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PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLE GAS TURBINES
3 Gas generator ~
FIG. 8.1 Sim le as turbine units proceed to the free turbine engine where there is the added complication of flow compatibility between the gas-generator turbine and the power turbine. Lastly, we speed and altitude effects.
The variation of mass flow, pressure ratio and efficiency with rotational speed of the compressor and turbine is obtained from the compressor and turbine characteristics, examples of which are given in Chapters 4, 5 and 7. It is convenient to represent the compressor characteristic as shown in Fig. 8.2, with the variation of pressure ratio. With high performance axial compressors the constant speed lines become vertical on a mass flow basis when the inlet is choked, and in this region it is essential to plot the efficiency as a function of pressure ratio. The turbine characteristic can be used in the form given in Fig. 7.28. It is often found in practice, however, that turbines do not exhibit any significant variation in nondimensional flow with non-dimensional speed, and in most cases the turbine operating region is severely restricted by another component downstream of it. In explaining the method used for off-design performance calculations it will initially be assumed that the mass flow function can be represented by a single curve as in Fig. 8.3. The modification necessary to account for a family of
.:A lfJlJ . ". Further discussion of this matter will be deferred until section 8.~ T04 and lJtp for a power turbine FIG.COMPONENT CHARACTERISTICS 339 lJc \ //~ »> /~ '\ /~ \ / \I / / / /' OM Po1 \ ~/P01 N/~ Q )A Tic J FIG. and the off-design calculations will be introduced on the basis of negligible inlet and exhaust losses and a combustion chamber pressure loss which is a fixed percentage of the compressor delivery pressure.. however. . LU usc tl W~lL(11 " • • . r-ui T" Ut L<lLlt::l .7.2 Compressor characteristics TIl P03 P03/P04 Note: parameters will be ~-.ill . 8.3 Turbine characteristics These are essentially secondary effects. uc . methods of allowing for variable pressure losses are easily introduced. 8. • L:S it WUUlU " . Such approximations are quite adequate for many purposes..11 Ltl . _~ .Wlli. m~ P04 - Po4 Pa Np .
it has been pointed out earlier that the bleeds are often approximately equal to the fuel flow.1 ) Compatibility of flow between the compressor and turbine can be expressed in tenus of the non-dimensional flows by the identity m3JTm P03 = ml JT 01 X POI POI P02 X P02 Pm x Y TOl jT03 x m3 ml The pressure ratio P03/P02 can be obtained directly from the combustion pressure loss. (b) (c) The compressor and turbine are directly coupled together. but variation in mass flow at different points in the engine can easily be included if required. the pressure ratio across the turbine is determined by the compressor pressure ratio and the pressure loss in the combustion chamber. which depends on the manner in which the power is absorbed. Having matched the compressor and turbine characteristics. Rewriting the previous equation in terms of m. this requires knowledge of the variation of power with speed.1(a) it can readily be seen that when inlet and exhaust pressure losses are ignored.e.2) Now mJTodpol and P02/POI are fixed by the chosen operating point on the compressor characteristic. it is necessary to ascertain whether the work ou ut corres ondin to the selected 0 eratin point is compatible with that required by the driven load. so that compatibility of rotational speed requires (8. l1c and NJTOI are then determined. P03/P02 = 1 . In general terms.(l1pb/Po2)' It will normally be assumed that ml =m3 =m. the values of mJTodpob P02/POl.340 PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLE GAS TURBINES 8. (a) Select a constant speed line on the compressor characteristic and choose any point on this line. i. The corresponding point on the turbine characteristic is obtained from consideration of compatibility of rotational speed and flow. we get (8. The mass flow through the turbine will be equal by the fuel flow. P03/P02 is assumed to be constant and mJT03/P03 is a . 8.2 Off-design operation of the single-shaft gas turbine Referring to the single-shaft gas turbine shown in Fig. the procedure for obtaining an equilibrium running point is as follows.
the engine will not be in equilibrium and will either accelerate or decelerate depending on whether there is a surplus or deficiency of power. it is necessary to consider the characteristics of the load to determine whether the compressor operatulg pourt selected represents a valid solution. l( r" ] (8. the load could be set independently of the speed and it would be possible to operate at any point on the compressor characteristic within the temperature limit imposed by safety considerations.j(T03/Tol) can be obtained from the compressor and turbine characteristics. the turbine non-dimensional speed N/ . however.( 1 ) (l'-l)h] P03/P04 (8. The turbine efficiency can then be obtained from the turbine characteristic using the known values of N/ ~T03 and P03/P04. In other cases it will be clear from the context which mean cp should be used. taking several operating points on the compressor characteristic and establishing the power output corresponding to each one. Finally. the power absorbed varies as the cube of the rotational speed of the propeller. Repeating this procedure for a suffixes will be added to cp only in equations where both cpo and cpg appear simultaneously.2) when the ambient temperature. for example.1). and the turbine temperature drop can be calculated from AT034 = I1tT03 [ 1.4) The net power output corresponding to the selected operating point is then found from (8. The problem then becomes one of finding the single point on each constant speed line of the compressor characteristic which will give the required net power output at that speed. and m is given by (mJToIlPOl)(Pa/ JTa) for prescribed ambient conditions.4. this can only be done by trial and error. If the calculated net power output for any point on the compressor characteristic is not equal to the pO'Ner required at the selected speed. the load characteristic in terms of the net power actually required from the turbine and the turbine speed can be plotted as in Fig.3) The compressor temperature rise for the point selected on the compressor characteristic can be similarly calculated as T. which is equal to Tal. The turbine inlet temperature T03 can therefore be obtained from equation (8. 8. With a propeller load. t Distinguishing . the engine were run on a test bed coupled to a hydraulic or electrical dynamometer.jT03 is obtained from equation (8. When the transmission efficiency and gear ratio are known. is specified. l' will be treated similarly. If.5) where 17m is the mechanical efficiency of the compressor-turbine combination.OFF-DESIGN OPEAATION OF THE SINGLE·SHAFT GAS TURBINE 341 exception of . Having determined the turbine inlet temperature.
electric generator which runs at a constant rotational speed with the load varied electrically. Thus the equilibrium running line for a generator set would correspond to a articular line of constant non-dimensional speed. the compressor operating point corresponding to zero net output and the no-load running line for a generator set is also shown in Fig. 8. which can be joined up to form the equilibrium running line as shown in Fig. 8.5. by trial and error.5. as shown in Fig.342 PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLE GAS TURBINES o o Turbine speed FIG. and each point on this line would represent a different value of turbine inlet temperature and power output.4 Load characteristics series of constant speed lines.5 Equilibrium running Ones .5. 8. a series of points are obtained. At each speed it is possible to find. The equilibrium running lines depicted show that a propeller load implies operation in a zone of high compressor efficiency over a wide range of output. P02 Generator FIG. 8. 8.
the turbine inlet temperature from equation (8. in which case the engine could not be accelerated to full power. but the process could be repeated over the range of values of ambient temperature and pressure likely to be encountered.3). The matching calculations for a single-shaft gas turbine are illustrated in the following example.1T012 + Tal)' Thus the combustion temperature rise is known and it is possible to obtain the fuel/air ratio Jfrom the curves of Fig. for each point given on the compressor characteristic. and neglecting all pressure losses.jT03/P03 139·0 0·87 (both constant over range of pressure ratio considered) Assuming ambient conditions of 1·013 bar and 288 K.4) and the turbine temperature drop from equation (8. EXAMPLE 8. The fuel flow is then given by mf From the fuel flow and power output at each operating point the variation in specific fuel consumption (or thermal efficiency) with load can be determined. T03 is known. Section 8.6 deals with the matter in more detail. The results refer to operation at the assumed value of Tal (= Ta) andpOl (=Pa). 0·84 0·79 0·75 m. a mechanical efficiency of 98 per cent. The location of the equilibrium running line relative to the surge line indicates whether the engine can be brought up to full power without any complications.15 and an assumed value of combustion efficiency. In the case of the propeller. 2. and the generator could be accelerated to full speed before applying the load without any surge problem being encountered. Once these have been established the power output can be obtained . Compressor characteristic Turbine characteristic POl/POl 5·0 4·5 4·0 m. and may even intersect it.2). the compressor temperature rise from equation (8.li The following data refer to a single-shaft gas turbine operating at its design speed. the equilibrium running line lies close to the surge line.jTOl/POl 329·0 339·0 342·0 n. The running line for the generator at no-load can be seen to be well away from surge. This can be overcome by incorporating a blow-off valve towards the rear of the compressor.OFF-DESIGN OPERATION OF THE Sfl\rGLE-SHAFT GAS TURBINE 343 whereas the generator load results in a rapid drop in compressor efficiency as load is reduced. calculate the turbine inlet temperature required for a power output of 3800 leW. and Tal is found from (. The calculations descnbed above detemune the values of all the parameters required for a complete performance calculation for any point within the operating range. The 'non-dimensional' flows are expressed in terms of kg/s. K and bar. The method of solution is to establish.
5) 0·98 T03 [K] 1285 982 761 ~T012 ~T034 [K] 200·5 196·1 186·7 [K] 370·0 267·0 194·0 -- m [kg/s] 19·64 20·25 20·4 Power output [kW] 4305 2130 635 5·0 4·5 4·0 Plotting the value of T03 against power output it is found that for an output of 3800 leW the required turbine inlet temperature is 1215 K. Repeating the calculation for the three points given on the compressor characteristic yields the following results P02/POI ( 19.5).64 x 1·005 x 200.11 'If TOl 329·0 giving T03 = 1285 K The compressor temperature rise is given by ATOI2 = 288 [5. ana hence = 139·0 x 5·0 = 2. V jT03 = (mJTQ3/P03)(P03/P01) Tal mJTodpOI With pressure losses neglected P03 . m = 329 x ~. it is then necessary to plot turbine inlet temperature against power output to find the required temperature for an output of 3800 kW. Taking the compressor operating point at a pressure ratio of 5·0. giving power output = 19·64 x 1·148 x 370·0= 8340 . .01/3.J 1·0l3 288 = 19·64 kg/s The power output can now be obtained.5 jT03 0·84 - 1] = 200·5 K The turbine temperature drop is given by The air mass flow is obtained from the non-dimensional flow entering the compressor.4035 = 4305 kW Thus for a power output of 4305 kW the turbine inlet temperature is 1285 K.P02.344 PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLE GAS TURBINES from equation (8.
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