OISD-STD-141 (Revised) FOR RESTRICTED

CIRCULATION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

OISD-STD-141 First Edition, April 1990 Amended Edition, September 2001 Revised Edition, September 2003

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE Government of India Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

OISD-STD-141 Amended Edition, September 2001 Edition, September 2003 First Edition April 1990 Revised FOR RESTRICTED

CIRCULATION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

Prepared by COMMITTEE ON DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES

7th FLOOR, “NEW DELHI HOUSE” 27, BARAKHAMBA ROAD
NEW DELHI -110001

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE

NOTE

OISD publications are prepared for use in the oil and gas industry under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas. These are the property of Ministry of Petroleum &

Chemicals and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or exhibited to others without written consent from OISD. Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in these documents. OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from their use. These documents are intended to supplement rather than replace their prevailing statutory requirements.

a variety of international codes. New Delhi-110 001. Users are cautioned that no standard can be a substitute for the judgement of responsible and experienced engineer. emphasised the need for the industry to review the existing state of art in designing. It is hoped that the provision of this standard if implemented objectively. This standard is meant to be used as a supplement and not as a replacement for existing codes and practices. Due to various collaboration agreements. Factory Inspectorate or any other Statutory body which must be followed as applicable. . operating and maintaining oil and gas installations. coupled with feed back from some serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad. 27-Barakhamba Road. standardising and upgrading the existing standards to ensure safer operations. This standard is based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members and the various national and international codes and practices. The present standard on “Design and Construction Requirements for Cross Country Hydrocarbon Pipelines” was prepared by the Functional Committee on “Design and Inspection of Pipelines”. Suggestions are invited from the users after it is put into practice to improve the standard further. Suggestions for amendments to this standard should be addressed to:The Coordinator. This. Standardisation in design philosophies and operating and maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in existence.FOREWARD The Oil Industry in India is 100 years old. Accordingly OISD constituted a number of Functional Committees comprising of experts nominated from the industry to draw up standards and guidelines on various subjects. the then Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in 1986 constituted a Safety Council assisted by Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) staffed from within the industry in formulating and implementing a serious of self regulatory measures aimed at removing obsolescence. New Delhi House. 7th Floor. Oil Industry Safety Directorate. standards and practices are in vogue. This standard in no way supersedes the statutory regulations of Chief Controller of Explosive (CCE). With this in view. Committee on Inspection of “Design and Inspection of Pipelines”. may go a long way to improve the safety and reduce accidents in the Oil and Gas Industry.

K.R.Rao Rudravajala 4.COMMITTEE ON DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES ( First Edition April 1990 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name Organisation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Leader 1. Sh. several other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation. Dhadda 9. Bhandari Oil Industry Safety Directorate ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In addition to the above.e. Sh.E.R. Baruah Indian Oil Corporation Limited Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Engineers India Limited Gas Authority of India Limited Oil India Limited Oil India Limited Member Coordinator 12.K.T.S.V. Sh. Mulla 8. Karode 2. Sh.R. Shanbhag ** Oil India Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited Members 3.C. Sh.A. . Sh.K. Goyal 5. Saiprasad 10. Char 6. ** (Took over as Leader w.M.S.N. Dutta 11.f June/89 on Shri Karode’s retirement from Oil India Ltd). Sh. Sh.V. review and finalisation of this document.K. Sh. Sh.R.K.G. Sh. Sh.M Bhumgara 7.K.

S.COMMITTEE ON DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES ( First Revision September 2003 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name Organisation Leader 1.Mittal Oil Industry Safety Directorate ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In addition to the above.A. several other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation. Sh. Soman Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited GAIL India Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited Kochi Refineries Limited Member Coordinator 7. Sh.S.Pal 6. Sh.KBS Negi 4.R.. Sh.C.N. review and finalisation of this document. Sh.G.K. Sh. . Sengupta Indian Oil Corporation Limited Members 2.P.S. Wankhede 3. Sh.K.Patel 5.

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 PART .7 4.4 7.1 7.No ITEM DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.5 7. Tank Farm and Terminal Construction .0 7.6 7.0 5.3 4.4 4.1 4.DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES CONTENTS Sl. Miters and Elbows Installation of Pipe in the Ditch Special Crossings Pump Station.7 INTRODUCTION SCOPE DEFINITIONS DESIGN Dynamic Effects Weight Effects Corrosion Design of Components Valves Threaded Joints Stress Values Design of Pipe supporting Elements MATERIALS Steel Materials for Sour Multiphase Service DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION. WELDING AND ASSEMBLY Location Handling. Stringing and Storing Ditching Bends.2 7. Hauling.1 5.2 4.I 1.3 7.6 4.2 6.0 2.8 5.0 4.0 7.5 4.0 3.0 4.

4 Storage and Working Tankage Storage Pre-Operational Stresses INSPECTION AND TESTING Type and Extent of Examination Required Testing Commissioning Record OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES CORROSION CONTROL Protective Coating Cathodic Protection System Electrical Isolation Temporary Cathodic Protection System PART – II 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 11.7.3 8.1 15.1 8.8 7.9 8.0 8.2 16.5 DESIGN PIPING SYSTEMS MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT WELDING PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FABRICATION DETAILS Valves and Pressure Reducing Devices Expansion and Flexibility Combined Stress Calculations Supports and Anchorage for Exposed Piping Pre-Operational Stresses DESIGN.4 15.1 10.2 8. INSTALLATION AND TESTING General Provisions Population Density Index Corrosion Allowance Cover Requirements for Pipelines Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains and other underground Structures 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 .3 10.1 16.0 16.0 14.3 16.2 10.2 15.4 16.0 10.0 15.0 12.0 15.3 15.0 13.5 16.0 10.4 9.

3 18. Roads or Streets Bends.6 18.0 18. Elbows and Miters in Steel Pipelines and Mains Miscellaneous Operations involved in the Installation of Steel Pipelines and Mains Water Crossings Crossing of / or by Utilities Testing after Construction Control and limiting of Gas Pressure Valves Pipe Book OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES CORROSION CONTROL Coating Requirements Electrical Isolation Electrical Connections and Monitoring Points Electrical Interference Existing Installations Temporary Cathodic Protection System Internal Corrosion Control MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES 16 16 17 17 18 18 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 .16.8 16.4 18.2 18.7 19.0 18.1 18.10 16.11 16.5 18.0 20. Requirements under Rail Roads.0 Casing. Highways.6 16.13 16.14 16.15 17.9 16.12 16.

assembly.4 is reproduced hereunder for easy reference: ‘Offshore .4. gas or water in any combination produced from one or more oil wells or recombined oil well fluids that may have been separated in passing through treatment/processing facilities. 4.DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES 1. c) ON SHORE – GAS PIPELINES 2. PART-I Multiphase fluids means oil. For convenience 'ASME/ANSI Code B 31.1 DYNAMIC EFFECTS . natural gas liquids. along that portion of the coast that is in direct contact with the open seas and beyond the line marking the seaward limit of inland coastal waters’. natural gasoline. testing. b) ON PIPELINES SHORE – LIQUID LIQUID PETROLEUM TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 4. The definition of 'Offshore' as per B 31.8 clause 803.4'.17 is defined as 'Onshore'. natural gas processing plants. constructed and tested as per recognised engineering standards and they are periodically inspected and maintained.4 clause 400.' d) SHALL The word 'Shall' is used to indicate that the provision is mandatory. refineries.0 SCOPE This standard outlines the minimum requirements for design. terminals (marine. between producer lease facilities.4 herein after is referred' as 'B 31. e) SHOULD 3. construction. Areas not covered by 'Offshore' as defined in B 31. The definitions of 'Offshore' as per B 31. multiphase fluids are considered to be low vapour pressure fluids.2Definitions is defined as 'Onshore'. stations. tank farms. materials.Areas beyond the line of ordinary high water. Areas not covered by 'Offshore' as defined in B 31. along that portion of the coast that is in direct contact with the open seas and beyond the line marking the seaward limit of inland coastal waters.0 DEFINITIONS a) MULTIPHASE FLUIDS The word 'Should' is used to indicate that the provision is recommendatory as sound engineering practices.8 is reproduced hereunder for easy reference: 'Offshore-Areas beyond the line of ordinary high water. commissioning. maintenance and safety aspects of cross country pipelines – onshore.8'.0 INTRODUCTION Safety in petroleum installations and pipelines comes through continuous efforts at all stages and as such it can be ensured by observing that installations and pipelines are designed. inspection. operation. and 'ASME/ANSI Code B 31.8 herein after is referred' as 'B 31. condensate. truck and rail) and other delivery and receiving points. (A) transporting liquids such as crude oil. For the purpose of this standard.0 DESIGN Design of cross country pipelines – onshore shall be as per ANSI/ASME B31. and liquid petroleum products (B) transporting Natural Gas.

8. If a pipeline is designed to operate at stress level of more than 50% of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe.1. 5.0 5. 4. Ultrasonic testing for pipe ends is mandatory. 4. 5. erosion. 4. all connections welded to the pipe shall be made to a separate cylindrical member which completely encircles the pipe.1.1.8 DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS Supports.65% shall be preheated. 4. soil movement and slides.2 Additional test requirements shall be as per Appendix-A of Part-I of this standard for steel pipes manufactured by Electric Resistance Welding and/or Electric Induction welding. a suitable corrosion allowance shall be made at the design stage. SOUR MATERIALS FOR MULTIPHASE SERVICE Definition NACE Standard MR-OI-75 'Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment defines limiting concentrations on hydrogen sulphide in the fluid transported' for it to be considered as sour service.1. 4. 4.5 VALVES Valves made of cast iron or ductile iron shall not be used.4.Other Loadings 4.4 Wherever non integral attachments. Braces and Anchors 5.1 STRAIGHT PIPE The least nominal wall thickness (tn) for steel pipe. API-1104 shall be referred for guidance. Ultrasonic testing for pipe skelp and weld seam is 100%. . such as pipe clamps and ring girders are used.1 MATERIALS STEEL Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated based on the formula given below: CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 6 5 15 Carbon Steels having a specified carbon content in excess of 0.1 Unusual loadings such as those caused by scour.1 shall not be less than the dimensions indicated in the specifications for line pipe approved by B 31. vortex shedding and other phenomena shall also be considered and provided for in accordance with sound engineering practice.1 5.6 THREADED JOINTS Threaded joints shall not be used in cross country pipelines. pipe having a D/tn ratio greater than 150 shall not be used.3 Mill Hydrostatic Testing of line pipe is recommended as 90% of SMYS irrespective of grade of pipe material.2 5.4. The pressure hold period should be 15 sec. adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent corrosion at or near the contact points.32% or a carbon equivalent in excess of 0.1 5. 4. as indicated in B 31. installation forces.3 CORROSION Whenever internal or external corrosion is expected during the design life of the pipeline.4 DESIGN OF COMPONENTS 4.4 clause 404.7 STRESS VALUES Consideration shall be given to the use of lower allowable design stress if there is likelihood of repeated stress changes giving rise to fatigue conditions. Further.2 5. and this encircling member shall be welded to the pipe by continuous circumferential welds at both ends.1.8. 4. where D = outside diameter of pipe.2.2 WEIGHT EFFECTS Live Loads Weight of water during hydrostatic testing shall also be considered while designing.

These areas shall be distinctly identified on ground during construction. c) Pressure containing components (excluding pipe) intended for sour multiphase service shall be fully identified with a permanent marking.4 Chapter IV shall apply.3. HAULING.0 7.2 HANDLING. In any case the minimum clear distance shall not be less than 3. may cause problems to occur at lower concentrations of hydrogen sulphide.3 of this standard.0 metres of any private dwelling or any industrial building or place of public assembly in which persons work. The acceptance criteria shall be based on current established industry practice. Depending upon the service and the materials involved. Material other than line pipe shall not be strung on the right of way but shall be transported to site for use only at the time of installation. 7.3. unless construction above ground is found to be desirable for exceptional technical. 'Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Material for Oil Field Equipment'. unless it is provided with at least 300 mm of cover in addition to that provided in Table 7.3 . 7.Note: While past experience has indicated this to be the accepted minimum concentration at which sulphide stress corrosion cracking may occur. 7.2. 5. valve. until all blasting is complete and the area cleared of all debris. ductile iron. economic or topographical reasons. WELDING AND ASSEMBLY LOCATION The location of a new underground pipeline.2 6. Pipelines shall be buried below ground level. such as carbon dioxide in the gas and salt in the water or larger amounts of free water or gas. b) Materials for sour multiphase service shall conform to the requirements of NACE Standard MR01-75. bronze and other copper based materials shall not be used in sour multiphase service. 7.2.1 CONSTRUCTION. flanges bolting and other equipment exposed to or which are necessary to contain sour multiphase fluids may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced stepwise cracking and thus due consideration shall be given to material selection in design.1 DITCHING The width of trench shall be such that a minimum clear distance of 200mm for trench in normal soil and 300mm for trench in rock is maintained between edge of pipe and the trench wall at the bottom of trench. the presence of other constituents in the phases making up the multiphase fluid.3. should be at a minimum clear distance of 5. a) Pipe.0 metres.3.3 Pipes made of cast iron.4 and this standard.0 metres from the existing underground pipeline when heavy conventional construction equipment is excepted to be utilized.0 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS All provisions of B 31. No pipeline should be located within 15. Minimum cover for Buried Pipelines 7. congregate or assemble.3 7. fittings. This distance may be reduced after careful assessment of construction methodologies so that it does not result in unsafe conditions during construction. all materials used in sour multiphase service shall meet the following requirements. the Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) and Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) tests should be conducted as per NACE standards referred in Clause 20. STRINGING AND STORING Pipe shall not be strung along the right of way in rocky areas where blasting may be required. when running parallel to an existing underground pipeline.0 of this standard.2 General In addition to the applicable requirements of B31. 5.

the trench shall be rectified or in exceptional cases a new assembly shall be carried out so that it fits the excavation and the laying bed.The minimum cover shall be as per table 7.3 The minimum radius of field cold bends shall be as follows: ________________________________ Nominal Pipe Minimum Radius of size In Bend in Pipe Diameter ________________________________ NPS 12 and smaller 21D NPS 14 u/i 18 30D NPS 20 and larger 40D MITERED BENDS A mitered bend is not permitted with the exception of deflections upto 3 degrees that are caused by misalignment.4 (3) 1.4.3 given below. a complete check of the pipe coating and field joint coating shall be carried out and all damages repaired.5 (4) 1.3 Minimum Cover for Buried Pipelines ________________________________ Location Minimum Cover in metre ________________________________ Industrial. BENDS MADE FROM PIPE 7. Care must be taken that during laying. (3) Cover shall be measured from the top of road or top of rail. Commercial 1. whichever is lower. either horizontal or vertical). as the case may be. Tangents approximately 1 metre in length shall be provided on both ends of cold bends. MITERS AND ELBOWS Bends made from pipe 7. which are prone to scour and erosion.0 (2) and Residential Areas Stream.0 (2) 7. (2) Minimum depth of cover shall be measured from the top of pipe coating to the top of undisturbed surface of the soil.4. Wherever pipeline is laid under tension as a result of an assembly error (for example incorrect positioning of bends. 7.5 metre) shall be provided below the predicted scour profile expected during the life time of the pipeline. or top of graded working strip.1 The ends of each bent length shall be straight and not involved any way in the bending. TABLE 7.3. Fill material in working strip shall not be considered to add to the depth of cover. The length of the straight . When already coated pipes are being lowered.4. particular attention shall be paid to the suitability of the trench to allow the pipeline to be lowered without the coating being damaged and to give a reasonably even support to the pipeline. the deformation caused during the raising of the pipe from the support does not exceed the values for the minimum allowable radius of elastic (1) The above mentioned minimum cover requirements shall be valid for all class locations. adequate safe cover (minimum 1.4 1. (4) In case of rivers/water bodies. 7.2 (3) 7.0 1.4 BENDS.4.0 (2) 1. Canal and other Minor water crossings Drainage ditches at Roadways and railroads Rocky Areas Uncased/Cased Road Crossings Railroad Crossings Other Areas 1.3.2 Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be bent in such a way that weld lies in the plane passing through neutral axis of the bend which shall be installed positioning the longitudinal weld in the upper quadrants. INSTALLATION OF PIPE IN THE DITCH Before lowering operations are commenced.5 section shall permit easy jointing.

meandering course.6 7. steep and potentially erodable banks. In laying parallel pipelines in the same trench. so as to keep the stresses in the steel pipe and on the coating within safe limits.3 All crossings shall be made in such a manner that the angle between the centerline of the railway. the section of the pipeline corresponding to the river crossing should before installation be subjected to hydrostatic pre-testing.6. 7. e) A minimum separation of 3. If pipelines and communication and / or power utilities share the same trench. However. consideration should always be given to lightning fault current protection of pipelines and safety of personnel. For river crossings such as those described and established above the following additional requirements are to be considered.2 f) Whenever considered desirable. the above clearance shall be maintained with the pipeline preferably at a lower level. special design and construction shall be used. b) A clearance sufficiently large to avoid electrical fault current interference shall be maintained between the pipeline and the grounding facilities of electrical transmission lines. large erodable flood plain and wide water course (high water mark to high water mark) both during the design and installation of such crossings. 7. river. c) To ensure the stability of the underwater pipeline. canal or utility being crossed and the centerline of the pipeline shall . Crossing of or by Utilities a) A minimum clearance of 300mm shall be maintained at the point of crossing and the utility or pipeline shall be installed at a uniform depth for the full width of the right of way. along or near underground power and / or communication cables. b) The pipeline at such crossings shall be installed with extra depth of cover.1 SPECIAL CROSSINGS Water crossings Special considerations shall be required for submerged crossings which are characterized by their perennial nature. potentially scouring bed. other systems through the application of cathodic protection shall be dealt by mutual action of the parties involved. c) Interference with.0 metre should be maintained between pipeline and transmission tower footings.curvature. taking into consideration the effect of all loads during laying and it shall be ensured that the stresses remain within permissible limits in accordance with B 31. stream. conductors or conduit.6. e) A detailed stress analysis for the pipe section for river crossings should be carried out. Where it is not practicable to obtain the above mentioned clearance. Where these clearances cannot be maintained. the minimum clear distances between the pipelines shall be 500 mm. the complete pipeline corresponding to river crossing shall be tested after installation.6. underground pipes shall maintain a vertical clearance of at least 300 mm. d) When laid parallel to. highway. The cover provided shall be adequate to prevent exposure of the pipeline for the entire design life of the pipeline. d) A heavier wall thickness pipe shall be provided for the river crossing section. it may be necessary to add weight to sink and hold the pipeline in position. 7. ground cables and counter poise. a) Hydrological and geotechnical surveys to establish the river bed and water current profiles to predict the behaviour of the river with respect to change of course.4. Regardless of separation. extra precaution shall be taken to ensure the maximum possible clearance and to prevent future contact. scour of bed and erosion of banks and to obtain all other parameters related to design and installation of such crossings. or from.

no coating materials shall be applied.8 STORAGE AND WORKING TANKAGE STORAGE Underground Storage Prior to design and construction of an underground storage chamber. but not restricted to.2. c) Backfilling.2 8. Yard-coated pipe shall be examined after field bending to ensure that the quality of the coating has not been impaired. an engineering and geological investigation shall be carried out to determine the feasibility of such a system at the proposed site. Additional precautions such as double coating.7. shall meet the requirements of OISD Standard 118 "Layouts for Oil and Gas Installations".2. Method for Underground Storage of National Gas Liquids 7. Unless special procedures can be taken. e) Field bending.1 soils).3 8.7 7. TANK FARM AND TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION Location Minimum distances from property lines and road allowance limits to buildings and equipment etc. and ditch padding shall be taken where conditions are such that damage to the pipe coating could occur. selected backfill. rock shield. b) Stringing. If moisture is present on the surface of the pipe.1.3 Test Pressure Hydrostatic Testing Pressure Piping of Internal f) hydrostatic test pressure loads (particularly when the pipeline is constructed as an above ground installation or is buried in unstable The test pressure shall be decided as .5 8.2 8. The gauging plate shall have a diameter of 95% of the internal diameter of the pipeline. Consideration shall be given to.be as close as possible to 90 degree but in no case less than 45 degree .4 8. TESTING A gauging pig shall be passed through the pipeline to prove the internal diameter of the entire line.1.. no coating shall be applied when the ambient temperature might have a detrimental effect on the coating either during or after application. 8.1. coating wrapping.1 INSPECTION AND TESTING TYPE AND EXTENT EXAMINATION REQUIRED Construction Field pipeline coating shall be applied on a properly prepared surface and visually inspected during application.0 8. The designer shall ensure that preoperational stresses are controlled and that they are non-injurious to the pipe.2 d) Loads imparted by construction traffic.1. All sections which have been previously hydrostatically tested viz. if required. Water used for testing should be dozed with suitable corrosion inhibitor. 8. road/rail crossings and river crossings shall be retested alongwith the completed mainline sections. Any cutting or removal of the coating shall be promptly and carefully repaired. and laying. the effect of the following pre-operational loads: a) Transportation and stockpiling of the pipe. OF 8.2. 7. 7.1 PUMP STATION.1 8.9 PRE-OPERATIONAL STRESSES It is desirable to limit stresses during pre-operational manipulation of the pipe so as to avoid damage that might impair the operability of the line. and 8.1. Such chambers shall be constructed and operated in accordance with GPA Publication 8175.

Location of each weld including weld number. damages to fields under cultivation and/or existing structures and interference with the traffic. During dewatering. b) Cathodically Protected Pipeline Systems Temporarily Out of service Cathodic Protection system shall be maintained on any pipeline that is temporarily out of service.2. The purpose of the pipe book shall be to indicate and maintain as a permanent record the exact position in the pipeline of each pipe length and each pipeline material like valves. flanges. After drying.0 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES All provisions of B 31. 10.1 CORROSION CONTROL PROTECTIVE COATING a) Coatings shall electrically isolate the external surface of the piping system from the environment. Care shall 8. weld treatment and details of equipment used for radiography shall be recorded in the pipe book. 8. When these investigations indicate that continuing corrosion will create a hazard.6 Pre. type of welding and electrode.per B31. Batching pigs or spheres shall be used not only to minimize mixing at the interface but also to enable the progress of the interface to be followed. 8. welder number. 9.2. In cases where the water has to be cleared from the pipeline before commissioning because of possible chemical or physical action between the water and the liquid to be transported.7 Preservation of Pipeline If the pipeline is to be preserved for a specified duration before it can be commissioned.tested Pipe Pipe used for making repairs shall be pre-tested to a pressure equal to or greater than the original pipeline strength test pressure. 8. Each item shall be recorded by its identification number. the pipeline shall be first drained and then dried as thoroughly as possible. fittings. RECORD Pipe Book A pipe and welding book shall be maintained for all projects. of corrosion on existing bare pipeline systems.3. the pipeline shall be filled with the liquid.3.0 10. bends.4.2 . repairs and tie-ins shall be coated with a material compatible with the existing coating.4 Acceptance of Test The test is successful when the pipeline has withstood the strength and leak tests and during the test period there is no observable drop in pressure that cannot be accounted for by temperature changes. the pipeline shall be completely filled with water with sufficient quantities of corrosion inhibitors depending upon the quality of water and the period of preservation and at a suitable pressure. and other fittings installed in the project.1 COMMISSIONING Commissioning shall consist of displacing the hydrostatic test water from the pipeline by pumping in the liquid to be transported. 8.4-Chapter-VII and OISD-STD-138 shall apply.5 Termination of Testing The pipeline shall be slowly depressurized at a moderate and constant rate. 8. The duration of hydrostatic proof test shall be minimum 24 hours. 10.2 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM a) Existing Bare Pipelines Systems Investigation shall be made to determine the extent or effect.2. care shall be taken to properly dispose the discharging water in order to avoid pollution.3 8. scraper traps.2. corrosion control measures or other remedial action shall be undertaken. b) All joints.4 be taken to clear pockets of water from valves and fittings. 8.

10.80 0. and shall be resistant to the commodity carried in the pipeline systems.4 . The temporary CP system shall preferably be installed simultaneously keeping pace with the pipeline laying / installation work and shall be monitored periodically. pressure. electrical properties. they shall be properly rated for temperature.1425 API 5L X-42 0. stray current interference from foreign objects at HT pipeline crossings.Strain Minimum values of 'e' shall be as follows: ---------------------------------------------------Grade of Steel Min 'e' value ---------------------------------------------------ASTM A53 B 0.1325 API 5L X-52 0. A = 2R = 1.60 0.Peaking factor e .56 0.0900 ---------------------------------------------------b) Procedure The mandrel is to be plugged into the specimen. 10. and radius of APPENDIX .1025 API 5L X. with the weld in contact with mandrel.A ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC RESISTANCE/ELECTRIC INDUCTION WELDED LINE PIPE B. . wall thickness and grade with the formula. The specimen shall be 100mm to 115mm long and shall be reverse bend tested in accordance with procedure given below and Figure B. D . width(A) shall be calculated for any combination of diameter.1425 API 5L B 0.1100 API 5L X.3 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION Whereas such insulating devices are installed.1175 API 5L X. whose radius(R). B1). If the combination of diameter and wall thickness of pipe.1.1425 ASTM A 135 B 0.4t -t 10. to such a depth that the angle of engagement between mandrel and specimen reaches 600 (see Fig.70 0.65 0.Wall thickness of pipe 1.Outside diameter of pipe t . a) Selection of Mandrel The reverse bend test shall be carried out with a mandrel.4 (D-t) t ------------e(D-2t)-1.5 Safety appliances shall be provided against lightning.1375 API 5L X-46 0.1275 API 5L X.1 Reverse Bend Tests Reverse bend tests shall be performed on the pipe piece cut from the crop end from the front end of the first length and the back end of the last length produced from each coil. where.1125 API 5L X.4 TEMPORARY CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM When considered necessary a temporary cathodic protection system with sacrificial anodes shall be installed to ensure adequate protection of pipeline from external corrosion from the time the pipeline is laid in the trench till the permanent cathodic protection system is commissioned.

. The maximum difference in hardness between base material and any reading taken in the heat affected zone shall be less than 80 points Vicker's HV10.2 in accordance with ASTM E-32. B.2 Micrographic and Hardness Examination A test specimen shall be taken across the longitudinal weld from one length of finished pipe from each lot of maximum 50 lengths from the same heat manufactured from the same process. c) Acceptance Criteria A specimen which fractures completely prior to the specified engagement of mandrel and specimen. shall be rejected. The Manufacturer shall make hardness measurements on each specimen as indicated in Fig. B. Cracks less than 6mm long at the edges of the specimen shall not be cause for rejection.mandrel is such that the angle of engagement does not reach 600. These specimens shall be polished and etched for micro-examinations. or which reveals cracks and ruptures in the weld or heat affected zone longer than 4mm. the mandrel shall be plugged into the specimen until opposite walls of the specimen meet. The examinations shall provide evidence that heat treatment of weld zone is adequate and there is no untempered martensite left.

0 12.3 13. 13.3. particular attention shall be given to the tensile properties of the material to ensure that the derating for temperature is adequate. API-1104 shall be referred for guidance. Notch toughness values shall be determined to provide protection against fracture initiation and propagation. 13. the effect of the time-temperature relationship on the mechanical properties of the pipe shall be determined and taken into consideration. proven notch toughness properties are not mandatory.65% shall be preheated. temperature shall be taken as the lowest expected operating pipe or metal temperature when the hoop stress exceeds 50 MPa (7000 psi).2 12. b) The maximum design temperature shall be taken as the highest expected operating pipe or metal temperature. having due regard to past recorded temperature data and the minimum gas temperature that may occur. 12. 13.2 13.8. 13.2.3. F).2.3.1 Carbon Equivalent Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated based on the formula given below: CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 6 5 15 Carbon Steels having a specified carbon content in excess of 0.3 Additional test requirements shall be specified as per Standards / Guidelines mentioned in Appendix-A.3.1 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT When the maximum design temperature exceeds 120 deg. having due regard to past recorded temperature data and the possibilities of higher temperatures occurring. The pressure hold period should be 15 sec. OPERATING CONDITIONS.1 PIPING SYSTEMS The Pipe wall thickness less than 6. All cross country pipelines shall be piggable.3 The minimum and maximum design temperatures shall be determined as follows: a) The minimum design . The minimum design temperature shall take into account the effect of lower air or ground temperatures in the area.4 mm should not be used for cross country pipelines in the city limits.0 13.PART-II GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 11. Notch toughness valves (minimum absorbed energy valves) shall be specified based on the design operating stress and the minimum design temperature. TEMPERATURE AND NOTCH TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS 13. 13. 13.C (250 deg. 13.1 For steel pipes smaller than 2" NPS and steel valves.4 Mill Hydrostatic Testing of line pipe is recommended as 90% of SMYS irrespective of grade of pipe material.2 For steel pipes and associated steel components of size 2" NPS and larger.2 If steel pipe is intended to be heated during fabrication and/or installation. fittings and flanges smaller than 2" NPS.0 DESIGN Design of cross country pipelines – onshore shall be as per ANSI/ASME B31. Pipe diameter 4” and above shall be used for cross country pipelines.3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS 12.32% or a carbon equivalent in excess of 0. Part-I of this standard for steel pipes manufactured by Electric Resistance Welding and/or Electric Induction Welding.2.

move laterally. Formal calculations shall be required where reasonable doubt exists as to the adequate flexibility of the piping. Ultrasonic testing for pipe ends is mandatory. flanges.1 Definition NACE standard MR-01-75 "Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Material for Oil Field Equipment" defines specific conditions.1 This section is applicable to both above ground and buried piping and covers all classes of materials permitted by this standard. the Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) and Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) tests should be conducted as per NACE standards mentioned in Clause 20.4. or both.32% or a carbon equivalent in excess of 0.8 and this standard. shall be calculated based on the following formula: CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 6 5 15 Carbon Steels having a specified carbon content in excess of 0. 15. e) Cast iron line pipe shall not be used to convey sour gas. Note : For the purpose of this standard. Note: While the limiting conditions defined in NACE standard MR-01-75 for considering gaseous hydrocarbons as sour is the normally accepted minimum concentration of hydrogen sulphide at which material problems occur.2. b) Pipe. Depending upon the service and the materials involved. c) All materials used in sour gas service shall conform to the material requirements of NACE standard MR01-75.1 14. such as CO2 and Salts in water.5 Ultrasonic testing for pipe skelp and weld seam is 100%. valves. 13. all materials used in sour gas service shall also meet the following requirements.3. which a gaseous hydrocarbon shall be considered to be sour.65% shall be preheated.0 PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FABRICATION DETAILS VALVES AND REDUCING DEVICES PRESSURE Valves made of cast iron or ductile iron shall not be used in gas piping systems. long straight lengths of buried pipe and above ground pipe on closely spaced rigid supports are classified as restrained. API-1104 shall be referred for guidance. Pipe that does not meet both of the above requirements is referred to as 'restrained'. 13.4.0 WELDING Carbon equivalent (CE) wherever referred in this chapter.2 General a) In addition to the applicable requirements of B 31. fittings.0 of this standard. 15.2 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY 15. 13. d) Pressure containing components (excluding pipes) intended for sour gas service shall be fully identified with a permanent marking. Typically.13. whereas buried pipelines adjacent to bends or unanchored end caps could be regarded as restrained or .4 REQUIREMENTS FOR SOUR GAS SERVICE criteria shall be based on current established industry practices. bolting and other equipment exposed to or which are necessary to contain sour gas may be susceptible to Sulphide Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced step-wise cracking and thus due consideration shall be given to material selection in design. may cause problems at lower concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. The acceptance 15. the presence of other constituents in the gas stream. 'unrestrained' means that the pipe is able to strain along its length. "Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Material for Oil Field Equipment".

The pipeline cover will be decided considering the above factor. the necessary flexibility shall be provided. differential settlement.3. 15. but not necessarily limited to the effects of the following additional loadings: (a) (b) (c) Overburden loads. different limits on allowable longitudinal expansion (b) Thermal contraction. expansion and a) General There are fundamental differences in loading conditions for the buried.3. to the service conditions to which the pipe and support system are to be subjected. loss of support. (e) Static wind loads and static fluid loads.2(i) above. b) Means of providing Flexibility If expansion is not absorbed by direct axial compression of the pipe. it may be necessary to calculate the longitudinal. or changes in size. wave loadings and all significant fluid loads to which a submerged line might be submitted). 15.2. 15. Live loads. In calculating these stresses and reactions and the effects of various loadings on the piping the designer shall use established fundamental analysis methods. (f) Internal pressure fluctuations.1 General In addition to satisfying the requirements of clause 841 of B 31. Unless such movements are restrained by suitable anchors. If expansion joints are used. (e) Cyclic and vibratory loads including the effect of Stress Intensification. Consideration shall also be given to. Therefore. loops. Thermal expansion of buried lines may cause movement at points where the line terminates.3. the torsional stresses. where applicable.2 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY a) Expansion calculations are necessary for buried lines if significant temperature changes are expected. or offsets or provision shall be made to absorb thermal strains by expansion joints or couplings of the slip joint. (d) Dynamic and seismic loads: Seismic load consideration for earthquake prone areas should be taken after proper seismic survey to determine liquefaction factor of soil. ball joint. the hoop stresses. (h) Geotechnical loads (including slides. axial. consideration shall be given. or bellows type. and bending stresses.3. and thermal effect of the pipeline on soil properties). ii) In addition to the requirements of Clause 15. support (d) Self-weight and gravity dead loads. 15.unrestrained. anchors or ties of sufficient strength and rigidity shall be installed to provide for end forces due to fluid pressure and other causes. the stress interactions and the reactions at significant points in the system. depending on specific circumstances. Factors on the fatigue life of components.8.2 Loading Considerations (g) External hydrostatic pressure (including collapse. . 15. flexibility shall be provided by the use of bends. or similarly restrained positions of the piping and the above ground portions not subject to substantial axial restraint. Buoyancy. but not necessarily limited to the following loadings:(a) Internal pressure.3 COMBINED STRESS CALCULATIONS (c) Differential movements.3 Stress Values i) Consideration shall be given to the stresses and reactions caused by. changes in direction.

in lb.8 Appendix E) Z = Section modulus inch 3(mm3) of pipe.stresses are necessary.m) M0 = bending moment out of. (N. SE without regard for fluid pressure stress. SE. SE = Stress due to expansion. c) Unrestrained Lines Stresses due to expansion for those portions on the piping without substantial axial restrain shall be combined in accordance with the following equation: The maximum computed expansion stress range.to plane of member. a) the combined stress due to expansion. Root of (Sb2 + St2 ) Where. psi (MPa) St = Mt/2Z = torsional stress. Root of{( i1 M1)2 + ( i0 M0)2}/Z =equivalent bending stress.lb. (N. such as weight of pipe and contents. psi(MPa) M1 = Bending moment in plane of member (for members having significant orientation. S. such as elbows or tees. with modulus of elasticity for the cold condition.m) ii = stress intensification factor under bending in plane of member (B 31. longitudinal pressure c) the longitudinal bending stress due to external loads. Beam bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supposed above ground. The sum of the longitudinal stresses . shall not exceed 0.8 Appendix E) io = stress intensification factor under belonging out of. psi (MPa) a = Linear coefficient of thermal expansion. plane of member (B 31. based on 100 per cent of the expansion. calculated for nominal pipe wall thickness. The total of the following shall not exceed the specified minimum yield strength. SL = The longitudinal compressive stress. in lb. this compressive stress adds directly to the hoop stress to increase the equivalent tensile stress available to cause yielding.m) Mt = torsional moment. or transverse. This equivalent tensile stress shall not be allowed to exceed 90 per cent of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe.30 for steel Note that the net longitudinal stress becomes compressive for moderate increases of T2 and that according to the commonly used maximum shear theory of failure.72 times the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe. (N. for the latter the moments in the header and branch portions are to be considered separately) in. Sb = Sq.v Sh in which. or transverse to. b) Restrained Lines The net longitudinal compressive stress due to the combined effects of temperature rise and fluid pressure shall be computed from the equation: SL = Ea (T2-T1) . inch per inch per degree F (mm per mm per degree C) v = Poisson's ratio = 0. minimum degrees E = Modulus of Elasticity of steel. wind etc. b) the stress. psi (MPa) T1 = Temperature at time installation degrees F(degrees C) T2 = Maximum or operating temperature F(degrees C) of SE = Sq. psi(MPa) Sh = Hoop stress due to internal fluid pressure.

d) 16. a) Sweet or sour natural gas.1 DESIGN. f) hydrostatic test pressure loads (particularly when the pipeline is 16. 16. such as wind and earthquake. and other sustained external loadings shall not exceed 0. shall not exceed 80 per cent of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe.2 system. pressures and c) Gathering transmission system.3.3 CORROSION ALLOWANCE Whenever internal or external corrosion is expected during the design life of the pipeline. system. Stresses due to test conditions are not subject to the above limitations.5 PRE-OPERATIONAL STRESSES It is desirable to limit stresses during pre-operational manipulation of the pipe so as to avoid damage that might impair the operability of the line.0 16. and those produced by occasional loads.75 time the allowable stress in the hot condition. such as wind or earthquake. . distribution Onshore or offshore pipeline. INSTALLATION AND TESTING GENERAL PROVISIONS The selection of design for pipeline system shall be based on the following evaluation of the properties and required flow rate of the fluid to be transported. 16. It is not necessary to consider wind and earthquake as occurring concurrently. The designer shall ensure that preoperational stresses are controlled and that they are non-injurious to the pipe. weight.5.1 In laying parallel pipelines in the same trench.due to pressure. as occurring concurrently with the live. b) Operating temperatures. and laying. a suitable corrosion allowance shall be made at the design stage. the effect of the following pre-operational loads: a) Transportation and stockpiling of the pipe. 7. but not restricted to. vapour phase LPG. POPULATION DENSITY INDEX A Class 4 location ends 220 metre from the nearest building with 4 or more stories above ground.4 SUPPORTS AND ANCHORAGE FOR EXPOSED PIPING Attachment of supports on Anchors Due consideration shall be given to the effect of such attachments on possible fatigue failures and local stress concentrations. live and dead loads. 15. Consideration shall be given to. d) Loads imparted by construction traffic. dead and test loads existing at the time of test. c) Backfilling. e) Field bending. or service lines. The sum of the longitudinal stresses produced by pressure. It is not necessary to consider other occasional loads. single or multiphase flow conditions. 15. together with the environment in which the pipeline is to be installed.3 for FOR cover CLEARANCE BETWEEN PIPELINES OR MAINS AND OTHER UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES 16. 16. b) Stringing.4 COVER REQUIREMENTS PIPELINES Refer Table requirements. the minimum clear distances between the pipelines shall be 500 mm. coating and wrapping.5 constructed as an above grade installation or is buried in unstable soils).

3 A mitered bend is not permitted with the exception of deflections upto 3 degrees that are caused by misalignment.8.1 The ends of each bent length shall be straight and not involved anyway in the bending. a complete check of the pipe 16. casing pipe and vent pipes shall be at least 1.2 Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be bent in such a way lies in the plane passing through neutral axis of the bend which shall be installed positioning the longitudinal weld in the upper quadrants. Roads or Streets shall be done in accordance with the provisions of "Recommended Practice for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways" API RP 1102 and applicable clauses of B31. ELBOWS AND MITERS IN STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS The minimum radius of field cold bends shall be as follows: _______________________________ Normal Pipe Minimum Radius of Size (in) Bending in Pipe Diameters _______________________________ NPS 12 and smaller 21 D NPS 14 u/i 18 30 D NPS 20 and larger 40 D _______________________________ 16. unless construction above ground is found to be desirable for exceptional technical.0 metre from the existing underground pipeline when heavy conventional construction equipment is expected to be utilized.8. The length of the straight section shall permit easy jointing.8.2 metre away (vertically) from aerial electrical wires and shall be suitably insulated from underground conduits carrying electric wires on railway land.1 Handling.9. Tangent lengths should not be reduced in the field.16. A field bend shall not be made within two pipe diameters of a field weld.0 meter. particular attention shall be paid to the suitability of the trench to allow the pipeline to be lowered without the coating being damaged and to give a reasonably even support to the pipeline. No pipeline should be located within 15. 16.2 Installation of Pipe in the Ditch Pipelines shall be buried below ground level. OR STREETS Pipeline. HIGHWAYS.8 and this standard. Before lowering operations are commenced. and Stringing Pipe shall not be strung on the Rightof-Way in rocky areas where blasting may be required. These areas shall be distinctly identified on ground during construction. until all blasting is complete and the area cleared of all debris.8 . 16. Material other than line pipe shall not be strung on the Right-of-way but shall be transported to site for use only at the time of installation. Hauling. 16. In any case the minimum clear distance shall not be less than 3. ROADS. 16.0 metre of any private dwelling.9. 16. unless it is provided with atleast 300 mm of cover in addition to that provided in clause 16. This distance may be reduced after a careful assessment of construction methodologies. 16. REQUIREMENTS UNDER RAILROADS. economic or topographical reasons. BENDS. which do not result in unsafe conditions during construction.9 MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE INSTALLATION OF STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS 16. or any industrial building or a place of public assembly in which persons work. 16.4 of this standard. when running parallel to an existing underground pipeline should be at a minimum clear distance of 5.7 Design and construction of gas pipelines crossing Railroads.4 Field-cut segments of elbows NPS 12" and larger are not recommended. Tangents approximately 1 metre in length shall be provided on both ends of cold bends.5. Highways. congregate or assemble. When already coated pipes are being lowered.2 The location of a new underground pipeline.8.6 CASING.

extra precaution shall be taken to ensure the maximum possible clearance and to prevent future (b) . special design and construction shall be used. potentially scouring bed. the following requirements are to be considered: (a) Hydrological and geotechnical surveys to establish the river bed and water current profiles. it may be necessary to add weight to sink and hold the pipeline in position.10 WATER CROSSINGS Special considerations shall be required for submerged crossing by pipelines of rivers which are characterized by their perennial nature. Whenever considered desirable. A heavier wall thickness pipe shall be provided for a river crossing section. The cover provided shall be adequate to prevent exposure of the pipeline for the entire design life of the pipeline. be subjected to hydrostatic pretesting. The width of trench shall be such that a minimum clear distance of 200mm for trench in normal soil and 300mm for trench in rock is maintained between edge of pipe and the trench wall at the bottom of trench. to predict the behaviour of the river with respect to change of course. 16. steep and potentially erodable banks. where it is not practicable to obtain the above mentioned clearance.2 A clearance sufficiently large to avoid electrical fault current interference shall be maintained between the pipeline and the grounding facilities of electrical transmission lines. maintain a vertical clearance of at least 300mm. (c) To ensure the stability of the underwater pipeline. provided that. CROSSING OF / OR BY UTILITIES (d) (e) (f) 16.11 16. Wherever pipeline is laid under tension as a result of an assembly error (for example. underground pipes shall. meandering course.11. 16.8 and this standard. before installation. Where these clearances cannot be maintained. the section of the pipeline corresponding to the river crossing should.4 When laid parallel to along or near underground power and/or communication cables. However. The pipeline at such crossings shall be installed with extra depth of cover. so as to keep the stresses on the steel pipe and on the coating within safe limits. scour of bed and erosion of banks and to obtain all other parameters related to design and installation of such crossings.11. or conduit. either horizontal or vertical). or from. the trench shall be rectified or in exceptional cases a new assembly shall be carried out so that it fits the excavation and the laying bed.3 Interference with. incorrect positioning of bends. 16. 16.coating and field joint coating shall be carried out and all damages repaired. other systems through the application of Cathodic Protection shall be dealt with by mutual action of the parties involved. large erodable flood plain and wide water course (high water mark to high water mark) both during the design and installation of such crossings: For river crossings such as those described and established as above.11.11. the complete pipeline corresponding to river crossing shall be tested after installation. Care must be taken that the deformation caused during the raising of the pipe from the supports does not exceed the valves for the minimum allowable radius of elastic curvature.1 A minimum clearance of 300mm shall be maintained at the point of crossing and the utility or pipeline shall be installed at a uniform depth for the full width of the right-of-way. A detailed stress analysis for the pipe section for river crossings should be necessary taking into consideration the effect of all loads during laying and it shall be ensured that the stresses remain within permissible limits in accordance with B 31. conductors.

during which time the piping shall be inspected for leaks. and service lines shall be tested in place after construction. highway. Regardless of separation consideration should always be given to lightning fault current protection of pipelines and safety of personnel. but in no case less than 45 deg. 16. b) Pipelines and mains located in class 1 and class 2 location shall be tested with air. except as provided for in (b) below. 16. shall be by means of water rather than a gaseous medium. mains. including the piping connecting the station to valving employed for isolating the station from the pipeline and designed in accordance with Type-C construction (Design factor = 0.8 and all such piping is retested with the main offshore pipeline to class 1 location test requirements.5) shall be tested to atleast class 3 location test requirements. inhibited water.12. wherever practicable. 16. When water is used as the test medium. i.2Test Required to Prove Strength of Pipelines and Mains to Operate at Hoop Stresses of 30% or More of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength of the Pipe: a) All test assemblies used in testing shall be fabricated and installed in accordance with provisions of B 31.0 metre should be maintained between pipeline and transmission tower footings. provided that all final welds are inspected in accordance with the provisions of B 31. river.11.25 times the maximum operating pressure. shall be retested along with the completed mainline sections. the piping components shall be pretested to atleast 1. 16. road/rail crossings and river crossings. gas or water to at least 1. e) Test Requirements for Pipelines and Mains to Operate at Hoop 16.e. If pipelines and communication and/or power utilities share the same trench. which have been previously hydrostatically tested viz. The test pressure for above ground piping and . Where a gaseous medium is used.12 TESTING AFTER CONSTRUCTION offshore platform piping shall be maintained for a minimum period of 4 hours.8 covering permanent assemblies and fabrications. shall be used. ground cables and counter poise.5 A minimum separation of 3. Sour gas shall not be used as a test medium. d) Where testing of offshore platform gas piping and pipe riser cannot be accomplished separately from the main offshore pipeline.11 6 All crossings shall be made in such a manner that the angle between the centreline of the railway. b) Tie-ins For pipelines intended to operate at hoop stresses of 30% or more of the specified minimum yield strength pretested pipe shall be used in tie-in sections and for those sections where in-place testing is not practicable.25 times the maximum operating pressure. All sections. the guaging plate having a diameter of 95% of the internal diameter of the pipeline.contact. Testing.1 General Provisions a) All Pipelines. c) Compressor station. the test pressure shall be maintained for a period of 24 hours after temperature stabilization and stabilization of surges from pressurizing operations. For all buried and submerged piping. canal or utility being crossed and the centreline of the pipeline shall be as close as possible to 90 deg. regulator station and measuring station gas piping. stream. A guaging pig shall be passed through the pipeline to prove the internal diameter of the entire line.12. the above clearance shall be maintained with the pipeline preferably at a lower level. the test pressure shall not exceed 1. water to which suitable doses of corrosion inhibitors are added depending upon quality of water.4 times the maximum operating pressure.

Stresses of 30% or More of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength of the Pipe GENERAL NOTES: mop = Maximum operating pressure (not necessarily the maximum allowable operating pressure) dp = design pressure tp = test pressure This table brings out the relationship between test pressures and maximum allowable operating pressures subsequent to the test. Test pressure at lowest elevation. Test duration. if applicable. records showing the procedures used and the data developed in establishing its maximum allowable operating pressure. Pressure and temperature recording charts. iv. v.2. Location of leaks or failures and description of repair action taken. if ix. iii. However.12. Elevation profile and the location of the test section and testing points. g) Records The operating company shall maintain in its file for the useful life of each pipeline and main. vii. a corresponding reduction in prescribed test pressure may be made as indicated in the pressure Test Prescribed. viii. Minimum. If an operating company decides that the maximum operating pressure will be less than the design pressure. the Maximum operating pressure cannot later be raised to design pressure without retesting the line to the test pressure prescribed in the Pressure Test Prescribed.25 times the maximum operating pressure shall be made and the limitations on operating pressure imposed by Table 16. ii. if applicable.5 of this standard do not apply. h) Acceptance of Test The test is successful when the . vi. Pressure-Volume applicable. The record shall contain at least the following information: i. if this reduced test pressure is used. chart. Pipe Specifications of sections under test. Time and data of Test. column. Testing medium used. f) In such cases an air test to 1.

16. where applicable) and soil stress. or with a non-flammable. 16.12. sectionalizing block valves equipped with automatic closing devices should be provided for sour gas pipelines in order to minimize the volume of hydrogen sulphide that could be released in the event of a pipeline failure. b) Have sufficient adhesion to effectively resist underfilm migration of moisture. or river weight installation. care shall be taken to properly dispose the discharging water in order to avoid pollution. Each item shall be recorded by its identification number.0 18.0 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES All provisions of B 31.2 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION a) This clause shall not take precedence over recognized electrical safety practices and codes.12. 17.8 Chapter V and OISDSTD-138 shall apply. The purpose of the pipe book shall be to indicate and maintain as a permanent record the exact position in the pipeline of each pipe length and each pipeline material like valves.3 Termination of Testing The pipeline shall be slowly depressurized at a moderate and constant rate. the pipeline shall be completely filled with water with sufficient quantities of corrosion inhibitors. Location of each weld including weld number.pipeline has withstood the strength test.5 of this standard shall be adhered to. welder number.14 VALVES Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this clause. and during the test period there is no observable drop in pressure that cannot be accounted for by temperature changes.15 PIPE BOOK A pipe and welding book shall be maintained for all projects. 16. depending upon the quality of water and the period of preservation.12.2. and flanges and other fittings installed in the project. 16. type of welding and electrode. e) Be compatible with cathodic protection system. b) Where insulating devices are installed to provide electrical isolation of pipeline systems to facilitate the application of corrosion control.5 Preservation of Pipeline If the pipeline is to be preserved for a specified duration before it can be commissioned. 16.4 Pre-tested Pipe Pipe used for making repairs shall be pre-tested to a pressure equal to or greater than the original pipeline strength test pressure. scraper traps. 18. non-toxic gas and at a suitable pressure. 16.1 CORROSION CONTROL COATING REQUIREMENTS Coatings shall: a) Electrically isolate the external surface of the pipeline system from the environment.12. bends. 18. During dewatering.13 CONTROL AND LIMITING OF GAS PRESSURE Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure for Steel or Plastic Pipelines or Mains Consistent with Table 16. c) Be ductile to resist cracking. d) Have a strength or otherwise be protected to resist damage due to normal handling (including concrete coating application. damages to fields under cultivation and/or existing structures and interference with the traffic. they shall be properly rated for . weld treatment and the details of used equipment for radiography shall be recorded in the pipe book.

remedial measures may be necessary to control the effect of these fault currents in order to reduce the resultant rise in potential gradient in the earth near the pipeline system to an acceptable level. foreign piping systems or other metallic structures. precautions shall be taken to avoid possible failure of the pipeline during installation due to loss of material strength at the elevated welding temperatures.6 AWG. These adverse effects may occur where a pipeline is close to the grounding facilities of electrical transmission line structures.5m between bare copper and steel.1 Fault Current Interference Fault current interference shall be taken into consideration. b) When such pipelines are under construction. c) Safety appliances shall be provided against lightning. Where a thermit welding process is not deemed suitable.4 of this standard) c) Pipeline system shall be installed so that the belowgrade or submerged portions are not in electrical contact with any casing.temperature. (Refer Clause 18.4. and shall be resistant to the commodities carried in the pipeline systems.4 ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE 18. special precautions shall be taken to nullify the possible effects of induced alternating current potentials. and electrical properties.3. sub-stations. or when personnel are in contact with the pipelines. Attaching test leads directly to the pipe by other methods of brazing is prohibited.4. a multistrand conductor shall be used and the strands shall be arranged into groups no larger than No. devices shall be installed to reduce these potentials to a tolerable level. Consideration shall be given to other methods of Pipelines paralleling alternating current electrical transmission lines are subject to induced potentials as well as the effects mentioned in Notes to Clause 18. 18. d) Provision shall be made to prevent harmful galvanic action at below-grade or submerged connections between copper and steel piping. generating stations or other facilities that have high short circuit current-carrying grounding networks. or ii) Protecting the piping with an insulating coating material to provide a spatial separation of not less than 0. 18.4. 18. 18.2 The following paragraph is added: When a thermit welding process is used for electrical lead installation on pressurized pipelines. a) When studies or tests show that alternating current potentials will be or are being induced on a buried pipeline system.3 Safety Requirements . pressure. This shall not preclude the use of electrical bonds where necessary.3.1 Where a higher current carrying capacity is required. NOTES: a) Fault current resulting from lighting or upset conditions of electrical facilities could result in serious damage to coating and pipe wall and danger to personnel. Each group shall be attached to pipe with a separate charge.4.1 above. b) Where a buried pipeline system is close to grounding facilities.2 Induced Potential Interference 18. stray current interference from foreign objects at HT pipeline crossings. Consideration should be given to: i) Installing an insulated coupling or insulating gasket set between the copper and steel. 18. These devices shall not be installed in enclosed areas where combustible atmospheres are likely to be present unless precautions are taken to prevent arcing.3 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND MONITORING POINTS installation.

corrosion control measures or other remedial action shall be undertaken.7. 18.7.7 a) Employ blowdown connections that will direct the gas away from the electric conductors. 18.8 Chapter VII shall apply.7. 18. Where these investigations indicate that continuing corrosion will create a hazard. a temporary Cathodic Protection system with sacrificial anodes shall be installed to ensure adequate protection of pipeline from external corrosion from the time the pipeline is laid in the trench till the permanent Cathodic Protection system is commissioned. unless tests or experience indicate otherwise.3 Cathodically Protected Pipeline Systems Temporarily out of Service Cathodic Protection systems shall be maintained on any pipeline system temporarily out of service. electrical interference and lighting problems. unless tests or experience indicate otherwise.2 Any gas whose water dew point exceeds the minimum pipeline operating temperature is considered to be corrosive.5. Following precautions shall be taken: 18.4 Any gas containing hydrogen sulphide or carbon dioxide whose water dew point is maintained below the minimum pipeline operating temperature by dehydration. is considered to be non-corrosive.5.2 Existing Bare Pipeline Systems Investigations shall be made to determine the extent or effect of corrosion on existing bare pipeline systems.shall be monitored periodically. c) Make a study in collaboration with the electric company on the common problems of personnel safety. 20.0 REFERENCES DIN 30670 Polyethylene Sheathing of Steel Tubes and of Steel Shapes and Fittings.5 EXISTING INSTALLATIONS INTERNAL CORROSION CONTROL 18. The temporary cathodic protection system shall preferably be installed simultaneously keeping pace with the pipeline laying/installation work and 19. 18.0 MISCELLANEOUS All provisions of B 31.3 Any gas containing hydrogen sulphide or carbon dioxide whose water dew point exceeds the minimum pipeline operating temperature is considered to be corrosive.7. 18.1 Existing Coated Pipeline Systems Cathodic Protection shall be applied and maintained on all existing coated pipeline systems. or is suitably inhibited. b) Install bonding across points where the pipeline is to be separated and maintain this connection while the pipeline is separated.1 Any gas whose water dew point is at all times below the minimum pipeline operating temperature is considered to be non-corrosive. Corrosion Protection Tapes and Heat Shrinkable Sleeves. 18. BSI BS 4146 Specifications for Coal-Tar Based Hot .Coatings made from Corrosion Protection Tapes and Heat Shrinkable Sleeves for Underground Pipelines. 18. 18. unless tests or experience indicate otherwise. unless tests or experience indicate otherwise.6 TEMPORARY CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM When considered necessary.5. corrosion. 30672 AWWA C203-86 Standard for Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipelines-Enamel and Tap-Hot Applied.

including suitable Primers where required. BSI TM-02-84 Testing of Metals for Resistance to Stepwise Cracking. DIN: Deutsches Institute for Normung Obtainable from: Foreign Standards Distribution Beuth Verlag GmbH Burggrafen Strasse 4-10 D-1000 BERLIN 30 British Standards Institution 2. Park Street. organisation whose standards and specifications appear above. London : WIA 2BS Telephone : 01-6299000 Telex : 266933 NACE TM-01-77 Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulphide Stress Cracking at Ambient Temperatures. MR-01-75 Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) Resistant Metallic Material for Oil Field Equipment Name and address of the AWWA American Water Works Association 6666 West Quincy Avenue. Colorado 80235 . Denver.1987 Applied Coating Materials for protecting iron and Steel.

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