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Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh
The objectives of the study have emerged from the research problems identified earlier. The main thrust of this study has concentrated on the issues relevant to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. However, the details of the objectives of this study are summarizing the nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh, presenting the tourist facilities available in the country, evaluating the role of some tourism organizations operating in the country, measuring the performance of world tourism sector as well as the performance of Bangladesh tourism industry, measuring the satisfaction of visiting tourists on of different tourism services available in Bangladesh, identifying the constraints to the development of tourism and prescribe necessary suggestions for reforms and improvements of the tourism industry in Bangladesh and forecasting and highlight the potentials of tourism development in the country.
1.1. Preamble Tourism is one of the initiators of people's movement, a facilitator for exchange of knowledge, a provider of pleasure, a way to enjoy leisure, and a means to enrich culture. There was a time when only the elite classes had the time and money to enjoy travelling. Especially before fifties of the twentieth century, travel was the privilege of a few rich, affluent, and perhaps adventurous people. Things have since changed much. "Today, the rise in the standard of living of people in several developed and developing countries along with the fast technological revolution in transport industry has brought overseas holiday within the reach of middle and even working class. Besides, the emergence of cheap holiday through non-scheduled carriers has brought about a major revolution in the concept of holiday package. (Naik, 1977)". Thus, the concept of tourism has now acquired a wider significance among the mass people.
People are prone to fun and enjoyment. Being curious, they always want to get the flavour of unseen and unknown for pleasure. Their inherent attraction for the enjoyment of natural beauty and diverse civilization motivate them to discoveries and inventions through extensive travelling. They also intend to gather new experience from new things and new places, get lasting pleasure, and know different unknown cultures through visiting destinations. Besides, tourism is a leisure activity to relief oneself from the stress of daily routine-life. People get depressed of their monotonous workloads and want to escape from the pressures of work-deadlines, avoid
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Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh
crowd city life, break traditional daily life, and thus enjoy some time in a new place having natural and cultural significance. A new place can relieve the monotony of one's existence and -fijl one mind with joy (Haq 2001). For this a large number of people is now moving from one place to another, from one country to other countries, from one end of the world to another, and may be in future, from one planet to other ones (Hossain, 1999). Thus tourism and the resultant movement of people are booming globally.
Today, the tourism industry is recognized as the single largest industry in the world. As such tourism has become the largest trade sector in the world and this sector has been recognized as a major thrust area of economic and business activities in most of the destination countries. It has shown a tremendous growth during the past four decades. For most of the destination countries, tourism has become an emerging sector. They are now earning larger portion of their national income from tourism. For this, many destination countries have developed necessary tourism-infrastructure and arranged necessary facilities to fed the tourists and thus reap the potential benefit from tourism activities. Their utmost efforts are yet on to attract increased number of tourists.
The impact of modern technology and the resultant introduction of speedy and comparatively cheap air transport have made it possible for the tourism industry to
1.2. The Research Problem
By today, tourism has become the largest industry and trade sector in the world generating enough employment opportunities and earning huge amount of foreign exchange for the destination countries. It has created multifaceted impact on people's pleasure, knowledge, overall standard of living, and culture of both the destination and tourist generating countries. Many of the destination countries have marched forward to reap the full potentials of this industry. But Bangladesh is lagging far behind in the growth and development of its tourism industry. Through the country has got many rare attractions substantially different from those of other destination countries, its tourism industry is yet at the primitive stage and has not taken the shape of an industry.
The government of Bangladesh, however, has already taken some measures for the development of this industry. But many of those are of very primary nature and have created little impact on the growth and development of this industry. Therefore, it is necessary to uncover the reasons of the backwardness of this industry and identify the loopholes of the
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3. iii) To evaluate the role of some tourism organizations operating in the country. vi) To identify the constraints to the development of tourism and prescribe necessary 3 / 21 .Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh present policy measures and thus suggest effective courses of actions to be undertaken by the government and other concerned agencies. iv) To measure the performance of world tourism sector as well as the performance of Bangladesh tourism industry. However. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study have emerged from the research problems identified earlier. The main thrust of this study has concentrated on the issues relevant to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. 1. v) To measure the satisfaction of visiting tourists on of different tourism services available in Bangladesh. ii) To present the tourist facilities available in the country. the details of the objectives of this study are as under: i) To summarize the nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh.
Researchers in Bangladesh also do not seem to have much attention to the studies on the development of tourism industry. The very few literatures available in Bangladesh have tired to suggest the ways and means in the present context of the country for the development of the industry. these offer little help in developing a framework for further studies by the researchers. As a result. research monograph. It is understood that a relatively little attention has been given by the professionals and researchers to the issues of tourism development. 4 / 21 . These existing literatures on Bangladesh tourism are also with inadequate justification and skin-deep analysis. a few articles and research reports addressing the marketing issues and dealing with the problems of the tourism industry in a skin-deep manner have been available to the researcher. obtain better performance of the industry. Therefore. no comprehensive and worthy paper. literatures on tourism development throughout the world are not enough. or research report on this issue of tourism industry in Bangladesh has yet come out.4.5. being at its infant stage. the study on the development of tourism industry has been largely unexplored. Similarly.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh Suggestions for reforms and improvements of the tourism industry in Bangladesh. The Research Gap The literatures reviewed earlier section clearly indicates that there has been a considerable expansion of tourism activities worldwide. But a relatively few works and literatures on the development of tourism worldwide have been found as yet. 1. and vii) To forecast and highlight the potentials of tourism development in the country. is of no exception from this. No comprehensive literature covering the same area has yet been available to the present researchers. Bangladesh tourism industry. Literature Review A substantial number of works on tourism as a subject has been done throughout the world. literatures reviewed for this study include only a handful of papers and the few research reports. Therefore. Bangladesh tourism industry has failed to attract a sizeable number of foreign tourists. Therefore. enough literatures on the same area of tourism industry in Bangladesh are not available. These are summarized as under: 1. As such. motivate them to stay longer. and thus ensure sustained growth and development of the industry. As a consequence. However.
However.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh 1. the situation therefore calls for the identification of the causes and formulation of policy and strategy measures. this chapter has covered the contents such as nature of the study. research is an important aid to feedback and decision making. these decisions include the identification of the problems faced by the industry and taking necessary corrective measures to direct the industry towards its growth and development. and bringing about success in the operation of the industry concerned. cultural. and generate interest or thinking for further research on other issues of the tourism industry in Bangladesh. Therefore. and academicians will also be benefited from a study like this. the details of research methods followed in solving the research problem. achieving the objectives. and assessing the research propositions have been described below. of the present study may be of immense help in these contexts. In the case of the tourism industry in Bangladesh. it is expected that this study will provide sufficient information on the tourism in Bangladesh. having tourism sector of Bangladesh much potential this area lends itself to a systematic and structured study. With these ends in view. Justification of the Study Through the country has bright prospects to develop a strong tourism industry based on natural. As there has been no major study covering this area. this study will provide additional knowledge and literature to the existing ones. As Bangladesh tourism lags behind in its growth and development and in attracting a significant number of tourists to visit its destinations. service providers.6. ecological and historical attractions it is yet aoristically undiscovered and unexplored. Research Methods This chapter describes the research methods followed in this study. Its importance lies on the knowing of the relevant facts. According to Gilbert (Undated: 164). The research methods to follow depend on the problems identified. policy makers. The findings. objectives set and propositions/ hypothesis drawn for the study. Furthermore. For this a comprehensive study like the present one seems to be the right attempt in the present context. formulating strategies on the basis of those facts. Besides. 5 / 21 . Finally as an emerging research area. the concerned authority should identify the reasons for the backwardness of such a potential sector and take appropriate measures to overcome the problems faced by the industry.
sample size. An exploratory study aims to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.1. Being the nature of this study an exploratory one and using descriptive statistical tools rather than inferential statistical ones. (vi) constraints to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. an exploratory research involves investigation of problems on which little formal knowledge is available (Rahman. the nature of this study has to be exploratory rather than testing any hypothesis. and questionnaire preparation. This chapter has also presented sections on pilot survey for questionnaire pre-test. and limitations of the study. (vii) suggestions for reforms and improvements. the present study is both a theoretical as well as an empirical one. 2. the overall performance of the industry has been measured. (v) tourists' satisfaction on Bangladesh tourism arrangements.2. theoretical propositions. These include the study of (i) nature. (iii) tourism organizations in Bangladesh. sample selection procedure. data analysis and interpretation techniques. field survey and investigation for primary data collection. Scope of the Study The scope of the study extends to the following aspects: A. 1997). As such. and (viii) potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. Coverage of the Study: (The study has attempted to cover eight main areas. 2. Since existing research on the development of the tourism industry in Bangladesh is not adequate. (ii) tourism facilities in Bangladesh. population. The study has attempted both micro and macro level analyses. activities of different tourism firms operating in the country have been analyzed. often conducted to formulate a more research problem or to develop hypothesis/(Seltiz and Cook.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh scope of the study. Nature of the Study (In the present study it has not been able to accumulate enough secondary information as there is very little by way of literatures. At the micro level. sources of secondary data. (iv) tourism performance. organizational framework of the report. 6 / 21 . In the macro level analyses. it has not been possible to draw any precise hypothesis regarding the problem under study. and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh. verification of filled in questionnaires. 1962) By definition. tabulation.
retired executives of different tourism firms have also been considered and included in the sample.. The preparation of the report. These include BPC. development process of tourism infrastructure or facilities in the country. Airlines. tourists visiting any part of the country have been considered to include in the sample. the scope of different categories of samples taken for this study is limited to the following: i. iii. D.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh B. C. and Restaurants. Travel Agencies. Study Period: The field survey has been conducted and the field level data have been collected during the months from November to February. Finally. ii. 7 / 21 . Experts: Academicians. In the case of measurement of tourists' satisfaction. travel and tourism writers. professional guides. Survey Area Coverage: The overall tourism attractions and facilities available in the country have been considered and the whole of Bangladesh is the survey area of this study. These firms are the major role players in the development and business activities of the tourism industry! Hotels and restaurants have been studied as they play important roles to serve tourist guests and in adopting tour operators' services. They have been interviewed for opinion and judgment based information.irt Bangladesh. It has also chosen the foreign tourists visiting Bangladesh and foreign residents who have visited different destinations of the country. Private Tour operators. and interaction process of rendering or receiving tourism services. It has basically confined itself to the study of tourists' perceptions on different service arrangements of the tourism industry. Data collected for this study have been tabulated during the month of March 2005. which are the peak tourism seasons in Bangladesh. Hotels. Tourism Firms: Six types of tourism firms have been examined in this study. the report has been typed during the month of April 2006. Tourists: The study has included the domestic tourists. and finalizing touch have been done during the period from August' 05 March' 06. As such.. editing. Samples Included: The research problem along with its objectives and propositions indicate that data should be collected from those firms and parties who are directly or indirectly involved in the business activities of Bangladesh tourism industry. and thus accelerating the development of tourism activities in Bangladesh.
Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh 3. Adequate number of tourism is not available in the country and the existing firms are not yet fully equipped with necessary manpower. E. The overall performance of the tourism industry in Bangladesh is poor. B. Finally. C. Bangladesh can expect to become an important visiting destination by adopting effective and practical strategies in the context of the findings of this study. 8 / 21 . These broad propositions are related to the key issues of the research problem and have been developed to achieve the objectives of the study. on the basis of the survey of available literatures and expert opinion. Population Eight categories of population have been set based on the objectives and scope of the study. the researchers have attempted to draw some theoretical propositions and have verified/ evaluated those in light of the analysis of findings. the researchers have put forwarded those propositions for policy and managerial implications. the propositions drawn for this study include the following: A. These propositions along with the scope of the study have defined the extent and coverage of the study and guided the researchers in choosing necessary data to be collected. However. Theoretical Propositions or Research Questions of the Study It has already been mentioned that enough research-based literatures on the present area of the tourism industry in Bangladesh are not available.4. D. Bangladesh tourism industry has not been able to provide necessary tourism infrastructure and facilities for tourists. The measures undertaken by the government are modest in nature and much need to be done for the development of the industry. Nevertheless. 2. technology and facilities. Therefore/it has not been possible to draw any precise hypothesis regarding the problem under study.
12 are from India. (v) owners of travel agencies. Sample Size The foremost and important step of primary data collection is the selection of sample from which data to collect. ten tourism experts (2 academicians. The size and composition of population for the tourist category is not precisely known and their proper categorization could not be made. Pakistan and Malaysia. Out of the 9 / 21 . receptionists of twenty five different hotels and managers of another twenty five restaurants have been included in the samples of these two categories. 2 professional guides. 2. It is mentioned earlier that the study has considered eight categories of samples. Four top executives (three directors and one general manager) of four separate divisions and 'the chairman of the BPC has constituted the sample for the first category of respondents. and the rest 46 are from other source countries. (vii) restaurants managers. (vi) hotel receptionists. hotels. a total number of 250 (125 domestic and 125 foreign)'tourists have been selected in the sample of this category. Necessary information has been collected from them to obtaining feedback on some selected issues of the tourism arrangements in Bangladesh. A total number of ten private tour operators have been taken in the sample of the second category of respondents. The following table shows different categories of samples and their respective sizes: It should be mentioned that out of 125 respondent foreign tourists. One of the important criteria of this selection is to include those tour operators who have at least five years' professional experience of dealing tours and tourists. 9 are from China. Japan and South Korea. The last five categories of population have been used for informal conversations. 3 travel and tourism writers. (iv) executives of the airlines. a total number of twenty-five travel agencies have constituted the sample for this category. (ii) owners of private tour operators (TOAB members). Foreign tourists visiting Bangladesh during the months from November to February constitute the population for the tourist group. Besides. For the retailers' category of respondents. (Hi) tourists visiting the country. Finally. 6 are from each of Netherlands. travel writers. the UK. the sizes of population for these three sectors remain unknown. and (viii) experts! J The first category consists of currently employed executives of the BPC. 10 are from each of the USA. professional guides. and ex-executives of tourism firms. The expert category of population includes academicians. In an attempt to gauge the perceptions/attitudes of tourists. and 3 ex-executives of tourism firms) have also been considered to collect their opinion through informal conversations. Since no up to date list of travel agencies. In addition. The above mentioned three categories of population have been considered for questionnaire survey. and restaurants operating in Bangladesh has been found. An up to date TOAB (Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh) members' list consisting of names and addresses of 32 firms has been used as the base of population for the second category.5. eight sales executives of Biman Bangladesh Airlines and two sales executive of GMG airline have constituted the sample for this category.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh These are (i) executives of the BPC.
attempt has been made to draw ten firms from the TOAB members' list through an unbiased lottery. Because these people are relatively more experienced and directly or indirectly involved in providing tourism services and other tourism related activities in Bangladesh... two from Chittagong. As found in the study. about 73% are male and 27% are female. 30-39.. Their ages range from 20 to 70 years.. the head of the organization. 2.6. All these questionnaires have sought information concerning the following issues: (a). These numbers have been written on 32 separate small pieces of white papers of the same size. 2...... 10 / 21 . More specifically.... Questionnaire Preparation: Three different sets of questionnaires have been prepared to conduct the field survey. Tourism facilities in Bangladesh.. and 32. For the tour operators' category of sample. Since the sample of this category has included the chairman.31. 3. chairman. For selecting the sample respondents from thirty two tour operators. each has been given a number like 1. 40-49.. (b). Ten pieces of such papers have then been drawn through an unbiased lottery.. The sample thus drawn has included seven tour operators from Dhaka. the larger segments of the respondent tourist fall in the age intervals 20-29. and other four top executives of four divisions of the BPC they have been thought to be suitable and competent to provide necessary and available information relevant to the purpose of the study. and 50-59.. top executives of different tourism firms have been included in the samples. serially. Sample Selection Procedure To assess the potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. Nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh. and the rest one from Sylhet. three directors from three separate divisions and one general manager from administration division have been selected from the BPC for the purpose of interviews.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh 250 respondent-tourists.
if the respondents are asked: "Do You Think the Prices set by the Tour Operators in Bangladesh are Reasonable? The respondents will either say either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. (d). The questionnaire for the respondent tourists used-a-seven-point Likert type Scale ranging from 1 to7 to obtaining and rating their opinion on different tourism arrangements in Bangladesh. If the answer is 'Yes' or 'No'. For a total number of seven dimensions three for positive. then the next question attempts to seek answer on the seven-point rating scale having seven break-ups of dimensions. (f). Performance of tourism sectors both worldwide and in Bangladesh and evaluation of present market size of Bangladesh tourism industry in the context of world-tourism market. Besides.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh (c). These objective questions have attempted to collect objective data like the extent of foreign tourists' positive and negative attitudes on different tourism arrangements/services in Bangladesh. Initially. The above mentioned tourism-service related issues along with their dimensions and their given values are as follows: 11 / 21 . (e). (h). Potentials of tourism development in general in Bangladesh. (g). three for negative and the remaining one for neutral has been set to measure the extent of attitudes of the tourists. The questionnaire developed for the foreign tourists consists of 16 tourism-service related issues on which the respondent tourists have been asked to document their response on different dimensions of seven-point rating scale. the criteria used include attempts to assess the extents or degrees associated with the issues of the questions. Suggestions concerning policy and managerial implications for the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. Constraints to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. The main reason to use this Likert Scale is that it is relatively easier to understand. For example. the possible answers to be given by an individual respondent are one-dimensional and must be mutually exclusive. Tourists' satisfaction on Bangladesh tourism arrangements. Role of different tourism firms in the development of tourism in Bangladesh.
Thus these pilot surveys and pre-tests have served the purposes of improving the questionnaires. Besides. value-judgement and opinion related information. Another purpose of the pilot survey is to be acquainted with the relevant technical aspects on the subject matter of the study. In the first phase. why and/or how-type" questions have been developed and posed in many cases to collect attitudinal. examine the practicability of the questions. some "what. As such. the questionnaires developed earlier by the researchers have been passed on to a few senior colleagues of the faculty of Business. Before launching the field survey. behavioural. the researchers took the opportunity to" discuss with some 12 / 21 . Their opinions have also been utilized to identify the key problems and solve those problems of the industry efficiently and effectively. The main purposes of these pilot surveys have been to test the availability of data. In the pilot survey academicians. modify the questions set. Studies. and to measure the potentials of the sector under study. Expert opinions have been taken to improve all three sets of questionnaires designed initially. In the second phase of pilot survey. No formal questionnaire or interview schedule has been used to collect information from the respondents of airlines. careful attempt has been made to cover all the relevant issues and thus make the questionnaire comprehensive. three-fold pilot surveys have been conducted to pre-test the questionnaires. All three sets of questionnaires have emphasized the underlying issues to identify the constraints to the tourism development in Bangladesh and prescribe the policy and managerial implications for improvement. These questionnaires especially attempted to highlight the potentials of tourism sector in general. and understand about the topics to cover for such comprehensive and exhaustive interviews. They provided some valuable suggestions to make those questionnaires simple and unambiguous so that respondents can easily understand the questions set there.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh For the very nature of the information and also of the study. hotel receptionists and managers of restaurants. Survey for Questionnaire Pre-test Questionnaires have been developed independently by the researchers. and thus finalize them. insight understanding of the researcher has to be used very carefully to explore the extent of information required for the concerned issue(s) of each question. travel agencies. and University of Dhaka. research experts and some selected respondents have been requested to express their opinion and give necessary suggestions in connection with finalizing the questionnaires.
Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh research experts and make the remaining corrections. sexes has taken time and thus a total of three months have been spent to complete the field survey. In light of the experience gained by the pilot survey. ages. Sources of Secondary Data 13 / 21 . 2. occupations. airport departure lounge or residential hotels. Survey and Investigation for Primary Data Collection Data pertaining to the potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh have been collected from the five key persons engaged with BPC and ten randomly selected tour operators through in-depth personal interview with pre-designed questionnaires. offices. respondents have answered some unstructured questions on their own and rated some other structured questions focused by the seven points on the Likert Scale discussed earlier. and thus to teach them about the techniques to adopt in the interview process. tour operators. Besides. Five MBA students of Dhaka University have been recruited as field-workers to visit the respondents' firms. Thereafter. Another exit interview with another 125 foreign tourists has also been conducted at different hotel lounges and at the exit point of the departure lounge of Zia International Airport (ZIA). and to make all kinds of investigations for primary data collection. and some tourists. the process of identifying tourist respondents from different countries.10. In the interview. an in-depth face-to-face interview with 125 domestic tourists has been conducted. all three sets of questionnaires have been suitably amended. the pilot survey has been conducted among some respondents. Special attention has been given to introduce the field workers with different issues of the subject matter of the study. In order to understand the impressions of the tourists.9. A one-day orientation program has been conducted for the field-workers to brief them adequately about the topics of the study and issues of the questionnaires. This phase of pilot survey included preliminary discussions and interviews with BPC executives. Some respondent executives/owners of tourism firms have taken time to provide answers and return the field in questionnaires. 2.
14 / 21 . and research reports. and/or any other anomaly. A thorough review of literature has enabled the researchers to obtaining a coherent picture of the problem considered in this study. and folders of different tour operators have also been found useful. periodicals.11. justify the arguments and prepare the theoretical framework of the report. draw effective policy and managerial implications for it. Thereafter. For this. Thus. Souvenirs. some relevant literatures on tourism in general have been collected from different newspapers. Thus. Thereafter. It should again be mentioned again that enough secondary data have not been found due to unavailability of such data. justify logic. The field-workers submitted everyday the filled in questionnaires and reported about the progress and problems of data collection. magazines. travel handbooks. and highlight potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. Verification of Filled in Questionnaires and Tabulation of Data The researchers themselves have monitored. Relevant descriptive exerts have also been used to provide the literature base. internets. journals. Whatever limited secondary data could be made available those have been incorporated effectively. the researchers themselves visited the sample firm to handle the situation and review the information.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh The research agenda made it necessary to review the available literatures and documents. necessary desk research on the available literatures has been conducted and proper adjustments made in light of the purposes of this study. raise necessary arguments. identify the constraints to the development of the tourism industry in Bangladesh. Other published and unpublished materials of both the government and non-government agencies have also provided some required information. leaflet. develop a theoretical base. overseen and supervised the data collection activities of the field-workers. synthesize necessary concepts for the theoretical framework and justify logic of the researcher's comments. attempt has been made to contact with the respondents again to review those data or solve the problem or remove anomaly and thus make necessary corrections immediately. inconsistency of data. attempt has been made to collect sufficient primary and secondary data from all the above mentioned sources to define the research problem. the collected information have been reviewed extensively to assimilate ideas for the research work. In some problem cases. logically and carefully in this study. An attempt has been made to provide enough logical interpretations throughout the report. 2. the researchers have verified the questionnaires field in by the respondents and submitted by the field-workers to make sure about the consistency of data and completeness of the questionnaires. brochures. Through the desk research. theoretical propositions have been drawn and documented carefully to comply with the requirements of the study. In the case of any problem.
Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh After careful verification of the filled in questionnaires and necessary corrections over there. The analyses also include judgements and thoughtful comments of the researchers. the type of the research. ' calculated on the basis of responses made by the respondent tourists on a seven-point Likert Scale. the nature of questions has been structured and the responses on the scale 15 / 21 . 2000). mean. multi-variant analysis. 2. These mainly include percentage. ^a trained personnel has tabulated the collected information under the direct supervision of the researchers. The tabulation has been done manually but with utmost care and sincerity. As such. Thus. 2000). Therefore. Graphical analyses of some time series data could be done for necessary interpretation but have been avoided as these do not add anything meaningful. and the purposes of the study adhered to this specific case have made it impractical to use any advanced statistical tool. and standard deviation. data display. Data Analysis and Interpretation There is no standard technique of data analysis for qualitative researchers. the tabulated data were summarized and arranged under suitable classification and analyzed according to the objectives set earlier. Of course. Miles and Huberman (1984) have suggested three stages of data analysis for qualitative research such as data reduction. It has been mentioned earlier that the study has attempted both subjective and objective measurements. etc (Islam and Hossain. Potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh have been presented theoretically on the basis of responses given by the respondents and also on the basis of comments and arguments available in different secondary literatures. though the quantitative researchers have different standard statistical tools like standard deviation. simple growth rate. and growth achieved in this sector. Besides. Thereafter. Performance of tourism industry in Bangladesh has been measured in light of foreign currency earned from. the researchers in their present research have applied this approach to a greater extent. Thus. some descriptive statistical tools have been used according to the requirements and suitability of the analyses of collected data. and drawing and verifying conclusions (In Islam and Hossain. the chances of errors or mistakes are expected to be minimal. Here. correlation/regression analysis.12. Presentation of simple mean-scores. the nature of the problem. also reflects the performances as well as tourists' satisfaction on different tourism service-arrangements in Bangladesh. factor analysis. employment generated by. Islam and Hossain blamed this qualitative research as problematic. A combined approach of both quantitative and qualitative techniques has been appropriate to analyze and interpret the findings and draw conclusion in light of the research problem and objectives.
In some of the cases. Organizational Framework of the Research Report The write-up of this research report has been organized in ten different chapters. To this end. earnings from tourism. data analysis and interpretation. the research problem. Chapter eight points out some constraints to the development of tourism industry and chapter 16 / 21 .Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh associated with the questions have been valued as 1. Chapter seven measures tourists' satisfaction on different tourism service-arrangements in Bangladesh. With this end. Logical sequence has been maintained in framing and organizing the report. the chapter broadly includes preamble. questionnaire preparation. The first chapter starts with presentation of the introductory discussion. and standard deviation. 5. Thus.13. field survey and investigation for primary data collection. theoretical propositions of the study. sources of secondary data. scope of the study. these mean scores have been presented to indicate the extent of tourists' satisfaction on that particular tourism-service in Bangladesh. data have been analyzed and interpreted through the use of conventional statistical tools like percentage. verification of filled in questionnaire and tabulation of data. pilot survey.. 2. population. sample selection procedure. 4. and justification of the study. 6 and 7 in order to convert the qualitative responses into quantitative forms. 3. the content of this chapter includes the nature of the study. The standard deviation of the mean scores on different tourism issues in Bangladesh has been calculated to show the range of differences among them and thus indicate whether they are meaningful in a sense that they are within the acceptable limit or narrow range. Thus the questionnaire designed for the respondent tourists incorporated objective questions each consisting of seven dimensions. simple growth rate. This has been done in terms of tourist arrivals. the research gap. The purpose of the second chapter is to describe the research methods of the study. Chapter three discusses the nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh. and limitations of the study. The total value/score thus derived from each of such questions has then been averaged to find the mean value/score of the issue under consideration and indicate the extent of tourists' satisfaction on an average on each issue separately. 2. the overall mean perception-score has also been calculated to indicate the overall satisfaction of the tourists on the totality of tourism arrangements in Bangladesh. literature review. The perception scores obtained on these objective issues have been totalled first. Side by side. and employment generation. Chapter four presents tourism facilities in Bangladesh and chapter five evaluates the role of different tourism organizations operating in Bangladesh. Chapter six attempts to measure the performance of world tourism industry as well as tourism industry in Bangladesh. and objectives of the study. organizational framework of the research report. sample size.
Besides. especially in the case of foreign tourists. therefore. the validity and the reliability of information collected for 17 / 21 . However. 2. Chapter ten forecasts and highlights the potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. The findings based on these selected tourists only may. In spite of all sincere efforts. presents implications. In the case of suggestions relating to government policy measures. The researchers feel that it would be better and representative if the size of samples. it has not been possible to fully evaluate all the issues relevant to tourism development in Bangladesh and thus measure the entire potentials of this industry. Besides. The present project is of no exception from this. some of them avoided answering those questions on silly grounds. the researchers feel that this study has also few limitations. Thus. The second limitation is that some sample respondents have been found so conservative to respond and provide some necessary information Respondent tourists have not agreed with some issues incorporated in the questionnaire and not answered those issues under the questions. since the study has considered a small number of tourists. the conclusion with regard to the visiting behaviours. hotels and restaurants) operating throughout the country.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh nine prescribes necessary suggestions for policy and managerial implications. preferences of tourists. the careful and cautious considerations of secondary information and descriptive statements available in literatures have given some insights to generalize the findings. As such. Only 250 respondent tourists out of the total inflow of about two lacs foreign tourists every year and another five lacs domestic tourists may or may not represent the total impressions of the tourists visiting different destinations in Bangladesh. Nevertheless. limit to the generalization. Of course. perceptions or opinions of some purposely-selected tourists have been considered in this study. though tourism firms are also (travel agencies. concludes with remarks. As such.14 Limitations of the Study In every research project. the researchers have always been sincere to keep the limitations at minimal. the researcher could not include some tourism firms locating outside Dhaka city in the samples and collect information from them. The first and foremost among the limitations of this study could be the related with the samples selected for the study. Finally. and satisfaction on Bangladesh tourism arrangements could not be thought concrete. the study is also subject to location biases and market-biases with regard to samples selected. could be relatively larger. chapter eleven evaluates the propositions. and depicts the scope for further research. Of course. the researchers could not control some limitations which the study may contain finally. research outcome may face some limitations. The present study has investigated only a total number of 250 tourists mainly due to resource constraints.
all these incomes have multiplier effect on the overall economy of the country. Thus the no documentation and no availability of data have led the researcher to reflect or present a part of the total contribution of the tourism sector on the economy in Bangladesh. Therefore. Union of official Travel Organizations (IUOTO) in 1937 and is still widely accepted by the nations^. No concrete calculation procedure is there to assess the actual income from tourism sector in Bangladesh. restaurants. According to IUOTO. the income of hotels. the researchers should acknowledge that time constraint has been another loop in completing such a vigorous research work. The fourth limitation is related with the assessment of contribution made by the tourism sector in the economy of Bangladesh. This has limited the researchers to develop any comprehensive insights into the problem under consideration and thus draw any precise hypothesis and test it accordingly. 18 / 21 . The fifth is with regard to the amount of fund available for conducting such an industry-based detail study. there are some hidden expenditure of tourists and some income of different tourism firms that are not properly documented and could not be taken into account. The third limitation is the non-availability of literature on Bangladesh tourism. in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity 1 . Still. on this ground of time cons the findings of this study could be discounted at least to some extent. "The term 'tourist' shall in principle be interpreted to mean any person travelling for a period of 24 hours or more in a country other than in which he usually resides". Besides. Further. private airline. Moreover. The foreign currency income alone does not reflect the real income of the country from tourism sector. Tourism is sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non residents. The fund provided from personal source could not be enough for the required amount. The personal source has allocated the required amount both for conducting the study and publication of the report. and private tour operators could not be collected and shown due to their unwillingness to provide such data. travel agencies.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh this study may not pose any confusion and the authenticity of the findings may not be subject to any question.
Objectives of this study: The present study on tourism problems and prospects in Bangladesh is mainly a descriptive research. 1. analysis of tourism inventory of Bangladesh. (4) UNDP (5) UNESCO 19 / 21 .inventory that may attract the tourists to visit our country.6. For this purpose we went through the publications of the following organizations: (1) Bangladesh Purgation Corporation (BPC). 7. For this purpose we have analysed first the factors that determine the demand for tourism and then we have described what we have in our tourist product .Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh 1. Methodology of the study: For collecting information on various aspects of Bangladesh tourism we had to depend on the secondary sources of data and information. market and marketing strategies analyses and putting forward some pragmatic suggestions and policy recommendations. (3) Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2) Association of travel Agents of Bangladesh (ATAB). The main objectives of this study were to conjoin the theoretical aspects of tourism to the prevailing tourism environment of Bangladesh.
The National Tourist Organization of Bangladesh: Before liberation of Bangladesh i. some times as invaders and sometimes as tourists. during the then Pakistan time. e. there was a Department of Tourism at the centre (West Pakistan) which was responsible for promotional and regulatory works for the development of tourism. Bengal had always been a good destination for the international tourists. Tourism in Bangladesh: A General Overview 2. we interviewed 50 foreign tourists. But with passage of time Bengal has lost its attraction as a major tourist destination and at present we could be placed no where in the list of major tourist importing countries of the world. we interviewed the key personnel’s of the BPC. But the task of creation of tourist facilities was left with the private sector except for some areas where private investment was inadequate or nil. this part of Indian subcontinent had always attracted the foreigners. few tourism experts and other people who somehow were related to tourism. The respondents had been selected purposively. 2.2. Hotel Sonargaon.Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh (6) WTO Besides. 20 / 21 . 10 Chinese restaurants and 10 travel agency owners.1: In the course of history. Hotel Sheraton. ATAB. In addition.
better operation and development of tourism in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Parjaton Corporation (BPC) was set up under the Presidential order No 143 November 27. BPC has undertaken a few developmental plans within the framework of country's national plans. Development Plans of BPC: Development of tourism potential of Bangladesh requires a long term plan and an investment of high magnitude. 6. 1972 for the "purpose of promotion. As a part of its activities for promotion and development of tourism in Bangladesh. 21 / 21 .Report: A study on tourism industry of Bangladesh Accordingly.
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