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Table of Contents
TAB 1: INTELLIGENCE OVERVIEW
Defning and Using Intelligence ............................................................................................. 7
What is the Intelligence Community? ...................................................................................... 7
The Six Steps in the Intelligence Cycle ................................................................................. 10
TAB 2: INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY MEMBERS
Offce of the Director of National Intelligence ........................................................................ 15
Central Intelligence Agency ................................................................................................. 18
Defense Intelligence Agency ................................................................................................ 20
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency................................................................................ 22
National Reconnaissance Offce ........................................................................................... 23
National Security Agency ..................................................................................................... 23
Department of Energy, Offce of Intelligence and Counterintelligence ....................................... 25
Department of Homeland Security, Offce of Intelligence and Analysis ..................................... 25
Coast Guard ....................................................................................................................... 27
Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration ....................................................... 27
Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation .......................................................... 29
Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research ..................................................... 31
Department of the Treasury, Offce of Intelligence and Analysis ............................................... 32
Army ................................................................................................................................. 32
Navy .................................................................................................................................. 33
Air Force ............................................................................................................................ 34
Marine Corps ...................................................................................................................... 34
TAB 3: REQUIREMENTS, PLANNING, AND DIRECTION
What Intelligence Can (and Cannot) Do ................................................................................. 39
Who Uses U.S. Intelligence? ................................................................................................ 41
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Intelligence Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation .............................................. 44
Acquisition/Science and Technology: Delivering Technical Capabilities .................................... 45
Intelligence Community Requirements Processes ................................................................... 46
Collection Management Overview ......................................................................................... 47
Prioritizing Intelligence Issues: The National Intelligence Priorities Framework ......................... 49
TAB 4: COLLECTION, PROCESSING, AND EXPLOITATION
Sources of Intelligence ........................................................................................................ 53
GEOINT ............................................................................................................................. 53
HUMINT ............................................................................................................................ 54
MASINT............................................................................................................................. 54
OSINT ............................................................................................................................... 54
SIGINT .............................................................................................................................. 55
Processing and Exploitation ................................................................................................. 56
TAB 5: ANALYSIS, PRODUCTION, AND FEEDBACK
Analysis and Production ...................................................................................................... 59
Estimative Language ........................................................................................................... 59
Analytic Products ............................................................................................................... 60
Classifcation ...................................................................................................................... 61
Review and Release ............................................................................................................ 62
TAB 6: ORGANIZATIONAL OVERSIGHT
Joint Intelligence Community Council ................................................................................... 67
Legislative Oversight ........................................................................................................... 68
National Security Council .................................................................................................... 69
President’s Intelligence Advisory Board ................................................................................. 70
Offce of the Inspector General ............................................................................................. 70
Financial Management and Oversight ................................................................................... 70
Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity ........................................................................ 71
Civil Liberties and Privacy Offce .......................................................................................... 72
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TAB 7: CAREERS IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY
The Benefts of Working in the IC ......................................................................................... 75
TAB 8: REFERENCES
Glossary of Terms................................................................................................................ 79
Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................................ 86
Resources .......................................................................................................................... 90
Laws and Policies Governing the IC ..................................................................................... 94
Subject Index ..................................................................................................................... 97
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5
Intelligence
Overview
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In the early morning hours of May 2, 2011, a U.S. military raid on an al-Qa’ida compound in Abbot-
tabad, Pakistan, killed America’s most-wanted terrorist, Usama Bin Ladin.
U.S. agencies and partners across the Intelligence Community had been collecting intelligence about
the compound since it was discovered in August 2010. The raid on the compound, authorized by the
President on April 29, was conducted by a small team of special operations soldiers. The raid was
designed to minimize collateral damage and risk to non-combatants in the compound and Pakistani
civilians in the area.
The death of Bin Ladin, al-Qa’ida’s founder and only amir, or commander, in its 22-year history,
marks the single greatest victory in the U.S.-led campaign to disrupt, dismantle, and eventually
dissolve al-Qa’ida.
THE OPERATION THAT KILLED
BIN LADIN
Courtesy of CIA
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Intelligence
Overview
Defning and Using Intelligence
According to the Intelligence Reform and Ter-
rorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), the
terms “National Intelligence” and “intelligence
related to national security” refer to all intel-
ligence, regardless of the source from which it
is derived and including information gathered
within or outside the United States,
n that pertains, as determined to be con-
sistent with any guidance issued by the
President, to more than one U.S. Govern-
ment agency; and
n that involves:
n Threats to the U.S., its people,
property, or interests;
n The development, proliferation, or use
of weapons of mass destruction; or
n Any other matter bearing on U.S.
national homeland security.
The U.S. Government uses intelligence to
improve and more fully understand the con-
sequences of its national security decisions.
Intelligence informs policy decisions, military
actions, international negotiations, and inter-
actions with working-level contacts in foreign
countries. In some circumstances, intelligence
can also aid the efforts of homeland security
providers and frst responders.
What is the Intelligence Community?
The Intelligence Community (IC) is a group of
Executive Branch agencies and organizations
that work separately and together to engage in
intelligence activities that are necessary for the
conduct of foreign relations and the protection
of the national security of the United States.
These activities include:
n Collection of information needed by the
President, the National Security Council,
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the Secretaries of State and Defense, and
other Executive Branch offcials for the
performance of their duties and fulfllment
of their responsibilities.
n Production and dissemination of
intelligence.
n Collection of information concerning
intelligence activities directed against the
United States, international terrorist and
narcotics activities, and other such hostile
activities carried out by foreign powers,
organizations, persons, and their agents.
n The conduct of actions to protect against
hostile activities directed against the
United States.
n Performance of special activities.
n Performance of administrative and support
activities within the United States
and abroad that are necessary for the
performance of various other intelligence
activities.
n Performance of such other intelligence
activities as the President may direct from
time to time.
The IC is led by the Director of National Intel-
ligence (DNI), who is the head of the Offce
of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
and whose duty is to coordinate the other 16 IC
components based on intelligence consumers’
needs. The other members of the IC are divided
into three groups: Program Managers, Depart-
ments, and Service components.
n Program Managers advise and assist the
ODNI in identifying collection requirements,
developing budgets, managing fnances,
and evaluating the IC’s performance.
n Departments are IC components embed-
ded within Government departments (other
than the Department of Defense [DoD]).
These components focus on serving their
parent department’s intelligence needs.
n All intelligence personnel in the armed
forces are members of the Service IC
components, which primarily support their
own Service’s information needs. Each
Service has at least one major intelligence
organization as well as intelligence offcers
integrated throughout its structure.
Intelligence Integration
The core mission of ODNI is to lead the Intel-
ligence Community in intelligence integra-
tion. Basically, intelligence integration means
synchronizing collection, analysis, and counter-
intelligence so that they are fused—effectively
operating as one team.
Unifying Intelligence Strategies (UIS) are
the central critical plans for achieving intel-
ligence integration. They cover our strategies
by geography and topic. They foster an environ-
ment that encourages, enables, and recognizes
integration at all levels of the IC.
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Air Force
Intelligence
Army
Intelligence
Coast Guard
Intelligence
Marine Corps
Intelligence
Naval
Intelligence
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
SERVICES
Central
Intelligence
Agency
Defense
Intelligence
Agency
FBI
National
Security
Branch
National
Geospatial-
Intelligence
Agency
National
Reconnaissance
Offce
National
Security
Agency
PROGRAM MANAGERS
DEA Offce
of National
Security
Intelligence
Energy Offce of
Intelligence and
Counter-
Intelligence
DHS Offce of
Intelligence
and Analysis
State Bureau of
Intelligence
and Research
Treasury Offce
of Intelligence
and Analysis
DEPARTMENTS
National Intelligence Managers (NIMs) and
their teams create UIS in line with the IC
prioritized requirements. They are thus charged
with leading integration across the IC by topic
and region.
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PLANNING &
DIRECTION
COLLECTION
PROCESSING &
EXPLOITATION
ANALYSIS &
PRODUCTION
DISSEMINATION EVALUATION
The Six Steps in the Intelligence Cycle
The Intelligence Cycle is the process of devel-
oping raw information into fnished intelligence
for use by policymakers, military commanders,
and other consumers in decisionmaking. This
six-step cyclical process is highly dynamic,
continuous, and never-ending . The sixth step,
evaluation (which includes soliciting feedback
from users) is conducted for each of the other
fve steps individually and for the Intelligence
Cycle as a whole.
The six steps that constitute the Intelligence
Cycle are as follows:
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PLANNING AND DIRECTION:
Establish the consumer’s intel-
ligence requirements and plan
intelligence activities accordingly.
The planning and direction step
sets the stage for the Intel-
ligence Cycle. It is the spring-
board from which all Intelligence
Cycle activities are launched.
Oftentimes, the direction part of
the step precedes the planning
part. Generally, in such cases,
the consumer has a require-
ment for a specifc product. That
product may be a full report, a
graphic image, or raw informa-
tion that is collected, processed,
and disseminated, but skips the
analysis and production step.
Given the customer’s require-
ment, the intelligence organiza-
tion tasked with generating the
product will then plan its Intel-
ligence Cycle activities.
COLLECTION: Gather the raw data
required to produce the fnished
product.
Data collection is performed to
gather raw data related to the
fve basic intelligence sources
(Geospatial Intelligence [GEO-
INT], Human Intelligence
[HUMINT], Measurement and
Signature Intelligence [MA-
SINT], Open-Source Intelligence
[OSINT], and Signals Intelli-
gence [SIGINT]). The sources of
the raw data may include, but
are not limited to, news reports,
aerial imagery, satellite imag-
ery, and government and public
documents.
PROCESSING AND EXPLOITATION:
Convert the raw data into a com-
prehensible format that is usable
for production of the fnished
product.
The processing and exploitation
step (see the Glossary of Terms
for a defnition of “exploitation”)
involves the use of highly trained
and specialized personnel and
technologically sophisticated
equipment to turn the raw data
into usable and understandable
information. Data translation,
data decryption, and interpreta-
tion of flmed images and other
imagery are only a few of the pro-
cesses used for converting data
stored on flm, magnetic, or other
media into information ready for
analysis and production.
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ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTION:
Integrate, evaluate, analyze, and
prepare the processed informa-
tion for inclusion in the fnished
product.
The analysis and production step
also requires highly trained and
specialized personnel (in this
case, analysts) to give meaning
to the processed information
and to prioritize it against known
requirements. Synthesizing the
processed information into a
fnished, actionable (see the
Glossary of Terms for a defni-
tion of “actionable”) intelligence
product enables the information
to be useful to the customer.
Note that, in some cases, the
Intelligence Cycle may skip this
step (for example, when the
consumer needs only specifc
reported information or prod-
ucts such as raw imagery). This
was the case during the Cuban
Missile Crisis (October 1962)
when President Kennedy needed
only the actual number of pieces
of Soviet equipment in Cuba
and facts concerning reports on
observed Soviet activity with no
analysis of that information.
DISSEMINATION: Deliver the
fnished product to the consumer
that requested it and to others as
applicable.
The consumer that requested
the information receives the
fnished product, usually via
electronic transmission. Dissem-
ination of the information typi-
cally is accomplished through
such means as websites, email,
Web 2.0 collaboration tools, and
hardcopy distribution. The fnal,
fnished product is referred to as
“fnished intelligence.” After the
product is disseminated, further
gaps in the intelligence may be
identifed, and the Intelligence
Cycle begins all over again.
EVALUATION: Continually acquire
feedback during the Intelligence
Cycle and evaluate that feedback
to refne each individual step and
the cycle as a whole.
Constant evaluation and feed-
back from consumers are
extremely important to enabling
those involved in the Intelligence
Cycle to adjust and refne their
activities and analysis to better
meet consumers’ changing and
evolving information needs.
Intelligence
Community
Members
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NAVAJO CODE TALKERS
With little more than ingenious application of their native language, the Navajo Code Talkers created the
only unbreakable code in modern military history. From Guadalcanal to Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the Code
Talkers served with distinction in every major engagement of the Pacifc Theater from 1942 to 1945.
Their code, which the Japanese never managed to break, helped to end World War II and save thousands
of lives.
The Code Talkers were young Navajo men who were tapped by the U.S. Marines to devise a code for radio
communications. The Code Talkers’ cryptographic innovation made use of a little-studied and extremely
complex Native American language unlike any other. English words were spelled out using Navajo words
to represent letters of the English alphabet. For instance, the words “wol-la-chee” (which means “ant”
in Navajo) and “be-la-sana” (apple) both stood for the letter “A.” The developers of the code also used
Navajo words to represent more than 400 frequently used military terms. The word “da-he-tih-hi” (hum-
mingbird) stood for “fghter plane,” and “chay-da-gahi” (tortoise) was translated as “submarine.”
Courtesy of Navajo Code Talkers
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Offce of the Director of National Intelligence
Post 9/11 investigations proposed sweeping
change in the Intelligence Community (IC),
which resulted in Congressional passage of the
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention
Act of 2004 (IRTPA). The IRTPA created the
Offce of the Director of National Intelligence
(ODNI) to improve information sharing, pro-
mote a strategic, unifed direction, and ensure
integration across the U.S. Intelligence Com-
munity. The ODNI stood up on April 21, 2005;
it is led by a Director of National Intelligence
(DNI).
As the leader of the 17 Intelligence Com-
munity organizations, the DNI serves as the
principal advisor to the President and the Na-
tional Security Council for intelligence matters
related to the national security, and oversees
and directs the implementation of the National
Intelligence Program. The President appoints
Intelligence
Community
Members
the DNI with the advice and consent of the
Senate. The DNI works closely with a Presiden-
tially-appointed, Senate-confrmed Principal
Deputy Director of National Intelligence to
effectively integrate all intelligence related to
national and homeland security in defense of
the homeland and in support of United States
national security interests at home and abroad.
The core mission of the ODNI is to lead the IC
in Intelligence Integration, forging a communi-
ty that delivers the most insightful intelligence
possible. Intelligence Integration is the key to
ensuring that the highest quality of intelligence
is delivered with the right inputs, at the right
time, in defense of the Homeland.
The ODNI is also comprised of several statutory
components, to include the National Counter-
terrorism Center (NCTC), the National Coun-
terproliferation Center (NCPC), the National
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Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX), and the
National Intelligence Council (NIC).
National Counterterrorism Center
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC),
which resides within the ODNI, has primary
responsibility within the U.S. Government
for counterterrorism intelligence analysis and
counterterrorism strategic operational planning.
NCTC’s components are the Directorate of In-
telligence, Directorate of Strategic Operational
Planning, Directorate of Operations Support,
Directorate of Terrorist Identities, and the
Offce of National Intelligence Management.
Their functions are:
n Directorate of Intelligence: Leads the pro-
duction and integration of counterterrorism
analysis for the U.S. Government.
n Directorate of Strategic Operational
Planning: Directs the U.S. Government’s
planning efforts to focus all elements of
national power against the terrorist threat.
n Directorate of Operations Support: Provides
the common intelligence picture for the
counterterrorism community with 24 hours
a day/7 days a week situational awareness;
terrorism threat reporting; management
and incident information tracking; and
support for worldwide, national, and inter-
national special events.
n Directorate of Terrorist Identities: Main-
tains a consolidated repository of informa-
tion on international terrorist identities and
ensures Federal agencies can access the
information they need through the Terrorist
Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE).
n Offce of National Intelligence Manage-
ment: Provides strategic management of
all national intelligence related to the IC’s
counterterrorism mission to set analytic
and collection priorities; advance analytic
tradecraft and training; and lead strategic
planning, evaluation, and budgeting.
National Counterproliferation Center
The National Counterproliferation Center
(NCPC) is the bridge from the IC to the policy
community for activities within the U.S. Gov-
ernment associated with countering the prolif-
eration of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
NCPC conducts strategic counterproliferation
planning for the IC to support policy efforts
to prevent, halt, or mitigate the proliferation
of WMDs, their delivery systems, and related
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materials and technologies. This includes both
states of concern and, in partnership with the
National Counterterrorism Center, non-state
actors. NCPC achieves this by drawing on the
expertise of counterproliferation professionals
in the IC, the U.S. Government, industry, and
academia. These relationships foster an atmo-
sphere of collaboration and intelligence sharing
in order to protect the U.S.’s interests at home
and abroad.
National Counterintelligence Executive
The National Counterintelligence Execu-
tive (NCIX) serves as the head of national
counterintelligence and security for the U.S.
Government. Per the Counterintelligence En-
hancement Act of 2002, the NCIX is charged
with promulgating an annual strategy for all
counterintelligence elements of the U.S.
Government. The Offce of the NCIX is charged
with integrating the activities of all counter-
intelligence programs to make them coherent
and effcient. They also coordinate counterin-
telligence policy and budgets to the same end.
It is also responsible for evaluating the perfor-
mance of the counterintelligence community
against the strategy. ONCIX’s Special Security
Division is responsible for security policy and
uniformity across the U.S. Government.
National Intelligence Council
The National Intelligence Council (NIC), a
Congressionally-mandated council, is a com-
ponent of the ODNI that conducts mid- and
long-term strategic analysis through the use
of all-source intelligence. Since its formation
in 1979, the NIC has been a source of deep
substantive expertise on intelligence matters
and a facilitator of integrated, IC coordinated
strategic analysis on issues of key concern to
senior U.S. policymakers. Some of the NIC’s
core functions are to:
n Produce National Intelligence Estimates
(NIEs) — the IC’s most authoritative
written assessments on national security
issues, as well as a broad range of other
Community coordinated products.
n Foster outreach to nongovernmental ex-
perts in academia and the private sector to
broaden the IC’s perspective.
n Articulate substantive intelligence priori-
ties to guide intelligence collection and
analysis.
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Central
Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is the
largest producer of all-source national security
intelligence for senior U.S. policymakers. The
CIA’s intelligence analysis on overseas devel-
opments feeds into the informed decisions by
policymakers and other senior decisionmakers
in the national security and defense arenas.
The CIA does not make foreign policy.
The Director of the CIA (DCIA) is the National
Human Intelligence Manager and serves on
behalf of the DNI as the national authority for
coordination, de-confiction, and evaluation of
clandestine HUMINT operations across the IC,
consistent with existing laws, Executive Orders,
and interagency agreements.
CIA is headquartered in McLean, Virginia.
Organization
The National Clandestine Service (NCS) has
responsibility for the clandestine collection
(primarily human source collection, or HU-
MINT) of foreign intelligence that is not obtain-
able through other means. The NCS engages
in counterintelligence activities by protecting
classifed U.S. activities and institutions from
penetration by hostile foreign organizations and
individuals. NCS also carries out covert actions
in support of U.S. policy goals when legally
and properly directed and authorized by the
President.
The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) analyzes
all-source intelligence and produces reports,
briefngs, and papers on key foreign intel-
ligence issues. This information comes from
a variety of sources and methods, including
U.S. personnel overseas, human intelligence
reports, satellite photography, open source
information, and sophisticated sensors.
The Directorate of Science and Technology
(DS&T) accesses, collects, and exploits
information to facilitate the execution of the
CIA’s mission by applying innovative scientifc,
engineering, and technical solutions to the
most critical intelligence problems.
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The Directorate of Support (DS) delivers a
full range of support, including acquisitions,
communications, facilities services, fnancial
management, information technology, medical
services, logistics, and the security of Agency
personnel, information, facilities, and technol-
ogy. DS services are both domestic and inter-
national in focus and are offered 24 hours a
day/7 days a week.
CIA is the Executive Agent for In-Q-Tel, the
nonproft, strategic venture capital frm char-
tered to connect the technology demands of
the CIA and IC partners’ intelligence missions
with the emerging technology of the entrepre-
neurial community.
The Open Source Center
The Open Source Center (OSC), under the
DNI, is the U.S. Government’s center for open
source intelligence. The Director of the CIA
serves as the Executive Agent for the DNI in
managing the OSC. It is charged with:
n Collecting, translating, producing, and
disseminating open source information
that meets the needs of policymakers, the
military, state and local law enforcement,
operations offcers, and analysts through-
out the U.S. Government.
n Helping to enable open source capabili-
ties in other parts of the Government and
military.
n Hosting open source material on Open-
Source.gov for Government-wide use.
About OSC: OSC produces more than 2,300
products daily, including translations, tran-
scriptions, analyses, reports, video compila-
tions, and geospatial intelligence, to address
short-term needs and longer-term issues. Its
products cover issues that range from foreign
political, military, economic, science, and
technology topics, to counterterrorism, coun-
terproliferation, counternarcotics, and other
homeland security topics.
OSC also collects “gray literature,” which is
material with very limited distribution, such as
academic papers, brochures, leafets, and other
publicly distributed materials.
OSC provides training through its Open Source
Academy, consultative services, and personnel
exchanges.
Open Source Center
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Defense
Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) col-
lects, produces, and manages foreign military
intelligence for policymakers and military com-
manders. It has major activities at the Defense
Intelligence Analysis Center (DIAC), Joint Base
Anacostia-Bolling, in Washington, D.C.; the
Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC),
in Huntsville, Alabama; the National Center
for Medical Intelligence (NCMI), in Frederick,
Maryland; Rivanna Station near Charlottesville,
Virginia; and Quantico Marine Corps Base,
Virginia. Approximately 30 percent of DIA’s
employees are military, and approximately 70
percent are civilians.
The DIA Director is a senior military intel-
ligence advisor to the Secretary of Defense
and the DNI. In addition, the DIA Director is
the program manager for the General Defense
Intelligence Program (GDIP); program man-
ager for the DoD Foreign Counterintelligence
Program; functional manager for Measure-
ment and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT)
and, since 2006, program coordinator for the
DIA and Combatant Command portion of the
Military Intelligence Program (MIP). The DIA
Director also serves as commander of the Stra-
tegic Command’s Joint Functional Component
Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and
Reconnaissance.
Organization
The Directorate for Analysis (DI) assesses for-
eign militaries with focus on weapons of mass
destruction (WMD), missile systems, terrorism,
infrastructure systems, and defense-related
medical issues. The Deputy Director for Analy-
sis is dual-hatted as the Functional Manager
for Analysis for the Defense Intelligence Analy-
sis Program.
The Directorate for Intelligence, Joint Staff
(J2) provides foreign military intelligence to the
Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior DoD offcials.
The Defense Counterintelligence and Human
Intelligence Center (DCHC) directs, manages
and conducts Defense Counterintelligence (CI)
and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) activities
to meet Defense requirements. The DCHC is
organized to direct, coordinate and deconfict
CI and HUMINT issues across Defense, com-
batant commands and the service CI/HUMINT
organizations.
The Directorate for MASINT and Technical Col-
lection (DT) is the defense intelligence center
for Measurement and Signatures Intelligence
(MASINT). It collects and analyzes MASINT,
and also develops new MASINT capabilities.
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The Directorate for Information Management
and the Chief Information Offce serves as
DIA’s information technology component. It
manages the Department of Defense Intel-
ligence Information System (DoDIIS) and
operates the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Com-
munications System (JWICS).
The Underground Facilities Analysis Center
The Underground Facilities Analysis Center
(UFAC) uses national intelligence and non-
intelligence resources to fnd, characterize, and
assess underground facilities (UGFs) used by
adversarial state and non-state actors. UFAC
coordinates IC efforts to detect, analyze, col-
lect, and report on UGF programs in support
of U.S. policymakers, warfghters, and the de-
fense acquisition community. The UFAC Direc-
tor reports jointly to the Secretary of Defense
and the DNI through DIA. UFAC is composed
of elements from DIA, Defense Threat Reduc-
tion Agency (DTRA), NGA, and NSA.
National Media Exploitation Center
The National Media Exploitation Center
(NMEC) ensures the rapid collection, process-
ing, exploitation, dissemination, and sharing of
all acquired and seized media across the intel-
ligence, counterintelligence, military, and law
enforcement communities. These tasks include
the collection, receipt, cataloging, initial pro-
cessing, and transmission of information; fo-
rensic analysis and translation; and reporting,
storage, dissemination, and sharing. NMEC is a
DNI Center, and DIA is its Executive Agent.
“United in Memory – Committed to Freedom” is a memorial
dedicated to the seven DIA employees who lost their lives
on 9/11 at the Pentagon.
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National
Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
(NGA) is the nation’s premier source of geospa-
tial intelligence.
As a Department of Defense combat support
agency and a member of the U.S. Intelligence
Community, NGA provides imagery, geospatial,
and targeting analysis, along with image sci-
ences and modeling for U.S. national defense,
disaster relief, and safety of navigation.
The vision of NGA is to put the power of Geo-
spatial Intelligence (GEOINT) into its custom-
ers’ hands
n By providing online, on-demand access to
its content, services, expertise, and sup-
port, along with the tools that allow users
to serve themselves, and
n By broadening and deepening its analytic
expertise, providing anticipatory analysis,
and moving from a target-based model to an
issue-driven, activity-based environment.
NGA seeks to know the Earth, show the way,
and understand the world.
Headquartered in Springfeld, Virginia, NGA
also has facilities in St. Louis, Missouri. NGA
support teams are located worldwide to provide
direct GEOINT services to NGA customers and
partners.

National
Reconnaissance
Offce
The National Reconnaissance Offce (NRO) was
established in September 1961 as a classifed
agency of the Department of Defense (DoD).
The existence of the NRO and its mission were
declassifed in September 1992.
23
Headquartered in Chantilly, Virginia, the NRO
develops and operates unique and innovative
overhead reconnaissance systems and con-
ducts intelligence-related activities for U.S. na-
tional security. The NRO is staffed by members
of the armed services as well as civilians from
the Central Intelligence Agency and the DoD.
The NRO is managed by a Director, a Principal
Deputy Director, and a Deputy Director.
NRO systems provide SIGINT (enemy com-
munications, signals from foreign weapons
systems, and other signals of interest) and
GEOINT (imagery) intelligence data. NRO
satellites are frequently the only collectors able
to access critical areas of interest in support of
covert and high priority operations.
Key customers and mission partners of the NRO
include: policymakers, the Armed Services, the
Intelligence Community, Departments of State,
Justice, and the Treasury, and civil agencies.
All of them depend on NRO systems to help
attack hard problems such as:
n Countering the Improvised Explosive De-
vice (IED) threat
n Capturing terrorists
n Warning of enemy attacks
n Combating WMD proliferation
n Combating drug traffcking
n Supporting natural disaster response
The NRO is funded through the National
Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military
Intelligence Program (MIP) consistent with the
priorities and processes established by the DNI
and the Under Secretary of Defense for Intel-
ligence (USD(I)).
National
Security Agency
The National Security Agency and its military
partner, the Central Security Service, leads
the U.S. Government in cryptology that en-
compasses both Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
and Information Assurance (IA) products
and services, and enables Computer Network
Operations (NCO) in order to gain a decision
advantage for the nation and our allies under
all circumstances.
NSA is part of the Department of Defense,
and is staffed by a combination of civilian and
military personnel.
The Central Security Service (CSS) provides
timely and accurate cryptologic support, knowl-
edge, and assistance to the military crypto-
logic community. It promotes full partnership
between NSA and the cryptologic elements
of the Armed Forces, and teams with senior
24
military and civilian leaders to address and act
on critical military-related issues in support of
national and tactical intelligence objectives.
CSS coordinates and develops policy and guid-
ance on the Signals Intelligence and Informa-
tion Assurance missions of NSA/CSS to ensure
military integration.
NSA/CSS has an extensive consumer outreach
system, with representatives in many intelli-
gence consumer organizations in the Washing-
ton, D.C., area, in other parts of the U.S., and
around the world. NSA’s headquarters is at Fort
Meade, Maryland.
Organization
The Signals Intelligence Directorate is respon-
sible for collecting, processing, and dissemi-
nating information from foreign signals for
intelligence and counterintelligence purposes
and to support military operations.
Operating under the authority of the Secre-
tary of Defense, the Information Assurance
Directorate ensures the availability, integrity,
authentication, confdentiality, and non-
repudiation of national security and telecom-
munications and information systems (national
security systems).
The National Security Operations Center
(NSOC) is a 24 hours a day/7 days a week
operations center that provides total situational
awareness across the NSA/CSS enterprise for
both foreign Signals Intelligence and Informa-
tion Assurance, maintains cognizance of na-
tional security information needs, and monitors
unfolding world events.
The NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center (NTOC)
uses both Information Assurance and Signal
Intelligence information and authorities to
uncover and characterize cyberthreats and
to provide situational awareness for network
operators and defenders.
The Research Directorate is the only “in-
house” organization in the Intelligence Com-
munity dedicated to advancing intelligence
through science. They create research break-
throughs in mathematics, science, and engineer-
ing that enable NSA/CSS to achieve and sustain
advances for the Intelligence Community.
Department
of Energy
Offce of Intelligence and
CounterIntelligence
The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible
for U.S. energy policy.
The Department of Energy also has a system of
National Laboratories and Technical Centers,
25
which are primarily operated by private corpo-
rations and universities. They conduct scien-
tifc research in the national interest.
The Offce of Intelligence and Counterintel-
ligence (IN) is DOE’s intelligence offce and IC
component. It focuses on assessing worldwide
nuclear terrorism threats and nuclear counter-
proliferation, and evaluating foreign technology
threats. This offce also provides the IC with
access to DOE’s energy information and techni-
cal expertise.
Department
of Homeland
Security
Offce of Intelligence and
Analysis
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
is responsible for leading the unifed national
effort to secure the United States by prevent-
ing and deterring terrorist attacks and respond-
ing to threats and hazards.
The Offce of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A)
provides intelligence support across the full
range of Homeland Security missions, as
defned in the Quadrennial Homeland Security
Review. I&A ensures that information related to
homeland security threats is collected, ana-
lyzed, and disseminated to all relevant custom-
ers. The I&A mission is to equip the Homeland
Security Enterprise with the intelligence and
information it needs to keep the homeland
safe, secure, and resilient. I&A’s mission is
supported by four strategic goals:
n Promote understanding of threats through
intelligence analysis
n Collect information and intelligence perti-
nent to homeland security
n Share information necessary for action
n Manage intelligence for the homeland
security enterprise
I&A is a member of the Intelligence Commu-
nity and part of a larger Homeland Security
Enterprise that includes Departmental leaders
and components, state, local, tribal, territorial
and private sector partners and other IC mem-
bers, all of whom require and generate home-
land security intelligence and information. The
Under Secretary for I&A (U/SIA) also serves as
DHS’ Chief Intelligence Offcer and is responsi-
ble to both the Secretary of Homeland Security
and the Director of National Intelligence. I&A’s
budget is 100 percent funded in the National
Intelligence Program (NIP).
I&A has a unique mandate within the Intelli-
gence Community and the Federal Government
26
lead for sharing information and intelligence
with state, local, tribal, and territorial govern-
ments and the private sector. I&A serves as the
information conduit and intelligence advocate
for state, local, tribal, and territorial govern-
ments. I&A supports 72 recognized state and
major urban area fusion centers with deployed
personnel and systems, training, and collabora-
tion. This national network of fusion centers
is the hub of much of the two-way intelligence
and information fow between the Federal
Government and our state, local, tribal, and
territorial partners. The fusion centers repre-
sent a shared commitment between the federal
government and the state and local govern-
ments who own and operate them.
Although they are not part of the IC, several of
DHS’s other components have extensive inter-
actions with the IC, including Immigration and
Customs Enforcement, Customs and Border
Protection, Transportation Security Administra-
tion, U.S. Secret Service, and U.S. Citizenship
and Immigration Services.
In addition, the U.S. Coast Guard, a DHS com-
ponent, is a member of the IC.
Fusion Centers
State and major urban area fusion centers
serve as focal points within the state and local
environment for the receipt, analysis, gather-
ing, and sharing of threat-related information
between the Federal Government and state,
local, tribal, territorial, and private sector
partners.
Located in states and major urban areas
throughout the country, fusion centers are
uniquely situated to empower front-line law
enforcement, public safety, fre service,
emergency response, public health, Critical
Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) pro-
tection, and private sector security personnel
to understand local implications of national
intelligence, thus enabling local offcials
to better protect their communities. Fusion
centers provide interdisciplinary expertise and
situational awareness to inform decision-mak-
ing at all levels of government. They conduct
analysis and facilitate information sharing
while assisting law enforcement and homeland
security partners in preventing, protecting
against, and responding to crime and terrorism.
Fusion centers are owned and operated by
state and local entities with support from
federal partners in the form of deployed per-
sonnel, training, technical assistance, exercise
support, security clearances, connectivity to
federal systems, technology, and grant funding.
27
Coast Guard protects the vital economic and
security interests of the United States. The
Coast Guard is a multi-mission agency with re-
sponsibilities including the safety and security
of the public, our natural and economic re-
sources, the global maritime transportation sys-
tem, and the integrity of our maritime borders.
The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal
Investigations Enterprise develops actionable
intelligence to support the Coast Guard in all
eleven of its statutory missions.
The Coast Guard flls a unique niche within
the Intelligence Community. As a result of its
diverse authorities and missions, the Coast
Guard maintains broad awareness of the
maritime environment. As a military service
operating within the Department of Homeland
Security, the Coast Guard operates at the inter-
section between homeland security and nation-
al defense. As a law enforcement agency and a
national intelligence community member, the
Coast Guard also bridges between these two
communities. The Coast Guard is also a federal
regulatory agency with robust interaction with
industry and regional groups.
The nation depends on the Coast Guard’s ac-
cess, operations, and expertise in the maritime
environment. We protect citizens from the sea,
we protect America from threats delivered by
sea, and we protect the sea itself.
Interagency Threat Assessment and
Coordination Group
The ITACG consists of state, local, and tribal
frst responders from around the United States
and federal intelligence analysts from the
Department of Homeland Security, Federal
Bureau of Investigation, and National Coun-
terterrorism Center working to enhance the
sharing of federal information on counterter-
rorism, homeland security, and weapons of
mass destruction with state, local, and tribal
consumers of intelligence.
Coast Guard
The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal
Investigations Enterprise, as the intelligence
element of the Coast Guard, provides timely,
actionable, and relevant intelligence and
criminal investigative expertise and services to
shape Coast Guard operations, planning, and
decisionmaking, and to support national and
homeland security intelligence requirements.
As the principal federal agency responsible for
maritime safety, security, and stewardship, the
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Organization
The Assistant Commandant for Intelligence
and Criminal Investigations is the Intelligence
Community Element Head for the Coast Guard.
The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal
Investigations Enterprise includes the Coast
Guard Investigative Service, Coast Guard
Counterintelligence Service, Coast Guard
Cryptologic Group, Coast Guard Cyber Com-
mand, and the Intelligence Coordination
Center. Actionable intelligence is also provided
by intelligence staffs on each coast at the two
Areas—Pacifc and Atlantic, Regional Districts,
and Local Sector Commands, and by a Mari-
time Intelligence Fusion Centers.
Department
of Justice
Drug Enforcement
Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
is responsible for enforcing the controlled
substance laws and regulations of the United
States. It brings to the criminal and civil jus-
tice system of the United States or any other
competent jurisdiction, those organizations
and the principal members of those organiza-
tions involved in or facilitating the growing,
manufacturing, or distribution of controlled
substances appearing in or destined for illicit
traffc in the United States. DEA also has
important responsibilities for the oversight and
29
enforcement of laws pertaining to controlled
pharmaceuticals (including, for example, pre-
scription narcotic drugs, such as those derived
from oxycodone and hydrocodone) under the
Controlled Substances Act. In addition, DEA
recommends and supports non-enforcement
programs aimed at reducing the availability of
illicit controlled substances on domestic and
international markets.
DEA has 21 feld divisions in the U.S. and
more than 80 offces in more than 60 coun-
tries worldwide.
Offce of National Security Intelligence
DEA’s Offce of National Security Intelligence
(ONSI) became a member of the IC in 2006.
Located at DEA Headquarters in Arlington,
Virginia, ONSI facilitates full and appropri-
ate intelligence coordination and information
sharing with other members of the U.S. Intel-
ligence Community and homeland security ele-
ments. Its goal is to enhance the U.S.’s efforts
to reduce the supply of drugs, protect national
security, and combat global terrorism.
Department
of Justice
Federal Bureau of
Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), as
an intelligence and law enforcement agency,
is responsible for understanding threats to
our national security and penetrating national
and transnational networks that have a de-
sire and capability to harm the U.S. The FBI
coordinates these efforts with its IC and law
enforcement partners. It focuses on terrorist
organizations, foreign intelligence services,
Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) prolifera-
tors, and criminal enterprises.
The FBI is headquartered in Washington, D.C.
It has 56 feld offces and more than 400 sat-
ellite offces throughout the U.S. The FBI also
has more than 60 international offces, known
as Legal Attaches, in embassies worldwide.
30
National Security Branch
The National Security Branch (NSB) oversees
the FBI’s national security programs. It in-
cludes four divisions, plus the Terrorist Screen-
ing Center (TSC).
The Counterterrorism Division (CTD) focuses
on both domestic and international terrorism.
It oversees the Joint Terrorism Task Forces
(JTTFs).
The Counterintelligence Division (CD) prevents
and investigates foreign intelligence activities
within the U.S. and espionage activities in the
U.S. and overseas.
The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) is the FBI’s
intelligence analysis component. It has em-
bedded employees at FBI Headquarters and
in each feld offce through Field Intelligence
Groups (FIGs) and fusion centers.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate
(WMDD) prevents individuals and groups from
acquiring WMD capabilities and technologies
for use against the U.S., and links all opera-
tional and scientifc/technology components to
accomplish this mission.
The Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) was cre-
ated to consolidate the Government’s approach
to terrorist screening and create a single com-
prehensive watch list of known or suspected
terrorists. The TSC helps ensure that federal,
local, state, and tribal terrorist screeners have
ready access to information and expertise.
Joint Terrorism Task Force
Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) are FBI-
led multi-organization task forces composed
of local, state, and federal entities. They were
established by the FBI to conduct operations to
predict and disrupt terrorist plots. JTTFs are in
more than 100 cities nationwide; in addition,
there is at least one in each of the FBI’s 56
feld offces. The National Joint Terrorism Task
Force (NJTTF), in Washington, D.C., coordi-
nates all the JTTFs.
The National Virtual Translation Center
The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC)
was established in 2003 to provide timely
and accurate translations in support of na-
tional security. Its mission includes acting as
a clearinghouse for facilitating interagency
use of translators; partnering with elements of
the U.S. Government, academia, and private
industry to identify translator resources and en-
gage their services; building a nationwide team
31
of highly qualifed, motivated linguists and
translators, connected virtually to the program
offce in Washington, D.C.; and applying state-
of-the-art technology to maximize translator ef-
fciency. NVTC is a DNI Center, and the Federal
Bureau of Investigation is its Executive Agent.
Department
of State
Bureau of Intelligence and
Research
The Department of State is the lead agency
for U.S. foreign policy and diplomacy. Its
intelligence support component is the Bureau
of Intelligence and Research (INR).
The Bureau of Intelligence and Research pro-
vides intelligence support to the Secretary of
State and other State Department policymak-
ers, including ambassadors, special negotia-
tors, country directors, and desk offcers. As
the senior intelligence offcial at the State
Department, INR’s Assistant Secretary ensures
that intelligence informs policy and that intel-
ligence activities support American diplomatic
objectives.
INR supports the Secretary of State’s global
responsibilities by:
n Analyzing foreign events, issues, and
trends.
n Coordinating intelligence policy and
activities.
n Surveying foreign public opinion and
analyzing foreign media.
n Organizing conferences to beneft from out-
side expertise, managing the Intelligence
Community Associate’s Program, and
administering the Title VIII grant program
on Eurasian and East European Studies.
n Analyzing foreign humanitarian challenges.
INR has approximately 300 personnel drawn
principally from the Civil Service and the For-
eign Service.
Department
of the Treasury
Offce of Intelligence
and Analysis
The Offce of Intelligence and Analysis (OIA)
represents the Department of the Treasury in
the Intelligence Community and is responsible
for all intelligence and counterintelligence
32
activities related to the operations and respon-
sibilities of the Department. It is OIA’s mission
to advance national security and protect the
integrity of the fnancial system by informing
Treasury decisions with timely, relevant, and
accurate intelligence and analysis. OIA sup-
ports the formulation of policy and the execu-
tion of the Treasury Department’s authorities
by providing expert analysis and intelligence
production on fnancial and other support
networks for terrorist groups, proliferators, and
other key national security threats. OIA also
assists departmental customers in maintaining
situational awareness on the full range of eco-
nomic, political, and security issues by provid-
ing current intelligence support and facilitating
access to Intelligence Community production
on strategic issues.
Army
The Department of the Army’s IC component is
called Army Military Intelligence (Army MI). It
is fully integrated into Army forces. Army MI’s
goal is to provide all-source intelligence that is
relevant, useful, and timely, to the Army and
other military personnel at all levels.
Organization
The Deputy Chief of Staff, G-2, is the senior
intelligence offcer in the U.S. Army and is
responsible for Army intelligence activities.
This includes policy formulation, planning,
programming, budgeting, management, staff,
supervision, evaluation, and oversight. As the
Deputy Chief of Staff, G-2, his or her staff is
also responsible for coordinating all Army intel-
ligence.
National Ground Intelligence Center
The National Ground Intelligence Center
(NGIC) produces and disseminates scientifc
and technical intelligence and military capabil-
ities analysis on foreign ground forces required
by war fghting commanders, the force modern-
ization and research and development com-
munities, Defense Department, and national
policymakers to ensure that U.S. forces have
a decisive edge in current and future military
operations. NGIC, headquartered in Charlottes-
ville, Virginia, is a major subordinate command
under the U.S. Army INSCOM. Its mission
includes irregular and conventional warfare
analysis examining foreign ground forces from
a perspective that includes battlefeld operat-
ing systems, doctrine, tactics, techniques and
procedures, training, maintenance, logistics
and order of battle.
33
Intelligence and Security Command
The U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Com-
mand (INSCOM), the Army’s operational intel-
ligence force, is headquartered at Fort Belvoir,
Virginia. It is a global command with major
subordinate commands that tailor their support
to the specifc needs of different theaters of
operation (e.g. Europe, South America, South
West Asia). INSCOM’s strategic organization
of 16,800 Soldiers, civilians, and contractors
at more than 180 locations around the globe
ensures that leaders at all levels have access
to the intelligence information they need, when
and where they need it.
Navy
Naval Intelligence’s mission is to support mari-
time operations worldwide in defense of the
United States. Naval intelligence professionals,
who are all members of the Information Domi-
nance Community, are deployed throughout the
Navy and the Department of Defense.
Organization
The Director of Naval Intelligence is also desig-
nated as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
for Information Dominance (OPNAV N2/N6)
and reports to the Chief of Naval Operations
(CNO).
Offce of Naval Intelligence
The Offce of Naval Intelligence (ONI), head-
quartered at the National Maritime Intelli-
gence Center (NMIC) in Suitland, Maryland, is
a major production center for maritime intel-
ligence. It produces intelligence on seaborne
terrorism, weapons and technology prolifera-
tion, and narcotics and smuggling operations.
ONI also analyzes foreign naval strategies,
capabilities, operations, characteristics, and
trends to support Navy, Department of De-
fense, and national needs.
ONI and the Coast Guard Intelligence Coordi-
nation Center (USCG-ICC) both have a mari-
time mission, and they share an intelligence
partnership that started in the early 1970s.
They are identifed as the core element of the
Global Maritime Intelligence Integration (GMII)
Plan. That plan is a component of the National
Strategy for Maritime Security, which was
signed by the President in late 2005. ONI and
34
USCG-ICC man an around-the-clock maritime
watch in the NMIC, which tracks over 18,000
vessels worldwide.
Air Force
The Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and
Reconnaissance (AF ISR) is the Air Force’s
IC component.
Organization
The Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelli-
gence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (A2)
provides policy, oversight, and guidance to all
Air Force intelligence organizations.
The Air Force ISR Agency organizes, trains,
equips, and presents forces to conduct intelli-
gence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for com-
batant commanders and the nation. Air Force
ISR is also responsible for implementing and
overseeing policy and guidance, and expanding
AF ISR capabilities to meet current and future
challenges. The AF ISR Agency commander
serves as the Service Cryptologic Element
under NSA, and oversees Air Force Signals
Intelligence activities.
The AF ISR Agency has more than 19,000
military and civilian members serving at 72
locations worldwide and commands several
subcomponents, including the 70th ISR Wing,
The 480th ISR Wing, the 361st ISR Group,
the Air Force Technical Application Center, and
the National Air and Space Intelligence Center.
Marine Corps
The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) produces tacti-
cal and operational intelligence for battlefeld
support. Its IC component is comprised of all
intelligence professionals in the Marine Corps.
Most Marine Corps intelligence professionals
are integrated into operating forces.
Organization
The Marine Corps’ Director of Intelligence
(DIRINT) is its principal intelligence staff off-
cer, and is the service’s functional manager for
intelligence, counterintelligence, and crypto-
logic matters.
35
Marine Corps Intelligence Activity
Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA), in
Suitland, Maryland, and Quantico, Virginia,
is the USMC service production center. In
addition, MCIA supports other services as ap-
propriate. It provides the Marine Corps with
intelligence for planning, training, operations,
and exercises. MCIA can be tasked to provide
expeditionary warfare intelligence to support
any national, theater, or operational command
in the U.S. Armed Forces. MCIA’s analysis and
production support not only the Marine Corps,
but also the national decisionmaker, theater
commander, and operational warfghter.
MCIA is a major production organization
for expeditionary intelligence and cultural
intelligence.

Requirements,
Planning, and
Direction
R
E
Q
U
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E
M
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T
S
,
P
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N
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N
Although most people know of Benjamin Frank-
lin as a prolifc inventor, scientist, author, and
signer of the Declaration of Independence, few
know that “spy” can be added to the list. He
served on a number of committees of the Sec-
ond Continental Congress, including the Com-
mittee of Secret Correspondence, which was
essentially the country’s frst foreign intelligence
directorate. The group employed numerous
agents abroad and established a secret Navy for
receipt of information and supplies. Franklin
also served on another secret committee that
clandestinely obtained and distributed military
supplies and sold gunpowder to privateers hired
by the Continental Congress.
During a diplomatic mission to France, Franklin
gathered intelligence, distributed propaganda,
and coordinated aid from America’s secret allies
(and also discovered that several of his employ-
ees, including a secretary and courier, were,
unfortunately, British agents).
Franklin also was a crafty propagandist. To
weaken enemy forces, he reportedly distributed
leafets disguised as tobacco packets that prom-
ised American land grants to deserting soldiers.
Inventor, Writer,
Publisher, Diplomat,
Statesman and…Spy!
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
Courtesy of CIA
39
What Intelligence Can (and Cannot) Do
“The United States Intelligence Community must constantly strive for and
exhibit three characteristics essential to our effectiveness. The IC must be in-
tegrated: a team making the whole greater than the sum of its parts. We must
also be agile: an enterprise with an adaptive, diverse, continually learning, and
mission-driven intelligence workforce that embraces innovation and takes ini-
tiative. Moreover, the IC must exemplify America’s values: operating under the
rule of law, consistent with Americans’ expectations for protection of privacy
and civil liberties, respectful of human rights, and in a manner that retains the
trust of the American people.”
National Intelligence Strategy 2009
Requirements,
Planning and
Direction
Intelligence can be an extremely powerful tool,
but it is most useful when the consumer has
a clear understanding of its limits. With the
ever-changing laws, policies, capabilities, and
standards affecting the production and dissem-
ination of intelligence, these general guidelines
can help consumers know what to expect from
this valuable resource.
40
What Intelligence Can Do
Intelligence can:
n Provide an advantage in dealing with for-
eign adversaries by supplying information
and analysis that can enhance the intel-
ligence consumer’s understanding.
n Warn of potential threats and opportunities.
n Provide insight into the causes and conse-
quences of current events.
n Enhance situational awareness.
n Assess long-term strategic issues and alter-
native futures.
n Assist in preparation for international or
planning meetings.
n Inform offcial travelers of security threats.
n Report on specifc topics, either as part of
routine reporting or upon request.
n Compile information on persons of interest.
What Intelligence Cannot Do
Predict the Future or Know about Everything
n Intelligence can provide assessments of
likely scenarios or developments, but it
cannot provide predictions of what will
happen with absolute certainty. The IC’s
resources and capabilities are limited by:
n Numerous priorities competing for
fnite budget dollars, personnel, and
capabilities.
n Limited access to denied areas.
n Technological limitations of some IC
systems.
n The IC must maintain its ability to obtain
useful information.
n The need to protect information and
intelligence sources and methods
may limit the sharing or use of some
reports.
Violate U.S. law or the U.S. Constitution
The activities of the U.S. IC must be conduct-
ed in a manner consistent with all applicable
laws and Executive Orders (see a listing of Ex-
ecutive Orders in Tab 8). The IC is particularly
aware of the importance of ensuring:
n Civil liberties and the privacy of U.S. citi-
zens and lawful U.S. residents.
n Confdentiality of sources and the identi-
ties of IC personnel and protection of
privileged information.
n Appropriate conduct of IC personnel and
activities.
41
Who Uses U.S. Intelligence?
The IC serves a wide range of consumers, both
within and outside the U.S. Government, with
the level of intelligence services varying ac-
cording to the customers’ responsibilities and
the specifc circumstances. The IC’s customers
include the following:
n The White House, particularly the Presi-
dent, Vice President, and National Security
Staff.
n Executive Branch Departments and Agen-
cies, including the Departments of State,
Defense, Homeland Security, the Treasury,
Energy, Commerce, Justice, and others.
n Military unifed commands, services, and
deployed forces.
n The Intelligence Community itself, for
IC internal operations, special activities,
acquisition, and policy support.
n The Legislative and Judicial branches for
oversight and to inform and protect.
n State, local, tribal and territorial offcials,
especially law enforcement and emergency
planning and response personnel.
n The U.S. public, including commercial
entities and academia.
n Allied governments.
n International organizations, especially for
such activities as treaty monitoring.
Types of Customers
While intelligence users can easily be grouped
by organization (e.g., Department of State),
level of seniority (e.g.Assistant Secretary),
or discipline (such as diplomacy), grouping
customers according to the purpose to which
they are applying intelligence (also known as
a “segment”) is a more useful categorization.
The segment determines the characteristics
that will make an intelligence product or
service effective. A customer may change seg-
ments, depending on the specifc activity. In
such cases, the customer’s needs also change.
For instance customer segments might include
the following:
National Interagency Action, e.g., Deputy National
Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism
n Requires coordination of multiple agencies
or partners.
n Needs to understand what is important to
each colleague.
Organizational Policy and Decisionmaking, e.g., State
Department Assistant Secretary for European Affairs
n Focused on a single agency mission.
n Finished, all-source, tailored analysis.
42
n Time sensitivity and need to share vary
Negotiation, e.g., U.S. Trade Representative
n Is extremely time sensitive and close hold.
n Raw, tactical, narrow collection reports.
Strategic Resource Deployment and Acquisition, e.g.,
DoD Under Secretary for Acquisition, Technology, and
Logistics
n Long-range planning.
n The intelligence is often critical to counter-
ing an adversary’s capabilities.
n Thorough analysis.
Threat Preparedness and Prevention, e.g., DHS As-
sistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection
n Plan to respond to threats or to more fully
understand potential threats.
n Widely shareable analysis.
Threat Response and Tactical Deployment, e.g., mili-
tary forces engaged in combat or a city police force
responding to an event
n Operational activities.
n Raw, specifc, timely collection reports and
analysis.
Ways to Interact with the Intelligence Community
IC personnel interact with many customers,
and due to the size and wide range of respon-
sibilities of the IC, many customers work with
multiple IC personnel, including analysts,
security and counterintelligence personnel, and
managers of intelligence operations. Overall,
the IC interacts with its customers in the fol-
lowing ways:
Supports customers’ decisionmaking and op-
erations by:
n Informing customers of factual develop-
ments, generally through dissemination of
collection reports.
n Processing, aggregating, and interpreting
facts in light of extensive knowledge to
ultimately evaluate events and trends.
n Conducting research in response to cus-
tomers’ specifc requests for information.
n Consulting or collaborating with customers
to more fully understand an issue and to
provide ongoing expertise.
Works with customers by:
n Apprising customers of ongoing IC opera-
tions that might intersect with customers’
operations and by playing a supporting role
in customers’ operations.
n Harvesting information with intelligence
value that customers collect in the course
of their normal operations.
n Planning for future collection, analysis, or
other resource deployment by specifying
43
and transmitting customers’ requirements
and priorities.
n Evaluating the effectiveness of IC support
to improve service to customers.
n Training customers in intelligence, secu-
rity, and special technologies.
Protects customers by:
n Identifying, deceiving, exploiting, or dis-
rupting efforts aimed against customers by
hostile intelligence services.
n Protecting sensitive data by, for example,
providing secure facilities or granting secu-
rity clearances.
n Providing secure communications, includ-
ing information technology for securing
Sensitive Compartmented Information
(SCI).
n Providing crisis and consequence man-
agement support during national security
special events and emergencies.
Roles, Responsibilities, and Expectations of
Customers
Customers themselves play a vital role in en-
suring that IC support meets their needs. Good
communication between the customer and the
IC, often through the agency intelligence offce
of the customer, will improve intelligence sup-
port. For the best possible assistance, custom-
ers should:
n Integrate the IC into their operational cycle
and processes.
n Early integration of the IC into a cus-
tomer’s operations helps the IC deliver
better service more quickly.
n Expect intelligence support to be a push-
and-pull process.
n The IC should fag emerging issues as
well as answer customers’ questions as
they arise.
n Answers to customers’ questions can
be delivered in various formats (for
example, in briefs, papers, graphics,
or simulations) depending on the most
expedient and effective way to supply
the information.
n State their requests specifcally.
44
n The customer should specify their
current understanding of an issue or
problem.
n The customer should specify exactly
what they need to know.
n The customer should specify the
context of the request (for example, to
support a meeting, an event, or deci-
sionmaking).
n Share what they know.
n National security information is every-
where; the IC has no monopoly.
n Shared information can inform op-
portunity analysis, communicate the
intended direction of policy or op-
erational endeavors, or options under
consideration.
n Share their timeline.
n Customers should specify the factor or
factors that are infuencing the time-
line so that the intelligence effort can
be scoped and scaled accordingly.
n Customers should understand that de-
classifcation or downgrading of infor-
mation takes some time to complete.
n Provide feedback on the utility of IC prod-
ucts and services.
n Customer feedback helps the IC to
refne its approach.
Intelligence Planning, Programming,
Budgeting, and Evaluation
The Assistant Director of National Intelligence
for Systems and Resource Analyses (ADNI/
SRA) manages the integration and synchroni-
zation of the Intelligence Planning, Program-
ming, Budgeting, and Evaluation (IPPBE)
system. This system is employed to effectively
shape intelligence capabilities through the de-
velopment of the National Intelligence Program
(NIP) and budget in a manner consistent with
the National Intelligence Strategy (NIS).
The IPPBE process comprises the interde-
pendent phases of planning, programming,
and budgeting that are linked by the ongoing
evaluation phase. Each phase is informed and
guided by the products and decisions of each
of the other phases:
n Planning: The planning phase identifes
Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
strategic priorities and major issues to be
addressed in the programming phase.
n Programming: The programming phase
provides options to frame DNI resource
decisions through analyses of alternatives
and studies that assess cost-versus-perfor-
mance benefts.
n Budgeting: The budgeting and execution
activities are addressed in IPPBE in a
manner consistent with the policy prin-
ciples of Intelligence Community Directive
45
(ICD) 104, with the goal of producing and
implementing an annual, consolidated NIP
budget.
n Evaluation: The evaluation phase assesses
the effectiveness of IC programs, activi-
ties, major initiatives, and investments in
implementing DNI guidance in the context
of original objectives, measures of ef-
fectiveness, metrics, outcomes, benefts,
shortfalls, and costs.
The IPPBE system ensures a predictable,
transparent, and repeatable end-to-end process
to collect and prioritize critical intelligence
requirements within the context of the strate-
gic objectives of the DNI and the IC. In addi-
tion, the IPPBE framework supports the DNI’s
participation in the development of the Military
Intelligence Program (MIP).
Acquisition/Science and Technology:
Delivering Technical Capabilities
Major System Acquisitions
At any given time, several dozen Major System
Acquisitions (MSAs) are underway at agen-
cies throughout the IC. MSAs cost hundreds of
millions or billions of dollars, and they typi-
cally take years to develop, build, and deliver.
MSAs are usually either Platform and Payload
systems, such as satellites and surveillance
ships, or information technology (IT) systems,
including infrastructure (hardware and plat-
forms), applications (automated processes and
user tools), and human interfaces. Each MSA
is run by an IC agency team of highly skilled
professionals, including scientists, technicians,
engineers, and mathematicians. They manage
the signifcant systems engineering effort that
is required to reliably deliver MSA capabilities.
Intelligence Community Science and Technology
Many IC elements conduct science and tech-
nology (S&T) research in their own laboratories,
and almost all IC elements sponsor research
conducted by universities, industry, or Depart-
ment of Energy (DOE) national labs. IC S&T
leads the world in some areas of research
specifc to IC missions and works with industry
to develop other new technologies that have
limited commercial applications. Rather than
invest research in technologies that industry
develops for consumers, IC S&T monitors com-
mercial products and looks for ways to adapt
them to the specifc operational and security
requirements of IC operations. IC S&T research
can lead directly to IT products, may result in a
capability within an MSA, or may generate spe-
cialty applications, relatively low-cost technolo-
gies such as miniaturized tracking or collection
devices, which are produced in small numbers
and deployed to address a specifc intelligence
problem. IC S&T also conducts basic research
into areas such as cryptology and computer
science, which generate no physical products
but are essential to intelligence work.
46
Procurement and Contracting
All IC agencies have offces that manage the
contracts through which the agencies purchase
mass-produced technologies and manage the
resources and logistics necessary to support
the deployment of those technologies into
operations.
Facilities
Facilities also provide an essential platform for
intelligence technologies, from offce buildings
to ground stations to data centers.
Intelligence Community Requirements
Processes
The established IC requirements processes
are the primary means for developing,
documenting, assessing, validating, and ap-
proving capability requirements for NIP capa-
bilities that are mission relevant and fscally
sound. Two complementary requirements
processes are used within the IC—the Intel-
ligence Community Capability Requirements
(ICCR) process, which is used largely for MSAs,
and the DNI Deputy Director for Intelligence
Integration (DDII) Requirements Process.
ICCR Process
The ICCR process applies to all MSA programs
of special interest as designed by the DNI or
the Deputy DNI for Acquisition and Technol-
ogy (DDNI/A&T) that are funded in whole or
in large part by the NIP. The objectives of the
ICCE process staff are as follows:
n To ensure that the requirements for all
NIP-funded MSA programs are validat-
ed by the Deputy Executive Commit-
tee (DEXCOM) Intelligence Resources
Board (IRB).
n To work with the Joint Staff/J8 via a
“gatekeeper” process on coordinating
NIP- and MIP-funded programs, and to
work with IC stakeholders via the Ca-
pability Requirements Working Group
(CRWG).
n To provide and maintain a document-
ed, agile, and transparent process for
soliciting and approving capability-
based requirements that leads to
achievable system developments or
non-material solutions with a positive
mission impact for the IC.
47
DDII Requirements Process
The DDII Requirements Process applies to
those programs that do not meet the MSA or
special interest threshold. The DDII Require-
ments Process enables ODNI senior leaders to
have a single, prioritized list of mission-based
requirements.
The process also allows for the consideration
of all mission-based requirements proposed
by all stakeholders across the IC. The single,
validated, prioritized, mission-based, approved
intelligence requirements list is then used for
NIP funding purposes.
The process involves interacting with the
requesting stakeholders and mission experts
and uses a common set of prioritization criteria
to establish the validity of requirements. The
major steps in the process are analysis and as-
sessment, validation, prioritization, and recom-
mendation of funding strategies.
The process includes the maintenance of the
baseline and requirements, including both
requirements to be funded and requirement on
the Prioritized Unfunded Requirements List.
The process also creates output to be used for
other DNI processes (e.g., SRA, chief informa-
tion offcer [CIO], chief fnancial offcer [CFO]),
and to evaluate, review, and report on the
status of requirements until their completion.
The DDII Requirements Process will be execut-
ed to coincide with major budget milestones
and schedules to ensure that requirements are
on track with funding cycles.
Collections Management Overview
Collection management is the process of con-
verting intelligence requirements into collec-
tion requirements (see the Glossary of Terms
for a defnition of “collection”), establishing
priorities, tasking or coordinating with appro-
priate collection sources or agencies, monitor-
ing the results, and re-tasking, as required.
Collection management is divided into two
business areas:
n Collection Requirements Management
(CRM): CRM is the authoritative develop-
ment and control of collection, processing,
exploration, or reporting requirements that
typically result in either the direct tasking
of assets over which the collection man-
ager has authority, or the generation of
tasking requests that are sent to collection
management authorities at a higher, lower,
or equivalent level to accomplish the col-
lection mission.
n Collection Operations Management (COM):
COM is the authoritative direction, sched-
uling, and control of specifc collection
operations and associated processing,
exploitation, and reporting resources.
48
Essentially, CRM is what gets done in the
collection cycle, while COM is how it gets
done. The collection management process is a
staff activity focused on decisionmaking and
choices concerning collection request (CRs)
and requests for information (RFIs) from nu-
merous sources.
A collection manager can be either a require-
ments expert or an operations expert. The
collection manager is the individual who
orchestrates and manages the analysts’ needs
throughout the collection cycle. A collec-
tion manager’s duties include receiving CRs,
researching intelligence systems, developing
collection strategies or plans, developing col-
lection requests into collection requirements,
validating collection requirements, and track-
ing requirements through the collection cycle
to determine stakeholders’ satisfaction with the
outcomes of the requirements.
The CRM process begins when requests are
identifed, logged, and initially processed. The
entire process involves tracking a request from
the time of its receipt, validating the request,
tasking the necessary collectors, confrming
fulfllment of the requestor’s information need,
and updating the collection plan.
The availability and capability of collection as-
sets and resources are determined, in part, by
the exchange of timely data among the opera-
tional mission planners and asset managers
who update intelligence. This data helps the
RMs to perform a more complete analysis of an
information request, determine the most effec-
tive collection system(s) to fulfll the request,
and perform a thorough, overall assessment of
the unit’s organic and non-organic reconnais-
sance and surveillance support. In addition,
collection coordination supports the develop-
ment of a collection strategy, including a cover-
age plan, selection of sources and selection of
disciplines, and assessment of the effciency of
tasking assets and resources.
Because CRM is essentially a support func-
tion for expediting information collection and
dissemination, the RM and staff are their own
best resources for assessing CRM performance.
Nevertheless, coordination with an all-source
production facility can facilitate the assess-
ment task.
The COM process is an intelligence staff func-
tion that is based on collection tasking and
mission guidance developed in support of in-
formation requirements. COM relies heavily on
supporting organizations that own and operate
collection and exploitation assets.
COM involves several tasks, including plan-
ning, scheduling, and the control of collections
operations; execution of collections operations;
and exploitation and dissemination of collec-
tion results.
Collection operations personnel, who typically
are intelligence operations staff members,
49
are responsible for detailed planning, tasking,
scheduling, and control of collection opera-
tions. The operations planner reviews mission
requirements, such as available assets, sensor
and target range, system timelines, threats,
weather, and reporting requirements and ad-
justs the collection plan to refect the plan of
operations, including the integration of specifc
reconnaissance requirements. Requirements
are translated into collection-mission tasking
orders, which are directed to the asset man-
ager, who is responsible for execution of the
orders.
The asset manager chooses the equipment,
platform, and personnel to perform the as-
signed mission based on such considerations
as maintenance schedules, training, and
experience. The operations planner provides
availability and asset location information,
while the asset manager provides data related
to operational constraints and timeliness of
operations.
Exploitation of collected information at the tac-
tical level is closely associated with manage-
ment of collection assets and resources. The
operational staff with collection capabilities
also controls sensor-specifc processing, ex-
ploitation, and analysis equipment. The asset
manager who is responsible for executing the
collection operation also controls the operation
of the exploitation element. As such, exploita-
tion is as much a part of the COM function as
are mission planning and asset management.
Prioritizing Intelligence Issues: The
National Intelligence Priorities Framework
The National Intelligence Priorities Framework
(NIPF) is the DNI’s guidance to the IC on the
national intelligence priorities approved by the
President.
The NIPF is the DNI’s sole mechanism for es-
tablishing national intelligence priorities. The
50
NIPF consists of:
n Intelligence topics reviewed by the Nation-
al Security Council Principals Committee
and approved by the President.
n A process for prioritizing foreign countries
and non-state actors that are relevant to
the approved intelligence topics.
n A priorities matrix that refects consumers’
priorities for intelligence support and that
ensures that long-term intelligence issues
are addressed.
The NIPF is updated semiannually in coordina-
tion with IC elements, the National Intelligence
Council, and other internal components of the
ODNI. Ad hoc adjustments may also be made
to refect changes in world events and policy
priorities.
The ODNI and IC elements use the NIPF to
guide allocation of collection and analytic
resources. In addition, IC elements associ-
ate intelligence collection requirements and
analytic production with NIPF priorities, and
they report to the DNI on their coverage of
NIPF priorities.
Collection,
Processing, and
Exploitation
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Harriet Tubman is best known for helping slaves to
escape to safety through the secret network of the
1800s known as the Underground Railroad. Her
involvement in intelligence collection during the
Civil War, however, also is well documented. After
her last secret rescue mission in 1860, Tubman
was tapped by Union offcials to organize and lead
spying expeditions behind Confederate enemy lines.
Disguised as a feld hand or poor farm wife, she
led several missions while directing others from
Union lines. She reported her intelligence to Col.
James Montgomery, a Union offcer commanding
the Second South Carolina Volunteers, a black unit
involved in guerrilla warfare activities.
The tactical intelligence Tubman provided to Union
forces, including identifcation of enemy supply
areas and weaknesses in Confederate troop deploy-
ments, was used effectively in military operations.
When Tubman died in 1913, she was honored with
a full military funeral in recognition of her intelli-
gence activities during the war.
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Courtesy of CIA
53
Collection,
Processing,
and
Exploitation
Sources of Intelligence
“National Intelligence and the term ‘intelligence related to national security’
refer to all intelligence, regardless of the source from which derived and in-
cluding information gathered within or outside the United States, that pertains,
as determined consistent with any guidance issued by the President, to more
than one United States Government agency; and that involves threats to the
United States, its people, property, or interests; the development, proliferation,
or use of weapons of mass destruction; or any other matter bearing on United
States national or homeland security.”
United States Congress, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004,
Section 1012, Public Law 108-458, December 17, 2004
MASINT
Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MA-
SINT) is intelligence produced through quan-
titative and qualitative analysis of the physical
attributes of targets and events to characterize
and identify those targets and events.
HUMINT
Human Intelligence (HUMINT) is the collection
of information—either orally or via documen-
tation—that is provided directly by a human
source. It is the only type of intelligence for
which collectors speak directly to the sources
54
of information, control the topic of discus-
sion, and direct the source’s activities. Human
sources can obtain access to information that
is not obtainable any other way.
The types of HUMINT range from high-level,
strategic, national security information, for
example, to unit-specifc information collected
on the battlefeld. As stated HUMINT may also
be acquired overtly or clandestinely.
In overt collection, the collector meets openly
with sources as a declared U.S. Government
representative. Overt collection comprises
many forms of information collection, includ-
ing debriefngs of persons who have travelled
to countries of national interest, diplomatic re-
ports from embassies on host-country offcials’
stated reactions to U.S. policy initiatives, and
law enforcement reports on criminal activities,
such as drug traffcking.
Clandestine collection is conducted in secret.
A clandestine collector must locate a person
with access to desired information, initiate
and discreetly develop a relationship with that
prospective source, and ultimately convince
the source to divulge secrets. A source may
or may not be told of his interlocutor’s U.S.
Government affliation. After the source is re-
cruited, contact is usually strictly controlled in
an effort to elude discovery. The recruitment of
a clandestine human source can take months
or years, but the leak of a source’s informa-
tion may immediately eliminate access to that
source.
GEOINT
Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) is the exploi-
tation and analysis of imagery, imagery intelli-
gence (IMINT) (see the Glossary of Terms), and
geospatial information to describe, assess, and
visually depict physical features and geographi-
cally referenced activities on the earth.
OSINT
Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) is intel-
ligence produced from publicly available
information that is collected, exploited, and
disseminated in a timely manner to an appro-
priate audience for the purpose of addressing a
specifc intelligence requirement. OSINT draws
from a wide variety of information and sources,
including the following:
55
n Mass Media: Newspapers, magazines,
radio, television, and other computer-based
information.
n Public Data: Information derived from
government reports; offcial data, such
as data on budgets and demographics;
hearings; legislative debates; press con-
ferences, speeches, directories, organi-
zational charts, marine and aeronautical
safety warnings, environmental impact
statements, contract awards, and required
fnancial disclosures, and other public
sources.
n Gray Literature (or Grey Literature): Open-
source material that usually is available
through controlled access for a specifc au-
dience. Gray literature may include, but is
not limited to, research reports, technical
reports, economic reports, travel reports,
working papers, discussion papers, unof-
fcial government documents, proceedings,
preprints, studies, dissertations and the-
ses, trade literature, market surveys, and
newsletters. The material in gray literature
covers scientifc, political, socioeconomic,
and military disciplines.
n Observation and Reporting: Information
of signifcance, not otherwise available,
that is provided by, for example, amateur
airplane spotters, radio monitors, and
satellite observers. The availability of
worldwide satellite photography, often in
high resolution, on the Web (e.g., Google
Earth) has expanded the public’s ability to
acquire information formerly available only
to major intelligence services.
SIGINT
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence
gathered from data transmissions, includ-
ing Communications Intelligence (COMINT),
Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), and Foreign
Instrumentation Signals Intelligence (FISINT).
SIGINT includes both raw data and the analy-
sis of that data to produce intelligence.
n COMINT is intelligence derived from track-
ing communications patterns and proto-
cols (traffc analysis), establishing links
between intercommunicating parties or
groups, and analyzing the meaning of com-
munications.
n FISINT is information derived from the
interception of foreign electromagnetic
emissions associated with the testing and
operational deployment of non-U.S. aero-
space, surface, and subsurface systems
including, but not limited to, telemetry,
beaconry, electronic interrogators, and
video data links.
n ELINT is information derived primarily
from electronic signals that do not contain
56
speech or text (which are considered to be
COMINT). The most common sources of
ELINT are radar signals.
Processing and Exploitation
A substantial portion of U.S. intelligence
resources is devoted to processing and exploi-
tation—the synthesis of raw data into material
that is usable by the intelligence analyst—and
to securing the telecommunications networks
that carry these data. Various activities fall
under the category of processing and exploita-
tion including, but not limited to, interpret-
ing imagery; decoding messages; translating
foreign-language broadcasts; converting telem-
etry into meaningful measurements; preparing
information for computer processing, storage,
and retrieval; and converting HUMINT-based
reports into more comprehensible content.
Analysis,
Production,
and Feedback
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JULIA CHILD
:

LIFE BEFORE FRENCH CUISINE
Julia Child is widely credited with bringing
French cuisine into the American main-
stream. But long before she gained fame as
a cookbook writer and TV personality, she
enjoyed a dynamic career as an intelligence
offcer.
During WWII, Julia wanted to serve her
country. Too tall to join the military (she was
6’2”), Julia volunteered for the Offce of
Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of to-
day’s Central Intelligence Agency. She started
out in the Washington, D.C., headquarters,
working directly for General William J. Dono-
van, the head of the OSS. She joined the OSS
Emergency Sea Rescue Equipment Section,
where she helped to develop a repellent to
keep sharks from setting off explosives before
they reached their target. She also served as
Chief of the OSS Registry, processing highly
classifed communications.
Julia then met and married Paul Child, an
OSS offcer assigned to the U.S. Information
Agency in Paris, where Julia embarked on
her legendary culinary career.
Julia Child’s contributions to her country
are well remembered and appreciated by
the OSS family. She died in 2004, two days
before her 92nd birthday.
Courtesy of CIA
59
Analysis and Production
Intelligence analysts are generally assigned to
a particular geographic or functional specialty
area. Analysts obtain information from all
sources pertinent to their area of responsibil-
ity through information collection, processing,
and forwarding systems. Analysts may tap into
these systems to obtain answers to specifc
questions or to generate information they may
need.
Analysts receive incoming information, evalu-
ate it, test it against other information and
against their personal knowledge and expertise,
produce an assessment of the current status
of a particular area under analysis, and then
forecast future trends or outcomes. The analyst
also develops requirements for the collection of
new information.
Analysts rarely work alone; they operate within
a system that includes peer review and over-
sight by more senior analysts.
Estimative Language
When the Intelligence Community uses words
such as “we judge” or “we assess” (phrases
that are used synonymously) and “we esti-
mate,” “likely” or “indicate,” the IC is con-
veying an analytical assessment or judgment.
Such statements often are based on incom-
plete or fragmented information and are not to
be regarded as statements of fact, proof, or ab-
solute knowledge. Some analytical judgments
are based directly on collected information;
others are based on assessments that serve as
building blocks. In either case, the IC does not
have “evidence” that shows something to be
factual or that defnitely establishes a relation-
ship between two items.
Statements that address the subject of likeli-
hood are intended to refect the IC’s collective
estimate of the probability of a development or
an event occurring.
Analysis,
Production,
and Feeback
60
The IC’s use of the term “unlikely” is not in-
tended to imply that an event defnitely will not
happen. By comparison, the words “probably”
and “likely” indicate that a greater-than-even
chance exists of a particular event occurring.
The IC uses such phrases as “we cannot dis-
miss,” “we cannot rule out,” and “we cannot
discount” to refer to an unlikely event whose
consequences are serious enough that it war-
rants mentioning. Words such as “may be” and
“suggest” are used when the IC is unable to
fully assess the likelihood of an event because
relevant information is nonexistent, sketchy, or
fragmented.
The IC also refers to “high,” “moderate,” or
“low” confdence levels that refect the scope
and quality of the information supporting its
judgments.
n A high confdence level generally indicates
that the IC’s judgment is based on high-
quality information or that the circum-
stances of the analysis enable the IC to
render a solid judgment.
n A moderate confdence level generally
indicates that the information being used
in the analysis may be interpreted in vari-
ous ways, or that the IC has alternative
viewpoints on the signifcance or meaning
of the information, or that the information
is credible and plausible but it is not suf-
fciently corroborated to warrant a higher
level of confdence.
n A low confdence level generally indicates
that the information used in the analysis
is scant, questionable, fragmented, or that
solid analytical conclusions cannot be in-
ferred from the information, or that the IC
has signifcant concerns or problems with
the information sources.
Analytic Products
Current Intelligence
Current intelligence addresses day-to-day
events. It details new developments and
background information related to those de-
velopments to assess their signifcance, warn
of their near-term consequences, and signal
potentially dangerous situations in the near
future.
Trend Analysis
Trend analysis, also referred to as second-
phase reporting, provides information on an
event or series of events. A trend analysis
report on an event includes an assessment of
whether the relevant intelligence on the event
is reliable, information on similar events, and
background information to familiarize the
reader with the issue. Typically, the intelligence
used in trend analysis is compared with intel-
ligence from other sources and vetted through
experts within the IC. Second-phase reports are
much more thorough than current intelligence/
61
frst-phase reports and may require weeks or
months to produce.
Long-Term Assessment
Long-term assessment is also known as third-
phase reporting. It addresses developments
within a broad-based context, assesses future
trends and developments, or provides com-
prehensive, detailed analysis of an ongoing
issue, a particular system, or some other topic.
Long-term assessment reports, which can take
months to produce, may be coordinated with
experts from across the IC and may include
projections of future developments.
Estimative Intelligence
Estimative intelligence uses future scenarios
and projections of possible future events to as-
sess potential developments that could affect
U.S. national security. By addressing the im-
plications of a range of possible outcomes and
alternative scenarios, estimative intelligence
helps policymakers to think more strategically
about long-term threats.
Warning Intelligence
Warning intelligence “sounds an alarm” for
policymakers. This type of intelligence conveys
a sense of urgency and implies a possible need
to respond with policy action. Warning intel-
ligence includes the identifcation or forecast-
ing of events, such as coups, third-party wars,
or refugee situations, that would warrant the
engagement of U.S. military forces or that
would have a sudden and detrimental effect on
U.S. foreign policy concerns. Warning analysis
involves the exploration of alternative futures
and low-probability/high-impact scenarios.
Research Intelligence
Research intelligence includes research stud-
ies that support both current and estimative
intelligence.
Scientifc and Technical Intelligence
Scientifc and technical Intelligence includes
an examination of the technical development,
characteristics, performance, and capabili-
ties of foreign technologies, including weapon
systems and subsystems. This category of
intelligence covers a spectrum of scientifc
disciplines, technologies, weapon systems, and
integrated operations.
Classifcation
Certain information must be kept in confdence
to protect U.S. citizens, institutions, homeland
security, and U.S. interactions with foreign
nations. The IC, in accordance with Executive
Order (EO) 13526, classifes information (that
is not Unclassifed) as Confdential, Secret, or
Top Secret. Classifcation may be applied only
to information that is owned by, produced by or
for, or is under the control of the U.S. Govern-
ment. Section 1.4 of E.O. 13526 discusses
classifcation techniques.
62
In EO 13526, classifcation levels are defned
as follows:
n Top Secret: Unauthorized disclosure of the
information could be expected to cause
exceptionally grave damage to the national
security.
n Secret: Unauthorized disclosure of the
information could be expected to cause
serious damage to the national security.
n Confdential: Unauthorized disclosure of
the information could be expected to cause
damage to the national security.
At the time that material is classifed, the
original classifcation authority must establish
a specifc date or event for declassifcation.
When that date is reached or when the event
occurs, the information is automatically de-
classifed. Unless an earlier date or event can
be specifed, declassifcation must be marked
for 10 years from the date of classifcation, or
up to 25 years from the date of classifcation,
depending on the circumstances. Upon review,
the original classifcation may be extended for
up to 25 additional years, the classifcation
may be changed, or specifc portions of the
classifed information may be reclassifed. No
information may remain classifed indefnitely.
Information may not be classifed or be main-
tained as classifed information in order to:
n Conceal violations of law, ineffciency, or
administrative error;
n Prevent embarrassment to a person,
organization, or agency;
n Restrain competition; or
n Prevent or delay the release of informa-
tion that does not require protection in the
interest of the national security.
Basic scientifc research information not
clearly related to the national security may not
be classifed.
Access to Classifed Information
As stated in EO 13526, a person may have ac-
cess to classifed information provided that:
n A favorable determination of eligibility for
access has been made by an agency head
or the agency head’s designee (i.e., the
person has been granted an appropriate
security clearance);
n The person has signed an approved non-
disclosure agreement; and
n The person has a need-to-know the
information.
Review and Release
Due to the need to protect the identity of
information sources and due to the potential
implications of the results of IC analysis, most
63
intelligence reports are classifed. Classifca-
tion of intelligence reports can limit the cus-
tomer’s ability to use them, particularly when
they are interacting with individuals outside
the U.S. Government. In recognition of the
importance of making intelligence useful to its
customers, the IC has established procedures
to allow for appropriate release of intelligence.
General guidelines for the release of intelli-
gence include the following:
n Some intelligence can be shared through
foreign disclosure, some through dis-
cretionary release by the IC, and some
through the Freedom of Information
Act (FOIA) (5 U.S.C. Section 552) with
redactions.
n Different categories of review and re-
lease requests are handled differently.
Some categories are handled collabor-
atively with the requestor, while others
are handled strictly through internal IC
processes.
n The IC is working to maximize discov-
erability, by the by the IC and USG, of
information and utility of intelligence
products.
n The originators of the information will
consider many factors, including:
n The impact of release of the
information.
n The sensitivity and vulnerability of the
information source or method.
n The uniqueness or traceability of the
information source.
n The effect on external relationships.
n Specifc wording may determine whether
the information is releasable.
n Less specifc language and attributes
are more likely to be approved for
release.
n The identifcation of the information
source is often the most sensitive
information in a report.
n The intended audience has an impact on
the decision.
n Is the intelligence being released to
a federal department, a state police
agency, a foreign liaison service, a for-
eign offcial, or to the public or news
media?
n “Publicly Available” does not necessarily
mean “Offcially Acknowledged.”
n The IC complies with the FOIA as writ-
ten. 5 U.S.C. Section 552, as amended,
provides that any person has the right to
obtain access to federal agency records,
except to the extent that those records, or
portions of them, are protected from public
disclosure by one of the nine exemptions
allowed under FOIA.
64
n The IC classifes and declassifes national
security information in accordance with
EO 13526. Information shall not be con-
sidered for classifcation unless its
unauthorized disclosure could reasonably
be expected to cause identifable or de-
scribable damage to the national security.
Organizational
Oversight
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THE CIPHER DISK
The cipher disk is a deceptively simple cryptographic
tool invented around 1470 by an Italian architect.
Although the tool has been “re-invented” a number
of times over the centuries, the basic concept of the
cipher disk remains much the same. It consists of
two concentric disks marked with letters, numbers,
and other symbols around the edge of each disk.
The smaller disk, which is mounted on the stationary
larger disk, can be moved to create a crypto-
graphic key.
The appeal of the cipher disk lies in the
fact that messages can be enciphered
and deciphered without the need
for bulky or compromising written
materials. The cipher disk frst
came into large-scale use in
the United States during the
Civil War. About a half-cen-
tury later, the U.S. Army
adopted a version of the
device, which used both a
standard and a “reverse-
standard” alphabet.
The two disks may be
left in the same setting
to create an entire mes-
sage, thereby producing
the simplest possible
cryptogram, or the setting
may be changed with every
letter of the message to
create an extremely secure
cipher.
Courtesy of NSA
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Oversight
Joint Intelligence Community Council
The National Security Act of 1947, as amend-
ed, establishes the Joint Intelligence Com-
munity Council (JICC), which consists of the
Director of National Intelligence (DNI) (chair),
Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury,
Secretary of Defense, U.S. Attorney General,
Secretary of Energy, and Secretary of Home-
land Security. The JICC advises the DNI on
establishing requirements, developing budgets,
and managing fnancial matters; assists the
DNI in monitoring and evaluating the perfor-
mance of the Intelligence Community (IC);
and ensures the timely execution of programs,
policies, and directives established or devel-
oped by the DNI. The JICC is the most senior
executive body for managing the IC. The JICC
typically meets semiannually.
Executive Committee
For more routine management and gover-
nance of the IC, the DNI has established the
IC Executive Committee (EXCOM), which is
chaired by the DNI and composed of the heads
of all 17 IC members plus the Under Secretary
of Defense for Intelligence, the Joint Chiefs
of Staff Director for Intelligence (J-2), the
Principal Deputy DNI, and the Deputy DNI for
Intelligence Integration. The EXCOM’s role is
to advise and support the DNI in the leader-
ship, governance, and management of the
IC, including advising the DNI on IC policies,
objectives, and priorities and ensuring the IC’s
capability to fulfll its mission.
Deputy Executive Committee
Issues that the EXCOM addresses are often
handled by its subordinate body, the IC Deputy
Organizational
Oversight
68
Executive Committee (DEXCOM), which is
chaired by the Principal Deputy DNI and
is composed of the deputy heads of the 17
intelligence organizations plus the Deputy
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence,
the Deputy Director of Intelligence of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Deputy DNI for
Intelligence Integration.
Legislative Oversight
The U.S. Congress has long overseen national
intelligence activities. From the 1940s on,
the Armed Services Committees and Appro-
priations Committees of the U.S. House of
Representatives and U.S. Senate have exer-
cised responsibility for oversight of national
intelligence activities, although those opera-
tions were typically discrete and hidden from
the public eye.
On May 19, 1976, the U.S. Senate es-
tablished the Senate Select Committee
on Intelligence (SSCI). The U.S. House of
Representatives followed suit on July 14,
1977, by creating the House Permanent Select
Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI). These
committees, along with the Armed Services
and the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs
Committees, were charged with authorizing the
programs of the intelligence organizations and
overseeing their activities.
The 1980 Intelligence Oversight Act set forth
the current oversight structure by establishing
the SSCI and HPSCI as oversight commit-
tees for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Within the U.S. Congress, these committees
are responsible for producing Intelligence
Authorization bills, which proscribe certain
activities of the IC. The SSCI also provides ad-
vice and consent on the nominations of certain
presidentially appointed intelligence offcials.
The Appropriations Committees, given their
constitutional role to appropriate funds for all
69
U.S. Government activities, also exercise over-
sight of intelligence activities. Specifcally, the
House and Senate appropriations subcommit-
tees for defense produce annual appropriations
for national and military intelligence activities
via the Defense Appropriations Act.
These authorization and appropriations com-
mittees are the principal Congressional recipi-
ents of IC products, briefngs, notifcations,
and reprogramming requests. These commit-
tees routinely conduct hearings on budgetary
and other oversight matters.
Other Congressional committees interact with
the IC as needed.
National Security Council
The National Security Council (NSC) was
established by the National Security Act of
1947. The NSC is the President’s forum for
discussion and examination of national security
and foreign policy matters with the President’s
senior national security advisors and cabinet
offcials. The NSC also serves as the Presi-
dent’s principal arm for coordinating foreign
policy matters among various government orga-
nizations. The NSC is chaired by the President.
Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-
statutory) include the Vice President, Secretary
of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary
of Defense, and Assistant to the President for
National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military
advisor to the NSC, and the Director of Na-
tional Intelligence is the intelligence advisor to
the NSC. The Chief of Staff to the President,
Counsel to the President, and Assistant to the
President for Economic Policy are invited to
attend any NSC meeting. Other senior offcials
are invited to attend meetings of the NSC as
appropriate.
The NSC drafts, coordinates, and approves Na-
tional Security Presidential Directives (NSPDs),
which are instruments for communicating
Presidential decisions about U.S. national
security policy.
President’s Intelligence Advisory Board
The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board
(PIAB) and Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB)
are tasked with providing the President with an
independent source of advice on the effective-
ness of the IC in meeting the nation’s intelli-
gence needs and the vigor and insight of the IC
plans for the future. The PIAB provides advice
to the President concerning the quality and ad-
equacy of intelligence collection, intelligence
analysis and estimates, counterintelligence,
and other intelligence activities. Because the
PIAB is independent of the IC and free from
any day-to-day IC management or operational
responsibilities, it is able to objectively render
opinions on the sorts of intelligence that will
best serve the country and the organizational
structure most likely to achieve IC goals.
70
The IOB, a committee of the PIAB, informs
the President of intelligence activities that
it believes may be unlawful or contrary to an
Executive Order (EO) or presidential directive
and that are not being adequately addressed by
the Attorney General, the DNI, or the head of
a department concerned. The IOB also informs
the President of intelligence activities that it
believes should be reported to the President
immediately.
The PIAB may consist of up to 16 individu-
als who are not full-time employees of the
U.S. Government. The Board has been known
as the PIAB since 2008 when the President
signed EO 13462. Previously, it was known as
the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory
Board (PFIAB) under EO 12863, a predecessor
Executive Order.
Offce of the Inspector General
The Offce of the Inspector General (OIG)
conducts independent investigations, audits,
inspections, and special reviews of IC programs
and activities that are the responsibility of and
under the authority of the DNI to detect and
deter waste, fraud, abuse, and misconduct,
and to promote integrity, economy, effciency,
and effectiveness in the IC. The Inspector
General for the IC leads the OIG, chairs the IC
Inspectors General Forum, receives and investi-
gates allegations of IC activities constituting a
violation of laws, rules, or regulations; mis-
management; gross waste of funds; abuse of
authority; or a substantial and specifc danger
to the public health and safety. The Inspec-
tor General for the IC accepts and processes
notifcations from IC employees or contractors
who are intending to report an urgent concern
to the U.S. Congress.
Financial Management and Oversight
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Preven-
tion Act of 2004 (IRTPA) provides the DNI
with a signifcant amount of authority over the
IC’s budget development and ensuring the ef-
fective execution of that budget.
The National Intelligence Program (NIP),
formerly known as the National Foreign Intel-
ligence Program (NFIP), provides the resources
needed to develop and maintain intelligence
capabilities that support national priorities.
The Joint Military Intelligence Program and
the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities
program were combined in 2005 to form the
Military Intelligence Program (MIP). The MIP
funds the specifc intelligence needs of the
Department of Defense and tactical forces. The
MIP is controlled by the Secretary of Defense,
and the DNI participates in the development of
the MIP.
71
Equal Employment Opportunity
and Diversity
IC EEOD serves as the principal advisor to
the DNI and IC senior leaders on issues that
impact diversity, inclusion, and equal oppor-
tunity across the IC. The Offce is responsible
for developing, implementing, and measuring
performance against the fve-year IC EEO and
Diversity Strategic Plan and overseeing and
setting IC-wide policy guidance for the devel-
opment and implementation of IC agency and
component plans linked to that strategy. The
offce also advises ODNI and IC senior leaders
on highly sensitive, confdential personnel con-
cerns and matters. In addition to its IC-wide
responsibilities, IC EEOD is also responsible
for providing EEO and diversity services to
the ODNI workforce, including managing the
EEO complaints process, Alternative Dispute
Resolution activities, reasonable accommoda-
tions, workplace climate, and behavior inter-
ventions.
Aggrieved persons who believe they have
been discriminated against must contact an
agency EEO counselor prior to fling a formal
complaint. The person must initiate counselor
contact within 45 days of the matter alleged to
be discriminatory.
Civil Liberties and Privacy Offce
The Civil Liberties and Privacy Offce (CLPO) is
responsible for ensuring that civil liberties and
privacy protections are appropriately incorpo-
rated into the policies and procedures of the IC.
The CLPO also reviews, assesses, and inves-
tigates complaints and information indicating
possible abuses of civil liberties and privacy in
the administration of programs or in the opera-
tions of the ODNI.
To effectively use the tools and information
that are needed for national safety and se-
curity, the IC must have the trust of the U.S.
public and continually demonstrate that it is
worthy of that trust. Through a framework of
laws, policies, and oversight and compliance
mechanisms, the CLPO works within the entire
IC to maintain the public’s trust by safeguard-
ing the freedoms, civil liberties, and privacy
rights guaranteed to all U.S. persons.
Careers in the
Intelligence
Community
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During the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, the most
destructive hurricane season on record, the National
Geospatial-Intelligence agency responded with what
then NGA director, James R. Clapper, called the best
work by an intelligence agency that he had seen in his
42 years in the intelligence business.
The NGA’s assistance to Hurricane Katrina relief ef-
forts began before the frst waves hit the Louisiana
shore on August 29, 2005. For frst responders and
relief organizations, the agency provided scores of
graphics depicting the locations of major airports,
hospitals, police and fre stations, emergency opera-
tions centers, hazardous materials, highways, and
schools based on imagery from commercial and U.S.
Government satellites and American military airborne
platforms.
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane
Rita, which struck the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisi-
ana in September 2005, NGA forward-deployed more
than two dozen analysts and two Mission Integrated
Geospatial-Intelligence Systems (MIGS) to the affect-
ed areas to provide timely, on-site support.
HURRICANE ASSISTANCE
Courtesy of NGA
75
THE BENEFITS OF WORKING IN THE IC
The U.S. Intelligence Community offers the
following benefts to personnel within the IC
and to individuals considering a career within
the IC:
n A profession with a meaningful connec-
tion to protecting the United States and its
citizens.
n Diverse work environments and corporate
cultures with all members of the IC work-
ing toward a common goal.
n Work opportunities in almost every profes-
sional feld imaginable.
The IC has been repeatedly recognized as one
of the “Best Places to Work in the Federal
Government” in an independent analysis spon-
sored by the Partnership for Public Service and
the American University Institute for the Study
of Public Policy Implementation (http://best-
placestowork.org/BPTW/rankings/).
There are multiple pathways into the IC, as
the following graphic indicates. Another key
pathway is the Intelligence Community Centers
of Academic Excellence (CAE) Program (www.
dni.gov/cae).
A diverse workforce is critical to the IC’s suc-
cess. An essential component of intelligence
is an understanding of people and cultures
that differ from those of the United States and
knowledge of other areas around the world. As
such, the IC seeks individuals of all ages and
ethnic backgrounds with diverse skills and
educational experiences to fll positions across
the IC. Hiring incentives and special pay scales
are also available for those with certain foreign
language skills, cultural expertise, and other
critical skills and experience.
Careers in the
Intelligence
Community
76
Another pathway to a career with the IC is the
IC Wounded Warrior program. Wounded War-
riors, many of whom already possess the skills
and experience that the IC seeks, are recruited
through IC-wide internship fairs and other IC
Agency-based initiatives. Wounded Warriors
may obtain internships across the IC that lead
to full-time employment and an opportunity to
serve Agencies that will beneft from their dis-
cipline and experience. See www.intelligence.
gov/woundedwarrior for more information on
the program.
The 17 agencies that form the IC include
staffed offces in all 50 states and around the
world. The men and women in these offces
collect and analyze information, translate
foreign-language documents, develop new
intelligence technologies, design software and
hardware, write reports for the President, man-
age the IC’s people, programs, and processes,
and perform many more important activities.
U.S. citizenship is required for employment
with the IC. An extensive background investi-
gation, which includes drug screening, must
be successfully completed for all job appli-
cants prior to their being hired into the IC.
Some positions may also require medical and
psychological examination and a polygraph
interview. The IC is an Equal Opportunity Em-
ployer and is fully compliant with the Ameri-
cans with Disabilities Act. To fnd out more
about IC careers and employment opportuni-
ties, visit www.intelligence.gov.

Scholarships Scholarships & Financial Aid
Co-op Education Programs
Part Time Internships
Fellowships
ROTC Programs
Highly Qualifed Experts Career Changers
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References
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On November 20, 1965, the Central Intelligence Agency com-
pleted fight testing on the A-12, the fastest and highest-fying jet
aircraft yet to be built. It few for 74 minutes at 90,000 feet at a
sustained speed of Mach 3.2 and a peak speed of Mach 3.29.
The A-12 program (code named “Oxcart”) was a successor to the
U-2, the CIA’s frst high-altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft.
The U-2 was built to fy deep inside the Soviet Union, but it was
soon vulnerable to Soviet air defenses—a problem demonstrated
when the U-2 fown by Francis Gary Powers was downed by a
surface-to-air missile. Lockheed Corporation’s advanced design
facility, nicknamed the “Skunk Works,” submitted a design for a
new reconnaissance aircraft that would fy too high and too fast to
be intercepted by the Soviets.
But by the time the A-12 went into production, Soviet air defenses
had advanced enough that even an aircraft fying faster than a bul-
let at the edge of space would be vulnerable. The CIA successfully
deployed the A-12 to Asia, where it few 29 missions in 1967 and
1968. Eight deactivated A-12s are on display at museums around
the United States, and one is at CIA Headquarters.
CODE NAME “OXCART”:
THE SUPERSONIC A-12
Courtesy of CIA
79
Glossary of Terms
A
Access: The means, ability, or permission to
approach, enter, or use a resource.
Actionable: (1) Information that is directly
useful to customers for immediate exploitation
without requiring the full intelligence pro-
duction process; actionable information may
address strategic or tactical needs, support
of U.S. negotiating teams, or actions dealing
with such matters as international terrorism or
narcotics. (2) Intelligence and information with
suffcient specifcity and detail that explicit
responses based on that information can be
implemented.
All-Source Intelligence: Intelligence infor-
mation derived from several or all of the
intelligence disciplines, including SIGINT,
HUMINT, MASINT, OSINT, and GEOINT.
Analysis: The process by which information is
transformed into intelligence; a systematic ex-
amination of information to identify signifcant
facts, make judgments, and draw conclusions.
C
Classifcation: The determination, in the inter-
est of national security, that offcial informa-
tion requires a specifc degree of protection
against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with
a designation signifying that such a determina-
tion has been made; the designation is typi-
cally called a “security classifcation,” which
includes CONFIDENTIAL, SECRET, and TOP
SECRET classifcation levels.
Collection: The identifcation, location, and
recording and storing of information— typically
from an original source and using both human
and technological means—for input into the
References
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Intelligence Cycle for the purpose of meeting a
defned tactical or strategic intelligence goal.
Communications Intelligence (COMINT): The
capture of information, either encrypted or in
“plaintext,” exchanged between intelligence
targets or transmitted by a known or suspected
intelligence target for the purpose of tracking
communications patterns and protocols (traffc
analysis), establishing links between intercom-
municating parties or groups, or analysis of the
substantive meaning of the communication.
COMINT is a sub-discipline of SIGINT.
Confdential: A security classifcation designat-
ing information that, if made public, could be
expected to cause damage to national security.
Consumer: An authorized person who uses intel-
ligence or intelligence information directly in
the decisionmaking process or to produce other
intelligence.
Counterintelligence: Information gathered
and activities conducted to identify, deceive,
exploit, disrupt, or protect against espionage,
other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assas-
sinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign
powers, organizations, or persons or their
agents, or international terrorist organizations
or activities.
Counterterrorism: The practices, tactics, tech-
niques, and strategies adopted to prevent or
respond to terrorist threats or acts, both real
and suspected.
Covert Action/Operation: Activity or activities
of the United States Government to infuence
political, economic, or military conditions
abroad, where it is intended that the role of
teh United States Government will not be ap-
parent or acknowledges publicly, but does not
include activities the primary purpose of which
is to aquire intelligence, traditional counterin-
telligence activities, traditional diplomatic or
military activities, or traditional law enforcemnt
activities.
D
Deployment: The short-term assignment of
personnel to address specifc problems or de-
mands related to national security.
E
Electronic Intelligence (ELINT): (1) Informa-
tion derived primarily from electronic signals
that do not contain speech or text (which are
considered to be COMINT). (2) Information
obtained for intelligence purposes from the in-
terception of electromagnetic non-communica-
tions transmissions by other than the intended
recipient. The most common sources of this
type of information are radar signals. ELINT is
a sub-discipline of SIGINT.
Exploitation: The process of obtaining intelli-
gence information from any source and taking
advantage of it for intelligence purposes.
81
F
Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence
(FISINT): Information derived from the inter-
ception of foreign electromagnetic emissions
associated with the testing and operational
deployment of non-U.S. aerospace, surface,
and subsurface systems including, but not
limited to, telemetry, beaconry, electronic
interrogators, and video data links. FISINT is a
sub-discipline of SIGINT.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): The Freedom
of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, enacted in
1966, statutorily provides that any person has
a right, enforceable in court, to access federal
agency records, except to the extent that such
records (or portions thereof) are protected from
disclosure by one of nine exemptions or three
exclusions.
Fusion Center: A collaborative effort of two or
more agencies that provide resources, exper-
tise, and information to a center with the goal
of maximizing the ability to detect, prevent,
investigate, and respond to criminal and terror-
ist activity. State and major urban area fusion
centers are recognized as a valuable informa-
tion-sharing resource. They are the focus, but
not exclusive points, within the state and local
environments for the receipt and sharing of ter-
rorism information, homeland security informa-
tion, and law enforcement information related
to terrorism.
G
Geospatial Intelligence: Intelligence derived
from the exploitation of imagery and geospatial
information to describe, assess, and visually
depict physical features and geographically
referenced activities on the earth.
H
Homeland Security Information: Any informa-
tion possessed by an SLTT or federal agency
that relates to (1) a threat of terrorist activity;
(2) the ability to prevent, interdict, or dis-
rupt terrorist activity; (3) the identifcation or
investigation of a suspected terrorist or terrorist
organization or any person, group, or entity as-
sociated with or assisting a suspected terrorist
or terrorist organization; or (4) a planned or
actual response to a terrorist act.
I
Imagery Intelligence (IMINT): Intelligence that
includes representations of objects reproduced
electronically or by optical means on flm, elec-
tronic display devices, or other media. Imagery
can be derived from visual photography, radar
sensors, infrared sensors, lasers, and electro-
optics.
Intelligence Analyst: A professional intelligence
offcer who is responsible for performing, coor-
dinating, or supervising the collection, analy-
sis, and dissemination of intelligence.
82
Intelligence Community: A federation of Execu-
tive Branch agencies and organizations that
work separately and together to conduct intel-
ligence activities necessary for the conduct of
foreign relations and the protection of U.S. na-
tional security. These organizations are (in al-
phabetical order): Air Force Intelligence, Army
Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, Coast
Guard, Defense Intelligence Agency, Depart-
ment of Defense, Department of Energy, De-
partment of Justice, Department of Homeland
Security, Department of State, Department of
the Treasury, Offce of the Director of National
Intelligence, Drug Enforcement Administration,
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Marine Corps
Intelligence, National Geospatial-Intelligence
Agency, National Reconnaissance Offce, Na-
tional Security Agency, and Navy Intelligence.
Intelligence Cycle: The steps through which
information is converted into intelligence and
made available to users. The cycle typically
includes six steps: planning and direction, col-
lection, processing and exploitation, analysis
and production, dissemination, and evaluation.
Intelligence Mission: The role that the intelli-
gence function of an agency fulflls in support
of the overall mission of the agency; the intel-
ligence mission specifes in general language
what the intelligence function is intended to
accomplish.
Intelligence Offcer: A professional employee of
an intelligence organization engaged in intel-
ligence activities.
Intelligence Products: Reports or documents
that contain assessments, forecasts, asso-
ciations, links, and other outputs from the
analytic process.
Intelligence Requirement: The need to collect
intelligence information or to produce intel-
ligence, either general or specifc, on a particu-
lar subject.
J
Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF): A JTTF is a co-
ordinated “action arm” for federal, state, and
local government response to terrorist threats
in specifc U.S. geographic regions. The FBI is
the lead agency that oversees the JTTFs.
M
Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MA-
SINT): Technically derived intelligence data
other than imagery and SIGINT. The data re-
sults in intelligence that locates, identifes, or
describes distinctive characteristics of targets.
It employs a broad group of disciplines includ-
ing nuclear, optical, radio frequency, acoustics,
seismic, and materials sciences.
83
N
National Intelligence: National Intelligence
and the term “intelligence related to national
security” refer to all intelligence, regardless of
the source from which it is derived and includ-
ing information gathered within or outside the
United States that pertains, as determined to
be consistent with any guidance issued by the
President, to (1) more than one U.S. Govern-
ment agency and that involves threats to the
United States, its people, property, or interests;
(2) the development, proliferation, or use of
weapons of mass destruction; or (3) any other
matter bearing on U.S. national or homeland
security. Source: Intelligence Reform and Ter-
rorism Prevention Act of 2004, Section 1012,
Public Law 108-458, December 17, 2004.
National Intelligence Council (NIC): The NIC is
the IC’s council for midterm and long-term
strategic thinking. Its primary functions are to
support the Director of National Intelligence,
provide a focal point for policymakers to task
the IC to answer their questions, reach out to
nongovernment experts in academia and the
private sector to broaden the IC’s perspective,
contribute to the IC’s effort to allocate its re-
sources to policymakers’ changing needs, and
lead the IC’s efforts to produce National Intel-
ligence Estimates and other NIC products.
National Intelligence Estimate (NIE): NIEs are
produced by the National Intelligence Council.
NIEs express the coordinated assessment of
the IC and, thus, represent the most authorita-
tive assessment of the DNI with respect to a
particular national security issue. NIEs contain
the coordinated judgment the IC regarding the
probable course of future events.
O
Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT): Publicly avail-
able information appearing in print or elec-
tronic form, including information from radio,
television, newspapers, journals, the Internet,
commercial databases, and videos, graphics,
and drawings used to enhance intelligence
analysis and reporting.
P
Privacy Act: The Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C.
552a, establishes a code of fair information
practices that governs the collection, mainte-
nance, use, and dissemination of personally
identifable information about individuals that
is maintained in systems of records by federal
agencies. A system of records is a group of
records under the control of an agency from
which information is retrieved by an individu-
al’s name or by some other identifer assigned
to the individual. The Privacy Act requires that
agencies provide public notice of their systems
of records through publication in the Federal
Register. The Privacy Act prohibits the disclo-
sure of information from a system of records
84
absent the written consent of the individual
who is the subject of the information search,
unless the disclosure is pursuant to one of
12 statutory exceptions. The Privacy Act also
provides individuals with a means by which
to seek access to and amend their records
and sets forth various agency record-keeping
requirements.
R
Raw Data: Bits of collected data that individu-
ally convey little or no useful information and
must be collated, aggregated, or interpreted to
provide meaningful information.
Raw Intelligence: A colloquial term meaning
collected intelligence information that has not
yet been converted into fnished intelligence.
S
Secret: Information that, if it is made public,
could be expected to cause serious damage to
national security.
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT): Intelligence de-
rived from signals intercepts comprising, indi-
vidually or in combination, all communications
intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence
(ELINT), and/or FISINT.
Source: A document, interview, or other means
by which information has been obtained. From
an intelligence perspective, sources are indi-
viduals (or HUMINT) who collect or possess
critical information needed for intelligence
analysis.
T
Threat: (1) A source of unacceptable risk. (2)
The capability of an adversary coupled with the
adversary’s intention to undertake actions that
would be detrimental to the success of certain
activities or operations.
Top Secret: Information that, if it is made pub-
lic, could be expected to cause exceptionally
grave damage to national security.
U
Unauthorized Disclosure: A communication or
physical transfer, usually of sensitive but un-
classifed information or classifed information,
to an unauthorized recipient.
Unclassifed: Information not subject to a
security classifcation; that is, information not
classifed CONFIDENTIAL, SECRET, or TOP
SECRET. Although unclassifed information is
not subject to a security classifcation, there
may still be limits on its disclosure.
W
Warning: To issue an advance notifcation of
possible harm or victimization following the re-
ceipt of information or intelligence concerning
the possibility of a crime or terrorist attack.
85
Acronyms and
Abbreviations
A
A2: Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence,
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (Air Force)
ADNI/SRA: Assistant Director of National Intel-
ligence for Systems and Resource Analyses
C
CAE: Center of Academic Excellence
CD: Counterintelligence Division
CFO: Chief Financial Offcer
CI: Counterintelligence
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency
CIKR: Clinical Infrastructure and Key Resources
CIO: Chief Information Offcer
CLPO: Civil Liberties and Privacy Offce
COM: Collection Operations Management
CNO: Chief of Naval Operations
CNO: Computer Network Operations
COMINT: Communications Intelligence
CSS: Central Security Service
CR: Collection Request
CRM: Collection Requirements Management
CRWG: Capability Requirements Working Group
CTD: Counterterrorism Division
D
DA: Directorate for Analysis
D/CIA: Director Central Intelligence Agency
(formerly DCI)
DCHC: Defense Counterintelligence and Human
Intelligence Center
DDII: Deputy Director Intelligence Integration
DDNI: Deputy DNI Director for Intelligence
Integration
DDNI/A&T: Deputy DNI for Acquisition and
Technology
DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration
DEXCOM: Deputy Executive Committee
DHS: Department of Homeland Security
DI: Directorate of Intelligence
DIA: Defense Intelligence Agency
DIAC: Defense Intelligence Analysis Center
DIRINT: Director of Intelligence
DNI: Director of National Intelligence
DoD: Department of Defense
86
DoDIIS: Department of Defense Intelligence
Information System
DOE: Department of Energy
DS: Directorate for Information Management
and Chief Information Offcer
DS&T: Directorate of Science and Technology
DT: Directorate for MASINT and Technical Col-
lection
DT: Domestic Terrorism
DTRA: Defense Threat Reduction Agency
E
ELINT: Electronic Intelligence
EO: Executive Order
EXCOM: Executive Committee
F
FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation
FIG: Field Intelligence Group
FISA: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
FISINT: Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intel-
ligence
FOIA: Freedom of Information Act
FOUO: For Offcial Use Only
G
GDIP: General Defense Intelligence Program
GEOINT: Geospatial Intelligence
GMII: Global Maritime Intelligence Integration
H
HPSCI: House Permanent Select Committee on
Intelligence
HUMINT: Human Intelligence
I
I&A: Offce of Intelligence and Analysis (DHS)
IC: Intelligence Community
ICCR: Intelligence Community Capability
Requirements
ICD: Intelligence Community Directive (replaces
Director of Central Intelligence Directives)
IED: Improvised Explosive Device
IMINT: Imagery Intelligence
IN: Offce of Intelligence and Counterintelli-
gence
INR: Bureau of Intelligence and Research
(DOS)
INSCOM: Intelligence and Security Command
(Army)
87
IOB: Intelligence Oversight Board
IPPBE: Intelligence Planning, Programming,
Budgeting, and Evaluation
IRB: Intelligence Resources Board
IRTPA: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Pre-
vention Act of 2004
ISR: Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnais-
sance
IT: Information Technology
ITACG: Interagency Threat Assessment and
Coordination Group, NCTC
J
J-2: Directorate for Intelligence, Joint Staff
Intelligence
JICC: Joint Intelligence Community Council
JTTF: Joint Terrorism Task Force
JWICS: Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communi-
cation System
M
MASINT: Measurement and Signatures
Intelligence
MCIA: Marine Corps Intelligence Activity
MIP: Military Intelligence Program
MSA: Major System Acquisition
MSIC: Missile and Space Intelligence Center
N
NCIX: National Counterintelligence Executive
NCMI: National Center for Medical Intelligence
NCPC: National Counterproliferation Center
NCS: National Clandestine Service
NCTC: National Counterterrorism Center
NDIC: National Defense Intelligence College
NGA: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
(formerly NIMA)
NFIP: National Foreign Intelligence Program
NGIC: National Ground Intelligence Center
NIC: National Intelligence Council
NIE: National Intelligence Estimate
NIP: National Intelligence Program
NIS: National Intelligence Strategy
NJTTF: National Joint Terrorism Task Force
NMEC: National Media Exploitation Center
NMIC: National Maritime Intelligence Center
NRO: National Reconnaissance Offce
NSA: National Security Agency
NSB: National Security Branch
88
NSC: National Security Council
NSOC: National Security Operations Center
NSPD: National Security Presidential Directives
NTOC: NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center
NVTC: National Virtual Translation Center
O
ODNI: Offce of the Director of National Intel-
ligence
OIG: Offce of the Inspector General
ONCIX: Offce of the National Counterintelli-
gence Executive
ONI: Offce of Naval Intelligence
ONSI: Offce of National Security Intelligence
OPNAV N2/N6: Deputy Chief of Naval Opera-
tions for Information Dominance
OSC: Open-Source Center
OSINT: Open-Source Intelligence
P
PFIAB: President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory
Board
PIAB: President’s Intelligence Advisory Board
R
RFI: Request for Information
S
S&T: Science and Technology
SCI: Sensitive Compartmented Information
SIGINT: Signals Intelligence
SLTT: State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial
SSCI: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
S&T: Science and Technology
T
TIDE: Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment
TSC: Terrorist Screening Center
U
UFAC: Underground Facilities Analysis Center
UGF: Underground Facility
UIS: Unifying Intelligence Strategies
USCG: U.S. Coast Guard
USCG-ICC: U.S. Coast Guard Intelligence
Coordination Center
USD(I): Undersecretary of Defense for
Intelligence
U/SIA: Under Secretary for I&A
USMC: U.S. Marine Corps
89
W
WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
WMDD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
Directorate
Resources
ORGANIZATION URL DESCRIPTION
IC Agency Web Sites
Air Force ISR (Intelligence,
Surveillance, and
Reconnaissance) Agency
http://www.afsr.af.mil
n
General offce information
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
Central Intelligence Agency http://www.cia.gov
n
General offce information and information on CIA mission
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, videos, and CIA World Fact Book
n
Links to career and internship opportunities and descriptions
of the CIA organizational culture
Defense Intelligence Agency http://www.dia.mil
n
General offce information and information on the DIA mission
and Defense Intelligence Enterprise strategy
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities (within dia.mil
site) and descriptions of the DIA organizational culture
Federal Bureau of Investigation http://www.fbi.gov
n
General offce information, FBI overview, and overview of
Directorate of Intelligence
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
90
ORGANIZATION URL DESCRIPTION
IC Agency Web Sites
National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency
http://www.nga.mil
n
General offce information and information on NGA mission
and strategic intent
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
National Reconnaissance Offce http://www.nro.gov
n
General offce information and information on NRO mission
n
News, press releases, and videos
National Security Agency/
Central Security Service
http://www.nsa.gov
n
General offce information and information on NSA/CSS
mission and strategic plan
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and video transcripts
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
Offce of the Director of
National Intelligence
http://www.dni.gov
n
General ODNI information, ODNI mission information, and U.S.
National Intelligence Strategy
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and speeches
n
Links to information on ODNI careers, internships,
scholarships, and other such opportunities
U.S. Army Intelligence and
Security Command
http://www.inscom.army.mil
n
General offce information
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Depart-
ment of Homeland Security
http://www.uscg.mil
n
General offce information
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
U.S. Department of Energy http://www.energy.gov
n
General offce information and DOE Directives
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
91
ORGANIZATION URL DESCRIPTION
IC Agency Web Sites
U.S. Department of Homeland
Security
http://www.dhs.gov
n
General offce information and information on DHS mission
and DHS strategic plan
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
U.S. Department of State http://www.state.gov
n
General offce information and information on the State
Department mission
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
U.S. Department of the Treasury http://www.treasury.gov
n
General information and information on the Department of the
Treasury mission and U.S. economic strategy
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, and other information resources
n
Links to career opportunities
U.S. Drug Enforcement
Administration
http://www.justice.gov/dea
n
General offce information and information on DEA mission
n
Policy and appointment updates
n
Congressional testimony–related links
n
News, press releases, videos, and news and information on the
Drug Enforcement Administration Museum and Visitors Center
n
Links to career and internship opportunities and descriptions
of the DEA organizational culture
U.S. Marine Corps, U.S.
Marine Corps Forces Special
Operations Command, Marine
Special Operations Intelligence
Battalion
http://www.usmc.mil/unit/
marsoc/msoib
n
General offce information
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
U.S. Navy, Offce of Naval
Intelligence
http://www.oni.navy.mil
n
General offce information
n
News, press releases, and videos
n
Links to career and internship opportunities
92
ORGANIZATION URL DESCRIPTION
IC Employment Websites
Central Intelligence Agency https://www.cia.gov/careers Identifes career opportunities and career paths within the CIA
Defense Intelligence Agency http://www.dia.mil/careers The DIA’s “Employment Headquarters” website
Federal Bureau of Investigation http://www.fbijobs.gov Highlights the FBI’s featured opportunities and other news as well
as links to information on FBI career paths
FBI Language Services:
Contract Linguists
http://fbijobs.gov/ling/ Contains postings specifcally on FBI contract linguist
opportunities
National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency
http://erecruit.nga.mil Identifes current career opportunities at the NGA
National Security Agency/
Central Security Service
http://www.nsa.gov/careers Identifes current NSA career opportunities and the benefts of
working at the NSA/CSS
National Virtual Translation
Center
http://www.nvtc.gov Provides answers to pertinent FAQs related to employment at the
NVTC
Offce of the Director of
National Intelligence
(Intelligence.gov)
http://intelligence.gov/careers-
in-intelligence/
Highlight the diverse careers that the IC offers and the type of
talent needed across the IC
U.S. Air Force http://www.airforce.com/
joining-the-air-force/offcer-
overview/
Provides an overview of the requirements to become an Air Force
offcer
U.S. Army Intelligence and
Security Command
http://www.inscom.army.mil/
Employment/Defaultjobs.aspx
Provides links to USAJobs.gov and Army-specifc sites for current
employment opportunities
U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Depart-
ment of Homeland Security
http://www.uscg.mil/top/
careers.asp
Identifes current career opportunities and the benefts of work-
ing for the Coast Guard as offcer, enlisted, reserve, civilian, or
auxiliary personnel
U.S. Department of Energy http://jobs.energy.gov/ A career information portal that enables users to search for DOE
opportunities through the USAJobs website.
U.S. Department of Homeland
Security
http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/
careers
Identifes current DHS career opportunities and the benefts of
working at the DHS
U.S. Department of State http://careers.state.gov Identifes the career opportunities within the State Department
U.S. Department of the Treasury http://www.treasury.gov/
careers
Identifes career opportunities at the Department of the Treasury
headquarters and at the individual Treasury bureaus
U.S. Drug Enforcement
Administration
http://www.justice.gov/dea/
resources/job_applicants.html
Identifes career opportunities within the DEA
93
ORGANIZATION URL DESCRIPTION
IC Employment Websites
U.S. Offce of Personnel
Management (USAJobs.gov)
http://usajobs.gov/ Highlight the diverse careers that the IC offers and the type of
talent needed across the IC
U.S. Marine Corps http://www.marines.com
http://offcer.marines.com
Provides an overview of opportunities as enlisted or offcer
personnel
U.S. Navy
Department of the Navy Civilian
Human Resources
Offce of Naval Intelligence
“Hot Vacancies”
Offce of Naval Intelligence
“Military Duty at ONI”
http://www.donhr.navy.mil/
http://www.oni.navy.mil/
Join_Us/hot_jobs.htm
http://www.oni.navy.mil/
Join_Us/Military_duty.htm
Naval civilian HR and ONI job-search sites
Laws and Policies Governing the IC
Offce of the Director of National Intelligence
Offce of General Counsel
Legal Reference Book
The Constitution Of The United States Of America
National Security Act Of 1947
Intelligence Reform And Terrorism Prevention Act Of 2004*
Central Intelligence Agency Act Of 1949
National Security Agency Act Of 1959
Department Of Defense Title 10 Authorities
National Imagery And Mapping Agency Act Of 1996
Homeland Security Act Of 2002*
94
Counterintelligence And Security Enhancements Act Of 1994
Counterintelligence Enhancement Act Of 2002
Classifed Information Procedures Act
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Of 1978
Protect America Act Of 2007
Usa Patriot Act Of 2001*
Usa Patriot Improvement And Reauthorization Act Of 2005*
Detainee Treatment Act Of 2005
Military Commissions Act Of 2006
Freedom Of Information Act
Privacy Act
Federal Information Security Management Act
Inspector General Act Of 1978
War Crimes Act Of 1996
Interception Of Wire, Electronic, And Oral Communications
Implementing Recommendations Of The 9/11 Commission Act Of 2007*
Executive Order 12139
Executive Order 12333
Executive Order 12949
Executive Order 12951
Executive Order 12958
Executive Order 12968
95
Executive Order 13354
Executive Order 13355
Executive Order 13388
Executive Order 13462
Executive Order 13467
Executive Order 13491
Executive Order 13492
Executive Order 13493
Intelligence Sharing Procedures For Foreign Intelligence And Foreign
Counterintelligence Investigations Conducted By The Fbi
Guidelines For Disclosure Of Grand Jury And Electronic, Wire, And Oral
Interception Information Identifying United States Persons
Guidelines Regarding Disclosure To The Director Of Central Intelligence And Homeland Security
Offcials Of Foreign Intelligence Acquired In The Course Of A Criminal Investigation
Guidelines Regarding Prompt Handling Of Reports Of Possible Criminal Activity Involving Foreign
Intelligence Sources
The Attorney General’s Guidelines For Domestic Fbi Operations
Strengthening Information Sharing, Access, And Integration B Organizational, Management, And
Policy Development Structures For Creating The Terrorism Information Sharing Environment
Guidelines To Ensure That The Information Privacy And Other Legal Rights Of Americans Are Pro-
tected In The Development And Use Of The Information
Sharing Environment
Criteria On Thresholds For Reporting Intelligence Oversight Matters
Mou: Reporting Of Information Concerning Federal Crimes
Intelligence Community And Government Websites
96
Subject Index
Air Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34, 82
Analysis, Production and Feedback . . . . . .59
Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33, 82, 87, 91, 93
Careers in the Intelligence Community . . . .75
Central Intelligence Agency 18-19, 23, 68, 82,
86, 90, 93
Civil Liberties and Privacy Offce . . . . . . . .72
Coast Guard . . . . .25, 27, 34, 82, 89, 91, 93
Collection Operations Management . . . . 47-49
Collection Requirements Management . 47-48
Collection, Processing and Exploitation . . . .53
Communications Intelligence . 55, 80, 81, 85,
86
Congress (House of Representatives and
Senate) . .15, 17, 53, 68, 69, 70, 90, 91, 92
Counterintelligence . . 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24,
25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 42, 69, 80, 86, 87, 88,
89, 95, 96
Counternarcotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Counterproliferation . . . . . . . . 16-17, 19, 25
Counterterrorism . .16, 19, 27, 30, 80, 86, 88
Defense Intelligence Agency . .20-22, 82, 86,
90, 93
Department of Defense 8, 21, 22, 23, 24, 33,
34, 70, 82, 86, 94
Department of Energy .25, 45, 82, 87, 91, 93
Department of Homeland Security .25-28, 82,
86, 91, 92, 93
Department of Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . .29, 82
Department of State . . . . .31, 41, 82, 92, 93
Department of the Treasury . . .32, 82, 92, 93
Deputy Executive Committee . . . . .46, 67, 86
Director of National
Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . .8, 15-17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 23, 26, 31, 44-45, 46, 47, 49, 50,
67-72, 82, 83, 84, 86, 89, 91, 93, 94
Drug Enforcement Administration . 29, 82, 86,
92
Electronic Intelligence . . . 55-56, 81, 85, 87
Equal Employment Opportunity
and Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71
Executive Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . .67, 87
Federal Bureau
of Investigation 27, 29-30, 31, 82, 87, 90, 93
Foreign Instrumentation
Signals Intelligence . . . . . . . . 55-56, 81, 85
General Defense Intelligence
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 87
97
Geospatial
Intelligence . . . . . . . .11, 19, 22, 53, 82, 87
House Permanent Select Committee
on Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68, 87
Human Intelligence . .11, 18, 20, 54, 86, 87
Imagery Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . .53, 82, 87
Intelligence Cycle . . . . . . . . . . 10-12, 80, 82
Intelligence
Integration . . . . . . . . . .15-16, 46, 67-68, 86
Intelligence Oversight Board . . . . . 69-70, 87
Intelligence Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Intelligence Planning, Programming,
Budgeting and Evaluation . . . . . . . 44-45, 87
Intelligence Resources Board . . . . . . . .46, 88
Interagency Threat Assessment and
Coordination Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27, 88
Joint Intelligence Community Council . .67, 88
Joint Terrorism Task Force . . . . . . .30, 83, 88
Marine Corps . . . . . . . . . . 20, 34-35, 82, 88
Measurement and Signature
Intelligence . . . . . . . .20, 54, 79, 83, 87, 88
Military Intelligence
Program . . . . . . . . . . .20, 23, 45, 46, 70, 88
National Air and Space
Intelligence Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
National Counterintelligence
Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16, 17, 88, 89
National Counterproliferation
Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17, 88
National Counterterrorism
Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16, 17, 27, 88
National Defense Intelligence
College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-22, 88
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency . . 22,
82, 88, 91, 93
National Ground Intelligence Center . . .35, 88
National Intelligence
Council . . . . . . . . .16, 17-18, 49, 83-84, 88
National Intelligence Estimates . . . . . .17, 84
National Intelligence Managers . . . . . . . . .16
National Intelligence Priorities Framework. .49
National Intelligence Program . . . 15, 23, 26,
44-45, 46, 47, 70, 88
National Intelligence
Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39, 44, 88, 91
National Joint Terrorism Task Force . . .30, 88
National Media Exploitation Center . . . .21, 88
National Reconnaissance
Offce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23, 82, 88, 91
National Security Agency . . . . . 23-25, 82, 88
98
National Security Council . .7, 15, 49, 69, 88
National Virtual Translation
Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31, 89, 93
Navy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-34, 82, 92, 94
Offce of Intelligence and
Counterintelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25, 87
Offce of National Security
Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29, 89
Offce of Naval Intelligence . . . . . .34, 89, 92
Offce of the Director of National
Intelligence . . . 8, 15-16, 47, 72, 82, 89, 91
Offce of the Inspector General . . . . . . .70, 89
Open Source Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Open Source
Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . .11, 19, 79, 84, 89
Organizational Oversight . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
President’s Intelligence Advisory
Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-70, 89
Quadrennial Homeland Security Review . . .26
Requirements, Planning and Direction . . . .39
Senate Select Committee
on Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-69
Signals Intelligence . .23, 24, 55-56, 79, 80,
81, 83, 85, 89
Underground Facilities
Analysis Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16, 89
Weapons of Mass Destruction . .7, 16-17, 20,
23, 27, 30, 53, 83, 90
Wounded Warrior Program . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
101
LEGAL DISCLAIMER
Nothing in this handbook shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority granted by
law to a department or agency, or the head thereof. Additionally, the handbook is not intended to,
and does not, create any right or beneft, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity,
by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its offcers,
employees, or agents, or any other person.
102

ii

Table of Contents
Tab 1: InTellIgence OvervIew Defining and Using Intelligence .............................................................................................7 What is the Intelligence Community? ......................................................................................7 The Six Steps in the Intelligence Cycle .................................................................................10 Tab 2: InTellIgence cOmmunITy members Office of the Director of National Intelligence ........................................................................15 Central Intelligence Agency .................................................................................................18 Defense Intelligence Agency ................................................................................................20 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency................................................................................22 National Reconnaissance Office ...........................................................................................23 National Security Agency .....................................................................................................23 Department of Energy, Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence .......................................25 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis .....................................25 Coast Guard .......................................................................................................................27 Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration .......................................................27 Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation ..........................................................29 Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research .....................................................31 Department of the Treasury, Office of Intelligence and Analysis ...............................................32 Army .................................................................................................................................32 Navy..................................................................................................................................33 Air Force ............................................................................................................................34 Marine Corps ......................................................................................................................34 Tab 3: requIremenTs, PlannIng, and dIrecTIOn What Intelligence Can (and Cannot) Do .................................................................................39 Who Uses U.S. Intelligence? ................................................................................................41

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................................................................................................................... and exPlOITaTIOn Sources of Intelligence ........................................................................................... Programming...........................................................................53 GEOINT ......49 Tab 4: cOllecTIOn......................... Budgeting and Evaluation .................54 OSINT .................................................45 Intelligence Community Requirements Processes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Classification..... PrOducTIOn..................................................................................... and Feedback Analysis and Production ...........54 MASINT.......44 Acquisition/Science and Technology: Delivering Technical Capabilities ..................... PrOcessIng..................................................................................................................................................................53 HUMINT ..............................................................................................72 2 ...................46 Collection Management Overview ..................................................................................................................70 Office of the Inspector General ......................................................................................................69 President’s Intelligence Advisory Board ......................................................................62 Tab 6: OrganIzaTIOnal OversIghT Joint Intelligence Community Council .......................................................71 Civil Liberties and Privacy Office ...............................................................61 Review and Release ....................54 SIGINT ..............................................................................................70 Financial Management and Oversight ..................................................................................................................................................59 Analytic Products ......................................56 Tab 5: analysIs........................55 Processing and Exploitation ....................................70 Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 Legislative Oversight .....................68 National Security Council .....................................................59 Estimative Language .............47 Prioritizing Intelligence Issues: The National Intelligence Priorities Framework .............................................................................................................................................Intelligence Planning.........................................

.....................................97 3 ...................................................................................................................................86 Resources .......................................Tab 7: careers In The InTellIgence cOmmunITy The Benefits of Working in the IC ....................................................................................................................79 Acronyms and Abbreviations ..........................................................................................................90 Laws and Policies Governing the IC .......................75 Tab 8: reFerences Glossary of Terms...................................................94 Subject Index .......................................................................................................................

4 .

INTELLIGENCE OVERVIEW Intelligence Overview 5 .

marks the single greatest victory in the U. The death of Bin Ladin. a U.S. agencies and partners across the Intelligence Community had been collecting intelligence about the compound since it was discovered in August 2010. Pakistan. authorized by the President on April 29. and eventually dissolve al-Qa’ida.S. U. military raid on an al-Qa’ida compound in Abbottabad. THE OPERATION THAT KILLED BIN LADIN Courtesy of CIA . The raid was designed to minimize collateral damage and risk to non-combatants in the compound and Pakistani civilians in the area. or commander.In the early morning hours of May 2. The raid on the compound. killed America’s most-wanted terrorist.-led campaign to disrupt.S. in its 22-year history. Usama Bin Ladin. dismantle. 2011. was conducted by a small team of special operations soldiers. al-Qa’ida’s founder and only amir.

its people. Government uses intelligence to improve and more fully understand the consequences of its national security decisions. Government agency. or Any other matter bearing on U.S. proliferation. property. international negotiations. and that involves: n n n The U. regardless of the source from which it is derived and including information gathered within or outside the United States. These activities include: n Collection of information needed by the President. to more than one U. and interactions with working-level contacts in foreign countries.S. national homeland security. Intelligence informs policy decisions. as determined to be consistent with any guidance issued by the President. military actions.Intelligence Overview Defining and Using Intelligence According to the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). intelligence can also aid the efforts of homeland security providers and first responders. 7 n Threats to the U. What is the Intelligence Community? The Intelligence Community (IC) is a group of Executive Branch agencies and organizations that work separately and together to engage in intelligence activities that are necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the national security of the United States. In some circumstances. . or use of weapons of mass destruction. the National Security Council. the terms “National Intelligence” and “intelligence related to national security” refer to all intelligence. The development.S. or interests..S. n that pertains.

persons. and evaluating the IC’s performance. The other members of the IC are divided 8 . analysis. They foster an environment that encourages. All intelligence personnel in the armed forces are members of the Service IC components. intelligence integration means synchronizing collection. and other such hostile activities carried out by foreign powers. Performance of administrative and support activities within the United States and abroad that are necessary for the performance of various other intelligence activities. managing finances. n Program Managers advise and assist the ODNI in identifying collection requirements. developing budgets. Each Service has at least one major intelligence organization as well as intelligence officers integrated throughout its structure. Performance of special activities. Departments are IC components embedded within Government departments (other than the Department of Defense [DoD]). Departments. n n n n n Intelligence Integration The core mission of ODNI is to lead the Intelligence Community in intelligence integration. Performance of such other intelligence activities as the President may direct from time to time. n n Production and dissemination of intelligence. and other Executive Branch officials for the performance of their duties and fulfillment of their responsibilities. which primarily support their own Service’s information needs. and Service components. and recognizes integration at all levels of the IC. Unifying Intelligence Strategies (UIS) are the central critical plans for achieving intelligence integration. organizations. Basically. international terrorist and narcotics activities. and their agents. Collection of information concerning intelligence activities directed against the United States. They cover our strategies by geography and topic. who is the head of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and whose duty is to coordinate the other 16 IC components based on intelligence consumers’ needs. The conduct of actions to protect against hostile activities directed against the United States. and counterintelligence so that they are fused—effectively operating as one team.the Secretaries of State and Defense. enables. These components focus on serving their parent department’s intelligence needs. into three groups: Program Managers. n The IC is led by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).

They are thus charged with leading integration across the IC by topic and region. 9 .OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM MANAGERS FBI National Security Branch National GeospatialIntelligence Agency Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Of ce National Security Agency DEPARTMENTS DEA Of ce of National Security Intelligence Energy Of ce of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence DHS Of ce of Intelligence and Analysis State Bureau of Intelligence and Research Treasury Of ce of Intelligence and Analysis SERVICES Air Force Intelligence Army Intelligence Coast Guard Intelligence Marine Corps Intelligence Naval Intelligence National Intelligence Managers (NIMs) and their teams create UIS in line with the IC prioritized requirements.

Planning & Direction

collection

Processing & exPloitation

analysis & ProDuction

Dissemination

evaluation

The Six Steps in the Intelligence Cycle
The Intelligence Cycle is the process of developing raw information into finished intelligence for use by policymakers, military commanders, and other consumers in decisionmaking. This six-step cyclical process is highly dynamic, continuous, and never-ending . The sixth step, evaluation (which includes soliciting feedback from users) is conducted for each of the other five steps individually and for the Intelligence Cycle as a whole. The six steps that constitute the Intelligence Cycle are as follows:
10

PlannIng and dIrecTIOn: establish the consumer’s intelligence requirements and plan intelligence activities accordingly. The planning and direction step sets the stage for the Intelligence Cycle. It is the springboard from which all Intelligence Cycle activities are launched. Oftentimes, the direction part of the step precedes the planning part. Generally, in such cases, the consumer has a requirement for a specific product. That product may be a full report, a graphic image, or raw information that is collected, processed, and disseminated, but skips the analysis and production step. Given the customer’s requirement, the intelligence organization tasked with generating the product will then plan its Intelligence Cycle activities. cOllecTIOn: gather the raw data required to produce the finished product. Data collection is performed to gather raw data related to the five basic intelligence sources (Geospatial Intelligence [GEOINT], Human Intelligence

[HUMINT], Measurement and Signature Intelligence [MASINT], Open-Source Intelligence [OSINT], and Signals Intelligence [SIGINT]). The sources of the raw data may include, but are not limited to, news reports, aerial imagery, satellite imagery, and government and public documents. PrOcessIng and exPlOITaTIOn: convert the raw data into a comprehensible format that is usable for production of the finished product. The processing and exploitation step (see the Glossary of Terms for a definition of “exploitation”) involves the use of highly trained and specialized personnel and technologically sophisticated equipment to turn the raw data into usable and understandable information. Data translation, data decryption, and interpretation of filmed images and other imagery are only a few of the processes used for converting data stored on film, magnetic, or other media into information ready for analysis and production.

11

analysIs and PrOducTIOn: Integrate, evaluate, analyze, and prepare the processed information for inclusion in the finished product. The analysis and production step also requires highly trained and specialized personnel (in this case, analysts) to give meaning to the processed information and to prioritize it against known requirements. Synthesizing the processed information into a finished, actionable (see the Glossary of Terms for a definition of “actionable”) intelligence product enables the information to be useful to the customer. Note that, in some cases, the Intelligence Cycle may skip this step (for example, when the consumer needs only specific reported information or products such as raw imagery). This was the case during the Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) when President Kennedy needed only the actual number of pieces of Soviet equipment in Cuba and facts concerning reports on observed Soviet activity with no analysis of that information.

dIssemInaTIOn: deliver the finished product to the consumer that requested it and to others as applicable. The consumer that requested the information receives the finished product, usually via electronic transmission. Dissemination of the information typically is accomplished through such means as websites, email, Web 2.0 collaboration tools, and hardcopy distribution. The final, finished product is referred to as “finished intelligence.” After the product is disseminated, further gaps in the intelligence may be identified, and the Intelligence Cycle begins all over again. evaluaTIOn: continually acquire feedback during the Intelligence cycle and evaluate that feedback to refine each individual step and the cycle as a whole. Constant evaluation and feedback from consumers are extremely important to enabling those involved in the Intelligence Cycle to adjust and refine their activities and analysis to better meet consumers’ changing and evolving information needs.

12

INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY MEMBERS Intelligence Community Members .

From Guadalcanal to Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Their code.” . The Code Talkers were young Navajo men who were tapped by the U. English words were spelled out using Navajo words to represent letters of the English alphabet. the Navajo Code Talkers created the only unbreakable code in modern military history.S.NAvAjO CODE TALKERs Courtesy of Navajo Code Talkers With little more than ingenious application of their native language. The Code Talkers’ cryptographic innovation made use of a little-studied and extremely complex Native American language unlike any other. the words “wol-la-chee” (which means “ant” in Navajo) and “be-la-sana” (apple) both stood for the letter “A. For instance. Marines to devise a code for radio communications.” and “chay-da-gahi” (tortoise) was translated as “submarine. the Code Talkers served with distinction in every major engagement of the Pacific Theater from 1942 to 1945. helped to end World War II and save thousands of lives. The word “da-he-tih-hi” (hummingbird) stood for “fighter plane.” The developers of the code also used Navajo words to represent more than 400 frequently used military terms. which the Japanese never managed to break.

S. which resulted in Congressional passage of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). promote a strategic. The President appoints the DNI with the advice and consent of the Senate. and ensure integration across the U. to include the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC). The core mission of the ODNI is to lead the IC in Intelligence Integration. at the right time. The ODNI is also comprised of several statutory components. and oversees and directs the implementation of the National Intelligence Program. in defense of the Homeland. forging a community that delivers the most insightful intelligence possible.Intelligence Community Members Office of the Director of National Intelligence Post 9/11 investigations proposed sweeping change in the Intelligence Community (IC). Senate-confirmed Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence to effectively integrate all intelligence related to national and homeland security in defense of the homeland and in support of United States national security interests at home and abroad. the National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC). the National 15 . it is led by a Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Intelligence Community. unified direction. the DNI serves as the principal advisor to the President and the National Security Council for intelligence matters related to the national security. The DNI works closely with a Presidentially-appointed. The ODNI stood up on April 21. As the leader of the 17 Intelligence Community organizations. 2005. Intelligence Integration is the key to ensuring that the highest quality of intelligence is delivered with the right inputs. The IRTPA created the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) to improve information sharing.

Directorate of Operations Support: Provides the common intelligence picture for the counterterrorism community with 24 hours a day/7 days a week situational awareness.S. NCPC conducts strategic counterproliferation planning for the IC to support policy efforts to prevent.S. advance analytic tradecraft and training. and the National Intelligence Council (NIC). and the Office of National Intelligence Management. Government’s planning efforts to focus all elements of national power against the terrorist threat. and international special events. Government associated with countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). management and incident information tracking. Office of National Intelligence Management: Provides strategic management of all national intelligence related to the IC’s counterterrorism mission to set analytic and collection priorities. n n National Counterproliferation Center The National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC) is the bridge from the IC to the policy community for activities within the U. terrorism threat reporting. and related n 16 . their delivery systems. national. National Counterterrorism Center The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX).S. Government. and lead strategic planning. Directorate of Strategic Operational Planning: Directs the U. has primary responsibility within the U.S. halt. Directorate of Operations Support. NCTC’s components are the Directorate of Intelligence. Directorate of Strategic Operational Planning. which resides within the ODNI. or mitigate the proliferation of WMDs. and budgeting. evaluation. Directorate of Terrorist Identities. Their functions are: n Directorate of Intelligence: Leads the production and integration of counterterrorism analysis for the U. Government for counterterrorism intelligence analysis and counterterrorism strategic operational planning. n Directorate of Terrorist Identities: Maintains a consolidated repository of information on international terrorist identities and ensures Federal agencies can access the information they need through the Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE). and support for worldwide.

and academia. Government. as well as a broad range of other Community coordinated products. policymakers. a Congressionally-mandated council. F THE D EO IR IC R OF NA TO TI EC N AL I TELLI G O ON 17 .S.S. Government.and long-term strategic analysis through the use of all-source intelligence.S. the U. n n CE EN OF F F materials and technologies. These relationships foster an atmosphere of collaboration and intelligence sharing in order to protect the U. Some of the NIC’s core functions are to: n Produce National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) — the IC’s most authoritative written assessments on national security issues. ONCIX’s Special Security Division is responsible for security policy and uniformity across the U. IC coordinated strategic analysis on issues of key concern to senior U. Government. NCPC achieves this by drawing on the expertise of counterproliferation professionals in the IC. They also coordinate counterintelligence policy and budgets to the same end. Foster outreach to nongovernmental experts in academia and the private sector to broaden the IC’s perspective. is a component of the ODNI that conducts mid. in partnership with the National Counterterrorism Center. It is also responsible for evaluating the performance of the counterintelligence community against the strategy. Per the Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002. Articulate substantive intelligence priorities to guide intelligence collection and analysis. the NIC has been a source of deep substantive expertise on intelligence matters and a facilitator of integrated. the NCIX is charged with promulgating an annual strategy for all counterintelligence elements of the U. industry. Government. Since its formation in 1979.S. non-state actors.National Intelligence Council The National Intelligence Council (NIC).’s interests at home and abroad.S.S. National Counterintelligence Executive The National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX) serves as the head of national counterintelligence and security for the U. This includes both states of concern and. The Office of the NCIX is charged with integrating the activities of all counterintelligence programs to make them coherent and efficient.

CIA is headquartered in McLean. The NCS engages in counterintelligence activities by protecting classified U. personnel overseas. and exploits information to facilitate the execution of the CIA’s mission by applying innovative scientific. The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) analyzes all-source intelligence and produces reports.S.S. human intelligence reports. including U. and interagency agreements. or HUMINT) of foreign intelligence that is not obtainable through other means. and sophisticated sensors. activities and institutions from 18 .Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is the largest producer of all-source national security intelligence for senior U. briefings. satellite photography. and evaluation of clandestine HUMINT operations across the IC. Executive Orders. and papers on key foreign intelligence issues. open source information. and technical solutions to the most critical intelligence problems. de-confliction. consistent with existing laws. This information comes from a variety of sources and methods. Virginia.S. The Director of the CIA (DCIA) is the National Human Intelligence Manager and serves on behalf of the DNI as the national authority for coordination. The CIA’s intelligence analysis on overseas developments feeds into the informed decisions by policymakers and other senior decisionmakers in the national security and defense arenas. penetration by hostile foreign organizations and individuals. Organization The National Clandestine Service (NCS) has responsibility for the clandestine collection (primarily human source collection. policymakers.S. The Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T) accesses. The CIA does not make foreign policy. engineering. NCS also carries out covert actions in support of U. policy goals when legally and properly directed and authorized by the President. collects.

gov for Government-wide use. information.300 products daily. including acquisitions. reports. transcriptions. n Helping to enable open source capabilities in other parts of the Government and military. logistics. Government. military. Its products cover issues that range from foreign political. translating. is the U. The Open Source Center The Open Source Center (OSC). The Director of the CIA serves as the Executive Agent for the DNI in managing the OSC. financial management. medical services.The Directorate of Support (DS) delivers a full range of support.” which is material with very limited distribution. strategic venture capital firm chartered to connect the technology demands of the CIA and IC partners’ intelligence missions with the emerging technology of the entrepreneurial community. economic. CIA is the Executive Agent for In-Q-Tel. Hosting open source material on OpenSource. and technology. and other homeland security topics. the nonprofit. science. to address short-term needs and longer-term issues. and the security of Agency personnel. and other publicly distributed materials. n about Osc: OSC produces more than 2. operations officers. and geospatial intelligence. consultative services. producing. leaflets. analyses. and personnel exchanges. including translations. counterproliferation. under the DNI. OSC provides training through its Open Source Academy. and analysts throughout the U. information technology. facilities. and technology topics. counternarcotics.S. brochures. such as academic papers. the military. to counterterrorism. and disseminating open source information 19 . DS services are both domestic and international in focus and are offered 24 hours a day/7 days a week. facilities services. that meets the needs of policymakers. communications. OSC also collects “gray literature. It is charged with: n Collecting.S. state and local law enforcement. video compilations. Government’s center for open source intelligence.

Surveillance and Reconnaissance. and also develops new MASINT capabilities. functional manager for Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT) and. D. Organization The Directorate for Analysis (DI) assesses foreign militaries with focus on weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling. the DIA Director is the program manager for the General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP). combatant commands and the service CI/HUMINT organizations. in Washington. It has major activities at the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center (DIAC). 20 . in Frederick. the Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC). The Directorate for Intelligence. coordinate and deconflict CI and HUMINT issues across Defense.C. The DCHC is organized to direct. missile systems. manages and conducts Defense Counterintelligence (CI) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) activities to meet Defense requirements. The Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center (DCHC) directs. The DIA Director is a senior military intelligence advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the DNI.. Virginia. Joint Staff (J2) provides foreign military intelligence to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior DoD officials. Approximately 30 percent of DIA’s employees are military. In addition. Virginia. the National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI). The Directorate for MASINT and Technical Collection (DT) is the defense intelligence center for Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT). The Deputy Director for Analysis is dual-hatted as the Functional Manager for Analysis for the Defense Intelligence Analysis Program. Rivanna Station near Charlottesville. terrorism. and approximately 70 percent are civilians. program manager for the DoD Foreign Counterintelligence Program. and Quantico Marine Corps Base. infrastructure systems. It collects and analyzes MASINT. since 2006. Alabama. in Huntsville. The DIA Director also serves as commander of the Strategic Command’s Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence. Maryland. and manages foreign military intelligence for policymakers and military commanders. and defense-related medical issues. program coordinator for the DIA and Combatant Command portion of the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). produces.Defense Intelligence Agency The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) collects.

NGA. and reporting. and NSA. and transmission of information. “United in Memory – Committed to Freedom” is a memorial dedicated to the seven DIA employees who lost their lives on 9/11 at the Pentagon. analyze. dissemination. NMEC is a DNI Center. and law enforcement communities. collect. UFAC coordinates IC efforts to detect. policymakers. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The Directorate for Information Management and the Chief Information Office serves as DIA’s information technology component. forensic analysis and translation. and the defense acquisition community. It manages the Department of Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) and operates the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS). initial processing. receipt. The Underground Facilities Analysis Center The Underground Facilities Analysis Center (UFAC) uses national intelligence and nonintelligence resources to find. cataloging. and sharing. and 21 . characterize. and sharing of all acquired and seized media across the intelligence. storage. warfighters. and report on UGF programs in support of U. UFAC is composed of elements from DIA. counterintelligence. and DIA is its Executive Agent. dissemination. These tasks include the collection.S. The UFAC Director reports jointly to the Secretary of Defense and the DNI through DIA. processing. exploitation. military. National Media Exploitation Center The National Media Exploitation Center (NMEC) ensures the rapid collection.assess underground facilities (UGFs) used by adversarial state and non-state actors.

providing anticipatory analysis. NGA also has facilities in St. and safety of navigation. Headquartered in Springfield. n National Reconnaissance Office The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) was established in September 1961 as a classified agency of the Department of Defense (DoD). Intelligence Community.National GeospatialIntelligence Agency The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is the nation’s premier source of geospatial intelligence. NGA provides imagery. Louis. and support. Virginia. NGA seeks to know the Earth. and targeting analysis. along with image sciences and modeling for U. As a Department of Defense combat support agency and a member of the U. 22 . activity-based environment. along with the tools that allow users to serve themselves. geospatial. and By broadening and deepening its analytic expertise. national defense. and moving from a target-based model to an issue-driven. NGA support teams are located worldwide to provide direct GEOINT services to NGA customers and partners. services. and understand the world. show the way. disaster relief.S. Missouri. The vision of NGA is to put the power of Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) into its customers’ hands n By providing online. expertise.S. The existence of the NRO and its mission were declassified in September 1992. on-demand access to its content.

national security. Virginia. Justice. and civil agencies. leads the U. NSA is part of the Department of Defense. signals from foreign weapons systems. Government in cryptology that encompasses both Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Information Assurance (IA) products and services. and other signals of interest) and GEOINT (imagery) intelligence data. the Central Security Service.S. and assistance to the military cryptologic community. and teams with senior 23 . the Armed Services.S. the Intelligence Community. the NRO develops and operates unique and innovative overhead reconnaissance systems and conducts intelligence-related activities for U. a Principal Deputy Director. The NRO is managed by a Director. NRO systems provide SIGINT (enemy communications. NRO satellites are frequently the only collectors able to access critical areas of interest in support of covert and high priority operations. The NRO is staffed by members of the armed services as well as civilians from the Central Intelligence Agency and the DoD. National Security Agency The National Security Agency and its military partner. and enables Computer Network Operations (NCO) in order to gain a decision advantage for the nation and our allies under all circumstances.Headquartered in Chantilly. and the Treasury. It promotes full partnership between NSA and the cryptologic elements of the Armed Forces. knowledge. All of them depend on NRO systems to help attack hard problems such as: n n n n n n Countering the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) threat Capturing terrorists Warning of enemy attacks Combating WMD proliferation Combating drug trafficking Supporting natural disaster response The NRO is funded through the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military Intelligence Program (MIP) consistent with the priorities and processes established by the DNI and the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I)). Key customers and mission partners of the NRO include: policymakers. and a Deputy Director. Departments of State. and is staffed by a combination of civilian and military personnel. The Central Security Service (CSS) provides timely and accurate cryptologic support.

The Research Directorate is the only “inhouse” organization in the Intelligence Community dedicated to advancing intelligence through science. maintains cognizance of national security information needs. energy policy. integrity. D..S. and disseminating information from foreign signals for intelligence and counterintelligence purposes and to support military operations. The National Security Operations Center (NSOC) is a 24 hours a day/7 days a week operations center that provides total situational awareness across the NSA/CSS enterprise for Department of Energy Office of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for U. the Information Assurance Directorate ensures the availability. with representatives in many intelligence consumer organizations in the Washington. CSS coordinates and develops policy and guidance on the Signals Intelligence and Information Assurance missions of NSA/CSS to ensure military integration. in other parts of the U. The NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center (NTOC) uses both Information Assurance and Signal Intelligence information and authorities to uncover and characterize cyberthreats and to provide situational awareness for network operators and defenders. 24 .C. both foreign Signals Intelligence and Information Assurance. area. confidentiality. NSA’s headquarters is at Fort Meade. They create research breakthroughs in mathematics. Organization The Signals Intelligence Directorate is responsible for collecting. Operating under the authority of the Secretary of Defense.S. authentication. Maryland. processing.military and civilian leaders to address and act on critical military-related issues in support of national and tactical intelligence objectives. science.. NSA/CSS has an extensive consumer outreach system. and monitors unfolding world events. The Department of Energy also has a system of National Laboratories and Technical Centers. and around the world. and nonrepudiation of national security and telecommunications and information systems (national security systems). and engineering that enable NSA/CSS to achieve and sustain advances for the Intelligence Community.

which are primarily operated by private corporations and universities. The Under Secretary for I&A (U/SIA) also serves as DHS’ Chief Intelligence Officer and is responsible to both the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Director of National Intelligence. all of whom require and generate homeland security intelligence and information. This office also provides the IC with access to DOE’s energy information and technical expertise. I&A has a unique mandate within the Intelligence Community and the Federal Government 25 . and evaluating foreign technology threats. and resilient. as defined in the Quadrennial Homeland Security I&A is a member of the Intelligence Community and part of a larger Homeland Security Enterprise that includes Departmental leaders and components. I&A’s budget is 100 percent funded in the National Intelligence Program (NIP). state. secure. It focuses on assessing worldwide nuclear terrorism threats and nuclear counterproliferation. I&A’s mission is supported by four strategic goals: n n n n Promote understanding of threats through intelligence analysis Collect information and intelligence pertinent to homeland security Share information necessary for action Manage intelligence for the homeland security enterprise Department of Homeland Security Office of Intelligence and Analysis The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for leading the unified national effort to secure the United States by preventing and deterring terrorist attacks and responding to threats and hazards. territorial and private sector partners and other IC members. The Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) provides intelligence support across the full range of Homeland Security missions. tribal. I&A ensures that information related to homeland security threats is collected. They conduct scientific research in the national interest. analyzed. The Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (IN) is DOE’s intelligence office and IC component. and disseminated to all relevant customers. The I&A mission is to equip the Homeland Security Enterprise with the intelligence and information it needs to keep the homeland safe. Review. local.

lead for sharing information and intelligence with state, local, tribal, and territorial governments and the private sector. I&A serves as the information conduit and intelligence advocate for state, local, tribal, and territorial governments. I&A supports 72 recognized state and major urban area fusion centers with deployed personnel and systems, training, and collaboration. This national network of fusion centers is the hub of much of the two-way intelligence and information flow between the Federal Government and our state, local, tribal, and territorial partners. The fusion centers represent a shared commitment between the federal government and the state and local governments who own and operate them. Although they are not part of the IC, several of DHS’s other components have extensive interactions with the IC, including Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Customs and Border Protection, Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Secret Service, and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. In addition, the U.S. Coast Guard, a DHS component, is a member of the IC.

environment for the receipt, analysis, gathering, and sharing of threat-related information between the Federal Government and state, local, tribal, territorial, and private sector partners. Located in states and major urban areas throughout the country, fusion centers are uniquely situated to empower front-line law enforcement, public safety, fire service, emergency response, public health, Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection, and private sector security personnel to understand local implications of national intelligence, thus enabling local officials to better protect their communities. Fusion centers provide interdisciplinary expertise and situational awareness to inform decision-making at all levels of government. They conduct analysis and facilitate information sharing while assisting law enforcement and homeland security partners in preventing, protecting against, and responding to crime and terrorism. Fusion centers are owned and operated by state and local entities with support from federal partners in the form of deployed personnel, training, technical assistance, exercise support, security clearances, connectivity to federal systems, technology, and grant funding.

Fusion Centers
State and major urban area fusion centers serve as focal points within the state and local

26

INTE RA OUP GR

H CY T REAT A EN G

Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group
The ITACG consists of state, local, and tribal first responders from around the United States and federal intelligence analysts from the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and National Counterterrorism Center working to enhance the sharing of federal information on counterterrorism, homeland security, and weapons of mass destruction with state, local, and tribal consumers of intelligence.

Coast Guard protects the vital economic and security interests of the United States. The Coast Guard is a multi-mission agency with responsibilities including the safety and security of the public, our natural and economic resources, the global maritime transportation system, and the integrity of our maritime borders. The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal Investigations Enterprise develops actionable intelligence to support the Coast Guard in all eleven of its statutory missions. The Coast Guard fills a unique niche within the Intelligence Community. As a result of its diverse authorities and missions, the Coast Guard maintains broad awareness of the maritime environment. As a military service operating within the Department of Homeland Security, the Coast Guard operates at the intersection between homeland security and national defense. As a law enforcement agency and a national intelligence community member, the Coast Guard also bridges between these two communities. The Coast Guard is also a federal regulatory agency with robust interaction with industry and regional groups. The nation depends on the Coast Guard’s access, operations, and expertise in the maritime environment. We protect citizens from the sea, we protect America from threats delivered by sea, and we protect the sea itself.

Coast Guard
The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal Investigations Enterprise, as the intelligence element of the Coast Guard, provides timely, actionable, and relevant intelligence and criminal investigative expertise and services to shape Coast Guard operations, planning, and decisionmaking, and to support national and homeland security intelligence requirements. As the principal federal agency responsible for maritime safety, security, and stewardship, the

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Cryptologic Group, Coast Guard Cyber Command, and the Intelligence Coordination Center. Actionable intelligence is also provided by intelligence staffs on each coast at the two Areas—Pacific and Atlantic, Regional Districts, and Local Sector Commands, and by a Maritime Intelligence Fusion Centers.

Department of Justice
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is responsible for enforcing the controlled substance laws and regulations of the United States. It brings to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States or any other competent jurisdiction, those organizations and the principal members of those organizations involved in or facilitating the growing, manufacturing, or distribution of controlled substances appearing in or destined for illicit traffic in the United States. DEA also has important responsibilities for the oversight and

Organization
The Assistant Commandant for Intelligence and Criminal Investigations is the Intelligence Community Element Head for the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal Investigations Enterprise includes the Coast Guard Investigative Service, Coast Guard Counterintelligence Service, Coast Guard

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Office of National Security Intelligence DEA’s Office of National Security Intelligence (ONSI) became a member of the IC in 2006. and more than 80 offices in more than 60 countries worldwide. Virginia. It has 56 field offices and more than 400 satellite offices throughout the U. Intelligence Community and homeland security elements. DEA recommends and supports non-enforcement programs aimed at reducing the availability of illicit controlled substances on domestic and international markets.S. The FBI also has more than 60 international offices. as an intelligence and law enforcement agency. prescription narcotic drugs.enforcement of laws pertaining to controlled pharmaceuticals (including. DEA has 21 field divisions in the U. The FBI coordinates these efforts with its IC and law enforcement partners. protect national security.S. D. Its goal is to enhance the U.S. in embassies worldwide.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Located at DEA Headquarters in Arlington. known as Legal Attaches. for example. In addition. Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) proliferators. The FBI is headquartered in Washington. It focuses on terrorist organizations.’s efforts to reduce the supply of drugs.S. ONSI facilitates full and appropriate intelligence coordination and information sharing with other members of the U. such as those derived from oxycodone and hydrocodone) under the Controlled Substances Act. 29 . is responsible for understanding threats to our national security and penetrating national and transnational networks that have a desire and capability to harm the U.C. and combat global terrorism. foreign intelligence services. and criminal enterprises.

S. and tribal terrorist screeners have ready access to information and expertise. academia.S. Its mission includes acting as a clearinghouse for facilitating interagency use of translators. The TSC helps ensure that federal. It has embedded employees at FBI Headquarters and in each field office through Field Intelligence Groups (FIGs) and fusion centers. JTTFs are in more than 100 cities nationwide. building a nationwide team 30 . The National Joint Terrorism Task Force (NJTTF). The National Virtual Translation Center The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) was established in 2003 to provide timely and accurate translations in support of national security. The Counterintelligence Division (CD) prevents and investigates foreign intelligence activities within the U. there is at least one in each of the FBI’s 56 field offices. The Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) was created to consolidate the Government’s approach to terrorist screening and create a single comprehensive watch list of known or suspected terrorists. state. in addition. partnering with elements of the U.C.S. local. They were established by the FBI to conduct operations to predict and disrupt terrorist plots. and federal entities.National Security Branch The National Security Branch (NSB) oversees the FBI’s national security programs. The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (WMDD) prevents individuals and groups from acquiring WMD capabilities and technologies for use against the U. coordinates all the JTTFs. The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) is the FBI’s intelligence analysis component. Government. in Washington. The Counterterrorism Division (CTD) focuses on both domestic and international terrorism. It includes four divisions. plus the Terrorist Screening Center (TSC). D.. and private industry to identify translator resources and engage their services. state.. Joint Terrorism Task Force Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) are FBIled multi-organization task forces composed of local. and overseas. It oversees the Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs). and espionage activities in the U. and links all operational and scientific/technology components to accomplish this mission.S.

managing the Intelligence Community Associate’s Program. NVTC is a DNI Center..S.C. special negotiators. INR supports the Secretary of State’s global responsibilities by: n INR has approximately 300 personnel drawn principally from the Civil Service and the Foreign Service.of highly qualified. including ambassadors. and desk officers. Organizing conferences to benefit from outside expertise. Coordinating intelligence policy and activities. and trends. foreign policy and diplomacy. Its intelligence support component is the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). motivated linguists and translators. INR’s Assistant Secretary ensures that intelligence informs policy and that intelligence activities support American diplomatic objectives. Department of the Treasury Office of Intelligence and Analysis The Office of Intelligence and Analysis (OIA) represents the Department of the Treasury in the Intelligence Community and is responsible for all intelligence and counterintelligence 31 . connected virtually to the program office in Washington. country directors. Surveying foreign public opinion and analyzing foreign media. and administering the Title VIII grant program on Eurasian and East European Studies. n n n n Analyzing foreign events. Analyzing foreign humanitarian challenges. issues. D. and applying stateof-the-art technology to maximize translator efficiency. Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research The Department of State is the lead agency for U. As the senior intelligence official at the State Department. and the Federal Bureau of Investigation is its Executive Agent. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research provides intelligence support to the Secretary of State and other State Department policymakers.

forces have a decisive edge in current and future military operations. to the Army and other military personnel at all levels. Virginia. 32 .activities related to the operations and responsibilities of the Department. political. and other key national security threats. and national policymakers to ensure that U. management.S. Army INSCOM. is a major subordinate command under the U. doctrine. Army MI’s goal is to provide all-source intelligence that is relevant. Organization The Deputy Chief of Staff. logistics and order of battle. proliferators. This includes policy formulation. Defense Department. headquartered in Charlottesville. and oversight. supervision.S. is the senior intelligence officer in the U. relevant. As the Deputy Chief of Staff. Its mission includes irregular and conventional warfare analysis examining foreign ground forces from a perspective that includes battlefield operating systems. G-2. useful. It is fully integrated into Army forces. OIA supports the formulation of policy and the execution of the Treasury Department’s authorities by providing expert analysis and intelligence production on financial and other support networks for terrorist groups. staff. It is OIA’s mission to advance national security and protect the integrity of the financial system by informing Treasury decisions with timely. National Ground Intelligence Center The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) produces and disseminates scientific and technical intelligence and military capabilities analysis on foreign ground forces required by war fighting commanders. Army and is responsible for Army intelligence activities. programming. maintenance. OIA also assists departmental customers in maintaining situational awareness on the full range of economic. G-2. tactics. training. and accurate intelligence and analysis. techniques and procedures. his or her staff is also responsible for coordinating all Army intelligence. and security issues by providing current intelligence support and facilitating access to Intelligence Community production on strategic issues. Army The Department of the Army’s IC component is called Army Military Intelligence (Army MI). the force modernization and research and development communities. budgeting. evaluation.S. and timely. planning. NGIC.

and national needs. are deployed throughout the Navy and the Department of Defense. ONI and 33 Navy Naval Intelligence’s mission is to support maritime operations worldwide in defense of the United States. characteristics. INSCOM’s strategic organization of 16.g. Organization The Director of Naval Intelligence is also designated as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance (OPNAV N2/N6) and reports to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). and they share an intelligence partnership that started in the early 1970s. Naval intelligence professionals. ONI also analyzes foreign naval strategies. South America. Maryland. weapons and technology proliferation. is a major production center for maritime intelligence. It produces intelligence on seaborne terrorism. headquartered at the National Maritime Intelligence Center (NMIC) in Suitland.S. Department of Defense. is headquartered at Fort Belvoir. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). ONI and the Coast Guard Intelligence Coordination Center (USCG-ICC) both have a maritime mission. Europe. It is a global command with major subordinate commands that tailor their support to the specific needs of different theaters of operation (e. and contractors at more than 180 locations around the globe ensures that leaders at all levels have access to the intelligence information they need. They are identified as the core element of the Global Maritime Intelligence Integration (GMII) Plan.800 Soldiers. . Office of Naval Intelligence The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI). the Army’s operational intelligence force.Intelligence and Security Command The U. which was signed by the President in late 2005. South West Asia). That plan is a component of the National Strategy for Maritime Security. capabilities. and trends to support Navy. Virginia. civilians. who are all members of the Information Dominance Community. and narcotics and smuggling operations. operations. when and where they need it.

Surveillance. equips. and reconnaissance for combatant commanders and the nation. Marine Corps The U. and guidance to all Air Force intelligence organizations. and cryptologic matters. The Air Force ISR Agency organizes. oversight. The AF ISR Agency has more than 19. which tracks over 18. trains.000 military and civilian members serving at 72 locations worldwide and commands several subcomponents. and expanding AF ISR capabilities to meet current and future challenges. Surveillance. and Reconnaissance (AF ISR) is the Air Force’s IC component. and Reconnaissance (A2) provides policy. The 480th ISR Wing. Organization The Marine Corps’ Director of Intelligence (DIRINT) is its principal intelligence staff officer. surveillance. Organization The Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence. The AF ISR Agency commander serves as the Service Cryptologic Element under NSA.USCG-ICC man an around-the-clock maritime watch in the NMIC. Air Force ISR is also responsible for implementing and overseeing policy and guidance. Marine Corps (USMC) produces tactical and operational intelligence for battlefield support. and the National Air and Space Intelligence Center. Most Marine Corps intelligence professionals are integrated into operating forces. and presents forces to conduct intelligence.000 vessels worldwide. counterintelligence. Air Force The Air Force Intelligence. Its IC component is comprised of all intelligence professionals in the Marine Corps. 34 . and oversees Air Force Signals Intelligence activities. the Air Force Technical Application Center. including the 70th ISR Wing. the 361st ISR Group. and is the service’s functional manager for intelligence.S.

Armed Forces. It provides the Marine Corps with intelligence for planning. and exercises. theater. in Suitland.Marine Corps Intelligence Activity Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA). and operational warfighter. Maryland. and Quantico. 35 .S. training. MCIA is a major production organization for expeditionary intelligence and cultural intelligence. MCIA’s analysis and production support not only the Marine Corps. is the USMC service production center. theater commander. or operational command in the U. MCIA supports other services as appropriate. but also the national decisionmaker. In addition. operations. MCIA can be tasked to provide expeditionary warfare intelligence to support any national. Virginia.

Planning. PLANNING. and Direction . AND DIRECTION Requirements.REQUIREMENTS.

Diplomat. distributed propaganda. Writer. unfortunately. few know that “spy” can be added to the list. and coordinated aid from America’s secret allies (and also discovered that several of his employees. Courtesy of CIA . including the Committee of Secret Correspondence. and signer of the Declaration of Independence. he reportedly distributed leaflets disguised as tobacco packets that promised American land grants to deserting soldiers. Publisher. including a secretary and courier. British agents). scientist. Franklin also was a crafty propagandist. Franklin gathered intelligence. which was essentially the country’s first foreign intelligence directorate. Franklin also served on another secret committee that clandestinely obtained and distributed military supplies and sold gunpowder to privateers hired by the Continental Congress. author. He served on a number of committees of the Second Continental Congress. were. statesman and…spy! BENjAMIN FRANKLIN Although most people know of Benjamin Franklin as a prolific inventor.Inventor. During a diplomatic mission to France. To weaken enemy forces. The group employed numerous agents abroad and established a secret Navy for receipt of information and supplies.

policies. The IC must be integrated: a team making the whole greater than the sum of its parts. Moreover. continually learning. and standards affecting the production and dissemination of intelligence. Planning and Direction What Intelligence Can (and Cannot) Do “The United States Intelligence Community must constantly strive for and exhibit three characteristics essential to our effectiveness. the IC must exemplify America’s values: operating under the rule of law. We must also be agile: an enterprise with an adaptive. these general guidelines can help consumers know what to expect from this valuable resource. respectful of human rights. 39 . but it is most useful when the consumer has a clear understanding of its limits.” National Intelligence Strategy 2009 Intelligence can be an extremely powerful tool.Requirements. With the ever-changing laws. diverse. and in a manner that retains the trust of the American people. capabilities. and mission-driven intelligence workforce that embraces innovation and takes initiative. consistent with Americans’ expectations for protection of privacy and civil liberties.

The IC is particularly aware of the importance of ensuring: n n Civil liberties and the privacy of U. Technological limitations of some IC systems. Appropriate conduct of IC personnel and activities. n The need to protect information and intelligence sources and methods may limit the sharing or use of some reports. either as part of routine reporting or upon request. law or the u. and capabilities. Report on specific topics. personnel. Limited access to denied areas. Compile information on persons of interest. Assess long-term strategic issues and alternative futures. The IC’s resources and capabilities are limited by: n 40 .S.s. What Intelligence Cannot Do Predict the Future or know about everything n Intelligence can provide assessments of likely scenarios or developments. Warn of potential threats and opportunities. residents. but it cannot provide predictions of what will happen with absolute certainty.What Intelligence Can Do Intelligence can: n Provide an advantage in dealing with foreign adversaries by supplying information and analysis that can enhance the intelligence consumer’s understanding. n n Numerous priorities competing for finite budget dollars. Inform official travelers of security threats. n n n n n n n n n n The IC must maintain its ability to obtain useful information. violate u. Assist in preparation for international or planning meetings.S.s. Provide insight into the causes and consequences of current events. constitution The activities of the U. IC must be conducted in a manner consistent with all applicable laws and Executive Orders (see a listing of Executive Orders in Tab 8).S. citizens and lawful U. Confidentiality of sources and the identities of IC personnel and protection of privileged information. Enhance situational awareness.

.. State Department Assistant Secretary for European Affairs n n Focused on a single agency mission. special activities. services. acquisition. all-source. Allied governments. Military unified commands. the Treasury. Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism n n Requires coordination of multiple agencies or partners. State.S. Justice. including commercial entities and academia. the customer’s needs also change.Who Uses U. public. 41 . both within and outside the U. tribal and territorial officials. Homeland Security. depending on the specific activity. especially law enforcement and emergency planning and response personnel. The U. In such cases. n n n n Organizational Policy and Decisionmaking. and others. and National Security Staff. The Legislative and Judicial branches for oversight and to inform and protect. level of seniority (e. for IC internal operations. n International organizations.. tailored analysis. grouping customers according to the purpose to which they are applying intelligence (also known as a “segment”) is a more useful categorization. A customer may change segments. e. e.g. and policy support. Defense.S. with the level of intelligence services varying according to the customers’ responsibilities and the specific circumstances.S. Types of customers While intelligence users can easily be grouped by organization (e. particularly the President.g. The segment determines the characteristics that will make an intelligence product or service effective. Finished. For instance customer segments might include the following: n n n National Interagency Action. Government. local. and deployed forces. especially for such activities as treaty monitoring. including the Departments of State. The IC’s customers include the following: n The White House. Vice President. Needs to understand what is important to each colleague. The Intelligence Community itself. Commerce. Executive Branch Departments and Agencies. Department of State). or discipline (such as diplomacy). Energy. Intelligence? The IC serves a wide range of consumers.g.Assistant Secretary).g.

Raw. generally through dissemination of collection reports. the IC interacts with its customers in the following ways: Supports customers’ decisionmaking and operations by: n Informing customers of factual developments. DoD Under Secretary for Acquisition. analysis. Works with customers by: n Apprising customers of ongoing IC operations that might intersect with customers’ operations and by playing a supporting role in customers’ operations. e.. Overall. and interpreting facts in light of extensive knowledge to ultimately evaluate events and trends. aggregating. multiple IC personnel. n Threat Preparedness and Prevention. Raw. security and counterintelligence personnel.g. including analysts.g. and Logistics n n n Long-range planning. and due to the size and wide range of responsibilities of the IC. and managers of intelligence operations. DHS Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection n n Plan to respond to threats or to more fully understand potential threats. Trade Representative n n Is extremely time sensitive and close hold. Widely shareable analysis. Conducting research in response to customers’ specific requests for information. Consulting or collaborating with customers to more fully understand an issue and to provide ongoing expertise. e. many customers work with 42 n . or other resource deployment by specifying n ways to Interact with the Intelligence community IC personnel interact with many customers.n Time sensitivity and need to share vary Negotiation. specific. Harvesting information with intelligence value that customers collect in the course of their normal operations. n n Threat Response and Tactical Deployment. Processing. Planning for future collection. Thorough analysis. e. e.S. The intelligence is often critical to countering an adversary’s capabilities.g... Strategic Resource Deployment and Acquisition. narrow collection reports. U. military forces engaged in combat or a city police force responding to an event n n Operational activities.g. tactical. timely collection reports and analysis. Technology..

and expectations of customers Customers themselves play a vital role in ensuring that IC support meets their needs. often through the agency intelligence office of the customer. responsibilities. Protects customers by: n Identifying. or disrupting efforts aimed against customers by hostile intelligence services. n Expect intelligence support to be a pushand-pull process. 43 . Protecting sensitive data by. n n n Early integration of the IC into a customer’s operations helps the IC deliver better service more quickly. Providing crisis and consequence management support during national security special events and emergencies. customers should: n n State their requests specifically. for example. Training customers in intelligence. including information technology for securing Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI). n n Evaluating the effectiveness of IC support to improve service to customers. providing secure facilities or granting security clearances. graphics. For the best possible assistance. Answers to customers’ questions can be delivered in various formats (for example.and transmitting customers’ requirements and priorities. roles. Good communication between the customer and the IC. deceiving. in briefs. will improve intelligence support. security. exploiting. n Integrate the IC into their operational cycle and processes. Providing secure communications. or simulations) depending on the most expedient and effective way to supply the information. n n The IC should flag emerging issues as well as answer customers’ questions as they arise. and special technologies. papers.

n The customer should specify their current understanding of an issue or problem. and Evaluation (IPPBE) system. n Share their timeline. n n n Provide feedback on the utility of IC products and services. Budgeting. Intelligence Planning. to support a meeting. n n Customer feedback helps the IC to refine its approach. the IC has no monopoly. Budgeting: The budgeting and execution activities are addressed in IPPBE in a manner consistent with the policy principles of Intelligence Community Directive n n n Share what they know. This system is employed to effectively shape intelligence capabilities through the development of the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and budget in a manner consistent with the National Intelligence Strategy (NIS). n n National security information is everywhere. and budgeting that are linked by the ongoing evaluation phase. 44 . Shared information can inform opportunity analysis. an event. Programming. programming. The customer should specify exactly what they need to know. n Customers should specify the factor or factors that are influencing the timeline so that the intelligence effort can be scoped and scaled accordingly. Programming. The IPPBE process comprises the interdependent phases of planning. or decisionmaking). Budgeting. or options under consideration. The customer should specify the context of the request (for example. Programming: The programming phase provides options to frame DNI resource decisions through analyses of alternatives and studies that assess cost-versus-performance benefits. communicate the intended direction of policy or operational endeavors. Customers should understand that declassification or downgrading of information takes some time to complete. Each phase is informed and guided by the products and decisions of each of the other phases: n Planning: The planning phase identifies Director of National Intelligence (DNI) strategic priorities and major issues to be addressed in the programming phase. and Evaluation The Assistant Director of National Intelligence for Systems and Resource Analyses (ADNI/ SRA) manages the integration and synchronization of the Intelligence Planning.

and repeatable end-to-end process to collect and prioritize critical intelligence requirements within the context of the strategic objectives of the DNI and the IC. and investments in implementing DNI guidance in the context of original objectives. and human interfaces. outcomes.(ICD) 104. activities. shortfalls. IC S&T monitors commercial products and looks for ways to adapt them to the specific operational and security requirements of IC operations. several dozen Major System Acquisitions (MSAs) are underway at agencies throughout the IC. including scientists. transparent. measures of effectiveness. MSAs are usually either Platform and Payload systems. or information technology (IT) systems. which are produced in small numbers and deployed to address a specific intelligence problem. Intelligence community science and Technology Many IC elements conduct science and technology (S&T) research in their own laboratories. They manage the significant systems engineering effort that is required to reliably deliver MSA capabilities. the IPPBE framework supports the DNI’s participation in the development of the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). The IPPBE system ensures a predictable. In addition. engineers. benefits. and almost all IC elements sponsor research conducted by universities. IC S&T leads the world in some areas of research specific to IC missions and works with industry to develop other new technologies that have limited commercial applications. may result in a capability within an MSA. Rather than invest research in technologies that industry develops for consumers. IC S&T also conducts basic research into areas such as cryptology and computer science. or may generate specialty applications. Each MSA is run by an IC agency team of highly skilled professionals. Acquisition/Science and Technology: Delivering Technical Capabilities major system acquisitions At any given time. metrics. IC S&T research can lead directly to IT products. MSAs cost hundreds of millions or billions of dollars. with the goal of producing and implementing an annual. and deliver. which generate no physical products but are essential to intelligence work. n Evaluation: The evaluation phase assesses the effectiveness of IC programs. major initiatives. including infrastructure (hardware and plat- 45 . consolidated NIP budget. or Department of Energy (DOE) national labs. applications (automated processes and user tools). forms). relatively low-cost technologies such as miniaturized tracking or collection devices. such as satellites and surveillance ships. technicians. and they typically take years to develop. build. and mathematicians. and costs. industry.

and the DNI Deputy Director for Intelligence Integration (DDII) Requirements Process.processes are used within the IC—the Intelligence Community Capability Requirements (ICCR) process. Facilities Facilities also provide an essential platform for intelligence technologies. agile. validating. assessing. from office buildings to ground stations to data centers. The objectives of the ICCE process staff are as follows: n To ensure that the requirements for all NIP-funded MSA programs are validated by the Deputy Executive Committee (DEXCOM) Intelligence Resources Board (IRB). Iccr Process The ICCR process applies to all MSA programs of special interest as designed by the DNI or the Deputy DNI for Acquisition and Technology (DDNI/A&T) that are funded in whole or in large part by the NIP. n Intelligence Community Requirements Processes The established IC requirements processes are the primary means for developing. and approving capability requirements for NIP capabilities that are mission relevant and fiscally sound. Procurement and contracting All IC agencies have offices that manage the contracts through which the agencies purchase mass-produced technologies and manage the resources and logistics necessary to support the deployment of those technologies into operations. To work with the Joint Staff/J8 via a “gatekeeper” process on coordinating NIP. To provide and maintain a documented.and MIP-funded programs. documenting. and to work with IC stakeholders via the Capability Requirements Working Group (CRWG). which is used largely for MSAs. and transparent process for soliciting and approving capabilitybased requirements that leads to achievable system developments or non-material solutions with a positive mission impact for the IC. Two complementary requirements 46 n .

The DDII Requirements Process will be executed to coincide with major budget milestones and schedules to ensure that requirements are on track with funding cycles. scheduling. exploration. or equivalent level to accomplish the collection mission. The process also allows for the consideration of all mission-based requirements proposed by all stakeholders across the IC. prioritized. tasking or coordinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies.g. including both requirements to be funded and requirement on the Prioritized Unfunded Requirements List. and re-tasking. The process also creates output to be used for other DNI processes (e. and reporting resources. and recommendation of funding strategies. lower. and to evaluate. monitoring the results. processing. n 47 . or reporting requirements that typically result in either the direct tasking of assets over which the collection manager has authority. The DDII Requirements Process enables ODNI senior leaders to have a single. Collections Management Overview Collection management is the process of converting intelligence requirements into collection requirements (see the Glossary of Terms for a definition of “collection”).. or the generation of tasking requests that are sent to collection management authorities at a higher.ddII requirements Process The DDII Requirements Process applies to those programs that do not meet the MSA or special interest threshold. chief information officer [CIO]. establishing priorities. The major steps in the process are analysis and assessment. exploitation. and control of specific collection operations and associated processing. approved intelligence requirements list is then used for NIP funding purposes. Collection management is divided into two business areas: n Collection Requirements Management (CRM): CRM is the authoritative development and control of collection. The single. prioritization. SRA. The process includes the maintenance of the baseline and requirements. validation. mission-based. Collection Operations Management (COM): COM is the authoritative direction. chief financial officer [CFO]). validated. as required. The process involves interacting with the requesting stakeholders and mission experts and uses a common set of prioritization criteria to establish the validity of requirements. review. prioritized list of mission-based requirements. and report on the status of requirements until their completion.

researching intelligence systems. The entire process involves tracking a request from the time of its receipt. The collection management process is a staff activity focused on decisionmaking and choices concerning collection request (CRs) and requests for information (RFIs) from numerous sources. Collection operations personnel. the RM and staff are their own best resources for assessing CRM performance. execution of collections operations. A collection manager can be either a requirements expert or an operations expert. Because CRM is essentially a support function for expediting information collection and dissemination. in part. overall assessment of the unit’s organic and non-organic reconnaissance and surveillance support. COM relies heavily on supporting organizations that own and operate collection and exploitation assets. COM involves several tasks. selection of sources and selection of disciplines. . The availability and capability of collection assets and resources are determined. The COM process is an intelligence staff function that is based on collection tasking and mission guidance developed in support of information requirements. and assessment of the efficiency of tasking assets and resources. confirming fulfillment of the requestor’s information need. In addition. logged. validating collection requirements. tasking the necessary collectors. This data helps the 48 RMs to perform a more complete analysis of an information request. The CRM process begins when requests are identified. collection coordination supports the development of a collection strategy. coordination with an all-source production facility can facilitate the assessment task. A collection manager’s duties include receiving CRs. CRM is what gets done in the collection cycle. by the exchange of timely data among the operational mission planners and asset managers who update intelligence. validating the request. scheduling. while COM is how it gets done. and exploitation and dissemination of collection results. and tracking requirements through the collection cycle to determine stakeholders’ satisfaction with the outcomes of the requirements. and updating the collection plan.Essentially. determine the most effective collection system(s) to fulfill the request. The collection manager is the individual who orchestrates and manages the analysts’ needs throughout the collection cycle. and initially processed. including planning. developing collection requests into collection requirements. and the control of collections operations. including a coverage plan. and perform a thorough. who typically are intelligence operations staff members. developing collection strategies or plans. Nevertheless.

weather. The 49 . Exploitation of collected information at the tactical level is closely associated with management of collection assets and resources. The asset manager who is responsible for executing the collection operation also controls the operation of the exploitation element. threats. sensor and target range. Prioritizing Intelligence Issues: The National Intelligence Priorities Framework The National Intelligence Priorities Framework (NIPF) is the DNI’s guidance to the IC on the national intelligence priorities approved by the President. and control of collection operations. such as available assets. Requirements are translated into collection-mission tasking orders. who is responsible for execution of the orders. which are directed to the asset manager. and personnel to perform the assigned mission based on such considerations as maintenance schedules. including the integration of specific reconnaissance requirements. while the asset manager provides data related to operational constraints and timeliness of operations. and analysis equipment. The operational staff with collection capabilities also controls sensor-specific processing. The NIPF is the DNI’s sole mechanism for establishing national intelligence priorities. and reporting requirements and adjusts the collection plan to reflect the plan of operations. and experience. system timelines. The operations planner provides availability and asset location information. exploitation is as much a part of the COM function as are mission planning and asset management. platform. As such.are responsible for detailed planning. The asset manager chooses the equipment. The operations planner reviews mission requirements. training. exploitation. scheduling. tasking.

and they report to the DNI on their coverage of NIPF priorities. A process for prioritizing foreign countries and non-state actors that are relevant to the approved intelligence topics. The ODNI and IC elements use the NIPF to guide allocation of collection and analytic resources. A priorities matrix that reflects consumers’ priorities for intelligence support and that ensures that long-term intelligence issues are addressed. IC elements associate intelligence collection requirements and analytic production with NIPF priorities. Ad hoc adjustments may also be made to reflect changes in world events and policy priorities. Council.NIPF consists of: n Intelligence topics reviewed by the National Security Council Principals Committee and approved by the President. In addition. and other internal components of the ODNI. n n The NIPF is updated semiannually in coordination with IC elements. the National Intelligence 50 .

COLLECTION. and Exploitation . PROCESSING. AND EXPLOITATION Collection. Processing.

The tactical intelligence Tubman provided to Union forces. When Tubman died in 1913. including identification of enemy supply areas and weaknesses in Confederate troop deployments.Harriet Tubman is best known for helping slaves to escape to safety through the secret network of the 1800s known as the Underground Railroad. she was honored with a full military funeral in recognition of her intelligence activities during the war. a Union officer commanding the Second South Carolina Volunteers. Courtesy of CIA TUBMAN’s TRIUMPHs Disguised as a field hand or poor farm wife. Tubman was tapped by Union officials to organize and lead spying expeditions behind Confederate enemy lines. She reported her intelligence to Col. a black unit involved in guerrilla warfare activities. however. . James Montgomery. was used effectively in military operations. Her involvement in intelligence collection during the Civil War. After her last secret rescue mission in 1860. she led several missions while directing others from Union lines. also is well documented.

that pertains. Processing. its people. and Exploitation Sources of Intelligence “National Intelligence and the term ‘intelligence related to national security’ refer to all intelligence. or any other matter bearing on United States national or homeland security. the development. 2004 MASINT Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT) is intelligence produced through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the physical attributes of targets and events to characterize and identify those targets and events. to more than one United States Government agency.” United States Congress. or interests. property.Collection. or use of weapons of mass destruction. proliferation. as determined consistent with any guidance issued by the President. HUMINT Human Intelligence (HUMINT) is the collection of information—either orally or via documentation—that is provided directly by a human source. Section 1012. Public Law 108-458. regardless of the source from which derived and including information gathered within or outside the United States. and that involves threats to the United States. December 17. It is the only type of intelligence for which collectors speak directly to the sources 53 . Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.

the collector meets openly with sources as a declared U. but the leak of a source’s informa- tion may immediately eliminate access to that source. The recruitment of a clandestine human source can take months or years. initiate and discreetly develop a relationship with that prospective source. diplomatic reports from embassies on host-country officials’ stated reactions to U. GEOINT Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) is the exploitation and analysis of imagery. imagery intelligence (IMINT) (see the Glossary of Terms). OSINT draws from a wide variety of information and sources. to unit-specific information collected on the battlefield. and geospatial information to describe. and law enforcement reports on criminal activities. control the topic of discussion.S. such as drug trafficking. A clandestine collector must locate a person with access to desired information. for example. and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the earth. After the source is recruited. A source may or may not be told of his interlocutor’s U. and ultimately convince the source to divulge secrets. Clandestine collection is conducted in secret.S. OSINT Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) is intelligence produced from publicly available information that is collected. The types of HUMINT range from high-level. policy initiatives. Human sources can obtain access to information that is not obtainable any other way. including the following: 54 . In overt collection. As stated HUMINT may also be acquired overtly or clandestinely. including debriefings of persons who have travelled to countries of national interest. Overt collection comprises many forms of information collection. and direct the source’s activities. contact is usually strictly controlled in an effort to elude discovery. Government affiliation. national security information. Government representative. strategic.S. and disseminated in a timely manner to an appropriate audience for the purpose of addressing a specific intelligence requirement. assess. exploited.of information.

discussion papers. The availability of n worldwide satellite photography. market surveys. aerospace. FISINT is information derived from the interception of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-U. and video data links. and subsurface systems including. official data. socioeconomic.. radio. and analyzing the meaning of communications. hearings. environmental impact statements. economic reports. proceedings. Observation and Reporting: Information of significance. amateur airplane spotters. preprints. speeches. establishing links between intercommunicating parties or groups. and required financial disclosures.S. Electronic Intelligence (ELINT).g. often in high resolution. such as data on budgets and demographics. and other computer-based information. SIGINT Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence gathered from data transmissions. studies. legislative debates. Gray Literature (or Grey Literature): Opensource material that usually is available through controlled access for a specific audience. and military disciplines. and newsletters. and Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence (FISINT). n COMINT is intelligence derived from tracking communications patterns and protocols (traffic analysis). trade literature. research reports. SIGINT includes both raw data and the analysis of that data to produce intelligence. for example. surface. television. directories. dissertations and theses. marine and aeronautical safety warnings. Google Earth) has expanded the public’s ability to acquire information formerly available only to major intelligence services. beaconry. but is not limited to. organizational charts. working papers. technical reports. magazines. ELINT is information derived primarily from electronic signals that do not contain n n n n 55 . press conferences. radio monitors. political. unofficial government documents. electronic interrogators. telemetry. but not limited to. including Communications Intelligence (COMINT).n Mass Media: Newspapers. Gray literature may include. The material in gray literature covers scientific. travel reports. on the Web (e. that is provided by. contract awards. not otherwise available. and satellite observers. Public Data: Information derived from government reports. and other public sources.

Processing and Exploitation A substantial portion of U. but not limited to.speech or text (which are considered to be COMINT). 56 . Various activities fall under the category of processing and exploitation including. decoding messages. The most common sources of ELINT are radar signals. and converting HUMINT-based reports into more comprehensible content. storage. preparing information for computer processing. and retrieval. interpreting imagery. intelligence resources is devoted to processing and exploitation—the synthesis of raw data into material that is usable by the intelligence analyst—and to securing the telecommunications networks that carry these data. converting telemetry into meaningful measurements.S. translating foreign-language broadcasts.

Analysis. Production. PRODUCTION. and Feedback ANALYSIS. AND FEEDBACK .

Julia Child’s contributions to her country are well remembered and appreciated by the OSS family. She joined the OSS Emergency Sea Rescue Equipment Section. jULIA CHILD: LIFE BEFORE FRENCH CUIsINE Julia then met and married Paul Child.S. two days before her 92nd birthday. She also served as Chief of the OSS Registry. she enjoyed a dynamic career as an intelligence officer. Information Agency in Paris. She died in 2004. where Julia embarked on her legendary culinary career. Julia volunteered for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). During WWII. working directly for General William J.Julia Child is widely credited with bringing French cuisine into the American mainstream. where she helped to develop a repellent to keep sharks from setting off explosives before they reached their target. Donovan. the forerunner of today’s Central Intelligence Agency. She started out in the Washington.C. the head of the OSS. an OSS officer assigned to the U. But long before she gained fame as a cookbook writer and TV personality. Courtesy of CIA . headquarters.. D. processing highly classified communications. Julia wanted to serve her country. Too tall to join the military (she was 6’2”).

The analyst also develops requirements for the collection of new information. processing. Estimative Language When the Intelligence Community uses words such as “we judge” or “we assess” (phrases that are used synonymously) and “we estimate. In either case. and forwarding systems. and then forecast future trends or outcomes. test it against other information and against their personal knowledge and expertise.Analysis. Analysts rarely work alone. Analysts receive incoming information. others are based on assessments that serve as building blocks. Statements that address the subject of likelihood are intended to reflect the IC’s collective estimate of the probability of a development or an event occurring. 59 .” the IC is conveying an analytical assessment or judgment. and Feeback Analysis and Production Intelligence analysts are generally assigned to a particular geographic or functional specialty area. Some analytical judgments are based directly on collected information. proof. or absolute knowledge. Such statements often are based on incomplete or fragmented information and are not to be regarded as statements of fact. they operate within a system that includes peer review and oversight by more senior analysts.” “likely” or “indicate. produce an assessment of the current status of a particular area under analysis. evaluate it. Analysts may tap into these systems to obtain answers to specific questions or to generate information they may need. Production. the IC does not have “evidence” that shows something to be factual or that definitely establishes a relationship between two items. Analysts obtain information from all sources pertinent to their area of responsibility through information collection.

also referred to as secondphase reporting. or that the information is credible and plausible but it is not sufficiently corroborated to warrant a higher level of confidence. n A high confidence level generally indicates that the IC’s judgment is based on highquality information or that the circumstances of the analysis enable the IC to render a solid judgment. Second-phase reports are much more thorough than current intelligence/ n 60 . the intelligence used in trend analysis is compared with intelligence from other sources and vetted through experts within the IC. The IC also refers to “high.The IC’s use of the term “unlikely” is not intended to imply that an event definitely will not happen.” “we cannot rule out. A trend analysis report on an event includes an assessment of whether the relevant intelligence on the event is reliable. It details new developments and background information related to those developments to assess their significance. Words such as “may be” and “suggest” are used when the IC is unable to fully assess the likelihood of an event because relevant information is nonexistent. By comparison. warn of their near-term consequences. information on similar events. Typically.” and “we cannot discount” to refer to an unlikely event whose consequences are serious enough that it warrants mentioning. fragmented. questionable.” “moderate. or that solid analytical conclusions cannot be inferred from the information. Trend analysis Trend analysis. or that the IC has significant concerns or problems with the information sources.” or “low” confidence levels that reflect the scope and quality of the information supporting its judgments. n A low confidence level generally indicates that the information used in the analysis is scant. the words “probably” and “likely” indicate that a greater-than-even chance exists of a particular event occurring. and background information to familiarize the reader with the issue. or fragmented. and signal potentially dangerous situations in the near future. A moderate confidence level generally indicates that the information being used in the analysis may be interpreted in various ways. sketchy. provides information on an event or series of events. Analytic Products current Intelligence Current intelligence addresses day-to-day events. or that the IC has alternative viewpoints on the significance or meaning of the information. The IC uses such phrases as “we cannot dismiss.

Classification may be applied only to information that is owned by. engagement of U.O.S. Long-term assessment reports. including weapon systems and subsystems. Warning intelligence includes the identification or forecasting of events. This type of intelligence conveys a sense of urgency and implies a possible need to respond with policy action.S. military forces or that would have a sudden and detrimental effect on U. and capabilities of foreign technologies. classifies information (that is not Unclassified) as Confidential.first-phase reports and may require weeks or months to produce. scientific and Technical Intelligence Scientific and technical Intelligence includes an examination of the technical development. third-party wars. citizens. or Top Secret. which can take months to produce. or some other topic. long-Term assessment Long-term assessment is also known as thirdphase reporting. It addresses developments within a broad-based context. estimative intelligence helps policymakers to think more strategically about long-term threats. research Intelligence Research intelligence includes research studies that support both current and estimative intelligence.4 of E. performance. or is under the control of the U. or refugee situations. characteristics.S. or provides comprehensive.S. technologies. 13526 discusses classification techniques. assesses future trends and developments. in accordance with Executive Order (EO) 13526. weapon systems. Government. and integrated operations.S. The IC. that would warrant the . produced by or for. By addressing the implications of a range of possible outcomes and alternative scenarios. Section 1. a particular system. interactions with foreign nations. foreign policy concerns. homeland security. Warning analysis involves the exploration of alternative futures and low-probability/high-impact scenarios. such as coups. and U. estimative Intelligence Estimative intelligence uses future scenarios and projections of possible future events to assess potential developments that could affect U.S. 61 warning Intelligence Warning intelligence “sounds an alarm” for policymakers. This category of intelligence covers a spectrum of scientific disciplines. may be coordinated with experts from across the IC and may include projections of future developments. detailed analysis of an ongoing issue. Classification Certain information must be kept in confidence to protect U. Secret. national security. institutions.

the classification may be changed. organization. No information may remain classified indefinitely. Secret: Unauthorized disclosure of the information could be expected to cause serious damage to the national security. a person may have access to classified information provided that: n A favorable determination of eligibility for access has been made by an agency head or the agency head’s designee (i. Upon review. When that date is reached or when the event occurs. or specific portions of the classified information may be reclassified.e. most 62 .. access to classified Information As stated in EO 13526. Prevent embarrassment to a person. the original classification may be extended for up to 25 additional years. or up to 25 years from the date of classification. the person has been granted an appropriate security clearance). Restrain competition. the original classification authority must establish a specific date or event for declassification. n n Basic scientific research information not clearly related to the national security may not be classified. or administrative error. the information is automatically declassified. n n n n Conceal violations of law. At the time that material is classified. Confidential: Unauthorized disclosure of the information could be expected to cause damage to the national security. declassification must be marked for 10 years from the date of classification. or Prevent or delay the release of information that does not require protection in the interest of the national security. Information may not be classified or be maintained as classified information in order to: n n Review and Release Due to the need to protect the identity of information sources and due to the potential implications of the results of IC analysis. depending on the circumstances. inefficiency. Unless an earlier date or event can be specified. and The person has a need-to-know the information. or agency. The person has signed an approved nondisclosure agreement. classification levels are defined as follows: n Top Secret: Unauthorized disclosure of the information could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security.In EO 13526.

S. are protected from public disclosure by one of the nine exemptions allowed under FOIA. a foreign official. provides that any person has the right to obtain access to federal agency records. except to the extent that those records. Section 552. General guidelines for the release of intelligence include the following: n Some intelligence can be shared through foreign disclosure. a state police agency. of information and utility of intelligence products. n n n n The sensitivity and vulnerability of the information source or method. or portions of them. n n The intended audience has an impact on the decision. and some through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) (5 U. The identification of the information source is often the most sensitive information in a report. The effect on external relationships. n Less specific language and attributes are more likely to be approved for release.S. a foreign liaison service. particularly when they are interacting with individuals outside the U. 5 U. Classification of intelligence reports can limit the customer’s ability to use them.C. In recognition of the importance of making intelligence useful to its customers. some through discretionary release by the IC. The IC is working to maximize discoverability. The uniqueness or traceability of the information source. n Specific wording may determine whether the information is releasable. 63 n The originators of the information will consider many factors. by the by the IC and USG. n Is the intelligence being released to a federal department.C. Some categories are handled collaboratively with the requestor. while others are handled strictly through internal IC processes. n n Different categories of review and release requests are handled differently.intelligence reports are classified. as amended. the IC has established procedures to allow for appropriate release of intelligence. including: n The impact of release of the information.” The IC complies with the FOIA as written. Government. or to the public or news media? n “Publicly Available” does not necessarily mean “Officially Acknowledged.S. Section 552) with redactions. .

64 .n The IC classifies and declassifies national security information in accordance with EO 13526. Information shall not be considered for classification unless its unauthorized disclosure could reasonably be expected to cause identifiable or describable damage to the national security.

Organizational Oversight ORGANIZATIONAL OVERSIGHT .

and other symbols around the edge of each disk.Courtesy of NSA The cipher disk is a deceptively simple cryptographic tool invented around 1470 by an Italian architect. or the setting may be changed with every letter of the message to create an extremely secure cipher. The two disks may be left in the same setting to create an entire message. The cipher disk first came into large-scale use in the United States during the Civil War. The appeal of the cipher disk lies in the fact that messages can be enciphered and deciphered without the need for bulky or compromising written materials. the U. It consists of two concentric disks marked with letters. About a half-century later. which used both a standard and a “reversestandard” alphabet. which is mounted on the stationary larger disk. thereby producing the simplest possible cryptogram.S. Army adopted a version of the device. THE CIPHER DIsK . the basic concept of the cipher disk remains much the same. Although the tool has been “re-invented” a number of times over the centuries. can be moved to create a cryptographic key. The smaller disk. numbers.

and directives established or developed by the DNI.Organizational Oversight Oversight Joint Intelligence Community Council The National Security Act of 1947. and the Deputy DNI for Intelligence Integration. policies. and priorities and ensuring the IC’s capability to fulfill its mission. Executive Committee For more routine management and governance of the IC. Secretary of Defense. establishes the Joint Intelligence Community Council (JICC). Attorney General. and ensures the timely execution of programs. the Joint Chiefs of Staff Director for Intelligence (J-2). developing budgets. Secretary of the Treasury. the IC Deputy 67 . Secretary of Energy. the Principal Deputy DNI. The EXCOM’s role is to advise and support the DNI in the leadership. The JICC is the most senior executive body for managing the IC. objectives. which consists of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) (chair). assists the DNI in monitoring and evaluating the performance of the Intelligence Community (IC). U. including advising the DNI on IC policies. governance. The JICC typically meets semiannually. the DNI has established the IC Executive Committee (EXCOM). The JICC advises the DNI on establishing requirements. Secretary of State. as amended. and managing financial matters. and management of the IC. and Secretary of Homeland Security. Deputy Executive Committee Issues that the EXCOM addresses are often handled by its subordinate body.S. which is chaired by the DNI and composed of the heads of all 17 IC members plus the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence.

The Appropriations Committees. the Deputy Director of Intelligence of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Senate established the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI). House of Representatives and U. by creating the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI). although those operations were typically discrete and hidden from the public eye.S. the U. The 1980 Intelligence Oversight Act set forth the current oversight structure by establishing the SSCI and HPSCI as oversight committees for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 1977.Executive Committee (DEXCOM). the Armed Services Committees and Appropriations Committees of the U. On May 19. these committees are responsible for producing Intelligence Authorization bills. and the Deputy DNI for Intelligence Integration.S. Senate have exercised responsibility for oversight of national intelligence activities. which proscribe certain activities of the IC. The SSCI also provides advice and consent on the nominations of certain presidentially appointed intelligence officials. Legislative Oversight The U. House of Representatives followed suit on July 14.S. which is chaired by the Principal Deputy DNI and is composed of the deputy heads of the 17 intelligence organizations plus the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. These committees. 1976. Congress has long overseen national intelligence activities. along with the Armed Services and the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Committees. The U.S. Congress.S. From the 1940s on. given their constitutional role to appropriate funds for all 68 .S. were charged with authorizing the programs of the intelligence organizations and overseeing their activities. Within the U.

counterintelligence. Its regular attendees (both statutory and nonstatutory) include the Vice President.S. The NSC also serves as the President’s principal arm for coordinating foreign policy matters among various government organizations. national security policy. Specifically. Secretary of State. also exercise oversight of intelligence activities. Other Congressional committees interact with the IC as needed. The NSC drafts. and approves National Security Presidential Directives (NSPDs). The Chief of Staff to the President. These committees routinely conduct hearings on budgetary and other oversight matters. advisor to the NSC. and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor to the NSC. Because the PIAB is independent of the IC and free from any day-to-day IC management or operational responsibilities. National Security Council The National Security Council (NSC) was established by the National Security Act of 1947. intelligence analysis and estimates. and other intelligence activities. The NSC is chaired by the President. Secretary of the Treasury. Secretary of Defense. notifications. Government activities. the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees for defense produce annual appropriations for national and military intelligence activities via the Defense Appropriations Act. which are instruments for communicating Presidential decisions about U. These authorization and appropriations committees are the principal Congressional recipients of IC products. Other senior officials are invited to attend meetings of the NSC as appropriate. and Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting.U. and Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. and reprogramming requests. Counsel to the President. The PIAB provides advice to the President concerning the quality and adequacy of intelligence collection. President’s Intelligence Advisory Board The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB) and Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB) are tasked with providing the President with an independent source of advice on the effectiveness of the IC in meeting the nation’s intelligence needs and the vigor and insight of the IC plans for the future. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military 69 .S. briefings. coordinates. it is able to objectively render opinions on the sorts of intelligence that will best serve the country and the organizational structure most likely to achieve IC goals. The NSC is the President’s forum for discussion and examination of national security and foreign policy matters with the President’s senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.

The MIP funds the specific intelligence needs of the Department of Defense and tactical forces. fraud. The IOB also informs the President of intelligence activities that it believes should be reported to the President immediately. economy. The MIP is controlled by the Secretary of Defense. chairs the IC Inspectors General Forum. and to promote integrity. efficiency. inspections. The Inspector General for the IC accepts and processes notifications from IC employees or contractors who are intending to report an urgent concern to the U. or the head of a department concerned. mismanagement. a committee of the PIAB. The Inspector General for the IC leads the OIG. the DNI. gross waste of funds. and misconduct. informs the President of intelligence activities that it believes may be unlawful or contrary to an Executive Order (EO) or presidential directive and that are not being adequately addressed by the Attorney General.The IOB. The PIAB may consist of up to 16 individuals who are not full-time employees of the U. violation of laws.S. Previously. and effectiveness in the IC. The Board has been known as the PIAB since 2008 when the President signed EO 13462. Office of the Inspector General The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) conducts independent investigations. audits. Financial Management and Oversight The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA) provides the DNI with a significant amount of authority over the IC’s budget development and ensuring the effective execution of that budget. receives and investigates allegations of IC activities constituting a 70 . provides the resources needed to develop and maintain intelligence capabilities that support national priorities. it was known as the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) under EO 12863. Government. formerly known as the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP). The Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities program were combined in 2005 to form the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). and the DNI participates in the development of the MIP. a predecessor Executive Order. abuse of authority. and special reviews of IC programs and activities that are the responsibility of and under the authority of the DNI to detect and deter waste. abuse. or a substantial and specific danger to the public health and safety. The National Intelligence Program (NIP). rules. or regulations. Congress.S.

persons. and measuring performance against the five-year IC EEO and Diversity Strategic Plan and overseeing and setting IC-wide policy guidance for the development and implementation of IC agency and component plans linked to that strategy. The office also advises ODNI and IC senior leaders on highly sensitive.Resolution activities. confidential personnel concerns and matters. including managing the EEO complaints process. reasonable accommodations. and equal opportunity across the IC. and investigates complaints and information indicating possible abuses of civil liberties and privacy in the administration of programs or in the operations of the ODNI. and privacy rights guaranteed to all U. IC EEOD is also responsible for providing EEO and diversity services to the ODNI workforce. The CLPO also reviews.S. and behavior interventions. public and continually demonstrate that it is worthy of that trust. workplace climate. Through a framework of laws. Alternative Dispute The Civil Liberties and Privacy Office (CLPO) is responsible for ensuring that civil liberties and privacy protections are appropriately incorporated into the policies and procedures of the IC. the CLPO works within the entire IC to maintain the public’s trust by safeguarding the freedoms. To effectively use the tools and information that are needed for national safety and security. implementing. Aggrieved persons who believe they have been discriminated against must contact an agency EEO counselor prior to filing a formal complaint. inclusion. 71 . Civil Liberties and Privacy Office Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity IC EEOD serves as the principal advisor to the DNI and IC senior leaders on issues that impact diversity. assesses. and oversight and compliance mechanisms.S. In addition to its IC-wide responsibilities. policies. the IC must have the trust of the U. The Office is responsible for developing. civil liberties. The person must initiate counselor contact within 45 days of the matter alleged to be discriminatory.

Careers in the Intelligence Community CAREERS IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY .

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. and schools based on imagery from commercial and U. the agency provided scores of graphics depicting the locations of major airports. hazardous materials.S. James R. hospitals. on-site support. police and fire stations. emergency operations centers. NGA forward-deployed more than two dozen analysts and two Mission Integrated Geospatial-Intelligence Systems (MIGS) to the affected areas to provide timely. highways.HURRICANE AssIsTANCE During the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. 2005. Government satellites and American military airborne platforms. The NGA’s assistance to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts began before the first waves hit the Louisiana shore on August 29. Courtesy of NGA . the most destructive hurricane season on record. called the best work by an intelligence agency that he had seen in his 42 years in the intelligence business. which struck the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana in September 2005. the National Geospatial-Intelligence agency responded with what then NGA director. Clapper. For first responders and relief organizations.

There are multiple pathways into the IC. An essential component of intelligence is an understanding of people and cultures that differ from those of the United States and knowledge of other areas around the world.gov/cae). and other critical skills and experience. Diverse work environments and corporate cultures with all members of the IC working toward a common goal. as the following graphic indicates. A diverse workforce is critical to the IC’s success. dni. Intelligence Community offers the following benefits to personnel within the IC and to individuals considering a career within the IC: n A profession with a meaningful connection to protecting the United States and its citizens.Careers in the Intelligence Community THE BENEFITS OF WORKING IN THE IC The U. Hiring incentives and special pay scales are also available for those with certain foreign language skills.org/BPTW/rankings/). Another key pathway is the Intelligence Community Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) Program (www. 75 n n The IC has been repeatedly recognized as one of the “Best Places to Work in the Federal Government” in an independent analysis sponsored by the Partnership for Public Service and the American University Institute for the Study . As such. Work opportunities in almost every professional field imaginable. the IC seeks individuals of all ages and ethnic backgrounds with diverse skills and educational experiences to fill positions across the IC. of Public Policy Implementation (http://bestplacestowork. cultural expertise.S.

programs. develop new 76 intelligence technologies. must be successfully completed for all job applicants prior to their being hired into the IC. The 17 agencies that form the IC include staffed offices in all 50 states and around the world. visit www.Scholarships C MILIT AR Y E EG LL O Scholarships & Financial Aid Co-op Education Programs Part Time Internships Fellowships ROTC Programs Highly Quali ed Experts PR IVAT E S E C T O R Career Changers Another pathway to a career with the IC is the IC Wounded Warrior program. Wounded Warriors. To find out more about IC careers and employment opportunities. design software and hardware.intelligence. are recruited through IC-wide internship fairs and other IC Agency-based initiatives.S. write reports for the President. Some positions may also require medical and psychological examination and a polygraph interview. translate foreign-language documents. and processes. .gov. The IC is an Equal Opportunity Employer and is fully compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act. gov/woundedwarrior for more information on the program. U. and perform many more important activities. The men and women in these offices collect and analyze information. An extensive background investigation. manage the IC’s people. many of whom already possess the skills and experience that the IC seeks. citizenship is required for employment with the IC. Wounded Warriors may obtain internships across the IC that lead to full-time employment and an opportunity to serve Agencies that will benefit from their discipline and experience. See www.intelligence. which includes drug screening.

References REFERENCES .

It flew for 74 minutes at 90.2 and a peak speed of Mach 3. but it was soon vulnerable to Soviet air defenses—a problem demonstrated when the U-2 flown by Francis Gary Powers was downed by a surface-to-air missile. and one is at CIA Headquarters. The CIA successfully deployed the A-12 to Asia.On November 20.000 feet at a sustained speed of Mach 3. Lockheed Corporation’s advanced design facility. the Central Intelligence Agency completed flight testing on the A-12.29. But by the time the A-12 went into production. Courtesy of CIA CODE NAME “OXCART”: THE sUPERsONIC A-12 . Soviet air defenses had advanced enough that even an aircraft flying faster than a bullet at the edge of space would be vulnerable. The A-12 program (code named “Oxcart”) was a successor to the U-2. the fastest and highest-flying jet aircraft yet to be built. the CIA’s first high-altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft. Eight deactivated A-12s are on display at museums around the United States. The U-2 was built to fly deep inside the Soviet Union.” submitted a design for a new reconnaissance aircraft that would fly too high and too fast to be intercepted by the Soviets. where it flew 29 missions in 1967 and 1968. 1965. nicknamed the “Skunk Works.

(2) Intelligence and information with sufficient specificity and detail that explicit responses based on that information can be implemented. or actions dealing with such matters as international terrorism or narcotics. support of U. negotiating teams. OSINT. analysis: The process by which information is transformed into intelligence. in the interest of national security.” which includes CONFIDENTIAL. or permission to approach. C classification: The determination. actionable information may address strategic or tactical needs. make judgments. HUMINT. or use a resource. ability. and TOP SECRET classification levels. coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. actionable: (1) Information that is directly useful to customers for immediate exploitation without requiring the full intelligence production process. enter. and recording and storing of information— typically from an original source and using both human and technological means—for input into the 79 . collection: The identification. all-source Intelligence: Intelligence information derived from several or all of the intelligence disciplines. a systematic examination of information to identify significant facts. and GEOINT. and draw conclusions. the designation is typically called a “security classification.S. including SIGINT. MASINT. SECRET. location.References Glossary of Terms A access: The means. that official information requires a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure.

or military conditions abroad.” exchanged between intelligence targets or transmitted by a known or suspected intelligence target for the purpose of tracking communications patterns and protocols (traffic analysis). (2) Information obtained for intelligence purposes from the interception of electromagnetic non-communications transmissions by other than the intended recipient. traditional diplomatic or military activities. communications Intelligence (cOmInT): The capture of information. sabotage. where it is intended that the role of teh United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledges publicly. D E deployment: The short-term assignment of personnel to address specific problems or demands related to national security. or persons or their agents. other intelligence activities. The most common sources of this type of information are radar signals. traditional counterintelligence activities. 80 covert action/Operation: Activity or activities of the United States Government to influence political. disrupt. either encrypted or in “plaintext. and strategies adopted to prevent or respond to terrorist threats or acts. or analysis of the substantive meaning of the communication. ELINT is a sub-discipline of SIGINT. COMINT is a sub-discipline of SIGINT. could be expected to cause damage to national security.Intelligence Cycle for the purpose of meeting a defined tactical or strategic intelligence goal. exploitation: The process of obtaining intelligence information from any source and taking advantage of it for intelligence purposes. or traditional law enforcemnt activities. confidential: A security classification designating information that. counterintelligence: Information gathered and activities conducted to identify. organizations. or international terrorist organizations or activities. if made public. consumer: An authorized person who uses intelligence or intelligence information directly in the decisionmaking process or to produce other intelligence. electronic Intelligence (elInT): (1) Information derived primarily from electronic signals that do not contain speech or text (which are considered to be COMINT). establishing links between intercommunicating parties or groups. tactics. deceive. both real and suspected. techniques. or protect against espionage. but does not include activities the primary purpose of which is to aquire intelligence. counterterrorism: The practices. economic. or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers. exploit. .

group. or other media. or supervising the collection.F Foreign Instrumentation signals Intelligence (FIsInT): Information derived from the interception of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-U. investigate. statutorily provides that any person has a right. Freedom of Information act (FOIa): The Freedom of Information Act.S. and video data links. Imagery can be derived from visual photography.S. within the state and local environments for the receipt and sharing of terrorism information. but not limited to. H homeland security Information: Any information possessed by an SLTT or federal agency that relates to (1) a threat of terrorist activity. 81 . expertise. assess. enforceable in court. or (4) a planned or actual response to a terrorist act. and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the earth. electronic interrogators. (2) the ability to prevent. electronic display devices. or entity associated with or assisting a suspected terrorist or terrorist organization. interdict. except to the extent that such records (or portions thereof) are protected from disclosure by one of nine exemptions or three exclusions. but not exclusive points. Fusion center: A collaborative effort of two or more agencies that provide resources. G geospatial Intelligence: Intelligence derived from the exploitation of imagery and geospatial information to describe. or disrupt terrorist activity. I Imagery Intelligence (ImInT): Intelligence that includes representations of objects reproduced electronically or by optical means on film. to access federal agency records. surface. lasers. enacted in 1966. and dissemination of intelligence.C. They are the focus. and respond to criminal and terrorist activity. telemetry. Intelligence analyst: A professional intelligence officer who is responsible for performing. FISINT is a sub-discipline of SIGINT. 552. (3) the identification or investigation of a suspected terrorist or terrorist organization or any person. analysis. beaconry. aerospace. and law enforcement information related to terrorism. homeland security information. State and major urban area fusion centers are recognized as a valuable information-sharing resource. infrared sensors. 5 U. and electrooptics. radar sensors. and subsurface systems including. coordinating. and information to a center with the goal of maximizing the ability to detect. prevent.

Department of Energy. Intelligence Officer: A professional employee of an intelligence organization engaged in intelligence activities. J Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF): A JTTF is a coordinated “action arm” for federal. Intelligence requirement: The need to collect intelligence information or to produce intelligence. the intelligence mission specifies in general language what the intelligence function is intended to accomplish. geographic regions. Intelligence cycle: The steps through which information is converted into intelligence and made available to users. on a particular subject. and materials sciences. associations. state. Department of Justice. Department of State. analysis and production. and Navy Intelligence. M measurement and signature Intelligence (masInT): Technically derived intelligence data other than imagery and SIGINT. The cycle typically includes six steps: planning and direction. links. acoustics. Department of Defense.S. or describes distinctive characteristics of targets. Federal Bureau of Investigation. national security. either general or specific. The data results in intelligence that locates. Army Intelligence. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. seismic. and evaluation. 82 . identifies. National Reconnaissance Office. National Security Agency.S. dissemination. collection. forecasts. These organizations are (in alphabetical order): Air Force Intelligence. Coast Guard. Intelligence mission: The role that the intelligence function of an agency fulfills in support of the overall mission of the agency. The FBI is the lead agency that oversees the JTTFs. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Marine Corps Intelligence. and local government response to terrorist threats in specific U. optical. It employs a broad group of disciplines including nuclear. processing and exploitation. Intelligence Products: Reports or documents that contain assessments.Intelligence community: A federation of Executive Branch agencies and organizations that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of U. Department of Homeland Security. Defense Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency. Department of the Treasury. Drug Enforcement Administration. radio frequency. and other outputs from the analytic process.

P Privacy act: The Privacy Act of 1974. Government agency and that involves threats to the United States. represent the most authoritative assessment of the DNI with respect to a particular national security issue. Public Law 108-458.N national Intelligence: National Intelligence and the term “intelligence related to national security” refer to all intelligence.S. establishes a code of fair information practices that governs the collection. A system of records is a group of records under the control of an agency from which information is retrieved by an individual’s name or by some other identifier assigned to the individual. maintenance. Source: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. December 17. 2004. national Intelligence estimate (nIe): NIEs are produced by the National Intelligence Council. as determined to be consistent with any guidance issued by the President. and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals that is maintained in systems of records by federal agencies. national Intelligence council (nIc): The NIC is the IC’s council for midterm and long-term strategic thinking. provide a focal point for policymakers to task the IC to answer their questions. including information from radio. 5 U. contribute to the IC’s effort to allocate its resources to policymakers’ changing needs. 552a. The Privacy Act requires that agencies provide public notice of their systems of records through publication in the Federal Register. graphics. journals. to (1) more than one U. and lead the IC’s efforts to produce National Intelligence Estimates and other NIC products. property. television. the Internet. proliferation.S. (2) the development. regardless of the source from which it is derived and including information gathered within or outside the United States that pertains. and drawings used to enhance intelligence analysis and reporting. its people. thus. The Privacy Act prohibits the disclosure of information from a system of records 83 . newspapers. O Open-source Intelligence (OsInT): Publicly available information appearing in print or electronic form.S. Its primary functions are to support the Director of National Intelligence. reach out to nongovernment experts in academia and the private sector to broaden the IC’s perspective. and videos. NIEs contain the coordinated judgment the IC regarding the probable course of future events. use. or interests. commercial databases.C. national or homeland security. Section 1012. or use of weapons of mass destruction. NIEs express the coordinated assessment of the IC and. or (3) any other matter bearing on U.

aggregated. (2) The capability of an adversary coupled with the adversary’s intention to undertake actions that would be detrimental to the success of certain activities or operations. that is. raw Intelligence: A colloquial term meaning collected intelligence information that has not yet been converted into finished intelligence. . could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to national security. all communications intelligence (COMINT). raw data: Bits of collected data that individually convey little or no useful information and must be collated. there may still be limits on its disclosure. information not classified CONFIDENTIAL.absent the written consent of the individual who is the subject of the information search. Top secret: Information that. unclassified: Information not subject to a security classification. or TOP SECRET. to an unauthorized recipient. if it is made public. source: A document. U S unauthorized disclosure: A communication or physical transfer. The Privacy Act also provides individuals with a means by which to seek access to and amend their records and sets forth various agency record-keeping requirements. Although unclassified information is not subject to a security classification. and/or FISINT. signals Intelligence (sIgInT): Intelligence derived from signals intercepts comprising. secret: Information that. sources are individuals (or HUMINT) who collect or possess 84 W warning: To issue an advance notification of possible harm or victimization following the receipt of information or intelligence concerning the possibility of a crime or terrorist attack. or other means by which information has been obtained. usually of sensitive but unclassified information or classified information. T R Threat: (1) A source of unacceptable risk. could be expected to cause serious damage to national security. if it is made public. critical information needed for intelligence analysis. or interpreted to provide meaningful information. From an intelligence perspective. electronic intelligence (ELINT). individually or in combination. interview. unless the disclosure is pursuant to one of 12 statutory exceptions. SECRET.

Acronyms and Abbreviations crm: Collection Requirements Management crwg: Capability Requirements Working Group cTd: Counterterrorism Division A C a2: Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence. Surveillance. and Reconnaissance (Air Force) adnI/sra: Assistant Director of National Intelligence for Systems and Resource Analyses D da: Directorate for Analysis d/cIa: Director Central Intelligence Agency (formerly DCI) dchc: Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center ddII: Deputy Director Intelligence Integration ddnI: Deputy DNI Director for Intelligence Integration ddnI/a&T: Deputy DNI for Acquisition and Technology dea: Drug Enforcement Administration dexcOm: Deputy Executive Committee dhs: Department of Homeland Security dI: Directorate of Intelligence dIa: Defense Intelligence Agency dIac: Defense Intelligence Analysis Center dIrInT: Director of Intelligence dnI: Director of National Intelligence dod: Department of Defense cae: Center of Academic Excellence cd: Counterintelligence Division cFO: Chief Financial Officer cI: Counterintelligence cIa: Central Intelligence Agency cIkr: Clinical Infrastructure and Key Resources cIO: Chief Information Officer clPO: Civil Liberties and Privacy Office cOm: Collection Operations Management cnO: Chief of Naval Operations cnO: Computer Network Operations cOmInT: Communications Intelligence css: Central Security Service cr: Collection Request 85 .

dodIIs: Department of Defense Intelligence Information System dOe: Department of Energy ds: Directorate for Information Management and Chief Information Officer ds&T: Directorate of Science and Technology dT: Directorate for MASINT and Technical Collection dT: Domestic Terrorism dTra: Defense Threat Reduction Agency G gdIP: General Defense Intelligence Program geOInT: Geospatial Intelligence gmII: Global Maritime Intelligence Integration H I hPscI: House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence humInT: Human Intelligence E F I&a: Office of Intelligence and Analysis (DHS) Ic: Intelligence Community Iccr: Intelligence Community Capability Requirements Icd: Intelligence Community Directive (replaces Director of Central Intelligence Directives) Ied: Improvised Explosive Device ImInT: Imagery Intelligence In: Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence Inr: Bureau of Intelligence and Research (DOS) InscOm: Intelligence and Security Command (Army) elInT: Electronic Intelligence eO: Executive Order excOm: Executive Committee FbI: Federal Bureau of Investigation FIg: Field Intelligence Group FIsa: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FIsInT: Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence FOIa: Freedom of Information Act FOuO: For Official Use Only 86 .

IOb: Intelligence Oversight Board IPPbe: Intelligence Planning. and Reconnaissance IT: Information Technology ITacg: Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group. Surveillance. Joint Staff Intelligence JIcc: Joint Intelligence Community Council JTTF: Joint Terrorism Task Force JwIcs: Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communication System M masInT: Measurement and Signatures Intelligence mcIa: Marine Corps Intelligence Activity mIP: Military Intelligence Program msa: Major System Acquisition 87 . and Evaluation Irb: Intelligence Resources Board IrTPa: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 Isr: Intelligence. Budgeting. Programming. NCTC msIc: Missile and Space Intelligence Center N ncIx: National Counterintelligence Executive ncmI: National Center for Medical Intelligence ncPc: National Counterproliferation Center ncs: National Clandestine Service ncTc: National Counterterrorism Center ndIc: National Defense Intelligence College nga: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (formerly NIMA) nFIP: National Foreign Intelligence Program ngIc: National Ground Intelligence Center nIc: National Intelligence Council nIe: National Intelligence Estimate nIP: National Intelligence Program nIs: National Intelligence Strategy nJTTF: National Joint Terrorism Task Force nmec: National Media Exploitation Center nmIc: National Maritime Intelligence Center nrO: National Reconnaissance Office nsa: National Security Agency nsb: National Security Branch J J-2: Directorate for Intelligence.

S. Tribal.nsc: National Security Council nsOc: National Security Operations Center nsPd: National Security Presidential Directives nTOc: NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center nvTc: National Virtual Translation Center S s&T: Science and Technology scI: Sensitive Compartmented Information sIgInT: Signals Intelligence slTT: State. and Territorial sscI: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence s&T: Science and Technology O OdnI: Office of the Director of National Intelligence OIg: Office of the Inspector General OncIx: Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive OnI: Office of Naval Intelligence OnsI: Office of National Security Intelligence OPnav n2/n6: Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance Osc: Open-Source Center OsInT: Open-Source Intelligence T TIde: Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment Tsc: Terrorist Screening Center U uFac: Underground Facilities Analysis Center ugF: Underground Facility uIs: Unifying Intelligence Strategies uscg: U.S. Marine Corps P PFIab: President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board PIab: President’s Intelligence Advisory Board R 88 rFI: Request for Information . Coast Guard uscg-Icc: U. Coast Guard Intelligence Coordination Center usd(I): Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence u/sIa: Under Secretary for I&A usmc: U. Local.S.

and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information and information on CIA mission Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News.af.afisr.W wmd: Weapons of Mass Destruction wmdd: Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate Resources ORGANIZATION IC Agency Web Sites Air Force ISR (Intelligence.mil n n n n n Federal Bureau of Investigation http://www. press releases. and overview of Directorate of Intelligence Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. press releases. press releases.dia.fbi. FBI overview. and Reconnaissance) Agency Central Intelligence Agency http://www. videos.mil n n n URL DESCRIPTION General office information News. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities http://www.mil site) and descriptions of the DIA organizational culture General office information.cia. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities (within dia.gov n n n n n 89 . and CIA World Fact Book Links to career and internship opportunities and descriptions of the CIA organizational culture General office information and information on the DIA mission and Defense Intelligence Enterprise strategy Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. Surveillance. press releases.gov n n n n n Defense Intelligence Agency http://www.

press releases.S.ORGANIZATION IC Agency Web Sites National GeospatialIntelligence Agency URL http://www. Department of Homeland Security U. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information and information on NRO mission News. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities National Reconnaissance Office http://www. internships. and video transcripts Links to career and internship opportunities General ODNI information.S.gov n n n n n 90 .gov National Security Agency/ Central Security Service http://www. U.energy. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information and DOE Directives Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. Army Intelligence and Security Command U. press releases.nro.S.inscom. press releases. scholarships.dni.uscg. ODNI mission information. Department of Energy http://www.mil n n n http://www.gov n n n n n U.army.mil n n n http://www. press releases. Coast Guard. and other such opportunities General office information News.S.nsa. National Intelligence Strategy Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. press releases. press releases. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information News. and U. and videos General office information and information on NSA/CSS mission and strategic plan Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. press releases.nga.S.mil DESCRIPTION n n n n n General office information and information on NGA mission and strategic intent Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. and speeches Links to information on ODNI careers.gov n n n n n n n Office of the Director of National Intelligence http://www.

ORGANIZATION IC Agency Web Sites U.state.S.S.navy. press releases.gov/dea n n n n n General office information and information on DEA mission Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. Navy. Department of State http://www.gov n General information and information on the Department of the n n n n U.oni. and other information resources Links to career opportunities U. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information News.usmc.S. press releases. press releases. Marine Special Operations Intelligence Battalion U. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities General office information and information on the State Department mission Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. videos.gov n n n n n U.S.S. press releases. Marine Corps.gov DESCRIPTION n n n n n General office information and information on DHS mission and DHS strategic plan Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News.S. U. press releases. press releases.justice. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities U.mil/unit/ marsoc/msoib n n n http://www. and videos Links to career and internship opportunities Treasury mission and U.dhs. Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command. Department of Homeland Security URL http://www. economic strategy Policy and appointment updates Congressional testimony–related links News. and news and information on the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum and Visitors Center Links to career and internship opportunities and descriptions of the DEA organizational culture General office information News. Office of Naval Intelligence http://www.mil n n n 91 .S. Department of the Treasury http://www. Drug Enforcement Administration http://www.treasury.S.

Air Force URL https://www.ORGANIZATION IC Employment Websites Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Language Services: Contract Linguists National GeospatialIntelligence Agency National Security Agency/ Central Security Service National Virtual Translation Center Office of the Director of National Intelligence (Intelligence.mil/top/ careers.mil/ Employment/Defaultjobs.fbijobs.army.inscom.justice.gov/ http://www.aspx http://www. Department of Energy U.S.dhs.gov/careersin-intelligence/ http://www. Identifies current DHS career opportunities and the benefits of working at the DHS Identifies the career opportunities within the State Department Identifies career opportunities at the Department of the Treasury headquarters and at the individual Treasury bureaus Identifies career opportunities within the DEA U. Department of Homeland Security U. Department of State U.treasury.gov/ling/ http://erecruit.S.gov/ careers U. Department of Homeland Security U.uscg.gov http://fbijobs.mil http://www.html 92 . or auxiliary personnel A career information portal that enables users to search for DOE opportunities through the USAJobs website.com/ joining-the-air-force/officeroverview/ http://www.S.S.S.state. Army Intelligence and Security Command U.gov/careers http://www.gov/careers http://www. U.gov and Army-specific sites for current employment opportunities Identifies current career opportunities and the benefits of working for the Coast Guard as officer.S.dia.S. Drug Enforcement Administration http://www.mil/careers http://www. Department of the Treasury http://www.gov) U.airforce. reserve.gov/dea/ resources/job_applicants.S.nvtc.gov DESCRIPTION Identifies career opportunities and career paths within the CIA The DIA’s “Employment Headquarters” website Highlights the FBI’s featured opportunities and other news as well as links to information on FBI career paths Contains postings specifically on FBI contract linguist opportunities Identifies current career opportunities at the NGA Identifies current NSA career opportunities and the benefits of working at the NSA/CSS Provides answers to pertinent FAQs related to employment at the NVTC Highlight the diverse careers that the IC offers and the type of talent needed across the IC Provides an overview of the requirements to become an Air Force officer Provides links to USAJobs.nga.cia.energy.nsa.gov http://intelligence.S. enlisted. civilian.gov/xabout/ careers http://careers. Coast Guard.asp http://jobs.

mil/ Join_Us/Military_duty.S. Office of Personnel Management (USAJobs.mil/ Join_Us/hot_jobs.oni. Marine Corps U.navy.S.com http://www.marines. Navy Department of the Navy Civilian Human Resources Office of Naval Intelligence “Hot Vacancies” Office of Naval Intelligence “Military Duty at ONI” URL http://usajobs.com http://officer.htm http://www.marines.ORGANIZATION IC Employment Websites U.mil/ http://www.gov) U.oni.navy.htm DESCRIPTION Highlight the diverse careers that the IC offers and the type of talent needed across the IC Provides an overview of opportunities as enlisted or officer personnel Naval civilian HR and ONI job-search sites Laws and Policies Governing the IC Office of the director of national Intelligence Office of general counsel legal reference book The Constitution Of The United States Of America National Security Act Of 1947 Intelligence Reform And Terrorism Prevention Act Of 2004* Central Intelligence Agency Act Of 1949 National Security Agency Act Of 1959 Department Of Defense Title 10 Authorities National Imagery And Mapping Agency Act Of 1996 Homeland Security Act Of 2002* 93 .navy.gov/ http://www.donhr.S.

Counterintelligence And Security Enhancements Act Of 1994 Counterintelligence Enhancement Act Of 2002 Classified Information Procedures Act Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Of 1978 Protect America Act Of 2007 Usa Patriot Act Of 2001* Usa Patriot Improvement And Reauthorization Act Of 2005* Detainee Treatment Act Of 2005 Military Commissions Act Of 2006 Freedom Of Information Act Privacy Act Federal Information Security Management Act Inspector General Act Of 1978 War Crimes Act Of 1996 Interception Of Wire. Electronic. And Oral Communications Implementing Recommendations Of The 9/11 Commission Act Of 2007* Executive Order 12139 Executive Order 12333 Executive Order 12949 Executive Order 12951 Executive Order 12958 Executive Order 12968 94 .

Management. Wire. And Policy Development Structures For Creating The Terrorism Information Sharing Environment Guidelines To Ensure That The Information Privacy And Other Legal Rights Of Americans Are Protected In The Development And Use Of The Information Sharing Environment Criteria On Thresholds For Reporting Intelligence Oversight Matters Mou: Reporting Of Information Concerning Federal Crimes Intelligence Community And Government Websites 95 . Access. And Integration B Organizational.Executive Order 13354 Executive Order 13355 Executive Order 13388 Executive Order 13462 Executive Order 13467 Executive Order 13491 Executive Order 13492 Executive Order 13493 Intelligence Sharing Procedures For Foreign Intelligence And Foreign Counterintelligence Investigations Conducted By The Fbi Guidelines For Disclosure Of Grand Jury And Electronic. And Oral Interception Information Identifying United States Persons Guidelines Regarding Disclosure To The Director Of Central Intelligence And Homeland Security Officials Of Foreign Intelligence Acquired In The Course Of A Criminal Investigation Guidelines Regarding Prompt Handling Of Reports Of Possible Criminal Activity Involving Foreign Intelligence Sources The Attorney General’s Guidelines For Domestic Fbi Operations Strengthening Information Sharing.

. .25-28. 91. . . . . . . . 86.67. . 26. . 81. 34. . . . . .25. . 23. 96 Counternarcotics . . . 31. . 82. . . 82. 90. . 82. 86. . .16. 82.53 Communications Intelligence . . . . . . 24. 87 Federal Bureau of Investigation 27. . 17. . . . 88 Defense Intelligence Agency . . . . . 80. 32.31. . . 86. . 85. 93 Careers in the Intelligence Community . .29. . . 19. . 21. . . . . . . 91. . 70-71 Executive Committee . 32-33. . . 18. . . . . . 89. 82.19 Counterproliferation .32. 81. 67. 81. . 92. 86 Congress (House of Representatives and Senate) .20. . 21. 69. . . . . 47. . 55-56.8. 31. 94 Drug Enforcement Administration . . . . . . 93 Collection Operations Management. . . 33. . 34. . . . . . . 67-72. . . 24. 87. 91. . 47-49 Collection Requirements Management . 29. . . 46. . 30. . . . 41. 19. . . . . . . 70. 27. 69. 87. 91. 89. . 86. 92. . . 30. 68. 82 Analysis.72 Coast Guard . . 93 Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence . 16. 87 96 . 87. . . . 86. 55. .46. . . . 42. 94 Department of Energy . . 91. . 92. . Production and Feedback . 80. 70. 93 Department of the Treasury .20-22. . . . 25. . .59 Army . . 27. 90. . 93 Department of Defense 8. 18. . 17. 21. . . . 88. .25. 23. 82. 92 Counterintelligence .Subject Index Air Force . 44-45. 49. . 93. . 82. 90. . 87.34. 92 Electronic Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. 82. . . . . 86 Director of National Intelligence . . 16-17. . . 93 Deputy Executive Committee . 86. Processing and Exploitation . 22. . 15-17. 28. . . . 20. . 55-56.15. . 93 Department of Homeland Security . . 19. 23. . 87 Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity . 25 Counterterrorism . . 53. . 80. 82 Department of State . . . .75 Central Intelligence Agency18-19. 20. . . 82. 89. . 90. . . . . 82. 68. . . . 84. . . 82. 85 General Defense Intelligence Program . . 85. 35. . . 47-48 Collection. 86. 91. 50. . 83. 82. 95. 93 Department of Justice . . . . 93 Civil Liberties and Privacy Office . 86. . 29-30. . . . . . .

. . . Budgeting and Evaluation . .49 National Intelligence Program . . . 46. . 88 Marine Corps . 88. . . . 87 Human Intelligence .16 National Intelligence Priorities Framework. . 49. . . . . . . . . . . 83. 87 Imagery Intelligence . 82. . . . . . . . 17-18. 88 National Intelligence Estimates . . . 44. . . 53. 26. . . . . 88 National Counterterrorism Center . 23-25. . . . . .35. . . . 67-68. . 83. . . . . . .23. 88. . . . 82. . 54. . . . 88 National Defense Intelligence College . . 89 National Counterproliferation Center . 88 Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group . . . . . . 91 National Security Agency .20. . .16. . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . 82. 88 National Intelligence Council . . . . 88 National Media Exploitation Center. . . . 69-70. . 20. . . .11.53. 45. . . . .2 Intelligence Planning. 82. . . 88 Joint Intelligence Community Council . .30. . . . . . . . 82. . . 87 Intelligence Overview . .21. . .17. . 88 National Reconnaissance Office . . . . 16-17. . . .67. . .15-16. . 44-45. . 88 National Intelligence Strategy . . . . . . 88 Measurement and Signature Intelligence . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . .34 National Counterintelligence Executive . . . . . . 82. 46. . 88. . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-84. . . 87 Intelligence Cycle . . Programming. . . .39. 80. . . 21-22. .20. . . . 10-12. . . 34-35. 17. 91. . 86. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-45. . 47. 93 National Ground Intelligence Center . 88. . . . . . . . . . . 88 Joint Terrorism Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . 15. . 88 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency .30. . . . . .68. . . 22. 86 Intelligence Oversight Board . . . . . . . . . . . . 70. 88 National Air and Space Intelligence Center . . . . 46. . . . . . . . . 87. . . 88 Military Intelligence Program . . . . . 18. . 87 Intelligence Resources Board . 70. . . . . . 82 Intelligence Integration . 17. 27. . . . 88 97 . . 91 National Joint Terrorism Task Force . .16. . . . . . . .46. . . . . 20. 87 House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence . . .27.16. 23. .Geospatial Intelligence . . . . 84 National Intelligence Managers . . . .

84. . . 47. 79. . . . . . . 89. . . . 89 Underground Facilities Analysis Center. . . 82. 49. . . . . . . 20. . . . 69-70. . . . . . . . . 72. . . 90 Wounded Warrior Program . 89. . . . . . . . . 89 Open Source Center . . 15-16. . . 92. . 16-17. 93 Navy . . .29. . . 89 Weapons of Mass Destruction . . . 55-56. . 24. . 92 Office of the Director of National Intelligence . .26 Requirements. . . . . 30. . . .67 President’s Intelligence Advisory Board . . .7. . 27. 89. . 19. . . . 69. . . . 89 Office of Naval Intelligence . . 82. . .23. 53. . . . 80. . . . . . .76 98 . . Planning and Direction . . . 81. . . . . . .31. .National Security Council . . . . . 79. . .25. .70. . . 33-34. . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16. . . . . . . .39 Senate Select Committee on Intelligence . .34. . 89 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review . .19 Open Source Intelligence . . . . 89 Organizational Oversight . . . . . . . . .11. . . . 15. . . . . 91 Office of the Inspector General . . . . 85. . . . . . . . . . 88 National Virtual Translation Center . . . . . . . . . . . 83.7. . . . 87 Office of National Security Intelligence . . . . . . . 83. . . . . . . . 68-69 Signals Intelligence . . 23. . 8. . . . . . . . . 94 Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence . . . .

employees. and does not. or agents. substantive or procedural. Additionally. enforceable at law or in equity. create any right or benefit. by any party against the United States. agencies. its departments. or entities. the handbook is not intended to. its officers.LEGAL DISCLAIMER Nothing in this handbook shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority granted by law to a department or agency. or any other person. 101 . or the head thereof.

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