65. As-Purchased Pieces FORMULA 1: Ounces of boneless. Step 1 Table Name of Trimmed Part Needed Trimmed Ounce Weight of One Part Untrimmed Ounce Weight of One Part Yield Percentage Step 2 Table Name of Trimmed Part Needed Total Trimmed Ounces Needed Yield Percentage AP in Untrimmed Ounces .

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TURKEY
A bone-on, skin-on turkey breast yields 73.6 percent of its original weight when boned and skinned. To convert a weight of raw, boneless, skinless breast meat to a weight of whole turkey breast(s), divide the as-served weight by 0.736.

Converting Boneless Skinless Turkey Breasts to Whole Turkey Breasts
FORMULA 2: AS or as-used pounds
As Served or As-Used Pounds

0.736

AP pounds whole turkey breast
.736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 .736 AP Pounds Whole Breasts

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 2

281

FORMULA 3: AS pounds

(Trim yield %

Cooking yield %)

AP pounds

To calculate the weight of AP whole breasts from a needed weight of boneless, skinless cooked meat, follow this process: 1. Multiply your cooking yield percentage by the trim yield percentage. 2. Divide the weight you need to serve by the product of the two yield percentages. The answer will be the raw, AP weight of whole turkey breasts to order. Your cooking yield percentage has to be calculated in your own kitchen, by dividing your cooked breast weight by the oven-ready breast weight.
Cooked Pounds Oven-Ready Weight Cooking Yield Percentage

To complete the formula, multiply the trim yield percentage (73.6 percent) by the cooking yield percentage and put the answer in the Cooked/Trimmed Yield Percentage column. Divide the number of pounds you need to serve by this combined percentage.
AS Pounds Trimmed and Cooked Cooked/Trimmed Yield Percentage (Finished Yield Percentage) AP Pounds Whole Raw Turkey Breast

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P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 2

Converting Cooked and Carved Whole Turkey to AP Whole Turkey
FORMULA 4: AS pounds of cooked, carved turkey 0.363 AP pounds whole turkey

On average, whole turkey, with giblets, will yield 36.3 percent in carved, cooked meat. To calculate the number of pounds of raw turkey to buy or cost out, divide the number of pounds of cooked, carved meat needed by 36.3 percent.
AS Pounds Cooked and Carved Meat .363 AP Pounds, with Giblets

Converting Cooked, Carved, and Pulled Turkey to AP Whole Turkey
FORMULA 5: AS pounds of cooked, carved, and pulled turkey 0.41 AP pounds whole turkey

Whole turkeys, with giblets, yield additional weight of usable meat after carving. This meat has to be hand-pulled from the carcass. The pulled meat increases the total yield of cooked meat to 41 percent of the AP weight of the turkey. To calculate the number of pounds of raw turkey to buy or cost out, divide the number of pounds of cooked, carved, and pulled meat needed by 41 percent.
AS Pounds Cooked, Carved, Pulled Meat .41 AP Pounds, with Giblets

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 3

283

Purchasing Worksheet 13

Flavor Bases

Part I of The Book of Yields does not list flavor bases (chicken stock, beef stock, chocolate mousse, etc.), but you can use this worksheet to help you to convert a volume of food produced from a base back to the amount of the paste or powdered base you would need to buy or cost out. The volume that a container of base will produce is always stated on the container. For instance, a 1-pound jar of chicken stock base will typically produce 5 gallons of finished stock. To make this type of conversion, divide the number of fluid measures of the finished food you need by the number of the same fluid measure that the as-purchased weight of the base produces. For instance, say you need 1 gallon of a finished stock made from a base. If 1 gallon equals 128 fluid ounces, and a pound of the base will produce 5 gallons, it will produce 640 fluid ounces. You divide the number of fluid ounces you need (128) by the number of fluid ounces produced by the 1-pound jar (640). Of course, you could also divide 1 gallon by the 5 gallons that one jar produces. Either way, you will get the same answer of 0.20: 128 640 0.20 or 1 5 0.20

The answer, 0.20 (or 20 percent) is the amount of the 1-pound jar you would need to use to make the 1 gallon of finished base. The following table illustrates this example: You need 1 gallon of finished stock. Your base comes in a 1-pound jar and yields 5 gallons. You will need 20 percent, or one-fifth, of one jar.
A B E F G H Number of Number of Number of Recipe Unit AP Units AP Unit Recipe Unit Measures Needed (Jar, Can, Measures Yielded by 1 (Jar, Can Pound, etc.) Needed AP Unit Pound, etc.) 1-Pound Jar 128 640 0.20 C D

Item Name Base Example

Recipe Unit Volume Measures Fluid Ounce

Note the following:
✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Column B states the type of measure you are working with in your recipe. Column D states the number of these recipe unit measures you need. Column C states the as-purchased unit of the base. Column F states how many recipe unit measures are produced by using all of a single as-purchased unit—in this case, the entire 1-pound jar.

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Purchasing Worksheet 14

Ingredient Aggregating Form
1. Read all the recipes for an event or time period and record (in sequence) each recipe unit measure for the same ingredient. 2. Add up the amounts for each kind of measure (tablespoon, cup, ounce, pound, each, etc.) for each ingredient. 3. Combine the total number of each type of measure needed for the same ingredient and enter those numbers on their respective rows in the right-hand column of the form.

You will use this form to add up various amounts needed of the same food ingredient. Here’s how:

Item Name

Recipe Name

Recipe Unit Measure Total Number and Type (Tablespoon, Cup, Number of Name of Each Ounce, Each, etc.) Measures Measure Type Needed

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285

Ingredient Aggregating Form
Item Name Recipe Name Recipe Unit Measure Total Number and Type (Tablespoon, Cup, Number of Name of Each Ounce, Each, etc.) Measures Measure Type Needed

Use the totals from this form as the recipe unit measure amounts needed in the various purchasing conversion worksheets. (PW 1-13)

etc. Item Name Purchase Unit Measure Number of Measures Needed Total Number of Purchase Unit Measures Needed . Here’s how: 1. Then add them up to get a single total purchase unit measure. you will have to convert each of those recipe unit measures to a single purchase unit measure. write that total in column D and the name of the food item in column A. (Each conversion worksheet has a set of formula boxes. For example. but each measures the onion in a different way (whole.286 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 5 Purchasing Worksheet 15 Purchase Unit Measures Aggregating Form This form is a tool you can use on an as-needed basis to record and combine your purchase unit measure conversion answers for the same food. 3. assume you have a number of recipes that call for an onion. for each way that type of food is measured.) 2.). one after the other on this form. Amounts Needed versus Par. chopped. such as a pound. Use the formula tables you need to calculate the equivalent purchase unit measure needed based on the recipe unit measures needed. In this case. called tables. by the cup. List all your conversion answers for the same food. by the trimmed ounce. In Purchasing Worksheet 16. Complete the conversion for each recipe ingredient using the appropriate purchasing conversion worksheet.

Item Name Rice Current Need for Plan in Purchase Unit Measures 30 . etc. G Minimum Order to Return to Par or Make Plan (F E) 20 lb.) pounds D E Amount Remaining on Hand after Filling Current Need (B D) 20 F Minimum Par Amount (Operation’s Minimum Par for Item) 40 lb. 5. Steps 4. Gallon. Each. Piece. and 6. A B Current Inventory Count (Amount on Hand) 50 C Inventory Count in Purchase Unit Measures (Pound.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 6 287 Purchasing Worksheet 16 Amounts Needed versus Par You’ll find the instructions for filling out this worksheet in the Purchasing Worksheets Overview.

multiply the count on hand by the cost per unit of measure to calculate the extension.288 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 7 Purchasing Worksheet 17 Inventory Form To use this form. Location: Item Name Unit of Measure Date: Count on Hand Cost per Unit of Measure $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Extension $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ .

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 7 289 Location: Item Name Inventory Form Unit of Measure Count on Hand Cost per Unit of Measure $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Date: Extension TOTAL This page (Use on Final Page of Inventory) Extension Totals of All Pages: $ .

piece. add up the averages for that item and divide the total by the number of entries to determine total running-average weight. In the last column. such as a bunch of fresh herbs or celery. 5. 3. Enter the item’s purchase unit (bunch. and record its average weight. For instance. etc. Here are the instructions for using the form: 1. This will give you seasonal variances. 2. Item Purchase Unit Average Weight Date Running-Average Weight . Reserve at least six rows for each food item. cauliflower. Weigh each item as it is received.290 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 8 Purchasing Worksheet 18 Food Weight Log You can use this log to record foods whose weights differ over the course of time per purchase unit.).5 ounces per bunch. 4. divide 27 by 6 to get the average weight of 4. for six bunches of parsley weighing a total of 27 ounces. cabbage. Enter the date you log in each entry. heads of broccoli. and the like.

P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 8 291 Food Weight Log Item Purchase Unit Average Weight Date Running-Average Weight .

) Pack Column E) B C D E Item Name .) Box. if necessary. Number of Purchase Purchase Unit Measures in Purchase Pound. etc. The answer is the exact equivalent number of purchase unit packs you need. Divide column B by column E. One Purchase Unit (Column B divided by Measures Each. Record the answer from column F on the Food Order Form. Unit Measures in One Purchase Pack Unit Quart. 4. and C from Worksheet 16. A F Purchase Units Needed: Purchase Purchase Purchase Unit Measures Amount Unit Measure Unit Pack Needed Divided by Needed in (Ounce. round up the amount. (Container. etc. 3. follow these steps: 1. Case. Flat. Amounts Needed versus Par. B. Fill in the purchase unit pack measures from the Price List or your vendors’ invoices. Fill in columns A. There.292 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 1 9 Purchasing Worksheet 19 Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs To use this worksheet to convert purchase unit measures to purchase unit packs. 2. Bag.

In column B. 5. Purchase Unit Measures to Purchase Unit Packs. specific. In column A. enter the number of purchase units (purchase unit packs) to order. In column E. enter the type of purchase unit—jar. D E) . or your vendors’ price sheets. 3. and brief.) If desired. enter the food item name. previous invoices. case. enter the name of your vendor for this item. head. To use this form properly. In column C. A Amount B AP Unit C Item Name D AP Unit Cost $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Total This Page Total Order (All Pages): $ ____________ E Total: (A $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ F Vendor NOTE Purchase unit costs can be obtained from the Price List. multiply column A times column D and enter your answer here. enter the amount you pay for one purchase unit. 4. (This step is optional. Be clear. pound. each.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 0 293 Purchasing Worksheet 20 Food Order Form You will use this form to round off and record your answers from Purchasing Worksheet 19. In column F. you can use a separate page for each vendor. 6. and so on. 2. follow these steps: 1. In column D.

or as boneless-and-skinless breasts. untrimmed form and as a trimmed item. coring. Here’s a fuller explanation of what these formulas mean: ✦ UPP is the percentage the untrimmed price is of the trimmed price. Part I is full of trim yield percentages. .13 pounds of trimmed carrots to use in recipes. or as broccoli florets (just the heads. if ever. You normally peel these carrots and trim off their ends before adding them to recipes.294 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 1 Purchasing Worksheet 21 Trimmed versus Untrimmed Prices Many food distributors offer foods in both a raw. so you should be familiar with them by now.2 percent. if an untrimmed price per pound is 45 cents. the UPP. how do you figure the point at which the trimmed food is. NOTE The worksheet at the end of this section will help you to quickly determine whether the UPP is greater or less than the TYP. the trimmed food has a lower food cost. you divide 45 by 65 to get 69. You get it by dividing the untrimmed price per unit by the trimmed price per unit. the untrimmed food has a lower food cost.3 percent. less expensive than the untrimmed food? The guiding formulas that answer this question follow. the untrimmed food has a lower food cost. as broccoli crowns (with much of the stalks removed). you will need to buy about 25 pounds of raw carrots to end up with 20 pounds of trimmed carrots. Now a supplier tells you that it has trimmed-and-peeled carrots for 65 cents per pound. For instance. Because you will have to buy more of the untrimmed food in order to end up with the trimmed amount needed. it represents what’s left for use after peeling. For example. The more your supplier trims or otherwise prepares these foods for you. That means that after trimming 10 pounds of carrots you will get 8. broccoli can be bought in whole heads. Part I shows that medium-sized carrots have a trim yield of 81. you will buy greater quantities of the untrimmed food. as boneless breasts. or raw and untrimmed carrots for 45 cents a pound. the trimmed food has a lower food cost. cut into small pieces). ✦ TYP is the yield percentage you get when you trim a food. Which should you buy? Do the math. chicken breasts can be purchased with the skin and bones on. For instance. and are mainly basing your decision on the price differences between the two. The first formula says that when the UPP is greater than the TYP. Similarly. When the UPP is less than TYP. The second formula says that when the UPP is less than the TYP. Example Given: You You have a food item that you trim in order to use. and so on. and the trimmed price is 65 cents. the higher will be the price per unit for the pre-prepared (trimmed) food as compared to the price per unit of the untrimmed food. untrimmed? When you are deciding whether to buy trimmed or untrimmed food. The question that a chef must answer is: Should I buy 20 pounds of trimmed carrots or 25 pounds. When the untrimmed price percentage (UPP) is greater than the trim yield percentage (TYP). say carrots.

$. since they are already trimmed. Remember. the total cost of the raw carrots you need should be less than the cost of the trimmed carrots. raw. In this case.65 0. Therefore: 20 lb.” Let’s take another look at the same scenario but with the situation reversed.6 $11. To prove this. 45 cents per pound.45 24. untrimmed carrots you need to buy. the UPP for carrots was 62.93). The answer is the number of pounds of as-purchased.00 The trimmed carrots will cost you $13. assume the UPP is greater than the TYP. 0. Notice that this is less than the trim yield percentage of 81.90 .3 percent. Therefore.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 1 295 1. now assume you need to use 20 pounds of trimmed carrots. which means you only have to buy 20 pounds. the untrimmed food has a lower food cost.3 percent.00. the as-served amount is 20 pounds and the trim yield is 81.6 lb. In this case.6 pounds of raw carrots to end up with 20 pounds. Y% AP. So. In this case. so your cost for untrimmed carrots is: $.00 and $11. which is less than the 81. This verifies the guiding formula “when UPP is less than TYP. And the untrimmed carrots cost 45 cents per pound.2 percent. the UPP is found by dividing the untrimmed unit cost by the trimmed unit cost: 45 50 0. Calculate the UPP: Divide the 45-cents price for the raw food by the 65-cents price for the trimmed food.9 percent.65 $13. That is. Note that you’ll need to buy more than 20 pounds of untrimmed carrots to end up with 20 pounds of trimmed carrots.07 The cost of the trimmed and peeled carrots is 65 cents per pound. plugging these figures into the purchasing formula. The formula is: As-served amount or: AS Y% AP Yield percentage As-purchased amount You divide the number of pounds you need in your recipe as-served by the carrots’ trim yield percentage (of 81.07 ($1.3 percent). $. the new UPP would be 90 percent.3 percent TYP. so by buying the untrimmed carrots. trimmed. AS 20 lb. you get: You need to buy 24. we’ll say the price per pound for the trimmed carrots is 50 cents and that the cost of the untrimmed carrots is the same as in the previous example. This is where you’ll use the most fundamental purchasing formula from Part I to determine how much raw food to buy. therefore. 813 24.692 The UPP is 69. you would save the difference between $13.45 $. based on the need for a trimmed amount.

these products not only eliminate the need for special skills. Other Considerations Going back to the first scenario. the cost of the trimmed carrots was $1. that is. Of course. of course. charge higher menu prices to cover their higher labor and operating costs. If you serve only a boneless.93 higher than the cost of the untrimmed carrots. there are other reasons to buy pre-prepared items. equipment. the trimmed food should prove to be less costly than the untrimmed food. If your cook is not going to be taken off the clock.3 percent. Other times. Convenience items are seldom found in high-end restaurants. energy. and may reduce your inventory and the number of vendors you have to manage. for instance—are now bought in a nearly finished state. extending beyond purely economic considerations. that labor-saving costs have to add up to become real. these items are used simply because it makes sense to do so. Sometimes the cooking skills needed to make certain dishes are not available in certain labor markets. Still. In many cases. Using some pre-prepared items enables a kitchen with limited space and staff to produce a greater variety of menu items than would be possible if they had to use all scratch ingredients.07. pie fillings. Now let’s consider what would be the cost of peeling the 24. Your chef may object to using them for many subjective as well as marketing reasons. the cost of the trimmed food is lower than that of the untrimmed food. (These restaurants do. Also. and others come to mind. buying pre-prepared items can mean real savings when they enable you to prepare a menu with fewer cooks and in less time than by using fresh. Labor savings truly kick in when you cut someone’s hours or eliminate a position altogether. Nevertheless. untrimmed foods—scratch ingredients. but also save time. skinless 5-ounce chicken breast and you have no need for the chicken bones and skins. Remember. in this case. which is less than the UPP of 90 percent. and space. then you are still paying that half-hour’s wage—you just move that cook to another task. then it makes sense to consider buying the breasts already cut to size and trimmed the way you want them. Peeling nearly 25 pounds of carrots is no small job and will probably cost you more in labor than $1. . And here is why: If you multiply the new price per pound for the trimmed carrots—50 cents—by the 20 pounds needed.6 pounds of carrots.00 (20 pounds 0. deciding whether to use these pre-prepared convenience items can be complex. Since the cost of the untrimmed carrots stays the same at $11. it is still 81. you get a total cost for the trimmed carrots of $10. though. when you actually don’t pay for the time it takes to peel the carrots.296 P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 1 The TYP for raw carrots does not change.93. cheesecakes. including precut or trimmed fresh vegetables and meats.50 $10. many menu items that used to be made on-site—baking items. So.00). So-called proof-andbake breads and rolls.) Most restaurants today use a combination of scratch ingredients and convenience items. Does it? Yes.

If column G is greater than column F. enter the price of the untrimmed item’s purchase unit measure (usually per pound). Enter a “T” if the trimmed food has a lower food cost and a “U” if the untrimmed food has a lower food cost. 6. the trimmed food has a lower cost. trimmed or untrimmed. write in the food item name. the untrimmed food has a lower cost. In column B. Enter the answer in column F. Thus: ✦ ✦ If column F (UPP) is greater than column G (TYP). In column A. B Untrimmed Unit Price C D Trimmed Unit Price E F H Lower Food Cost: Untrimmed Trim Yield Trimmed or Price % % Untrimmed G A Item Name . In column F. Take these steps to fill out the form: 1. the untrimmed food has a lower cost. you can easily determine whether the UPP (Untrimmed Price Percentage) is greater or less than the food’s TYP (Trim Yield Percentage). note which form of the food. In column H. from Part I.P u r c h a s i n g Wo r k s h e e t 2 1 297 Using the Trimmed versus Untrimmed Pricing Worksheet By using this worksheet. divide column B by column D. Remember. enter the price of the trimmed item’s purchase unit measure (usually per pound). the trimmed food has a lower cost. 3. 4. the UPP is the unit price of the untrimmed food divided by the unit price of the trimmed food. 2. Remember: ✦ ✦ If column F (UPP) is greater than column G (TYP). If column G is greater than column F. 5. enter the trim yield percentage for the food item. In column D. has a lower food cost. In column G.