UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS) MEED – 2009 RESEARCH PROPOSAL

NAME:

NDIMBA CONSOLATA T.

REG. NO.:

2008 – 06 – 00785

SUPERVISOR:

Dr. EMRO ELISANTE

RESEARCH TITLE: The Role of Private Sector in the Promotion of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania: A Case of Dar Es Salaam

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................................ 2 A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS..........................................................................................4 SECTION I.................................................................................................................... 5 1.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 5 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM........................................................................6 SECTION II................................................................................................................... 7 2.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ...........................................................................7 SECTION III.................................................................................................................. 9 3.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY................................................................................9 3.1 Overall Objective.............................................................................................9 3.2 Specific Objectives..........................................................................................9 3.3 Significance of the study...............................................................................10 SECTION IV................................................................................................................ 11 4.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE....................................................................11 4.1 Empirical Literature on the Subject...............................................................11 4.2 Consolidation and discussion.........................................................................12 SECTION V ................................................................................................................12 5.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY........................................................................12 5.1 The Research Design.....................................................................................12 5.2 Sample of Study............................................................................................13 5.3 Data Collection Devices................................................................................13 5.4 Data Administration .....................................................................................14 5.5 Expected Results .........................................................................................14 5.6 Scope and Limitation ....................................................................................15

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REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 16 APPENDICES .............................................................................................................18 APPENDIX I.............................................................................................................18 Questionnaire to Graduates from Private TVET Institutions.................................18 APPENDI X II...........................................................................................................21 Questionnaire to the Directors of the Private Institutes.......................................21 APPENDIX III........................................................................................................... 23 Interview Question to the Regulatory Authorities VETA/ NACTE...........................23 APPENDIX IV........................................................................................................... 24 Time Budget:...................................................................................................... 25 APPENDIX V ...................................................................................................... 25

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A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Competence Based Education and Training International Labour Organization National Council for Technical Education National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty Non Governmental Organizations Technical and Vocational Education and Training Technical Education and Training United Nation Education Scientific and Culture Organization Vocational Education and Training Vocational Education and Training Authority Vocational Training Centers

CBET ILO NACTE NSGRP NGOs TVET TET UNESCO VET VETA VTCs

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SECTION I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The governments of all third world countries affirm the need for an educated population as necessary for the modern state and one of the preconditions for development. The detailed nature of educational needs and priorities differs very greatly from one country to another. While others emphasize primary schooling, others emphasize higher education. Some countries emphasize general education, whereas others vocational and practical subjects. (Gould, 1993). However, for those living in poverty to succeed, basic education is only the first step. They also need training, “skills” and a chance for meaningful employment to live productive lives. (CIDA, 2009) According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Netherlands (2007), in recent years, the term ‘skills development’ has emerged in development terminology as a concept that is synonymous with a broadly defined notion of Technical and Vocational Education and Training - TVET. TVET is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and skills for the world of work as it was agreed in 1999, at the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education General Conference in Seoul at the 30th session of the of United Nation Education Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) In that perspective, Tanzania adopted the UNESCO definition for technical and vocational education and training when the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE), one of the TVET regulator, defines it as “Education and training undertaken by students to equip them play roles requiring higher levels of skills, knowledge and understanding/attitudes and in which they take responsibility for their areas of specialization” (URT, 1997)

Tanzania, as a developing country whose 90% of its population live in poverty (URT, 2006), acknowledges the role TVET plays in social and economic development of the country. The sections of population which need attention include the majority of the school leavers who require either pre employment or on the job training for them to fit job requirements and others. Consequently, the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Policy was developed in 2007 to allow for sound provision of the TVET training. The policy encouraged the private sector in the

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provision of TVET so as to increase enrollment and acquire skilled personnel to manage activities in diverse economic sectors. Together with the private institutions, training is also provided by, Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), faith related and line ministries institutions. This research paper will specifically target the private sector as a TVET provider. The paper will examine the role which the sector plays in its mission to provide knowledge and skills relevant to the social economic development and poverty alleviation in Tanzania. It will also provide recommendations to private sector’s challenges in the provision of the education.

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is expected to play a crucial role of providing the society with a balanced technical manpower required to perform various responsibilities in various sectors of the economy. Due to technological advances taking place in the world the job is increasingly demanding advanced skills. The new job entrants need to undergo intensive training to enable them make significant contribution at their work place and in the midst of global competition. On the other hand, unemployment including self employment has been an ever present problem often caused partly by lack of creativity but also by lack of start up capital and skills for entrepreneurial self employment (URT, 2007). Furthermore, in Tanzania, inadequate capacity in terms of number, knowledge and skills is one of the major challenges facing implementation of economic growth and poverty reduction activities (National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty - NSGRP) in most of the key priority sectors of the economy. Hence, meaningful poverty alleviation campaign must include enhanced quality education and training to equip people with skills, expertise and know how. It is in this context that technical and vocational education and training has a crucial role to play as it is a vital tool in capacity building for sustainable development of any nation (Nkwera andAhmed, 2002). In addressing this challenge of technical and vocational skills inadequacy, Tanzania developed a Technical and Vocational Education and Training Policy (TVET) in 2007 with the rationale of increasing unbiased access to skills development, in terms of expanded enrolments (URT, 2007) so

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as to reduce imbalance of personnel in various sectors of the economy. The policy encouraged the private sector to participate fully in the provision of technical and vocational education. The TVET system in Tanzania is split between the Technical Education and Training (TET) and Vocational Education and Training (VET), under two different governing bodies, i.e. The National Council for Technical Education (NACTE) established in 1997 and Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) established in 1993 (Ndunguru, 2006). However, both the two bodies are under the Ministry of Education and Vocational Education and are governed by the TVET Policy. The bodies have the mandate of registration, accreditation, and coordination of all TET and VET activities in the country. The private sector in any country is at the heart of the development process. Driven by the quest for profit, it invests in new ideas and new facilities that strengthen the foundation of economic growth and prosperity. It is thus, a critical actor in the search for growth and poverty reduction. In its quest to provide training, the private sector in Tanzania so far owned about 351 Vocational Education Training centers in 2008 while VETA owned 21 centers. Central/Local Government had 138, Faith Based Organizations 278, and NGOs 101 (The United Republic of Tanzania, 2009). Since the establishment of the TVET policy which embraced the private sector in the provision of TVET, there have not been researches to document how this sector carries out its mission of increasing enrolment and reducing imbalance of personnel through creating skilled human resource base in Tanzania. This research paper will examine the role played by the private sector in the promotion of TVET in Tanzania. The research will particularly refer to Dar es Salaam region where most of the private institutions are situated. SECTION II 2.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The TVET system in Tanzania is split between the Technical Education and Training (TET) and Vocational Education and Training (VET), under two different governing bodies, i.e. The National Council for Technical Education (NACTE) and Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) both under the Ministry of Education and Vocational Education. The

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academic component of education and training at the technician, semi-professional and professional levels is provided by technical institutions under NACTE, and at the artisan and technicians levels is mainly provided by vocational training institutions under Vocational Education and Training VETA. Tanzania, through its Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy of 2007 addressed the constraints in skills development through increased enrolment particularly to technician level. The private sector was encouraged to participate fully in the provision of technical and vocational education. As a result of this promotion of private sector provision, by the year 2008 there were about 351 Vocational Education Training centers owned by the private providers in Tanzania and had a share of 33% of graduates whereas NACTE recorded registration of 223 private and public Technical Education institutions by 30th June 2009. (URT, 2009), Yet, since the establishment of the TVET policy in 2007 no research has been done to examine the role of the private sector in its provision of technical and vocational education and training. This is because researches on TVET are quite limited in most countries. Such research which exist are typically concerned with pedagogy and curricula because they tend to be an outgrowth of TVET policy issues touched upon by commissioned research or carried out by international agencies like International Labour Organisation (ILO), UNESCO-UNEVOC, International Development Banks, or a few Bilateral Development Agencies (Lauglo, 2009). Thus, they are review work rather than research on primary data. Primary data collection is confined to visits to a few institutions and interviews carried out with persons in positions of responsibility. This study aims at providing empirical data on the role that the private institutes actually play in the promotion of TVET. The paper will therefore fill the existing gap. 2.1 Key concepts 1.Private Sector The section of the economy that is financed and controlled by individuals or private institutions, such as companies, stakeholders, or investment groups. 2.Role

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Involvement – The position or purpose that something has in a situation, organization, society or relationship. 3.TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is the education and training undertaken by students to equip them play roles requiring higher levels of skills, knowledge and understanding and which they take responsibility for their areas of specialization.

SECTION III 3.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3.1 Overall Objective The overall objective of this study is to examine the contribution of the private sector’s institutions in promoting TVET for national economic development and poverty alleviation in Tanzania. 3.2 Specific Objectives The study will specifically:

Find out the views of the graduate students on the significance of the education they had received in relation to the needs of the market

Assess the private sector’s contribution in the creation of skilled human resource and employment in various economic sectors.

• •

Evaluate the private sector’s challenges in education and skills provision Recommend on the government interventions for successful skills development strategy through the private sector.

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3.3 Significance of the study

3.3.1 On Academic Grounds: This work is a requirement for partial fulfillment of Masters Degree in Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development at the University of Dar es Salaam. The report will be used as a reference point for other students who will come after this report has been produced and the identified gaps will be used by other researchers for further researches.

3.3.2 On Extension of Frontiers of Knowledge: This study will provide a good opportunity as a source of information and inspiration to other professionals interested in the education sector to contribute on the provision of TVET education. It will also provide information to the government as well as development partners on the challenges facing the Private Sectors in the provision of TVET.

3.3.3 On Policy Grounds: This study will assist the policy researchers as reference point to further researches and contribute on policy review.

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SECTION IV 4.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 4.1 Empirical Literature on the Subject Atchoarena and Esquieu (2002) did a research on Private Technical and Vocational Education in Sub Saharan Africa: Provision Pattern and Policy Issues. The research included some information from Tanzania. They found out that private provision represents a significant portion of the TVET sector. However, no current and comprehensive data were available to describe the precise size, profile and results of the private technical provision. The data available were of 1995 during the economic liberalization period. In their research they suggested that registration and accreditation are essential functions to be performed by the regulatory bodies. Therefore, they recommended for the importance to establish capacities of the bodies for deliberate expansion of the TVET sector. Their research, nevertheless, did not include the views of the TVET trainers on the significance of the training they receive in the private TVET institutions. Another study was conducted in Tanzania by Chikira (1991). It observed Vocational Training Centers (VTCs) graduates at work places. This study indicated that 49% graduates were not competent on their trades. Chikira only researched on the public VTCs graduates’ competences at their work place. He didn’t include the private technical education and vocational training institutes. Ogondiek (2005) researched on The Innovation in Vocational Education and Training: The Implementation of the Competence Based Education and Training (CBET). Her research findings revealed that 99% participants recommended continuing with the CBET programme because it is based on the individual and labour market needs. Yet, Ogondiek didn’t include the graduate’s student’s views at workplace. She only studies on the mode of programme delivery and not the programme outcomes. Moreover, the research dealt with the public TVET institutions in Dodoma region. The private ones were not included. Another research was conducted by Mislay (2007) who explored The Implementation of the Technical Education and Training (TET) Policy in the Informal Sector in Tanzania and found out
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that training programmes under TET have created imbalance in skills development in the economy between urban and rural informal sector. The training programmes were inadequate to meet needs for both the rural and urban informal sector skills gap. This study dealt with policy issues but it was not based in Technical and Vocational education and Training Policy which was in place since 2007.

4.2 Consolidation and discussion All these subjects looked at the provision of technical or vocational training and skills in Tanzania. They discuss the mode of provision-(CBET, performance at the work place, provision pattern (private and public) and policy issues as well as the influence of VET graduates on rural development. No known study has been done to trace the contribution of the private institutions in increasing the number of skilled personnel in different sectors of the economy, and document the challenges facing the private sector in the provision of TVET. This study seeks to fill that gap.

SECTION V 5.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 5.1 The Research Design The research design shall focus on the Private Institutions which provide TVET education in Dar es salaam region. The TVET graduates and the regulatory authorities – NACTE and VETA will also form part of the research.

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5.2 Sample of Study The research will be undertaken within Dar es Salaam Region where most of the private sector institutions are concentrated. Three institutions will be selected from each municipality (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) making a total of nine (9) Private Institutes. Their economic specialties will also be identified. Three different groups of people will be included to form part of the sample study • The Directors of Institutions • The desk officers concerned with Private Institutions from the regulatory Authorities NACTE and VETA • The available graduates from selected Institutions

5.3 Data Collection Devices 5.3.1 Primary Data
• Structured Interview:

The research will include structured interview to institute nine (8) directors of the institutes and two (2) regulatory authority’s desk officers. This will be done through physical participatory. • Questionnaire: Questionnaire will be administered to one hundred and eighty (180) graduate students who will be accessible at the time of the research. This will be done through telephone conversation.
• Observation:

Will be done to the institute to verify primary data.

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5.3.2 Secondary Data
• Secondary data will be collected from the library, the internet, and NACTE and VETA

authorities’ publications to identify number and municipality of registered private TVET Institutes in Tanzania and Dar es Salaam in particular.
• Institute student records will be examined to identify telephone numbers of registered

students and graduates in two year’s time.
• Institute admission records will be explored to identify numbers of graduate students.

5.3.3 Sampling Techniques
• Snowball sampling:

Will be used because sample members (graduate students) are a hidden population which is difficult for the researcher to access.

• Systematic Random Sampling Will be used in identifying sample private TVET institutions to be visited in each municipality.

5.4 Data Administration The collected data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the SPSS software. The tabulation and graphs will be drawn to demonstrate the responses from the field for reporting purposes.

5.5 Expected Results The study is expected to obtain the following results concerning the role of the Private Sector in promoting TVET in Tanzania:
• Private Sectors’ significance contribution in skilled human resource as per the needs of the

market (increased number of graduates per economic sector).

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• Private Sectors’ contribution in access to employment and self employment among TVET

graduates.
• Challenges facing the private sector in the provision of TVET education. • The equity of education opportunities according to gender and economic background. • Suggestions on best practice government interventions to private institutions for appropriate

skills development in Tanzania

5.6 Scope and Limitation The major limitation of this study is that the nature of the study requires a large amount of information so as to be able to make broad generalizations. However, financial resources and the time factor coupled with the data collection method used will make this impossible. The research will only select nine private Institutions. This sample is small, and the generalizations will be more suggestive than conclusive.

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REFERENCES
Atchoarena David and Esquieu Paul (2002) “Private Technical and Vocational Education in subSaharan Africa: Provision Patterns and policy issues”. International Institute for Education Planning (IEEP), UNESCO. Atchoarena, David and André Delluc (2002) “Revisiting Technical and Vocational Education in Sub-Saharan Africa”. Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning. Canadian International Development Agency (2009) “Canada Launches Major Vocational Training Initiative for Developing Countries”, (on line) available at http://www.acdi_cida.gc.ca (March 6th 2009) Chikira, S. (1991), “The Policy of Admission to the VTCs: Policy Framework Regarding Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania”, A paper presented to the VET Workshop, Dar es salaam. Francoise Caillods, Olives Betrand and David Atchoarena (1995). “The Development of Human Resources: New Trends in Technical and vocational Education” in IIEP-Research and Studies Pogramme, UNESCO. Gould W.T.S (1993), People and Education in the Third World, United States, Longman Scientific and Technical. Lauglo Jon (2009), “Research for TVET Policy Development” Department of Educational Research, Faculty of Education, University of Oslo. On Line. Available at Adobe Acrobat professional - [Lauglo%202007[1].pdf] Ministry of Foreign Affair, the Netherlands (2007), “Private Sector Development, Access to skills and knowledge”, Sustainable Economic Development Department (DDE) Working Paper. Mislay M. A. (2007) An Exploratory Study on Implementation of the Technical Education and Training Policy in the informal sector in Tanzania from (1996-2006)”, MEMA Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

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Ndunguru Bernadetha (2006) “TVET in Tanzania: A case study” VETA, Dar es salaam. Nkwera Primus D. and Ahmed Athmani (2002) , 21st “Century Skills: The Strategic Role of Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) for Sustainable Development in Tanzania”, 21st Century Literacy Summit. 21st century literacy in a convergent media world [White paper]. On line. Available at http://www.21stcenturyliteracy.org/white/WhitePaperEnglish.pdf Ogondiek M. W. (2005) “Innovations in Vocational Education and Training: The Implementation of the Competence Based Education and Training in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma Vocational Training”, M A (Education) Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. “Role of Human capital in Economic Development: Some myths and Realities” http://www.org.drpad/publication/dc6_2174/chap PDF The United Republic of Tanzania (2009), Education Sector Performance Report 2008/2009, Education Sector Development Committee UNESCO and ILO (2002), Technical and Vocational Education and Training for the Twenty-first Century; UNESCO and ILO Recommendations. UNEVOC (1989), “International Project on Technical and Vocational Education” (UNEVOC),

Convention on Technical and Vocational Education Adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its twenty-fifth session Paris. United Republic of Tanzania (2007) Technical and Vocational Education and Training Policy, Dar es Salaam. United Republic of Tanzania (2006), “Poverty Profile”, Japan Bank for International Cooperation. On line. Available at: http://www.jica.go.jp/activities/issues/poverty/profile/pdf/tanzania_e.pdf (3/3/2010)

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APPENDICES APPENDIX I Questionnaire to Graduates from Private TVET Institutions. Introduction This Questionnaire aims at conducting a research on Tanzania graduates from Private Technical and Vocational Education so as to examine the role played by the private sector in the promotion of TVET. As one of those students, we kindly request that you respond to the following questions as honestly as you can. Your name is not requested anywhere and the data will not be used for any other purpose rather than the completion of this report.

Questions 1. Graduates particulars: (i)Name of Institution you graduated ……………………………………………………. (ii) Level of graduation Degree (iii) Advanced Diploma Diploma Your entry qualifications Form IV Form VI Certificate Diploma Others Certificate

STD seven (7)

(iv)Your Age …………….

Sex ……… Male/Female

(v) Parents/Guardians’ Education level…….. Father Primary School High School None
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Mother Secondary School College education Vocational School University

Vi) Parents/Guardians work in Father Public Sector 2.Do you work? Have a permanent work I work occasionally 3. Where do you work In a public enterprise In a private enterprise Other I work part time I am studying I am unemployed I have my own business Private Sector Unemployed Mother Retiree/Pensioner

4. If you work or have your own business in what field of business do you work Commerce (explain) 5. Who helped you to find a job The institute where I graduated Employment Agency Job advertisement Yourself Parent/ relative/acquaintances Other means (please specify) Construction Agriculture Social Service Other Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transport and Communication

6. When did you begin to work after graduation from Technical or Vocational Institute Just after graduation In less than 3 months In less than 6 months In less than 9 months In less than 12 months Before graduation

7. What kind of work do you do now? Unskilled worker Technician Supervisor 8. Is the work you do related with the specialty you trained for? Yes No Partly Other (specify) Skilled worker

9. Do you use any of the training you received at Vocational and Technical Institute in your current job? Yes No partly Have no job since leaving Institute

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10. How much do you earn? I get allowances under Tshs.200, 000/= I earn under Tshs 100,000/= I earn more than Tshs 200,000/= I earn

11.If you have no job, at the period of unemployment what kind of job are you looking for? Related with my specialty Not related Partly related

12 If you are studying now where are you receiving training / courses of study? Public Institutions College Private Higher school Other

13. For what reason are you studying? Write the name of the course ……………………… cannot find a job related with specialty Want to get another specialty other

14. Are you interested or were you interested in owning your own business after graduation? Very interested 15. (i) Not interested Interested Not sure Not at all interested

Have you taken any course related to small business or entrepreneurship Yes No

(ii)

If Yes, what was the title of the course ………………………………………..

16. Assess the effect of the course in relation to starting your own business (tick all that apply) Tick here (a) (b) (c) (d) The course increase my interest in starting my own business The course made me actually decide to starting my own business The course has made me less confidence of my ability to start a business Other effects

17. Rate the extent to which each of the following is likely to constrain you in starting your own business: 1 2 3 4

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(a) Access to finance (b) Meeting regulations and procedures (c) Premises (d) Business Management skills (e) Lack of experience (f) Others (mention)

4= Very seriously constraint 1=Not at all a serious constraint

3=Serious constraint

2=Not a serious constraint

Thank you for your cooperation

APPENDI X II Questionnaire to the Directors of the Private Institutes Introduction

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This Questionnaire aims at conducting a research on Tanzania graduates from Private Technical and Vocational Education so as to examine the role played by the private sector in the promotion of TVET. As one of the institute Director we kindly request that you respond to the following questions as honestly as you can. The data will not be used for any other purpose rather than the completion of this report. 1. Is your training Institute Private for profit Private not for profit Denomination Company

2. What industrial Sector does it belong to Financial Technology Agriculture Trade other (mention)

3. When was the Institute established? How long is the Institute Less than 2 years More than 5 years Others More than 10 years

4. What are the main problems of the Institute? Financial Labour force Equipment Technology Site Government involvement (In each answer explain briefly)

5. How do you rate the government involvement to your Institute. Unsupportive Very supportive Very unsupportive Supportive (In each answer explain briefly)

6. (i) Is your Institute registered with VETA/NACTE? When?........................... (i) When was your Institute last inspected by NACTE/VETA Authorities?

7. Does the Institute have any relation with the enterprises? Give their names 8. Do you take your students for practical Training (Practice)? If so, specify: (i) What kind of practice do they the get ………………………………………
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……………………………………………………………………………. (ii) (iii) How long does the practice last? ……………………………………………. Is the practice paid for? Yes (iv) No

Who pays fo it? parents/guardians The Institute myself

9. (i) Do management of the enterprises take part in the training process in you Institute? Yes No

(ii) Which ones? …………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 10. What do you suggest could be the best practice government involvement to private TVET institutes for the better functioning of your institution?

Thank you for your corporation.

APPENDIX III Interview Question to the Regulatory Authorities VETA/ NACTE Introduction

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This questionnaire aims at examining the role of the private sector in promoting TVET in Tanzania. Being in a position of a regulator, we kindly request that you respond to the following questions. The data collected will not be used for any other purpose rather than the completion of this research report. We would like to know the following concerning the private sector TVET institutes: 1.How many private institutions have registered with you? 2.What are the criteria for registering them? 3.How do you monitor the efficiency of the courses offered by them? (i) (ii) (iii) Their economic effectiveness Equality of education opportunity cost efficiency

4.What is your opinion on the improvement of the private sector TVET Institutes.

APPENDIX IV

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Time Budget:

1 S/ N 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Problem specification Review Literature Developing Methodology Data Analysis Draft Final Report Bibliography Appendices 7. 8. Final Report Submission and Defense and ACTIVITY

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WEEKS

APPENDIX V Action Plan Week 1 2 3 Activity Proposal Literature Review Literature Review Verifiers Draft proposal Literature review chapter Literature review chapter Main Actors Researcher Researcher Researcher

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4 5

Developing Methodology Field work

Data instruments Data collection

Researcher Researcher Respondents and

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Field

work

and

data Data collection/summary Researcher output Chapter on data analysis Report Report Report Respondents Researcher Researcher Researcher Researcher

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compilation 7 8 9 10 11 Data analysis Draft I final report Draft I final report Draft I final report Bibliography appendices 12 13 14 15 Final report Final report Final report Submission and defence

and Pages on Bibliography Researcher and appendices Report Report Report Report Researcher Researcher Researcher Researcher

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