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Pre-IB Biology Exam Review
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Organization and Cells The organization in a complex organism from smallest to largest is from atom to biological molecule to organelle to cell to tissue to organ to organ system to organism. Organ systems are made up of organs, structures that carry out specialized jobs. These are composed of tissues, groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function. A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all of life’s functions. It must be covered by a membrane, contain all genetic information necessary for replication, and be able to carry out all cell functions. Each cell has organelles, structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive. These organelles contain biological molecules, chemical compounds that provide physical structure and bring about cellular functions. All biological molecules are made up of atoms, the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of a certain element. Response to Stimuli Organisms must be able to respond and react to changes in their environment to stay alive. Responding to stimuli – physical or chemical changes in the internal or external environment, is a characteristic of life. Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. For example, some creatures will have several ways to maintain a constant body temperature in cold weather, such as an owl, which can trap an insulating layer of air next to the bird’s body to maintain its body temperature. Its cells can also burn fuel to produce body heat in such conditions. Metabolism Living organisms use energy to power all the life processes, such as repair, movement, and growth. This energy use depends on metabolism the sum of all metabolism, chemical reactions that take in and transform energy in the body. Growth and Development All living things grow and increase in size. Cell division is the formation of two new cells from an existing cell. In unicellular organisms, the primary change after cell division is cell growth. In multicellular organisms, cell division, cell enlargement, and cell development is how organisms mature.
An experiment is used to test a hypothesis and the corresponding prediction. 5. Change Through Time Populations of living things evolve or change through time. organisms transmit hereditary information to their offspring in the form of DNA in segments called genes Reproduction can be genes. Once the experiment is finished. 6. During reproduction. Reproduction All organisms produce new organisms like themselves in the process of reproduction. As a result. Asexual reproduction is comparable to cloning. and explains the diversity of life-forms seen on Earth today. hypothesis. 2. such as carrying oxygen in blood or hearing. but not for the survival of the individual organism. sexual (two organisms) or asexual (one organism). the data and conclusions are communicated to scientific peers and to the public . This ability is important for survival in a changing world. the data are analyzed and used to draw conclusions. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult by cell differentiation (specialization). an adult organism is composed of many cells specialized for different functions. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Science is characterized by the scientific method an organized approach to method. A prediction is a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true. 1.January 13. The process begins with an observation the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question. One tries to answer the question by forming a hypothesis a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions. Steps of the Scientific Method observation. After the data is analyzed. 4. learn how the natural world works. reproduction necessary for the survival of the species. 3.
There must always be a substance to accept an electron that another substance has lost. OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTIONS The reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation reduction reactions. the activation energy. or redox reactions In an oxidation reaction a reactant reactions. Enzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and its specific substrate the reactant being catalyzed. After the reaction. ENZYMES Structure and Function Enzymes are RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts. energy must be added to the reactants. known as catalysts. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review REACTION GRAPHS SHOWING THE ENERGY OF ACTIVATION Activation Energy For most chemical reactions to begin. loses one or more electrons. Redox reactions always occur together. changes in temperature and pH may cause a change in the shape of an enzyme or substrate.January 13. in charge. An enzyme is a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed. it is in a reduction reaction and becomes more negative reaction. Certain chemical substances. the enzyme releases the products. energy required to energy start the reaction. An enzyme may not work if its environment is changed. is very large. or an active substrate. The enzyme has folds. which weakens some chemical bonds in the substrate. The linkage of the enzyme and substrate causes a slight change in the enzyme’s shape. catalysts reduce the amount of activation energy needed. causing the reaction the enzyme would have catalyzed to not occur. When a reactant gains one or more electrons. site with a shape that allows the substrate to fit into the active site. site. . reaction. thus becoming more positive in charge. For example. In many chemical reactions.
and some proteins. 7 is neutral. hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge to another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge. ionic compounds. Hydrogen Bonding The polar nature of water also causes water molecules to be attracted to one another. such as sugars. PROPERTIES OF WATER Polarity The covalent bonds formed between an oxygen atom and hydrogen atoms in a water molecule do not share electrons equally. The positively charged regions in a water molecule are attracted to the negatively charged region in another water molecule. Complex buffering systems maintain the pH values in a normal healthy body. This attraction is called a bond. Thus. The uneven distribution of charge results in water being a polar compound. Water does not dissolve nonpolar substances. the solution is an acid Acids tend to have a sour taste. Solubility of Water The polar nature of water allows it to dissolve polar substances. the oxygen atom has a partial negative charge while the hydrogen atoms have partial positive charges. a greater number of hydroxide ions (OH-) ions and have a bitter taste. Bases have acid. A solution’s pH is measured on a logarithmic scale – the change of one pH unit reflects a 10-fold change in the acidity or alkalinity. pH Scale The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review pH SCALE Acids and Bases If the number of hydronium ions (H3O+) in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions. .January 13. with 14 being alkaline (basic) and 0 being acidic. They also tend to feel slippery. Buffers Buffers are chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base that is added to a solution.
upward movement of water from plant roots to their leaves. which means that it can absorb or release relatively large amounts of energy in the form of heat with only a slight change in temperature. Hydrolysis Reaction In a hydrolysis reaction water is used to break down a polymer.January 13. The hydroxide ion and hydrogen ion combine to make a water molecule. a water molecule is released. molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid. Therefore. Energy that water initially absorbs breaks hydrogen bonds between molecules. ice is more dense than water. thus. monomer is added to a polymer. Adhesion Adhesion is the attractive force between two particles of different substances. added. the two sugar monomers become linked by a bridge. Temperature Moderation Water has a high heat capacity. Density of Ice The angle between the hydrogen atoms is wider in ice than in water. and the glucose molecule releases a hydrogen ion and the fructose molecule releases a hydroxide ion. A related property is capillarity with is the attraction between capillarity. An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together is known as cohesion Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding contributes to the cohesion. CONDENSATION/HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS Condensation Reaction In a condensation reaction monomers link to form polymers. when glucose and fructose combine to form sucrose. . After these bonds are broken. the hydrogen bonds reform. it is the reverse of a condensation reaction. For example. the energy raises the temperature of the water. when some of the hydrogen bonds are broken. it breaks the bond linking each monomer. When water is reaction. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review Cohesion Water molecules stick to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding. Each time a reaction. After the temperature of the water drops.
hydrogen. rather than three. hydrogen. Animals use the polysaccharide chitin as a structural carbohydrate. The cell membrane is made of two layers of . There are 20 different amino acids. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review MACROMOLECULES Simple molecules (monomers bond to form polymers molecules made of monomers) polymers. When amino acids bond to form a dipeptide. When a carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other atoms. linked. Large polymers are called macromolecules macromolecules. Triglycerides A triglyceride is composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol. polypeptides Lipids Lipids are large. The carboxyl end of a fatty acid is polar and is hydrophilic. molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides. it is said to be saturated. fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol. while plants use starch. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon. and nitrogen. A monomer of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide – a simple sugar. and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. polypeptides. monomers repeated. Two monosaccharides can combine to form a disaccharide A polysaccharide is a complex disaccharide. they form a peptide bond Amino acids form very long chains called bond. a single hydrogen atom. an amino group. Fatty Acids Fatty acids are unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids. Proteins Proteins are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon. nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water. and they all have a carboxyl group. Phospholipids Phospholipids have two. while the hydrocarbon end is hydrophobic. units. and an R group. oxygen. The R group is what makes the difference between all the different amino acids. The polysaccharide glycogen is used by animals to store glucose.January 13. Proteins are formed from the linkage of monomers called amino acids acids. while plants use cellulose.
where DNA is coiled into chromosomes during replication. its volume increases much faster than its surface area. forming a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell. Additionally. eukaryotes have a true nucleus. even though prokaryotes have a specific region (nucleoid). The monomers of DNA and RNA are nucleotides. If a cell were to become very large. does. materials would not be able to enter or leave the cell quickly enough. form a protective coating on the outer surfaces. meaning their DNA is not coiled around histones. There are two major types: deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. where their genetic material is concentrated. and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base. made of a phosphate group. As a cell grows. called the lipid bilayer. SURFACE AREA/VOLUME RATIO FOR CELLS The size of a cell is limited by its surface area-to-volume ratio. Waxes A wax is a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain. . Additionally. PROKARYOTE VERSUS EUKARYOTE Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Steroids Steroid molecules are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached tot hem. Waxes are waterproof. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell.January 13. its volume would increase much more than surface area. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review phospholipids. This is important because the materials needed by a cell and the wastes produced by a cell must pass into and out of the cell through its surface. The hydrophobic “tails” face each other. and in plants. Prokaryotes have “naked” DNA. they have one circular DNA molecule versus in eukaryotes. Therefore. a five-carbon sugar.
ATP powers most of the cell’s chemical reactions. roughly spherical organelles that are responsible for building protein. Mitochondria Mitochondria are the tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP in cells. These proteins are later exported from the cell or inserted into one of the cell’s own membranes. and produces phospholipids and proteins.January 13. Ribosomes Ribosomes are small. During this modification. Mitochondria have their own DNA and can reproduce only by the division of pre-existing mitochondria. The more active a cell is. Endoplasmic Reticulum The ER is a system of membranous tubes and sacs called cisternae. process of making ribosomal RNA. Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus receive vesicles from the ER and modify vesicle contents as they move along the different parts of the Golgi apparatus. called the nucleolus and is where DNA is concentrated when in the nucleolus. The digestion of damaged or extra cells by the . the more mitochondria it has. the Golgi apparatus can add carbohydrate labels to proteins or alter lipids in new ways. It functions as a path along with molecules move from one cell to another. They do not have a membrane and are made of protein and RNA molecules. Ribosome assembly beings in the nucleolus and is completed in the cytoplasm. and protects the cell’s genetic information. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes. These enzymes are also responsible for breaking down cells when it is time for the cells to die. Vesicles Lysosomes are vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and builds lipids such as cholesterol. Most nuclei contain a envelope denser area. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review ORGANELLES: STRUCTURE/FUNCTION Nucleus The nucleus controls most of the functions of a eukaryotic cell. while others are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus is filled with nucleoplasm. and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. Some ribosomes are free in the cytosol.
Water will then diffuse into the cell until equilibrium is reached. If the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol. the proteins protein then changes shape. the cell may experience cytolysis the bursting cytolysis. and the cell is in the condition of plasmolysis. crenate. Molecules that can dissolve in lipids may pass directly through the membrane by diffusion. and the cell will crenate When concentrations outside and inside the cell are equal. If too much water flows into the cell. cell membranes are moved across the cell membrane with the help of carrier proteins. separates internal metabolic reactions from the external environment. the outside solution is said to be isotonic to the cell. Other vesicles such as glyoxysomes can be found in the seeds of some plants. In plant cells. water will flow out of the cell. water molecules exert pressure against the cell wall – pressure.January 13. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review lysosomes is autolysis. when water leaves the cell. Peroxisomes are not produced by the Golgi apparatus and contain different enzymes than lysosomes. and allow the cell to excrete wastes and to interact with its environment. plasmolysis Facilitated Diffusion In facilitated diffusion molecules that cannot readily diffuse through diffusion. turgor pressure Cell walls do not experience cytolysis In plants. The simple diffusion of a molecule across a cell membrane depends on the size and type of molecule and on the chemical nature of the membrane. When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower then the concentration in the cytosol. . A molecule binds to a specific carrier protein that transports it. Simple Diffusion Simple diffusion allows only certain molecules to pass through the membrane. and the molecule is transported through the cell membrane. of cells. and molecules that are very small and not soluble in lipids may also move across the membrane. cytolysis. Osmosis The diffusion of water across a membrane depends on the relative concentration of solutes on two sides of the membrane. the solution outside the cell is hypotonic to the cytosol. turgor pressure is lost. PLASMA MEMBRANES AND TRANSPORT The plasma membrane allow sonly certain molecules to enter or leave the cell.
macromolecules. sodiumpump This protein transports 3 sodium ions out of the cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell.January 13. Some ion channels are always open while others have “gates” that respond to three kinds of stimuli: stretching of the cell membrane. Plant cells have those in addition to the structures that animal cells have. and large particles. Endocytosis Endocytosis is the process by which cells ingest external fluid. all of which animal cells lack. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review Diffusion Through Ion Channels Ion channels transport ions from higher to lower concentrations. Active Transport Active transport involves the movement of materials up their concentration gradient. Chloroplasts are also thought to be the descendants of ancient prokaryotic cells that were incorporated into plant cells – mitochondria are thought to have been incorporated into ancient eukaryotic cells. ANIMAL CELLS VERSUS PLANT CELLS Plant cells have a central vacuole. moving substances from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Pinocytosis is the endocytosis of solutes or fluids. This movement requires a cell to expend energy. Cell Membrane Pumps One example of a cell membrane pump is the sodium-potassium pump. or chemicals in the cytosol or external environment. electrical signals. while animals do not have chloroplasts. plastids. and a cell wall. Mitochondria are found in both animals and plants. while phagocytosis is the movement of large particles or whole cells. . Each type of ion channel is usually specific for one type of ion. Exocytosis Exocytosis is the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface then merges with the plasma membrane. MITOCHONDRION/CHLOROPLAST COMPARISON Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane and possess DNA of their own.
and combines with a proton and NADP+. and is temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH. where they are accepted by the acceptor.January 13. primary electron acceptor The primary electron acceptor donates the electrons to the electron transport chain As they move from molecule to molecule. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is divided into the stages of the light reactions and dark Cycle). thus making their own food. a phosphate group is added to ADP. The electrons go to another electron transport chain. reactions (Calvin Cycle) In the light reactions. Chemiosmosis Chemiosmosis. Protons go toward establishing a concentration gradient of protein in the thylakoid. and oxygen dissolves out of the cell. they lose chain. Heterotrophs must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances. The excited electrons have enough energy to leave the photosystem. most of the energy they initially had. This energy is used to pump protons into the thylakoid. Water splitting replaces the electrons lost in photosystem II. Most autotrophs use the process of photosynthesis to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds. relies on a concentration gradient of protons across the thylakoid membrane. The Light Reactions Light energy forces electrons to enter a higher energy level in the two chlorophyll a molecules of photosystem II. which makes ATP. “exciting” them. Chemiosmosis the process of making ATP. . Light is absorbed by photosystem I. electrons replace the ones lost. The electrons move from the chlorophyll to another primary electron acceptor. When protons move out of ATP synthase. light energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy. In the dark reactions. and the energy excites another pair of chlorophyll a molecule. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review AUTOTROPH VERSUS HETEROTROPH Autotrophs use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds. organic compounds are formed using carbon dioxide and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH. causing it to be reduced to NADPH.
and chemiosmosis can occur. One of the G3P molecules is used to make organic compounds. forming a new 6-carbon molecule with two phosphate groups. This incorporation of carbon molecules into organic molecules is called carbon fixation Carbon diffuses into the stroma from the fixation. RESPIRATION Cellular respiration is the complex process in which cells make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by breaking down organic compounds. The phosphate groups are now removed from the three-carbon molecules. produce the six-carbon compound. and each receives a new phosphate group. The remaining G3P molecules are converted back into RuBP and enter the Calvin Cycle again. Citric acid then releases a carbon molecule and a hydrogen atom to form a five- . With the presence of oxygen. Then. The six-carbon molecule splits into two three-carbon moeclules . The oxidation of G3P is accompanied by the reduction of two molecules of NAD+ to NADH. The Krebs Cycle As acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle. The ADP. glycolysis has a net ATP production of two. These molecules are oxidized. Prior to the Krebs Cycle. it combines with oxaloacetic acid to oxaloacetic acid. The phosphate groups are supplied by two molecules of ATP. the electron transport chain. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review The Calvin Cycle The Calvin Cycle is a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar. which are called 3-phosphoglycerate. 2) the compound then receives a proton from NADPH and releases a phosphate group. NADP+. surrounding cytosol. An enzyme combines each carbon dioxide molecule with ribulose biphosphate. the reactions of the Krebs cycle. Each molecule is converted in G3P in a two step process: 1) each 3-PGA molecule receives a phosphate group from an ATP. acid. citric acid This reaction regenerates coenzyme A. Thus. pyruvic acid will react with acetyl coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA. which produces two molecules of pyruvic acid. the 6-carbon molecule is split into two molecules of G3P. GLYCOLYSIS – PROCESS AND EFFICIENCY Glycolysis Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. The phosphate groups go toward making four molecules of ATP. and phosphate that are produced can be used again in the light reactions to make more ATP and NADPH. Two phosphate groups are added to a glucose molecule.January 13.
citric acid is oxidized. the five-carbon compound releases another carbon molecule and a hydrogen atom. this energy is used to pump protons into the mitochondrial matrix to form a high concentration of protons between the inner and outer membranes. the electron goes to reducing FAD to FADH2. Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvic acid into another three-carbon compound called lactic acid. Alcoholic Fermentation Alcoholic fermentation is used to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol. forming a four carbon compound. As they lose energy. The electrons are passed down the chain. The 10 NADH molecules and two FADH2 molecules from the Krebs cycle and glycolysis drives the next stage of aerobic respiration. and is responsible for muscle cramps.January 13. The concentration and electrical gradients of protons drive the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis. which is reduced to NADH. FERMENTATION In the absence of oxygen. glycolysis is followed by the process of fermentation fermentation. NAD+ is again reduced to NADH. and oxygen combine to form water. the same process used in photosynthesis to generate ATP. oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons. This also creates an electrical gradient. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells during strenuous exercise. which is used by yeast cells. In this step. The four-carbon compound now releases a hydrogen atom to regenerate oxaloacetic acid. The electron in the hydrogen atom is transferred to NAD+. The protons. ATP is made from ADP and phosphate as the protons move through the ATP synthase. The four-carbon compound now releases a hydrogen atom to form another four-carbon compound. Electron Transport Chain The electrons from NADH and FADH2 are donated to the electron transport chain. . After the electrons pass through the electron transport chain. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review carbon compound. a molecule of ATP is synthesized from ADP. These molecules also give up protons. electrons. which recycles NAD+ from NADH so as to not use up all the NAD+ in the cell. since the protons carry a positive charge. Oxygen also accepts protons that were part of the hydrogen atoms supplied by NADH and FADH2. By losing a hydrogen atom with its electron. This time. Next.
Laws Mendel concluded that the paired factors separate during the formation of reproductive cells. He then called this generation the P generation. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review MENDELIAN GENETICS Mendel’s Garden Peas Mendel observed seven characteristics of pea plants. he called the offspring the F1 generation. When he cross pollinated two plants that were pure-breeding for a different trait. By self-pollinating for several generations. seed color. Mendel was able to produce plants that were true-breeding for each trait. Ratios When a homozygous dominant and a homozygous recessive are crossed the result is four heterozygous organisms. The law of independent assortment states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes. flower position along the stem. and a recessive trait would mask the dominant trait.January 13. pod appearance. The law of segregation states that a pair of factors is segregated. Punnett Squares A Punnett square is a diagram used to predict the probable distribution of inherited traits in the offspring. These characteristics were plant height. or separated. Mendel discovered that there were recessive and dominant traits. and flower color. during the formation of gametes. Genotype and Phenotype An organism’s genetic makeup is its genotype and an organism’s appearance is its phenotype When both alleles of a pair are alike. seed texture. the resulting ratio is 9:3:3:1 for two dominant characteristics: one dominant and one recessive: one dominant and one recessive: two recessive characteristics. which occurred in two contrasting traits. When two homozygous individuals are crossed. In a dihybrid cross where two characteristics are tracked and two heterozygous individuals are crossed. 3:1. the organism is said to be phenotype. The plants that were selfpollinated from the F1 generation were the F2 generation. pod color. homozygous versus heterozygous when both alleles of a pair are different. the resulting ratio is a dominant: recessive. homozygous. .
. thymine. The five-carbon sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose. DNA Replication DNA replication is the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis. Each nucleotide consists of three parts: a five-carbon sugar. enzymes called DNA polymerases add fork. The Y-shaped region that results is called a replication fork Next. Hydrogen bonds form between complementary nitrogenous bases on the original and new strands. complementary nucleotides. The nitrogenous bases face toward the center of the DNA molecule. and guanine. DNA Function DNA is the hereditary material that transmits hereditary material and directs cell function. In each new DNA double helix. and a nitrogenous base. meiosis. a phosphate group. Guanine and adenine are purines while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. Covalent bonds form between the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next nucleotide. DNA polymerases then finish added nucleotides and fall off. which is called semi-conservative semireplication. The bases on one strand of DNA form hydrogen bonds with the ones on the other strand. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review DNA – STRUCTURE/FUNCTION/REPLICATION DNA Structure DNA is a nucleic acid made of two long chains of repeating subunits called nucleotides.January 13. adenine. Avery’s Experiments Oswald Avery and his colleagues determined that the hereditary material in transformation was DNA. one strand is from the original DNA and one is new. The nitrogenous bases are cytosine. replication SCIENTISTS INVOLVED WITH DNA Griffith’s Experiments Frederick Griffith determined that heat-killed virulent bacterial cells release a hereditary factor that transfers the disease-causing ability to live harmless cells in a process called transformation transformation. or binary fission. Enzymes called helicases separate the DNA strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nitrogenous bases.
two ribosomal subunits. RNA polymerase then adds free RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the nucleotides on one of the DNA strands. coli. Transfer RNA tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein. RNA is transcribed from the anti-sense strand of DNA. mRNA carries the genetic “message” from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytosol in eukaryotes. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin provided X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA crystals to reach their conclusion. Enzymes first attach a specific amino acid to one end of each tRNA according to the genetic code. the DNA strands unwind and separate. Watson/Crick/Wilkins/Franklin James Watson and Francis Crick determined that the structure of DNA is in the shape of the double helix. After RNA polymerase binds to the promoter. releases both the DNA and the newly transcribed RNA. tRNA. RNA polymerase binds to a promoter a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription. TRANSCRIPTION promoter.January 13. TRANSLATION In translation. Ribosomal RNA rRNA is part of the structure of ribosomes. organelles in the cell where protein synthesis occurs. They worked with the bacteria E. . and an mRNA join together. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review Hershey-Chase Experiment Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey concluded that DNA is the hereditary molecule in virus. on the RNA that are complementary to the sequence of a codon in mRNA. 3 TYPES OF RNA Messenger RNA mRNA is single-stranded and carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein. After the RNA polymerase reaches a termination signal RNA polymerase signal. The other end of each tRNA contains the anticodon three nucleotides anticodon don.
cystic fibrosis. LINKED GENES. Somatic-cell mutations cannot be passed onto offspring. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review The start codon. and each tRNA comes according to the next codon on the mRNA. AUG. After each tRNA comes in. One map unit is the frequency of crossing-over of one percent. sickle cell anemia. At this point. MAPPING CHROMOSOMES A chromosome map is a diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome. . MUTATIONS GermGerm-cell mutations occur in an organism’s gametes. the amino acid chain bonds to it. Down syndrome. The polypeptide chain continues being put together. and affect the offspring of an organism. Chromosome Mutations A deletion is the loss of a piece of chromosome due to breakage. Sex-linked traits refers to a trait that is coded Sexfor by an allele on a sex chromosome. In an inversion. SEX-LINKED GENES Linked genes are pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together because they are on the same chromosome. There are more X-linked traits than Y-linked traits because the X chromosome is much larger. One gamete receives an additional copy while another gamete receives no copies. its homologue during meiosis. the components of translation come apart and the translation machinery is now free to translate the same or another mRNA. inversion a chromosomal segment breaks off. Genetic Disorders Some genetic disorders are Huntington’s disease. and hemophilia. codes for methionine. a piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome. and this keeps going until a stop codon is reached. breast cancer. and reattaches. In a translocation. In a nondisjunction a chromosome fails to separate from nondisjunction. flips around backward. and affect Somaticthe organism since it takes place in an organism’s body cells.January 13.
. example. A filled symbol indicates that the person has the trait or condition. For example. A horizontal line joining a male and a female indicates a mating. Polygenic Traits Polygenic traits are influenced by several genes. two parents. 2007 3rd Period Biology Pre-IB Biology Exam Review MULTIPLE ALLELES/CODOMINANCE/POLYGENIC TRAITS Multiple Alleles Genes with three or more alleles are said to have multiple alleles For alleles. and an empty symbol means that they do not. skin color results from the additive effects of three to six genes. A vertical line indicates offspring arranged from left to right in order of their birth. In codominance both alleles are expressed in the phenotype of a codominance. PEDIGREES A pedigree is a diagram that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations. heterozygote. Incomplete Dominance and Codominance In incomplete dominance an individual displays a trait intermediate between dominance. Square stand for males and circles stand for females. the ABO blood types in humans are controlled by three alleles.January 13.