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Making Your Point without Saying a Word
Carmen Y. Reyes
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***Introduction*** Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages that enables us to share our knowledge, skills, attitudes, and feelings. Although primarily we communicate with words and spoken language, communication consists of two main dimensions –verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication uses speech; the nonverbal dimension of communication is defined as communication without words. The nonverbal dimension of communication qualifies and gives deeper meaning to our verbal messages, providing essential information beyond the content of what we say. Nonverbal communication includes behaviors such as gestures, facial expression, eye contact, posture (bodily attitude), vocal characteristics (e.g., tone of voice), and breathing, as well as less apparent nonverbal messages sent through our physical appearance (e.g., the way we dress), and even the physical space between people or between people and objects in the environment. A well-trained speaker can enormously add depth, meaning, and persuasive power to any verbal message through simple nonverbal cues and signals. No matter how hard we try, it is impossible not to communicate. Both what we say (words) and what we do not say (our silence and pauses) send a message to the other person or people. Words and silence both have message value, and they are constantly influencing others as well as others are constantly influencing us. Most specifically, teachers and parents greatly improve the impact of their communicative messages by learning to use and manipulate all four paths of communication: Path 1: Verbal communication or words and spoken language. Path 2: Nonverbal communication such as body language and messages without words. Path 3: Para-verbal communication or the way we speak, loudness of speaking, pauses and keeping silent, and interruptions in the conversation. Path 4: Extra-verbal communication like using time and place, the context in which the message is sent, our orientation towards the listener (e.g., how alike or distant our attitudes and feelings are), and
the use of other senses such as olfactory (smelling) and tactile (touching). Nonverbal communication, commonly called body language, seems so powerful that researchers and practitioners in the field agree that many more feelings and intentions are communicated nonverbally than verbally. Depending on the author, from 7-to-37 percent is communicated through words, while as high as 82-to-93 percent is sent nonverbally (for example, see Nitsche, 2006; O’Connor and Seymour, 2002). This reinforces the notion that, whether we are speaking or not, we are constantly communicating and sending messages. In school, approximately 75 percent of the classroom management is considered nonverbal (e.g., teacher frowning or eye gaze) (Balzer, 1969). In the classroom or at home, how we express something seems to carry more message value and weight than the words we say. This being true, to influence students toward positive behavior, it is not as important what we say, but rather how we say it. Types of Nonverbal Communication Before we can improve any behavior, we need to understand fully the behavior. Depending on the sensory channel used (visual, auditory, or tactile), there are different types of nonverbal communication: 1. Universal facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. The face is the primary source of information for inferring feelings. We probably communicate more and unintentionally by our facial expression than by any other mean. 2. Physiological responses such as blushing, shaking, sweating, blinking, flaring of nostrils, swallowing, trembling chin, or breathing heavily. 3. Gestures are deliberate movements and signals that we send. Common universal gestures include waving, pointing, and a handshake. Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Ekman and Friesen (1969) identified five types of universal gestures:
Emblems are body movements that have direct translations to words and directly replace words, e.g., OK and the V for victory or peace. Illustrators accent, emphasize, or reinforce words and help in shaping the meaning of words; for example, opening our arms to illustrate the sentence, “The rat was huge!” Affect Displays show emotion. Our feelings are shown through face and body motions; for example, smiling, grimacing, smirking, or pouting. A clenched fist is an example of a body motion. Regulators control the flow of a conversation or turn taking; for example, holding the index finger up to signify, “It’s my turn to talk” or “Hold one second; let me finish.” Adaptors help relieve tension and are a way of adjusting to the situation; for example, twisting the hair, foot tapping, biting fingernails, or tapping a pen. Posture and the way we move (kinesics) can also convey meaning, and influence the way others perceive us; for example, authority, submission, or withdrawal. Posture includes the pose, stance, and bearing of the way we sit, slouch, stand, lean, bend, hold, and move our body in space. For example, a slouched posture may signal that the person lacks confidence. If during a conversation a person’s torso leans forward it signals closeness and rapport; if the person’s torso leans back it signals distance from what is being said. A closed or crunched body position can mean disapproval, defensiveness, or a lack of interest. In a group setting, we tend to adopt a similar pose to those in the group that we agree with. Vocal communication or paralinguistic, including factors such as tone of voice, loudness, voice inflection, and pitch. Our paralanguage, or the way we say words, may include vocalizations such as hissing, shushing, and whistling, as well as speech modifications such as quality of voice or hesitations and speed in talking. Examples of paralanguage are laughing, crying, whispering, snoring, sucking, sneezing, and sighing. Loud voices are perceived
as aggressive or overbearing, but if the voice is too soft it may be perceived as timid or polite. 6. Vocal intonation includes rhythm, pitch, intensity, nasality, and slurring. 7. Projection, variety, timing, and rate of speech all influence how others perceive us, and give clues to our self-confidence and enthusiasm with the topic. 8. Eye gaze; for example, looking, staring, and blinking. When we take interest in something or someone, our blinking rate decreases and our pupils dilate. The size of the pupils is considered a reliable predictor of a person’s attitude towards people and events in the environment; that is, wide opened to see things that are pleasant and agreeable, and close down noticeably at the sight of disagreeable people, objects, or events. We also tend to look longer and more often (eye contact or oculesics) at those we like or trust. Chances are that teachers look more often at students they like than at students they do not like. Low eye contact may signal lack of confidence, however, excessive eye contact may signal nonverbal aggression. Eyes behavior may serve as a major decision factor in interpreting the other person’s spoken words. 9. Touch or haptics; for example, finger pressure, grip, and hugs. Touching is very common in many greeting rituals; for example, shaking hands or cheek kissing. In the positive side, touching can give encouragement, express tenderness, and show emotional support; in the negative side, touching can slap, punch, or punish (spanking). 10. Proxemics is communicating with others by virtue of relative positioning of our bodies. The first person to use this term was anthropologist Edward T. Hall to explain the manipulation of space to send messages from one person to another. Proxemics describes the changing space that separates people during a conversation or interaction. The amount of distance we need when interacting and how much space we perceive as belonging to us; that is, the distance which
we feel comfortable interacting with others or having others approaching us, is influenced by factors such as social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics, and level of familiarity. Hall distinguished between three key zones: Intimate Space goes from touching the other person to a separation of ten inches. This intimate space is reserved to our close friends and family. Casual or Personal space goes from eighteen inches to four feet. In this key zone, informal conversation with our friends takes place. Social or Consultative space goes from four to twelve feet. This key zone belongs to formal transactions in public and for addressing groups of people. After Hall, a fourth zone was identified, labeled the Public Space Zone. This is the outermost zone of our individual space, extending from twelve feet to as far as the eye can see. In this zone, all speech becomes formal, and the speaker lectures more than talk. When we interact with someone pleasant, we reduce the space between us and the other person, but, if we interact with someone we dislike, we increase space. This adding or taking away space between two individuals can give us clues to make inferences about their attitudes at that given moment. 11. Our appearance or choice of clothing, hairstyle, and jewelry does communicate. It identifies our gender, age, socioeconomic class, status, role, group membership, mood, and physical environment (temperature and season). In summary, spoken language is accented and punctuated by body movements and gestures while facial expression and voice reveal feelings and inner states. The validity and reliability of any verbal message is checked with nonverbal actions; if there is a mismatch between the verbal and the nonverbal message, the listener will use the nonverbal message to grasp the true meaning of the message. Therefore, when we are unsure about words and/or trust the speaker less, we pay more attention to what we see and hear than to the speaker’s words. We can often clarify and
reduce misunderstandings by developing the ability to notice and comment on the nonverbal behavior that we see. In addition, the more we understand the importance and dominance of nonverbal language, the more persuasive in our communication we can become. Clusters of Nonverbal Communication With careful observation, we can detect emotions and even thoughts from nonverbal signs. However, to infer meanings accurately from nonverbal cues, we need to analyze gestures and other nonverbal signals as a group. A single gesture viewed in isolation can mean any number of things, or may mean nothing at all. Body language can have multiple meanings, so, to infer feelings and thoughts accurately from nonverbal behavior, we need to look for groups of signals and behaviors that emphasize and reinforce a common theme. Body language is most significant when it appears in clusters, so we need to look for things that happen at the same time or synchronized. To summarize, to interpret body language accurately, we need to pay attention to both clusters and synchronization. It is also important that we stay open to alternative meanings of the behavior, and that we place our interpretation of the behavior within the context in which the body language is used. For example, a troubled student can move closer to you to communicate nonverbally that he wants to connect with you emotionally, or an angry child moves closer to you to emphasize his anger towards you by invading your personal space. Keep in mind that the real meaning of any message derives from observing and analyzing the totality or complete pattern of the communication, and this can only be done by including both the verbal and the nonverbal. Some examples of nonverbal clusters follow: • A wrinkled nose, lowered eyelids and eyebrows, and a raised upper lip is the facial cluster for disgust; raised eyebrows, eyes wide open, and an open mouth is the facial cluster for surprise. • Clenching on fists that seem ready to strike, lowering and spreading the body for support and stability, and redness of face: getting ready to attack.
Hiding the mouth with one hand, touching nose, avoiding eye contact, and the pace of blinking picks up: not telling the truth.
• Short breaths, patting the back of the neck, clenching hands, and wringing hands: frustration body language. • Leaning forward, the head tilted slightly forward, looking at the speaker without taking the gaze away and less blinking, the eyebrows brought together, and the body largely still: attentive body language. Nodding shows agreement with what the speaker says and encourages the speaker to tell more. Tilting the head may signal interest. • Drumming the table or desk, tapping the feet, clicking a ball point pen, holding the head in the hands, doodling, looking at the ceiling, and staring blankly: boredom cluster. • Sweating, the face pales, dilated pupils, not looking at the other person, a trembling lip, thinning of the lips, voice tremors, a visible high pulse that can be seen on the neck or movement in legs, gasping and holding the breath, fidgeting, and tension in muscles (e.g., clenched hands or arms and jerky movements): fear and nervousness.
***Using Nonverbal Messages to Influence Children’s Behavior*** Being able to predict behavior and therefore responding quickly enough so that we remain in the sphere of influence rather than moving into controlling and power is the art of managing behavior (Nitsche, 2006). The most persuasive communication takes place when we (a) accurately read the nonverbal signals the child is sending us, and (b) adjust our own nonverbal cues to reinforce our verbal message, so that our verbal and nonverbal language work in synchrony to influence the child’s beliefs and feelings. Some guidelines follow. The tone of your voice can convey a wealth of information, ranging from enthusiasm to disinterest and anger. Pay attention to how the tone of your voice influences how children respond to you, and start using a tone of voice that emphasizes and reinforces the ideas that you want to communicate. For example, if you are trying to motivate students, show your enthusiasm in the subject by using an animated tone of voice. Use a low pitch of voice. A lower pitch is associated with strength and maturity; high pitch is associated with tenseness, helplessness, and nervousness. To defuse anger or tension use a lower volume of voice. A loud volume can be perceived as aggressive, reinforcing the child’s angry feelings. To communicate understanding and emotional connection use sounds that convey meaning (e.g., ahhh, umm, ohhh) matched with congruent eye and facial expression. These sounds of understanding and interest in the conversation indicate to the child that you are paying attention. To get the student’s attention, rather than raising the voice or yelling, look at the child in the eye, lower the voice, and drop the pitch. Teachers should use a variety of vocal inflections to present information, and a variety of speech patterns to emphasize important points or to ask questions. Change your rate of speech for emphasis, using inflection and moderate changes in pitch and volume to maintain children’s attention (Miller, 2005).
According to Miller (2005), in the classroom, nonverbal effectiveness is characterized by showing enthusiasm, varying the facial expression, using gesturing for emphasis, moving towards the students, maintaining eye contact, displaying positive head nods, and speaking with a clear voice and varied intonation. Successful teaching uses positive nonverbal communication in the teaching methodology. Nod to emphasize a point. Nodding or shaking the head while we talk encourages the listener to agree with us. Emphasize your point using your voice (words and intonation) synchronized with your body. The key to emphasis is exaggeration; exaggerate by doing things bigger; for example, moving your arms faster. For big emphasis, make big movements, like an exaggerated arm movement (e.g., wide sweep), nodding or shaking the head, moving fast from one point to another, and creating contrast. For example, not moving and then moving suddenly. For a more subtle emphasis, do smaller movements, e.g., a finger movement or slightly inclining the head. Make good eye contact, avoiding staring. Too much eye contact can be seemed as confrontational or intimidating. The nonverbal literature recommends using intervals of eye contact lasting from four to five seconds. If you are a teacher, you can develop an individual connection with every student by simply using eye contact. Make eye contact with each student individually and gently force yourself into each child’s mind. Validate each child’s presence in your classroom by visually letting each student know that you are aware that he or she is there. Teacher or parent, our eyes can be powerful persuasive weapons if we know how to use them. With our eyes, we can “speak” volumes to children projecting acceptance, understanding, security, trust, and tolerance. With our eyes and tone of voice, we can also guide children toward confidence, calmness, and selfcontrol. Be aware that, when you are reprimanding a child, if the child moves his gaze away from you, you had made your point. Stop reprimanding at that precise moment and do not force the issue. You can increase your
persuasive power by noticing and commenting on the child’s nonverbal behavior; for example, you would say, “I can see that you are listening to me and that you agree with what I am saying.” Let children have the last word, but you have the last nonverbal signal. Nitsche (2006) provides the following example: Teacher: Susie and Eve! Please stop talking! Susie: We didn’t say anything! The teacher remains silent. Then she stretches out a hand, palm down, towards the two girls. While doing this, the teacher looks away and continues teaching. When one person refuses to talk, there is no place for a confrontation. In a group setting, we tend to adapt similar poses to those in the group that we agree with. This is why counselors often adopt a posture similar to the client’s posture, to help the client self-disclose. An open body and arm position, leaning forward, a relaxed posture, and touching gently increases a perceived liking in an interaction. Known as the Mehrabian’s Immediacy Principle, this immediacy body cluster is recommended when we are attempting to persuade a child. When we are dealing with troubled feelings (e.g., anger) and acting-out behaviors, we can use the acceptance cluster: place one hand to your chest (touching heart), move closer to the child, and gently touch the child in one arm or shoulder. Other acceptance and approval gestures that we can use are smiling, nodding the head, winking, gently squeezing the child’s hand, and a pat on the back. When our arms are curved and moving slowly, we offer support; with rounder arms, we are symbolically embracing the child. To project confidence, use the following nonverbal cluster: maintain eye contact, keep the eye blinking to a minimum, make sure that you sit up straight, gently touch the child, and touch the fingertips of your hands together to form a steeple. When dealing with students’ angry feelings, use your voice and body language to communicate that you are emotionally centered and calm,
even when you feel annoyed, and to show yourself to the child as nonconfrontational. Use a controlled, gentle tone of voice to present a sense of confidence and assurance, and assume a nonthreatening physical posture. Standing tall will help the adult achieve dominance, but for closeness and self-disclosure invite the child to sit, and then you both sit. With a younger child, bend, so that you talk with the child at eye level. Move forward to speak confidentially. Moving closer sends the message that we are interested in what the child has to say, that we feel comfortable, and that we are giving the child our full attention. To communicate that we are listening and paying attention to the child use nonverbal behaviors such as smiling, maintaining eye contact, nodding the head, and leaning the torso forward combined with minimal verbal encouragers such as “I see…” “I follow you…” and “uh-huh.” Our nonverbal behaviors tell children what we expect from them. Our positive expectations bring positive achievements; negative expectations bring low self-confidence and failure. Make sure that your nonverbal behavior conveys positive expectations. Nonverbal behaviors associated with positive expectations are touching, proximity, forward body lean, eye contact, more gestures, approving head nods, and positive facial expressions (Miller, 2005). To bond with a child, gently invade his personal space. When we invade the child’s personal space, the child expects to hear something personal. Personalize the interaction by standing next to the child and praising him verbally, or with a touch on the shoulder or a pat on the back for a job well done. Remember that, the less the child knows and likes you, the less your influence will be. As a remote and distant adult, our influence is limited, but as a friend, there is no limit to how much we can accomplish. The key to influence and persuade children is to move a little closer to the child, in physical space as well as in feeling and thought. Touching during a conversation creates a bonding effect and strongly influences the other person (Gueguen and Fischer-Lokou, 2003). The authors recommend that we use sympathetic touching such as a brief
touching on the back, shoulder, or arm. Closer forms of sympathetic touching are putting the arm around the child, hugging the child as he cries, and touching the child’s arm for a longer period. People in rapport tend to mirror and match each other in posture and gesture. The key to rapport is to adopt an overall physiological and mental state that is similar to the other person. Therefore, to develop rapport and increase your persuasive power, you can use the exchanged matching technique; that is, synchronize your nonverbal behavior with the child’s nonverbal behavior but without directly copying the child. For example, if the child crosses her arms, you cross your legs; if the child frowns, you look pensive; if she talks fast, you move fast; if she scratches, you rub your arm. Once the nonverbal behaviors are synchronized, make a change in your nonverbal behavior (e.g., coughing) to check if the child follows you with a compatible behavior (sound). This is called pacing and leading in the neuro-linguistic literature (Vaknin, 2008; O’Connor and Seymour, 2002), and is telling you that the child is receptive to your persuasion. When you are at the leading level, shift your physiology and attitude (i.e., breathing pace, facial expression, and body language) to change your behavior in the direction you want the child to behave. For example, with a loud and agitated child, you start moving slower and talking lower to shift the child, slow her down, and calm the child. To summarize, the four steps to improve relationships and our persuasive power, are: Step 1: Mirroring the child by matching her posture, word choice, voice, or breathing. Step 2: Establishing rapport using mirroring. Step 3: Pacing, or moving along with the child for a while at the same speed. Step 4: Leading the child to a mental state and attitude where the child mirrors and matches our behavior (Nitsche, 2006). With matching behaviors, we find ways to be alike. Other matching behaviors that we can use are: • Matching arm movements with small hand movements
Matching body movements with head movements • Matching the distribution of the body weight; for example, resting on the same arm • Matching the posture • Adopting the same sitting position • Matching our breathing by breathing in unison • Voice matching (tonality, speed, volume, and rhythm) In addition, we can mirror a child who is fidgeting by swaying our body (Vaknin, 2008; O’Connor and Seymour, 2002). Here is another way of using mirroring, pacing, and leading to persuade a child. Observe if the child is standing or sitting in a closed body position (i.e., arms and/or legs crossed). This is a signal that the child is not yet susceptible to persuasion. Shifting the child from a closed body position to an open body position significantly increases the chance of persuading the child. There are two ways of doing this: Example 1: Give the child something to hold or have the child use his arms; for example, holding a book, sharpening pencils, or erasing the board. Example 2: Adopt a closed body position similar to the child’s body position. Then, spend some time building rapport; for example, talk about any topic of interest to the child. After a few minutes, open your body, unfolding your arms followed by your legs, and see if the child is following you. Do this naturally and gradually. For example, you open your arms to grab a book. If the child remains in a closed body position, you return to a closed body position and continue developing rapport before you try again. Children mirror behavior all the time; that is, what children see teachers and parents doing, children do. For example, when the teacher is lively, the class is lively, when the teacher is reflexive and calm, the class is reflexive and calm, when the teacher is talkative, the class talks a lot. The volume of the teacher’s voice determines the volume of the class’ voice. The softer the teacher speaks, the softer the class speaks. As long as your
class is behaving according to your instructional goals, the mirroring is fine, but if students are too talkative when they are supposed to be reading silently, ask yourself, “Is my class mirroring my behavior?” and make changes in your behavior to match the results you want. For example, during reading time, whisper and move slowly (Nitsche, 2006). Always keep in mind that the adult, teacher or parent, sets the tone; the child mirrors the adult. Use proximity control to discourage disruptive behaviors. Schoolteachers can tailor classroom circulation to prevent behavior problems before they happen. Circulation of the classroom should be unpredictable so that the teacher does not follow the same route every time. Teachers can also pair proximity with praise; for example, stopping at the child’s desk and saying something like, “Thank you Ashley for working so hard and staying on task” (Lampi, Fenty, and Beaunae, 2005). Long and Newman (1996) identify five levels of proximity control in the classroom: Level 1: Orienting our body towards the child Level 2: Walking towards the child Level 3: Putting one’s hand on the student’s desk Level 4: Touching or removing the object that is distracting the child Level 5: Putting one’s hand gently on the student’s shoulder or arm When we repeatedly and systematically give the same nonverbal signal in connection to an event, a concept, or an idea, the nonverbal signal and the concept become connected or anchored with one another. The anchor is the nonverbal signal or stimulus that always triggers the same reaction, and can take many forms. For example: • posture • movements • gestures • facial expressions
• touch • sounds • voice • rules • symbols • traditions • ceremonies • contracts • rituals (daily, weekly, or monthly) • a place where an activity takes place or is explained (e.g., time out area or story time) Anchors are part of the classroom-structured routines. The reaction can be either an action (can be observed), or it can take the form of change of inner state (a change in attitude or mood). That is, the anchor results in a change of mental or emotional state, creating a positive expectation (e.g., “It’s story time!”) The positive expectation is an automatic reaction that we create without using words (Nitsche, 2006). We know that we created an effective anchor when we use the anchor and, as a result, we need to use fewer words (or no words at all) to create the desired mental or emotional state in the child. In other words, an effective anchor is a reflex, the more we use the anchor, the faster it works. From Nitsche, we get the following examples of anchors: • Placing a hand on the back of the chair and looking directly at the child who is talking. The nonverbal message here is, “This is a warning. Stop talking.” • Sitting down on a chair to signal to children to sit down too. • A freeze posture. • Knocking three times on the chalkboard or table (“Quiet” or “Pay attention to this”). • Saying “Ready-Steady-Go!”
• Counting down from five to one to stop a behavior or to start a new behavior. • Using slowly or lively music to set the mood. • Clapping. • Dropping an object, like a book or a key chain, loudly to the floor to get children’s attention. • Using a whistle or an alarm clock. • Saying 1-2-3-Zap! In addition, freezing your posture. The students freeze into statues. A few seconds later, you continue teaching or giving directions. • Turning a light on and off three times; “Quiet down” or “Move back to your seats.” • Drawing a big eye on the chalkboard and pointing at it (“Look” or “Pay attention to this”). You can also use a picture. • Holding a hand up in the air and slowly moving the thumb and forefinger toward each other (“Quiet”). • Using the hand to signal stop, or holding up the hand and saying “Stop!” • Pointing at your own eyes (“Look!”) or ear (“Listen”). Nitsche (2006) warns teachers that we keep our anchors “clean” by making sure that we do not use the same anchor for different purposes. For example, if we use a specific hand anchor to signal silence, then we do not use the same hand anchor to elicit a different behavior or mood. When we sit down to signal children to sit down, we always use the same anchor chair placed in the same spot in the room (e.g., in front of the room). Alternatively, if we put a green hat to signal story time, we do not use the same green hat for any other activity. We also prevent “contaminating” our anchors by keeping the activities apart; for example, when we use the hand anchor to achieve silence, we are silent ourselves, and we wait until there is absolute silence in the classroom to continue talking or teaching.
If you are confused about the nonverbal signals that you see in the child, do not be afraid to ask questions. To clarify a nonverbal message, we can repeat back our interpretation of the student’s message, so that the child confirms or clarifies. For example, you can ask, “So what you are saying is _____. Am I right?” Before rushing to a conclusion, verify your interpretation with the child, e.g., “I get the feeling that you are uncomfortable with _____. Would you like to add something?” Look for mixed messages and incongruence between the verbal and the nonverbal message; that is, words that do not match the nonverbal signals. For example, the child says he feels fine while frowning and staring at the ground. When this happens, you can gently confront the child, e.g., “Your behavior is telling me that you are feeling upset.” Bring the nonverbal behavior to the child’s attention, and together, explore these incongruities to help the child develop self-awareness. Analyze the nonverbal behavior in context; for example, “You started talking loudly and very fast when I asked you about _____. I get the impression that you feel strongly about this issue” or “You are pulling your hair and you sound unsure. Do you feel nervous about this test?” Do not assume your interpretation is correct until you ask the child. ***References*** Balzer, A. L. (1969). Nonverbal and verbal behaviors of biology teachers. The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 226-229. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1, pp. 49-98. Guegen, N., and Fischer-Lokou, J. (2003). Tactile contact and spontaneous help: An evaluation in a natural setting. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(6), 785-787. Lampi, A. R., Fenty, N. S., & Beaunae, C. (2005). Making the three ps easier: Praise, proximity, and precorrection. Beyond Behavior, 15(1), pp. 8-12.
Long, N. J., Morse, W. G., and Newman, R. G. (1996). Conflict in the classroom: The education of at-risk and troubled students, Edition 5. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed. Miller, P. W. (2005). Body language: An illustrated introduction for teachers. Munster, Indiana-www.pwmilleronline.com Nitsche, P. (2006). Talk less. Teach more! Nonverbal classroom management. Group strategies that work. Butler, PA: Pearls of Learning Press. O’Connor, J., & Seymour, J. (2002). Introducing NLP: Psychological skills for understanding and influencing people. Hammersmith, London: Harper Element. Vaknin, S. (2008). The big book of NLP techniques: 200+ patterns. Methods & strategies of neuro linguistic programmingwww.booksurge.com
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