Master of Business Administration - Semester 4 MB0053: “International Business Management” (4 credits) (Book ID: B1315) ASSIGNMENT- Set 1 Marks 60 Q1.

What is globalisation and what are its benefits? Answer: - Globalisation is a process where businesses are dealt in markets around the world, apart from the local and national markets. According to business terminologies, globalisation is defined as „the worldwide trend of businesses expanding beyond their domestic boundaries‟. It is advantageous for the economy of countries because it promotes prosperity in the countries that embrace globalization. Benefits of globalization: -The merits and demerits of globalisation are highly debatable. While globalisation creates employment opportunities in the host countries, it also exploits labour at a very low cost compared to the home country. Let us consider the benefits and ill-effects of globalisation. Some of the benefits of globalisation are as follows:  Promotes foreign trade and liberalisation of economies.  Increases the living standards of people in several developing countries through capital investments in developing countries by developed countries.  Benefits customers as companies outsource to low wage countries. Outsourcing helps the companies to be competitive by keeping the cost low, with increased productivity.  Promotes better education and jobs.  Leads to free flow of information and wide acceptance of foreign products, ideas, ethics, best practices, and culture.  Provides better quality of products, customer services, and standardized delivery models across countries.  Gives better access to finance for corporate and sovereign borrowers.  Increases business travel, which in turn leads to a flourishing travel and hospitality industry across the world.  Increases sales as the availability of cutting edge technologies and production techniques decrease the cost of production.  Provides several platforms for international dispute resolutions in business, which facilitates international trade. Q2. Discuss in brief the Absolute and comparative cost advantage theories. Answer : -Absolute advantage: -Adam Smith (a social philosopher and a pioneer of politicl economics) argued that nations differ in their ability to manufacture goods efficiently and he saw that a country gains by trading. If the two countries exchanged two goods at a ratio of 1:1, country I gets one unit of goods B by sacrificing only 10 units of labour, whereas it has to give up 20 units of labour if it produced the goods itself. In the same manner, country II gives up only 10 units of labour to get one unit of goods A, whereas it has to give up 20 units of labour if it was made by itself. Hence, it was understood that both countries had large amount of both goods by trading. Comparative advantage: - Ricardo (english political economist) questioned Smith‟s theory stating that if one country is more productive than the other in all lines of production and if country I can produce all goods with less labour costs, will there be a need for the countries to trade. The reply was affirmative. He used England and Portugal as examples in his demonstration, the two goods they produced being wine and cloth. This case is explained using table 2.1 and 2.2.

An interpreter is used when two people do not speak common language. non-verbal communication. A country has a comparative advantage in producing goods if the OC is lower at home than in the other country.Significance of country culture: -Every society has its own unique culture. Conflicting attitudes: -Cultural values have a massive effect on the way business is carried out. Some of the additional cultural elements which must be known are the customs and manners.  Conflicting attitudes. What are its elements? Answer: . the concept of opportunity cost (OC) is introduced. Q3.Language is something more than just spoken and written words.  Religion. If the cultural basics are not understood. To demonstrate that trade between both countries will lead to gains. humour.According to him. Cadbury which were in complete extremes in terms of culture. Cultural elements that relate business: -The most important cultural components of a country which relate business transactions are:  Language. The table shows that Portugal has the lower OC of the 2 countries in wine-making while England has the lower OC in making cloth.S. For example. Religion: . the Cadbury Kraft Acquisition. Culture must not be imposed on individuals of different culture. in which a U. Thus Portugal has the comparative advantage in the production of wine whereas England has one one in the production of cloth. How is culture an integral part of international business. arts. Failure in understanding the cultural context when non-verbal communication takes place or failure in reading the person across the table results in sending a wrong signal. . based company Kraft acquired the British chocolate giant. 2009 was a landmark international deal. and social organisation of a society.The dominant religious beliefs within a culture have a great impact on a person‟s approach to business than most people expect. education. Language: . Portugal has an advantage in both areas of manufacture. Gestures. then there is possibility that a deal ends even before the negotiations start. facial expressions. The OC for good X is the amount of other goods that have to be given up in order to produce one additional unit of X. even if that person is not a follower of a specific culture. The cultural values that are evident in everyday life are not only shown in business but they are exaggerated. and body language all communicate a message.

It includes general discussion of a country‟s economic.  Inspection visits – Involves travelling to a country and conducting meeting with government officials. Many agencies merge both qualitative and quantitative information into a single rating. and consumers. Foreign currency derivatives Answer :.  Other quantitative methods – The quantitative models used in statistical studies of country risk analysis can be classified as discriminant analysis.The fully qualitative method involves a detailed analysis of a country. These meetings clarify any vague opinions the firm has about the country.Tools : -The risk management demands a regular follow up regarding governmental policies. In structured qualitative method. The MNC gets responses from its evaluation and then may determine some opinions about the risk of the country. Q5. . A survey conducted by the US EXIM bank classified the various methods of country risk assessment used by the banks into four types. This technique was the most popular among the banks during the late seventies.The checklist method involves scoring the country based on specific variables that can be either quantitative. principal component analysis. Describe the tools and methods of country risk analysis. on or before a certain date.  Table of macroeconomic variables . logit analysis and classification and regression tree method. outlook provided by rating agencies. Fully qualitative method can be adapted to the unique strengths and problems of the country undergoing evaluation. in which the scoring does not need personal judgment of the country being scored or qualitative. Following are the tools recommended:  Chain of value .  Strength and weakness chart .Q4. As applied to country risk analysis. the MNC can assess definite employees who have the capability to evaluate the risk characteristics of a particular country. The techniques used by the banks and other agencies for country risk analysis can be classified as qualitative or quantitative.A Spot contract is a binding obligation to buy or sell a definite amount of foreign currency at the existing or spot market rate. The sum of scores is then used to determine the country risk. and so on.  Table of financial markets performance .Follow up the behavior of bonds and stocks already issued and to be issued. They are:  Fully qualitative method . Spot and forward contracts b. Write short notes on: a. in which the scoring needs subjective determinations.Focus the key aspects that warn the country.  Checklist method .Provides alert signals when the behavior of any ratio presents a relevant change. Answer : . external and internal environment. it is easier to make comparisons between countries as it follows a specific format across countries. A forward contract is a binding obligation to buy or sell a definite amount of foreign currency at the pre-agreed rate of exchange. political.a. Methodology: -Country detailed risk refers to the unpredictability of returns on international business transactions in view of information associated with a particular country.  Delphi technique – The technique involves a set of independent opinions without group discussion. and social conditions and prediction.Includes the main countries that sustain trade relationships with the nation. business executives.  Structured qualitative method – The structured method uses a uniform format with predetermined scope. broken by sectors and products. All items are scaled from the lowest to the highest score. “Spot” and “Forward” contracts .

 Liquidity risks occur due to the requirement of available counterparties to take the other side of the trade. the spot market exposures can be enclosed with the currency derivatives. In the foreign exchange market. The derivatives can be hedged with other derivatives.  Operational risks are one of the biggest risks that occur in trading derivatives due to human error. The main advantage from derivative hedging is the basket of currency available.  Legal risks pertain to the counterparties of currency swaps that go into receivership while the swap is taking place. The agreement undertaken to exchange cash flow streams in one currency for cash flow streams in another currency in future is provided by currency swaps. .  Settlement risks similar to the credit risks occur when the parties involved in the contract fail to provide the currency at the agreed time.b. Foreign currency derivatives: -Currency derivative is defined as a financial contract in order to swap two currencies at a predestined rate.  Market risk occurs due to adverse moves in the overall market. Figure 7. currency options and currency swaps are usually traded. The currency derivative trades in markets correspond to the spot (cash) market. currency derivatives like the currency features. These will help to increase the funds of foreign currency from the cheapest sources. These will help the businessmen to enhance their foreign exchange dealings. Figure 7. These are usually traded through organised exchanges.1 describes the examples of currency derivatives. arising from the parties involved in a contract. It can also be termed as the agreement where the value can be determined from the rate of exchange of two currencies at the spot. The standard agreement made in order to buy or sell foreign currencies in future is termed as currency futures.1: Example for Foreign Currency Derivatives Some of the risks associated with currency derivatives are:  Credit risk takes place. The authority to buy or sell the foreign currencies in future at a specified rate is provided by currency option. Hence.

an organisation has to identify the opportunities present in these countries. others focus on customers or society at large. and this leads in an outflow from one state to another. External factors include taxes. This method facilitates in moving the tax revenues of one country to another. Transfer pricing is a critical issue for a firm operating internationally. It also enables to fix transfer price on a nonmarket basis and thus enables to save tax. The objective should be formed in a way that it is not deficient or immeasurable.Set 2 Q1. Answer : -Transfer pricing: -Transfer pricing is the process of setting a price that will be charged by a subsidiary (unit) of a multi-unit firm to another unit for goods and services. transfer at cost and cost-plus pricing. transfer pricing helps to efficiently manage the ratio of profit and loss within the company. where transfer pricing is the act of pricing commodities or services. which are sold between such related units.Q6. Transfer pricing can also be defined as the rates or prices that are utilized when selling goods or services between a parent company and a subsidiary or company divisions and departments that may be across many countries.Write a note on strategic objectives. Transfer Pricing Manipulation (TPM) is used to overcome these reasons. However. TPM assists in saving the organisation‟s tax by shifting accounting profits from high tax to low tax jurisdictions. and other charges. Discuss the importance of transfer pricing for MNCs. Therefore. Transfer pricing is determined in three ways: market based pricing. The reason for transfer pricing may be internal or external. The strategic objectives must help the organisation to achieve their mission and vision.  Appropriate – With the given vision and mission of the organisation. objectives must be consistent. Many managers consider transfer pricing as non-market based. . their strengths and capabilities and plan to work on their core competencies. The price that is set for the exchange in the process of transfer pricing may be a rate that is reduced due to internal depreciation or the original purchase price of the goods in question. Transfer pricing is a relatively simple method of moving goods and services among the overall corporate family.  Specific – A clear message as to what needs to be achieved is provided. Governments usually discourage TPM since it is against transfer pricing. ASSIGNMENT. in common terminology. tariffs. transfer pricing generally refers TPM. the Government is trying to implement a taxing system in order to curb tax evasion. While implementing an international strategy. The Arm‟s Length pricing rule is used to establish the price to be charged to the subsidiary. This means that objectives must be challenging and attainable. A similar trend can be observed in domestic markets where different states try to attract investment by reducing the Sales tax rates. explore the various resources available.  Timely – To accomplish the objective there need to be a time frame. Internal transfer pricing include motivating managers and monitoring performance. The strategic objectives are as follows:  Measurable – To measure progress against fulfilling the objective there must be at least one indicator. When properly used. Answer: -Strategic objectives: -Strategic objectives assist in the implementation process of the organisation‟s objectives or goals.  Realistic – Objectives must be an achievable target given the organisation‟s abilities and opportunities in the environment. Most of strategic objectives focus on producing greater profits and returns for the business owners.

WTO represents the latest attempts to create an organisational focal point for liberal trade management and to consolidate a global organizational structure to govern world affairs.  Ensuring that developing countries secure a better share of growth in world trade. The export promotion is done through the International Trade Center established by the GATT in 1964. The center . Discuss in brief the role of WTO in promoting international business. The WTO is the successor to the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Mexico. challenging objectives help encourage and inspire employees throughout the organisation to higher levels of commitment and effort.  Finally. The Marrakesh Declaration of 15th April 1994 was formed to strengthen the world economy that would lead to better investment. There are other objectives that are even more specific.WTO was established on 1st January 1995. The important functions of the WTO as stated in the WTO agreement are the following: Developing transitional economies – Majority of the WTO members belong to developing countries. In April 1994. for different parts of an organisation there is always the potential to follow their own goals rather than the overall company goals. they help guide employees throughout the organisation towards achieving the common goals.  Promoting employment. The other major functions include:  Helping trade flows by encouraging nations to adopt discriminatory trade policies. Thus.When strategic objectives are thoroughly implemented. China. These are commonly referred to as short-term objectives that are essential components of action plans. It is the only international body that deals with the rules of trades between nations. India is one of the founder members of WTO. these may work at cross purposes to the organisation as a whole. They are critical in implementing an organisation‟s chosen strategy. appropriate objectives offer a standard for rewards and incentives.WTO: . 2. instead of being asked simply to do their best. trade.  Third. It is operated by the WTO and the United Nations. the Final Act was signed at a meeting in Marrakesh. A research has supported the concept that individuals work harder when they are motivated toward specific goals. usually developing countries for support in formulating and implementing export promotion programmes. income growth and employment throughout the world. The developing countries such as India. Objectives and functions: -The key objective of WTO is to promote and ensure international trade in developing countries. The developing states are provided with trade and tariff data. The WTO helps in solving the problems of developing economies. Morocco.  Second. WTO created a qualitative change in international trade. meaningful objectives help resolve divergence when they occur. WTO has attempted to create various organisational attentions for regulation of international trade. it will result in strategic competitiveness that improves the performance and innovation of these organisations. When objectives fulfil the above conditions.  Resolving trade disputes. Answer: . Brazil and others have an important role in the organisation. Though these intentions are good. expanding productions and trade and raising standard of living and income and utilising the world‟s resources. The new members benefit hugely from these services. there are many profits for the organisation. This aids the organisation to concentrate and conserve valuable resources and to work together in a timely manner. This depends on the country‟s individual export interest and their participation in WTO-bodies. Providing help for export promotion – The WTO provides specialized help for export promotion to its members.  Providing forum for trade negotiations. The center accepts requests from member countries. The profits are:  First. They not only result in higher levels of motivation by employees but they will also help ensure a greater sense of equity or fairness when rewards are allocated.

The center also provides assistance in establishing export promotion and marketing services. trade visits. The dispute settlement system is prohibited from adding or deleting the rights and obligations provided in the WTO agreements. It helps in settling multilateral trading dispute. International Monetary Fund (IMF) that are involved in monetary and financial matters.2 shows the three main categories that are associated with the export promotion measures. low wages and the industrial bases to increase its exports. Monitoring implementation of the agreement – The WTO administers sixty different agreements that have the statue of international legal documents. price stability. training.  The earning of the exports need to be raised to create the purchasing power in order to import the essential goods. to improve and maintain the cooperation with international organisations such as the World Bank. Answer : -Export Promotion Schemes: . Through this WTO proves its commitment in the upliftment of the world economy. A dispute arises when a member country adopts a trade policy and other fellow members consider it as a violation of WTO agreements. we need to focus on our strengths like. The needs of the export promotion scheme are explained as follows: As the economy of the country is progressing with the increase in terms of population. trade fairs. This also helps in pre-shipment and post-shipment financing. Write a note on various export promotion schemes by GOI. there are some capital goods. . It helps in identification of the product and market. WTO analyses the impact of liberalisation on the growth and development of national economies which is the important factor in the success of the economy. a separate declaration was adopted to achieve this objective.Export promotion schemes are the incentive programs that are developed to attract more firms into exporting. The WTO dispute settlement system helps to:  Preserve the rights and responsibilities of the members. and foreign representation and so on. the country needs to have sufficient funds so that the country has to promote for its exports. Administrating dispute settlement – The important function of WTO is the administration of the WTO dispute settlement system. Providing forum for negotiations – The WTO provides a permanent forum for negotiations among members. The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) is responsible for the settlement of disputes. We need to have surplus exports to pay our imports. payment guarantee schemes. there is a need for more number of imports. We need to create the repaying capacity with the help of exports. India being a developing economy. In the Marrakesh Ministerial Meeting in April 1994. The figure 13. export promotion schemes are needed to give a boost for our economy. The negotiations can be on matters already in the WTO agreements or matters not addressed in the WTO law. machinery and raw materials that cannot be produced for some more time and it has to be imported from the other countries.  The deficits of payments in Indian economy can be resolved through funds received through the foreign assistance. In order to pay for such imports.  We need to explore the foreign markets in order to expand the capacities of the existing units and find market for the new units.  It is not wise to depend on the other external assistances for financing essential imports. The membergovernments sign and confirm all WTO agreements on attainment.  Clarify the current provisions of the agreements.provides information on export market and marketing techniques. rather exportable surplus needs to be created. Cooperating in global economic policy-making – The main function of the WTO is to cooperate in global economic policy-making. The declaration specifies the responsibility of WTO as. Q3.  To tap our export potentials completely.  In any country.

The investments beyond 75 lakhs is permitted for the small scale industrial sectors. accessories. Export Oriented Units (EOU). computer software.  Investment in plant and equipment .This scheme allows import of the capital goods at the reduced rate of 15percent customs duty.The central government helps in modernising and upgrading the test houses and laboratories in order to bring the standards so that the certifications from such test houses are very well recognised within and outside the country.  Duty exemption scheme . Electronic Hardware Technology Parks (EHTP) and Software Technology Parks (STP) helps in facilitating the export production in non-traditional sectors. part accessories and other items that are not regulated by negative list of imports. intermediates.2: Export Promotion Measures The export promotion measures are explained as follows:  Export production .For gearing up the production.  Supply of raw materials .  Liberalisation . components.There are some license free import goods such as the raw materials. This scheme has even extended to the services sector.The establishment of the Export Processing Zones (EPZ). components. DETAILS OF EXPORT PROMOTION SCHEMES Date : 26 Jul 2005 Location : New Delhi . consumables. spares.This scheme aims at import of duty free goods. They can be imported under various schemes. These are explained as follows:  Import of second hand capital goods – The import of second hand goods that have the minimum residual life of five years are allowed free of licence but is subjected to actual user conditions.Figure 13. Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme : .  Quality . consumables. There are many export promotion schemes and Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) is one of the export promotion schemes. The goods that can be imported by this way include raw materials.The policies like the trade and industrial licensing are oriented towards exports. we need to sharpen the competitive edge and upgrade the technology to get a better quality. The goods can be both new and second hand goods and to the Services sector.  Processing zones for export .

II. Duty Entitlement Passbook (DEPB) Scheme to neutralise the incidence of customs duty on the import content of the export product and the exporter is entitled for a duty credit as a specified percentage of FOB value of exports. professional equipment and office furniture. Diamond Imprest Licence etc. Vishesh Krishi Upaj Yojana Scheme to allow duty free import of inputs or goods including capital goods (as notified) against export of certain agricultural and their value added products. Deemed Export Duty Drawback and Terminal Excise Duty Refund Scheme for those transactions in which the goods supplied to specific categories of beneficiary. VI. VIII. IV. SSI.Details of schemes in operation are: I. Duty Exemption and Remission Schemes 1. Software Technology Park Scheme or Bio-Technology Park Scheme to operate under duty-free regime for import/procurement of all types of goods including capital goods without payment of duty for manufacture of goods for export. 6. office furniture and consumables related to the main line of business against exports of services. do not leave the country and the payment for such supplies is received either in Indian Rupees or in Free Foreign Exchange. Free Trade and Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) Scheme to create trade related infrastructure to facilitate the import and export of goods and services with freedom to carry out trade transaction in free currency. production and post-production (including CKD/SKD thereof as well as computer software systems) at 5% customs duty subject to an export obligation equivalent to 8 times of duty saved on capital goods imported under the Scheme to be fulfilled over a period 8 years reckoned from the date of issuance of licence. Assistance to States for Infrastructure Development of Exports to encourage the state government to participate in promoting exports from their respective states for developing infrastructure etc. Advance Licence. Target Plus Scheme for the status certificate holder to allow duty free credit based on incremental exports to import any inputs. V. office equipment. 4. Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme to allow import of capital goods for pre-production. capital goods including spares. BIFR etc. Special Economic Zone is a specifically delinked duty free enclave and are deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of Trade Operations and duties and tariffs wherein these units can import/procure from the DTA all types of goods and services without payment of duty. made in freely convertible currency. . Advance Licence Scheme to allow duty free import of inputs. Export Oriented Unit (EOU) Scheme. VII. which are physically incorporated in the export product (making normal allowance for wastage) with a specific export obligation in terms of value and quantity. Schemes related to Gems & Jewellery sector such as Replenishment Licence. 5. 3. III. office equipment and professional equipment. Electronics Hardware Technology Park (EHTP) Scheme. Duty Free Replenishment Certificate (DFRC) is issued for import of inputs used in the manufacture of goods without payment of basic customs duty after completion of exports. Relaxation in export obligation has been allowed for specific categories such as Units pertaining to agro. 2. Served from India Scheme to allow duty free import of capital goods including spares.

What do you understand by regional integration? List its types.IX. and resulted in the availability and variety of new products. It is the weakest type of economic integration and aims to reduce the taxes on few products to the countries who sign the pact. Free trade area: -Free Trade Area (FTA) is a type of trade bloc and can be considered as a second stage of economic integration. The importers product is qualified individually by the FTA. XI. Regional integration requires some compromise on the part of countries. 3. The basis on which the product will be qualified is that the finished product should have a minimum percentage of local content. capital. It should aim to improve the general quality of life for the citizens of those countries. Common markets levy common external tariff on imports from non-member countries. comprising a free trade area with common policies on product regulation. Q4. Regional integration also reflects a country‟s willingness to share or unify into a larger whole. Preferential trading agreement : -Preferential trading agreement is a trade pact between countries. A single market is a type of trade bloc. The introduction of PTA has generated an increase in the market size. This agreement aims at making the movement of four factors of production between the member countries easier. Chile and South Common Market (MERCOSUR). India is in PTA with countries like Afghanistan. 1. Common market: -Common market is a group formed by countries within a geographical area to promote duty free trade and free movement of labour and capital among its members. Answer : -Regional integration can be defined as the unification of countries into a larger whole. which are known as the four factors of production. Different types of regional integration are discussed in this section. If the countries compete among themselves. in order to determine the eligibility for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). they are likely to choose customs union. The tariffs are not abolished completely but are lower than the tariffs charged to countries not party to the agreement. The Marketing Development Assistance (MDA) Scheme to provide financial assistance for a range of export promotion activities such as participation in trade fairs and buyer seller needs abroad or in India. export promotion seminars etc Other schemes to promote activities such as Brand Promotion and Quality Improvement etc. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) terms these agreements of integration as Regional Trade Agreements (RTA). The level of integration of a country with other countries is determined by what it shares and how it shares. the importer must evaluate the eligibility of the product depending on the rules surrounding the products. tariffs and quotas on most of the services and goods traded between them. Countries choose this kind of economic integration if their economical structures are similar. The importers must obtain product information from all the suppliers within the supply chain. After receiving the supplier documentation. It is made up of all the countries that are willing to or agree to reduce preferences. This tendency towards integration was activated by the European Union (EU) market integration. European community is an example of common market. 2. The Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme to provide financial assistance for a whole range of activities as a Medium Term Export Promotion efforts with a sharp focus on a country and product. This trend has influenced both developed and developing countries to form customs unions and Free Trade Areas (FTA). X. fiscal and physical barriers among the member countries are eliminated considerably as these barriers . The technical. and freedom of movement of goods. we have seen more and more countries moving towards regional integration to strengthen their ties and relationship with other countries. labour and services. In recent years. Types of Integration A whole range of regional integrations exist today.

The national companies that earlier benefited from market protection and subsidies. The members of an economic union share some elements associated with their national economic jurisdictions. This affects the inefficient companies and hence. Some form of cooperation usually exists when framing fiscal and monetary policies. common product regulations and a common external trade policy. results in a loss of market share and the companies may have to close down. Country names can amount to brand names and assist consumers in evaluating the products before purchasing them. the individual nations share a common government and the union is acknowledged internationally as a single political entity. Q5. Economic unions are established by means of a formal intergovernmental legal agreement. among independent countries with the intention of fostering greater economic integration. In the past decade. It comprises of a common market with a customs union. more efficient providers of products and increased variety of products. 5. A country changing over to a single market may experience some short term negative effects on the national economy due to increased international competition. Here. 4. The freedom of movement of goods.  Persons within the economic union. The TATA Jaguar deal was one prominent example of an Indian global power house to acquire an internationally reputed automotive company 1. It may be initially limited to a FTA with moderate free movement of capital and services. but it is not capable of removing rest of the trade barriers. A single market presents a challenging environment for businesses as well as for customers. The countries that are part of an economic union have common policies on the freedom of movement of four factors of production. . Single market also benefits the consumers in a way that the competitive environment provides them with inexpensive products. Brand India: -Brand India is a phrase that describes the campaign which projects India as an emerging destination for business in various fields such as information technology. Benefits and costs: -A single market has many advantages. The purpose of an economic union is to promote closer cultural and political ties. making the existence of monopolies difficult. some Indian companies have made remarkable progress by reaching the international platform in short time. efficient companies can gain from the increased competitiveness. labour and services between the member countries. These include the free movements of:  Goods and services within the union along with a common taxing method for imports from non-member countries.A political union is a type of country.India is a developing country and every developing country has its own organisational problems. However. manufacturing. while increasing the economic efficiency between the member countries. The member countries must come forward to eliminate the barriers. may find it difficult to cope with their efficient peers. which consists of smaller countries/nations. capital. A common market is a first step towards a single market. infrastructure. have a political will and formulate common economic policies. results in the efficient allocation of these production factors and increases productivity. Political union: .  Capital within the economic union. India has transformed from being primarily domestic players into confident global corporations. economies of scale and lower costs.hinder the freedom of movement of the four factors of production. they may have to close down leading to migration and unemployment. A political union can also be termed as a legislative union or state union. service sector and so on. Economic union: .Economic union is a type of trade bloc and is instituted through a trade pact. If the companies fail to improve their methods. What are the challenges faced by Indian businesses in global market? Answer: .

The new emerging corporate India needs guiding principles for corporate governance. It reflects the economic reforms and liberalisation process that Indian economy has undergone. The customers of developed countries buy those products only on the basis of price. nature and extent of bureaucracy. 2. In developed countries. corporate governance initiatives are undertaken by Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) was established to promote brand India. The objective of the corporate governance is to attain highest standards of procedures and practices that are followed by the corporate world. It is set of policies that affect the way a company is administered and controlled. Ethical leadership is important for the business to be conducted by meeting the expectations of all the stakeholders. Good corporate governance promotes accountability in relation to public satisfaction and responsive delivery of service. Corporate governance deals with power and accountability for the safety of assets and resources entrusted to the operating team of the firm. road or port upgradation takes years for completion or are stalled for many years. An organisation has to be ethical because it has to exist in the competitive world. The ethical norms vary from country to country. Government and bureaucracy: . Business ethics provide a general guidelines within which a management can operate. Government policy and bureaucratic culture in India do not encourage international business. The famous brands from India are Indian information technology (IT) companies such as Infosys. The common aspects for the failure of corporate governance are misuse of power. party in power and so on.Brand India is receiving a positive response. Ethics is a generalised value system avoiding discrimination in recruitment and adopting fair business practices. Government support is extended in the form of policy reforms. financial market. Unnecessary government interference can hinder globalisation. Brand equity is the worth derived from the goodwill and name recognition acquired over a period of time. The political environment includes political stability in the country. Corporate governance: . Ethics: -Corporate governance is about ethical conduct of the business. Brand India is weak in many ways. Wipro and Tata. The infrastructure such as airport. This affects the business in India negatively. Government policy and procedures in India are very complex and confusing. Corporate governance is the ethical framework under which corporate decisions are taken. Another challenge that influences business is bureaucracy. frauds. The initial market entry strategy of a company from a developing country is to offer cheaper products of acceptable quality. Changes in government and political instability disrupt business. people are yet to associate India with world-class standards. misappropriation of funds and so on. 3. Managers make decisions based on a set of values and principles that are influenced by the culture of the organisation. Industrial incentives are administered by an elaborate and expensive bureaucracy. The varying ethical norms and social values make international business environment complex. The positive image of these companies help in changing consumer perceptions and also help in re-branding India as a leading manufacturing and service hub by improving India‟s brand equity. ideology of government. Quality corporate governance is a tool for socioeconomic development. However.The political environment of a country influences the business to a large extent. R&D support and so on. It improves sales volume and profit margins. Government support is essential to encourage globalisation. . China and Korea.Corporate governance is a process of promoting corporate transparency and accountability. Brand India is comprised of a large number of sub-brands that are relatively established. development of infrastructure. In India. example. The concept identifies that the nation has complete control over the international affairs. Good business thrives on predictability which is lacking in India. The relationship of government to international business is based on the concept of sovereignty. Ethics is related to the code of values and principles that helps a person to choose between right or wrong.

flexible time. Child labour is used in the manufacture of exports from the developing countries is criticised by people in the developed countries. and trading partners. In this direct business. and the information. resellers. Most companies encourage exchange programs where employees from one country come and interact with employees of other countries. Answer: . in India the carpet industry uses child labour and social activists in developed nations demand ban on the import goods embodying child labour. the selling enterprise includes wholesaler. Q6. The challenge is to create a work environment where every person performs to his full potential and compete for rewards and promotions that based on merits.  Promoting minorities and other sections to decision-making positions. the workforce consists of variety of cultures. They are:  Focusing on bringing in best talent.business models. a typical firm is a combination of diverse workforce in terms of gender. MNCs had a country specific business strategy but now it is moving towards a global one. For example. Previously. and job sharing opportunities. There are some practical steps taken by managers to manage diversity. 4. The design of the business model is part of the business strategy. 1.  Providing extended leaves. The multinational enterprises are charged of unjust treatment of workers in developing nations. The labour law enforcement is weak. The values can be social. suppliers. retailer or manufacturers who sell to the buyers of other business. delivers and captures the value. Figure 11. Business to business model: .Labour practices: . Hiring labors to contractor and subcontracting non-core activities to other companies provides flexibility to the firms that seek to manage their labour force in volatile context.  Establishing programmes among employees of same and different race. Consumers tend to boycott such goods and this in turn adversely affects the business.Ethical concerns are at the core of dispute regarding the labour practices. . Today. Discuss the various e. economic forms of value. The B2B model is shown in the figure 11. managing diversity is a challenge.2. manufactures. Managing diversity: . Internet based e-business is carried out through the industry sponsored marketplaces and private exchanges that are conducted by the large companies.2: Business to Business Model The above diagram indicates direct business to business model.The business model describes the manner in which an organisation creates. distributors. For an international manager. In an international organisation. race and so on.The business to business (B2B) model describes the transactions between the buyers. gender and race profile of the workforce. Managing diversity is a process of establishing workforce to perform in an unbiased environment where no member has an advantage or disadvantage. services.  Developing an age. The laws that force firms to obtain permission from the government prior to retrenchment are not enforced properly. The success of an MNC is determined by its ability to manage diversity.Most of the international businesses face problems in managing multicultural diversity. This involves the transactions that involve the products.

and conduct indirect procurement transactions.  Customer services .Many of the large enterprises use the dedicated B2C model. The community services can be chat. The major online retailers of computer hardware and software are Dell and Gateway.This process involves the services that are helpful for the customers. For example. and newsletters. Most of the companies do not want to get customised designs through marketplaces as they do not want to expose proprietary information on a site that is shared by competitors. tennis bats. email services.These include the services that are dealt for the whole community.This involves the activities like profile matching that matches the web content to specific profiles and gets the feedback from the customers and deals with the events. They are described as follows:  Generic B2C model . message boards. rubber and other raw materials.The second largest product category sold online is electronics.Most of the people buy software products online. There are some e-commerce constituents with the B2C model.com. pen drives and so on. www. order status and also enables the online payment.  Dedicated B2C model . B2B model mainly focus on maintaining relationship with the business partners.The activities that serve the business customers with the products and services are described in the business to consumer model. Business to consumer merchants sells on a first-come. www. and registration.com and so on. These include the activities such as the product support. subscriptions. Therefore. The best example we can give for the business to consumer (B2C) transaction is the person buying a pair of shoes from the retailer. Examples for this include sites like www. The manufacture of the shoes performs many transactions such as the purchase of leather. . companies use such marketplaces mainly to purchase products.  Personalisation . laces. In most of the cases. calendaring. and wireless devices like mobile phones. The enterprise itself owns the e-market place to sell service and support the customers online. 2.dicksportinggoods. online support like the call centers and telephony integration. B2B e-commerce differs from business-to-consumer e-commerce in many ways. Most B2B transactions are done through negotiated contracts that allow the seller to think and plan for how much the buyer is likely to purchase. Some of the electronics items shopped or purchased online are digital cameras.The main reason behind introducing this B2B model is to overcome the problems met by industry sponsored marketplaces in approaching buyers and sellers. There are two models of implementation related to the business to consumer.ebay. scanners. The third party e-market place is used to help the enterprises for selling the products online.This involves the process like the catalog. These constituents are explained as follows:  Commerce . as these are not related to their core business. printers. compare. products and a service.The generic model is mainly designed for the small and medium enterprises. golf balls are some of the sporting goods which are sold online.  Consumer electronics . advertisements. As the name indicates this model is fully dedicated to the customers and is almost equivalent to the customer relationship management. manage their supply chains. first-serve basis. golf accessories like clubs.  Community services . The products that are browsed and mostly sold over the internet are explained as follows:  Computer hardware and software .Sports related items like cricket bats.com  Sporting goods . summitonline. Business to consumer model: .

The C2B model involves consumers themselves presenting as a group and provides the goods and services to the enterprise.speakout. This is called as the inverted business model since the process operates completely in the opposite direction of the traditional e-business model. The efficient C2C businesses involve items like handmade gifts. The intermediaries in the C2Cbusiness model charge the sellers. There will be million consumers those who want to sell their products in the e-business field. This site provides consumers market strategies and businesses and it also makes them familiar with the requirements of the various businesses. in which the organisations offer the goods and services to the consumers. This can be explained by taking the example of online auction where the customer posts an item for sale and other customer purchases the product. C2C is also called as Peer to Peer (P2P) exchanges. Consumer to consumer model : .Office supplies . www. For example. Equally on the other side there are million people who want to purchase the products and services.The consumer to consumer (C2C) model involves the transaction between the customers through the third party. Finding each other are beneficial for both the retailer and the consumers and this can happen many times only with the help of third party that act as the intermediaries.Business to consumer sales of office supplies are increasing all over the world.  . But in between the third party charges a commission for the sale.officedepot.com alone reached over 10. music and file sharing. A concrete example of this is when competing airlines gives a traveler best travel and ticket offers in response to the traveler‟s post.000 crores in 2002. in which the consumers offer products and services to the enterprises. The model helps:  In connecting large group of people by the bidirectional network. and also the personal services. Consumer to business model: . C2C e-business gives many small business owners a way to sell their products without running a highly profit draining bricksand-mortar store. www. For example. Many of the traditional media is of unidirectional but the internet is the bidirectional media. 4. This C2B model is advantageous because of the following reasons. personal artwork. clothing design. 3.  Individuals to access the technologies that were once available only for the large companies.com. and collectables. The intermediaries charge because they bring the customers and sellers to one marketplace. The C2C transaction includes the classifieds. C2C e-business has created a new dimension in online shopping business.A consumer to business (C2B) model is the electronic business model.

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