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Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2010

Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2010

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United States Department of Agriculture

Keys to Soil Taxonomy
Eleventh Edition, 2010

Keys to Soil Taxonomy
By Soil Survey Staff

United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Eleventh Edition, 2010

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 202509410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Cover: Profile of a Lamellic Quartzipsamment. Because of coatings of iron oxide, the part of the profile directly below the surface horizon is reddish. Lamellae of loamy sand, mostly less than 0.5 centimeter thick, are common in the lower part of the profile. The scale is in 15-centimeter increments. Photo by John Kelley, Soil Scientist (retired), Raleigh, North Carolina.

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Table of Contents
Foreword .....................................................................................................................................v Chapter 1: The Soils That We Classify ...................................................................................1 Chapter 2: Differentiae for Mineral Soils and Organic Soils ..................................................3 Chapter 3: Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories .....................5 Chapter 4: Identification of the Taxonomic Class of a Soil ..................................................31 Chapter 5: Alfisols ................................................................................................................35 Chapter 6: Andisols ...............................................................................................................77 Chapter 7: Aridisols ..............................................................................................................97 Chapter 8: Entisols ..............................................................................................................123 Chapter 9: Gelisols ..............................................................................................................145 Chapter 10: Histosols ............................................................................................................155 Chapter 11: Inceptisols..........................................................................................................161 Chapter 12: Mollisols ............................................................................................................197 Chapter 13: Oxisols ...............................................................................................................241 Chapter 14: Spodosols ..........................................................................................................257 Chapter 15: Ultisols ..............................................................................................................267 Chapter 16: Vertisols .............................................................................................................287 Chapter 17: Family and Series Differentiae and Names .......................................................299 Chapter 18: Designations for Horizons and Layers ..............................................................315 Appendix ................................................................................................................................323 Index ......................................................................................................................................331

v Foreword The publication Keys to Soil Taxonomy serves two purposes. It provides the taxonomic keys necessary for the classification of soils in a form that can be used easily in the field. Since it was first published 35 years ago.” This term is meant to include all of the soil classifiers in the National Cooperative Soil Survey program and in the international community who have made significant contributions to the improvement of the taxonomic system. The eleventh edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy incorporates all changes approved since the publication of the second edition of Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys (1999). It has been translated into several languages. The authors encourage the continued use of soil taxonomy internationally and look forward to future collaborations with the international soil science community so we can continue to make improvements. we hope that our efforts will eventually result in a truly universal soil classification system. Soil Survey Division Natural Resources Conservation Service . Through continued communication and collaboration. One of the most significant changes in the eleventh edition is the addition of the suborders Wassents and Wassists for subaqueous Entisols and Histosols. Micheal L. It also acquaints users of the taxonomic system with recent changes in the system. Golden Director. The authors of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy are identified as the “Soil Survey Staff. We plan to continue issuing updated editions of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy as changes warrant new editions. Soil scientists from many nations have contributed significantly to the development of the taxonomic system. Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys has been used to support soil survey efforts in many countries around the world.

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there is no alternative but to set the lower limit of soil at the arbitrary limit of 200 cm. and the greatest interest in soil is centered on this meaning. For purposes of classification. or on the barren ice of glaciers. Soil in this text is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals and organic matter). fibers. The pH. In many wet soils. The lower boundary that separates soil from the nonsoil underneath is most difficult to define. People consider soil important because it supports plants that supply food. drugs. earthy materials may extend to a depth of many meters with no obvious changes below the upper 1 or 2 m. soil is the natural medium for the growth of land plants. Biological activity is slowed or stopped if the soil becomes too cold or too dry. In areas where soil has thin cemented horizons that are impermeable to roots. but they are nonsoil here in the sense that they cannot be classified in the same system that is used for the soils of a survey area. in some areas. continue down for several meters apparently unchanged with increasing depth. soluble salts. Plants even grow on trees. or layers. in areas of perpetual frost. This meaning is still the common understanding of the word. whether or not it has discernible soil horizons. or even in water. and other wants of humans and because it filters water and recycles wastes. defined later) have been described and used to differentiate soil series (series control section. Soil has many properties that fluctuate with the seasons. however. For certain management goals. Soil is not static. Soil. does not need to have discernible horizons. transfers. the A horizon rests on a thick mass of gleyed material that may be relatively uniform. In both of these situations. It may be alternately cold and warm or dry and moist. The upper limit of soil is the boundary between soil and air. gleyed soil material may begin a few centimeters below the surface and. defined later). soil has a thickness that is determined by the rooting depth of plants. and transformations of energy and matter or the ability to support rooted plants in a natural environment.5 m) for the growth of rooted plants. as defined in this text. The latter condition can arise through the gradual filling of a wet basin in which the A horizon is gradually added to the surface and becomes gleyed beneath. In the humid tropics. In its traditional meaning. relief. is difficult to discern and is often gradual. although the presence or absence of horizons and their nature are of extreme importance in soil classification. except on bare rock. shallow water. the lower limit of the soil for classification purposes is still 200 cm. Finally. have been altered by the interactions of climate. layers deeper than the lower boundary of the soil that is classified (200 cm) must also be described if they affect the content and movement of water and air or other interpretative concerns.” like many common words. amount . but trees are regarded as nonsoil. The horizontal boundaries of soil are areas where the soil grades to deep water. In some instances the more weakly cemented bedrocks (paralithic materials. and is characterized by one or both of the following: horizons. and living organisms over time. has several meanings. but not below 200 cm. county. This definition is expanded from the 1975 version of Soil Taxonomy to include soils in areas of Antarctica where pedogenesis occurs but where the climate is too harsh to support the higher plant forms. liquid. rock. or ice. Soil consists of the horizons near the earth’s surface that. in contrast to the underlying parent material. In soils where either biological activity or current pedogenic processes extend to depths greater than 200 cm. Soil covers the earth’s surface as a continuum. and gases that occurs on the land surface. Under proper conditions all these media are productive for plants. losses. in deep water. or other marks of biological activity. The lowest depth of biological activity. Plants can be grown under glass in pots filled with earthy materials. occupies space. that are distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions. the soil extends as deep as the deepest cemented horizon.1 S O I CHAPTER 1 The Soils That We Classify The word “soil. In this sense. the lower boundary of soil is arbitrarily set at 200 cm. such as peat or sand. In some places the separation between soil and nonsoil is so gradual that clear distinctions cannot be made. barren areas. even though the paralithic materials below a paralithic contact are not considered soil in the true sense. roots. except for an occasional stone line. The soil receives flushes of organic matter when leaves fall or grasses die. Commonly. or plant materials that have not begun to decompose. live plants. or even nation. soil grades at its lower boundary to hard rock or to earthy materials virtually devoid of animals. Areas are not considered to have soil if the surface is permanently covered by water too deep (typically more than about 2.

as defined here. A surface mantle of new material that does not have the required thickness for buried soils can be used to establish a phase of the mantled soil or even another soil series if the mantle affects the use of the soil. A surface mantle of new material. overlying a horizon sequence that can be clearly identified as the solum of a buried soil in at least half of each pedon. and moisture all change with the seasons as well as with more extended periods of time. It may have a diagnostic surface horizon (epipedon) and/or a cambic horizon. all defined later. but it has no other diagnostic subsurface horizons. at least in the lower part. numbers of microorganisms. Any horizons or layers underlying a plaggen epipedon are considered to be buried. is largely unaltered. soil fauna. . as defined later. Buried Soils A buried soil is covered with a surface mantle of new soil material that either is 50 cm or more thick or is 30 to 50 cm thick and has a thickness that equals at least half the total thickness of the named diagnostic horizons that are preserved in the buried soil. However. there remains a layer 7. The recognition of a surface mantle should not be based only on studies of associated soils. Soil must be viewed from both the short-term and long-term perspective.5 cm or more thick that fails the requirements for all diagnostic horizons. temperature.2 of organic matter and carbon-nitrogen ratio.

but most soils are dominantly one or the other. the thickness of horizons is measured from the surface of the soil whether that is the surface of a mineral or an organic Mineral Soil Material Mineral soil material (less than 2. The definition that follows is intended to classify as mineral soils those that have both thick mineral soil layers and no more organic material than the amount permitted in the histic epipedon. Leaf litter may rest on a lithic contact and support forest vegetation. In the definition of mineral soil material above. .0 mm in diameter) either: 1. The horizons that are less than about 20 to 35 percent organic matter. Material that has more organic carbon than in item 2 has been called peat or muck. A thick layer of Sphagnum has a very low bulk density and contains less organic matter than a thinner layer of well-decomposed muck. or c. At some point one must decide that the mineral horizons are more important. therefore. is based on the thickness of the horizons. Not all organic soil material accumulates in or under water. Those that exceed the organic carbon limit defined for mineral soils have a colloidal fraction dominated by short-rangeorder minerals or aluminum-humus complexes. D I F Distinction Between Mineral Soils and Organic Soils Most soils are dominantly mineral material. Therefore. This point is arbitrary and depends in part on the nature of the materials. by weight. These generally are considered to consist of mineral soils. The definition of a mineral soil. An exception is the Andisols (defined later). but the limits of thickness must vary with the kinds of materials. Less than 18 percent if the mineral fraction contains 60 percent or more clay. has an organic carbon content (by weight) of: a. the volume of organic matter at the upper limit exceeds that of the mineral material in the fineearth fraction. Less than 12 percent if the mineral fraction contains no clay. the soils are included with the Andisols rather than the organic soils defined later as Histosols and Histels. but many mineral soils have horizons of organic material. To do this. It is much easier to measure the thickness of layers in the field than it is to determine tons of organic matter per hectare. or b. or 2. material that has more organic carbon than in item 1 is intended to 1 Mineral soils include all soils except the suborder Histels and the order Histosols. Organic Soil Material Soil material that contains more than the amounts of organic carbon described above for mineral soil material is considered organic soil material. it is necessary to define the minimum part of a soil that should be mineral if a soil is to be classified as a mineral soil and the minimum part that should be organic if the soil is to be classified as an organic soil. first. a distinction between what is meant by a mineral soil and an organic soil is useful. one must first decide whether the soil is mineral or organic.3 CHAPTER 2 Differentiae for Mineral Soils1 and Organic Soils Soil taxonomy differentiates between mineral soils and organic soils. excluding live roots. have properties that are more nearly those of mineral than of organic soils. it is necessary to distinguish mineral soil material from organic soil material. but some may be organic if they meet other criteria for Andisols. or layers. which is defined in chapter 3. The mineral fraction in these soils is believed to give more control to the soil properties than the organic fraction. If a soil has both organic and mineral horizons. To apply the definitions of many taxa. Even with this separation. Second. Less than 12 + (clay percentage multiplied by 0.1) percent if the mineral fraction contains less than 60 percent clay. include what has been called litter or an O horizon. Is saturated with water for less than 30 days (cumulative) per year in normal years and contains less than 20 percent (by weight) organic carbon. The soil in this situation is organic only in the sense that the mineral fraction is appreciably less than half the weight and is only a small percentage of the volume of the soil. Nearly all soils contain more than traces of both mineral and organic components in some horizons. For simplicity in writing definitions of taxa. Is saturated with water for 30 days or more (cumulative) in normal years (or is artificially drained) and. In the determination of whether a soil is organic or mineral. the relative thickness of the organic and mineral soil materials must be considered.

is less than 0. or paralithic contact. or b.1 g/cm3. lithic. lithic. unless the soil is buried as defined in chapter 1. More than 20 percent.1 g/cm3. Overlie cindery. Definition of Organic Soils Organic soils have organic soil materials that: 1. fragmental. or b. and 2 Materials that meet the definition of the cindery. is less than 0. or paralithic contact or have a total thickness of more than 10 cm. Undecomposed plant litter is excluded from the concept of O horizons. by volume. Definition of Mineral Soils Mineral soils are soils that have either: 1. Are saturated with water for 30 days or more per year in normal years (or are artificially drained). or (2) 40 cm or more if they consist either of sapric or hemic materials. Permafrost within 100 cm of the soil surface. lithic. Constitute two-thirds or more of the total thickness of the soil to a densic. moist. mineral soil materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm or to a glacic layer or a densic.1 g/cm3 or more. or paralithic contact. or of fibric materials with less than threefourths (by volume) moss fibers and a bulk density. or pumiceous materials. or e. or (2) Less than 40 cm if they consist either of sapric or hemic materials. or pumiceous materials and/or fill their interstices2 and directly below these materials have a densic. or paralithic contact. moist. or paralithic contact and have no mineral horizons or have mineral horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or less. or paralithic contact or duripan if shallower. When added with underlying cindery. Overlie cindery. Constitute more than one-third of the total thickness of the soil to a densic. It is a general rule that a soil is classified as an organic soil (Histosol or Histel) if more than half of the upper 80 cm (32 in) of the soil is organic or if organic soil material of any thickness rests on rock or on fragmental material having interstices filled with organic materials. Thus. or b. moist. lithic. . or c. and have a total thickness of either: (1) 60 cm or more if three-fourths or more of their volume consists of moss fibers or if their bulk density. or d. or of fibric materials with less than threefourths (by volume) moss fibers and a bulk density. by volume. If they are saturated with water for 30 days or more per year in normal years (or are artificially drained) and have organic materials with an upper boundary within 40 cm of the soil surface.4 horizon. any O horizon at the surface is considered an organic horizon if it meets the requirements of organic soil material as defined later. or pumiceous substitute for particle-size class but have more than 10 percent. fragmental. total 40 cm or more between the soil surface and a depth of 50 cm. a.1 g/cm3 or more. have an upper boundary within 40 cm of the soil surface. fragmental. of 0. or paralithic contact. Gelic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface and permafrost within 200 cm of the soil surface. voids that are filled with organic soil materials are considered to be organic soil materials. and its thickness is added to that of any other organic horizons to determine the total thickness of organic soil materials. of 0. or 2. When added with the underlying cindery. whichever is shallowest. have a total thickness of either: (1) Less than 60 cm if three-fourths or more of their volume consists of moss fibers or if their bulk density. moist. total more than 10 cm between the soil surface and a depth of 50 cm. Meet one or more of the following: a. lithic. fragmental. from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm or to a glacic layer or a densic. or d. by volume. or pumiceous materials and/or have voids2 that are filled with 10 percent or less organic materials and directly below these materials have either a densic. Are 80 percent or more. and 2. Do not have andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness between the soil surface and either a depth of 60 cm or a densic. Plant materials at the soil surface must be at least slightly decomposed if they are to be considered part of an O horizon. whichever is shallowest. fragmental. or c. or pumiceous materials. lithic. Mineral soil materials that meet one or more of the following: a. lithic.

the anthropic epipedon has the following properties: 1. or marine) and saprolite derived from consolidated rocks in which the unweathered minerals and pseudomorphs of weathered minerals retain their relative positions to each other. and 3. such as histic and folistic epipedons. and pedon. The “required characteristics” for horizons or features. is concerned with eight diagnostic horizons that have formed at or near the soil surface. or b. in less than one-half of the volume of all parts. only for the mineral soils. An umbric epipedon. for example. however. over. or both. These horizons can be covered by a surface mantle of new soil material. Structural units with a diameter of 30 cm or less or secondary structure with a diameter of 30 cm or less. A kandic horizon with clay films. The horizons and characteristics defined below are not in a key format. and some are not. alluvial. D I A Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for Mineral Soils The criteria for some of the following horizons and characteristics. moist. and . It commonly forms in deposits of tephra and can receive fresh deposits of volcanic ash. lacustrine. Rock structure. It is divided into three parts—horizons and characteristics diagnostic for mineral soils. After mixing of the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil. A soil with a mantle thick enough to have a buried soil has no epipedon if the soil has rock structure to the surface or has an Ap horizon less than 25 cm thick that is underlain by soil material with rock structure. could not also be a mollic epipedon. are arranged as a key. Therefore. indicate buried horizons. the epipedon. however. A recent alluvial or eolian deposit that retains fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick) or an Ap horizon directly underlain by such stratified material is not included in the concept of the epipedon because time has not been sufficient for soil-forming processes to erase these transient marks of deposition and for diagnostic and accessory properties to develop. or a duripan (all defined below) is less than 18 cm. and horizons and characteristics diagnostic for both mineral and organic soils. lithic. dry. could also meet the definition of an argillic horizon. or of the whole mineral soil if its depth to a densic. It is darkened by organic matter or shows evidence of eluviation. A moderately hard or softer rupture-resistance class. An epipedon is not the same as an A horizon. if any. a petrocalcic horizon. Both of the following: (1) Dominant colors with a value of 3 or less. is at the soil surface and the epipedon of the buried soil is considered a buried epipedon and is not considered in selecting taxa unless the keys specifically Anthropic Epipedon Required Characteristics The anthropic epipedon consists of mineral soil material that shows some evidence of disturbance by human activity. soil) is a horizon that forms at or near the surface and in which most of the rock structure has been destroyed. The melanic epipedon (defined below) is unique among epipedons. epi. upon. Some diagnostic horizons are mutually exclusive. such as those in Thapto-Histic subgroups.5 CHAPTER 3 Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories This chapter defines the horizons and characteristics of both mineral and organic soils. can be met in organic soils. either or both: a. or paralithic contact. When dry. however. including fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick). however. and of 5 or less. this horizon is permitted to have layers within and above the epipedon that are not part of the melanic epipedon. and 2. If the soil includes a buried soil. Diagnostic Surface Horizons: The Epipedon The epipedon (Gr. Rock structure as used here and in other places in this taxonomy includes fine stratification (5 mm or less thick) in unconsolidated sediments (eolian. The following section. They are diagnostic. One of the following: a. characteristics diagnostic for organic soils. the top of the epipedon is considered the soil surface unless the mantle meets the definition of buried soils in chapter 1. Any horizon may be at the surface of a truncated soil. If the surface mantle has rock structure. It may include part or all of an illuvial B horizon if the darkening by organic matter extends from the soil surface into or through the B horizon.

The n value (defined below) is less than 0. or b. are 75 cm or more below the mineral soil surface: (a) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. a. An organic-carbon content of: a. of 5 or less. Consists of organic soil material that: a. of less than 0. 8 + (clay percentage divided by 7. or One or both of the following: . or (3) Any of the following. 2. or c. if present. oxic. or b. oxic. Most folistic epipedons consist of organic soil material (defined in chapter 2).6 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2) Dominant colors with chroma of 3 or less. of less than 0. if the soil is not irrigated. 18 cm if none of the above conditions apply. or d. Histic Epipedon Required Characteristics The histic epipedon is a layer (one or more horizons) that is characterized by saturation (for 30 days or more.6 percent more (absolute) than that of the C horizon (if one occurs) if the mollic epipedon has a color value less than 1 unit lower or chroma less than 2 units lower (both moist and dry) than the C horizon. and/or (b) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic.500 or more milligrams per kilogram by citric-acid extraction. petrocalcic horizon. A fine-earth fraction that has a calcium carbonate equivalent of 15 to 40 percent and colors with value and chroma of 3 or less. or c. Is 20 to 60 cm thick and either contains 75 percent or more (by volume) Sphagnum fibers or has a bulk density.5) percent or more if the mineral fraction contains less than 60 percent clay. moist. 0. and (1) The phosphorus content decreases regularly with increasing depth below the epipedon. duripan. or b. or b. or a duripan. Is an Ap horizon that. Consists of organic soil material that: a. or 2. Is 15 cm or more thick.5 percent or more if the epipedon has a color value. and 5. 10 cm if the epipedon has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand (when mixed) and it is directly above a densic. A fine-earth fraction that has a calcium carbonate equivalent of 40 percent or more and a color value. cumulative) and reduction for some time during normal years (or is artificially drained) and either: 1. 8 percent or more if the mineral fraction contains no clay. or spodic horizon. Is 20 cm or more thick and either contains 75 percent or more (by volume) Sphagnum fibers or has a bulk density. when mixed to a depth of 25 cm. petrocalcic horizon. or c. of 4 or 5. 25 cm if: (1) The texture class of the epipedon is loamy fine sand or coarser throughout. or b. Folistic Epipedon Required Characteristics The folistic epipedon is defined as a layer (one or more horizons) that is saturated for less than 30 days (cumulative) in normal years (and is not artificially drained) and either: 1. All parts of the epipedon are moist for less than 90 days (cumulative) in normal years during times when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is 5 oC or higher. lithic. and 4. 18 to 25 cm and the thickness is one-third or more of the total thickness between the mineral soil surface and: (1) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. 0. moist. has an organic-carbon content (by weight) of: a. 16 percent or more if the mineral fraction contains 60 percent or more clay. or b. cambic. cambic. or (2) There are no underlying diagnostic horizons (defined below). or c. natric. or fragipan.7. or b.6 percent or more and the epipedon does not meet the qualifications in 4-a or 4-b above. and (2) Phosphorus is not in the form of nodules. or spodic horizon. Item 2 provides for a folistic epipedon that is an Ap horizon consisting of mineral soil material. Has a phosphate content of 1. and the organic-carbon content of the underlying materials decreases irregularly with increasing depth. moist. or fragipan (defined below). and 7. and/or (2) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic. The minimum thickness of the epipedon is as follows: a. moist. duripan.1. a petrocalcic horizon. moist. natric. moist. Is 20 to 40 cm thick.1. 6. or paralithic contact.

or paralithic contact. Andic soil properties throughout. A fine-earth fraction that has a calcium carbonate equivalent of 15 to 40 percent and colors with a value and chroma of 3 or less. a petrocalcic horizon. or within 30 cm of. or (2) There are no underlying diagnostic horizons (defined below) and the organic-carbon content of the underlying materials decreases irregularly with increasing depth. either or both: a. a petrocalcic horizon. A histic epipedon consisting of mineral soil material can also be part of a mollic or umbric epipedon. and chroma of 2 or less throughout and a melanic index of 1. and of 5 or less. 0. moist. cambic. or a duripan (all defined below) is less than 18 cm. 8 + (clay percentage divided by 7. and 3. are 75 cm or more below the mineral soil surface: (a) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. 6 percent or more organic carbon as a weighted average and 4 percent or more organic carbon in all layers. or D I A b. Structural units with a diameter of 30 cm or less or secondary structure with a diameter of 30 cm or less. or c. One of the following: a. duripan. or b. and 4. moist. A moderately hard or softer rupture-resistance class. or fragipan. and 5. lithic. when mixed to a depth of 25 cm. 18 to 25 cm and the thickness is one-third or more of the total thickness between the mineral soil surface and: (1) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. A color value. 2. Is an Ap horizon that. petrocalcic horizon. Mollic Epipedon Required Characteristics The mollic epipedon consists of mineral soil materials and. Rock structure. Both of the following: . and/or Melanic Epipedon Required Characteristics The melanic epipedon has both of the following: 1. of 5 or less. Most histic epipedons consist of organic soil material (defined in chapter 2). and c. including fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick). or c. or c. natric. 10 cm if the epipedon has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand (when mixed) and it is directly above a densic. and (2) Dominant colors with chroma of 3 or less. and 2. of 4 or 5. or paralithic contact. When dry. or b.5) percent or more if the mineral fraction contains less than 60 percent clay. petrocalcic horizon. or spodic horizon. An organic-carbon content of: a.70 or less throughout. moist. whichever is shallower. if present. and 6. An upper boundary at. and 2. moist. and/or (b) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic. dry. or a duripan. has the following properties: 1. or fragipan (defined below). or b. In layers with a cumulative thickness of 30 cm or more within a total thickness of 40 cm. moist.6 percent (absolute) more than that of the C horizon (if one occurs) if the mollic epipedon has a color value less than 1 unit lower or chroma less than 2 units lower (both moist and dry) than the C horizon.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 7 2. oxic. lithic. in less than one-half of the volume of all parts. 8 percent or more if the mineral fraction contains no clay. The minimum thickness of the epipedon is as follows: a.6 percent or more and the epipedon does not meet the qualifications in 5-a or 5-b above. after mixing of the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil or of the whole mineral soil if its depth to a densic. has an organic-carbon content (by weight) of: a. 0. 25 cm if: (1) The texture class of the epipedon is loamy fine sand or coarser throughout. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more throughout. or b. 16 percent or more if the mineral fraction contains 60 percent or more clay. all of the following: a. either the mineral soil surface or the upper boundary of an organic layer with andic soil properties (defined below). Item 2 provides for a histic epipedon that is an Ap horizon consisting of mineral soil material.5 percent or more if the epipedon has a color value. or c. moist. and b. duripan. (1) Dominant colors with a value of 3 or less. or (3) Any of the following. A fine-earth fraction that has a calcium carbonate equivalent of 40 percent or more and a color value.

and 9. or spodic horizon). The ochric epipedon does not have rock structure and does not include finely stratified fresh sediments. Required Characteristics The plaggen epipedon consists of mineral soil materials and has the following: 1. There may be chunks of diverse materials. Many ochric epipedons have either a color value of 4 or more. dry. Some part of the epipedon is moist for 90 days or more (cumulative) in normal years during times when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is 5 oC or higher. or is both massive and hard or harder when dry. or b. The plaggen epipedon normally shows spade marks throughout its depth and also remnants of thin stratified beds of sand that were probably produced on the soil surface by beating rains and were later buried by spading. 18 cm if none of the above conditions apply. Ochric epipedons also include horizons of organic materials that are too thin to meet the requirements for a histic or folistic epipedon. 5 or less. Commonly. or b. such as black sand and light gray sand. and 2. When dry. Nodules are within the epipedon. Rock structure. Structural units with a diameter of 30 cm or less or secondary structure with a diameter of 30 cm or less. Umbric Epipedon Required Characteristics The umbric epipedon consists of mineral soil materials and. or they include an A or Ap horizon that has both low color values and low chroma but is too thin to be recognized as a mollic or umbric epipedon (and has less than 15 percent calcium carbonate equivalent in the fine-earth fraction). dry. or paralithic contact. A moderately hard or softer rupture-resistance class. such as bits of brick and pottery. and 5. or a duripan (all defined below) is less than 18 cm. The n value (defined below) is less than 0. and b.6 percent or more. throughout its depth. the ochric epipedon and the subsurface diagnostic horizons are not all mutually exclusive. A map unit delineation of soils with plaggen epipedons would tend to have straight-sided rectangular bodies that are higher than the adjacent soils by as much as or more than the thickness of the plaggen epipedon. oxic. and 3. natric. dry. and 8. and 4. Some part of the epipedon that is moist for 90 days or more (cumulative) in normal years during times when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is 5 oC or higher. Artifacts. A plaggen epipedon can be identified by several means. moist. Ochric Epipedon The ochric epipedon fails to meet the definitions for any of the other seven epipedons because it is too thin or too dry. The ochric epipedon includes eluvial horizons that are at or near the soil surface. and 6 or more. or c. Both of the following: a. If the underlying horizon is a B horizon of alteration (defined below as a cambic or oxic horizon) and there is no surface horizon that is appreciably darkened by humus. An organic-carbon content of 0. Dominant colors with chroma of 3 or less. . and it extends to the first underlying diagnostic illuvial horizon (defined below as an argillic. and of 5 or less. nor can it be an Ap horizon directly overlying such deposits. after mixing of the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil or of the whole mineral soil if its depth to a densic. and 3. and 2. moist. lithic. either or both: a. if the soil is not irrigated. or chroma of 4 or more. and Plaggen Epipedon The plaggen epipedon is a human-made surface layer 50 cm or more thick that has been produced by long-continued manuring. Colors with a value of 4 or less. it contains artifacts. the same horizon in an unplowed soil may be both part of the epipedon and part of the cambic horizon. if the soil is not irrigated.8 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic. has too high an n value or melanic index. as large as the size held by a spade. contains too little organic carbon. the lower limit of the ochric epipedon is the lower boundary of the plow layer or an equivalent depth (18 cm) in a soil that has not been plowed. Dominant colors with a value of 3 or less. moist. and one or both of the following: a. kandic. cambic. Content decreasing irregularly with increasing depth below the epipedon. has the following properties: 1. or b. Content less than 1. or d.7. and chroma of 2 or less. a petrocalcic horizon. natric. Actually. Spade marks below a depth of 30 cm. and Phosphate: a. Locally raised land surfaces. in less than one-half of the volume of all parts.500 milligrams per kilogram by citric-acid extraction. moist. A thickness of 50 cm or more. has too high a color value or chroma. or spodic horizon. including fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick). 7.

including coatings that are 2 mm or more thick and have a value. natric. D I A Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons The horizons described in this section form below the surface of the soil. if they were together. kandic. 10 cm if the epipedon has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand (when mixed) and it is directly above a densic. cambic. or b. although in some areas they form directly below a layer of leaf litter. . or a duripan. or b. duripan. Under the albic horizon there generally is an argillic. Content decreasing irregularly with increasing depth below the epipedon. and Phosphate: a. A thickness of 10 cm or more and either: a. 0. or paralithic contact. some are considered B horizons by many but not all pedologists. oxic. Albic Horizon The albic horizon is an eluvial horizon. Agric Horizon The agric horizon is an illuvial horizon that has formed under cultivation and contains significant amounts of illuvial silt. The minimum thickness of the epipedon is as follows: a. or c. The umbric epipedon does not have the artifacts. or (3) Any of the following. They may be exposed at the surface by truncation of the soil. Nodules are within the epipedon. and 6. 5 percent or more (by volume) lamellae that have a thickness of 5 mm or more and have a value.0 cm or more thick. The n value (defined below) is less than 0. Some part of the epipedon is moist for 90 days or more (cumulative) in normal years during times when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is 5 oC or higher. 18 cm if none of the above conditions apply. or it may be between an argillic or kandic horizon and a fragipan. oxic. or d. and/or (b) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic. An organic-carbon content of: a.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 9 4. kandic. moist. These lamellae are not considered to be part of the albic horizon. and 9. would meet the requirements for a mollic epipedon.500 milligrams per kilogram by citric-acid extraction. duripan. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some or all parts. are 75 cm or more below the mineral soil surface: (a) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. or fragipan. of 4 or less and chroma of 2 or less. if the soil is not irrigated. or (2) There are no underlying diagnostic horizons (defined below) and the organic-carbon content of the underlying materials decreases irregularly with increasing depth. The albic horizon may lie between a spodic horizon and either a fragipan or an argillic horizon. natric. clay. or spodic horizon. and others are generally regarded as parts of the A horizon. and/or (2) The lower boundary of the deepest of an argillic. natric. and raised surfaces that are characteristic of the plaggen epipedon. It may separate lamellae that together meet the requirements for an argillic horizon. cambic. or natric horizon or a fragipan. or spodic horizon or a fragipan (defined below). of 4 or less and chroma of 2 or less.6 percent (absolute) more than that of the C horizon (if one occurs) if the umbric epipedon has a color value less than 1 unit lower or chroma less than 2 units lower (both moist and dry) than the C horizon. a petrocalcic horizon. or b. 5 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. spade marks. and 5.6 percent or more and the epipedon does not meet the qualifications in 5-a above. Some of these horizons are generally regarded as B horizons. or spodic horizon. that has 85 percent or more (by volume) albic materials (defined below). Content less than 1. 0. and 8. 18 to 25 cm and the thickness is one-third or more of the total thickness between the mineral soil surface and: (1) The upper boundary of the shallowest of any identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcic horizon. or fragipan (defined below). or c. It may lie between a mollic epipedon and an argillic or natric horizon or between a cambic horizon and an argillic. or b. 7. Required Characteristics The agric horizon is directly below an Ap horizon and has the following properties: 1. It generally occurs below an A horizon but may be at the mineral soil surface.7. petrocalcic horizon. moist. 25 cm if: (1) The texture class of the epipedon is loamy fine sand or coarser throughout. lithic. if present. 1. petrocalcic horizon. The albic horizon may separate horizons that. cambic. and 10. and humus.

or removals or of a combination of two or more of these processes. and Has one or more of the following: a. All argillic horizons must meet both of the following requirements: a. and its CaCO3 equivalent is 5 percent or more (absolute) higher than that of an underlying horizon. coarse-silty. . the argillic horizon must have at least Cambic Horizon A cambic horizon is the result of physical alterations. then the illuvial horizon must contain more total clay than the eluvial horizon within a vertical distance of 30 cm or less. If any part of the eluvial horizon has less than 15 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. If the eluvial horizon has 15 to 40 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. for example). Is not cemented or indurated in any part by carbonates. 15 percent or more (by weight) CaCO3 equivalent (see below).10 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Argillic Horizon An argillic horizon is normally a subsurface horizon with a significantly higher percentage of phyllosilicate clay than the overlying soil material. and 2.04 or higher and the soil has distinct wet and dry seasons. fine-loamy.2 times or more than the ratio in the eluvial horizon. or b. Required Characteristics The calcic horizon: 1. finesilty. or (5) If the coefficient of linear extensibility is 0. the argillic horizon must contain at least 3 percent (absolute) more clay (10 percent versus 13 percent. (3) Clay films on both vertical and horizontal surfaces of peds. including skeletal counterparts. or very-fine or is loamy or clayey. as follows: a. Is 15 cm or more thick.5 cm thick or at least one-tenth as thick as the sum of the thickness of all overlying horizons. or Clay films lining pores. coarseloamy. fine. If an eluvial horizon remains and there is no lithologic discontinuity between it and the illuvial horizon and no plow layer directly above the illuvial layer. sandy-skeletal. or c. Required Characteristics 1. and b. The argillic horizon forms below the soil surface. or (4) Thin sections with oriented clay bodies that are more than 1 percent of the section. Evidence of clay illuviation in at least one of the following forms: (1) (2) Oriented clay bridging the sand grains. and 3. 15 percent or more (by weight) CaCO3 equivalent and 5 percent or more (by volume) identifiable secondary carbonates. for example). or c. If the eluvial horizon has 40 percent or more total clay in the fine-earth fraction. the combined thickness of the lamellae that are 0. or b. or (3) If the argillic horizon is composed entirely of lamellae. It is characterized by so much lateral discontinuity that roots can penetrate through noncemented zones or along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of less than 10 cm. or is cemented in some part and the cemented part satisfies one of the following: a. it must be at least 15 cm thick. chemical transformations. The cemented layer is less than 10 cm thick. One of the following: (1) If the argillic horizon meets the particle-size class criteria for coarse-loamy. the argillic horizon must contain at least 8 percent (absolute) more clay (42 percent versus 50 percent. whichever is greater. or b. It shows evidence of clay illuviation.5 cm or more thick must be 15 cm or more. 2. The cemented layer is less than 1 cm thick and consists of a laminar cap underlain by a lithic or paralithic contact. and (3) Has 5 percent or more (by volume) identifiable secondary carbonates or a calcium carbonate equivalent (by weight) that is 5 percent or more (absolute) higher than that of an underlying horizon. or 1. but it may be exposed at the surface later by erosion. with or without other cementing agents. it must be at least 7. or (2) If the argillic horizon meets the sandy or sandyskeletal particle-size criteria. Calcic Horizon The calcic horizon is an illuvial horizon in which secondary calcium carbonate or other carbonates have accumulated to a significant extent. and (2) Meets the criteria for a sandy. or c. 5 percent or more (by weight) calcium carbonate equivalent and: (1) Has less than 18 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction. then the ratio of fine clay to total clay in the illuvial horizon is greater by 1.2 times more clay than the eluvial horizon. or loamy-skeletal particle-size class.

or natric horizon (defined below). folistic. Is not part of an Ap horizon and does not have a brittle manner of failure in more than 60 percent of the matrix. The pan is cemented or indurated in more than 50 percent of the volume of some horizon. An illuvial part. glossa. including fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick).Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 11 Required Characteristics The cambic horizon is an altered horizon 15 cm or more thick. or natric horizon from which clay and free iron oxides are removed. and 4. melanic. lenses. The layer is 15 cm or more thick. or finer. kandic. Has properties that do not meet the requirements for an anthropic. and redox concentrations. but more than 50 percent slakes in concentrated KOH or NaOH or in alternating acid and alkali.e. or an argillic. petrogypsic. The layer has very coarse prismatic. mollic. If it is composed of lamellae. 1. Air-dry fragments of the natural soil fabric. has weak structure of any size. and 6. or coatings on rock and pararock fragments. or (b) Value of 4 or more and chroma of 1 or less. histic. as defined in item 2-a-(3) above. . in 60 percent or more of the volume. roots can penetrate the pan only along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of 10 cm or more. and has soil structure or the absence of rock structure. higher value. In addition.. Required Characteristics Duripan A duripan is a silica-cemented subsurface horizon with or without auxiliary cementing agents. at a minimum. or umbric epipedon. bridges between sand-sized grains. and 3. Aquic conditions within 50 cm of the soil surface or artificial drainage and all of the following: (1) Soil structure or the absence of rock structure. gypsic. petrocalcic. chroma of 2 or less. It can occur in conjunction with a petrocalcic horizon. a layer must have all of the following characteristics: 1. the combined thickness of the lamellae must be 15 cm or more. a brittle manner of failure at or near field capacity. tongue) develops as a result of the degradation of an argillic. on faces of peds or in the matrix as follows: (a) Value of 3 or less and chroma of 0. kandic. defined below). and 2. Because of lateral continuity. Has a texture class of very fine sand. natric. remnants (pieces) of an argillic. in more than one-half of the volume. and 3. An eluvial part (albic materials. coatings. or (c) Any value. Shows evidence of alteration in one of the following forms: a. 5 to 10 cm in diameter. and 3. redder hue. plaggen. placic. moist. Less than 50 percent of the volume of air-dry fragments slakes in 1N HCl even during prolonged soaking. Separations between structural units that allow roots to enter have an average spacing of 10 cm or more on the horizontal dimensions. columnar. a duripan or fragipan. The pan shows evidence of the accumulation of opal or other forms of silica. and (2) Colors that do not change on exposure to air. moist. including fine stratifications (5 mm or less thick). and 2. Required Characteristics A duripan must meet all of the following requirements: The glossic horizon is 5 cm or more thick and consists of: 1. or spodic horizon. a firm or firmer rupture-resistance class. or higher clay content than the underlying horizon or an overlying horizon. Does not have the combination of aquic conditions within 50 cm of the soil surface or artificial drainage and colors. from more than 50 percent of the layer slake when they are submerged in water. partly filled interstices. and virtually no roots. The layer is not effervescent (in dilute HCl). and 4. and 4. The layer has. D I A Fragipan Required Characteristics To be identified as a fragipan. or (2) Evidence of the removal of carbonates or gypsum. Glossic Horizon The glossic horizon (Gr. and 2. oxic. which constitutes 15 to 85 percent (by volume) of the glossic horizon. or b. and 5. on the faces of structural units. i. and (3) Dominant color. and 2. or blocky structure of any grade. the cambic horizon must meet all of the following: 1. or is massive. in more than one-half of the volume and one or more of the following properties: (1) Higher chroma. The layer shows evidence of pedogenesis within the horizon or. loamy very fine sand. such as laminar caps. calcic.

or petroferric contact (defined below) within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. 30 cm or more. and 3. paralithic. fine-silty. or petroferric contact if shallower. and 4. Has a product of thickness. and 2. fine-loamy. is either: (1) 4 percent or more (absolute) higher than that in the surface horizon if that horizon has less than 20 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. or is cemented but. and 2. It typically occurs as a subsurface horizon. lithic. roots can penetrate along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of less than 10 cm. If the horizon meets the particle-size class criteria for coarse-loamy. Is a vertically continuous subsurface horizon that underlies a coarser textured surface horizon. or petroferric contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and the kandic horizon constitutes 60 percent or more of the vertical distance between a depth of 18 cm and the contact. whichever is higher. Has an apparent CEC of 16 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) and an apparent ECEC of 12 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (sum of bases extracted with 1N NH4OAc pH 7 plus 1N KCl-extractable Al) in 50 percent or more of its thickness between the point where the clay increase requirements are met and either a depth of 100 cm below that point or a densic. a horizon 30 cm thick that is 5 percent gypsum qualifies as a gypsic horizon if it is 1 percent or more (by volume) visible gypsum and any cementation is as described in 2 above.5 cm thick or at least one- . because of lateral discontinuity. and Kandic Horizon Required Characteristics The kandic horizon: 1.5 times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon]. 15 cm or more if there is a densic. or very-fine or is loamy or clayey. It shows evidence of clay illuviation that has been accelerated by the dispersive properties of sodium. coarse-silty. and 3. but no more than 100). and 6. or (3) Within 125 cm from the mineral soil surface for all other soils. with or without other cementing agents. including skeletal counterparts. but it may occur at the surface in some soils. paralithic. and b. Has its upper boundary: a. Has a regular decrease in organic-carbon content with increasing depth. increasing with depth within a vertical distance of 15 cm or less. Required Characteristics A gypsic horizon meets all of the following requirements: 1. Required Characteristics The natric horizon: 1. Is not cemented by gypsum. or (2) Within 100 cm from the mineral soil surface if the clay content in the fine-earth fraction of the surface horizon is 20 percent or more. lithic. and no overlying layers more than 30 cm thick that have fine stratification and/or an organic-carbon content that decreases irregularly with increasing depth. and 4. At a depth: 5. The minimum thickness of the surface horizon is 18 cm after mixing or 5 cm if the textural transition to the kandic horizon is abrupt and there is no densic. or b. Has a thickness of either: a. in cm. or (3) 8 percent or more (absolute) higher than that in the surface horizon if that horizon has more than 40 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. no fine stratification. paralithic. fine. Is 15 cm or more thick. (The percentage of clay is either measured by the pipette method or estimated to be 2. Has a texture class of loamy very fine sand or finer.12 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Gypsic Horizon The gypsic horizon is a horizon in which gypsum has accumulated or been transformed to a significant extent. Thus. is cemented and the cemented parts are less than 5 mm thick. multiplied by the gypsum content (percent by weight) of 150 or more. it must be at least 7. At the point where the clay percentage in the fine-earth fraction. (1) Between 100 cm and 200 cm from the mineral soil surface if the upper 100 cm meets the criteria for a sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class throughout. or (2) 20 percent or more (relative) higher than that in the surface horizon if that horizon has 20 to 40 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. Meets one of the following thickness requirements: a. Natric Horizon A natric horizon is an illuvial horizon that is normally present in the subsurface and has a significantly higher percentage of silicate clay than the overlying horizons. Is 5 percent or more (by weight) gypsum and has 1 percent or more (by volume) visible secondary gypsum that has either accumulated or been transformed.

the combined thickness of the lamellae that are 0.2) in one or more horizons within 40 cm of its upper boundary if the ESP is 15 or more (or the SAR is 13 or more) in one or more horizons within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 4. or b. A diffuse upper boundary. for example). the illuvial horizon must have at least 1.5 cm or more thick must be 15 cm or more. a clay increase with increasing depth of: a. which may part to blocky structure. it must be at least 15 cm thick. Less than 4 percent (absolute) in its fine-earth fraction if the fine-earth fraction of the surface horizon contains less than 20 percent clay.2 times more clay than the eluvial horizon. or c. i. Clay films on both vertical and horizontal surfaces of peds. or e. and 2. If the horizon meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria. which contain uncoated silt or sand grains and extend more than 2. If any part of the eluvial horizon has less than 15 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. or b. Has either: a. or Clay films lining pores. 2. Has either: a. or Oxic Horizon Required Characteristics The oxic horizon is a subsurface horizon that does not have andic soil properties (defined below) and has all of the following characteristics: 1. and 3. Rock structure in less than 5 percent of its volume. but no more than 100. Less than 20 percent (relative) in its fine-earth fraction if the fine-earth fraction of the surface horizon contains 20 to 40 percent clay. A texture class of sandy loam or finer in the fine-earth fraction. and 5. or c. then the illuvial horizon must contain more total clay than the eluvial horizon within a vertical distance of 30 cm or less. Has evidence of clay illuviation in at least one of the following forms: a. D I A Ortstein Required Characteristics Ortstein has all of the following: 1. A thickness of 30 cm or more.2 times or more than the ratio in the eluvial horizon. whichever is greater. If the eluvial horizon has 15 to 40 percent total clay in the fine-earth fraction. and 2. the illuvial horizon must contain at least 8 percent (absolute) more clay (42 percent versus 50 percent. or b. Less than 8 percent (absolute) in its fine-earth fraction if the fine-earth fraction of the surface horizon contains 40 percent or more clay).04 or higher and the soil has distinct wet and dry seasons. unless the lithorelicts with weatherable minerals are coated with sesquioxides. If the eluvial horizon has 40 percent or more total clay in the fine-earth fraction. and 5. or c. An apparent CEC of 16 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) and an apparent ECEC of 12 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (sum of bases extracted with 1N NH4OAc pH 7 plus 1N KCl-extractable Al).e. or d. b. Thin sections with oriented clay bodies that are more than 1 percent of the section. Less than 10 percent weatherable minerals in the 50. as follows: a. for example). c. Oriented clay bridging the sand grains. and 4.5 cm into the horizon.. or b. If the coefficient of linear extensibility is 0. the illuvial horizon must contain at least 3 percent (absolute) more clay (10 percent versus 13 percent. whichever value is higher. within a vertical distance of 15 cm. If the horizon is composed entirely of lamellae. (The percentage of clay is either measured by the pipette method or estimated to be 3 times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon]. If an eluvial horizon remains and there is no lithologic discontinuity between it and the illuvial horizon and no plow layer directly above the illuvial horizon.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 13 tenth as thick as the sum of the thickness of all overlying horizons. More exchangeable magnesium plus sodium than calcium plus exchange acidity (at pH 8. Both blocky structure and eluvial materials. An exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 15 percent or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 13 or more) in one or more horizons within 40 cm of its upper boundary. and Is 25 mm or more thick.) . and 6. or b. 3. and 3. then the ratio of fine clay to total clay in the illuvial horizon is greater by 1. Consists of spodic materials. and Is in a layer that is 50 percent or more cemented. Columnar or prismatic structure in some part (generally the upper part).to 200-micron fraction.

Because of lateral continuity. as is the humus in the spodic horizon. If peds are present. The horizon is cemented or indurated by carbonates. and the cementation is both laterally continuous and root limiting.. with or without other cementing agents. cambic.14 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Petrocalcic Horizon The petrocalcic horizon is an illuvial horizon in which secondary calcium carbonate or other carbonates have accumulated to the extent that the horizon is cemented or indurated. for 90 consecutive days or more in normal years: 1. In the field a sombric horizon is easily mistaken for a buried A horizon. Salic Horizon A salic horizon is a horizon of accumulation of salts that are more soluble than gypsum in cold water. equal to 900 or more. Is 5 mm or more thick. sombre. Required Characteristics A petrocalcic horizon must meet the following requirements: 1. as is common in the natric horizon. in cm. b. even when the soil is moist. or oxic horizon. The horizon has a minimum thickness of 1 mm and. Because of lateral continuity. roots can penetrate only along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of 10 cm or more. where associated with spodic materials. Placic Horizon The placic horizon (Gr. can be penetrated by roots only along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of 10 cm or more. Petrogypsic Horizon The petrogypsic horizon is a horizon in which visible secondary gypsum has accumulated or has been transformed. or manganese and organic matter. 4. 1 cm or more if it consists of a laminar cap directly underlain by bedrock. The horizon typically occurs as a subsurface horizon. The horizon is cemented (i. the dark colors are most pronounced on surfaces of peds. with or without other cementing agents. 10 cm or more. or both. Is cemented or indurated by gypsum. dark) is a subsurface horizon in mineral soils that has formed under free drainage. It contains illuvial humus that is neither associated with aluminum. A product of the EC. Because of lateral continuity. Sombric Horizon A sombric horizon (F. and thickness. It can be distinguished from some buried epipedons by lateral tracing. and Is 40 percent or more (by weight) gypsum. flat stone. the sombric horizon does not have the high cation-exchange capacity in its clay that characterizes a spodic horizon and does not have the high base saturation of a natric horizon. their base saturation is low (less than 50 percent by NH4OAc). Consequently. meaning a thin cemented pan) is a thin. and 3. and 2. and 3. roots can penetrate only along vertical fractures with a horizontal spacing of 10 cm or more. Because of strong leaching. It may have formed in an argillic. The horizon has a thickness of: a. Required Characteristics A petrogypsic horizon meets all of the following requirements: 1. Required Characteristics A placic horizon must meet the following requirements: 1. Required Characteristics A salic horizon is 15 cm or more thick and has. but it may occur at the surface in some soils. is less than 25 mm thick. than the overlying horizon and commonly contains more organic matter. black to dark reddish pan that is cemented by iron (or iron and manganese) and organic matter. An electrical conductivity (EC) equal to or greater than 30 dS/m in the water extracted from a saturated paste. and 2. moist soils of high plateaus and mountains in tropical or subtropical regions. The sombric horizon has a lower color value or chroma. base of plax. with or without silica or other cementing agents. The horizon is cemented or indurated with iron or iron and Spodic Horizon A spodic horizon is an illuvial layer with 85 percent or more spodic materials (defined below). extremely weakly through indurated cementation classes). and 3. It does not underlie an albic horizon. nor dispersed by sodium. . and 2. in dS/m. Sombric horizons are thought to be restricted to the cool. In thin sections the organic matter of a sombric horizon appears more concentrated on peds and in pores than uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix.e. and 2.

1. dry. of 4 or more and a color value. with or without volcanic glass (required characteristic 2) and weakly weathered soil.5 cm or more thick that is not part of any Ap horizon. an increase from 22 to 42 percent) and the clay content in some part of the argillic horizon is 2 times or more the amount contained in the overlying horizon. Relative amounts of allophane. It is characterized by a considerable increase in clay content within a very short vertical distance in the zone of contact. Soils that are in cool. This definition implies that clay and/or free iron oxides have been removed from the materials or that the oxides have been segregated to such an extent that the color of the materials is largely determined by the color of the primary particles. may develop andic soil properties without the influence of volcanic glass. A color value. of 3 and a color value. humid climates and have abundant organic carbon.. or E horizon. volcanic ash.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 15 Required Characteristics A spodic horizon is normally a subsurface horizon underlying an O. and the color values listed in item 1-a or 1-b above. have a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials (defined below) in parts of the argillic horizon. or metal-humus complexes in the colloidal fraction are inferred from laboratory analyses of aluminum. A. Chroma that is controlled by the color of uncoated grains of silt or sand. The upper boundary of such a horizon is irregular or even discontinuous. Abrupt Textural Change An abrupt textural change is a specific kind of change that may occur between an ochric epipedon or an albic horizon and an argillic horizon. hue of 5YR or redder. A suite of glass and glass-coated minerals rich in silica is termed volcanic glass in this taxonomy. of 7 or more.5 cm or less. there is an increase of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. and if these intrusions have been leached of free iron oxides and/or clay after deposition. or other materials deposited by wind or water are not considered albic materials. it doubles within a vertical distance of 7. Sampling this mixture as a single horizon might create the impression of a relatively thick transitional horizon. however. and from phosphate retention. Required Characteristics Albic materials have one of the following colors: . there is no transitional horizon between an ochric epipedon or an albic horizon and an argillic horizon. dry. or b.g. Some soils. If the clay content in the fine-earth fraction of the ochric epipedon or the albic horizon is 20 percent or more. imogolite. 3. moist. Andic Soil Properties Andic soil properties commonly form during weathering of tephra or other parent materials containing a significant content of volcanic glass. Andic soil properties represent a stage in transition where weathering and transformation of primary alumino-silicates (e. The concept of andic soil properties includes moderately weathered soil material. of 5 or more. or D I A 2. Normally. Relatively unaltered layers of light colored sand. iron. and ferrihydrite. dry. whereas the thickness of the actual transition at the contact may be no more than 1 mm. or b. or the transitional horizon is too thin to be sampled. except for a buried soil. ferrihydrite.. Chroma of 2 or less. and silica extracted by ammonium oxalate. Chroma of 3 or less. although they may have the same color and apparent morphology. volcanic glass) have proceeded only to the point of the formation of short-range-order materials. rich in short-range-order materials or metalhumus complexes. imogolite. such as allophane. white) materials are soil materials with a color that is largely determined by the color of primary sand and silt particles rather than by the color of their coatings. of 6 or more. A color value. These minerals are relatively soluble and undergo fairly rapid transformation when the soils are moist. and either a. and either a. or Diagnostic Soil Characteristics for Mineral Soils Diagnostic soil characteristics are features of the soil that are used in various places in the keys or in the definitions of diagnostic horizons. If the clay content in the fine-earth fraction of the ochric epipedon or albic horizon is less than 20 percent.5 cm or less (e. moist. Light colored krotovinas or filled root channels should be considered albic materials only if they have no fine stratifications or lamellae. A spodic horizon must have 85 percent or more spodic materials in a layer 2. moist. however. or both. of 6 or more. A color value. It may. or of metal-humus complexes. meet the definition of an umbric epipedon. Ap. A color value. These deposits are parent materials that are not characterized by the removal of clay and/or free iron and do not overlie an illuvial horizon or other soil horizon. less rich in short-range-order materials with volcanic glass (required characteristic 3).g. albus. if any sealing along the krotovina walls has been destroyed. Soil scientists may use smeariness or pH in 1N sodium fluoride Albic Materials Albic (L. however.

phosphate retention.0 percent or more. or Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE) The coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) is the ratio of the difference between the moist length and dry length of a clod to its dry length. and e under item 3 of the required characteristics. 30 percent or more of the fine-earth fraction is 0. Required Characteristics Soil materials with andic soil properties must have a fineearth fraction that meets the following requirements: 1. Bulk density. waterless) refer to the moisture condition of soils in very cold deserts and other areas with permafrost (often dry permafrost).4 percent or more. and particle-size distribution. The shaded area in figure 1 illustrates criteria 3c. and e. Phosphate retention of 85 percent or more. Volcanic glass content of 5 percent or more. Phosphate retention of 25 percent or more. and c. The layer from 10 to 70 cm below the soil surface has a soil temperature of less than 5 oC throughout the year and this layer: 1. Has a rupture-resistance class of loose to slightly hard throughout when the soil temperature is 0 oC or colder. Volcanic glass content is the percent volcanic glass (by grain count) in the coarse silt and sand (0. Is dry (water held at 1500 kPa or more) in one-half or more of the soil for one-half or more of the time the layer has a soil temperature above 0 oC. measured at 33 kPa water retention.0 mm in size. and c. and 2. except where a cemented pedogenic horizon occurs. and 3e. but some are organic soil materials with less than 25 percent organic carbon. 3d. Soils with anhydrous conditions have a mean annual soil temperature of 0 oC or colder. An estimate of COLE can be calculated in the field by measuring the distance between two pins in a clod of undisturbed soil at field capacity and again after the clod has dried.0 mm) fraction. and b. These soils typically have low precipitation (usually less than 50 mm water equivalent per year) and a moisture content of less than 3 percent by weight. [(Al + ½ Fe content. Most soil materials with andic soil properties consist of mineral soil materials. percent) times (15.625)] + [volcanic glass content.Ld)/Ld. and b. .90 g/cm3 or less.—Soils that are plotted in the shaded area meet the andic soil properties criteria c. All of the following: a. percent] = 36.25 or more. COLE does not apply if the shrinkage is irreversible. or 3. It is (Lm . Includes no ice-cemented permafrost. COLE can be calculated from the differences in bulk density of the clod when moist and when dry.16 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 3. the soils must also meet the listed requirements for organic-carbon content. Anhydrous soil conditions are similar to the aridic (torric) soil moisture regimes (defined below). Anhydrous Conditions Anhydrous conditions (Gr. Al + ½ Fe content (by ammonium oxalate) equal to 2. (NaF) as field indicators of andic soil properties.02 to 2. Less than 25 percent organic carbon (by weight) and one or both of the following: 2. All of the following: a. Al + ½ Fe content (by ammonium oxalate) equal to 0. of 0. and d. To qualify as soils with andic properties. Required Characteristics Figure 1.02 to 2. where Lm is the length at 33 kPa tension and Ld is the length when dry. except that the soil temperature at 50 cm is less than 5 oC throughout the year in the soil layers with these conditions. anydros. d.

or spheroidal aggregates (white eyes) that are soft and powdery when dry. The cement is SiO2. D I A Identifiable Secondary Carbonates The term “identifiable secondary carbonates” is used in the definitions of a number of taxa. Aggregates with fragic soil properties have a firm or firmer rupture-resistance class and a brittle manner of failure when soil water is at or near field capacity. although sodium and magnesium carbonates are also included in this concept. and concentric stringers of opal are visible under a hand lens. presumably opal and microcrystalline forms of silica. If present as coatings. although they can be at or near the surface in truncated soils. Commonly. to a lesser degree. 1976) 1 mm or more thick on the vertical faces of peds. The term “free carbonates” is nearly synonymous with the term “calcareous. 5 to 10 cm in diameter. It refers to soil carbonates that are uncoated or unbound and that effervesce visibly or audibly when treated . Have a firm or firmer rupture-resistance class and a brittle manner of failure when soil water is at or near field capacity. There is no implication of pedogenesis in the concept of free carbonates. with cold. dilute HCl. kandic. and is mentioned in the discussion of chemical analyses in the Appendix. Interfingering of Albic Materials The term “interfingering of albic materials” refers to albic materials that penetrate 5 cm or more into an underlying argillic. but they form continuous skeletans (ped coatings of clean silt or sand defined by Brewer. Some durinodes are roughly concentric when viewed in cross section. strong or moderate soil structure. Restrict the entry of roots into the matrix when soil water is at or near field capacity. as there is in identifiable secondary carbonates (defined below). Identifiable secondary carbonates either may disrupt the soil structure or fabric. and 3.” Soils that have free carbonates generally have calcium carbonate as a common mineral. the surfaces may be only partially coated. are submerged in water. hard. They have neither the layer thickness nor volume requirements for the fragipan. Air-dry fragments of the natural fabric. the secondary carbonates cover a significant part of the surfaces. 5 to 10 cm in diameter. Peds with these properties are considered to have fragic soil properties regardless of whether or not the density and brittleness are pedogenic. or natric horizon along vertical and. concretions. There need not be a continuous overlying albic horizon. and nodus. Aggregates with fragic soil properties show evidence of pedogenesis. which means a total width of 2 mm or more between abutting peds.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 17 Durinodes Durinodes (L. but their color is determined in large part by the color of the sand or silt fraction. Soil aggregates with fragic soil properties must: 1. is used as a criterion for the isotic mineralogy class. durus. Fragic Soil Properties Fragic soil properties are the essential properties of a fragipan. they coat all of the surfaces to a thickness of 1 mm or more. however. nodules. The albic materials constitute less than 15 percent of the layer that they penetrate. including one or more of the following: oriented clay within the matrix or on faces of peds. Some horizons are entirely engulfed by carbonates. Fragic soil properties are in subsurface horizons. The color of these horizons is largely determined by the carbonates. Dry durinodes do not slake appreciably in water. redoximorphic features within the matrix or on faces of peds. Free Carbonates The term “free carbonates” is used in the definitions of a number of taxa. and 2. at a minimum. Filaments commonly branch on structural faces. but prolonged soaking can result in spalling of very thin platelets. The coatings must be thick enough to be visible when moist. The carbonates in these horizons are within the concept of identifiable secondary carbonates. slake when they are submerged in water. It refers to translocated authigenic calcium carbonate that has been precipitated in place from the soil solution rather than inherited from a soil parent material. or on the undersides of rock or pararock fragments. Durinodes break down in hot concentrated KOH after treatment with HCl to remove carbonates but do not break down with concentrated HCl alone. on the faces of the aggregates. The filaments commonly seen in a dry calcareous horizon are within the meaning of identifiable secondary carbonates if the filaments are thick enough to be visible when the soil is moist. Show evidence of pedogenesis within the aggregates or. Slake when air-dry fragments of the natural fabric. although most forms of secondary carbonates are freely effervescent. horizontal faces of peds. and coatings of albic materials or uncoated silt and sand grains on faces of peds or in seams. and 4. forming masses. on structural faces. Soils or horizons with free carbonates may have inherited the carbonate compounds from parent materials without any translocation or transformation processes acting on them. Durinodes are firm or firmer and brittle when wet. or may be present as coatings in pores. knot) are weakly cemented to indurated nodules or concretions with a diameter of 1 cm or more. If little calcium carbonate is present in the soil. such as calcareous loess or limestone residuum. both before and after treatment with acid. these skeletans are usually light gray when moist and nearly white when dry. Because quartz is such a common constituent of silt and sand.

5 cm or more thick and that have a clay content of either: 1. Abrupt textural contacts. A lithologic discontinuity can also denote an age difference. or 2. Are 2 mm or more thick between vertical faces of abutting peds.) Lamellae may meet the requirements for either a cambic or an argillic horizon. The LE of a soil layer is the product of the thickness. (An eluvial horizon is not required above the uppermost lamella if the soil is truncated. Lithologic Discontinuities Lithologic discontinuities are significant changes in particlesize distribution or mineralogy that represent differences in lithology within a soil. and each lamella must have an overlying eluvial horizon. If many of the rock fragments do not have the same lithology as the underlying bedrock. The percentage of rock fragments decreases with increasing depth. Each lamella contains an accumulation of oriented silicate clay on or bridging the sand and silt grains (and rock fragments if any are present). 3.g. loamy very fine sand. and 3. Linear Extensibility (LE) Linear extensibility (LE) helps to predict the potential of a soil to shrink and swell. Stone lines. Although the materials may be of the same mineralogy. Linear extensibility is a criterion for most Vertic subgroups in this taxonomy and is calculated as summed products from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 100 cm or to a root-limiting layer. can often be observed.. in cm. rock fragment lithology in the soil.—The occurrence of a horizontal line of rock fragments in the vertical sequence of a soil indicates that the soil may have developed in more than one kind of parent material. A lamella has more silicate clay than the overlying eluvial horizon. The discussion below is meant to serve as a guideline.—A lithologic discontinuity is often indicated by an erratic distribution of rock fragments. 1993). Rock fragment weathering rinds. This line of evidence is useful in areas of soils that have relatively unweathered rock fragments. Constitute less than 15 percent (by volume) of the layer that they penetrate. No attempt is made to quantify lithologic discontinuities.—Horizons containing rock fragments with no rinds that overlie horizons containing rocks with rinds suggest that the upper material is in part depositional and not related to the lower part in time and perhaps in lithology. 3 percent or more (absolute) higher than in the overlying eluvial horizon (e.—An abrupt change in particle-size distribution.. one would expect the rock fragments to have a lithology similar to that of the material below the lithic contact. the soil is not derived completely from the underlying bedrock. Lamellae occur in a vertical series of two or more. The material above the stone line is most likely transported. A combination of two or more lamellae meets the requirements for an argillic horizon if there is 15 cm or more cumulative thickness of lamellae that are 0. Several lines of field evidence can be used to evaluate lithologic discontinuities. Each lamella contains an accumulation of oriented silicate clay on or bridging sand and silt grains (and rock fragments if any are present). The LE of a soil is the sum of these products for . Inverse distribution of rock fragments.18 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Required Characteristics Interfingering of albic materials is recognized if albic materials: 1. one can assume that there are two different materials.g. which is not solely a change in clay content resulting from pedogenesis. certain observations can be made in the field. In addition to mineralogical and textural differences that may require laboratory studies. 6. For example.5 cm thick formed in unconsolidated regolith more than 50 cm thick. 5. For information on using horizon designations for lithologic discontinuities. 20 percent or more (relative) higher than in the overlying eluvial horizon (e.—Significant changes in sand size can be detected. SCS. These include but are not limited to the following: 1. Required Characteristics A lamella is an illuvial horizon less than 7. Not everyone agrees on the degree of change required for a lithologic discontinuity. Bedrock lithology vs. and the material below may be of different origin. Penetrate 5 cm or more into an underlying argillic or natric horizon. see the Soil Survey Manual (USDA. 13 percent versus 10 percent) if any part of the eluvial horizon has less than 15 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction.5 cm thick.—If a soil with rock fragments overlies a lithic contact. and 2. 4. if material containing mostly medium sand or finer sand abruptly overlies material containing mostly coarse sand and very coarse sand. or finer. 24 percent versus 20 percent) if all parts of the eluvial horizon have more than 15 percent clay in the fineearth fraction. A combination of two or more lamellae 15 cm or more thick is a cambic horizon if the texture class is very fine sand. the contrasting sand sizes result from differences in energy at the time of deposition by water and/or wind. Lamellae A lamella is an illuvial horizon less than 7. 2. Contrasting sand sizes. multiplied by the COLE of the layer in question. all soil horizons. Each lamella is required to have more silicate clay than the overlying eluvial horizon.

R is the percentage of silt plus sand. Shape of rock fragments.7 can be approximated closely in the field by a simple test of squeezing a soil sample in the palm of a hand. General concepts of lithology as a function of depth might include: 1.—Abrupt changes in color that are not the result of pedogenic processes can be used as indicators of discontinuity. Soil color. the material directly below a petroferric contact contains a high amount of iron (normally 30 percent or more Fe2O3).—The array of laboratory data is assessed in an attempt to determine if a fielddesignated discontinuity is corroborated and if any data show evidence of a discontinuity not observed in the field. 8. plinthos. if the soil flows easily between the fingers. The ratios can be computed and examined as a numerical array. In these cases laboratory data are necessary.—Marked differences in the size and shape of resistant minerals in one horizon and not in another are indicators of differences in materials. and if no soil material flows through the fingers during full compression.724). Low quantities magnify changes in ratios. This line of evidence represents different mechanisms of transport (colluvial vs.7 and 1. iron. but the critical n value of 0. the sample has an n value less than 0. Several features can aid in making the distinction between a lithic contact and a petroferric contact. n = (A . an oxic horizon. Plinthite changes irreversibly to an ironstone hardpan or to irregular aggregates on exposure to repeated wetting and drying.g. Use of Laboratory Data Discontinuities are not always readily apparent in the field. and may contain only a small percentage of Fe2O3. The numerical array computed on a clay-free basis can be inspected visually or plotted as a function of depth. Plinthite Plinthite (Gr. a cambic horizon. may be level-bedded or tilted. alluvial) or even different transport distances. For mineral soil materials that are not thixotropic. Data on a clay-free basis.7 (nonfluid manner of failure class). or they can be plotted. the n value can be calculated by the following formula: . The fact that this ironstone layer contains little or no organic matter distinguishes it from a placic horizon and an indurated spodic horizon (ortstein). times 100). the ironstone sheets below a petroferric contact are thin. divided by percent sand plus silt. may be thin or very thick. Gross soil mineralogy and the resistant mineral suite are other clues. Another aid used to assess lithologic changes is computation of the ratios of one sand separate to another. First.2R)/(L + 3H) In this formula. fine sand and very fine sand. their thickness ranges from a few centimeters to very few meters. L is the percentage of clay. The ratios work well if sufficient quantities of the two fractions are available. such as an epipedon. brick) is an iron-rich. Clay distribution is subject to pedogenic change and may either mask inherited lithologic differences or produce differences that are not inherited from lithology. In the Tropics. D I A Petroferric Contact A petroferric (Gr.—A common manipulation in assessing lithologic change is computation of sand and silt separates on a carbonate-free. and H is the percentage of organic matter (percent organic carbon multiplied by 1. rock. both of which contain organic matter. implying ironstone) contact is a boundary between soil and a continuous layer of indurated material in which iron is an important cement and organic matter is either absent or present only in traces. A is the percentage of water in the soil in field condition. Therefore. 9. an abrupt change in sand size or sand mineralogy is a clue to lithologic change. Laboratory data—visual scan. 1965) characterizes the relation between the percentage of water in a soil under field conditions and its percentages of inorganic clay and humus. Few data for calculations of the n value are available in the United States. on the other hand. Even with laboratory data. but it may be abrupt at a lithologic discontinuity. ferrum. polygonal. Second. an argillic horizon. The n value is helpful in predicting whether a soil can be grazed by livestock or can support other loads and in predicting what degree of subsidence would occur after drainage. the n value is between 0. a petroferric contact is roughly horizontal. 2. e. humus-poor mixture of clay with quartz and other minerals. or reticulate patterns. calculated on a dry-soil basis. and L. The indurated layer must be continuous within the limits of each pedon. The decision is a qualitative or perhaps a partly quantitative judgment. petra.0 (slightly fluid manner of failure class). or a C horizon.0. the ironstone is generally more or less vesicular. the n value is 1 or more (moderately fluid or very fluid manner of failure class).. especially if it is also exposed to heat from the sun.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 19 7. Plinthite may occur as a constituent of a number of horizons. It is one form of the material that has been called laterite. It commonly occurs as dark red redox concentrations that usually form platy. Sandstone. detecting discontinuities may be difficult. One must sort changes in lithology from changes caused by pedogenic processes. It normally forms in a horizon below n Value The n value (Pons and Zonneveld. If the soil flows between the fingers with difficulty. Third. but it may be fractured if the average lateral distance between fractures is 10 cm or more. In most cases the quantities of sand and coarser fractions are not altered significantly by soil-forming processes. The lower boundary of a zone in which plinthite occurs generally is diffuse or gradual. Micromorphological features. clay-free basis (percent fraction.—A soil with horizons containing angular rock fragments overlying horizons containing well rounded rock fragments may indicate a discontinuity. especially if the denominator is low.

In a moist soil. These concentrations are not considered plinthite unless there has been enough segregation of iron to permit their irreversible hardening on exposure to repeated wetting and drying. If a large amount of plinthite is present. with or without iron. From a genetic viewpoint.02 to 2. grayish. the individual redox concentrations or aggregates are not connected with each other. ochric. it will remoisten and then can be dispersed in large part if one shakes it in water with a dispersing agent. This increase in ODOE value indicates an accumulation of translocated organic materials in an illuvial horizon. Individual aggregates of plinthite in a continuous phase are interconnected. A horizon consisting of spodic materials normally has an optical-density-of-oxalate-extract (ODOE) value of 0. as follows: (1) Hue of 5YR or redder. In most undisturbed areas. are dominated by active amorphous materials that are illuvial and are composed of organic matter and aluminum. a humid climate. A small amount of plinthite in the soil does not form a continuous phase. Slickensides Slickensides are polished and grooved surfaces and generally have dimensions exceeding 5 cm. and have both of the following: 1. or umbric epipedon or an albic horizon. anatase. spodic materials underlie an albic horizon. leaving an ironstone that has many coarse. and that value is commonly at least 2 times as high as the ODOE value in an overlying eluvial horizon. Soils with spodic materials show evidence that organic materials and aluminum. and the spacing of cracks or zones that roots can enter is 10 cm or more. Slickensides result directly from the swelling of clay minerals and shear failure. Plinthite occurs as discrete bodies larger than 2 mm that can be separated from the matrix. After irreversible hardening. Hardened laterite. Plinthite does not harden irreversibly as a result of a single cycle of drying and rewetting. A moist aggregate of plinthite will withstand moderate rolling between thumb and forefinger and is less than strongly cemented. whether it is vesicular or pisolitic.9 or less and an organiccarbon content of 0. and 2. Generally. the stability of a mineral in the soil is a partial function of the soil moisture regime. or . with or without iron. Resistant minerals are durable minerals in the 0.6 percent or more. it is no longer considered plinthite but is called ironstone. Spodic Materials Spodic materials form in an illuvial horizon that normally underlies a histic. or white. or (3) Hue of 10YR or neutral and a color value and chroma of 2 or less. but it may form at the surface in a seep area at the base of a slope. zircon. moist (crushed and smoothed sample). it is a massive ironstone layer that has irregular. Examples are quartz.20 Keys to Soil Taxonomy the surface. and chroma of 4 or less. 2004). Plinthite is firm or very firm when the soil moisture content is near field capacity and hard when the moisture content is below the wilting point. If a continuous layer becomes indurated. In many places iron probably has been added from other horizons or from the higher adjacent soils. They are produced when one soil mass slides past another. more or less clayey. plinthite forms in a horizon that is saturated with water for some time during the year. color value of 5 or less. have been moved from an eluvial horizon to an illuvial horizon. One or both of the following: a. colors.0 (2) Hue of 7. mm fraction. rutile. red or dark red redox concentrations. If the layer is exposed. Initially. Doughy and concretionary laterite that has not hardened is an example. Some slickensides occur at the lower boundary of a slip surface where a mass of soil moves downward on a relatively steep slope. Definition of Spodic Materials Spodic materials are mineral soil materials that do not have all of the properties of an argillic or kandic horizon. directly under the albic horizon. Obviously. iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. that is. or Resistant Minerals Several references are made to resistant minerals in this taxonomy. Much that has been called laterite is included in the meaning of plinthite. or (4) A color of 10YR 3/1. beryl. is not included in the definition of plinthite. 1:1 dioctahedral phyllosilicates (kandites).25 or more. it may form a continuous phase. tourmaline. Indurated ironstone materials can be broken or shattered with a spade but cannot be dispersed if one shakes them in water with a dispersing agent. clayey material. After a single drying. They are very common in swelling clays that undergo marked changes in moisture content. plinthite is soft enough to be cut with a spade. iron is normally segregated in the form of soft. Where resistant minerals are referred to in the definitions of diagnostic horizons and of various taxa. is always assumed. these inclusions may be washed out. gibbsite.5YR. somewhat tubular inclusions of yellowish. A pH value in water (1:1) of 5. Moist or air-dried plinthite will not slake when submerged in water even with gentle agitation. and hydroxy-aluminum interlayered 2:1 minerals (Burt. tubular pores. past or present. plinthite forms by segregation of iron. An overlying albic horizon that extends horizontally through 50 percent or more of each pedon and. They may occur within an umbric epipedon or an Ap horizon.

with or without iron. Weatherable Minerals Several references are made to weatherable minerals in this taxonomy. and 2. imogolite. Volcanic Glass Volcanic glass is defined herein as optically isotropic translucent glass or pumice of any color. and yield color values and chromas . Examples of the minerals that are included in the meaning of weatherable minerals are all 2:1 phyllosilicates. Are large enough to be retained on a 100-mesh sieve (openings 0. or albic horizon.e. Volcanic glass content is a criterion in classification of andic soil properties. glass-coated crystalline minerals. color value. glass aggregates.5YR. allophane. and (3) sapric. zeolites. or albic horizon. chroma of 5 or 6 (crushed and smoothed sample). and half that amount or less in an overlying umbric (or subhorizon of an umbric) epipedon. is always assumed. or fine sand) and used as an estimate of glass content in the 0. in the definitions of diagnostic horizons and various taxa. gypsum. and 3. coarse silt. Obviously. of 5 or less. volcanic glass. Volcanic glass content is the percent (by grain count) of glass. Volcanic glass is typically a dominant component in relatively unweathered tephra. sepiolite. They appear to be recharged in some otherwise strongly weathered soils. Fibric Soil Materials Fibric soil materials are organic soil materials that either: 1. Contain three-fourths or more (by volume) fibers after rubbing. It includes glass. ochric epipedon. and the glassy mineralogy class. or (2) or 10 percent or more cracked coatings on sand grains. Where weatherable minerals are referred to in the definitions of diagnostic horizons and of various taxa in this taxonomy. based on the degree of decomposition of the plant materials from which the organic materials are derived. Kinds of Organic Soil Materials Three different kinds of organic soil materials are distinguished in this taxonomy. but that are more resistant to weathering than calcite. very fine sand. Pieces of wood that are larger than 2 cm in cross section and are so undecomposed that they cannot be crushed and shredded with the fingers.02 to 2.0 mm fraction. carbonate aggregates. Either are 2 cm or less in their smallest dimension or are decomposed enough to be crushed and shredded with the fingers. The intent is to include. the content is determined for one particle-size fraction (i. Typically. palygorskite. the stability of a mineral in a soil is a partial function of the soil moisture regime. feldspathoids.50 or more. chlorite. in 50 percent or more of each pedon and a very firm or firmer rupture-resistance class in the cemented part.25 or more.02 to 2. Contain two-fifths or more (by volume) fibers after rubbing. this definition of the term “weatherable minerals” is restrictive. Characteristics Diagnostic for Organic Soils Following is a description of the characteristics that are used only with organic soils. and glassy materials.” families with “ashy” substitutes for particle-size class. and glassy materials in the 0. Fibers Fibers are pieces of plant tissue in organic soil materials (excluding live roots) that: 1. 1:1 trioctahedral phyllosilicates (serpentines). are not considered fibers but are considered coarse fragments (comparable to gravel.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 21 b. only those weatherable minerals that are unstable in a humid climate compared to other minerals. pumice. Weathering and mineral transformation of volcanic glass can produce short-range-order minerals. glass aggregates. such as quartz and 1:1 lattice clays. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying umbric (or subhorizon of an umbric) epipedon. and ferrihydrite. Because of the importance of fiber content in the definitions of these materials. fibers are defined before the kinds of organic soil materials. subgroups with the formative element “vitr(i). such as allophane. or (4) An optical-density-of-oxalate-extract (ODOE) value of 0.15 mm across) when the materials are screened. such as large branches. stones. moist.. dolomite. and one or more of the following morphological or chemical properties: (1) Cementation by organic matter and aluminum. Show evidence of the cellular structure of the plants from which they are derived. Obviously. The three kinds are (1) fibric. ferromagnesian minerals. a humid climate. With or without an albic horizon and one of the colors listed above or hue of 7.02 to 2. and boulders in mineral soils). or 2. and apatite in the 0. glass-coated mineral grains. logs. Calcite.0 mm fraction. (2) hemic.0 mm fraction. excluding coarse fragments. D I A (3) Al + 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. feldspars. either present or past. and stumps. excluding coarse fragments. ochric epipedon. and halite are not considered weatherable minerals because they are mobile in the soil.

They are relatively stable. The nature of such deposits is considered in the lower categories of Histosols. Either forms a slightly viscous water suspension and is nonplastic or slightly plastic but not sticky.e... Sapric Soil Materials Sapric soil materials (Gr. 7/2. hemi. and 3. Either yields a saturated sodium-pyrophosphate extract Figure 2. the humilluvic material must constitute one-half or more (by volume) of a layer 2 cm or more thick. and 2. accumulates in the lower parts of some organic soils that are acid and have been drained and cultivated. illuvial humus. They include coprogenous earth (sedimentary peat). the highest bulk density. and water content. the possibility that the material is limnic must be considered. is less than one-sixth (by volume). and 2. Contains many fecal pellets with diameters between a few hundredths and a few tenths of a millimeter. . Coprogenous Earth A layer of coprogenous earth (sedimentary peat) is a limnic layer that: 1. half. 2).—Value and chroma of pyrophosphate solution of fibric and sapric materials. they change very little physically and chemically with time in comparison to other organic soil materials. Their morphological features give intermediate values for fiber content. and the lowest water content on a dry-weight basis at saturation. and 4. forming clods that are difficult to rewet and often tend to crack along horizontal planes. diatomaceous earth. It has very high solubility in sodium pyrophosphate and rewets very slowly after drying. 6/2. and 7/3 (fig. They have the smallest amount of plant fiber. To be recognized as a differentia in classification. sapros. Limnic Materials The presence or absence of limnic deposits is taken into account in the higher categories of Histosols but not Histels. Most commonly. If few or no fibers can be detected and the color of the pyrophosphate extract is to the left of or above this line. after rubbing. Limnic materials include both organic and inorganic materials that were either (1) deposited in water by precipitation or through the action of aquatic organisms. or shrinks upon drying. i. The humilluvic material has a C14 age that is not older than the overlying organic materials. The fiber content. Humilluvic Material Humilluvic material. Sapric materials have the following characteristics: 1. excluding coarse fragments. The color of the sodium-pyrophosphate extract on white chromatographic or filter paper is below or to the right of a line drawn to exclude blocks 5/1. bulk density.22 Keys to Soil Taxonomy of 7/1. rotten) are the most highly decomposed of the three kinds of organic soil materials. moist. of 4 or less. Sapric soil materials are commonly very dark gray to black. or (2) derived from underwater and floating aquatic plants and subsequently modified by aquatic animals. 8/1. Has a color value. Hemic soil materials are partly altered both physically and biochemically. implying intermediate decomposition) are intermediate in their degree of decomposition between the less decomposed fibric and more decomposed sapric materials. 2) on white chromatographic or filter paper that is inserted into a paste made of the soil materials in a saturated sodium-pyrophosphate solution. or 8/3 (fig.e. and marl. such as algae or diatoms. 8/2. it accumulates near a contact with a sandy mineral horizon. i. Hemic Soil Materials Hemic soil materials (Gr.

or other causes. to coat the carbonate particles. Thickness of Organic Soil Materials (Control Section of Histosols and Histels) The thickness of organic materials over limnic materials. If the control section ends at a shallower depth (at a densic. 2) or has a cationexchange capacity of less than 240 cmol(+) per kg organic matter (measured by loss on ignition). subsurface. or paralithic contact. substratum shallower than those limits does not change the lower boundary of the control section. Thus. Depending on the kinds of soil material in the surface layers. however. An unconsolidated mineral Bottom Tier The bottom tier is 40 cm thick unless the control section has its lower boundary at a shallower depth (at a densic. The thicker control section is used if the surface layers to a depth of 60 cm either contain three-fourths or more fibers derived from Sphagnum. lithic. Some organic soils have a mineral surface layer less than 40 cm thick as a result of flooding. it constitutes the whole surface tier and part of the subsurface tier. The color of marl usually does not change irreversibly on drying because a layer of marl contains too little organic matter. Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for Both Mineral and Organic Soils Following are descriptions of the horizons and characteristics that are diagnostic for both mineral and organic soils. Hypnum. Layers of water. examination of dry samples). or paralithic contact or a water layer or in permafrost). or both. if it is 30 to 40 cm thick. if shallower than 130 or 160 cm. volcanic eruptions. 4. which changes irreversibly on drying as a result of the irreversible shrinkage of organic-matter coatings on diatoms (identifiable by microscopic. or permafrost is used to define the Histosols and Histels. Either yields a saturated sodium-pyrophosphate extract on white chromatographic or filter paper that has a color value of 8 or more and chroma of 2 or less or has a cation-exchange capacity of less than 240 cmol(+) per kg organic matter (measured by loss on ignition). D I A Surface Tier The surface tier of a Histosol or Histel extends from the soil surface to a depth of 60 cm if either (1) the materials within that depth are fibric and three-fourths or more of the fiber volume is derived from Sphagnum or other mosses or (2) the materials have a bulk density of less than 0. there are two possible thicknesses of the control section. or paralithic contact or a water layer or in permafrost). of 5 or more. moist.1. Has a color value. If not previously dried. which may be between a few centimeters and many meters thick in these soils. If such a mineral layer is less than 30 cm thick. are considered to be the lower boundary of the control section only if the water extends below a depth of 130 or 160 cm. Subsurface Tier The subsurface tier is normally 60 cm thick. mineral materials. if the organic materials are thick. or both. lithic. lithic. has a matrix color value of 3. the surface tier extends from the soil surface to a depth of 30 cm. lithic. The control section of Histosols and Histels is divided somewhat arbitrarily into three tiers—surface. If the fibric moss extends to a depth of 60 cm and is the dominant material within this depth (three-fourths or more of the volume). A densic. the subsurface tier extends from the lower boundary of the surface tier to the lower boundary of the control section. or paralithic contact. 440 X.1). or other mosses or have a bulk density of less than 0. and bottom tiers. respectively. additions of mineral materials to increase soil strength or reduce the hazard of frost. even before it has been shrunk by drying. and 2. . and Reacts with dilute HCl to evolve CO2. water. or 5.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 23 on white chromatographic or filter paper that has a color value of 7 or more and chroma of 2 or less (fig. For practical reasons. depending on the presence or absence and the thickness of a surface mantle of fibric moss or other organic material that has a low bulk density (less than 0. 2. an arbitrary control section has been established for the classification of Histosols and Histels. It includes any unconsolidated mineral layers that may be present within those depths. thick layer of water. or permafrost within the respective limit. it constitutes the upper part of the surface tier. If the fibric moss is thin or absent. constitutes the lower boundary of the control section. the control section is 160 cm thick.1. the control section extends to a depth of 130 cm. In some soils the lower boundary is 25 cm below the upper limit of permafrost. the control section has a thickness of either 130 cm or 160 cm from the soil surface if there is no densic. Diatomaceous Earth A layer of diatomaceous earth is a limnic layer that: 1. Marl A layer of marl is a limnic layer that: 1. Otherwise.

because it produces the visible redoximorphic features that are identified in the keys. and Chroma of 2 or less in the matrix. 1N ammonium-acetate solution. artificially drained soils are included with soils that have aquic conditions. is perched on top of a relatively impermeable layer. In these soils water table levels and/or their duration are changed significantly in connection with specific types of land use. normal morphological indicators of such conditions are either absent or obscured (as by the dark colors characteristic of melanic great groups). and oxidation occurs when the soil is not . of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less in macropores. Direct measurements should take into account chemical equilibria as expressed by stability diagrams in standard soil textbooks. Obtaining accurate measurements of the degree of reduction in a soil is difficult. Redoximorphic features associated with wetness result from alternating periods of reduction and oxidation of iron and manganese compounds in the soil. for 3 months or more in normal years. Three types of saturation are defined: a. c. aquic conditions would return. Only macropores.—This term refers to a special kind of aquic conditions that occurs in soils that are cultivated and irrigated (flood irrigation). aqua. in clayey soils with peds. 2.e. if water runs into piezometer slits near the bottom of the piezometer hole or if tensiometers with slowly reacting manometers are used. Problems may arise. for example. The first problem can be overcome by using piezometers with smaller slits and the second by using transducer tensiometry. except in artificially drained soils. by dissolving CaCO3. and (2) A subsurface horizon with one or more of the following: (a) Redox depletions with a color value. A negative reaction. Use of alpha. only a degree of reduction that results in reduced iron is considered. Soils are considered wet if they have pressure heads greater than -1 kPa.alpha-dipyridyl in neutral. A simple field test is available to determine if reduced iron ions are present. however. A positive reaction to the alpha. The duration of saturation required for creating aquic conditions varies. The appearance of a strong red color on the freshly broken surface indicates the presence of reduced iron ions. b. surface pumps. moist. below the saturated layer. where an unlined auger hole may fill with water flowing along faces of peds while the soil matrix is and remains unsaturated (bypass flow). The zone of saturation. and is not specified. or other means. with an upper boundary above a depth of 200 cm.24 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Aquic Conditions Soils with aquic (L. Such free water may incorrectly suggest the presence of a water table. which reacts faster than manometers. or subsurface tiles or the prevention of surface or ground water from reaching the soils by dams. exact measurements of the wet state can be obtained only with tensiometers. 1981) may be used to confirm the existence of reducing conditions and is especially useful in situations where. the water table. levees.. Problems may still occur. Artificial drainage is defined here as the removal of free water from soils having aquic conditions by surface mounding. The presence of these conditions is indicated by redoximorphic features. Soils with anthraquic conditions must meet the requirements for aquic conditions and in addition have both of the following: (1) A tilled surface layer and a directly underlying slowly permeable layer that has.—The soil is saturated with water in all layers from the upper boundary of saturation to a depth of 200 cm or more from the mineral soil surface. the use of piezometers is recommended as a standard method. In the context of this taxonomy. or (b) Redox concentrations of iron. however. are then filled with air. Anthric saturation. In the keys. Upon removal of the drainage practices. or (c) 2 times or more the amount of iron (by dithionite citrate) contained in the tilled surface layer. except in Histosols and Histels. despite saturation. Elements of aquic conditions are as follows: 1. For operational purposes.alpha-dipyridyl in a 10 percent acetic-acid solution is not recommended because the acid is likely to change soil conditions. Use of well sealed piezometers or tensiometers is therefore recommended for measuring saturation. The duration of reduction required for creating aquic conditions is not specified. and can be verified by measuring saturation and reduction. ditches. 3. i. such as cracks between peds or channels. A freshly broken surface of a field-wet soil sample is treated with alpha. however. The degree of reduction in a soil can be characterized by the direct measurement of redox potentials. however.—The soil is saturated with water in one or more layers within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface and also has one or more unsaturated layers. It may only mean that the level of free iron in the soil is below the sensitivity limit of the test or that the soil is in an oxidized phase at the time of testing. depending on the soil environment. Saturation is characterized by zero or positive pressure in the soil water and can generally be determined by observing free water in an unlined auger hole. while the soil matrix is usually still saturated. water) conditions are those that currently undergo continuous or periodic saturation and reduction. while the actual water table occurs at greater depth. Obviously. does not imply that reducing conditions are always absent. both: (a) (b) Saturation and reduction. Episaturation.alphadipyridyl field test for ferrous iron (Childs. Reduction occurs during saturation with water. Endosaturation. Reduction and oxidation processes are also a function of soil pH.

—These are zones of apparent accumulation of Fe-Mn oxides. and some mechanically compacted materials. Sharp boundaries may be relict features in some soils. and silt caps on rock fragments. Reduced matrix. b. a reaction to an alpha. Gelic Materials Gelic materials are mineral or organic soil materials that show evidence of cryoturbation (frost churning) and/or ice segregation in the active layer (seasonal thaw layer) and/or the upper part of the permafrost. blocky. Nodules do not have visible organized internal structure. involutions. A concretion typically has concentric layers that are visible to the naked eye. and silt-enriched layers. D I A Cryoturbation Cryoturbation (frost churning) is the mixing of the soil matrix within the pedon that results in irregular or broken horizons. at their upper boundary. i. which are noncemented concentrations of substances within the soil matrix. The bulk density or the organization is such that roots cannot enter.alpha-dipyridyl solution satisfies the requirement for redoximorphic features. c. Therefore. It has no cracks. Anthraquic conditions are a variant of episaturation and are associated with controlled flooding (for such crops as wetland rice and cranberries). Movement of iron and manganese as a result of redox processes in a soil may result in redoximorphic features that are defined as follows: a. Cryoturbation is manifested by irregular and broken horizons. except in cracks. and clay (often referred to as silt coatings or skeletans). and (3) Pore linings. including: (1) Nodules and concretions. and (2) Masses. while iron oxidizes more rapidly upon aeration. such as till. These materials can be used to differentiate soil series if the materials are within the series control section. oriented rock fragments. The reduced iron and manganese ions are mobile and may be transported by water as it moves through the soil. Certain redox patterns occur as a function of the patterns in which the ion-carrying water moves through the soil and as a function of the location of aerated zones in the soil. Densic materials are noncemented and thus differ from paralithic materials and the material below a lithic contact. In soils that have no visible redoximorphic features. .e. Characteristic color patterns are created by these processes. accumulation of organic matter on the permafrost table. accumulation of organic matter on top of and within the permafrost. or the spacing of cracks that roots can enter is 10 cm or more. i.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 25 saturated.e. The reduced iron and manganese ions may be removed from a soil if vertical or lateral fluxes of water occur. for example. puddled surface soil and oxidation of reduced and mobilized iron and manganese in the unsaturated subsoil. densus. color patterns that are unique to specific taxa are referenced in the keys. except in cracks. Wherever the iron and manganese are oxidized and precipitated. i. which are cemented bodies that can be removed from the soil intact. Densic materials have. oriented rock fragments. thick) is a contact between soil and densic materials (defined below). Densic Materials Densic materials are relatively unaltered materials (do not meet the requirements for any other named diagnostic horizons or any other diagnostic soil characteristic) that have a noncemented rupture-resistance class. including: (1) Iron depletions..—This is a soil matrix that has low chroma in situ but undergoes a change in hue or chroma within 30 minutes after the soil material has been exposed to air. Redox patterns are also affected by the fact that manganese is reduced more rapidly than iron. Boundaries commonly are diffuse if formed in situ and sharp after pedoturbation.. Densic Contact A densic contact (L. involutions. Redox concentrations. Concretions are distinguished from nodules on the basis of internal organization. mine spoils. they form either soft masses or hard concretions or nodules.e. a densic contact if they have no cracks or if the spacing of cracks that roots can enter is 10 cm or more. d. both of which are cemented. Redox depletions. Field experience indicates that it is not possible to define a specific set of redoximorphic features that is uniquely characteristic of all of the taxa in one particular category. and (2) Clay depletions.—These are zones of low chroma (chromas less than those in the matrix) where either FeMn oxides alone or both Fe-Mn oxides and clay have been stripped out. Mn. These are mostly earthy materials. volcanic mudflows. zones of accumulation along pores that may be either coatings on pore surfaces or impregnations from the matrix adjacent to the pores. in which case there is no iron or manganese precipitation in that soil. zones that contain low amounts of Fe. The characteristic structures associated with gelic materials include platy. Some noncemented rocks can be densic materials if they are dense or resistant enough to keep roots from entering. which causes reduction processes in the saturated. zones that contain low amounts of Fe and Mn oxides but have a clay content similar to that of the adjacent matrix (often referred to as albans or neoalbans)..

Hemistels. Normal Years In the discussions that follow and throughout the keys. and ice wedges. or thermal contraction of the frozen material by continued rapid cooling. the material is indurated. at their upper boundary. such as sandstone. and orbiculic. conglomeric. and their horizontal spacing is 10 cm or more. when catastrophic events occur during a year. The frozen layer has a variety of ice lenses. although the material may be chipped or scraped with a spade. Cryopedogenic processes that lead to gelic materials are driven by the physical volume change of water to ice. or vesicular microfabrics. the term “normal years” is used. the structural results of sorting. the underlying material must be virtually continuous within the limits of a pedon. or shale. Fragments of paralithic materials 2. segregated ice crystals. and 2. The underlying material must be sufficiently coherent when moist to make hand-digging with a spade impractical. the lithic contact is diagnostic at the subgroup level if it is within 50 cm of the soil surface in Folistels or within 100 cm of the soil surface in Fibristels. The underlying material considered here does not include diagnostic soil horizons. and August and winter refers to December. A soil may be continuously moist in some or all horizons either throughout the year or for some part of the year. segregated ice crystals. In Gelisols composed mainly of organic soil materials. A lithic contact is diagnostic at the subgroup level if it is within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface in Oxisols and within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface in all other mineral soils. vein ice. Paralithic materials can be used to differentiate soil series if the materials are within the series control section. the standard deviations of the monthly means should also be calculated. July.0 mm or more in diameter are referred to as pararock fragments. Commonly. The permafrost table is in dynamic equilibrium with the environment. In the Northern Hemisphere. in the case of insufficient interstitial water. The layer is 30 cm or more thick and contains 75 percent or more visible ice. and ice wedges. it is considered salty rather than dry. Paralithic Materials Paralithic materials are relatively unaltered materials (do not meet the requirements for any other named diagnostic horizons or any other diagnostic soil characteristic) that have an extremely weakly cemented to moderately cemented ruptureresistance class. For the most part. Ice segregation is manifested by ice lenses. Those gelic materials having permafrost contain the unfrozen soil solution that drives cryopedogenic processes. It may be either moist in winter and dry in summer or the reverse. may be dry.” which Paralithic Contact A paralithic (lithic-like) contact is a contact between soil and paralithic materials (defined below) where the paralithic materials have no cracks or the spacing of cracks that roots can enter is 10 cm or more. moisture migration along a thermal gradient in the frozen system. Lithic Contact A lithic contact is the boundary between soil and a coherent underlying material. such as a duripan or a petrocalcic horizon. Mean monthly precipitation that is plus or minus one standard deviation of the long-term monthly precipitation for 8 of the 12 months. The term “normal years” replaces the terms “most years” and “6 out of 10 years. bulk density. Annual precipitation that is plus or minus one standard deviation of the long-term (30 years or more) mean annual precipitation. except in cracks. Commonly. summer refers to June. If a soil is saturated with water that is too salty to be available to most plants. siltstone. and the organization are such that roots cannot enter. January. however. Cracks that can be penetrated by roots are few. Cementation. a paralithic contact if . Permafrost may be cemented by ice or. and February. The availability of water is also affected by dissolved salts. Soil Moisture Regimes The term “soil moisture regime” refers to the presence or absence either of ground water or of water held at a tension of less than 1500 kPa in the soil or in specific horizons during periods of the year. normal years can be calculated from the mean annual precipitation. Glacic Layer A glacic layer is massive ice or ground ice in the form of ice lenses or wedges. Consequently. In Histosols the lithic contact must be at the lower boundary of the control section to be recognized at the subgroup level. Permafrost Permafrost is defined as a thermal condition in which a material (including soil material) remains below 0 oC for 2 or more years in succession. a horizon is considered dry when the moisture tension is 1500 kPa or more and is considered moist if water is held at a tension of less than 1500 kPa but more than zero. banded. A normal year is defined as a year that has: 1. these materials are partially weathered bedrock or weakly consolidated bedrock. Paralithic materials have. and Sapristels. Water held at a tension of 1500 kPa or more is not available to keep most mesophytic plants alive. vein ice. Except in Ruptic-Lithic subgroups. The material below a lithic contact must be in a strongly cemented or more cemented rupture-resistance class. they have no cracks or if the spacing of cracks that roots can enter is 10 cm or more.26 Keys to Soil Taxonomy or granular macrostructures.

—These terms are used for the same moisture regime but in different categories of the taxonomy. it is permissible to include data from periods with below normal rainfall. or petroferric contact or to a petrocalcic or petrogypsic horizon or a duripan. or number of days that some part of the soil is saturated has been met. however. but not air-dry) soil will be moistened by 2. however.e. The control section of such a soil is considered moist if the contact or upper boundary of the cemented horizon has a thin film of water. or number of days that the moisture control section is moist. SCS. aqua. There are soils. and that the amount of stored moisture is not being increased by irrigation or fallowing. These depths do not include the depth of moistening along any cracks or animal burrows that are open to the surface. i. It is not known how long a soil must be saturated before it is said to have an aquic soil moisture regime.5 cm of water within 24 hours. in which the ground water is always at or very close to the surface. D I A . These cultural practices affect the soil moisture conditions as long as they are continued. Dry in all parts for more than half of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is above 5 oC. when precipitation data are evaluated to determine if the criterion for the number of days that the moisture control section is dry has been met. the moisture control section is. Soil Moisture Control Section The intent in defining the soil moisture control section is to facilitate estimation of soil moisture regimes from climatic data. Examples are soils in tidal marshes or in closed. The limits set for soil temperature exclude from these soil moisture regimes soils in the very cold and dry polar regions and in areas at high elevations. The upper boundary of this control section is the depth to which a dry (tension of more than 1500 kPa. if the temperature is less than 1 oC). paralithic. or are on steep slopes where runoff is high.5 cm of water moistens the soil to a densic. either because the water is moving or because the environment is unfavorable for micro-organisms (e. landlocked depressions fed by perennial streams. and soluble salts accumulate in the soils if there is a source. dry. or spring if cold weather virtually stops evapotranspiration. winter. Because dissolved oxygen is removed from ground water by respiration of microorganisms. the limits of the moisture control section are deeper. If 7. the control section is considered dry. such as a crusty surface that virtually precludes the infiltration of water. It is assumed that if the criteria are met during these periods.. When precipitation data are evaluated to determine if the criterion for the presence of aquic conditions. but the duration must be at least a few days. roots. crops. and L. Moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is above 8 oC. and soil fauna. or native vegetation. it is also implicit in the concept that the soil temperature is above biologic zero for some time while the soil is saturated. lithic. in normal years: 1. Very commonly. it is highest in the rainy season or in fall.5 cm of water within 48 hours. coarse-silty. and (3) from 30 to 90 cm if the particle-size class is sandy. the level of ground water fluctuates with the seasons. The moisture control section of a soil extends approximately (1) from 10 to 30 cm below the soil surface if the particle-size class of the soil is fine-loamy. fine-silty. Aquic soil moisture regime.5 cm of water. In the aridic (torric) soil moisture regime. If that upper boundary is dry. Classes of Soil Moisture Regimes The soil moisture regimes are defined in terms of the level of ground water and in terms of the seasonal presence or absence of water held at a tension of less than 1500 kPa in the moisture control section. A few are in areas of semiarid climates and either have physical properties that keep them dry. Soils that have an aridic (torric) soil moisture regime normally occur in areas of arid climates. If a soil is moistened to one of these contacts or horizons by 2. the contact or the upper boundary of the cemented horizon constitutes the lower boundary of the soil moisture control section. it is permissible to include data from periods with above normal rainfall. Such soils are considered to have a peraquic soil moisture regime. water) soil moisture regime is a reducing regime in a soil that is virtually free of dissolved oxygen because it is saturated by water. The lower boundary is the depth to which a dry soil will be moistened by 7. biological activity occurs at temperatures below 5 oC. torridus. (2) from 20 to 60 cm if the particle-size class is coarse-loamy. If the soil contains rock and pararock fragments that do not absorb and release water. hot and dry) soil moisture regimes. aridus. and 2. The limits of the soil moisture control section are affected not only by the particle-size class but also by differences in soil structure or pore-size distribution or by other factors that influence the movement and retention of water in the soil. such a regime is not considered aquic. grass. or clayey. There is little or no leaching in this soil moisture regime. 1975). It is assumed in the definitions that the soil supports whatever vegetation it is capable of supporting. Aridic and torric (L. In some of the very cold regions of the world. Some soils are saturated with water at times while dissolved oxygen is present.g. Biologic zero is defined as 5 oC in this taxonomy. Similarly.. they will also be met during normal years. because it is implicit in the concept that dissolved oxygen is virtually absent.—The aquic (L. Such soils are considered to have anhydrous conditions (defined earlier). the soil moisture control section is the boundary of the contact itself.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 27 were used in the 1975 edition of Soil Taxonomy (USDA.

and the mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures differ by 6 oC or more either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. gelare. Such an extremely wet soil moisture regime is called perudic (L. Cryic (Gr. The mean annual soil temperature is lower than 22 oC. the soil moisture control section. meaning very cold soils). to freeze). ustus. whichever is shallower. udus. If the soil is not saturated with water during some part of the summer and . whichever is shallower. the formative element “per” is used in selected taxa.—The xeric (Gr. the moisture control section is dry in all parts for less than 45 consecutive days in the 4 months following the summer solstice. The udic soil moisture regime is common to the soils of humid climates that have well distributed rainfall. In addition. is dry in all parts for less than 45 consecutive days in the 4 months following the summer solstice. which falls during the winter. In the names of most taxa. in normal years. or exceeds. If the mean annual soil temperature is lower than 22 oC and if the mean summer and winter soil temperatures differ by 6 oC or more at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface. implying dryness) soil moisture regime is intermediate between the aridic regime and the udic regime. but it is not dry in all parts for more than half of the cumulative days when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is higher than 5 oC. January. is as follows: a. lithic. lithic. Native plants are mostly annuals or plants that have a dormant period while the soil is dry. burnt. If the mean annual soil temperature is 22 oC or higher or if the mean summer and winter soil temperatures differ by less than 6 oC at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface. The concept of the ustic soil moisture regime is not applied to soils that have permafrost (defined above). lithic. or paralithic contact.—The udic (L. but never winter. In temperate regions of subhumid or semiarid climates.28 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Udic soil moisture regime. the soil moisture control section. July. throughout in time. coldness. when potential evapotranspiration is at a minimum.— Soils in this temperature regime have a mean annual soil temperature at or below 0 oC (in Gelic suborders and Gelic great groups) or 1 oC or lower (in Gelisols) either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. Also. In climates where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration in all months of normal years. the amount of evapotranspiration. Gelic (L. If the mean annual soil temperature is lower than 22 oC and if the mean winter and mean summer soil temperatures at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface differ by 6 oC or more. in normal years. and February in the Southern Hemisphere) either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. the moisture tension rarely reaches 100 kPa in the soil moisture control section. udus. In mineral soils the mean summer soil temperature (June. or have adequate winter rains to recharge the soils and cool. summer and winter seasons have little meaning. have enough rain in summer so that the amount of stored moisture plus rainfall is approximately equal to. In tropical and subtropical regions that have a monsoon climate with either one or two dry seasons. Ustic soil moisture regime. the rainy seasons are usually spring and summer or spring and fall. The moisture. In those regions the soil moisture regime is ustic if there is at least one rainy season of 3 months or more. the udic soil moisture regime requires. 1. In areas of a xeric soil moisture regime. It is moist. or paralithic contact. in some part either for more than 180 cumulative days per year or for 90 or more consecutive days. as in coastal areas. is particularly effective for leaching. is dry in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days in the 4 months following the summer solstice and moist in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days in the 4 months following the winter solstice. Xeric soil moisture regime. xeros. or paralithic contact if shallower. If in normal years the moisture control section is moist in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days in the 4 months following the winter solstice. solid-liquid-gas. although there are occasional brief periods when some stored moisture is used. in normal years. Its concept is one of moisture that is limited but is present at a time when conditions are suitable for plant growth.—Soils in this temperature regime have a mean annual temperature between 0 and 8 oC but do not have permafrost. humid) soil moisture regime is one in which the soil moisture control section is not dry in any part for as long as 90 cumulative days in normal years. per. the soil moisture control section in areas of the ustic soil moisture regime is dry in some or all parts for 90 or more cumulative days in normal years. Soil Temperature Regimes Classes of Soil Temperature Regimes Following is a description of the soil temperature regimes used in defining classes at various categorical levels in this taxonomy. and L. kryos. foggy summers. where winters are moist and cool and summers are warm and dry. the formative element “ud” is used to indicate either a udic or a perudic regime. in part or all of the soil moisture control section when the soil temperature is above 5 oC. a threephase system. and August in the Northern Hemisphere and December. the soil moisture control section in areas of the ustic soil moisture regime is dry in some or all parts for 90 or more cumulative days in normal years. the moisture control section is moist in some part for more than half of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC or for 90 or more consecutive days when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm is higher than 8 oC. however. dry) soil moisture regime is the typical moisture regime in areas of Mediterranean climates.—The ustic (L. humid). Water moves downward through the soils at some time in normal years. The water moves through the soil in all months when it is not frozen. except for short periods.

The transition from sulfidic materials to a sulfuric horizon normally requires only a few months and may occur within a few weeks.—The mean annual soil temperature is 15 oC or higher but lower than 22 oC.—The mean annual soil temperature is 15 oC or higher but lower than 22 oC. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. and less than three times as much calcium carbonate equivalent as S. the sulfides oxidize and form sulfuric acid. when the materials are incubated at room temperature as a layer 1 cm thick under moist aerobic conditions (repeatedly moistened and dried on a weekly basis). but they may occur in freshwater marshes if there is sulfur in the water. Isohyperthermic. generally with brackish water. or 2. or paralithic contact. lithic. The iron hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite may segregate. and August) and mean winter (December. If the soil is saturated with water during some part of the summer and (1) If there is no O horizon: between 0 and 13 oC. 2.5. such as pyrite or iron monosulfides).—The mean annual soil temperature is lower than 8 oC. In organic soils the mean annual soil temperature is between 0 and 6 oC. if air-dried slowly in shade for about 2 months with occasional remoistening. or paralithic contact.Horizons and Characteristics Diagnostic for the Higher Categories 29 (1) (2) If there is no O horizon: between 0 and 15 oC.0 or less (1:1 by weight in water or in a minimum of water to permit measurement) within 16 weeks or longer until the pH reaches a nearly constant value if the pH is still dropping after 16 weeks.—The mean annual soil temperature is 22 oC or higher. b. July.75 percent or more S (dry mass). Mesic. may drop below 3. or o Sulfidic Materials Sulfidic materials contain oxidizable sulfur compounds (elemental S or most commonly sulfide minerals. They are mineral or organic soil materials that have a pH value of more than 3. whichever is shallower. becomes extremely acid. Sulfuric Horizon Brackish water sediments frequently contain pyrite or other iron sulfide minerals or rarely elemental sulfur. and the difference between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures is 6 oC or more either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. Hyperthermic. which normally is near neutrality before drainage or exposure.—The mean annual soil temperature is 8 oC or higher but lower than 15 oC. the pH decreases by 0. Sulfidic materials accumulate as a soil or sediment that is permanently saturated. or paralithic contact. and the difference between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures is 6 oC or more either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. Isothermic. whichever is shallower. A pH value (1:1 in water) of more than 3. the mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures differ by less than 6 oC at a depth of 50 cm or at a densic.—A soil with a frigid soil temperature regime is warmer in summer than a soil with a cryic regime. Cryic soils that have an aquic soil moisture regime commonly are churned by frost. Pyrite forms after iron oxide and sulfate from sea water (or other sources) become reduced to ferrous . or paralithic contact. Isomesic. mostly in the form of sulfides.5 or more units to a value of 4. If a soil containing sulfidic materials is drained or if sulfidic materials are otherwise exposed to aerobic conditions. Required Characteristics Sulfidic materials have one or both of the following: 1. or D I A (2) If there is an O horizon or a histic epipedon: between 0 and 6 oC. Sulfidic materials most commonly accumulate in coastal marshes near the mouth of rivers that carry noncalcareous sediments. January. Upland sulfidic materials may have accumulated in a similar manner in the geologic past.5 and that become significantly more acid when oxidized. A few with organic materials in the upper part are exceptions.—The mean annual soil temperature is 22 oC or higher. Pyrite is an iron sulfide mineral that forms as a result of the microbial decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions.5 and 0. Frigid. lithic. forming the yellow redoximorphic concentrations that commonly characterize a sulfuric horizon. or If there is an O horizon: between 0 and 8 C. Isofrigid. and the difference between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures is 6 oC or more either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. and. The concepts of the soil temperature regimes described below are used in defining classes of soils in the low categories. lithic. but its mean annual temperature is between 0 and 8 oC and the difference between mean summer (June.—The mean annual soil temperature is 8 oC or higher but lower than 15 oC. Isofrigid soils could also have a cryic soil temperature regime. whichever is shallower. The sulfates in the water are biologically reduced to sulfides as the materials accumulate. A sample of sulfidic materials. The pH value. If the name of a soil temperature regime has the prefix iso. lithic. whichever is shallower. and February) soil temperatures is 6 oC or more either at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface or at a densic. which form sulfuric acid upon the oxidation of the sulfur forms they contain and/or upon the oxidation and hydrolysis of the iron in the iron sulfides. The acid may induce the formation of iron and aluminum sulfates. Thermic. A pH value (1:1 in water) of more than 3. lithic.

B.. The jarosite has a straw-yellow color and frequently lines pores in the soil.B. 436. or other earth-moving operations.30 iron and sulfide. Fanning. John Wiley and Sons. The horizon has: a. schwertmannite. ed. if sufficiently acid at the soil surface. C. 18. Agric. 1989.C. Madison.. New York. . Concentrations of jarosite. Austr. Handb. In an oxidizing environment. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Staff. Handb. may prevent plant growth or limit it to certain plant species. Am. J.S. and Impr. United States Department of Agriculture. sulfur) forms as a result of drainage (most commonly artificial drainage) and oxidation of sulfiderich mineral or organic soil materials. or b. U. R. Int. Fanning. In J. Genesis. that can tolerate the acidity under certain conditions.5 or less or less than 4. A sulfuric horizon (L. The evidence is one or both of the following: 1. 0. Soil Conservation Service. Zonneveld. Version 4. United States Department of Agriculture.. The horizon shows evidence that the low pH value is caused by sulfuric acid. and/or underlying sulfidic materials. Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Burch. Field Test for Ferrous Iron and FerricOrganic Complexes (on Exchange Sites or in Water-Soluble Forms) in Soils. 1981. 2002). 19: 175-180. or Fanning et al. Literature Cited Brewer. 229-260.N. or other iron and/or aluminum sulfates or hydroxysulfate minerals. Pons. but jarosite is not present in all sulfuric horizons. Dep. Land Reclam. National Soil Survey Center. Initial Soil Formation in Alluvial Deposits and a Classification of the Resulting Soils. Schulze (eds. M. Burt. and S. Soc. S.05 percent or more water-soluble sulfate. 1989. A sulfuric horizon is detrimental to most plants and. United States Department of Agriculture. Soil Survey Investigations Report 42.. Soil Mineralogy with Environmental Applications.0. Wageningen. Fabric and Mineral Analysis of Soils.). and then combine to form a very insoluble compound (see description of the sulfidization process given by Fanning and Fanning. 1993. Natural Resources Conservation Service. and Classification.S. D. Soil Surv..S. The Netherlands. jarosite and/or schwertmannite) and sulfuric acid. Childs. D.G. Soil Conservation Service.C. Fanning. such as Phragmites australis. 1965. and M. Soil Sci.S. the pyrite crystals occur as nests or framboids composed of bipyramidal crystals of pyrite. of Soil Res. The low pH and high amount of soluble sulfates. Required Characteristics The sulfuric horizon is 15 cm or more thick and is composed of either mineral or organic soil material that has a pH value (1:1 by weight in water or in a minimum of water to permit measurement) of 3. The layer directly underlying the horizon consists of sulfidic materials (defined above). Sulfides and Sulfates. or 2. Second edition.0 if sulfide or other Sbearing minerals that produce sulfuric acid upon their oxidation are present. dredging.J. Div. respectively. L.S. Staff. Dep. It can form in areas where sulfidic materials have been exposed as a result of surface mining. Characteristically. Pub. 2002. Soil Surv. John Wiley and Sons. 13. Soil Ripening and Soil Classification. 2004. 1975. such as hydrogen peroxide. Rabenhorst. and I. are other indicators of a sulfuric horizon. R.A. Islam. pp. U.W. 1976. Jarosite concentrations are among the indicators of a sulfuric horizon. K.. Agric. Inc. Inst. A quick test of sulfidic materials is a rapid fall in pH on drying or after treatment with an oxidizing agent. Tangren. Dixon and D. New York. Soil: Morphology. New York. Soil Survey Manual. pyrite oxidizes and the products of oxidation (and the hydrolysis of the ferric iron produced) are iron oxides (and under sufficiently acidic and oxidizing conditions. WI.R.

p. the water state is specified. the present soil surface is used to determine soil moisture and temperature as well as depth to and thickness of diagnostic horizons and other diagnostic soil characteristics. The descriptions and definitions of individual soil series are not included in this text. andic soil properties. and chroma) are used in many of the criteria that follow. The Index at the back of this publication indicates the pages on which definitions of terms are given. Definitions of the series and of the control section are given in chapter 17. The user must start at the beginning of the “Key to Soil Orders” and eliminate. Gelisols. Most other diagnostic soil characteristics of the buried soil are not considered.. according to the criteria listed. the user selects as the correct subgroup name the name of the first taxon for which the soil meets all of the required criteria. then the upper boundary of the first subhorizon meeting the requirements for the diagnostic horizon or characteristic must be within the specified depth. In the “Key to Soil Orders” and the other keys that follow. the first in the list for which it meets all the required criteria. such as in ThaptoHistic subgroups. All of the keys in this taxonomy are designed in such a way that the user can determine the correct classification of a soil by going through the keys systematically. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the definitions of diagnostic horizons and properties that are given in chapters 2 and 3 of this publication and with the meanings of the terms used for describing soils given in the Soil Survey Manual. If a soil has a surface mantle and is not a buried soil. 1. or 2. soil moisture (including aquic conditions). all classes that include criteria that do not fit the soil in question. the soil is considered to meet the criterion if it does so when moist or dry or both moist and dry. If diagnostic horizons or characteristics are criteria that must be “within” a specified depth measured from the soil surface. i. the user of soil taxonomy begins by checking through the “Key to Soil Orders” to determine the name of the first order that. Chapter 17 can be used. one by one. the top of the original surface layer is considered the “soil surface” for determining depth to and thickness of diagnostic horizons and most other diagnostic soil characteristics. The keys to control sections for classes used as components of a family must be used to determine the control section before use of the keys to classes. In many of the criteria of the keys. paralithic. The family. but organic carbon if of Holocene age. depending on the water state. and all properties used to determine family and series placement are considered. or petroferric contact. Key to Soil Orders A. Soil colors typically change value and some change hue and chroma. the diagnostic horizons and the properties mentioned do not include those below any densic. 145 B. Gelic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface and permafrost within 200 cm of the soil surface. and any andic or vitrandic properties and family criteria. Diagnostic horizons of the buried soil are not considered in selecting taxa unless the criteria in the keys specifically indicate buried horizons. going through the “Key to Subgroups” of that great group. If a soil profile includes a buried soil. Standard rounding conventions should be used to determine numerical values. The soil belongs to the first class listed for which it meets all the required criteria. however.31 CHAPTER 4 Identification of the Taxonomic Class of a Soil I D E The taxonomic class of a specific soil can be determined by using the keys that follow in this and other chapters. The next step is to go to the page indicated to find the “Key to Suborders” of that particular order. includes the soil in question. The only properties of the surface mantle that are considered are soil temperature. The family level is determined. after the subgroup has been determined. value. Do not have andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness between the soil surface and either a depth . base saturation. Likewise. in a similar manner. and therefore the entire chapter must be used. The properties of buried soils and the properties of a surface mantle are considered on the basis of whether or not the soil meets the meaning of the term “buried soil” given in chapter 1. lithic. If no water state is specified.e. as one would use other keys in this taxonomy. Soil colors (hue. to determine which components are part of the family. Other soils that: 1. The same procedure is used to find the great group class of the soil in the “Key to Great Groups” of the identified suborder. Soils that have: Permafrost within 100 cm of the soil surface. Then the user systematically goes through the key to identify the suborder that includes the soil. typically has more than one component. In classifying a specific soil.

p. Between either the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. fragmental. lithic. An upper boundary within the following depths from the mineral soil surface: either (1) Less than 50 cm. lithic. lithic.1 g/cm3. or (b) Between either the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. and b. p.1 g/cm3 or more. or (2) At any depth. moist. A spodic horizon. or b. 155 C. paralithic. fragmental. if there is no densic. Histosols. or petroferric contact. and 2. coarse-loamy. is less than 0. or finer particle-size class and the soil has a frigid temperature regime. Within 60 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. of 0. or paralithic contact and have no mineral horizons or have mineral horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or less. Spodosols. Other soils that do not have a plaggen epipedon or an argillic or kandic horizon above a spodic horizon. When added with the underlying cindery. voids that are filled with organic soil materials are considered to be organic soil materials. or a petrocalcic horizon. lithic. an albic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon. or paralithic contact. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. Other soils that have andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. lithic. 257 D. or paralithic contact or duripan if shallower. if there is no densic. duripan. or of fibric materials with less than three-fourths (by volume) moss fibers and a bulk density. or paralithic contact. A spodic horizon with all of the following characteristics: a. by volume. whichever is shallower. Overlie cindery. or paralithic contact. whichever . whichever is shallower. or c. have an upper boundary within 40 cm of the soil surface. and c. total 40 cm or more between the soil surface and a depth of 50 cm. A lower boundary as follows: (1) Either at a depth of 25 cm or more below the mineral soil surface or at the top of a duripan or fragipan or at a densic. a duripan. or pumiceous materials. or 2. and a densic. or 3. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. Have organic soil materials that meet one or more of the following: a. loamy-skeletal. loamy-skeletal. duripan. moist. One or more of the following: (1) A thickness of 10 cm or more. and have one or more of the following: 1. and a cryic or gelic soil temperature regime. lithic. and d. Constitute two-thirds or more of the total thickness of the soil to a densic. or (3) Cementation in 50 percent or more of each pedon. have a densic. fragmental. (a) If the spodic horizon meets the criteria for a coarse-loamy. or d. or (2) An overlying Ap horizon. or (2) No andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness either: (a) Within 60 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallowest. or (2) 40 cm or more if they consist either of sapric or hemic materials. An Ap horizon containing 85 percent or more spodic materials. Are saturated with water for 30 days or more per year in normal years (or are artificially drained). lithic. or paralithic contact. Either: (1) A directly overlying albic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon.32 Keys to Soil Taxonomy of 60 cm or a densic. or (2) Less than 200 cm if the soil meets the sandy particle-size class criteria in at least some part between the mineral soil surface and the spodic horizon. whichever is shallower. and have a total thickness of either: (1) 60 cm or more if three-fourths or more of their volume consists of moss fibers or if their bulk density. or pumiceous materials and/or fill their interstices1 and directly below these materials. or (b) If the soil has a cryic or gelic temperature regime. or (4) A particle-size class that meets the criteria for 1 Materials that meet the definition of cindery. or 2. or (5) A cryic or gelic temperature regime in the soil. or finer and a frigid temperature regime in the soil. or pumiceous but have more than 10 percent.

petrocalcic. kandic. p. lithic. Other soils that have either: 1. and a. Andisols. or b. If the epipedon meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout. a duripan. 40 percent or more (by weight) clay in the fine-earth fraction between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm (after mixing) and a kandic horizon that has the weatherable-mineral properties of an oxic horizon and has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. 267 I. Cracks2 that open and close periodically. Have: a. and b. gypsic. Aridisols. p. a mass of granules. i. No sulfuric horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ultisols. that meets the color. lithic. or a duripan. 200 cm below the mineral soil surface. p. or (2) At a densic.5 cm thick. Have a salic horizon. Either: a. and c. either: (1) 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon (but no deeper than 200 cm below the mineral soil surface) or 180 cm below the mineral soil surface. whichever is deeper. and 2. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. or d. or petroferric contact.e. paralithic. and 3. that has either slickensides or wedgeshaped peds that have their long axes tilted 10 to 60 degrees from the horizontal. or salic horizon. A crack is regarded as open if it controls the infiltration and percolation of water in a dry. Other soils that have: 1. but no fragipan. 287 Other soils that: 1. lithic. A weighted average of 30 percent or more clay in the fine-earth fraction either between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm or in an Ap horizon. and a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent at one of the following depths: a. or 2. a duripan. An argillic or kandic horizon. If the surface is strongly selfmulching. A moisture control section that is dry in some or all parts at some time during normal years. An oxic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface and no kandic horizon within that depth. Both a surface horizon that meets all the requirements for a mollic epipedon except thickness after the soil has been mixed to a depth of 18 cm and a subhorizon more than 7. An argillic or natric horizon. An ochric or anthropic epipedon.Identification of the Taxonomic Class of a Soil 33 is shallower. and c. or petroferric contact if shallower. 241 F. but they are open in the sense that the polyhedrons are separated. lithic. within the upper part of an argillic. or b.. One or more of the following within 100 cm of the soil surface: a cambic horizon with a lower depth of 25 cm or more. Oxisols. and 30 percent or more clay in the fine-earth fraction of all horizons between a depth of 18 cm and either a depth of 50 cm or a densic. Vertisols. 77 E. The shallowest of the following depths: (1) 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic or kandic horizon. or paralithic contact. or (3) At a densic. within. Other soils that have both of the following: 1. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent at the shallowest of the following depths: (1) or (2) 75 cm below the upper boundary of the fragipan. whichever is thicker. or a petrocalcic horizon if shallower. 97 H. or petroferric contact. or below it or clay films 1 mm or more thick in one or more of its subhorizons. lithic. A mollic epipedon. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more during a normal year. or if the soil is cultivated while cracks are open. 2 b. or 2. A fragipan and both of the following: a. (3) At a densic. and A crack is a separation between gross polyhedrons. or 2. the cracks may be filled mainly by granular materials from the surface. clayey soil. or (2) 180 cm below the mineral soil surface. petrogypsic. paralithic. paralithic. or natric horizon. Other soils that have either: 1. p. . or paralithic contact. a cryic soil temperature regime and a cambic horizon. or a petrocalcic horizon. and a densic. or I D E G. A layer 25 cm or more thick. Either an argillic or a kandic horizon above. and b. a calcic. An aridic soil moisture regime.

or c. A base saturation of 50 percent or more (by NH4OAc) in all horizons either between the upper boundary of any argillic. No sulfidic materials within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or natric horizon. p. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more). or spodic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. kandic. 197 J. kandic. 1. petrocalcic. either an n value of 0. An argillic. and both: a. or placic horizon or a duripan within a depth of 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A cryic or gelic soil temperature regime and a cambic horizon. In one or more horizons between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. and also ground water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface at some time during the year when the soil is not frozen in any part. A calcic.34 organic-carbon content. p. or b. or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 180 cm. A sulfuric horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. or 2. or 2. plaggen. petrogypsic. Alfisols. base saturation. A fragipan or an oxic. p. mollic. One or both of the following: (1) A salic horizon or a histic. and structure requirements of a mollic epipedon but is separated from the surface horizon by an albic horizon. lithic. or d. Entisols. 35 K. A cambic horizon that is within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface and has a lower boundary at a depth of 25 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Mollisols. Other soils. or e. which decreases with increasing depth below 50 cm. or between the mineral soil surface and a densic. or (2) In 50 percent or more of the layers between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 50 cm. p.7 or less or less than 8 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction. Other soils that do not have a plaggen epipedon and that have either: 1. 161 L. and b. Inceptisols. Other soils that have either: One or more of the following: a. sombric. gypsic. whichever depth is shallowest. A fragipan that has clay films 1 mm or more thick in some part. or natric horizon and a depth of 125 cm below that boundary. 123 . and 2. or umbric epipedon.

natric. or kandic horizon: a. Duraqualfs. in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 37 JD. and one of the following within the upper 12. Other Alfisols that have a cryic or isofrigid soil temperature regime. 35 JB. or b. Albaqualfs. p. Plinthaqualfs. Other Alfisols that have a xeric soil moisture regime. 41 JAJ. Other Aqualfs that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Aqualfs that have a glossic horizon. 47 Aqualfs Key to Great Groups JAA. Other Aqualfs that have one or more layers. p. Other Alfisols that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Redoximorphic features in all layers between either the lower boundary of an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm below the mineral soil surface. at a depth between 30 and 150 cm from the mineral soil surface. or both. p. Other Aqualfs that have a duripan.35 CHAPTER 5 Alfisols Key to Suborders JA.5 cm of the argillic. in which plinthite either forms a continuous phase or constitutes one-half or more of the volume. or 2. p. enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Aqualfs. p. at least 25 cm thick (cumulative) within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ustalfs. 43 JAE. Glossaqualfs. Redox concentrations and 50 percent or more redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in the matrix. 43 JAH. 50 percent or more redox depletions with chroma of 1 or less on faces of peds or in the matrix. 37 . Other Aqualfs that have episaturation. glossic. or casts.alphadipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Cryaqualfs. Natraqualfs. Other Aqualfs that have an abrupt textural change between the ochric epipedon or albic horizon and the argillic horizon and have a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 0. Udalfs. p. Aqualfs that have a cryic soil temperature regime. aquic conditions (other than anthraquic conditions) for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and have one or both of the following: 1. Other Aqualfs that have one or more horizons. p. Other Alfisols. p. Cryalfs. 59 JAB. whichever is deeper. 37 JAD. Other Aqualfs that have a natric horizon. 39 JAK. such as filled animal burrows. p.4 cm/hr or slower (moderately low or lower Ksat class) in the argillic horizon. p. Alfisols that have. Vermaqualfs. 50 percent or more redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less on faces of peds and redox concentrations within peds. and a depth of 40 cm. Fragiaqualfs. or c. Endoaqualfs. 44 JC. p. Kandiaqualfs. 36 JAI. p. Xeralfs. Other Aqualfs. wormholes. 41 JAF. Other Aqualfs that have a kandic horizon. that have 50 percent or more (by volume) recognizable bioturbation. p. p. In the horizons that have aquic conditions. 42 A L F JAG. p. 71 JE. 43 JAC. Epiaqualfs. p.

and 2. and b. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic.0 mm fraction. after mixing. Other Albaqualfs that have one or both of the following: 1. A linear extensibility of 6.02 to 2. Chromic Vertic Albaqualfs JAHD. or c. 1. moist. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. Vertic Albaqualfs JAHE. Udollic Albaqualfs JAHF. Other Albaqualfs that have a mollic epipedon. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Albaqualfs that have both of the following: One or both: a. A linear extensibility of 6. A mollic epipedon.0 g/cm3 or less. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix between the lower boundary of the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. whichever is shallower. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. except for thickness. Albaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particlesize class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Aeric Albaqualfs JAHG. except for thickness. Chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix between the lower boundary of the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. of 4 or more. Other Albaqualfs that have both of the following: One or both: a. Chroma of 4 or more. or paralithic contact. after mixing.0 mm.02 to 2. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. A color value. have one or more of the following: a.0. Other Albaqualfs that have both: 1. lithic. lithic. Mollic Albaqualfs . A linear extensibility of 6. or 3. or paralithic contact. Other Albaqualfs that have. Aeric Vertic Albaqualfs JAHC. of 6 or more. or b. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and 2. pumice. whichever is shallower. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. In the 0. lithic. Other Albaqualfs that have chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix between the lower boundary of the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. dry. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. whichever is shallower.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. after mixing. A color value. or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and 2. Aquandic Albaqualfs JAHH. 1.36 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Albaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAHA. one or more of the following: 1. or 2. and a. or paralithic contact. and pumicelike fragments. Arenic Albaqualfs JAHB. or 2.

Typic Albaqualfs has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for an umbric epipedon. or b.0 mm in diameter. or b. Typic Duraqualfs Endoaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAKA. chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Chromic Vertic Endoaqualfs JAKC. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm.0. A color value.Alfisols 37 JAHI. and (1) If peds are present. Chroma of 4 or more. and b. Aquandic Endoaqualfs JAKB. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A linear extensibility of 6. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: A L F Cryaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAAA. Typic Cryaqualfs Duraqualfs Key to Subgroups JACA. A linear extensibility of 6. or (2) If peds are absent. or 2. whichever is shallower. or 3. whichever is shallower. or c. moist. All Cryaqualfs (provisionally). after mixing. Fragic soil properties: a. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.02 to 2. of 4 or more. and 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or b.0 g/cm3 or less. In the 0. Other Albaqualfs. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. have one or more of the following: a. of 6 or more. pumice. Other Endoaqualfs that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Endoaqualfs that have both of the following: One or both: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Hue of 7. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. and a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that . one or a combination of the following colors: a. or paralithic contact. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. Other Albaqualfs that have an umbric epipedon. and pumicelike fragments.02 to 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. except for thickness. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. lithic. after mixing. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Endoaqualfs JAKD. lithic. or 2.0 mm fraction. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. one or more of the following: 1. or paralithic contact. A color value. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. 1. All Duraqualfs (provisionally). dry. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Endoaqualfs that have. Other Endoaqualfs that have both: 1. Umbric Albaqualfs JAHJ. or b.

except for thickness.38 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). after mixing. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). after mixing. except for thickness. An umbric epipedon. one or a combination of the following colors: a.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. and 2. or 2. after mixing. and (1) If peds are present. and (1) If peds are present. Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. Hue of 7. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more. Other Endoaqualfs that have a mollic epipedon. Other Endoaqualfs that have both: 1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. Other Endoaqualfs that have. A mollic epipedon. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. Udollic Endoaqualfs . or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for an umbric epipedon. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Grossarenic Endoaqualfs JAKH. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. Other Endoaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm below the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. Hue of 7. or b. one or a combination of the following colors: a. Aeric Fragic Endoaqualfs JAKE. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or b. Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. Other Endoaqualfs that have fragic soil properties: JAKI. and a. Aeric Umbric Endoaqualfs JAKJ. or b. If peds are present. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. Other Endoaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. Aeric Endoaqualfs JAKK. Mollic Endoaqualfs 1. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. and 2. or 2. or (2) If peds are absent. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more. or b. except for thickness. If peds are absent. Other Endoaqualfs that have both: 1. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Hue of 7. Fragic Endoaqualfs JAKF. Arenic Endoaqualfs JAKG. one or a combination of the following colors: 1. or (2) If peds are absent.

Hue of 7. lithic. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. or b. after mixing. Other Endoaqualfs that have an umbric epipedon. or b. of 4 or more. Chroma of 4 or more. lithic. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. Typic Endoaqualfs JAJB. A linear extensibility of 6. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). or c. whichever is shallower. or b. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry).0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact. dry. after mixing. Hue of 7. or (2) If peds are absent. 1. and 2.5YR or redder. Aeric Vertic Epiaqualfs JAJC. and 3. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for an umbric epipedon. A color value. 1. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. of 4 or more. one or a combination of the following colors: a. Epiaqualfs that have all of the following: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A color value. Umbric Endoaqualfs JAKM. Aeric Chromic Vertic Epiaqualfs 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A color value. or paralithic contact. One or both: a. and A L F Epiaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAJA. whichever is shallower. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. Other Epiaqualfs that have both of the following: One or both: a. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). and (1) If peds are present. moist.5YR or redder. A linear extensibility of 6. have one or more of the following: a. or paralithic contact. except for thickness. have one or more of the following: a. moist. and (1) If peds are present. of 6 or more. or . after mixing. Other Epiaqualfs that have both of the following: One or both: a. or b. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). one or a combination of the following colors: a. or b. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. lithic. and 2. Other Endoaqualfs. A linear extensibility of 6. or b. or (2) If peds are absent. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.Alfisols 39 JAKL.

In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or a combination of the following colors: a. Arenic Epiaqualfs JAJI. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. one or more of the following: 1. and pumicelike fragments. and (1) If peds are present. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). of 6 or more. Other Epiaqualfs that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic. Other Epiaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm below the mineral soil surface. or (2) If peds are absent. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for an umbric epipedon. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. or Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: .40 Keys to Soil Taxonomy b. whichever is shallower.02 to 2. moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. or 3. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. except for thickness. one or a combination of the following colors: a. chroma of 2 or more (both b. or (2) If peds are absent. In the 0. or paralithic contact.0 mm in diameter.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Epiaqualfs that have both: 1. pumice. dry.0 mm fraction. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. Chroma of 4 or more. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. A color value. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Epiaqualfs that have fragic soil properties: 1. or b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and a. or 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. after mixing. or Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). b.5YR or redder. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or 2. Other Epiaqualfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a. Vertic Epiaqualfs JAJE. An umbric epipedon. Aeric Fragic Epiaqualfs JAJG. and b. 1. or 2. Aquandic Epiaqualfs JAJF. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hue of 7.5YR or redder. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. and (1) If peds are present. A linear extensibility of 6. Grossarenic Epiaqualfs JAJJ.0 g/cm3 or less. Fragic Epiaqualfs JAJH. and 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). or c. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Epiaqualfs that have. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Chromic Vertic Epiaqualfs JAJD. Other Epiaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Hue of 7.0 mm. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0.

except for thickness. Fragiaqualfs that have one or more layers. chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. Udollic Epiaqualfs JAJL. Histic Glossaqualfs JAIB. Typic Epiaqualfs A L F Fragiaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAEA. of 3 or less and a color value. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more. Hue of 7.Alfisols 41 (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). Hue of 7. and a. Aeric Epiaqualfs JAJM. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. Other Fragiaqualfs that have. Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. Vermic Fragiaqualfs JAEB. such as filled animal burrows. Humic Fragiaqualfs JAEE. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. or b. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for an umbric epipedon. Glossaqualfs that have a histic epipedon. or (2) If peds are absent. Other Epiaqualfs that have. Other Epiaqualfs that have an umbric epipedon. Arenic Glossaqualfs . after mixing and 2.5YR or redder. except for thickness. A mollic epipedon. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. one or a combination of the following colors: 1. except for thickness. In 50 percent or more of the matrix in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. If peds are absent. or 2. Mollic Epiaqualfs JAJN. Plinthic Fragiaqualfs JAED. dry. Umbric Epiaqualfs JAJO.5YR or redder. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. after mixing. Other Epiaqualfs that have both: 1. Other Fragiaqualfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Fragiaqualfs that have a color value.5Y or yellower. between the A or Ap horizon and a fragipan. Other Epiaqualfs that have a mollic epipedon. a horizon with 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more if hue is 10YR or redder or of 4 or more if hue is 2. or casts. Other Fragiaqualfs. or b. wormholes. moist. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. and (1) If peds are present. or b. one or a combination of the following colors: a. Other Glossaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. If peds are present. Aeric Fragiaqualfs JAEC. Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). Aeric Umbric Epiaqualfs JAJK. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). that have 25 percent or more (by volume) recognizable bioturbation. Other Epiaqualfs. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. at least 25 cm thick (cumulative) within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. after mixing. Typic Fragiaqualfs Glossaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAIA.

and (1) If peds are present. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). one or a combination of the following colors: 1. and 2. Hue of 7. Plinthic Kandiaqualfs JAFD. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. Grossarenic Kandiaqualfs JAFC. Mollic Glossaqualfs JAIG. Other Glossaqualfs that have fragic soil properties: 1. or (2) If peds are absent. Other Kandiaqualfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aeric Glossaqualfs JAIF. Other Glossaqualfs that have. If peds are absent. Other Glossaqualfs that have a mollic epipedon. Arenic Kandiaqualfs JAFB. or (2) If peds are absent. one or a combination of the following colors: a. and (1) If peds are present. Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. Typic Glossaqualfs Kandiaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAFA. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry).5YR or redder. Other Kandiaqualfs that have both: 1. of 3 or less and a color value. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. Hue of 7. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). one or a combination of the following colors: a. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. Other Glossaqualfs. Kandiaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm below the mineral soil surface. dry. Fragic Glossaqualfs JAIE. moist. Other Kandiaqualfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. If peds are present. or b.5YR or redder. Fragic soil properties: a. Other Glossaqualfs that have both: 1. or .42 Keys to Soil Taxonomy JAIC. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Hue of 7. or b. or 2. and 2. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. or b.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or b. In one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. and a. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or 2. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). A color value. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Aeric Fragic Glossaqualfs JAID.

Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. Throughout the upper 15 cm of the argillic horizon. Glossic Natraqualfs JADF. one or a combination of the following colors: 1. whichever is deeper. Throughout all horizons within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. Mollic Natraqualfs JADG. Typic Plinthaqualfs Natraqualfs Key to Subgroups JADA. Other Kandiaqualfs. Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. Other Natraqualfs that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 and less magnesium plus sodium than calcium plus extractable acidity either throughout the upper 15 cm of the natric horizon or in all horizons within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface.Alfisols 43 b. Other Natraqualfs that have a mollic epipedon. Aeric Umbric Kandiaqualfs 25 cm thick (cumulative) within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. such as filled animal burrows. whichever is shallower.5YR or redder.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Typic Kandiaqualfs Plinthaqualfs Key to Subgroups JABA. whichever is deeper. A linear extensibility of 6. Natric Vermaqualfs . or paralithic contact. Other Natraqualfs that have a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. Albic Glossic Natraqualfs JADD. and/or 2. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or (2) Chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) and no redox concentrations. or b. Other Natraqualfs. chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry) on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less (both moist and dry) in ped interiors. Hue of 7. or b. or 2. and a. Vertic Natraqualfs JADB. lithic. at least Vermaqualfs Key to Subgroups JAGA. or casts. A glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. Albic Natraqualfs JADE. Other Natraqualfs that have one or more layers. All Plinthaqualfs (provisionally). chroma of 2 or more (both moist and dry). or 2. Aeric Kandiaqualfs JAFF. Other Natraqualfs that have both: 1. Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). wormholes. Hue of 10YR or yellower and either: (1) Both a color value of 3 or more (moist) and chroma of 3 or more (moist and dry). or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for an umbric epipedon after mixing. If peds are absent. that have 25 percent or more (by volume) recognizable bioturbation. Vermic Natraqualfs JADC. Natraqualfs that have one or both of the following: 1. Typic Natraqualfs A L F JAFE. An exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 and less magnesium plus sodium than calcium plus extractable acidity either throughout the upper 15 cm of the natric horizon or in all horizons within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. If peds are present. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Umbric Kandiaqualfs JAFG. and 2. Vermaqualfs that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of 7 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 6 or more) either or both: 1. Other Kandiaqualfs that have. Other Kandiaqualfs that have an umbric epipedon.

Typic Vermaqualfs and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. p. The lower boundary of any surface mantle containing 30 percent or more vitric volcanic ash.44 Keys to Soil Taxonomy JAGB. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Glossocryalfs that have. 44 Haplocryalfs. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Cryalfs that have a glossic horizon. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. A xeric soil moisture regime. kandic. Other Vermaqualfs. one or both of the following: 1. or natric horizon. kandic. and 2. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Vitrandic Glossocryalfs JBBE. In the 0. of 3 or less and a color value. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. or other vitric pyroclastic materials. kandic. or 30 or more cumulative days. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.0. and a. An argillic. pumice. and . Glossocryalfs Key to Subgroups JBBA. Other Cryalfs. Oxyaquic Glossocryalfs JBBG. 2. Glossocryalfs. Other Glossocryalfs that have all of the following: 1. Other Glossocryalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. moist. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquic Glossocryalfs JBBF. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. kandic.0 mm in diameter. p. Glossocryalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Glossocryalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Either a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the argillic. dry. Palecryalfs. Other Glossocryalfs that have. and pumicelike fragments. or 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact. lithic. p. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. 47 JBB. or natric horizon. The mineral soil surface. and b.0 mm. Cryalfs that have all of the following: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2. or natric horizon that has its upper boundary 60 cm or more below both: a.0 mm fraction. Other Glossocryalfs that have.02 to 2. in one or more subhorizons within the upper 25 cm of the argillic. Lithic Glossocryalfs JBBB. 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. cinders. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and 3. Andic Glossocryalfs JBBD.0 g/cm3 or less. A color value. Fragic Glossocryalfs JBBH. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. 45 JBC. and b. or 2. Vertic Glossocryalfs JBBC. Other Glossocryalfs that have fragic soil properties: Cryalfs Key to Great Groups JBA. A texture class finer than loamy fine sand in one or more horizons above the argillic. or natric horizon.

Alfisols 45 3. or paralithic contact. Eutric Glossocryalfs JBBP. whichever is shallower. and 2. or paralithic contact. Xerollic Glossocryalfs JBBI. whichever is shallower. pumice. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and a. moist. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Glossocryalfs that have a color value. Other Glossocryalfs that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. Umbric Glossocryalfs JBBO.0 g/cm3 or less.02 to 2. Typic Glossocryalfs A L F 1. or 2. of 3 or less and a color value. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Glossocryalfs that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years.02 to 2. Umbric Xeric Glossocryalfs JBBJ. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Glossocryalfs that have both: Haplocryalfs Key to Subgroups JBCA. of 5 or less (crushed and . Other Glossocryalfs. of 3 or less and a color value. Have a color value. Other Haplocryalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. dry. moist. whichever is shallower. and 2. Other Glossocryalfs that have a xeric soil moisture regime. and pumicelike fragments. A color value. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Glossocryalfs that meet all of the following: 1. one or both of the following: 1.0. moist. Are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention.0 mm fraction. or 2. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. lithic. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. dry. lithic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Lithic Haplocryalfs JBCB.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 3. and 2. dry. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. In the 0. A xeric soil moisture regime. or paralithic contact. Have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. lithic. lithic. whichever is shallower. Mollic Glossocryalfs JBBN. Ustic Glossocryalfs JBBM. Andic Haplocryalfs JBCD. Other Glossocryalfs that have both: smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. of 3 or less and a color value. or paralithic contact. moist. Xeric Glossocryalfs JBBL.0 mm in diameter. Other Haplocryalfs that have. dry. of 3 or less and a color value. or paralithic contact. lithic. Haplocryalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value. Other Haplocryalfs that have. and 1.0 mm. whichever is shallower. Ustollic Glossocryalfs JBBK. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Vertic Haplocryalfs JBCC.

whichever is shallower. Other Haplocryalfs that have both: 1. of 3 or less and a color value. Other Haplocryalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. lithic. kandic. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. moist. Do not have a densic. Aquic Haplocryalfs JBCF. and 2. and 3. Other Haplocryalfs that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Have a color value. Ustic Haplocryalfs JBCO. Have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. 20 or more consecutive days. of 3 or less and a color value. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. or 2. of 3 or less and a color value. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. lithic. Other Haplocryalfs that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. Have an argillic. A xeric soil moisture regime. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplocryalfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1. moist. Xeric Haplocryalfs JBCN. Other Haplocryalfs that have a sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic. and 2. dry. dry. Inceptic Haplocryalfs . and above these horizons there are either: a. or 3. Other Haplocryalfs that: JBCJ. Other Haplocryalfs that have. kandic. or paralithic contact. Other Haplocryalfs that have all of the following: 1. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. Other Haplocryalfs that have both: 1. Xerollic Haplocryalfs JBCK. Psammentic Haplocryalfs JBCI. moist. and 2. or paralithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and a color value. lithic. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. 2. Consists entirely of lamellae. or 30 or more cumulative days. and 1. and 2. or b.5 to 20 cm. or natric horizon that is 35 cm or less thick. whichever is shallower. Ustollic Haplocryalfs JBCM. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vitrandic Haplocryalfs JBCE. or natric horizon or throughout the entire argillic. kandic. dry. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. A color value. dry. Oxyaquic Haplocryalfs JBCG. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon. Are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. A xeric soil moisture regime. Other Haplocryalfs that meet all of the following: 1. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon).5 to 20 cm thick. A color value. A color value. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Umbric Xeric Haplocryalfs JBCL. Lamellic Haplocryalfs JBCH. or natric horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. moist.46 Keys to Soil Taxonomy b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 3. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. or paralithic contact.

Eutric Haplocryalfs JBCR. of 3 or less and a color value.0. one or both of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing.02 to 2. and 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Haplocryalfs that have a color value. and a. Other Palecryalfs that have a color value. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A glossic horizon. Other Udalfs that have both: 1. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. and . Umbric Palecryalfs JBAI. p. Other Palecryalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. dry.0 mm in diameter.02 to 2. Mollic Palecryalfs JBAH. Aquic Palecryalfs JBAD. moist. whichever is shallower. 2. and pumicelike fragments. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Oxyaquic Palecryalfs JBAE. Typic Haplocryalfs chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value.0 mm fraction. Ustic Palecryalfs JBAG. and b.0 g/cm3 or less. 20 or more consecutive days. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. whichever is shallower. Typic Palecryalfs Udalfs Key to Great Groups JEA. of 3 or less and a color value. Other Palecryalfs. or paralithic contact. Other Haplocryalfs. Xeric Palecryalfs JBAF. or paralithic contact.Alfisols 47 2. Other Palecryalfs that have a xeric soil moisture regime. dry. Other Palecryalfs that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days. Andic Palecryalfs JBAB. Udalfs that have a natric horizon. Vitrandic Palecryalfs JBAC. 56 JEB. moist. Palecryalfs that have. redox depletions with 1. lithic. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. pumice. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Mollic Haplocryalfs JBCP. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Haplocryalfs that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in all parts from the mineral soil surface to a depth of 180 cm or to a densic. whichever is shallower. or 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. of 3 or less and a color value. lithic. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. lithic. or paralithic contact. moist. Other Palecryalfs that have both: A L F Palecryalfs Key to Subgroups JBAA. dry. Natrudalfs. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Umbric Haplocryalfs JBCQ. In the 0. Other Palecryalfs that have. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Palecryalfs that have.

but no more than 100]. lithic. a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction. 49 JEC. or c. Do not have a densic. Kandiudalfs. Other Udalfs that: 1. 49 JED. whichever value is greater. Glossudalfs. Kanhapludalfs. moist. A glossic horizon. Other Udalfs that have a kandic horizon. Other Udalfs that meet all of the following: b. p. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. p.% organic carbon). and 1. Other Udalfs that have. Have a kandic horizon. 49 JEE. Many coarse redox concentrations with hue of 5YR or redder or chroma of 6 or more. and c. or other vitric pyroclastic materials. or both. Do not have a densic. Other Udalfs that have a glossic horizon. p.% organic carbon). in one or more subhorizons. 51 JEJ. 2. Have an argillic horizon with one or more of the following: a. or paralithic contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fragiudalfs. Paleudalfs. moist.5(% water retained at 1500 kPa tension . Have exteriors with either a redder hue or a higher chroma than the interiors. either: 3.5YR or redder. Value. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 3. 49 Other Udalfs. hue of 7. p.48 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2.5 to 30 cm in diameter. value. Do not have a clay decrease with increasing depth of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content [Clay is measured noncarbonate clay or is based on the following formula: Clay % = 2. discrete nodules. Are enriched with iron and extremely weakly cemented to indurated. of 4 or less. Hue of 2. hue of 2. 57 JEH. Either a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the argillic horizon. A fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Have 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans on faces of peds in the layer that has a 20 percent lower clay content and. or 3. whichever value is greater. Have 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans on faces of peds in the layer that has a 20 percent lower clay content and. A texture class finer than loamy fine sand in one or more horizons above the argillic horizon. paralithic. dry. or petroferric contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. An argillic horizon that has its upper boundary 60 cm or more below both: (1) The mineral soil surface. and 2. or b. and b. and value. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. and 2. that: a. below that layer.5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more. and b. either: a. 59 JEI. p. Ferrudalfs. and a. In the argillic or kandic horizon. Other Udalfs that have both: 1. and (2) The lower boundary of any surface mantle containing 30 percent or more vitric volcanic ash. below that layer. . In 50 percent or more of the matrix of one or more subhorizons in its lower one-half. Do not have a clay decrease with increasing depth of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content [Clay is measured noncarbonate clay or is based on the following formula: Clay % = 2. Hapludalfs. Rhodudalfs. or 4. Fraglossudalfs. cinders. 55 JEF.5(% water retained at 1500 kPa tension . of 3 or less. Other Udalfs that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. but no more than 100]. a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 50 percent or more of the matrix of horizons that total more than one-half the total thickness. 56 JEG. p. of 3 or less. p. Have a frigid soil temperature regime and all of the following: a. and 2. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. p. and 2. lithic. p.

0 g/cm3 or less. 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Andic Fragiudalfs JEDB. Vitrandic Fragiudalfs JEDC. Other Fraglossudalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers above the fragipan in normal years for either or both: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Fragiudalfs Fraglossudalfs Key to Subgroups JECA.0 g/cm3 or less. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm in diameter.0 mm.0 mm fraction. and b. and pumicelike fragments. measured at 33 kPa water retention. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 mm in diameter. and b. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In the 0. Aquic Fraglossudalfs JECD. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Fragiudalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers above the fragipan in normal years for either or both: 1. or 2. Ferrudalfs that have. Aquic Fragiudalfs JEDD. In the 0. Fraglossudalfs that have.0 mm fraction. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. in one or more horizons within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0. Other Ferrudalfs. or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or 30 or more cumulative days. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.02 to 2. pumice. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and a. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Other Fraglossudalfs that have. in one or more subhorizons within the upper 25 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon. Andic Fraglossudalfs JECB. Glossudalfs that have both: . [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Fragiudalfs that have. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs A L F Glossudalfs Key to Subgroups JEIA. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquic Ferrudalfs JEBB.02 to 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Fragiudalfs that have. Other Fragiudalfs. Other Fraglossudalfs. Typic Fraglossudalfs Fragiudalfs Key to Subgroups JEDA. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.Alfisols 49 Ferrudalfs Key to Subgroups JEBA. Vitrandic Fraglossudalfs JECC. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or both of the following: 1. Other Fraglossudalfs that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2. one or both of the following: 1. or 30 or more cumulative days.02 to 2. and a. and pumicelike fragments. Oxyaquic Fraglossudalfs JECE. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. pumice. Fragiudalfs that have. Typic Ferrudalfs JEDE.0.0 mm.

Other Glossudalfs that have. or 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. pumice. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. lithic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. or . Other Glossudalfs that have. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and a.50 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1.02 to 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or 30 or more cumulative days. and 2. b. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. or b. Aquandic Glossudalfs JEIE. A linear extensibility of 6. 2. Other Glossudalfs that have both: 1.02 to 2. pumice. and pumicelike fragments. A linear extensibility of 6. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 g/cm3 or less. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. In the 0. and One or both of the following: a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. lithic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. or b. one or both of the following: 1.0 mm in diameter. Other Glossudalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. and pumicelike fragments. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2.0 mm. one or more of the following: a. Vertic Glossudalfs JEID. A linear extensibility of 6. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. or paralithic contact. One or both of the following: a.0. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 mm in diameter. or paralithic contact.0 mm fraction. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.02 to 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. whichever is shallower. Other Glossudalfs that have both: 1. Oxyaquic Vertic Glossudalfs JEIC. or b.0 g/cm3 or less. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquertic Glossudalfs JEIB. lithic. 20 or more consecutive days. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm fraction. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and (1) In the 0. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface.0 mm. Andic Glossudalfs JEIF. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more subhorizons within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon. or c. and 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.

Fragic Glossudalfs JEIM. Aquic Glossudalfs JEIJ. Other Glossudalfs that have fragic soil properties: 1. Fragiaquic Glossudalfs JEIH. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. In one or more subhorizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Glossudalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Glossudalfs that: Hapludalfs Key to Subgroups JEJA. Typic Glossudalfs A L F 1. 20 or more consecutive days. Aquic Arenic Glossudalfs JEII. Are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. or b. lithic. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Vitrandic Glossudalfs JEIG. Other Glossudalfs that have. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Glossudalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Lithic Hapludalfs JEJB. 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. 1. Other Glossudalfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a. Hapludalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more subhorizons within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon. and 2. whichever is shallower. Arenic Oxyaquic Glossudalfs JEIK. or b. Oxyaquic Glossudalfs JEIL. or 2. b. A linear extensibility of 6. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface . In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Hapludalfs that have all of the following: One or both of the following: a. or paralithic contact. and 2.Alfisols 51 b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of the argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Other Glossudalfs. Other Glossudalfs that: to the top of the argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Glossudalfs that have a glossic horizon less than 50 cm in total thickness. or b. Haplic Glossudalfs JEIO. Arenic Glossudalfs JEIN. 20 or more consecutive days. and 1.

30 or more cumulative days. Aquertic Hapludalfs JEJD. lithic. 1. whichever is shallower. and 3. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Hapludalfs JEJG. of 6 or more. or b. or b. and 2. dry. or . throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. or b. of 6 or more. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value. have one or more of the following: a. lithic. after mixing. A linear extensibility of 6. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. dry. A color value. Aquertic Chromic Hapludalfs JEJC. moist. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. or b.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is shallower.52 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Hapludalfs that have both: One or both of the following: a. of 4 or more. lithic. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more. A color value. have one or more of the following: a. Other Hapludalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic. and 2. or c. or c.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact. or paralithic contact. A linear extensibility of 6. A color value. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. or b. 20 or more consecutive days. Chroma of 4 or more. One or both of the following: a. or paralithic contact. Other Hapludalfs that have both: b. Other Hapludalfs that have. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. or b. Chroma of 4 or more. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk 1. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that. whichever is shallower. or 2. Chromic Vertic Hapludalfs JEJF. A linear extensibility of 6. Oxyaquic Vertic Hapludalfs JEJE. or paralithic contact. after mixing. Other Hapludalfs that have both: 1. or b. whichever is shallower. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. One or both of the following: a.

Fragic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs Other Hapludalfs that: JEJK. 1. 20 or more consecutive days. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter.02 to 2. or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludalfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a. 20 or more consecutive days. and pumicelike fragments. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). b. Anthraquic Hapludalfs 2. Are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fragiaquic Hapludalfs JEJJ. 30 or more cumulative days. Aquic Arenic Hapludalfs JEJL. and 3. whichever is shallowest. at a depth of 180 cm from the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Arenic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs JEJM. or b. Other Hapludalfs that: A L F 1. Albaquultic Hapludalfs JEJO.0 g/cm3 or less. and JEJI. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.02 to 2. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. and 2. Other Hapludalfs that have anthraquic conditions. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. 1. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm from the top of the argillic horizon. or directly above a densic. 1. and 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. lithic. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of the argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. An abrupt textural change. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. or paralithic contact. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Hapludalfs that have. Other Hapludalfs that have all of the following: 1. Vitrandic Hapludalfs 1 a. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. and a. one or both of the following: 1. or 2. pumice. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. and 2. or b. [(Al plus /2 Fe. Other Hapludalfs that have both: . 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: JEJN. In the 0. and b. Other Hapludalfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a.0 mm.Alfisols 53 density of 1.0. Andic Hapludalfs JEJH. and 2.

or b. A mollic epipedon. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm from the top of the argillic horizon. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Glossaquic Hapludalfs JEJQ. A color value. and 2. An abrupt textural change. or 30 or more cumulative days. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. or b. Other Hapludalfs that have both: JEJU. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. or directly above a densic. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. and 2. Saturation with water in 1 or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a.54 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallowest. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. Albaquic Hapludalfs JEJP. or b. Other Hapludalfs that have both: the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Other Hapludalfs that have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: 1. Other Hapludalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 2. Oxyaquic Hapludalfs JEJV. Other Hapludalfs that have both: 1. b. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout . or paralithic contact. Aquic Hapludalfs JEJT. Aquollic Hapludalfs JEJS. lithic. Mollic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs 1. moist. or b. dry. 20 or more consecutive days. or 30 or more cumulative days. or 2. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludalfs that have both: 1. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Interfingering of albic materials in the upper part of the argillic horizon. Aquultic Hapludalfs JEJR. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. at a depth of 180 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludalfs that have fragic soil properties: 1. of 3 or less and a color value. and 2. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. and 2. or 1. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. and 2. 20 or more consecutive days.

Psammentic Hapludalfs JEJY. or directly above a densic.5 to 20 cm. Do not have a densic. lithic. Other Hapludalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiudalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. at a depth of 180 cm below the mineral soil surface. Arenic Plinthic Kandiudalfs JEEE. 2. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. Aquic Kandiudalfs JEEC. Other Kandiudalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the . Have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. Arenic Hapludalfs JEJZ. Oxyaquic Kandiudalfs JEED. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. and upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets all the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. 1. whichever is shallowest. Other Hapludalfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1. and 2. or 2. Typic Hapludalfs Kandiudalfs Key to Subgroups JEEA. Plinthaquic Kandiudalfs JEEB. Inceptic Hapludalfs JEJZb. Other Hapludalfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon. Glossic Hapludalfs JEJZa. or the 1. Other Hapludalfs that have interfingering of albic materials in one or more subhorizons of the argillic horizon. Other Kandiudalfs that: A L F 1. or 30 or more cumulative days. Lamellic Hapludalfs JEJX. and 2. Other Kandiudalfs that have. or paralithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.Alfisols 55 2. or paralithic contact. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. or b. or 3. Consists entirely of lamellae. lithic. and 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and above these horizons there are either: a. Mollic Hapludalfs JEJZd. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Grossarenic Plinthic Kandiudalfs JEEF. Have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Kandiudalfs that have both: 1. Ultic Hapludalfs JEJZc. Other Hapludalfs that have a mollic epipedon.5 to 20 cm thick. Other Hapludalfs that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm below the top of the argillic horizon. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Other Hapludalfs that: Have an argillic horizon that is 35 cm or less thick. Other Hapludalfs. Fragic Hapludalfs JEJW. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 20 or more consecutive days. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiudalfs that: 2.

Within the upper 25 cm of the natric horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. 2. Natrudalfs that have one or both of the following: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Plinthic Kandiudalfs JEEI. Other Kanhapludalfs that have. and 2. Other Kandiudalfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Other Kanhapludalfs. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Kandiudalfs that have a mollic epipedon. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hue of 2. Lithic Kanhapludalfs JEFB. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the kandic horizon or throughout the entire kandic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. and 3. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. Value. Grossarenic Kandiudalfs JEEH. Other Kandiudalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. Rhodic Kandiudalfs JEEJ. Other Kandiudalfs. and 2. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. Typic Kandiudalfs JEFD. and 3. lithic. Value. Arenic Kandiudalfs JEEG. of 3 or less. Glossaquic Natrudalfs JEAC. Within the upper 25 cm of the natric horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b.5YR or redder. or 2. Oxyaquic Kanhapludalfs . and 2. Other Kandiudalfs that have. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the kandic horizon or throughout the entire kandic horizon if less than 100 cm thick.56 Keys to Soil Taxonomy mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). of 3 or less. Other Natrudalfs that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. Hue of 2.5YR or redder. Mollic Kandiudalfs JEEK. or 2. or 30 or more cumulative days. Kanhapludalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Kanhapludalfs Natrudalfs Key to Subgroups JEAA. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper Kanhapludalfs Key to Subgroups JEFA. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Vertic Natrudalfs JEAB. Rhodic Kanhapludalfs JEFE. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Other Kanhapludalfs that have. Aquic Kanhapludalfs JEFC. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. Other Natrudalfs that have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: 1. Other Kanhapludalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the natric horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. moist. Either a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon.

or paralithic contact. Vertic Paleudalfs JEGB. and Paleudalfs Key to Subgroups JEGA. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.02 to 2.0 mm fraction. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. measured at 33 kPa water retention.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Anthraquic Paleudalfs Other Paleudalfs that have both: 1. Fragic soil properties: a. Other Paleudalfs that have. and 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. Glossaquic Paleudalfs JEGH. Andic Paleudalfs JEGC. Other Paleudalfs that have anthraquic conditions. whichever is shallower.5 cm at the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Paleudalfs that have both: 1. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleudalfs that have both: A L F 1. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. or 2. redox depletions with JEGE. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and 2. . Other Natrudalfs. pumice. and a. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Albaquic Paleudalfs JEGI. Other Paleudalfs that have. and b. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a.Alfisols 57 boundary of the natric horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Other Paleudalfs that have both: 1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Natrudalfs 1. and pumicelike fragments. Plinthaquic Paleudalfs JEGG. A glossic horizon or. Other Paleudalfs that have. A clay increase of 15 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction within a vertical distance of 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Paleudalfs that have one or both of the following: 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Aquic Natrudalfs JEAD. lithic. Vitrandic Paleudalfs JEGD.0 mm. Fragiaquic Paleudalfs JEGF. or 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0.0 mm in diameter. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. one or more subhorizons that have 5 percent or more (by volume) clay depletions with chroma of 2 or less. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. in the upper part of the argillic horizon. and 2. or b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or both of the following: 1. A linear extensibility of 6.02 to 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. In the 0.

5 percent or more (by volume) albic materials in some subhorizon of the argillic horizon. Other Paleudalfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1. of 3 or less. Other Paleudalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Oxyaquic Paleudalfs JEGK. or 2. 2. moist. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. or 1. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. Mollic Paleudalfs . Have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleudalfs that have a mollic epipedon. Other Paleudalfs that have. and 3. Other Paleudalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. or 3. Psammentic Paleudalfs JEGP. Glossic Paleudalfs JEGT. Hue of 2. Rhodic Paleudalfs JEGU. Arenic Paleudalfs JEGQ. Other Paleudalfs that: 1.5YR or redder. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Aquic Paleudalfs JEGJ. Other Paleudalfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudalfs JEGN. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. Arenic Plinthic Paleudalfs JEGM. 20 or more consecutive days. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. one or more subhorizons that have 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans with chroma of 2 or less. or 3. Lamellic Paleudalfs JEGO. In the upper part of the argillic horizon.5 to 20 cm thick. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleudalfs that have fragic soil properties: b. Other Paleudalfs that have either: 1. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). or 30 or more cumulative days. Value. or 2. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. and above these horizons there are either: a. A glossic horizon. Other Paleudalfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 to 20 cm. Plinthic Paleudalfs JEGS. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. Grossarenic Paleudalfs JEGR. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon. Have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Consists entirely of lamellae. and 2. and 2. Other Paleudalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.58 Keys to Soil Taxonomy chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Fragic Paleudalfs JEGL. or 2. Other Paleudalfs that: 1.

Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Kanhaplustalfs. p. Other Ustalfs that have one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in which plinthite either forms a continuous phase or constitutes one-half or more of the volume. Other Ustalfs that have. Typic Rhodudalfs Ustalfs Key to Great Groups JCA. lithic. either: a. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. 70 JCH. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and an argillic horizon that has both: a. p. No densic. Other Paleudalfs. whichever value is greater. one or more subhorizons with either or both: (1) Hue of 7. and b. but no more than 100]. 60 Rhodudalfs Key to Subgroups JEHA. Typic Durustalfs . paralithic. Paleustalfs. whichever value is greater. but no more than 100]. or paralithic contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface and an argillic horizon that has both: Durustalfs Key to Subgroups JCAA.5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction. a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction. Plinthustalfs. Rhodustalfs. or b. Other Ustalfs that meet all of the following: Have a kandic horizon. 35 percent or more noncarbonate clay throughout one or more subhorizons in its upper part. All Durustalfs (provisionally). Other Ustalfs that have a natric horizon. or 2. or (2) Common or many coarse redox concentrations with hue of 7. or both. below that layer. and A L F 2. A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. 70 JCC.5YR or redder.% organic carbon). Natrustalfs.5YR or redder or chroma of 6 or more. Do not have a densic. moist. 1. Have 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans on faces of peds in the layer that has a 20 percent lower clay content and. In the lower one-half of the argillic horizon.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. lithic.5(% water retained at 1500 kPa tension . Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. and 3. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 cm. p. p. a clay increase (in the fineearth fraction) of either 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Durustalfs.Alfisols 59 JEGV. Typic Paleudalfs a. and b. All Rhodudalfs (provisionally). Other Ustalfs that have one or more of the following: 1. p. 64 JCF. 63 JCE. Ustalfs that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. 67 JCG. Value. p. 59 JCB. no clay decrease of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content [Clay is measured noncarbonate clay or is based on the following formula: Clay % = 2.% organic carbon). Hue of 2. and 3. p. or (2) 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans on faces of peds in the layer that has a 20 percent lower clay content and. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. or 3. either: (1) With increasing depth. Other Ustalfs that have a kandic horizon. Kandiustalfs. below that layer. lithic. and 2. No densic. or petroferric contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. 65 JCD. of 3 or less. At its upper boundary. Do not have a clay decrease with increasing depth of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content [Clay is measured noncarbonate clay or is based on the following formula: Clay % = 2. Other Ustalfs.5(% water retained at 1500 kPa tension . Haplustalfs. p.

and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. One or both of the following: a. or paralithic contact. One or both of the following: a. whichever is shallower. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or b. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A hyperthermic. Haplustalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Torrertic Haplustalfs JCHE. or c.60 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Haplustalfs Key to Subgroups JCHA. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. either: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture . 20 or more consecutive days. One or both of the following: a. lithic. whichever is shallower. A hyperthermic. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1. and 2. A linear extensibility of 6. or paralithic contact. and 2. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. one of the following: a. or 30 or more cumulative days. or paralithic contact. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or JCHD. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Lithic Haplustalfs JCHB. isomesic.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Aquertic Haplustalfs JCHC.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Oxyaquic Vertic Haplustalfs control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. lithic. One or both of the following: a. and 2. A linear extensibility of 6. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. lithic. whichever is shallower. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. isomesic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Other Haplustalfs that have both of the following: 1. or b. b.

Other Haplustalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1.Alfisols 61 more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplustalfs that have. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. or paralithic contact. Aquultic Haplustalfs JCHI.5 to 20 cm. or b. or 2.0 mm in diameter. Other Haplustalfs that: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Arenic Haplustalfs JCHH. Other Haplustalfs that: 2. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Other Haplustalfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1. or 2. or 2. An argillic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent throughout.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is shallower. 30 or more cumulative days. 20 or more consecutive days.0 mm fraction. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. whichever is shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. lithic. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Oxyaquic Haplustalfs JCHK. and b. In the 0. Other Haplustalfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. and a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Haplustalfs JCHJ. one or both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact.02 to 2. and 2. and 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or 3. Consists entirely of lamellae. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. and above these horizons there are either: a. or A L F 1. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). Other Haplustalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. Psammentic Haplustalfs JCHN.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. Lamellic Haplustalfs JCHM. Vertic Haplustalfs JCHG. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. lithic. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1.5 to 20 cm thick. Udertic Haplustalfs JCHF. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. have one of the following: . and 2. and pumicelike fragments. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Vitrandic Haplustalfs JCHL.0 mm. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplustalfs that have. pumice. A linear extensibility of 6. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon.

A hyperthermic. A hyperthermic. or 2. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or paralithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. isomesic. or b. and 2. have one of the following: 1. Other Haplustalfs that. one of the following: a. isomesic. or b. Arenic Haplustalfs JCHP.62 Keys to Soil Taxonomy a. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. isomesic. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. one of the following: . When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 1. Inceptic Haplustalfs JCHT. lithic. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or c. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Arenic Aridic Haplustalfs JCHO. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or c. Do not have a densic. Calcidic Haplustalfs JCHQ. Other Haplustalfs that have both: 1. Other Haplustalfs that have a CEC of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) in 50 percent or more either of the argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick or of its upper 100 cm. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2. Other Haplustalfs that: Have an argillic horizon that is 35 cm or less thick. A hyperthermic. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aridic Haplustalfs JCHR. and b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Kanhaplic Haplustalfs JCHS. Other Haplustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. or 3.

Other Kandiustalfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.Alfisols 63 a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. isomesic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Haplustalfs that have an argillic horizon with a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent throughout. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Other Kandiustalfs that have. Calcic Udic Haplustalfs JCHU. isomesic. or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Plinthic Kandiustalfs JCDD. isomesic. Calcic Haplustalfs JCHW. Ultic Haplustalfs JCHV. Udic Haplustalfs JCHX. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Aquic Arenic Kandiustalfs JCDC. and 2. have either: a. or 2. Other Haplustalfs. Typic Haplustalfs Kandiustalfs Key to Subgroups JCDA. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Haplustalfs that. have one of the following: 1. and . or b. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Grossarenic Kandiustalfs JCDB. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. Other Kandiustalfs that: 1. or c. or 3. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A hyperthermic. Aquic Kandiustalfs JCDE. A hyperthermic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. and 2. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Kandiustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. Other Haplustalfs that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A hyperthermic. Other Kandiustalfs that: A L F 1.

A hyperthermic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. Lithic Kanhaplustalfs JCEB. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Kandiustalfs that. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Kandiustalfs that. isomesic. moist. Udic Kandiustalfs JCDI. have either: 1. and b. and 2. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. Aridic Kanhaplustalfs JCED. Other Kandiustalfs. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for 135 cumulative days or less per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and b. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Typic Kandiustalfs Kanhaplustalfs Key to Subgroups JCEA. isomesic.5YR or redder. A hyperthermic. Other Kandiustalfs that have. Kanhaplustalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aridic Kandiustalfs JCDH. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 . isomesic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. of 3 or less. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Aquic Kanhaplustalfs JCEC. or 2. Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.64 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Kandiustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a kandic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. Other Kanhaplustalfs that have. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the kandic horizon or throughout the entire kandic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. have either: 1. Value. and 3. or 2. or 2. Arenic Kandiustalfs JCDG. Other Kanhaplustalfs that. have either: 1. have either: 1. A hyperthermic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Rhodic Kandiustalfs JCDJ. Other Kanhaplustalfs that. isomesic. Arenic Aridic Kandiustalfs JCDF. Hue of 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for 135 cumulative days or less per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or 2. A hyperthermic. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Natrustalfs that have a salic horizon within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. one of the following: a. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. whichever is shallower. Leptic Torrertic Natrustalfs JCCC. of 3 or less. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. moist. One or both of the following: a.5YR or redder. and 3. Typic Kanhaplustalfs a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. One or both of the following: a. or b. Rhodic Kanhaplustalfs JCEF. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at 1.0 cm or more between the . and 2. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A hyperthermic. Udic Kanhaplustalfs JCEE. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. isomesic. Other Kanhaplustalfs that have. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or both. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. A hyperthermic. Other Natrustalfs that have both of the following: A L F Natrustalfs Key to Subgroups JCCA. Salidic Natrustalfs JCCB.Alfisols 65 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Kanhaplustalfs. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. one of the following: a. and 3. Hue of 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Visible crystals of gypsum or other salts more soluble than gypsum. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the kandic horizon or throughout the entire kandic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. Other Natrustalfs that have all of the following: 1. isomesic. or c.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. within 40 cm of the soil surface. and 2. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. or c. Value. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or paralithic contact. or b. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. lithic.

and 2. or b. Other Natrustalfs that have. Leptic Natrustalfs JCCL. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Natrustalfs that have both: 1. Visible crystals of gypsum or other salts more soluble than gypsum. Other Natrustalfs that have one or both of the following: 1.66 Keys to Soil Taxonomy mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Arenic Natrustalfs JCCJ. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. whichever is shallower. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A linear extensibility of 6. one of the following: . or paralithic contact. Other Natrustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. lithic. or b. Torrertic Natrustalfs JCCD. Other Natrustalfs that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. isomesic. or both. and 2. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 2. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. and 2. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. whichever is shallower. lithic. within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Natrustalfs that: 1. A hyperthermic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). one of the following: a. or both. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. or c. Petrocalcic Natrustalfs JCCK. Aquertic Natrustalfs JCCE. Vertic Natrustalfs JCCG. Other Natrustalfs that have both of the following: 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aquic Natrustalfs JCCI. One or both of the following: a. An exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 (or a sodium adsorption ratio of less than 13) in 50 percent or more of the natric horizon. Other Natrustalfs that have both of the following: 1. Aridic Leptic Natrustalfs JCCF. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. or paralithic contact. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Natrustalfs that have visible crystals of gypsum or other salts more soluble than gypsum. Aquic Arenic Natrustalfs JCCH.

A hyperthermic. Other Natrustalfs that have both: 1. A hyperthermic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that.Alfisols 67 a. and b. isomesic. Other Natrustalfs. Haplargidic Natrustalfs JCCM. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. and 2. isomesic. have one of the following: 1. Other Natrustalfs that have a mollic epipedon. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 °C. Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or b. Aridic Glossic Natrustalfs JCCN. 1. A hyperthermic. isomesic.0 cm or more between . A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 °C. Mollic Natrustalfs JCCP. or the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil meets the color requirements for a mollic epipedon after mixing. or 2. Other Natrustalfs that. Aridic Natrustalfs JCCO. Paleustalfs that have both: One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 °C. or c. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 °C. or c. Typic Natrustalfs A L F Paleustalfs Key to Subgroups JCFA. A linear extensibility of 6. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. one of the following: a. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. in 6 normal years. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. or 3. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.

or b. Udertic Paleustalfs JCFD. Other Paleustalfs that: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Paleustalfs that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that . Oxyaquic Vertic Paleustalfs Other Paleustalfs that have both: has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm.68 Keys to Soil Taxonomy the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or 2. either: a. Vertic Paleustalfs JCFE. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. Other Paleustalfs that have. or paralithic contact. Aquertic Paleustalfs JCFB. and 2. or 30 or more cumulative days. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Paleustalfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1. One or both of the following: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Consists entirely of lamellae. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Paleustalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. or JCFC. or paralithic contact. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A hyperthermic. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Arenic Paleustalfs JCFF. whichever is shallower. or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. whichever is shallower. and 2. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. or paralithic contact. Oxyaquic Paleustalfs JCFH. lithic. 20 or more consecutive days. b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleustalfs that have both: 1. 1. or b. lithic. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 2. Aquic Paleustalfs JCFG. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. One or both of the following: a. lithic. or b.5 to 20 cm. A linear extensibility of 6. isomesic. lithic. whichever is shallower. A linear extensibility of 6.

Calcidic Paleustalfs A L F . Other Paleustalfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. have one of the following: a. Other Paleustalfs that have both: 1. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). Grossarenic Paleustalfs JCFL. or c. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or within 50 cm if it is clayey. Other Paleustalfs that: 1. or b. Psammentic Paleustalfs JCFJ. Other Paleustalfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick.5 to 20 cm thick. A calcic horizon either within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface if the weighted average particle-size class of the upper 50 cm of the argillic horizon is sandy. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. either: a. and above these horizons there are either: a. Other Paleustalfs that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthic Paleustalfs JCFN. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A hyperthermic. isomesic. or b. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Other Paleustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. and free carbonates in all horizons above the calcic horizon. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Arenic Paleustalfs JCFM. isomesic. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Petrocalcic Paleustalfs JCFO. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. and 2. Lamellic Paleustalfs JCFI. or c. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Arenic Aridic Paleustalfs JCFK. or within 60 cm if it is loamy. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. Other Paleustalfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. A hyperthermic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2.Alfisols 69 3.

Is moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and b. and 2. Rhodic Paleustalfs JCFS. or 2. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. Other Rhodustalfs. or 2. Typic Plinthustalfs Rhodustalfs Key to Subgroups JCGA. have either: 1. A hyperthermic. Other Paleustalfs. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Other Paleustalfs that have a CEC of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) in 50 percent or more either of the argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick or of its upper 100 cm. Udic Rhodustalfs JCGD. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick.5YR or redder. Other Paleustalfs that have an argillic horizon with a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent throughout. Kanhaplic Rhodustalfs JCGC. Kandic Paleustalfs JCFR. Aridic Paleustalfs JCFQ. All Plinthustalfs (provisionally). or 2. Other Rhodustalfs that. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Rhodustalfs that have a CEC of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) in 50 percent or more either of the argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick or of its upper 100 cm. Typic Rhodustalfs . or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Typic Paleustalfs Plinthustalfs Key to Subgroups JCBA. Other Paleustalfs that. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A hyperthermic. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. moist.70 Keys to Soil Taxonomy JCFP. Hue of 2. have: 1. Rhodustalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Rhodustalfs JCGB. Other Paleustalfs that have. Udic Paleustalfs JCFU. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the time (cumulative) per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Paleustalfs that. Value. have either: 1. isomesic. of 3 or less. isomesic. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Ultic Paleustalfs JCFT. A hyperthermic. or 3. isomesic. and 3.

but no more than 100]. 76 JDF. or 2.0 cm or more.5(% water retained at 1500 kPa tension . Cracks that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick. Vertic Durixeralfs JDAC. Other Xeralfs that have one or more of the following: 1. A clayey particle-size class throughout some subhorizon 7. Fragixeralfs. Other Xeralfs that have a natric horizon. p. p. 74 3. 72 JDD. Other Durixeralfs that have. Value. and b. Xeralfs that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) in the fine-earth fraction. one or both of the following: 1. in one or more subhorizons within the argillic horizon. Other Xeralfs. or paralithic contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface and an argillic or kandic horizon that has both: a.5YR or redder. p. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthoxeralfs. moist. Other Durixeralfs that have. and 3. in all subhorizons in the upper 100 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon or throughout the entire argillic or kandic horizon if less than 100 cm thick. p. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. A clay increase. Aquic Durixeralfs JDAD. Abruptic Haplic Durixeralfs JDAE. No densic. Other Durixeralfs that have an argillic horizon that has both: . A linear extensibility of 6. in the fine-earth fraction. No densic.5 cm. either: (1) With increasing depth. Hue of 2. in the fineearth fraction. A duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. 76 JDE.5 cm or more thick. Palexeralfs. and 2. An argillic horizon that has both: a. Rhodoxeralfs. Durixeralfs. Other Xeralfs that have. At its upper boundary or within some part. 35 percent or more noncarbonate clay. lithic. or (2) 5 percent or more (by volume) skeletans on faces of peds in the layer that has a 20 percent lower clay content and. or Durixeralfs Key to Subgroups JDAA. above the duripan.5 cm. Haploxeralfs. p.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. and b. Natric Durixeralfs JDAB. Other Xeralfs that have one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in which plinthite either forms a continuous phase or constitutes one-half or more of the volume. Durixeralfs that have a natric horizon. Natrixeralfs. below that layer. and 2. 72 A L F JDC. 74 JDG. A base at a depth of 150 cm or more.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2.Alfisols 71 Xeralfs Key to Great Groups JDA. and b. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Xeralfs that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of either 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. no clay decrease of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content [Clay is measured noncarbonate clay or is based on the following formula: Clay % = 2. whichever value is greater. Other Durixeralfs that have both: 1. or 2. of 3 or less. a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. p. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and an argillic or kandic horizon that has within 15 cm of its upper boundary both: a. lithic.% organic carbon). 71 JDB. p.

and 2. Lithic Ruptic-Inceptic Haploxeralfs JDGC.0 mm. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Other Fragixeralfs that have a color value. and 2.0 g/cm3 or less. At its upper boundary or within some part. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Mollic Haploxeralfs JDGB. and b. Mollic Fragixeralfs JDCD. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Inceptic Fragixeralfs JDCF. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vitrandic Fragixeralfs JDCC. Other Haploxeralfs that have one or both of the following: 1. Typic Durixeralfs within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Other Fragixeralfs. Other Fragixeralfs that have. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7.02 to 2.02 to 2.0 mm fraction. Lithic Haploxeralfs JDGD. or paralithic contact. Other Haploxeralfs that have both: 1. Abruptic Durixeralfs JDAF.72 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1. Haploxeralfs that have both: 1. one or both of the following: 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. dry.5 cm or more thick.7 percent or more organic carbon either throughout an Ap horizon or throughout the upper 10 cm of an A horizon. and pumicelike fragments. and a. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haploxeralfs that have both: 1. moist. Andic Fragixeralfs JDCB. A color value.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2.0. above the fragipan. Other Fragixeralfs that have. pumice.5 cm. Fragixeralfs that have. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. moist. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An argillic or kandic horizon that is discontinuous horizontally in each pedon. Typic Fragixeralfs Haploxeralfs Key to Subgroups JDGA. of 3 or less and 0.0 mm in diameter. A clayey particle-size class throughout some subhorizon 7. In the 0. in the fineearth fraction. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil Fragixeralfs Key to Subgroups JDCA. Aquic Fragixeralfs JDCE. Haplic Durixeralfs JDAG.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in one or more horizons . lithic. or 2. Other Durixeralfs. A linear extensibility of 6. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Haploxeralfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Durixeralfs that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. of 3 or less and a color value. Other Fragixeralfs that. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. do not have an argillic or kandic horizon with clay films on both vertical and horizontal faces of any peds. whichever is shallower. Vertic Haploxeralfs JDGE. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.

Other Haploxeralfs that have. and a. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Aquandic Haploxeralfs JDGF.0 g/cm3 or less. and 2. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or both of the following: 1. pumice. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a.0 g/cm3 or less. and pumicelike fragments. one or more of the following: a. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Haploxeralfs JDGG. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. pumice. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm fraction. and 2.02 to 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In the 0. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Fragiaquic Haploxeralfs JDGI. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 mm in diameter. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or paralithic contact. Other Haploxeralfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a. or 2. Other Haploxeralfs that have. Other Haploxeralfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1.02 to 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic or kandic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Aquultic Haploxeralfs JDGJ. and b. Other Haploxeralfs that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more) in one or more subhorizons of the argillic or kandic horizon. Natric Haploxeralfs JDGL. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Other Haploxeralfs that have fragic soil properties: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm fraction.02 to 2. Other Haploxeralfs that have. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 mm. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.02 to 2. or 2. Vitrandic Haploxeralfs JDGH. or b. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haploxeralfs that have both: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm. or A L F .0 mm in diameter. Aquic Haploxeralfs JDGK. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and (1) In the 0. Consists entirely of lamellae. Fragic Haploxeralfs JDGM. whichever is shallower.0. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).Alfisols 73 surface. 1.0. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. An argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent in one or more subhorizons within its upper 75 cm or above a densic. or c. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and pumicelike fragments. and 2. or b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.

or 2. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Palexeralfs JDFB.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Ultic Haploxeralfs JDGS. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser . and 2. moist. Natrixeralfs that have one or both of the following: 1. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon.7 percent or more organic carbon either throughout the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil after mixing. Other Natrixeralfs. Typic Haploxeralfs 1. Other Haploxeralfs that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.0. or paralithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Do not have a densic. lithic. Calcic Haploxeralfs JDGQ. or paralithic contact. and 2. Other Natrixeralfs that have. Vertic Natrixeralfs JDBB. or paralithic contact. Aquic Natrixeralfs JDBC. each with an overlying eluvial horizon.74 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 g/cm3 or less. Mollic Haploxeralfs JDGT. and above these horizons there are either: a. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. Other Haploxeralfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Typic Natrixeralfs Palexeralfs Key to Subgroups JDFA. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 to 20 cm. of 3 or less and 0. Psammentic Haploxeralfs JDGO. Inceptic Haploxeralfs JDGR. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthic Haploxeralfs JDGP. or b. Other Haploxeralfs that: Natrixeralfs Key to Subgroups JDBA. measured at 33 kPa water retention. whichever is shallower. or b. Other Haploxeralfs. Lamellic Haploxeralfs JDGN. whichever is shallower. Other Palexeralfs that have both: 1. one or more of the following: a. Other Haploxeralfs that have an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent in one or more subhorizons within its upper 75 cm or above a densic. lithic. or 3. or paralithic contact. lithic. Other Haploxeralfs that have a color value. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. whichever is shallower. lithic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. Have an argillic or kandic horizon that is 35 cm or less thick.5 to 20 cm thick. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Palexeralfs that have one or both of the following: 1. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Haploxeralfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). or 2.

and (1) In the 0. or b. and pumicelike fragments. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. pumice.0.0 mm.Alfisols 75 than 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Palexeralfs that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more) in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Palexeralfs JDFD. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Petrocalcic Palexeralfs JDFH. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic or kandic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Fragiaquic Palexeralfs JDFF. or 2. Other Palexeralfs that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic or kandic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. In the 0. Lamellic Palexeralfs JDFI. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon.0 mm. Aquandic Palexeralfs JDFC. Arenic Palexeralfs JDFK. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. pumice. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. one or both of the following: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. 1. Aquic Palexeralfs JDFG. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. and b.0 mm fraction. or b. Consists entirely of lamellae. or b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Palexeralfs that have. Other Palexeralfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or c. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Psammentic Palexeralfs JDFJ. or 3. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). and 2. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7.5 to 20 cm thick. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7.5 to 20 cm. Vitrandic Palexeralfs JDFE. Other Palexeralfs that have. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick.0 mm fraction. Other Palexeralfs that have both: Fragic soil properties: a.0 mm in diameter. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Palexeralfs that have an argillic horizon that meets one of the following: 1.02 to 2. Other Palexeralfs that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter.02 to 2. Other Palexeralfs that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. and above these horizons there are either: a. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Natric Palexeralfs A L F . of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and a. or 2.02 to 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.

A linear extensibility of 6.7 percent or more organic carbon either throughout the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil after mixing. Other Palexeralfs that have a color value. either or both: 1. Typic Rhodoxeralfs . Typic Palexeralfs Rhodoxeralfs Key to Subgroups JDEA. Other Palexeralfs that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Rhodoxeralfs that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthic Palexeralfs JDFO. Calcic Palexeralfs JDFN. a clay increase of less than 20 percent (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Haplic Palexeralfs JDFQ. At its upper boundary. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 cm. Ultic Palexeralfs JDFP. Other Palexeralfs that have a calcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Other Rhodoxeralfs that have an argillic or kandic horizon that is either less than 35 cm thick or is discontinuous horizontally in each pedon. Other Palexeralfs that have fragic soil properties: Plinthoxeralfs Key to Subgroups JDDA. in the fine-earth fraction. Other Palexeralfs with an argillic or kandic horizon that has. or 2. Less than 35 percent clay throughout all subhorizons within 15 cm of its upper boundary. Mollic Palexeralfs JDFR. Rhodoxeralfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Inceptic Rhodoxeralfs JDEF. Other Rhodoxeralfs. Lithic Rhodoxeralfs JDEB. or 2.76 JDFL.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Petrocalcic Rhodoxeralfs JDED. Fragic Palexeralfs JDFM. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.5 cm and of less than 15 percent (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. whichever is shallower. Typic Plinthoxeralfs 1. Other Palexeralfs. Other Rhodoxeralfs that have a calcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and 0. All Plinthoxeralfs (provisionally). Other Palexeralfs that have an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 75 percent throughout. Other Rhodoxeralfs that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic. Vertic Rhodoxeralfs JDEC. moist. or paralithic contact. Calcic Rhodoxeralfs JDEE.

Ustands. moist. Other Andisols that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. whichever is shallower.77 CHAPTER 6 Andisols Key to Suborders DA. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. or paralithic contact or in a layer at a depth between 40 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 2. a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 2. DF. in 75 percent or more of each pedon. p. Other Andisols that have a gelic soil temperature regime. Placaquands. or 2. p. lithic. Other Aquands that have a cryic soil temperature regime. duripan. and a densic. 79 DAB. Torrands. whichever is shallower. Other Andisols that have an aridic soil moisture regime. Aquands that have a gelic soil temperature regime. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic b. Other Aquands that have. Other Aquands that have. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: a. Aquands. a duripan. Other Andisols that have a cryic soil temperature regime. in half or more of each pedon. Cryands. p. 80 DD. p. or paralithic contact. p.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. if there is no densic. whichever is shallowest. Andisols that have either: 1. Other Aquands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. 77 DB. 84 DC. Udands. whichever is shallower. 94 DE. or layer with andic soil properties. Gelands. or paralithic contact. p. Within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Gelaquands. p. lithic. 84 Other Andisols that have a xeric soil moisture regime. or paralithic contact within that depth. Vitrands. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. or c. Other Andisols. Other Andisols that have an ustic soil moisture regime. if there is no densic. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. 80 DAD. 85 A N D Aquands Key to Great Groups DAA. Xerands. A histic epipedon. p. whichever is shallower. lithic. 93 DG. 92 DH. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. 78 DAC. Cryaquands. In a layer above a densic. or a petrocalcic horizon. p. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic . 78 DAE. lithic. A color value. whichever is shallower. p. Duraquands. p.

Other Duraquands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Duraquands that have a histic epipedon. Lithic Cryaquands DABB. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Duraquands. whichever is shallower. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Typic Duraquands Cryaquands Key to Subgroups DABA. Duric Endoaquands DAHC. whichever is shallower. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. lithic. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. 80 DAF. moist. whichever is shallower. Other Endoaquands that have. Cryaquands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Typic Cryaquands Duraquands Key to Subgroups DADA.78 Keys to Soil Taxonomy layer with andic soil properties. Thaptic Cryaquands DABD. on undried samples. Other Endoaquands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Histic Duraquands DADB.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 78 DADC. whichever is shallower. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. and a densic. Other Endoaquands that have.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Alic Endoaquands DAHE. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Melanaquands. whichever is shallower. Other Aquands. Other Endoaquands that have more than 2. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Epiaquands. p. p. moist.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Acraquoxic Duraquands . 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Endoaquands.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon DABC. whichever is shallower. Endoaquands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. p. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. whichever is shallower. Other Duraquands that have. whichever is shallower. Hydric Endoaquands DAHF. Other Cryaquands that have a histic epipedon. Other Cryaquands that have. Histic Endoaquands DAHD. Other Cryaquands. Other Endoaquands that have a histic epipedon. Other Aquands that have episaturation. Histic Cryaquands Endoaquands Key to Subgroups DAHA. Other Aquands that have a melanic epipedon. 79 DAG. Thaptic Duraquands DADD. 79 DAH. Vitraquands. or paralithic contact. Lithic Endoaquands DAHB.

Alic Epiaquands DAGD. Other Epiaquands that have more than 2. Turbic Gelaquands DAAC. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Gelaquands that have a histic epipedon. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Other Epiaquands that have a histic epipedon. whichever is shallower. Hydric Melanaquands Gelaquands Key to Subgroups DAAA. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Lithic Melanaquands DAFB. Typic Epiaquands A N D Melanaquands Key to Subgroups DAFA. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Hydric Pachic Melanaquands DAFD. Melanaquands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Duric Epiaquands DAGB. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist. Other Epiaquands that have. whichever is shallower. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. on undried samples. Other Gelaquands that have.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. and 2. Typic Endoaquands DAAB. Other Epiaquands that have. Other Melanaquands that have.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. moist. Other Melanaquands that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. Epiaquands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Histic Gelaquands . whichever is shallower. Other Gelaquands that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Histic Epiaquands DAGC. on undried samples. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Epiaquands. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Typic Gelaquands Epiaquands Key to Subgroups DAGA. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. whichever is shallower. Other Gelaquands. Other Endoaquands.Andisols 79 throughout. whichever is shallower. More than 6. Thaptic Epiaquands DAGF.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Acraquoxic Melanaquands DAFC. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. On undried samples. Thaptic Gelaquands DAAD. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanaquands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Thaptic Endoaquands DAHG. Hydric Epiaquands DAGE.

underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Vitraquands that have. Other Vitraquands. by weighted average. Other Placaquands. a 1500 kPa water retention of 100 percent or more. Other Vitraquands that have a histic epipedon. Other Melanaquands that have. whichever is shallower. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Other Placaquands that have. at a depth between 40 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Typic Melanaquands or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Vitraquands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. in 75 percent or more of each pedon. Other Placaquands that have both: 1. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. moist. Lithic Vitraquands DAEB. 1 unit Cryands Key to Great Groups DCA.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Other Cryands that have. Placaquands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. moist. Typic Vitraquands Placaquands Key to Subgroups DACA. Thaptic Vitraquands DAEE. and 2. Lithic Placaquands DACB. p. whichever is shallower. Histic Placaquands DACE. Other Melanaquands that have more than 6. Duric Vitraquands DAEC. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Other Placaquands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Duricryands. Duric Placaquands DACD. Other Melanaquands. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Typic Placaquands Vitraquands Key to Subgroups DAEA. throughout either: 1. A histic epipedon. Thaptic Placaquands DACF. whichever is shallower. Cryands that have. Other Placaquands that have a histic epipedon. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. whichever is shallower. Histic Vitraquands DAED. Pachic Melanaquands DAFF. Duric Histic Placaquands DACC. One or more layers with a total thickness of 35 cm between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic . Other Vitraquands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. on undried samples. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower.80 Keys to Soil Taxonomy DAFE. Thaptic Melanaquands DAFG. whichever is shallower. 81 DCB.

Other Fulvicryands that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction . or 30 or more cumulative days. lithic. moist. if there is no densic. Haplocryands.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic properties. Fulvicryands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Duricryands that are saturated with water in one or more layers above the cemented horizon in normal years for either or both: 1. Fulvicryands that have a folistic epipedon. duripan. No horizons with more than 2. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. lithic. p. and a densic. Oxyaquic Duricryands DCAD. or 2. whichever is shallower. in some subhorizon at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Eutric Oxyaquic Duricryands A N D DCD. Typic Duricryands Duricryands Key to Subgroups DCAA. Duricryands that have.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from 2. Vitricryands.Andisols 81 layer with andic soil properties. or paralithic contact. a duripan. lithic. p. Melanocryands. whichever is shallower. 82 DCAC. 2. 81 DCE. or paralithic contact. 83 DCC. 83 DCF. or paralithic contact. b. or 3. Other Duricryands that have both: 1. Within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. p. lithic. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Other Cryands that have a melanic epipedon. and a densic. if there is no densic.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic properties. Other Cryands that have a layer that meets the depth. whichever is shallower. or 30 or more cumulative days. or paralithic contact. and 2. a duripan. Lithic Fulvicryands DCDB. p. thickness. Other Duricryands. 60 percent or more of the horizon thickness between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. or Fulvicryands Key to Subgroups DCDA. 20 or more consecutive days. and organic-carbon requirements for a melanic epipedon. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Saturation with water in one or more layers above the cemented horizon in normal years for either or both: a. whichever is shallower. p. 83 to alpha. duripan. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. A color value. or a petrocalcic horizon. Hydrocryands. 20 or more consecutive days. No horizons with more than 2. Aquic Duricryands DCAB. Other Duricryands that have no horizons with more than 2. Other Cryands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Other Cryands. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. or a petrocalcic horizon. Folistic Fulvicryands DCDC. Eutric Duricryands DCAE.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. or 2. Fulvicryands. and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

More than 6. whichever is shallower: 1. Pachic Fulvicryands DCDF. Lithic Haplocryands DCFB. Other Fulvicryands that have. whichever is shallower.0 percent organic carbon. whichever is shallower. or 30 or more cumulative days. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. Folistic Haplocryands DCFC. throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic properties. 20 or more consecutive days. by weighted average.0 percent organic carbon in all parts. whichever is shallower: a. Other Haplocryands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Eutric Pachic Fulvicryands soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. More than 4. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Other Haplocryands that are saturated with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Haplocryands that have more than 2. Typic Fulvicryands Haplocryands Key to Subgroups DCFA. whichever is shallower. at a depth between 25 DCDD. Aquic Haplocryands DCFD. Other Haplocryands that have.0 percent organic carbon. Haplocryands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Spodic Haplocryands DCFG. More than 6. whichever is shallower. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Vitric Haplocryands DCFI. and b. Vitric Fulvicryands DCDG. Other Haplocryands that have.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. in some subhorizon at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral . or 2. Other Haplocryands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. Eutric Fulvicryands DCDE. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent.0 percent organic carbon in all parts. Other Fulvicryands that have no horizons with more than 2. Other Fulvicryands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Alic Haplocryands DCFF.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic properties. by weighted average. and 2.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A color value. moist. Other Haplocryands that have a folistic epipedon. Acrudoxic Haplocryands DCFH. whichever is shallower. or 3. Other Haplocryands that have an albic horizon overlying a cambic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon or have a spodic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Other Fulvicryands. Oxyaquic Haplocryands DCFE. More than 4. and 2. whichever is shallower. 2. whichever is shallower.82 Keys to Soil Taxonomy the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic properties.

Typic Hydrocryands Melanocryands Key to Subgroups DCCA. or 3. moist. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Typic Melanocryands A N D Hydrocryands Key to Subgroups DCBA. or 3. Aquic Hydrocryands DCBD. or 2. Xeric Haplocryands DCFK. Melanocryands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer that has andic soil properties. A color value. Lithic Vitricryands DCEB. Other Hydrocryands that have. Other Melanocryands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Lithic Hydrocryands DCBB. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. whichever is shallower.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. whichever is shallower. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Hydrocryands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. whichever is shallower. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. 1 unit Vitricryands Key to Subgroups DCEA. Vitric Melanocryands DCCC. Typic Haplocryands or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Folistic Vitricryands DCEC. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. Other Hydrocryands. Other Haplocryands that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Other Hydrocryands that have.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Other Vitricryands that have a folistic epipedon. Other Vitricryands that have. whichever is shallower.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated.Andisols 83 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. whichever is shallower. or 2. whichever is shallower. moist. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Aquic Vitricryands . Vitricryands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer that has andic soil properties. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Lithic Melanocryands DCCB. Thaptic Hydrocryands DCBE. Other Melanocryands. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Thaptic Haplocryands DCFJ. moist. A color value. moist. Placic Hydrocryands DCBC. Other Haplocryands. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Hydrocryands that have a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

Other Torrands. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. and 2. p. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Xeric Vitricryands DCEI. on air-dried samples. Humic Vitrigelands DBAB. Alfic Vitricryands DCEK. Ultic Vitricryands DCEJ. Torrands that have. Other Vitricryands that have a mollic or umbric epipedon. or a petrocalcic horizon. Other Vitricryands that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. Thaptic Vitricryands DCEG. Other Vitricryands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Torrands that have. Within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. 85 DDC. Humic Vitricryands DCEL. or paralithic contact.84 Keys to Soil Taxonomy DCED. whichever is shallower. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. 20 or more consecutive days. p. Other Vitricryands. a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. Turbic Vitrigelands DBAC. 2. Petrocalcic Duritorrands DDAB. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm or throughout the entire argillic or kandic horizon if it is less than 50 cm thick. whichever is shallower. and a densic. Other Duritorrands that have. or paralithic contact. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower. a . duripan. in 75 percent or more of each pedon. 85 Duritorrands Key to Subgroups DDAA. Humic Xeric Vitricryands DCEH. Duritorrands that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. a duripan. Other Vitrigelands that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Vitricryands that have a xeric soil moisture regime and a mollic or umbric epipedon. Haplotorrands. Other Vitrigelands. Duritorrands. 84 Key to Subgroups DBAA. Other Vitricryands that have. Vitrigelands. Typic Vitricryands Gelands Key to Great Groups DBA. on air-dried samples. Spodic Vitricryands DCEF. or 2. whichever is shallower. All Gelands are considered Vitrigelands. Typic Vitrigelands Torrands Key to Great Groups DDA. Vitrigelands that have a mollic or umbric epipedon. Other Vitricryands that have both: 1. Oxyaquic Vitricryands DCEE. Other Vitricryands that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Other Vitricryands that have an albic horizon overlying a cambic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon or have a spodic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon. Vitritorrands. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. 84 DDB. lithic. or 30 or more cumulative days. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist. p. if there is no densic. lithic.

Duric Vitritorrands DDBC. or paralithic contact. if there is no paralithic contact or duripan within that depth. Other Haplotorrands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haplotorrands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 90 DHD. and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. throughout either: 1. a 1500 kPa water retention of 100 percent or more. duripan. p. Other Haplotorrands that have a calcic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hydrudands.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. on undried samples. Vitric Duritorrands DDAC. Fulvudands. Other Haplotorrands. Other Vitritorrands that have a calcic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Haplotorrands DDCB. Typic Haplotorrands Udands Key to Great Groups DHA. Duric Haplotorrands DDCC. p. whichever is shallower. a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. 86 Vitritorrands Key to Subgroups DDBA. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. or a petrocalcic horizon. Udands that have. Melanudands. lithic.Andisols 85 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. whichever is shallower. Other Vitritorrands. or 2. in 75 percent or more of each pedon. lithic. Vitritorrands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Vitritorrands that have. and a point 60 cm below that depth. A color value. or 3. or paralithic contact. One or more layers with a total thickness of 35 cm between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Durudands. Aquic Vitritorrands DDBD. 89 DHE. or 2. Other Udands that have. in half or more of each pedon. Typic Vitritorrands A N D Haplotorrands Key to Subgroups DDCA. Lithic Vitritorrands DDBB. whichever is shallower. p. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Udands that have. Typic Duritorrands more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. thickness. 86 DHC. if there is no densic. Other Vitritorrands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Haplotorrands DDCD. by weighted average. 60 percent or more of the horizon thickness between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. and organic-carbon requirements for a melanic epipedon. Other Udands that have a melanic epipedon. Placudands. p. of 4 or more and 50 percent or . whichever is shallower. and a paralithic contact or a duripan. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Other Duritorrands. a duripan. 91 DHB. and a densic. Other Udands that have a layer that meets the depth. Calcic Vitritorrands DDBE. whichever is shallower. or 2. moist. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

on undried samples. A color value. or 2. Other Durudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. whichever is shallower. Acrudoxic Durudands DHBD. Other Fulvudands that have a sum of extractable bases Durudands Key to Subgroups DHBA. Other Durudands that have.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic properties. and the cemented horizon. Other Durudands that have no horizons with more than 2.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. 2. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. whichever is shallower. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. whichever is shallower. 87 Fulvudands Key to Subgroups DHEA. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. or 2. and 2. Durudands that have. on undried samples. whichever is shallower. Other Fulvudands that have.86 Keys to Soil Taxonomy DHF. Hydric Durudands DHBE. Pachic Durudands DHBF. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick above the cemented horizon. Aquic Durudands DHBB. moist. in one or more horizons above the cemented horizon. Aquic Fulvudands DHED. Other Fulvudands that have. Hapludands. A color value. Typic Durudands . aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. 20 or more consecutive days. Lithic Fulvudands DHEC.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Fulvudands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist. Eutric Durudands DHBC. whichever is shallower. Other Udands. Fulvudands that have both: 1. Other Durudands. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 3. whichever is shallower. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. and the lithic contact. Eutric Lithic Fulvudands DHEB.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 cm from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. or 30 or more cumulative days. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. whichever is shallower. Other Durudands that have more than 6. Hydric Fulvudands DHEF. or 3. Oxyaquic Fulvudands DHEE. Other Fulvudands that are saturated with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. No horizons with more than 2.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

Other Fulvudands that have both: 1. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral A N D DHEI.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Eutric Fulvudands DHEJ. Other Hapludands that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or b. or c. Other Hapludands that have. More than 4. moist. by weighted average.0 percent organic carbon in all parts. and b. whichever is shallower. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: a.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower.Andisols 87 (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. Throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. No horizons with more than 2. Eutric Pachic Fulvudands Hapludands Key to Subgroups DHFA. Pachic Fulvudands DHEK. whichever is shallower: 1. whichever is shallower. Lithic Hapludands DHFB. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. whichever is shallower. Other Fulvudands. More than 6. More than 4. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Aquic Duric Hapludands DHFD. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Hapludands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 percent organic carbon in all parts. Other Fulvudands that have. and 2. at a depth between 40 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the . a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Anthraquic Hapludands DHFC. throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Duric Hapludands DHFE. Typic Fulvudands 1. by weighted average. whichever is shallower: a. Other Fulvudands that have no horizons with more than 2. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated.0 percent organic carbon. and 2. whichever is shallower. A color value.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction and with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Hapludands that have both: 1.0 percent organic carbon. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Fulvudands that have. whichever is shallower. and 2. Other Fulvudands that have both: top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Thaptic Fulvudands DHEL. In one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. and 2. Other Hapludands that have anthraquic conditions.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Ultic Fulvudands DHEH. More than 6. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist. Acrudoxic Fulvudands DHEG. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon.

A color value. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. Other Hapludands that are saturated with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. moist. Other Hapludands that have both: 2. Vitric Hapludands DHFM. 20 or more consecutive days. An argillic or kandic horizon that has both: a. whichever is shallower.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. or 2. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. A layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Other Hapludands that have both: 1.0 percent organic carbon and 1.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. 2. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. and 2. Other Hapludands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more. Oxyaquic Hapludands DHFG.0 cmol(+)/kg Al3+ (by 1N KCl) in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. both: 1. whichever is shallower. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. moist. Other Hapludands that have. On undried samples. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Hapludands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. Acrudoxic Hydric Hapludands DHFI.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. or 30 or more cumulative days. and b.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Acrudoxic Thaptic Hapludands DHFJ. or 3. whichever is shallower. An upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. On undried samples. whichever is shallower. Aquic Hapludands DHFF. whichever is shallower. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Acrudoxic Ultic Hapludands DHFK. and 2. Alic Hapludands DHFH.88 Keys to Soil Taxonomy soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. and . and 2. whichever is shallower. Other Hapludands that have both: 1. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Acrudoxic Hapludands DHFL. Other Hapludands that have more than 2. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout its upper 50 cm. whichever is shallower. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. At a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2.

Hydric Thaptic Hapludands DHFN. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. whichever is shallower. Other Hapludands that have both: DHFS. or 2. Eutric Thaptic Hapludands DHFP. Other Hapludands that have both: 1. Typic Hapludands 1.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 75 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. and 2. Other Hapludands that have. Other Hydrudands that have. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. A color value. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 2 percent or more redox concentrations.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. A layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower. and 2. Aquic Hydrudands DHDC. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. and 2. Other Hydrudands that have. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower. Other Hapludands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) of more than 25. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. At a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. moist. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. Hydric Hapludands DHFO. Alfic Hapludands DHFU.Andisols 89 the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. whichever is shallower. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) of more than 25. moist. moist. Thaptic Hapludands DHFQ. Ultic Hapludands DHFT.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3.0 . Hydrudands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Oxic Hapludands A N D Hydrudands Key to Subgroups DHDA.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Lithic Hydrudands DHDB. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. moist. Other Hapludands that have an oxic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. on undried samples. Other Hapludands. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 75 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. both: 1. Other Hapludands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 3. whichever is shallower. Eutric Hapludands DHFR. whichever is shallower. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Other Hapludands that have. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value.

a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 75 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. On undried samples. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. whichever is shallower. Other Melanudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. and 2. whichever is shallower. Other Hydrudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) of more than 25. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. whichever is shallower. Other Hydrudands. and 2. Acrudoxic Hydrudands DHDE. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. whichever is shallower. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. moist. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Melanudands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer that has andic soil properties.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanudands that have both: 1. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Anthraquic Melanudands DHCC. moist.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanudands that have. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. whichever is shallower. Lithic Melanudands . Other Melanudands that have both: 1.90 Keys to Soil Taxonomy percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. A 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Aquic Melanudands DHCD. Other Hydrudands that have both: DHCB. and 2. or 2. Typic Hydrudands Melanudands Key to Subgroups DHCA.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Thaptic Hydrudands DHDF. Other Hydrudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Ultic Hydrudands DHDH. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. A color value. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Acrudoxic Vitric Melanudands DHCE.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fineearth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanudands that have anthraquic conditions. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Acrudoxic Thaptic Hydrudands DHDD. whichever is shallower. Other Hydrudands that have. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon. Eutric Hydrudands DHDG. whichever is shallower.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth 1. moist. or 3. Acrudoxic Hydric Melanudands DHCF. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 2.

A color value. whichever is shallower. Other Melanudands that have more than 6. at a depth between 40 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Lithic Placudands DHAB.Andisols 91 between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanudands that have both: soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Hydric Pachic Melanudands DHCJ. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Placudands that have. whichever is shallower. Other Melanudands that have. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Typic Melanudands A N D 1. or 2. Other Melanudands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. on undried samples.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Other Melanudands that have both: 1. Other Melanudands that have both: 1. Thaptic Melanudands DHCM.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. More than 6. Pachic Vitric Melanudands DHCH. On undried samples. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. and 2. Placudands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer that has andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. More than 6. Other Melanudands. whichever is shallower. Eutric Melanudands DHCO. and the placic horizon. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. Vitric Melanudands DHCI. moist. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Melanudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) of more than 25. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. whichever is shallower. of 4 or more and 50 percent or . whichever is shallower. A 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Pachic Melanudands DHCK. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. and 2. Hydric Melanudands DHCL. and 2. Ultic Melanudands DHCN.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more at a depth between 25 and 75 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral Placudands Key to Subgroups DHAA. Other Melanudands that have. Acrudoxic Melanudands DHCG. moist.

Other Placudands. Typic Durustands Haplustands Key to Subgroups DGBA. Other Ustands. Durustands. 2 percent or more redox concentrations.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. in 75 percent or more of each pedon. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Other Haplustands that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. Aquic Durustands DGAB. whichever is shallower. 92 Durustands Key to Subgroups DGAA. a 1500 kPa water retention of 70 percent or more throughout a layer 35 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Haplustands that have. whichever is shallower. A color value.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. whichever is shallower. p.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 60 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 2. or 3. Thaptic Durustands DGAC. Ustands that have. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. and 2. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. A color value. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. p. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 3. Humic Durustands DGAD. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction .92 Keys to Soil Taxonomy more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. Other Durustands that have. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction of one or more horizons with a total thickness of 30 cm or more at a depth between 25 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. moist. or umbric epipedon. Typic Placudands to alpha. on undried samples. whichever is shallower. and the placic horizon. mollic. whichever is shallower. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Haplustands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or Ustands Key to Great Groups DGA. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. A sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KClextractable Al3+ totaling less than 15. Other Durustands. or 3. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Durustands that have. moist. Hydric Placudands DHAE. 92 DGB. moist. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Other Placudands that have. Lithic Haplustands DGBB. Other Placudands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 2. Haplustands. whichever is shallower. Acrudoxic Placudands DHAD. Aquic Placudands DHAC. Aquic Haplustands DGBC. Other Durustands that have a melanic. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower.

Other Haplustands that have a calcic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Vitrands that have an ustic soil moisture regime. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. p.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Other Udivitrands that have. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Ultic Haplustands DGBK. Udivitrands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Thaptic Haplustands DGBG. A color value.0 cmol(+)/kg in the fine-earth fraction throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 60 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Pachic Haplustands DGBF. Humic Haplustands DGBM. Other Vitrands. whichever is shallower. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Udivitrands. 93 Udivitrands Key to Subgroups DFBA. whichever is shallower.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Dystric Haplustands DGBI. Calcic Haplustands DGBH. and 2. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. or 3. whichever is shallower. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. A 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Haplustands that have more than 6. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. mollic. Alfic Haplustands DGBL. whichever is shallower. Other Haplustands that have both: 1. Other Haplustands that have a melanic. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. Other Haplustands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm or throughout the entire argillic or kandic horizon if it is less than 50 cm thick. Other Haplustands. whichever is shallower. Dystric Vitric Haplustands DGBD. Ustivitrands. Other Haplustands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout one or more layers that have andic soil properties and have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Oxic Haplustands DGBJ. whichever is shallower. or umbric epipedon. Other Haplustands that have an oxic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.Andisols 93 2. moist. Aquic Udivitrands . moist. Lithic Udivitrands DFBB. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. 94 DFB. or 2. whichever is shallower. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Typic Haplustands A N D Vitrands Key to Great Groups DFA. Other Haplustands that have a sum of extractable bases (by NH4OAc) plus 1N KCl-extractable Al3+ totaling less than 15. Other Haplustands that have. Vitric Haplustands DGBE.

Other Udivitrands that are saturated with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. if there is no densic. or paralithic contact. mollic. or umbric epipedon. moist. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. whichever is shallower. and a densic. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Udivitrands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. aquic conditions for some . a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. Xerands that have a 1500 kPa water retention of less than 15 percent on air-dried samples and less than 30 percent on undried samples throughout 60 percent or more of the thickness either: 1. Alfic Udivitrands DFBG. and 2. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon. Other Ustivitrands. Typic Ustivitrands 1.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. 20 or more consecutive days. Humic Udivitrands DFBH. Aquic Ustivitrands DFAC. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. whichever is shallower. Ultic Udivitrands DFBF. Vitrixerands. Other Udivitrands that have both: time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. or 3. Other Ustivitrands that have a melanic. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Humic Ustivitrands DFAF. or umbric epipedon. 2. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or paralithic contact. Calcic Ustivitrands DFAE. duripan. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Lithic Ustivitrands DFAB. moist. whichever is shallower. 95 Ustivitrands Key to Subgroups DFAA. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. Other Ustivitrands that have. or 2. Other Udivitrands. mollic. a duripan. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. lithic.94 Keys to Soil Taxonomy DFBC. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Udivitrands that have a melanic. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. p.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Thaptic Udivitrands DFBE. Typic Udivitrands Xerands Key to Great Groups DEA. or 2. lithic. Ustivitrands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Between the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or petrocalcic horizon within that depth. Within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Ustivitrands that have. Other Udivitrands that have. A color value. Thaptic Ustivitrands DFAD. Oxyaquic Udivitrands DFBD. or a petrocalcic horizon. whichever is shallower. moist. whichever is shallower. Other Ustivitrands that have a calcic horizon within 125 cm of the soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

whichever is shallower. Other Haploxerands. Thaptic Haploxerands DECD. or 2. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. moist. or . Other Melanoxerands. moist. Other Haploxerands that have a calcic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 1. p. Alfic Humic Haploxerands DECG. and 2. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. whichever is shallower. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Typic Melanoxerands Vitrixerands Key to Subgroups DEAA. A color value. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. of 4 or more and 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less either in redox depletions on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent. Other Xerands that have a melanic epipedon. Haploxerands Key to Subgroups DECA. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. Other Haploxerands that have a mollic or umbric epipedon. Vitrixerands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. or 3.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. whichever is shallower. Melanoxerands that have more than 6. whichever is shallower. A mollic or umbric epipedon. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. Melanoxerands.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. Typic Haploxerands A N D DEC. Other Haploxerands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm of the argillic or kandic horizon. Haploxerands that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Other Haploxerands that have. Other Haploxerands that have both: 1. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. A color value. Lithic Vitrixerands DEAB. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Pachic Melanoxerands DEBB. Calcic Haploxerands DECE. 95 DECF. Haploxerands. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. Ultic Haploxerands 2. Alfic Haploxerands DECH. whichever is shallower. 2 percent or more redox concentrations. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm either from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. p. Lithic Haploxerands DECB.Andisols 95 DEB. 95 Other Xerands. Aquic Haploxerands DECC. and 2. moist. Other Haploxerands that have. Other Haploxerands that have both: Melanoxerands Key to Subgroups DEBA. Humic Haploxerands DECI. Other Vitrixerands that have.

Typic Vitrixerands . Alfic Humic Vitrixerands DEAE. mollic. or umbric epipedon. whichever is shallower. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Other Vitrixerands that have both: 1. Other Vitrixerands that have. and 2. whichever is shallower. Other Vitrixerands that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent throughout the upper 50 cm or throughout the entire argillic or kandic horizon if it is less than 50 cm thick. Other Vitrixerands that have both: 1. underlying one or more horizons with a total thickness of 10 cm or more that have a color value. Humic Vitrixerands DEAH. Thaptic Vitrixerands DEAD. mollic.96 3. and 2. Ultic Vitrixerands DEAF. Other Vitrixerands. A melanic. whichever is shallower. at a depth between 25 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or from the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. a layer 10 cm or more thick with more than 3. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Vitrixerands that have a melanic. 1 unit or more higher and an organic-carbon content 1 percent or more (absolute) lower. An argillic or kandic horizon within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Aquic Vitrixerands DEAC. whichever is shallower. Alfic Vitrixerands DEAG.0 percent organic carbon and the colors of a mollic epipedon throughout. or umbric epipedon.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. moist.

p. 105 GG. Cryids. and that has. Hue of 7. p. Other Argids that have a natric horizon. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Gypsids. Calciargids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Durids. p. p. 115 GD. and 2. p. lithic. Gypsiargids. or paralithic contact if shallower. Calcids. 122 GC. Haplargids. Petroargids. Hue of 7. Other Aridisols that have a salic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Salids. in 50 percent or more of the matrix in some part between 100 and 150 cm. Natrargids. Cambids. is dry in Argids Key to Great Groups GEA. Aridisols that have a cryic soil temperature regime. 112 GB. in normal years.5 cm either within the argillic horizon or at its upper boundary. 108 1. A moisture control section that. 99 GEE. Other Aridisols that have a duripan within 100 cm of the soil surface. lithic. p. 97 GF. Other Argids that do not have a densic. 102 GEC.5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more. of 3 or less and value. Argids. Other Aridisols that have a calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. 118 GE. Argids that have a duripan or a petrocalcic or petrogypsic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. or 2. Other Argids that have a gypsic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface.5YR or redder and value. Other Aridisols that have a gypsic or petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface and do not have a petrocalcic horizon overlying these horizons. or b. Other Argids that have a calcic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. p. 97 GEF. or b. A clay increase of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Argids. that does not have a clay decrease with increasing depth of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content. Other Aridisols. 100 A R I Calciargids Key to Subgroups GEEA. moist. p. Calciargids. Lithic Calciargids GEEB. p. An argillic horizon that extends to 150 cm or more from the soil surface. One or both of the following: a. p. Paleargids. either: a. of 4 or less. Other Calciargids that have both: 1. p. 104 GED. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface and have either: . Other Aridisols that have an argillic or natric horizon and do not have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. dry. 105 GEB. p.97 CHAPTER 7 Aridisols Key to Suborders GA. p.

is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A linear extensibility of 6. lithic. is dry in . or b. Durinodic Xeric Calciargids GEEI. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Vertic Calciargids GEEE. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Durinodic Calciargids GEEJ. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A moisture control section that. Arenic Ustic Calciargids GEEG. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. in normal years. A moisture control section that. or paralithic contact if shallower. A moisture control section that. Other Calciargids that have one or both of the following: 1. or 2. Arenic Calciargids GEEH. Have a moisture control section that. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. One or both of the following: a.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Other Calciargids that have one or more horizons. and 2. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or paralithic contact if shallower. Other Calciargids that are either: 1. One or more horizons. Petronodic Xeric Calciargids GEEK. Aquic Calciargids GEEF. in normal years. in normal years.98 Keys to Soil Taxonomy all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. in normal years. and 2. in normal years. Other Calciargids that have both: 1. Other Calciargids that: is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A moisture control section that. Xerertic Calciargids GEEC. lithic. Other Calciargids that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. and 2. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. and 2. One or more horizons.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 1. Ustertic Calciargids GEED. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. A linear extensibility of 6. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. and 2. or 2. Other Calciargids that have both: 1. Other Calciargids that have both: 1. One or more horizons. Other Calciargids that have both: 1.

Vitrandic Calciargids GEEO. or b. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. that either contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Petronodic Calciargids GEEM. in normal years.02 to 2. Other Calciargids that.Aridisols 99 all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic Petronodic Ustic Calciargids GEEL. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or 2. and pumicelike fragments. pumice. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Typic Calciargids Gypsiargids Key to Subgroups GEDA. one or both of the following: a. in normal years. are dry in all .0 mm in diameter. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. one or both of the following: a.0 mm in diameter. one or both of the following: A R I 1.0 mm. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Gypsiargids that have one or more horizons. Other Calciargids that. Other Gypsiargids that have both: 1.0 mm. and 2. Other Calciargids that have both: parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and pumicelike fragments. A moisture control section that. Other Calciargids. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Vitrixerandic Calciargids GEEN. in normal years. in normal years. Aquic Gypsiargids GEDB. and pumicelike fragments. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm in diameter. Other Calciargids that have one or more horizons. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.02 to 2.02 to 2. Other Gypsiargids that have. Other Calciargids that have. one or both of the following: 1. A moisture control section that. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Xeric Calciargids GEEP. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. pumice. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Vitrixerandic Gypsiargids GEDD. Ustic Calciargids GEEQ. or b. and 2. Durinodic Gypsiargids GEDC. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. pumice. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Gypsiargids that are either: 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface.

Haplargids that have both: 1.02 to 2. Typic Gypsiargids soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or b. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. and pumicelike fragments. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Gypsiargids. A moisture control section that. in normal years. and 2. and 2. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. Lithic Ustic Haplargids GEFD.100 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1. in normal years. Lithic Xeric Haplargids GEFC. Other Haplargids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. or b. or paralithic contact if shallower. A linear extensibility of 6. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. lithic. or paralithic contact if shallower.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Lithic Ruptic-Entic Haplargids GEFB. in normal years. Xeric Gypsiargids GEDF. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the . is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Gypsiargids GEDG. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Haplargids that have one or both of the following: 1. or 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Haplargids GEFE. and 2. in normal years. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. One or both of the following: a. Other Gypsiargids that. One or both of the following: a.0 mm. Vitrandic Gypsiargids GEDE. Other Gypsiargids that. or Haplargids Key to Subgroups GEFA. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. and 2. lithic. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Xerertic Haplargids GEFF. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in normal years. A moisture control section that. Ustertic Haplargids GEFG.0 mm in diameter. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that. in normal years. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. An argillic horizon that is discontinuous throughout each pedon. pumice. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. and 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface.

in normal years. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Arenic Ustic Haplargids GEFJ. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. in normal years. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Arenic Haplargids GEFK. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm. Other Haplargids that have both: .0 mm.0 mm in diameter. one or both of the following: 1. A moisture control section that. Vitrandic Haplargids GEFQ. A moisture control section that. Aquic Haplargids GEFI. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Other Haplargids that. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. one or both of the following: a. and 2.0 mm in diameter. Other Haplargids that have one or more horizons. or 2. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths A R I 1. in normal years. Petronodic Ustic Haplargids GEFN.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Durinodic Xeric Haplargids GEFL. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. in normal years. Other Haplargids that are either: 1. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Durinodic Haplargids GEFM. Other Haplargids that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. Other Haplargids that have. in normal years. Have a moisture control section that. Vitrixerandic Haplargids GEFP. One or more horizons. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplargids that: 1. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. or paralithic contact if shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. and pumicelike fragments. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. and 2.02 to 2. and 2. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. pumice. A linear extensibility of 6. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Petronodic Haplargids GEFO.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. pumice. Other Haplargids that have both: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.Aridisols 101 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Vertic Haplargids GEFH. or 2. Other Haplargids that have one or more horizons. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. or b. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. and 2. One or more horizons. lithic.

0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. lithic. Other Natrargids that: 1. In normal years. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or paralithic contact. Other Haplargids. in normal years. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. Vertic Natrargids GEBG. In normal years. whichever is shallower. Other Natrargids that are either: 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. lithic. A moisture control section that. Ustic Haplargids GEFS. Lithic Ustic Natrargids GEBC. Xerertic Natrargids GEBE. and 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Natrargids that have both: 1. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. or b. One or more horizons. A moisture control section that. whichever is shallower. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in most years and slickensides or wedge- . is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 2.102 Keys to Soil Taxonomy of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Typic Haplargids shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. or b. Other Natrargids that: 1. or paralithic contact. Other Natrargids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Natrargids that have one or both of the following: 1. and 2. Lithic Xeric Natrargids GEBB. Aquic Natrargids GEBH. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Natrargids that have both: 1. in normal years. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in most years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Other Natrargids that have both: 1. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustertic Natrargids GEBF. Xeric Haplargids GEFR. and 2. or paralithic contact. or 2. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are Natrargids Key to Subgroups GEBA. A linear extensibility of 6. Have one or both of the following: a. or 2. in normal years. Have one or both of the following: a. lithic. Lithic Natrargids GEBD. Other Haplargids that.

is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A moisture control section that. Durinodic Xeric Natrargids GEBI. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Petronodic Natrargids GEBK. in normal years. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Skeletans covering 10 percent or more of the surfaces of peds at a depth of 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Other Natrargids that have both: 1. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass.Aridisols 103 brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. pumice. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. pumice. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. A moisture control section that. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth A R I 1. one or both of the following: a. in normal years. and 2. in normal years. Xeric Natrargids GEBR.02 to 2. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A moisture control section that. An exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 (or an SAR of less than 13) in 50 percent or more of the natric horizon. and 2. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Haplic Ustic Natrargids GEBM. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric.5 cm or more below the upper boundary of the natric horizon. Other Natrargids that. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Other Natrargids that have. Vitrixerandic Natrargids GEBP. and pumicelike fragments. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the . in normal years. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and 2. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Natrargids that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 (or an SAR of less than 13) in 50 percent or more of the natric horizon. Other Natrargids that have both: 1. one or both of the following: 1.02 to 2. An exchangeable sodium percentage of less than 15 (or an SAR of less than 13) in 50 percent or more of the natric horizon. Other Natrargids that have one or more horizons. Other Natrargids that have both: 1. Vitrandic Natrargids GEBQ. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. or b. and 2. Durinodic Natrargids GEBJ. or 2.0 mm in diameter. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Natrargids that. in normal years. and 2.0 mm. Glossic Ustic Natrargids GEBL. in normal years. in normal years. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A moisture control section that. Other Natrargids that have one or more horizons.0 mm in diameter. and pumicelike fragments. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Haploxeralfic Natrargids GEBN. A moisture control section that. Other Natrargids that have both: soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Haplic Natrargids GEBO. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.

A moisture control section that. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Paleargids that are either: 1. One or more horizons.5 cm or more below the upper boundary of the natric horizon. Other Paleargids that have a calcic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. and 2. and 2. Vertic Paleargids GECB. Ustic Natrargids GEBS. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Typic Natrargids GECE. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Other Paleargids that have both: 1. in normal years. and 2. and 2. Other Paleargids that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. in normal years. in normal years. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. or 2. One or more horizons. Durinodic Paleargids GECH. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Calcic Paleargids GECF. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. in normal years. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Glossic Natrargids GEBT. Other Paleargids that have both: Paleargids Key to Subgroups GECA. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic.104 Keys to Soil Taxonomy of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Paleargids that have one or both of the following: 1. Petronodic Ustic Paleargids GECI. Other Paleargids that have both: 1. one or both of the following: . Other Paleargids that have one or more horizons. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A moisture control section that. lithic. or paralithic contact. Other Natrargids. Arenic Paleargids 1. Arenic Ustic Paleargids GECD. Durinodic Xeric Paleargids GECG. Petronodic Paleargids GECJ. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. Other Natrargids that have skeletans covering 10 percent or more of the surfaces of peds at a depth of 2.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Aquic Paleargids GECC. or 2. Have a moisture control section that. A moisture control section that. Other Paleargids that: 1. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Paleargids that have one or more horizons.

0 mm in diameter. Vitrandic Paleargids GECL. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. 107 GFB. Calcids that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface.02 to 2. pumice. and 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Paleargids that have. A duripan within 150 cm of the soil surface. one or both of the following: 1. Ustic Paleargids GECN. Xeric Paleargids GECM. Petrogypsic Petroargids GEAC.0 mm. Natric Petroargids GEAF. Other Petroargids that have a natric horizon. Haplocalcids. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Typic Paleargids GEAB. A petrogypsic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. Other Petroargids that. in normal years. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Petroargids that. Other Petroargids that have both: 1. Typic Petroargids A R I Calcids Key to Great Groups GFA. p.0 mm. Xeric Petroargids GEAG. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. or 2. Other Paleargids that.0 mm in diameter. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. in normal years. Other Petroargids that have a petrogypsic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Ustic Petroargids GEAH. Petrocalcids. p. and pumicelike fragments. Other Paleargids that. Other Petroargids. Vitrixerandic Paleargids GECK. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. or b. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Petroargids that have both: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2. 105 Petroargids Key to Subgroups GEAA. and 2. in normal years. Duric Petroargids GEAE. in normal years. and pumicelike fragments. Petrogypsic Ustic Petroargids Haplocalcids Key to Subgroups GFBA. Haplocalcids that have both: 1. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Other Paleargids. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. pumice. A moisture control section that. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Calcids. Duric Xeric Petroargids GEAD. Other Petroargids that have a duripan within 150 cm of the soil surface. in normal years. A moisture control section that. and . in normal years. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.Aridisols 105 a.

Aquic Durinodic Haplocalcids GFBF. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Haplocalcids that have a duripan within 150 cm of the soil surface. in normal years. lithic. 1. and 2. and 2. A linear extensibility of 6. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. and 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplocalcids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Are either: a. in normal years. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Lithic Xeric Haplocalcids GFBB.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Duric Haplocalcids GFBI. or 2. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more.106 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. or b. Aquic Haplocalcids GFBG. Other Haplocalcids that have one or more horizons. One or more horizons. whichever is shallower. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Vertic Haplocalcids GFBE. Petronodic Xeric Haplocalcids . that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Have one or more horizons. or paralithic contact. in normal years. One or more horizons. and 2. Other Haplocalcids that have one or both of the following: 1. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Lithic Haplocalcids GFBD. Duric Xeric Haplocalcids GFBH. A moisture control section that. Other Haplocalcids that are either: Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Ustic Haplocalcids GFBC. Durinodic Haplocalcids GFBK. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. or 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that. in normal years. and 2. A moisture control section that. in normal years. Other Haplocalcids that: 1. A moisture control section that. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcids GFBJ. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. A duripan within 150 cm of the soil surface.

0 mm in diameter. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 mm. and 2.02 to 2. in normal years. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) . A horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface that has an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. in a horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Sodic Haplocalcids GFBQ. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. one or both of the following: a. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and 2. Other Haplocalcids that. in normal years. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Xeric Haplocalcids GFBT. and 2. in normal years. in normal years. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplocalcids that have one or more horizons. A horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface that has an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. A moisture control section that. or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic.Aridisols 107 GFBL. pumice. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. Sodic Xeric Haplocalcids GFBO. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A moisture control section that. Vitrandic Haplocalcids GFBS. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. one or both of the following: 1. Typic Haplocalcids A R I Petrocalcids Key to Subgroups GFAA. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Vitrixerandic Haplocalcids GFBR. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. A moisture control section that. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. or b. Petronodic Haplocalcids GFBN. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Petronodic Ustic Haplocalcids GFBM. Other Haplocalcids. Other Haplocalcids that have both: when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm in diameter. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. in normal years. Other Haplocalcids that have. Ustic Haplocalcids GFBU. in normal years. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. pumice. A moisture control section that. Petrocalcids that are either: 1. Other Haplocalcids that. and pumicelike fragments. Other Haplocalcids that have both: 1. Sodic Ustic Haplocalcids GFBP. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions.02 to 2. One or more horizons.0 mm. Other Haplocalcids that have.

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normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface; or 2. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Aquic Petrocalcids GFAB. Other Petrocalcids that have a natric horizon. Natric Petrocalcids

of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Petrocalcids GFAJ. Other Petrocalcids. Typic Petrocalcids

GFAC. Other Petrocalcids that have both: 1. An argillic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeralfic Petrocalcids GFAD. Other Petrocalcids that have both:

Cambids
Key to Great Groups
GGA. Cambids that are either: 1. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface; or 2. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Aquicambids, p. 108 GGB. Other Cambids that have a duripan or a petrocalcic or petrogypsic horizon within 150 cm of the soil surface. Petrocambids, p. 112 GGC. Other Cambids that have an anthropic epipedon. Anthracambids, p. 108 GGD. Other Cambids. Haplocambids, p. 109

1. An argillic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustalfic Petrocalcids GFAE. Other Petrocalcids that have an argillic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Argic Petrocalcids GFAF. Other Petrocalcids that have both:

Anthracambids
Key to Subgroups GGCA. All Anthracambids. Typic Anthracambids

1. A calcic horizon overlying the petrocalcic horizon; and 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Calcic Lithic Petrocalcids GFAG. Other Petrocalcids that have a calcic horizon overlying the petrocalcic horizon. Calcic Petrocalcids GFAH. Other Petrocalcids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Petrocalcids GFAI. Other Petrocalcids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths

Aquicambids
Key to Subgroups GGAA. Aquicambids that have, in a horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface, an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. Sodic Aquicambids GGAB. Other Aquicambids that have both: 1. One or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in

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all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Durinodic Xeric Aquicambids GGAC. Other Aquicambids that have one or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Durinodic Aquicambids GGAD. Other Aquicambids that have one or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Petronodic Aquicambids GGAE. Other Aquicambids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrixerandic Aquicambids GGAF. Other Aquicambids that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrandic Aquicambids

GGAG. Other Aquicambids that have an irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluventic Aquicambids GGAH. Other Aquicambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Aquicambids GGAI. Other Aquicambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Aquicambids GGAJ. Other Aquicambids. Typic Aquicambids

A R I

Haplocambids
Key to Subgroups GGDA. Haplocambids that have both: 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Lithic Xeric Haplocambids GGDB. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Lithic Ustic Haplocambids GGDC. Other Haplocambids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Haplocambids GGDD. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. One or both of the following:

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a. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact if shallower; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xerertic Haplocambids GGDE. 1. Other Haplocambids that have both:

2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Durinodic Xeric Haplocambids GGDH. Other Haplocambids that have one or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Durinodic Haplocambids GGDI. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. One or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Petronodic Xeric Haplocambids GGDJ. Other Haplocambids that have both:

One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact if shallower; and

2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustertic Haplocambids GGDF. Other Haplocambids that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Haplocambids GGDG. Other Haplocambids that have both:

1. One or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Petronodic Ustic Haplocambids GGDK. Other Haplocambids that have one or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) nodules or concretions. Petronodic Haplocambids GGDL. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. A horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface that has an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative)

1. One or more horizons, within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more, that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or are brittle and have at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist; and

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111

when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Sodic Xeric Haplocambids GGDM. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. A horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface that has an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years; and 2. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Sodic Ustic Haplocambids GGDN. Other Haplocambids that have, in a horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface, an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. Sodic Haplocambids GGDO. Other Haplocambids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrixerandic Haplocambids GGDP. Other Haplocambids that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or

more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrandic Haplocambids GGDQ. Other Haplocambids that: 1. In normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Have an irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Xerofluventic Haplocambids GGDR. Other Haplocambids that: 1. In normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic; and 2. Have an irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Ustifluventic Haplocambids GGDS. Other Haplocambids that have an irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluventic Haplocambids GGDT. Other Haplocambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Haplocambids GGDU. Other Haplocambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Haplocambids GGDV. Other Haplocambids. Typic Haplocambids

A R I

112

Keys to Soil Taxonomy

Petrocambids
Key to Subgroups GGBA. Petrocambids that have, in a horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the soil surface, an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. Sodic Petrocambids GGBB. Other Petrocambids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrixerandic Petrocambids GGBC. Other Petrocambids that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrandic Petrocambids GGBD. Other Petrocambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Petrocambids GGBE. Other Petrocambids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-

fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Petrocambids GGBF. Other Petrocambids. Typic Petrocambids

Cryids
Key to Great Groups
GAA. Cryids that have a salic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Salicryids, p. 115 GAB. Other Cryids that have a duripan or a petrocalcic or petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Petrocryids, p. 115 GAC. Other Cryids that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Gypsicryids, p. 114 GAD. Other Cryids that have an argillic or natric horizon. Argicryids, p. 112 GAE. Other Cryids that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Calcicryids, p. 113 GAF. Other Cryids. Haplocryids, p. 114

Argicryids
Key to Subgroups GADA. Argicryids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Argicryids GADB. Other Argicryids that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide throughout a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Argicryids

Aridisols

113

GADC. Other Argicryids that have a natric horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Natric Argicryids GADD. Other Argicryids that have both:

Calcicryids
Key to Subgroups GAEA. Calcicryids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Calcicryids GAEB. Other Calcicryids that have both: 1. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrixerandic Calcicryids GAEC. Other Calcicryids that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrandic Calcicryids GAED. Other Calcicryids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Calcicryids GAEE. Other Calcicryids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Calcicryids

1. A moisture control section that, in normal years, is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric; and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrixerandic Argicryids GADE. Other Argicryids that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter, of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Vitrandic Argicryids GADF. Other Argicryids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Xeric Argicryids GADG. Other Argicryids that, in normal years, are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Ustic Argicryids GADH. Other Argicryids. Typic Argicryids

A R I

or 2. Other Calcicryids. Vitrandic Haplocryids GAFE. Xeric Haplocryids Haplocryids Key to Subgroups GAFA. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and pumicelike fragments. Vitrixerandic Haplocryids GAFD.02 to 2. pumice. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. lithic.0 mm in diameter. in normal years. one or both of the following: 1.114 Keys to Soil Taxonomy GAEF. Gypsicryids that have a calcic horizon. or 2. Lithic Haplocryids .0 mm in diameter. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide throughout a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Haplocryids that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Other Gypsicryids. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A linear extensibility of 6. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric.0 mm. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Other Haplocryids that. pumice. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Haplocryids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface.0 mm. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.02 to 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Typic Calcicryids GAFB. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 mm in diameter. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Vitrandic Gypsicryids GACD. in normal years. Vitrixerandic Gypsicryids GACC. or b. pumice.0 mm. Other Haplocryids that have both: Gypsicryids Key to Subgroups GACA. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Gypsicryids that have both: 1. and pumicelike fragments. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. one or both of the following: a. one or both of the following: 1. and 2. in normal years. Other Gypsicryids that have. Vertic Haplocryids GAFC. Other Haplocryids that have one or both of the following: 1. pumice. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. whichever is shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Typic Gypsicryids 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and pumicelike fragments. A moisture control section that. or 2. A moisture control section that.0 mm. Calcic Gypsicryids GACB.02 to 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and 2.0 mm in diameter. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. one or both of the following: a. or b.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.

A duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons within 100 cm of the soil surface. and 2. Cracks between the soil surface and the top of the duripan that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that is above the duripan. Other Haplocryids. Typic Petrocryids Salicryids Key to Subgroups GAAA. A duripan within 100 cm of the soil surface. Argidurids. A linear extensibility of 6.Aridisols 115 GAFF. Typic Salicryids A R I Petrocryids Key to Subgroups GABA. Salicryids that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Typic Haplocryids of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Duric Petrocryids GABD. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Aquic Salicryids GAAB. Ustic Petrocryids GABG. Xereptic Petrocryids GABB. in normal years. 115 GCC. Haplodurids. Other Petrocryids that have a duripan within 100 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. 117 GCB. in normal years. 116 Argidurids Key to Subgroups GCBA. Other Petrocryids that have a petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Durids that have an argillic horizon above the duripan. Other Petrocryids that. or . Other Argidurids that are either: 1. in normal years. Other Salicryids. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth Durids Key to Great Groups GCA. in normal years. p. Petrocryids that have both: 1. p. A moisture control section that. Argidurids that have one or both of the following: 1. p. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Petrocryids that. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Petrocryids. Other Petrocryids that have both: 1. Durids that have a natric horizon above the duripan. and 2. in normal years. Other Haplocryids that. Vertic Argidurids GCBB.0 cm or more between the soil surface and the top of the duripan. Other Durids. Natridurids. or 2. Petrogypsic Petrocryids GABE. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Ustic Haplocryids GAFG. Duric Xeric Petrocryids GABC. Xeric Petrocryids GABF.

5 cm within the argillic horizon or at its upper boundary. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. pumice. Other Argidurids that have. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. pumice. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) . percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. A clay increase of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2.0 mm in diameter. Aquic Argidurids GCBC. in normal years. A clay increase of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. Other Argidurids that have both: when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Vitrixerandic Argidurids GCBH. a clay increase of 10 percent or more (absolute) at the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Argidurids. in normal years. Other Argidurids that have both: 1. and pumicelike fragments. Typic Argidurids Haplodurids Key to Subgroups GCCA.0 mm in diameter.5 cm either within the argillic horizon or at its upper boundary. If there is an Ap horizon directly above the argillic horizon. and 2.0 mm. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. A duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. An argillic horizon that has 35 percent or more clay in the fine-earth fraction of some part. Abruptic Argidurids GCBE. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric.116 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. Abruptic Xeric Argidurids GCBD. in normal years. and 2. in normal years. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm. a clay increase of 10 percent or more (absolute) at the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. in normal years. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Other Argidurids that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. Vitrandic Argidurids GCBI. A moisture control section that. Haplodurids that meet both of the following: 1. Other Argidurids that. Haploxeralfic Argidurids GCBF. Other Argidurids that have an argillic horizon that has 35 percent or more clay in the fine-earth fraction of some part. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or b. and either 1. and pumicelike fragments. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Argidurids that have both: 1.02 to 2. one or both of the following: a. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Argidurids that.02 to 2. A moisture control section that. Ustic Argidurids GCBK. and either a. If there is an Ap horizon directly above the argillic horizon. or 2. Argidic Argidurids GCBG. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and 2. one or both of the following: 1. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Xeric Argidurids GCBJ. or 2.

and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Haplodurids. and 2. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. and 2. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. Other Haplodurids that have both: Natridurids Key to Subgroups GCAA. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. A duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. Aquicambidic Haplodurids GCCB. one or both of the following: a. Vitrandic Haplodurids GCCG. Vitrixerandic Haplodurids GCCF. Vertic Natridurids GCAB. and pumicelike fragments. and 1. in normal years. Have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. in normal years. or b. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplodurids that. A moisture control section that. A mean annual soil temperature lower than 22 oC. A linear extensibility of 6. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. and 2. or b. Cambidic Haplodurids GCCE. percent . Other Haplodurids that are either: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or 2. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic.0 mm in diameter. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplodurids that have both: extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Haplodurids that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. Other Haplodurids that have. or 2. pumice. or 2.02 to 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Haplodurids that have a mean annual soil temperature lower than 22 oC. Ustic Haplodurids GCCI. Xereptic Haplodurids GCCD.0 cm or more between the soil surface and the top of the duripan. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Cracks between the soil surface and the top of the duripan that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that is above the duripan. Natridurids that have one or both of the following: 1. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Typic Haplodurids A R I 1. Other Natridurids that meet both of the following: 1. a difference of 5 oC or more between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures at a depth of 50 cm.0 mm. Have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. pumice. one or both of the following: 1. a difference of 5 oC or more between mean summer and mean winter soil temperatures at a depth of 50 cm. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 mm.0 mm in diameter. Are either: a. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric.02 to 2.Aridisols 117 1. Xeric Haplodurids GCCH. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Aquic Haplodurids GCCC.

Other Gypsids that have an argillic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Calcigypsids. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Natridurids. Lithic Argigypsids . Typic Natridurids 1. Natrargidic Natridurids GCAF. p. Aquic Natridurids GCAD. Other Natridurids that. Petrogypsids. pumice. and pumicelike fragments. Xeric Natridurids GCAI. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass.02 to 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and 2. Other Natridurids that are either: GCAG. 121 GDB. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Natrigypsids. in normal years. Gypsids that have a petrogypsic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. and 2. one or both of the following: 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Gypsids that have a natric horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. 121 GDC. A moisture control section that. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Argigypsids.0 mm in diameter.02 to 2.0 mm. Other Natridurids that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. A duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. in normal years. pumice. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. p. Other Gypsids. Aquic Natrargidic Natridurids GCAC.118 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2.0 mm. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Argigypsids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. 118 GDD. A moisture control section that. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Other Gypsids that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Natridurids that have both: 1.0 mm in diameter. and pumicelike fragments. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years. in normal years. Other Natridurids that have both: Gypsids Key to Great Groups GDA. 119 GDE. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Natridurids that have. Natrixeralfic Natridurids GCAE. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. 120 1. p. or b. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Haplogypsids. p. p. or 2. or 2. Are either: a. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Vitrandic Natridurids GCAH. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. or b. one or both of the following: a. Irrigated and have aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Vitrixerandic Natridurids Argigypsids Key to Subgroups GDCA. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years.

one or both of the following: 1.0 mm. Lithic Calcigypsids GDDB. or b. or paralithic contact. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. lithic. percent extracted . Other Argigypsids that have.0 mm. Vitrixerandic Calcigypsids 1.Aridisols 119 GDCB.0 mm in diameter. in normal years. Other Calcigypsids that have both: 1.0 mm. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface.02 to 2. one or both of the following: a. Other Argigypsids that have one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or 2. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes. Vitrandic Argigypsids GDCG. A moisture control section that. A linear extensibility of 6. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Petronodic Argigypsids GDCE. Vitrixerandic Argigypsids GDCF. Typic Argigypsids A R I Calcigypsids Key to Subgroups GDDA. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Argigypsids. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. nodules. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Ustic Argigypsids GDCI. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or b. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes.02 to 2. or concretions. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. one or both of the following: a. and 2. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Argigypsids that. Other Argigypsids that have one or more horizons. in normal years. and pumicelike fragments.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. Calcic Argigypsids GDCD. A moisture control section that. Petronodic Calcigypsids GDDC. Other Argigypsids that have a calcic horizon overlying the gypsic horizon. Other Argigypsids that have both: by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 percent or more. Calcigypsids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Calcigypsids that have one or more horizons. nodules. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Xeric Argigypsids GDCH.0 mm in diameter. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. pumice. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or 2. whichever is shallower. pumice. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. and pumicelike fragments. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or concretions. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. in normal years. and 2.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.0 mm in diameter. pumice. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. in normal years. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Vertic Argigypsids GDCC. Other Argigypsids that.

120 Keys to Soil Taxonomy GDDD. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Haplogypsids that. Vitrixerandic Haplogypsids GDEF. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Petronodic Haplogypsids . are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Other Calcigypsids that. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or 2. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. pumice. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Leptic Haplogypsids GDEC. Other Haplogypsids that have one or more horizons. in normal years.0 mm in diameter. Vitrandic Haplogypsids GDEG. Xeric Calcigypsids GDDF. in normal years. one or both of the following: 1. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. nodules.0 mm. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Haplogypsids that have a gypsic horizon within 18 cm of the soil surface. one or both of the following: a. Other Haplogypsids that have both: 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. and pumicelike fragments. Vitrandic Calcigypsids GDDE. and pumicelike fragments. in normal years. Haplogypsids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Lithic Haplogypsids GDEB. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes. Ustic Haplogypsids GDEI. Typic Calcigypsids GDEE. Other Haplogypsids that. Sodic Haplogypsids GDED. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Calcigypsids that have. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.0 mm in diameter. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or an SAR of 13 or more) during at least 1 month in normal years. Other Haplogypsids that have. and pumicelike fragments. Other Haplogypsids that have. pumice. Typic Haplogypsids Haplogypsids Key to Subgroups GDEA. in normal years. and 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface.02 to 2.0 mm. Other Haplogypsids. or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.02 to 2. A moisture control section that. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Calcigypsids. Ustic Calcigypsids GDDG. or concretions. in a horizon at least 25 cm thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Xeric Haplogypsids GDEH. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than threefourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or b.0 mm.02 to 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm 0f the soil surface.0 mm in diameter. pumice. Other Calcigypsids that. one or both of the following: 1. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. in normal years. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric.

of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Calcic Petrogypsids GDAC. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A moisture control section that. or 2. Vitrixerandic Natrigypsids GDBE. Other Natrigypsids that have both: 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. within 100 cm of the soil surface and with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. in normal years. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. or b.02 to 2. Petrogypsids that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. in normal years. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Ustic Natrigypsids GDBH. one or both of the following: 1. Xeric Natrigypsids GDBG. A moisture control section that. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. Other Natrigypsids that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Natrigypsids. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.02 to 2. Other Petrogypsids that have a calcic horizon overlying the petrogypsic horizon. Petrocalcic Petrogypsids GDAB. and pumicelike fragments. or . and 2. Vitrandic Natrigypsids GDBF. or paralithic contact. in normal years.0 mm.0 mm in diameter. whichever is shallower. one or both of the following: a. lithic. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Natrigypsids that. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Natrigypsids that. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. pumice. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Petronodic Natrigypsids GDBD. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. and pumicelike fragments.Aridisols 121 Natrigypsids Key to Subgroups GDBA. percent 1. Typic Natrigypsids A R I Petrogypsids Key to Subgroups GDAA. Other Natrigypsids that have.0 mm in diameter. A linear extensibility of 6. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes. in normal years.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Natrigypsids that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. pumice. or concretions.0 mm. Other Petrogypsids that have both: 1. pumice. one or both of the following: a.02 to 2.0 mm. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass.0 mm in diameter. Other Natrigypsids that have one or more horizons. or b. and pumicelike fragments. Vertic Natrigypsids GDBC. and 2. nodules. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Lithic Natrigypsids GDBB.

Typic Aquisalids Haplosalids Key to Subgroups GBBA. Petrogypsic Haplosalids GBBC. Other Petrogypsids. Xeric Petrogypsids GDAF. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. one or both of the following: 1. p. Other Salids. Other Petrogypsids that. Other Aquisalids that have a calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface.0 mm in diameter. Vitrixerandic Petrogypsids GDAD. Aquisalids. pumice. Other Haplosalids that have a petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. Haplosalids. Other Haplosalids. Duric Haplosalids GBBB. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more.0 mm. Other Aquisalids. p. and pumicelike fragments. Typic Petrogypsids GBB. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Gypsic Haplosalids GBBD. Haplosalids that have a duripan within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Petrogypsids that. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. are dry in all parts of the moisture control section for less than three-fourths of the time (cumulative) when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher and have a soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Other Haplosalids that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Ustic Petrogypsids GDAG. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. in normal years. Salids that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for 1 month or more in normal years.122 extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Aquisalids that have a gypsic or petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface. in normal years. Calcic Haplosalids GBBE. Other Haplosalids that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface.02 to 2. Calcic Aquisalids GBAC. 122 Aquisalids Key to Subgroups GBAA. Other Petrogypsids that have. Gypsic Aquisalids GBAB. 122 . Typic Haplosalids Salids Key to Great Groups GBA. Vitrandic Petrogypsids GDAE.

or 2. or paralithic contact. One or both of the following: a.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. lithic. moist.02 to 2. and chroma of 1. That is warmer than cryic. p. Entisols that have a positive water potential at the soil surface for more than 21 hours of each day in all years. or 3. or b. Aquents. p. of 4 or more. or paralithic contact or in a layer at a depth between 40 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. or (2) Either a slope of less than 5 percent or less than 15 percent volcanic glass in the 0. 138 LE. Other Entisols that have one or more of the following: 1. moist. of 4 or more.0 mm fraction in some part of the particle-size control section. In a layer above a densic. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: a. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. in 50 percent or more of the matrix.123 CHAPTER 8 Entisols Key to Suborders LA. or b. whichever is shallower. lithic. Aquic conditions and sulfidic materials within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 142 LB. or (3) Hue of 10YR or redder. Permanent saturation with water and a reduced matrix in all horizons below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. or b. 5BG. 5G. 128 . or (3) Chroma of 2 or less and redox concentrations. one or more of the following: (1) Chroma of 0. Other Entisols that have. 124 LC. A soil temperature regime: a. 3 percent or more (by volume) fragments of diagnostic horizons that are not arranged in any discernible order. Other Entisols that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers (sandy loam lamellae are permitted) within the particle-size control section. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or paralithic contact within 25 cm of the mineral soil surface and have: 1. 127 LD. in one or more layers at a depth between 25 and 100 cm below the mineral soil surface. That is cryic and the soil has: (1) No gelic materials. p.5Y or yellower and chroma of 1. chroma of 2 or less. or (7) Any color if it results from uncoated sand grains. and distinct or prominent redox concentrations. or (2) Hue of 10YR or redder. or (5) (6) Hue of 2.5Y or yellower. and E N T (2) Chroma of 1 or less and a color value. Enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. and redox concentrations. Wassents. and 3. or Hue of 5GY. or 5B. Other Entisols that do not have a densic. Arents. A texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser and. p. and 2.2 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Fluvents. one or more of the following: (1) Chroma of 0. p. chroma of 3 or less. in 50 percent or more of the matrix. A texture class finer than loamy fine sand and. a color value. or (4) Hue of 2. whichever is shallower. or c. Psamments. A slope of less than 25 percent.

and pumicelike fragments. Other Cryaquents. Endoaquents that have. except that it has a pH value between 3. Other Aquents that have episaturation. and chroma of 2 or more. 125 Other Aquents. In the 0. Orthents.0 mm in diameter. Hue of 2. Aquandic Cryaquents LBDB. Other Aquents that have a gelic soil temperature regime. Other Endoaquents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Aquents that have. 133 Aquents Key to Great Groups LBA. and a depth of 75 cm. Epiaquents. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. whichever is deeper. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has all of the characteristics of a sulfuric horizon.02 to 2. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. p. 125 LBG. one or both of the following: 1. or 2. p. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Gelaquents. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Aquents that have sulfidic materials within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cryaquents. and a. Cryaquents that have.124 Keys to Soil Taxonomy LF. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. a color value. 124 1. colors in 50 percent or more of the matrix as follows: 1. Cryaquents Key to Subgroups LBDA. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Endoaquents that have.2 percent or more. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. a color value. and chroma of 3 or more. in one or more horizons between either the Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 6 or more. p. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. A slope of less than 25 percent. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Endoaquents that have. pumice. p.5 and 4. 126 LBD. p. moist.5Y or redder. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. One or both of the following: a. whichever is shallower.7 and 8 percent or more clay in the fineearth fraction. Fluvaquents. or 2. moist. Typic Cryaquents Endoaquents Key to Subgroups LBHA. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Sulfaquents. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. of 5 or less. or 3. 124 LBH. p. p. p. and b. 127 LBB.02 to 2. Sodic Endoaquents LBHD. Lithic Endoaquents LBHC.5Y or redder. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. in all horizons at a depth between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Entisols. Other Aquents that have both: 1. 126 LBF. or 2. Other Aquents that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Endoaquents. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more) for 6 or more months in normal years.0 g/cm3 or less. or b.0. p. or 3. and 2. 126 LBC. Hydraquents. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Sulfic Endoaquents LBHB.0 mm fraction. one or more of the following: . Hue of 5Y and chroma of 3 or more. Sulfidic materials. or LBE. both an n value of more than 0. Psammaquents. Other Aquents that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers (sandy loam lamellae are permitted) within the particle-size control section.0 and does not have sulfide or other sulfur-bearing minerals. Hue of 2. or paralithic contact.0 mm.

A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Sulfidic materials. Vertic Fluvaquents LBFC. Mollic Epiaquents LBGD. in one or more horizons between either the Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. In the 0. Other Epiaquents.0 and does not have sulfide or other sulfur-bearing minerals. or 3. A linear extensibility of 6. moist.Entisols 125 4. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm fraction.5Y or redder. Thapto-Histic Fluvaquents LBFD. moist. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and a color value. of 5 or less. Hue of 2. moist. one or more of the following: 1. Humaqueptic Endoaquents LBHF. or 2. or 4. a color value. Humaqueptic Epiaquents LBGC. Other Fluvaquents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Epiaquents that have both: 1.0 mm in diameter. of 3 or less and a color value. A color value. and chroma of 2 or more. Other Epiaquents that have a color value. or 2. Other Endoaquents that have a color value. Hue of 5Y and chroma of 3 or more. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing.0 g/cm3 or less. and 2. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing.02 to 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. moist. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Fluvaquents that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 and 4. of 6 or more. Aeric Epiaquents LBGB. or 3. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. dry. Other Fluvaquents that have one or both of the following: 1. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Fluvaquents that have. a color value. and a depth of 75 cm. pumice. or 2.5Y or redder. and pumicelike fragments. of 3 or less and a color value. Hue of 2. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Epiaquents that have. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. 20 cm or more thick. one or both of the following: 1. colors in 50 percent or more of the matrix as follows: 1. moist. Typic Endoaquents Fluvaquents Key to Subgroups LBFA. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and a. dry. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the . and E N T Epiaquents Key to Subgroups LBGA. Hue of 5Y or redder and chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or paralithic contact.0. whichever is shallower. Aeric Endoaquents LBHE.0 mm. dry. A color value. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Sulfic Fluvaquents LBFB. and chroma of 3 or more.02 to 2. of 3 or less and a color value. whichever is deeper. Typic Epiaquents 1. dry. Mollic Endoaquents LBHG. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has all of the characteristics of a sulfuric horizon. Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. except that it has a pH value between 3. Other Endoaquents. lithic. Other Endoaquents that have both: mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. moist. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Spodic Psammaquents LBED. Gelaquents Key to Subgroups LBCA. moist. Other Hydraquents that have. dry. that has one or more of the following: 1. Sulfidic materials. of 5 or less. and chroma of 2 or more. in one or more horizons between either the Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. Aeric Fluvaquents LBFF. or 2.5 and 4. of 3 or less and a color value. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has all of the characteristics of a sulfuric horizon. or 2. 5 cm or more thick. dry. Typic Hydraquents 4. Hue of 5Y and chroma of 3 or more. 20 cm or more thick. and a depth of 75 cm. Typic Fluvaquents Psammaquents Key to Subgroups LBEA. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. Aquandic Fluvaquents LBFE. one or both of the following: . Hue of 2. Sodic Hydraquents LBBC. moist. or 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Hydraquents that have.25 or more. Humaqueptic Fluvaquents LBFG. A color value. Typic Gelaquents Hydraquents Key to Subgroups LBBA. or 3. a color value. Hue of 2. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. moist. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more) for 6 or more months in normal years. moist. of 3 or less and a color value. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Psammaquents that have a horizon. an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio of 13 or more) for 6 or more months in normal years. Mollic Fluvaquents LBFH. Other Hydraquents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials.5Y or redder. Other Psammaquents that have.126 Keys to Soil Taxonomy b. and 2. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Psammaquents that have both: 1. Psammaquents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. A color value. of 6 or more.5Y or redder. and chroma of 3 or more. except that it has a pH value between 3. whichever is deeper. with or without iron. Other Fluvaquents that have both: 1. Sodic Psammaquents LBEC. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. An ODOE value of 0. Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. All Gelaquents. either below an Ap horizon or at a depth of 18 cm or more from the mineral soil surface. whichever is deeper. or 3. moist. Other Fluvaquents that have a color value. or 2. of 3 or less and a color value. colors in 50 percent or more of the matrix as follows: 1. Other Hydraquents. Sulfic Hydraquents LBBB. Other Fluvaquents. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon.0 and does not have sulfide or other sulfur-bearing minerals. dry. Thapto-Histic Hydraquents LBBD.12 or more. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. a color value. Other Fluvaquents that have. Lithic Psammaquents LBEB.

Sodic Torriarents LCCB. Alfic Udarents LCDB. p. Mollic Psammaquents LBEF. All Ustarents. Humaqueptic Psammaquents LBEE. Other Arents that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Histic Sulfaquents LBAC. Other Sulfaquents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. Haplic Torriarents Udarents Key to Subgroups LCDA. 3 percent or more fragments of a natric horizon. 127 LCB. Haplic Ustarents Xerarents Key to Subgroups LCBA. or 2. Xerarents. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udarents. Other Psammaquents. either or both: 1. Less than 8 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. 3 percent or more fragments of a natric horizon. Torriarents that have. LBAB. Udarents. Other Psammaquents that have a color value. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. dry. Other Sulfaquents. p. p. 127 Ustarents Key to Subgroups LCAA. Arents that have an ustic soil moisture regime. 127 LCD. Typic Sulfaquents Arents Key to Great Groups LCA.7 or less. Sulfaquents that have. 3 percent or more fragments of a duripan or a petrocalcic horizon. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Arents that have an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime. 127 LCC. Other Torriarents that have. Xerarents that have. Typic Psammaquents Torriarents Key to Subgroups LCCA. moist. Other Udarents that have 3 percent or more fragments of a mollic epipedon in some horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface and have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in all parts within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Udarents that have 3 percent or more fragments of an argillic horizon in some horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface and have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in all parts within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sodic Xerarents . 20 cm or more thick. Haplic Sulfaquents Other Sulfaquents that have a histic epipedon. Torriarents.Entisols 127 of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. An n value of 0. of 3 or less and a color value. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. in some horizons at a depth between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. Mollic Udarents LCDD. p. Other Arents. Ustarents. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Torriarents. Thapto-Histic Sulfaquents LBAD. Ultic Udarents LCDC. Duric Torriarents LCCC. Other Udarents that have 3 percent or more fragments of an argillic horizon in some horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haplic Udarents E N T Sulfaquents Key to Subgroups LBAA.

5 percent or more volcanic glass. Udifluvents. Typic Gelifluvents Cryofluvents Key to Subgroups LEBA. Other Fluvents that have an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime. Other Cryofluvents that have. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Duric Xerarents LCBC.0 mm. Gelifluvents. Cryofluvents that have. Other Xerarents that have. Other Fluvents that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Fluvents that that have a gelic soil temperature regime. 130 Gelifluvents Key to Subgroups LEAA. and percent aluminum plus 1/2 the iron percentage (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Cryofluvents LEBD. both redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).02 to 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cryofluvents. Xerofluvents. Andic Cryofluvents LEBB. moist. dry. Other Fluvents that have an ustic soil moisture regime. p. 131 LEE. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2. p. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0. Aquic Gelifluvents LEAB.0 mm in diameter. One or both of the following: a. p. Vitrandic Cryofluvents LEBC. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm fraction. Alfic Xerarents LCBD. Typic Cryofluvents Fluvents Key to Great Groups LEA. 20 or more consecutive days. and pumicelike fragments. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Haplic Xerarents 2. Other Xerarents that have fragments of an argillic horizon with a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and a color value. In the 0. one or both of the following: 1. Other Fluvents. Oxyaquic Cryofluvents LEBE. 128 LEF. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. Ustifluvents. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and a. measured at 33 kPa water retention. p. 128 LEC. Torrifluvents. and b. 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Fluvents that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Other Cryofluvents that have. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Other Cryofluvents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. 132 LED. or 30 or more cumulative days. p. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or . Mollic Cryofluvents LEBF. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 128 LEB.128 Keys to Soil Taxonomy LCBB. pumice. Other Cryofluvents. Other Cryofluvents that have a color value. in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 3 percent or more fragments of a duripan or a petrocalcic horizon. Other Xerarents. or Torrifluvents Key to Subgroups LEEA. Gelifluvents that have. Other Gelifluvents. Torrifluvents that have: 1.0 g/cm3 or less.

A horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Vitrixerandic Torrifluvents LEED. in normal years. whichever is shallower. one or both of the following: 1. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the soil surface. lithic.0 mm. one or both of the following: a. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A moisture control section that. A moisture control section that. lithic. Other Torrifluvents that have. mesic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A thermic.02 to 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and (1) In the 0. both redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). An aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Other Torrifluvents that have: 1. or 2. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and pumicelike fragments. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm in diameter. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and 3. whichever is shallower. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or 2. Vertic Torrifluvents LEEC. A thermic. Duric Torrifluvents LEEI. or paralithic contact. Aquic Torrifluvents LEEF. and 2. A linear extensibility of 6. and 3. Other Torrifluvents that have one or both of the following: 1.0 mm. Vitrandic Torrifluvents LEEE. Oxyaquic Torrifluvents LEEG.02 to 2. 30 or more cumulative days. or paralithic contact.Entisols 129 wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in normal years. and pumicelike fragments. pumice. in normal years. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. mesic.0 mm fraction. and 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Torrifluvents that have: 1.0 mm in diameter. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. In the 0.02 to 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.02 to 2. or b. and 2. Other Torrifluvents that have both: E N T . or b. and a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Ustertic Torrifluvents LEEB. Other Torrifluvents that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Duric Xeric Torrifluvents LEEH. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. pumice. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or 2. and b. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Torrifluvents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. A moisture control section that. and 3.0 mm fraction. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in most normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Torrifluvents that have.

5G.02 to 2. In the 0. moist. Other Torrifluvents that have an anthropic epipedon. a color value. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. moist. Andic Udifluvents LEFD. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and pumicelike fragments. 5BG. or 5B and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 mm fraction. Anthropic Torrifluvents LEEL.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic.0 g/cm3 or less. or paralithic contact. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Either or both of the following: a. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. whichever is shallower. Vertic Udifluvents LEFC. and 2. A thermic. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Udifluvents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 mm.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Udifluvents that have. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. or 2. and a. 5BG. An aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Other Udifluvents that have. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue of 5GY. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. or 2. a color value. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and b. one or both of the following: 1. A moisture control section that. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. 5G.02 to 2.0. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. or 2.130 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1. pumice. Other Torrifluvents. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ustic Torrifluvents LEEJ. or paralithic contact. Other Udifluvents that have either: 1. Aquic Udifluvents LEFF. or 5B and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Torrifluvents that have both: LEFB. lithic. Aquertic Udifluvents . Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Udifluvents that have both: One or both of the following: a. mesic. Vitrandic Udifluvents LEFE. Other Udifluvents that have one or both of the following: 1. Xeric Torrifluvents LEEK. in normal years. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. in normal years. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A moisture control section that. 1. Typic Torrifluvents Udifluvents Key to Subgroups LEFA. or b. lithic. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue of 5GY. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A linear extensibility of 6.

Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Torrertic Ustifluvents LEDC. A linear extensibility of 6. In one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5BG. One or both of the following: a. and 2. Vertic Ustifluvents LEDD. dry. of 3 or less and a color value. or 2. isomesic.Entisols 131 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Other Ustifluvents that have either: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. a color value. or . Other Ustifluvents that have anthraquic conditions. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. In one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustifluvents that have one or both of the following: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Anthraquic Ustifluvents LEDE. A linear extensibility of 6. in normal years. lithic. remains moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. in normal years. or 5B and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 5G. is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. in normal years. Other Udifluvents. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue of 5GY. moist. 5G. or b. 1. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. or 5B and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). one of the following: a. Mollic Udifluvents LEFH. A linear extensibility of 6. or 30 or more cumulative days. 5BG. whichever is shallower. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). a color value. Either or both of the following: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. moist.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. and 2. Typic Udifluvents b. whichever is shallower. or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Other Ustifluvents that have both of the following: 1. Ustifluvents that have both: One or both of the following: a. Aquertic Ustifluvents LEDB. lithic. or c. 2. or paralithic contact. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udifluvents that have a color value. 20 or more consecutive days. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue of 5GY. whichever is shallower. A hyperthermic. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. or 2. Oxyaquic Udifluvents LEFG. Aquic Ustifluvents E N T Ustifluvents Key to Subgroups LEDA. or paralithic contact.

0 mm. isomesic. moist. or 30 or more cumulative days.0 g/cm3 or less. is moist in some or all parts for less than 180 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or 2. isomesic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or 2. and (1) In the 0. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and pumicelike fragments. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. pumice. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A hyperthermic. a color value. have one of the following: 1. in normal years. Typic Ustifluvents Xerofluvents Key to Subgroups LECA. moist. one or more of the following: a. in normal years. Other Ustifluvents that have a color value. in normal years. of 3 or less and a color value. Mollic Ustifluvents LEDJ. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. In one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in normal years. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. A hyperthermic. Vertic Xerofluvents LECB. and 3. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Xerofluvents that have: 1. Other Ustifluvents that. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 mm fraction. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Oxyaquic Ustifluvents LEDG.02 to 2. dry.0 mm in diameter. or c. is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Xerofluvents that have one or both of the following: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. in normal years. or paralithic contact. or 3. or 3. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue bluer than 10Y and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). is dry in some or all parts for less than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.132 Keys to Soil Taxonomy LEDF. 2. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. in normal years. Aquandic Xerofluvents . Other Ustifluvents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. have one of the following: 1. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. whichever is shallower.02 to 2. A linear extensibility of 6. or 2. Other Ustifluvents that. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustifluvents. Aridic Ustifluvents LEDH. or b. Udic Ustifluvents LEDI. or 2. 20 or more consecutive days. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. lithic. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.

and b.0 mm fraction. or 2. p. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the Cryorthents Key to Subgroups LFBA. pumice. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Oxyaquic Xerofluvents LECG. moist. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Torriorthents. 136 LFF.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Orthents that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Other Orthents that have an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime. p. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or 30 or more cumulative days. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Lithic Cryorthents LFBB.02 to 2. of 3 or less and a color value. or 5B or aquic conditions for some time in normal years. one or both of the following: 1. 138 LFE.Entisols 133 LECC. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Xerofluvents that have either: mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. 135 E N T 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. 134 LFD. Orthents that have a gelic soil temperature regime. In one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Udorthents. 134 LFB. Cryorthents. Typic Xerofluvents Orthents Key to Great Groups LFA. Gelorthents. 5G. Other Orthents.0 mm fraction. Andic Xerofluvents LECD. Other Orthents that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Other Xerofluvents that have.0 mm. Other Orthents that have a cryic soil temperature regime. 133 LFC. Ustorthents. p. Other Xerofluvents. p. Xerorthents. of 4 or more and either chroma of 0 or hue of 5GY. and a.0 mm in diameter. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Xerofluvents that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. In the 0. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Xerofluvents that have a color value. Vitrandic Cryorthents LFBC.02 to 2. one or both of the following: 1. 20 or more consecutive days.0 mm in diameter. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Durinodic Xerofluvents LECH. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Xerofluvents that have. and b. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. a color value. Vitrandic Xerofluvents LECE.0.0 mm. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. Other Xerofluvents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Cryorthents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Other Cryorthents that have. Mollic Xerofluvents LECI. p. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. pumice. dry. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. 5BG. In one or more horizons within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Xerofluvents LECF. p. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Cryorthents that have. moist. In the 0. or 2. and a. 2. in one or more horizons .

mesic. Other Gelorthents. A hypertheric. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days. mesic. One or both of the following: a. Other Cryorthents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. frigid. and . Lithic Ustic Torriorthents 1.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in normal years. whichever is shallower. 2. Other Cryorthents. mesic. and 2. Lithic Xeric Torriorthents LFCC. or paralithic contact. thermic. Typic Gelorthents Torriorthents Key to Subgroups LFCA. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. lithic. and 3. A linear extensibility of 6. and 2. and 3. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. Lithic Torriorthents LFCD. and 3.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Gelorthents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. or b. or paralithic contact. Lamellic Cryorthents LFBF. Oxyaquic Gelorthents LFAC. A moisture control section that. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. A thermic. Aquic Cryorthents LFBD. or b.134 Keys to Soil Taxonomy within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or iso soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Cryorthents LFCB. 2. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Torriorthents that have: Gelorthents Key to Subgroups LFAA. and 2. A moisture control section that. One or both of the following: a. Torriorthents that have all of the following: 1. Other Cryorthents that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Gelorthents LFAB. Oxyaquic Cryorthents LFBE. in normal years. Other Torriorthents that have: 1. A moisture control section that. 20 or more consecutive days. Gelorthents that have. or 30 or more cumulative days. in normal years. both redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A thermic. Other Torriorthents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Torriorthents that have all of the following: 1. lithic. in normal years. and 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. Xerertic Torriorthents LFCE. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface.

Other Torriorthents that have both: 1. and pumicelike fragments. and a. A moisture control section that.0 mm. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 mm fraction. Vertic Torriorthents LFCG. A moisture control section that. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 cm or more between the soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. A hyperthermic. Udorthents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the soil surface. Typic Torriorthents E N T Udorthents Key to Subgroups LFFA. Other Torriorthents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Udorthents that have. A linear extensibility of 6. mesic. and 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Vitrandic Torriorthents LFCH. one or both of the following: 1. pumice. and a. mesic. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Torriorthents that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Torriorthents. pumice. or 2.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter.Entisols 135 3. Aquic Torriorthents LFCI. 30 or more cumulative days. Other Torriorthents that have.0 mm in diameter. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. Ustertic Torriorthents LFCF. A thermic. or 2. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 mm. Vitrandic Udorthents LFFC. Ustic Torriorthents LFCL.02 to 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and b. or iso soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. in normal years. Other Torriorthents that have one or both of the following: 1. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. lithic. Other Udorthents that have. or 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or paralithic contact. Oxyaquic Torriorthents LFCJ. Lithic Udorthents LFFB. In the 0. Other Udorthents that are saturated with water in one . An aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Cracks within 125 cm of the soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Xeric Torriorthents LFCM. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or 2. thermic. whichever is shallower. Other Torriorthents that have a horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist.02 to 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. Duric Torriorthents LFCK. in normal years. Other Torriorthents that have both: 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2. frigid. Aquic Udorthents LFFD. and pumicelike fragments. one or both of the following: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. In the 0.

whichever is shallower. Vermic Udorthents LFFF. isomesic. or 2. Aridic Lithic Ustorthents LFEB. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Typic Udorthents are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustorthents that are saturated with water in Ustorthents Key to Subgroups LFEA. Other Ustorthents that have one or both of the following: 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. lithic. A hyperthermic. is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aquic Ustorthents LFEG. lithic. and filled animal burrows between either the Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. in normal years. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 20 or more consecutive days. and 2. remains moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Vertic Ustorthents LFEE. Lithic Ustorthents LFEC. or paralithic contact. one of the following: a. Other Ustorthents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that . Anthraquic Ustorthents LFEF. Other Udorthents that have 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. whichever is shallower. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. in normal years. Oxyaquic Udorthents LFFE. or c. or b. isomesic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.136 Keys to Soil Taxonomy or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. in normal years. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2. Other Ustorthents that have. remains moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. One or both of the following: a. Other Ustorthents that have both: 1. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Udorthents. 30 or more cumulative days. paralithic. or paralithic contact. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. one of the following: a. Ustorthents that have both: 1. lithic. in normal years. or b. or b. A hyperthermic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. in normal years. whichever is deeper. or c. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Torrertic Ustorthents LFED. or 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Ustorthents that have anthraquic conditions. wormcasts. or petroferric contact. A linear extensibility of 6. in normal years.

Other Ustorthents that. Other Ustorthents that. Other Ustorthents that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. A hyperthermic. or 3. have one of the following: 1. and a. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. In the 0. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. in normal years. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 30 or more cumulative days. Aridic Ustorthents LFEL.0 mm in diameter. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. pumice. A hyperthermic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. in normal years.0 mm. Other Ustorthents that have. in normal years. one or both of the following: 1. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that.Entisols 137 one or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. in normal years. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. is dry in some or all parts for less than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or 2.0 mm fraction. one of the following: a. in normal years. or b. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or 2. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that.02 to 2.02 to 2. pumice. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 20 or more consecutive days. or c. isomesic. and (1) In the 0. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Udic Ustorthents E N T . [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 mm. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Durinodic Ustorthents LFEI. in normal years. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. remains moist in some or all parts for less than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and pumicelike fragments. is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. A hyperthermic. and 2. or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Ustorthents that have both: 1. Vitritorrandic Ustorthents LFEJ. in normal years. Oxyaquic Ustorthents LFEH. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. isomesic.0 mm fraction. or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. and pumicelike fragments. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Vitrandic Ustorthents LFEK.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. isomesic. in normal years. in normal years. is dry in some or all parts for less than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 3. or 2. is moist in some or all parts for less than 180 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.02 to 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface. have one of the following: 1. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. one or both of the following: a. and b.

and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is deeper. Dystric Xerorthents LFDG. Other Psamments that have. Other Psamments that have an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime.02 to 2. Udipsamments.02 to 2. p. Vitrandic Xerorthents LFDC. Cryopsamments. Xerorthents that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Xerorthents LFDD. Other Xerorthents that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Xerorthents that have. p. Psamments that have a cryic soil temperature regime. one or both of the following: 1. Other Xerorthents. p. in the 0. Other Ustorthents that have 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. a total of more than 90 percent (by weighted average) resistant minerals. p. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. 20 or more consecutive days. Durinodic Xerorthents Psamments Key to Great Groups LDA. p. Torripsamments. Lithic Cryopsamments LDAB. Xeropsamments. lithic. Other Xerorthents that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 60 percent in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 75 cm below the mineral soil surface or in the horizon directly above a root-limiting layer that is at a shallower depth. Other Psamments. Lithic Xerorthents LFDB. 138 LDB. 141 LDE. Other Psamments that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Vermic Ustorthents LFEN.0 mm. 20 or more consecutive days. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and filled animal burrows between either the Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. Cryopsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. paralithic. or 2. 30 or more cumulative days. 140 LDC. 139 LDD. In the 0. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Oxyaquic Xerorthents LFDE. wormcasts. Aquic Cryopsamments LDAC. or .0 mm fraction within the particle-size control section. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Ustorthents LFDF.02 to 2.0 mm fraction. Other Psamments that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Other Ustorthents. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. whichever is shallower. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Xerorthents Xerorthents Key to Subgroups LFDA.0 mm in diameter. Other Xerorthents that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Ustipsamments. and a. Quartzipsamments. or petroferric contact. and b. Other Xerorthents that have. 140 Cryopsamments Key to Subgroups LDAA. Other Cryopsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. 141 LDF. Other Cryopsamments that have. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. p. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.138 Keys to Soil Taxonomy LFEM. pumice. or 2.

30 or more cumulative days.12 or more. Have a clay fraction with a CEC of 16 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7). Have a clay fraction with a CEC of 16 cmol(+) or less per kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7). Other Quartzipsamments that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.Entisols 139 2. Lamellic Ustic Quartzipsamments LDCI. Lithic Quartzipsamments LDCB. and 3. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. or 3. Lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface.25 or more. Vitrandic Cryopsamments LDAE. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. Aquodic Quartzipsamments LDCC. Other Quartzipsamments that meet all of the following: 1. Other Cryopsamments. or b. Typic Cryopsamments c. Oxyaquic Quartzipsamments LDCE. The sum of the weighted average silt plus 2 times the weighted average clay (both by weight) is more than 5. Udoxic Quartzipsamments LDCG. Other Cryopsamments that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: 1. Have an ustic soil moisture regime. Ustoxic Quartzipsamments LDCF. The sum of the weighted average silt plus 2 times the weighted average clay (both by weight) is more than 5. Other Quartzipsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. and 2. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. with or without iron. with or without iron. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). In 25 percent or more of each pedon. An ustic soil moisture regime. Plinthic Quartzipsamments LDCH. Other Cryopsamments that have. Spodic Cryopsamments LDAF. A horizon. either below an Ap horizon or at a depth of 18 cm or more from the mineral soil surface. or . 30 or more cumulative days. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. or 2. and 3. 20 or more consecutive days. In 25 percent or more of each pedon.12 or more. Other Quartzipsamments that meet all of the following: 1.25 or more. Quartzipsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Quartzipsamments LDCD. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). a fine-earth fraction containing 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An ODOE value of 0. Other Quartzipsamments that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Oxyaquic Cryopsamments LDAD. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. An ODOE value of 0. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Quartzipsamments that have both: 1. or 2. and 2. Other Cryopsamments that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. 5 cm or more thick. Other Quartzipsamments that have. and 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lamellic Cryopsamments LDAG. Lamellic Quartzipsamments E N T Quartzipsamments Key to Subgroups LDCA. Have a udic soil moisture regime. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. Other Quartzipsamments that have both: 1. that has one or more of the following: a. whichever is deeper. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0.

12 or more. A moisture control section that. or 2.140 Keys to Soil Taxonomy LDCJ.5YR or redder. A color value. whichever is deeper. A moisture control section that. Ustic Quartzipsamments LDCK. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. 5 cm or more thick. moist. with or without iron. of 3 or less. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. Other Quartzipsamments. or 2. Hue of 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Torripsamments that have both: 1. mesic. Other Torripsamments that have. Other Torripsamments that have both: 1. in normal years. Other Torripsamments that have a horizon within 100 cm of the soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. and 2. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. 30 or more cumulative days. A thermic. Aquic Udipsamments LDFC. Xeric Torripsamments LDBG. Oxyaquic Torripsamments LDBC. 30 or more cumulative days. or frigid soil temperature regime and an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. Other Quartzipsamments that have a xeric soil moisture regime. A dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value. Other Quartzipsamments that have an ustic soil moisture regime. 20 or more consecutive days. and 2. 20 or more consecutive days. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. Other Torripsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. An aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. and 3. and 2. in all horizons from a depth of 25 to 100 cm. a fine-earth fraction containing 5 percent or more volcanic glass. or 3. in normal years. Typic Quartzipsamments LDBE. is dry in all parts for less than three-fourths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is 5 oC or higher. Xeric Quartzipsamments LDCL. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.25 or more. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Oxyaquic Udipsamments . Other Udipsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Haploduridic Torripsamments Udipsamments Key to Subgroups LDFA. Vitrandic Torripsamments LDBD. Lithic Udipsamments LDFB. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. Ustic Torripsamments LDBF. Spodic Quartzipsamments LDCM. Torripsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Torripsamments. Rhodic Torripsamments LDBH. Lithic Torripsamments LDBB. Typic Torripsamments Torripsamments Key to Subgroups LDBA. that has one or more of the following: 1. Other Quartzipsamments that have a horizon. Other Torripsamments that have. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. Udipsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udipsamments that have. either below an Ap horizon or at a depth of 18 cm or more from the mineral soil surface. An ODOE value of 0. or 2.

and 2.25 or more. Lamellic Udipsamments LDFF. in normal years. Spodic Udipsamments LDFE. 30 or more cumulative days. or Xeropsamments Key to Subgroups LDEA. Lithic Xeropsamments LDEB. in normal years. An ODOE value of 0. or 1 2. isomesic. moist. either below an Ap horizon or at a depth of 18 cm or more from the mineral soil surface. Typic Ustipsamments E N T 3. Other Ustipsamments that have. that has one or more of the following: 1. A dry value no more than 1 unit higher than the moist value.12 or more. and 2. in all horizons from a depth of 25 to 100 cm. Aquic Durinodic Xeropsamments LDEC. Ustipsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. with or without iron. Other Ustipsamments that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustipsamments that. 20 or more consecutive days. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Xeropsamments that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Lamellic Ustipsamments LDDF. Other Udipsamments that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. in normal years. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. Oxyaquic Ustipsamments LDDD. Hue of 2. Other Udipsamments. of 3 or less. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Udipsamments Ustipsamments Key to Subgroups LDDA. Other Xeropsamments that have both: 1. Other Ustipsamments. is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. 5 cm or more thick. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plagganthreptic Udipsamments LDFG.5YR or redder. is moist in some or all parts for less than 180 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Lithic Ustipsamments LDDB. Other Xeropsamments that have. more than 50 percent colors that have all of the following: 1. Rhodic Ustipsamments LDDG. and 3. Aquic Ustipsamments LDDC.Entisols 141 LDFD. Aridic Ustipsamments LDDE. or 2. Other Udipsamments that have a horizon. A hyperthermic. Other Udipsamments that have a surface horizon between 25 and 50 cm thick that meets all of the requirements for a plaggen epipedon except thickness. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. Other Ustipsamments that have. Al plus /2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. Other Ustipsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Aquic Xeropsamments . have one of the following: 1. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. whichever is deeper. or 3. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that.

Typic Xeropsamments LAD. Other Fluviwassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. both an n value of more than 0. in all horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haplowassents. lithic. Dystric Xeropsamments LDEI. Lithic Fluviwassents LAEC. Oxyaquic Xeropsamments LDEE. in all horizons at a depth between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Wassents that have. p. or 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more. a fine-earth fraction containing 5 percent or more volcanic glass. 142 LAB. mixture (not extract) of water and soil. Other Wassents that have a horizon or horizons with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface that contain sulfidic materials. both an n value of more than 0. or paralithic contact. Frasiwassents. Sulfic Fluviwassents LAEB. Other Fluviwassents. Hydric Frasiwassents . an electrical conductivity of less than 0. Thapto-Histic Fluviwassents LAED. p. p.2 dS/m in a 5:1. Psammowassents. Other Xeropsamments that have lamellae within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 143 Fluviwassents Key to Subgroups LAEA. Vitrandic Xeropsamments LDEF.7 and 8 percent or more clay in the fineearth fraction. Aeric Fluviwassents LAEE. Fluviwassents. or 2. Other Xeropsamments that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Fluviwassents that have a chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons between a depth of 15 and 100 cm from the soil surface. Hydrowassents. Durinodic Xeropsamments LDEG. Other Fluviwassents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. by volume. 144 Frasiwassents Key to Subgroups LAAA. Other Xeropsamments. 142 LAF. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Wassents that have. Other Wassents that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section. lithic. 20 cm or more thick. Frasiwassents that have. Sulfiwassents. p. Other Wassents. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Typic Fluviwassents Wassents Key to Great Groups LAA. in all horizons at a depth between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. p. 143 LAC. Other Xeropsamments that have. Other Xeropsamments that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. 30 or more cumulative days.2 percent or more and no densic. p.142 LDED.7 and 8 percent or more clay in the fineearth fraction. Other Wassents that have one or both of the following: 1. Fluviwassents that have a horizon or horizons with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that contain sulfidic materials. or paralithic contact within that depth. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Xeropsamments that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 60 percent in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 75 cm below the mineral soil surface or in the horizon directly above a root-limiting layer that is at a shallower depth. whichever is shallower. Lamellic Xeropsamments LDEH. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. 143 LAE.

Other Hydrowassents. Other Frasiwassents that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section. lithic. whichever is shallower. or 2. Thapto-Histic Frasiwassents LAAE. Typic Hydrowassents E N T Psammowassents Key to Subgroups LABA. Sulfic Haplowassents LAFB. lithic. Sulfic Psammowassents LABB. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Hydrowassents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. Fluventic Frasiwassents LAAF. Grossic Hydrowassents LADC. Other Psammowassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic. 20 cm or more thick. Haplowassents that have a horizon or horizons with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that contain sulfidic materials. lithic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Typic Frasiwassents Hydrowassents Key to Subgroups LADA.Entisols 143 LAAB. Psammowassents that have a horizon or horizons with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that contain sulfidic materials. Fluventic Psammowassents LABD. or paralithic contact within that depth. Thapto-Histic Hydrowassents LADE. Lithic Hydrowassents LADD. Other Frasiwassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hydrowassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Lithic Frasiwassents LAAC. or paralithic contact within that depth. Other Haplowassents that have a chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons between a depth of 15 and 100 cm from the soil surface. Lithic Haplowassents LAFC. Sulfic Hydrowassents LADB. Typic Haplowassents . Other Psammowassents that have a chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more Haplowassents Key to Subgroups LAFA. Hydrowassents that have a horizon or horizons with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that contain sulfidic materials. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.7 and 8 percent or more clay in the fine-earth fraction. or paralithic contact. Other Haplowassents. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. both an n value of more than 0.2 percent or more and no densic. Aeric Frasiwassents LAAG. whichever is shallower. in all horizons at a depth between 20 and 100 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Psammowassents that have one or both of the following: 1. or 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Aeric Haplowassents LAFD. Other Frasiwassents that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Hydrowassents that have. or paralithic contact. Lithic Psammowassents LABC. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. Other Frasiwassents. Other Frasiwassents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. 20 cm or more thick. Other Haplowassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Frasiwassents that have a chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons between a depth of 15 and 100 cm from the soil surface. Psammentic Frasiwassents LAAD.

an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Sulfiwassents that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Psammowassents. lithic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Haplic Sulfiwassents LACC. Aeric Psammowassents LABE. or paralithic contact. lithic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Sulfiwassents that have a chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons between a depth of 15 and 100 cm from the soil surface. Aeric Sulfiwassents LACF. Lithic Sulfiwassents LACB. Other Sulfiwassents. or paralithic contact within that depth. or 2.144 horizons between a depth of 15 and 100 cm from the soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic.7 or less. either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. Thapto-Histic Sulfiwassents . Less than 8 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction. Fluventic Sulfiwassents LACE. 20 cm or more thick. Other Sulfiwassents that have. Typic Psammowassents LACD. An n value of 0. or 2. Typic Sulfiwassents Sulfiwassents Key to Subgroups LACA. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Sulfiwassents that have a buried layer of organic soil materials. in some horizons at a depth between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Sulfiwassents that have one or both of the following: 1.

from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm or to a glacic layer or a densic. Terric Fibristels AACC. total 40 cm or more between the soil surface and a depth of 50 cm. Other Fibristels that have. Other Gelisols. Other Histels. whichever is shallower. lithic. Typic Fibristels G E L Histels Key to Great Groups AAA. Folistels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. p. When added with the underlying cindery. Other Fibristels in which three-fourths or more of the fibric soil materials are derived from Sphagnum to a depth of 50 cm or to a densic. Fibristels that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Fibristels. Other Fibristels that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the soil surface. p. p. 145 AAD. Other Gelisols that have one or more horizons showing cryoturbation in the form of irregular. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact. 145 AB. Lithic Folistels . or paralithic contact. Fibristels. lithic. p. 150 AC. fragmental. p. by volume. or 2. Comprise 80 percent or more.145 CHAPTER 9 Gelisols Key to Suborders AA. p. A glacic layer within 100 cm of the soil surface. or paralithic contact. lithic. Sphagnic Fibristels AACE. Folistels. involutions. 146 Fibristels Key to Subgroups AACA. whichever is shallower. Other Histels that have more thickness of hemic soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material to a depth of 50 cm or to a densic. broken. or pumiceous materials. Other Histels that have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material to a depth Folistels Key to Subgroups AAAA. Lithic Fibristels AACB. Fluvaquentic Fibristels AACD. ice or sand wedges. Orthels. fragmental. whichever is shallower. or pumiceous materials and/or fill their interstices and directly below these materials have either a densic. or paralithic contact. within the organic soil materials. or paralithic contact. 146 AAC. or paralithic contact. lithic. 145 AAB. the accumulation of organic matter on top of the permafrost. 146 AAE. Other Histels that are saturated with water for 30 or more cumulative days during normal years and that have both: 1. Histels that are saturated with water for less than 30 cumulative days during normal years (and are not artificially drained). or distorted horizon boundaries. or 3. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of any thickness within 100 cm of the soil surface. Turbels. p. and 2. Sapristels. lithic. whichever is shallower. 146 of 50 cm or to a densic. lithic. Less than three-fourths (by volume) Sphagnum fibers in the organic soil material to a depth of 50 cm or to a densic. Glacistels. p. Overlie cindery. Gelisols that have organic soil materials that meet one or more of the following: 1. Histels. and oriented rock fragments. Hemistels.

146 Keys to Soil Taxonomy AAAB. more than 40 percent. Lithic Sapristels AAEB. Fluvaquentic Sapristels AAED. Other Sapristels that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Orthels that have. Glacistels that have more thickness of hemic soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material in the upper 50 cm. Typic Glacistels Orthels Key to Great Groups ACA. within the organic soil Anhyorthels Key to Subgroups ACCA. p. p. 150 ACF. Lithic Hemistels AADB. organic soil materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm. Other Orthels. Other Hemistels that have. Other Glacistels. Other Folistels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the soil surface. 148 ACB. Glacic Anhyorthels . Glacic Folistels AAAC. Historthels. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of any thickness within 100 cm of the soil surface. Mollorthels. less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section. Psammorthels. below the Ap horizon or below a depth of 25 cm. Sapristels that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Hemistels that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Sapristels. Typic Folistels materials. Orthels that have. Anhyorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. within the organic soil materials. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of any thickness within 100 cm of the soil surface. Argiorthels. p. 149 ACE. Anhyorthels. Typic Sapristels Glacistels Key to Subgroups AABA. Other Sapristels that have. Other Glacistels that have more thickness of sapric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil material in the upper 50 cm. Fluvaquentic Hemistels AADD. Umbrorthels. Other Hemistels. Sapric Glacistels AABC. in 30 percent or more of the pedon. Aquorthels. 147 ACC. 148 Hemistels Key to Subgroups AADA. 146 ACD. within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. by volume. Hemistels that have a lithic contact within 100 cm of the soil surface. p. Other Folistels. Haplorthels. Typic Hemistels Sapristels Key to Subgroups AAEA. Other Orthels that have. 149 ACH. whichever is deeper. Other Orthels that have an argillic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Orthels that have a mollic epipedon. Lithic Anhyorthels ACCB. Other Orthels that have an umbric epipedon. Terric Hemistels AADC. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions during normal years (or artificial drainage). p. Other Anhyorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. 147 ACG. Hemic Glacistels AABB. Other Orthels that have anhydrous conditions. p. p. Terric Sapristels AAEC.

Organic soil materials that are discontinuous at the surface.0 mm. and b. measured at 33 kPa water retention. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Fluvaquentic Aquorthels ACBJ. Typic Anhyorthels and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Other Aquorthels that have.02 to 2. Lithic Argiorthels . Other Aquorthels that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Other Anhyorthels that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. Glacic Aquorthels ACBC. Other Aquorthels that have a sulfuric horizon or sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Gypsic Anhyorthels ACCE. and a. Other Aquorthels. Andic Aquorthels ACBF. lithic.0 mm in diameter. Typic Aquorthels G E L Aquorthels Key to Subgroups ACBA. Other Aquorthels that have either: 1. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or 2. lithic. pumice. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.500 or more. whichever is shallower. Vitrandic Aquorthels ACBG. or 2. Other Anhyorthels. Psammentic Aquorthels ACBI. or paralithic contact within that depth. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Anhyorthels that have a salic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrogypsic Anhyorthels ACCD. Argiorthels Key to Subgroups ACFA. Sulfuric Aquorthels ACBD.2 percent or more and no densic. or 2.0 g/cm3 or less. Nitric Anhyorthels ACCF. one or both of the following: 1. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Organic soil materials at the surface that change in thickness fourfold or more within a pedon. Salic Aquorthels ACBH. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Aquorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Anhyorthels that have a petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Aquorthels that have a salic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Aquorthels ACBB. Calcic Anhyorthels ACCH. Other Aquorthels that have.Gelisols 147 ACCC. Argiorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ruptic-Histic Aquorthels ACBE. or paralithic contact. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm fraction. Salic Anhyorthels ACCG. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Anhyorthels that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Aquorthels that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section.0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In the 0. Other Anhyorthels that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that contains 12 cmol(-)/L nitrate in a 1:5 soil:water extract and in which the product of its thickness (in cm) and its nitrate concentration is 3. Aquorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.

lithic. or paralithic contact within that depth. lithic. Other Historthels that have a slope of less than 25 percent. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.2 percent or Historthels Key to Subgroups ACAA. or paralithic contact. and 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Glacic Haplorthels ACHC. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Historthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the soil surface. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact within that depth. Lithic Historthels ACAB.148 Keys to Soil Taxonomy ACFB. whichever is shallower. One or both of the following: a. Natric Argiorthels ACFD. Typic Haplorthels Haplorthels Key to Subgroups ACHA. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Haplorthels that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Glacic Historthels ACAC. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and 2. Fluvaquentic Haplorthels ACHD. Other Haplorthels that have a folistic epipedon. and 1. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fluvaquentic Historthels ACAD. or b. Fluventic Historthels . At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. or 2. Other Haplorthels that have a slope of less than 25 percent.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Haplorthels that have. lithic. or paralithic contact. and 1. Typic Argiorthels more and no densic.2 percent or more and no densic. whichever is shallower. Other Haplorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or paralithic contact within that depth. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Historthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Haplorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. lithic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Folistic Haplorthels ACHE. Aquic Haplorthels ACHF. Other Argiorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. lithic. or paralithic contact. Fluventic Haplorthels ACHG. or 2. Lithic Haplorthels ACHB. Other Historthels that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage).2 percent or more and no densic. Other Argiorthels. Glacic Argiorthels ACFC. Other Argiorthels that have a natric horizon. lithic. One or both of the following: a. Other Haplorthels. or paralithic contact within that depth. lithic.

Other Mollorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Mollorthels ACDE. by volume. Typic Psammorthels . cementation by organic matter and aluminum.0 g/cm3 or less. An ODOE value of 0. Other Mollorthels that have one or both of the following: 1. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. and a. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. Cumulic Mollorthels ACDH. or 2. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick with a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Mollorthels that have a folistic epipedon. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Folistic Mollorthels ACDG. A slope of less than 25 percent. one or both of the following: 1. and 2. or 3. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. organic soil materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm in 75 percent or less of the pedon.0 mm.02 to 2. whichever is shallower. and pumicelike fragments.25 or more. with or without iron. or 2. Other Mollorthels that have both: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Psammorthels. Glacic Psammorthels ACGC. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Vitrandic Mollorthels ACDF. Psammorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Spodic Psammorthels ACGD.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Historthels that have more than 40 percent. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Typic Mollorthels G E L Mollorthels Key to Subgroups ACDA.0 mm in diameter. lithic. Lithic Psammorthels ACGB. Lithic Mollorthels ACDB. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0.02 to 2. Vertic Mollorthels ACDD. A linear extensibility of 6. Aquic Mollorthels ACDI. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Mollorthels.0. Other Psammorthels that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: 1. Typic Historthels b. pumice. or paralithic contact.0 mm fraction. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Ruptic Historthels ACAF.12 or more. and Psammorthels Key to Subgroups ACGA. Other Psammorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Mollorthels that have. or 2. In the 0. Other Mollorthels that have. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Historthels. Other Mollorthels that have. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time during normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.Gelisols 149 ACAE. Glacic Mollorthels ACDC. Mollorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.

150 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Umbrorthels Key to Subgroups ACEA. whichever is shallower. Vertic Umbrorthels ACED. 151 ABC. Other Umbrorthels that have.0 mm. A linear extensibility of 6. or paralithic contact.0. p. Other Umbrorthels.02 to 2. Psammoturbels. and a. 151 Anhyturbels Key to Subgroups ABCA.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. [(Al plus /2 Fe.0 mm in diameter. Umbriturbels. Haploturbels. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Umbrorthels that have. or 2. A slope of less than 25 percent. lithic. 150 ABD. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Umbrorthels that have both: . 5 percent or more volcanic glass. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Lithic Anhyturbels ACEF. Lithic Umbrorthels ACEB. Other Umbrorthels that have one or both of the following: 1. Umbrorthels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Umbrorthels that have. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm fraction. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Umbrorthels Turbels Key to Great Groups ABA. Other Turbels that have. one or both of the following: 1. Molliturbels. Turbels that have. Other Turbels that have an umbric epipedon. within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. more than 40 percent. In the 0. by volume. Histoturbels. p. Anhyturbels. Other Turbels that have a mollic epipedon. Vitrandic Umbrorthels 1 1. 151 ABB. p. p. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time during normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Glacic Umbrorthels ACEC. 152 ABG. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Turbels that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section.02 to 2. Cumulic Umbrorthels ACEH. organic soil materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm. 152 ABF.0 g/cm3 or less. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions during normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Umbrorthels ACEI. Anhyturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Umbrorthels ACEE. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Folistic Umbrorthels ACEG. Other Turbels. in 30 percent or more of the pedon. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. p. An umbric epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick with a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. p. Other Turbels that have anhydrous conditions. and pumicelike fragments. pumice. 152 ABE. Other Umbrorthels that have a folistic epipedon. and b. p. Aquiturbels. Other Umbrorthels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2.

Other Anhyturbels that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.500 or more. Other Aquiturbels that have a sulfuric horizon or sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrogypsic Anhyturbels ABCD. Glacic Anhyturbels ABCC. Other Anhyturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploturbels that have a folistic epipedon. Other Anhyturbels that have a petrogypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Anhyturbels ABCH. Other Histoturbels that have more than 40 percent. Typic Anhyturbels ABBE. Other Haploturbels. Other Anhyturbels.Gelisols 151 ABCB. organic soil materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm in 75 percent or less of the pedon. Psammentic Aquiturbels ABBF. Salic Anhyturbels ABCG. or 2. Other Anhyturbels that have a horizon 15 cm or more thick that contains 12 cmol(-)/L nitrate in a 1:5 soil:water extract and in which the product of its thickness (in cm) and its nitrate concentration is 3. Ruptic Histoturbels ABAD. Other Aquiturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haploturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage). Glacic Aquiturbels ABBC. Organic soil materials that are discontinuous at the surface. Lithic Histoturbels ABAB. Other Histoturbels. Aquiturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Nitric Anhyturbels ABCF. Typic Haploturbels G E L Aquiturbels Key to Subgroups ABBA. Other Aquiturbels that have either: 1. Lithic Haploturbels ABGB. Typic Histoturbels . Folistic Haploturbels ABGD. Other Aquiturbels that have less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers within the particle-size control section. Organic soil materials at the surface that change in thickness fourfold or more within a pedon. Other Aquiturbels. Gypsic Anhyturbels ABCE. Sulfuric Aquiturbels ABBD. Typic Aquiturbels Haploturbels Key to Subgroups ABGA. Other Histoturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Haploturbels that have. Aquic Haploturbels ABGE. Ruptic-Histic Aquiturbels Histoturbels Key to Subgroups ABAA. Other Haploturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Glacic Histoturbels ABAC. Lithic Aquiturbels ABBB. Histoturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Anhyturbels that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. by volume. Glacic Haploturbels ABGC. Other Anhyturbels that have a salic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Molliturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Psammoturbels that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: 1. Umbriturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick with a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time during normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage). Glacic Psammoturbels ABFC. Spodic Psammoturbels ABFD.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A slope of less than 25 percent.0 mm in diameter. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.25 or more. or 3. Other Psammoturbels.152 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Molliturbels Key to Subgroups ABDA. Other Molliturbels that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic. Other Molliturbels that have both: 1.0. Other Molliturbels that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. Andic Molliturbels ABDE. Aquic Molliturbels ABDI. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. one or both of the following: 1.0 mm fraction. Other Molliturbels that have a folistic epipedon. Glacic Umbriturbels ABEC. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vitrandic Molliturbels ABDF. Glacic Molliturbels ABDC. with or without iron. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0.02 to 2. whichever is shallower. An ODOE value of 0. or 2.02 to 2. Other Molliturbels that have. A linear extensibility of 6. In the 0. and a. Vertic Molliturbels ABDD. Other Umbriturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Other Psammoturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Other Molliturbels that have. Psammoturbels that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Molliturbels. Typic Psammoturbels Umbriturbels Key to Subgroups ABEA.12 or more. Other Umbriturbels that have one or both of the following: . 5 percent or more volcanic glass. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. or paralithic contact. or 2. Typic Molliturbels Psammoturbels Key to Subgroups ABFA. Lithic Molliturbels ABDB. Other Molliturbels that have a glacic layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm. Lithic Psammoturbels ABFB. pumice. Folistic Molliturbels ABDG. and b. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. Cumulic Molliturbels ABDH.0 g/cm3 or less. Lithic Umbriturbels ABEB.

Other Umbriturbels that have. In the 0.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Cumulic Umbriturbels ABEH. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time during normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm in diameter. or 2.02 to 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. or paralithic contact. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Umbriturbels ABEE. Other Umbriturbels that have. and a. and 2. one or both of the following: 1.0 mm. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquic Umbriturbels ABEI. pumice. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Folistic Umbriturbels ABEG. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A slope of less than 25 percent. and b. Other Umbriturbels. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Vitrandic Umbriturbels ABEF. A linear extensibility of 6. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time during normal years (or artificial drainage). A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Vertic Umbriturbels ABED. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. Other Umbriturbels that have.Gelisols 153 1.0 g/cm3 or less. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Typic Umbriturbels G E L . or 2. Other Umbriturbels that have a folistic epipedon.02 to 2. whichever is shallower. Other Umbriturbels that have both: 1. An umbric epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick with a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. lithic.

.

or paralithic contact. Hydric Cryofibrists BCAB. 157 Fibrists Key to Great Groups BCA. Wassists. Have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: a. Sphagnofibrists. Cryofibrists. and 2. Other Cryofibrists that have. Do not have sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface. Do not have a sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the soil surface. Terric Cryofibrists BCAD. below the surface tier. within the organic soil materials. Other Histosols that: 1. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. p. Other Cryofibrists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section.155 CHAPTER 10 Histosols Key to Suborders BA. p. and 3. Haplofibrists. 159 BC. Histosols that are saturated with water for less than 30 cumulative days during normal years (and are not artificially drained). 156 BCC. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Saprists. Cryofibrists that have a layer of water within the control section. Fibrists that have a cryic soil temperature regime. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Folists. p. Fluvaquentic Cryofibrists BCAE. p. Other Fibrists in which fibric Sphagnum constitutes three-fourths or more of the volume to either a depth of 90 cm from the soil surface or to a densic. Other Cryofibrists. Other Cryofibrists in which three-fourths or more of the fiber volume in the surface tier is derived from Sphagnum. p. 156 BB. Other Histosols that have more thickness of sapric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. or other mineral soil materials if at a depth of less than 90 cm. Lithic Cryofibrists BCAC. Typic Cryofibrists H I S . p. Hemists. fragmental materials. below the surface tier. 158 BE. Other Histosols. 155 BCB. lithic. Other Fibrists. below the surface tier. 156 Cryofibrists Key to Subgroups BCAA. p. Other Histosols that have a positive water potential at the soil surface for more than 21 hours of each day in all years. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Other Cryofibrists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Sphagnic Cryofibrists BCAF. p. Fibrists. or 2. 155 BD. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. or b.

Torrifolists that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. below the surface tier. Lithic Haplofibrists BCCC. below the surface tier. Other Sphagnofibrists that have one or more limnic layers with a total thickness of 5 cm or more within the control section. Hydric Haplofibrists BCCB. Other Sphagnofibrists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. Hemic Sphagnofibrists BCBG. Other Sphagnofibrists that have. Other Torrifolists. 156 BAC. Lithic Torrifolists BABB. Other Sphagnofibrists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. 156 BAB. p. Torrifolists. p. below the surface tier. Cryofolists. Other Haplofibrists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. Other Haplofibrists that have. p. Fluvaquentic Sphagnofibrists BCBF. Typic Haplofibrists BCBE. Other Cryofolists. Other Folists that have an ustic or xeric soil moisture regime. Udifolists. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. below the surface tier. 157 Cryofolists Key to Subgroups BAAA. Limnic Sphagnofibrists BCBD. Fluvaquentic Haplofibrists BCCF. Folists that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Ustifolists. Hemic Haplofibrists BCCG. Lithic Sphagnofibrists BCBC. Terric Sphagnofibrists Torrifolists Key to Subgroups BABA. Lithic Cryofolists BAAB. p. Hydric Sphagnofibrists BCBB. Sphagnofibrists that have a layer of water within the control section. Other Haplofibrists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Terric Haplofibrists BCCE.156 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Haplofibrists Key to Subgroups BCCA. Haplofibrists that have a layer of water within the control section. Other Sphagnofibrists. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. Cryofolists that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Typic Torrifolists . Typic Cryofolists Sphagnofibrists Key to Subgroups BCBA. below the surface tier. Other Sphagnofibrists that have one or more layers of hemic and sapric materials with a total thickness of 25 cm or more in the control section. Other Folists. within the organic soil materials. 157 BAD. Other Folists that have an aridic (or torric) soil moisture regime. below the surface tier. Other Haplofibrists. Typic Sphagnofibrists Folists Key to Great Groups BAA. Other Haplofibrists that have one or more limnic layers with a total thickness of 5 cm or more within the control section. below the surface tier. Limnic Haplofibrists BCCD. within the organic soil materials. Other Haplofibrists that have one or more layers of hemic and sapric materials with a total thickness of 25 cm or more in the control section. below the surface tier.

below the surface tier. Other Ustifolists. below the surface tier. Typic Udifolists BEDC.Histosols 157 Udifolists Key to Subgroups BADA. Other Haplohemists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. Other Haplohemists. Lithic Cryohemists . Other Hemists that have a horizon 2 cm or more thick in which humilluvic materials constitute one-half or more of the volume. Terric Cryohemists BEDD. below the surface tier. p. Other Haplohemists that have one or more limnic layers with a total thickness of 5 cm or more within the control section. below the surface tier. Other Cryohemists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. Other Hemists that have sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface. 158 BED. Other Cryohemists that have. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. Sapric Haplohemists BEEH. Other Hemists. 157 Haplohemists. Ustifolists that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Hemists that have a sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the soil surface. p. Haplohemists that have a layer of water within the control section. p. Cryohemists. Fluvaquentic Cryohemists BEDE. within the organic soil materials. Other Haplohemists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Luvihemists. Typic Haplohemists Hemists Key to Great Groups BEA. Fluvaquentic Haplohemists BEEF. Other Haplohemists that have one or more layers of sapric materials with a total thickness of 25 cm or more below the surface tier. Lithic Udifolists BADB. Hydric Cryohemists BEDB. Fibric Haplohemists BEEG. below the surface tier. Terric Haplohemists BEEE. Udifolists that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface. Lithic Ustifolists BACB. below the surface tier. below the surface tier. Lithic Haplohemists BEEC. Typic Ustifolists Haplohemists Key to Subgroups BEEA. Other Hemists that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Sulfohemists. Cryohemists that have a layer of water within the control section. Other Cryohemists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Typic Cryohemists Ustifolists Key to Subgroups BACA. Other Haplohemists that have one or more layers of fibric materials with a total thickness of 25 cm or more in the control section. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. Cryohemists Key to Subgroups BEDA. Limnic Haplohemists BEED. Hydric Haplohemists BEEB. Other Haplohemists that have. Other Cryohemists. 158 BEB. within the organic soil materials. 157 H I S BEE. 158 BEC. Sulfihemists. p. Other Udifolists. p.

Typic Sulfihemists Haplosaprists Key to Subgroups BDDA. Other Cryosaprists that have. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section. and 2. below the surface tier. Typic Luvihemists material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Fluvaquentic Haplosaprists BDDG. 158 Other Saprists. below the surface tier. Halic Haplosaprists BDDE. an electrical conductivity of 30 dS/m or more (1:1 soil:water) for 6 months or more during normal years. Haplosaprists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. within the organic soil materials. Terric Haplosaprists BDDF. Cryosaprists. Haplosaprists. Sulfihemists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Other Cryosaprists. Other Haplosaprists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. 159 BDB. 159 BDC. Other Saprists that have sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface. p. Sulfosaprists. below the surface tier. below the surface tier. All Luvihemists (provisionally). Cryosaprists that have a lithic contact at the lower boundary of the control section. Fluvaquentic Cryosaprists BDCE. All Sulfohemists (provisionally). 158 BDD. Terric Cryosaprists BDCD. either one layer of mineral soil material 5 cm or more thick or two or more layers of mineral soil material of any thickness in the control section.158 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Luvihemists Key to Subgroups BECA. Other Haplosaprists that have one or more limnic layers with a total thickness of 5 cm or more within the control section. p. an electrical conductivity of 30 dS/m or more (1:1 soil:water) for 6 months or more during normal years. throughout a layer 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. p. Typic Sulfohemists Saprists Key to Great Groups BDA. Other Haplosaprists that have one or more layers of Sulfohemists Key to Subgroups BEAA. Limnic Cryosaprists BDCC. below the surface tier. Limnic Haplosaprists BDDC. Other Saprists that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Typic Cryosaprists Sulfihemists Key to Subgroups BEBA. Saprists that have a sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the soil surface. Other Sulfihemists. Other Haplosaprists that have both: 1. Sulfisaprists. Lithic Cryosaprists BDCB. Halic Terric Haplosaprists BDDD. Other Haplosaprists that have. Lithic Haplosaprists BDDB. Other Cryosaprists that have one or more limnic layers with a total thickness of 5 cm or more within the control section. below the surface tier. A layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Throughout a layer 30 cm or thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. Other Cryosaprists that have a layer of mineral soil . p. within the organic soil materials. Cryosaprists Key to Subgroups BDCA. Other Haplosaprists that have. Terric Sulfihemists BEBB.

All Sulfosaprists (provisionally). p. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Frasiwassists that: 1. that contain sulfidic materials. below the surface tier. with a combined thickness of 15 cm within 100 cm of the soil surface. Other Haplosaprists. or b. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer H I S Wassists Key to Great Groups BBA. p. 159 Frasiwassists Key to Subgroups BBAA. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. an electrical conductivity of less than 0. Fibric Haplowassists BBCC. Other Sulfisaprists. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Other Wassists. Wassists that have. Haplowassists that have a horizon or horizons. Do not have sulfidic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface. Sulfic Haplowassists BBCB. in all horizons within 100 cm of the soil surface. that contain sulfidic materials. Typic Haplosaprists layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Terric Sulfisaprists BDBB. Other Frasiwassists that have more thickness of sapric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier.Histosols 159 fibric or hemic materials with a total thickness of 25 cm or more in the control section. Sulfisaprists that have a layer of mineral soil material 30 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the control section. p. or 2. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. or 2. Other Wassists that have a horizon or horizons. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: a. 160 BBC. Sulfiwassists. Other Haplowassists that have more thickness of sapric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. Sapric Frasiwassists BBAC.2 dS/m in a 5:1. Typic Sulfisaprists Sulfosaprists Key to Subgroups BDAA. Frasiwassists. 159 BBB. Typic Frasiwassists Sulfisaprists Key to Subgroups BDBA. mixture (not extract) of water and soil. Hemic Haplosaprists BDDH. Other Frasiwassists. and 2. by volume. Typic Sulfosaprists Haplowassists Key to Subgroups BBCA. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous . below the surface tier. Fibric Frasiwassists BBAB. Other Haplowassists that have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. or 2. with a combined thickness of at least 15 cm within 50 cm of the soil surface. Haplowassists.

In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Sulfiwassists that have more thickness of fibric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. or 2. Sapric Sulfiwassists BBBC. Other Sulfiwassists. Other Sulfiwassists that have more thickness of sapric soil materials than any other kind of organic soil materials either: 1. Fibric Sulfiwassists . In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. or 2. In the organic parts of the subsurface tier if there is no continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. In the combined thickness of the organic parts of the surface and subsurface tiers and there is a continuous layer of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Typic Sulfiwassists Sulfiwassists Key to Subgroups BBBA.160 of mineral soil material 40 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within the subsurface tier. Sapric Haplowassists BBCD. Other Haplowassists. Typic Haplowassists BBBB.

p. Other Inceptisols that have a plaggen or anthropic epipedon. whichever is shallower. or within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. or b. that has. a decrease in ESP (or SAR) values with increasing depth below 50 cm. 50 percent or more chroma of either: (1) (2) 2 or less if there are redox concentrations. 161 KC. In a layer above a densic. 173 KD. p. p. or KF. p. 167 KAC. 174 KG. Haplanthrepts. Xerepts. or 1 or less. Other Inceptisols that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Plagganthrepts. An exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 13 or more) in half or more of the soil volume within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.161 CHAPTER 11 Inceptisols Key to Suborders KA. Typic Haplanthrepts I N C d. Other Aquepts that have either: 1. Aquepts. Anthrepts that have a plaggen epipedon. p. Other Inceptisols that have a gelic soil temperature regime. or . Ustepts. within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sulfaquepts. Petraquepts. Inceptisols that have one or more of the following: 1. 167 KAB. or 2. or c. Anthrepts. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: a. 167 KE. 189 Udepts. Anthrepts Key to Great Groups KBA. A salic horizon. All Plagganthrepts (provisionally). A sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. or paralithic contact or in a layer at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. 161 KBB. lithic. A layer directly under the epipedon. Other Aquepts that have. Within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Inceptisols that have an ustic soil moisture regime. 161 Haplanthrepts Key to Subgroups KBBA. p. All Haplanthrepts (provisionally). enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. p. 182 Plagganthrepts Key to Subgroups KBAA. p. Gelepts. Typic Plagganthrepts Aquepts Key to Great Groups KAA. A histic epipedon. Aquepts that have a sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and ground water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for some time during the year. 161 KB. p. Other Inceptisols.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Other Anthrepts. one or more horizons in which plinthite or a cemented diagnostic horizon either forms a continuous phase or constitutes one-half or more of the volume. Cryepts. Other Inceptisols that have a cryic soil temperature regime. on faces of peds or in the matrix if peds are absent.

and KAJ.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is shallower. 166 KAD. 165 KAE. Cryaquepts that have. 162 KAG. whichever is shallower. Other Cryaquepts that have. Cryaquepts.02 to 2. Chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons at a depth between 15 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. or 2. mollic. Other Cryaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Other Aquepts that have a cryic soil temperature regime. one or more of the following: 1. Other Cryaquepts that have both a histic epipedon and a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic. Aquandic Cryaquepts KAFG.0 g/cm3 or less. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. p. or 3. except that it has a pH value between 3. and a. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Sulfidic materials. Other Aquepts that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A sulfuric horizon. an exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 13 or more) and a decrease in ESP (or SAR) values with increasing depth below 50 cm. Epiaquepts. 163 KAFD. or 3. or paralithic contact. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. Other Aquepts that have episaturation. Halaquepts. Histic Lithic Cryaquepts KAFC. Lithic Cryaquepts . Cryaquepts Key to Subgroups KAFA. p. or 2. or casts. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. pumice. Vermaquepts. within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Cryaquepts that have a histic epipedon. lithic. p. measured at 33 kPa water retention. p. or paralithic contact within that depth. p. 166 KAI. lithic. Other Cryaquepts that have both: 1.0 mm fraction. Gelaquepts. or 2. 167 KAH. In one or more horizons with a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. In the 0. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Histic Cryaquepts KAFF. Endoaquepts. 164 Other Aquepts. Other Cryaquepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Aquepts that have a histic. or umbric epipedon. melanic. one or more of the following: 1. in one or more layers at least 25 cm thick (cumulative) within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sulfic Cryaquepts KAFB. Vertic Cryaquepts KAFE. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.5 and 4. p.162 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. Other Cryaquepts that have one or both of the following: 1. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments.0 and does not have sulfide or other sulfur-bearing minerals. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has all of the characteristics of a sulfuric horizon.0 mm in diameter. 25 percent or more (by volume) recognizable bioturbation. and b. Fluvaquentic Cryaquepts KAFH. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. wormholes.0. p. 165 KAF. such as filled animal burrows. Fragiaquepts. Other Aquepts that have. A linear extensibility of 6. or paralithic contact. or 2. Humaquepts. Other Aquepts that have a gelic soil temperature regime.

[(Al plus 1/2 Fe. lithic. and a.Inceptisols 163 2. Aeric Humic Cryaquepts KAFI. Lithic Endoaquepts KAJC. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. Other Cryaquepts that have a mollic or umbric epipedon. and b. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Aeric Cryaquepts KAFJ. Hue of 7. Fluventic Endoaquepts KAJF. Other Endoaquepts that have. one of the following colors: 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Endoaquepts that have. or . and chroma of 3 or more.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or b.0 mm in diameter. A mollic or umbric epipedon. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. hue of 10YR or yellower. Sulfidic materials. If peds are absent. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Endoaquepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. pumice. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Endoaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. or b.5 and 4. one or more of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.2 percent or more and no densic. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. or b. A sulfuric horizon. a chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or paralithic contact.0 mm. whichever is shallower. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content I N C Endoaquepts Key to Subgroups KAJA. or 3. or 3. or paralithic contact.0 and does not have sulfide or other sulfur-bearing minerals. whichever is shallower. or 2. and pumicelike fragments. A horizon 15 cm or more thick that has all of the characteristics of a sulfuric horizon. In the 0. except that it has a pH value between 3. within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist.0 g/cm3 or less. Both a color value. Vertic Endoaquepts KAJD.0. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Sulfic Endoaquepts KAJB. or 2.0 mm fraction. Aquandic Endoaquepts KAJE. Humic Cryaquepts KAFK. Other Cryaquepts. or 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Endoaquepts that have. and 3. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.02 to 2. and either a. If peds are present. Other Endoaquepts that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic.2 percent or more and no densic. one or more of the following: 1. lithic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. and a. or paralithic contact within that depth.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact within that depth. either chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. Typic Cryaquepts 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Cryaquepts that have chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons at a depth between 15 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface.

lithic. Other Epiaquepts that have fragic soil properties either: 1. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. moist. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Epiaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Mollic Endoaquepts KAJK. or b. or b. Other Endoaquepts that have both: 1. and b. either chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. dry. Epiaquepts that have one or both of the following: 1.02 to 2. and a. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 3. Humic Endoaquepts KAJJ. or paralithic contact. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aeric Endoaquepts KAJI. whichever is shallower. or 1. Other Endoaquepts. If peds are absent.0 g/cm3 or less. In the 0. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. lithic. Vertic Epiaquepts KAIB. Other Endoaquepts that have. or paralithic contact. and pumicelike fragments. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. of 3 or less and a color value. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. If peds are present. Other Endoaquepts that have a color value. lithic. Other Epiaquepts that have. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.0. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or 2. Other Endoaquepts that have fragic soil properties: Epiaquepts Key to Subgroups KAIA. Fragic Endoaquepts KAJH. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and 2. of 3 or less and a color value. Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts KAID. Aquandic Epiaquepts KAIC. or paralithic contact within that depth.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. lithic. or 2. Typic Endoaquepts . of which more than 66 percent is cinders.2 percent or more and no densic. or paralithic contact. and chroma of 3 or more. one of the following colors: 1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. moist. dry. whichever is shallower. Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts KAJG. pumice.164 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. whichever is shallower. A linear extensibility of 6.0 mm. one or more of the following: 1. Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Hue of 7. moist.0 mm in diameter. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. or 2. or 2. Both a color value.02 to 2. and a. A color value. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface.

and a. and a. of 3 or less and a color value. Lithic Gelaquepts KAEB. Fragic Epiaquepts KAIE. Humic Fragiaquepts KADC.0 mm in diameter. Aquandic Gelaquepts KAED. chroma of 2 or more in 50 percent or more of the matrix. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. and 2.0 mm fraction. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. mollic. or 2. chroma of either: . or b. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Epiaquepts. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and chroma of 3 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Gelaquepts that have a histic epipedon. Mollic Epiaquepts KAIH. or umbric epipedon. Chroma of 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. in 50 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons either between the plow layer and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface or. or 2 or more if there are no redox concentrations. Hue of 7. Other Epiaquepts that have. Fluvaquentic Gelaquepts I N C Fragiaquepts Key to Subgroups KADA. dry. or b. Both a color value. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Epiaquepts that have a color value. of 3 or less and a color value. or 3. moist. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent in some part within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Gelaquepts that have. or 2. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Other Fragiaquepts. one or more of the following: 1. and pumicelike fragments. In the 0. Other Epiaquepts that have both: 1. If peds are present.0. Fragiaquepts that have. whichever is shallower.02 to 2. in one or more horizons between the A or Ap horizon and a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface. If peds are absent. Typic Epiaquepts 1. moist. and b. or paralithic contact. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. between depths of 15 and 75 cm. 2. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. moist. Typic Fragiaquepts Gelaquepts Key to Subgroups KAEA. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Humic Epiaquepts KAIG. Aeric Epiaquepts KAIF. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.Inceptisols 165 2. if there is no plow layer. Gelaquepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. Histic Gelaquepts KAEC. or 2. Aeric Fragiaquepts KADB. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 15 cm after mixing. lithic.0 g/cm3 or less.0 mm. A color value. Other Fragiaquepts that have a histic. measured at 33 kPa water retention. 3 or more. or paralithic contact within that depth. dry.5YR or redder in 50 percent or more of the matrix. In 50 percent or more of the matrix. lithic. pumice. Other Gelaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. either chroma of 2 or more on 50 percent or more of ped exteriors or no redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in ped interiors. one of the following colors: 1. hue of 10YR or yellower and either: a. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.

A linear extensibility of 6.02 to 2. Aquandic Humaquepts KAHD.0 mm fraction. pumice.0. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and 1. and b.7 (and less than 8 percent clay) in one or more layers at a depth between 20 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface.0 mm. with a combined thickness of 15 cm or more. Humaquepts that have an n value of either: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. One or both of the following: a. measured at 33 kPa water retention.02 to 2. or 2. In the 0. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Vertic Halaquepts KACB.0 mm fraction. An umbric or mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. In the 0.0. and 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. one or more of the following: 1. that contain 20 percent or more (by volume) cemented soil material and are within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. and pumicelike fragments. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. More than 0. or paralithic contact. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and b. whichever is shallower. or 2. More than 0. whichever is shallower. Typic Halaquepts Humaquepts Key to Subgroups KAHA. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Humic Gelaquepts KAEF. Other Humaquepts that have a histic epipedon. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Gelaquepts. or 3. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and a.0 g/cm3 or less.9 in one or more layers at a depth between 50 and 100 cm.0 g/cm3 or less. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Hydraquentic Humaquepts KAHB. Other Halaquepts that have one or more horizons.0 mm. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Aeric Halaquepts KACE. Typic Gelaquepts KACD. or 2. Halaquepts that have one or both of the following: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Gelaquepts that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquandic Halaquepts KACC.0 mm in diameter. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.2 percent Halaquepts Key to Subgroups KACA. Other Humaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Turbic Gelaquepts KAEG. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Halaquepts that have. or 2. Duric Halaquepts . one or more of the following: 1. pumice.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. Other Halaquepts. Histic Humaquepts KAHC. lithic. Other Halaquepts that have chroma of 3 or more in 40 percent or more of the matrix of one or more horizons at a depth between 15 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. and a. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. or 3.02 to 2.166 Keys to Soil Taxonomy KAEE. Other Gelaquepts that have a mollic or umbric epipedon. Other Humaquepts that have.

Sodic Vermaquepts KAGB. Cryepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon. lithic. fragipan. Fluvaquentic Humaquepts KAHF. and 2. lithic. More than 0. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or densic. Do not have free carbonates within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Placic Petraquepts Cryepts Key to Great Groups KDA. p. whichever is shallower. Other Humaquepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact. Petraquepts that have both: 1. Other Vermaquepts. Vermaquepts that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of 7 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 6 or more) in one or more subhorizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. duripan. Humicryepts. Other Cryepts that meet both of the following: KABC. Plinthic Petraquepts KABD.9 in one or more layers at a depth between 50 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface. Cumulic Humaquepts KAHE. Aeric Humaquepts KAHG. or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. A placic horizon. Other Sulfaquepts. Typic Petraquepts 1. Other Petraquepts that have one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface in which plinthite either forms a continuous phase or constitutes one-half or more of the volume.2 percent or more and no densic. or paralithic contact. lithic. Sulfaquepts that have a salic horizon within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. 171 KDB.7 (and 8 or more percent clay) in one or more layers at a depth between 20 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Cryepts that have a calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. . Other Petraquepts. or paralithic contact within that depth. p. lithic. In one-half or more of the thickness between 25 and 75 cm below the mineral soil surface and there is no placic horizon. either: a. whichever is shallower. Other Humaquepts that have hue of 5Y or redder and chroma of 3 or more in more than 40 percent of the matrix of one or more subhorizons at a depth between 15 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. Typic Sulfaquepts Vermaquepts Key to Subgroups KAGA. 168 KDC. Other Sulfaquepts that have an n value of either: 1. Have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent. Other Petraquepts that have a placic horizon. or paralithic contact within that depth. Hydraquentic Sulfaquepts KAAC. Salidic Sulfaquepts KAAB. or 2. More than 0. Other Humaquepts. lithic. Calcicryepts. Histic Placic Petraquepts KABB. Typic Humaquepts Sulfaquepts Key to Subgroups KAAA. or 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. A histic epipedon. Typic Vermaquepts I N C Petraquepts Key to Subgroups KABA.Inceptisols 167 or more and no densic.

and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. Other Calcicryepts that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Haploxerandic Dystrocryepts KDCD. or 30 or more cumulative days. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 mm fraction.0 percent or more. fragipan.0 percent or more. 2. 169 a. one or more of the following: . Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Calcicryepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter. A xeric soil moisture regime. Oxyaquic Calcicryepts KDBC. one or both of the following: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 g/cm3 or less. and 2.0 mm fraction. or b. or b.02 to 2. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe. Xeric Calcicryepts KDBD. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. In a layer. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. 168 KDD. measured at 33 kPa water retention. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. Other Calcicryepts that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm in diameter. measured at 33 kPa water retention.0 g/cm3 or less. 20 or more consecutive days. Vitrixerandic Dystrocryepts KDCE.0 mm. or densic. Lithic Dystrocryepts KDCB. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Other Dystrocryepts that have both: 1. Haplocryepts.0 mm. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. and pumicelike fragments. Dystrocryepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ustic Calcicryepts KDBE.02 to 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and (1) In the 0. pumice. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and 2. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe. measured at 33 kPa water retention. directly above a placic horizon. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Typic Calcicryepts Dystrocryepts Key to Subgroups KDCA. Dystrocryepts. p. Andic Dystrocryepts Calcicryepts Key to Subgroups KDBA. 10 cm or more thick. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Calcicryepts. A xeric soil moisture regime. Other Dystrocryepts that have both: 1.0 g/cm3 or less.0 percent or more. duripan. Other Cryepts. Calcicryepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.168 Keys to Soil Taxonomy or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and (1) In the 0. Other Dystrocryepts that have. lithic. Other Dystrocryepts that have both: 1. Lithic Calcicryepts KDBB.02 to 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or b. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. pumice. Aquandic Dystrocryepts KDCC. or c.

Xeric Dystrocryepts KDCO. cementation by organic matter and aluminum.02 to 2. In 25 percent or more of each pedon.25 percent or more and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. Folistic Dystrocryepts KDCK. Other Dystrocryepts. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower.0 mm fraction. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haplocryepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Spodic Dystrocryepts KDCN. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 0. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. and 1. Other Dystrocryepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrocryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Other Dystrocryepts that have a folistic epipedon. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. Lithic Haplocryepts KDDB. [(Al plus ½ Fe. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Dystrocryepts that have.02 to 2. Vitrandic Dystrocryepts KDCG. one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. pumice. and pumicelike fragments. or 2. Other Haplocryepts that have both: . and a.2 percent or more and no densic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Dystrocryepts that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: 1. whichever is shallower. lithic. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and b. Ustic Dystrocryepts KDCP. 2. Lamellic Dystrocryepts KDCL.0 mm. Fluvaquentic Dystrocryepts KDCH. or 2. Other Dystrocryepts that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years.12 or more and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon.0 mm in diameter. or b. or 3. 20 or more consecutive days. Eutric Dystrocryepts KDCQ. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Dystrocryepts that have a xeric soil moisture regime. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrocryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Other Dystrocryepts that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more in one or more horizons between 25 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. with or without iron.Inceptisols 169 KDCF. Other Dystrocryepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. and 2. Oxyaquic Dystrocryepts Haplocryepts Key to Subgroups KDDA. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. In the 0. Other Dystrocryepts that have. Typic Dystrocryepts I N C KDCI. or 30 or more cumulative days. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. lithic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or paralithic contact within that depth. An ODOE value of 0. One or both of the following: a. or paralithic contact within that depth. Fluventic Dystrocryepts KDCM. or paralithic contact. Aquic Dystrocryepts KDCJ.

A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm fraction. A moisture control section that is dry in some part for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years.0 percent or more.0 mm in diameter. pumice. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. pumice. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Aquandic Haplocryepts KDDC. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe.02 to 2.02 to 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or b.0 mm. and (1) In the 0. one or both of the following: a.02 to 2. Other Haplocryepts that have both: 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. and pumicelike fragments. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ustivitrandic Haplocryepts KDDG.0 g/cm3 or less. A moisture control section that is dry in some part for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years.02 to 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. percent extracted by ammonium . A xeric soil moisture regime. and 2. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. pumice. and (1) In the 0. Other Haplocryepts that have both: oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and 2. or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 mm in diameter. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Andic Haplocryepts KDDH. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. or c.0 mm in diameter. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 percent or more. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. Other Haplocryepts that have both: 1. Other Haplocryepts that have.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Haplocryepts that have both: 1. and 2.0 percent or more. or b. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm.0 mm fraction. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.170 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm in diameter. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. one or both of the following: a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and 2. and pumicelike fragments. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2.02 to 2. and pumicelike fragments. Vitrixerandic Haplocryepts KDDE. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and 1. Haploxerandic Haplocryepts KDDD. one or more of the following: a. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe.0 g/cm3 or less. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm. one or both of the following: 1.0 percent or more. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 mm. and (1) In the 0. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe. or 2. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. A xeric soil moisture regime. Haplustandic Haplocryepts KDDF. measured at 33 kPa water retention. pumice.0 mm fraction. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplocryepts that have.

20 or more consecutive days. Typic Haplocryepts Humicryepts Key to Subgroups KDAA. or 30 or more cumulative days. one or more of the following: a.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Humicryepts that have both: 1. [(Al plus ½ Fe. Calcic Haplocryepts KDDO. Other Haplocryepts that have a xeric soil moisture regime. lithic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).02 to 2. or b. lithic.0 mm. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. Lamellic Haplocryepts KDDM. pumice. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact within that depth. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. 2. or c.0 mm fraction. Aquic Haplocryepts KDDK.2 percent or more and no densic. lithic. Other Haplocryepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). whichever is shallower. Fluventic Haplocryepts KDDN. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. whichever is shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Xeric Haplocryepts KDDP. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and (1) In the 0. Other Haplocryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Other Haplocryepts. Other Haplocryepts that are dry in some part of the moisture control section for 45 or more days (cumulative) in normal years. One or both of the following: a. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. Other Haplocryepts that have. and 2. Oxyaquic Haplocryepts KDDL. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Haplocryepts that have identifiable secondary carbonates within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or paralithic contact. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe.0 percent or more.Inceptisols 171 a. or paralithic contact within that depth. Lithic Humicryepts KDAB. Humicryepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. In the 0. Fluvaquentic Haplocryepts KDDJ. and 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Haplocryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. and b. lithic. or b. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquandic Humicryepts I N C . and pumicelike fragments. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Ustic Haplocryepts KDDQ. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haplocryepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1.0 mm fraction. or 2. or paralithic contact. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.2 percent or more and no densic. and 2.02 to 2. Vitrandic Haplocryepts KDDI. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface.

A xeric soil moisture regime. Other Humicryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or paralithic contact within that depth. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Haploxerandic Humicryepts KDAD.2 percent or more and no densic. or b.02 to 2. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. A xeric soil moisture regime. In the 0. Aquic Humicryepts KDAI. one or both of the following: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Other Humicryepts that have. or paralithic contact within that depth. or 2. and (1) In the 0. and 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 percent or more. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Humicryepts that have. or 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Humicryepts KDAJ. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1.2 percent or more and no densic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Fluvaquentic Humicryepts KDAH. or 2. and 2.0 mm in diameter. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.0 mm fraction. measured at 33 kPa water retention. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact. and b. Other Humicryepts that have both: 1. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Vitrandic Humicryepts KDAG. pumice. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Vitrixerandic Humicryepts KDAE. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. pumice. whichever is shallower. lithic.02 to 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 mm fraction. Other Humicryepts that have. and (2) [(Al plus ½ Fe. [(Al plus ½ Fe. 20 or more consecutive days. one or both of the following: 1. Lamellic Humicryepts KDAK. and 2. Fluventic Humicryepts KDAL.02 to 2. and a.0 mm. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. 2. or b.172 Keys to Soil Taxonomy KDAC. lithic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. Other Humicryepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Andic Humicryepts KDAF.02 to 2.0 mm.0 mm in diameter. Other Humicryepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. One or both of the following: a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humicryepts that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: . Other Humicryepts that have both: 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Humicryepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. lithic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.0 percent or more.

Inceptisols 173 1. In one or more horizons totaling 25 cm or more in thickness within 50 cm below the mineral soil surface and there is no placic horizon. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. Lithic Dystrogelepts . lithic. p. whichever is shallower. Typic Humicryepts KCBB. p. Dystrogelepts. Andic Dystrogelepts KCBC. 173 I N C Haplogelepts Key to Subgroups KCCA.25 percent or more and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon.2 percent or more and no densic.0. or densic. or 2. Other Dystrogelepts that have. fragipan. 174 KCB. fragipan. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humicryepts that have a xeric soil moisture regime. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. Other Haplogelepts that have. 173 KCC. In one-half or more of the thickness between the mineral soil surface and the top of a placic horizon. Haplogelepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. Eutric Humicryepts KDAO. Other Dystrogelepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. duripan. Humigelepts. lithic.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Haplogelepts that have. p. and have one or both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact occurring within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or 2. duripan. Other Humicryepts. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 0. do not have irregular or broken horizon boundaries. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Turbic Dystrogelepts KCBF. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). either: 1. with or without iron. Typic Dystrogelepts Gelepts Key to Great Groups KCA. redox depletions with Dystrogelepts Key to Subgroups KCBA. or 3. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Other Dystrogelepts that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Gelepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or densic. Lithic Haplogelepts KCCB. In some part of the 10 cm thickness directly above a densic. or 2. Aquic Dystrogelepts KCBD. or paralithic contact. measured at 33 kPa water retention.12 or more and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. Xeric Humicryepts KDAN. Other Dystrogelepts that have. or paralithic contact within that depth. or 2. Andic Haplogelepts KCCC. In one-half or more of the total thickness between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. Fluventic Dystrogelepts KCBE. Other Gelepts. either: 1. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. An ODOE value of 0.0. or paralithic contact that occurs less than 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. lithic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrogelepts. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. Dystrogelepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Humicryepts that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more. Other Gelepts that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 50 percent. Spodic Humicryepts KDAM. Haplogelepts.

Oxyaquic Humigelepts Udepts Key to Great Groups KGA. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Humigelepts KCAB. lithic.0 g/cm3 or less. or 2. Other Humigelepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent.0 percent or more. Other Humigelepts that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 50 percent or more. 180 KGD. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Fluventic Haplogelepts KCCE. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. 20 or more consecutive days. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. lithic. either: 1. Other Udepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Aquic Haplogelepts KCCD. Other Humigelepts that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 60 percent or more in . do not have irregular or broken horizon boundaries. Other Udepts that have a duripan or another cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. do not have irregular or broken horizon boundaries. and have one or both of the following: 1. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Andic Humigelepts KCAC. Sulfudepts. Other Humigelepts that have.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Udepts that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. 182 KGB. p. and have one or both of the following: 1. In some part of the 10 cm thickness directly above a densic. Durudepts. Humigelepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Humigelepts Humigelepts Key to Subgroups KCAA. 175 KGC. Turbic Humigelepts KCAG. p. Free carbonates within the soils. Other Udepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon. Eutric Humigelepts KCAH. Other Humigelepts that have. Other Haplogelepts. or paralithic contact within that depth. and Al plus ½ Fe (by ammonium oxalate) of 1. Fragiudepts. 2. or 2. Other Humigelepts. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Udepts that have a sulfuric horizon within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Humudepts. or paralithic contact. In one-half or more of the total thickness between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. lithic.2 percent or more and no densic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Haplogelepts that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. or 2. Aquic Humigelepts KCAD. or paralithic contact that occurs less than 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. p. Fluventic Humigelepts KCAF. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haplogelepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. or paralithic contact within that depth. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Turbic Haplogelepts KCCF. Other Humigelepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. or 2. 180 KGE. or 30 or more cumulative days. Typic Haplogelepts KCAE. lithic.174 Keys to Soil Taxonomy chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).

redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Vertic Dystrudepts KGFD. above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Dystrudepts KGFC. one or both of the following: 1.0 g/cm3 or less. In the 0. or c. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1.0 mm. Durudepts that have both: 1. and pumicelike fragments. Dystrudepts that have both: 1. Typic Durudepts Durudepts Key to Subgroups KGBA. and b.Inceptisols 175 one or more horizons at a depth between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface or directly above a root-limiting layer if at a shallower depth. dry.0 mm in diameter. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Dystrudepts. and I N C . of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Humic Lithic Dystrudepts KGFB. and 2. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. of 3 or less and a color value.0. Vitrandic Durudepts KGBD. A linear extensibility of 6.0 mm in diameter. or 2. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. p. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. and pumicelike fragments.0 mm fraction. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.02 to 2.02 to 2. moist.0 mm fraction. and (1) In the 0. A color value. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Durudepts that have. Aquandic Durudepts KGBB. in one or more horizons above the duripan and within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more. p. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. 175 2.02 to 2.0 g/cm3 or less. one or more of the following: a. pumice. 178 KGF. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Durudepts that have.0 mm. or b. Aquic Durudepts KGBE. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and a. Other Durudepts that have. Other Durudepts. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).02 to 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Eutrudepts. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrudepts that have one or both of the following: 1. pumice. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more. lithic. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons above the duripan and within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface.0. Other Udepts. Andic Durudepts KGBC. or Dystrudepts Key to Subgroups KGFA. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Dystrudepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower.

or paralithic contact within that depth. A color value. Andic Dystrudepts KGFG.0 g/cm3 or less. and 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or c. in one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1. moist.176 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. redox depletions with . redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage). 30 or more cumulative days.0 mm.2 percent or more and no densic. or b. and 2. and a. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. Vitrandic Dystrudepts KGFH. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Fluvaquentic Dystrudepts KGFJ. Aquic Humic Dystrudepts KGFK. and 2.0 mm. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Fragiaquic Dystrudepts KGFI. Saturation with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). one or both of the following: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and pumicelike fragments. or 2. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and b. of 3 or less and a color value. lithic. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1. Fragic soil properties either: a. or b.0.0. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. whichever is shallower. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days.02 to 2. One or both of the following: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. In the 0. or b. Andic Oxyaquic Dystrudepts KGFF.0 mm in diameter.0. pumice. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.02 to 2. Other Dystrudepts that have. and pumicelike fragments.02 to 2.02 to 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. In one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. one or more of the following: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. dry. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and 1. Aquandic Dystrudepts KGFE.0 g/cm3 or less. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. and (1) In the 0. or b. Other Dystrudepts that have. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Other Dystrudepts that have. or paralithic contact. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. lithic. pumice.

or 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. of 3 or less and a color value. or natric horizon. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1. An ODOE value of 0. lithic. or paralithic contact if shallower. 20 or more consecutive days. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. cementation by organic matter and aluminum. Other Dystrudepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. dry. or paralithic contact within that depth. Other Dystrudepts that have both: 1. or b. lithic. or paralithic contact. or 2. Aquic Dystrudepts KGFL. Other Dystrudepts that have fragic soil properties either: 1. Both a ratio of measured clay in the fine-earth fraction to percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension of 0. Fragic Dystrudepts KGFN. A color value. A CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+) per kg clay. Other Dystrudepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more either at a depth of 125 cm from the top of the cambic horizon or directly above a densic.12 or more. lithic.00)] is less than 24. whichever is shallower.Inceptisols 177 chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). lithic.6 or more and the following: the CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) divided by the product of three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon (but no more than 1. lithic. Spodic Dystrudepts KGFS. Humic Psammentic Dystrudepts KGFP. 30 or more cumulative days. whichever is shallower. Ruptic-Alfic Dystrudepts KGFU. Other Dystrudepts that have in each pedon a cambic horizon that includes 10 to 50 percent (by volume) illuvial parts I N C . In each pedon a cambic horizon that includes 10 to 50 percent (by volume) illuvial parts that otherwise meet the requirements for an argillic. A sandy particle-size class in all subhorizons throughout the particle-size control section. or 2. or paralithic contact if shallower: 1. in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. dry. and a value half as high or lower in an overlying horizon. One or both of the following: a. moist. and half that amount or less in an overlying horizon. Other Dystrudepts that have a horizon 5 cm or more thick that has one or more of the following: 1. Other Dystrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or paralithic contact. Fluventic Humic Dystrudepts KGFQ. A color value. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and 2. or paralithic contact within that depth. or 2. Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling 0. or 3. In 25 percent or more of each pedon. or 2. Other Dystrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1.25 or more. kandic.2 percent or more and no densic. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Oxic Dystrudepts KGFT. and 2. and 1.2 percent or more and no densic. Fluventic Dystrudepts KGFR. with or without iron. and 2. moist. Other Dystrudepts that have. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Lamellic Dystrudepts KGFO. of 3 or less and a color value. Oxyaquic Dystrudepts KGFM. lithic. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing.

and pumicelike fragments. lithic. One or both of the following: a. or b. of 3 or less and a color value. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Ruptic-Ultic Dystrudepts KGFV. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or b. whichever is shallower. kandic. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. moist. Other Eutrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. and b. and a. and 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also Eutrudepts Key to Subgroups KGEA. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Fragic soil properties either: a.0 g/cm3 or less. of 3 or less and a color value. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. dry. pumice. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Other Eutrudepts that have. Vertic Eutrudepts KGEE. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more . throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage). More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. lithic. Eutrudepts that have both: 1.0 mm in diameter. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. one or both of the following: 1. or 2. and 2. Other Eutrudepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Eutrudepts KGEC. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Anthraquic Eutrudepts KGEH. Other Eutrudepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Eutrudepts that have anthraquic conditions. Other Dystrudepts that have a color value.02 to 2.02 to 2. Humic Dystrudepts KGFW. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fragiaquic Eutrudepts KGEI. or paralithic contact.0 mm fraction. Other Dystrudepts. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. dry. or natric horizon. Vitrandic Eutrudepts KGEG. Aquertic Eutrudepts KGED. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Andic Eutrudepts KGEF.178 Keys to Soil Taxonomy that otherwise meet the requirements for an argillic. Other Eutrudepts that have. or paralithic contact.0 mm. moist. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0. whichever is shallower. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. A linear extensibility of 6. and 1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value. and 2. Humic Lithic Eutrudepts KGEB. Other Eutrudepts that have both: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. In the 0. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Eutrudepts that have both: 1. Typic Dystrudepts for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.

Other Eutrudepts that do not have free carbonates throughout any horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ruptic-Alfic Eutrudepts KGEU. Rendollic Eutrudepts KGET. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Aquic Eutrudepts KGEL. Other Eutrudepts that have a cambic horizon that includes 10 to 50 percent (by volume) illuvial parts that otherwise meet the requirements for an argillic. lithic. One or both of the following: a. and 2. or paralithic contact within that depth. Other Eutrudepts that have. whichever is shallower. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or natric horizon. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).2 percent or more and no densic. Oxyaquic Eutrudepts KGEM. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrudepts that have fragic soil properties: 1. Fragic Eutrudepts KGEN. and 2. in all horizons between the top of the cambic horizon and either a depth of 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or a densic. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. lithic. and 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Dystric Eutrudepts KGES. or b. Other Eutrudepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. and I N C . moist. or 2. have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).2 percent or more and no densic. including fragments 2 to 75 mm in diameter. Aquic Dystric Eutrudepts KGEK. lithic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and a color value. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact if shallower. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the 1. Lamellic Eutrudepts KGEO. or 30 or more cumulative days.2 percent or more and no densic. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Eutrudepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts KGEJ. whichever is shallower. Other Eutrudepts that have a color value. or paralithic contact within that depth. Other Eutrudepts that meet both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact within that depth. lithic. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Arenic Eutrudepts KGER. Other Eutrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. lithic. Do not have free carbonates throughout any horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. lithic. Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts KGEP. lithic. in one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Other Eutrudepts that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria in all horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.Inceptisols 179 aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Eutrudepts that have a CaCO3 equivalent of 40 percent or more. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. dry. or paralithic contact. or 2. Fluventic Eutrudepts KGEQ. Do not have free carbonates throughout any horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact. or b. kandic. Have one or both of the following: a.

A color value.0.0 g/cm3 or less. An umbric or mollic epipedon. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and a.02 to 2. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. lithic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vitrandic Fragiudepts KGCC. and pumicelike fragments. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or 2. Typic Eutrudepts Humudepts Key to Subgroups KGDA. one or more of the following: a. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or paralithic contact. Lithic Humudepts KGDB. Humudepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm in diameter. Other Humudepts that have one or both of the following: 1. pumice. or 2. in one or more horizons within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2.0 mm fraction. Aquic Fragiudepts KGCD.02 to 2. Other Fragiudepts that have. Other Humudepts that have both: 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Humic Eutrudepts KGEV. or b. dry. A linear extensibility of 6.0 g/cm3 or less. and b. pumice.02 to 2. Other Fragiudepts.0 mm in diameter. In the 0.0. or c.0 mm fraction. of 3 or less and a color value. and (1) In the 0. Typic Fragiudepts .0 mm. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Fragiudepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Eutrudepts. one or both of the following: 1. In one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Humic Fragiudepts KGCE. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Vertic Humudepts KGDC. Other Humudepts that have both: 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquandic Humudepts KGDD. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Fragiudepts that have. and 2. and pumicelike fragments.0 g/cm3 or Fragiudepts Key to Subgroups KGCA.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0 mm. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.180 Keys to Soil Taxonomy mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Fragiudepts that have. Andic Fragiudepts KGCB. whichever is shallower. moist. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.

Other Humudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Fluvaquentic Humudepts 2. pumice.02 to 2. Other Humudepts that have a sandy particle-size class in all subhorizons throughout the particle-size control section. and 1. lithic.0 mm in diameter. Other Humudepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. and a. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. whichever is shallower.0 g/cm3 or less. In the 0. or 2.00)] is less than 24. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and pumicelike fragments. Andic Oxyaquic Humudepts KGDH. or paralithic contact. lithic. Oxic Humudepts KGDL. One or both of the following: a. b. One or both of the following: a. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Aquic Humudepts KGDI. or paralithic contact within that depth. A CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+) per kg clay.0. or paralithic contact within that depth. I N C . Andic Humudepts KGDF. or paralithic contact if shallower: 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Oxyaquic Humudepts KGDJ. lithic. Other Humudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. Vitrandic Humudepts KGDG.Inceptisols 181 less. and 2. lithic. Both a ratio of measured clay in the fine-earth fraction to percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension of 0. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Psammentic Humudepts KGDK. and 2. In one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0 mm. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or paralithic contact. and 2.02 to 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 20 or more consecutive days. and 1. lithic. Other Humudepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: KGDE. or 30 or more cumulative days.0 mm fraction. An umbric or mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and b.2 percent or more and no densic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Humudepts that have. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or 30 or more cumulative days. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Cumulic Humudepts KGDM. or b. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. one or both of the following: 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Humudepts that have.0. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Humudepts that have. Saturation with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a.6 or more and the following: the CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) divided by the product of three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon (but no more than 1. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Humudepts that have. in one or more horizons within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface.

2 percent or more and no densic.182 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 1. Other Humudepts that do not have a cambic horizon and do not. p. All Sulfudepts (provisionally). Eutric Humudepts KGDP. In some part of the 10 cm thickness directly above a densic. Fluventic Humudepts KGDN. or paralithic contact. Ustepts that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Entic Humudepts KGDQ. lithic. lithic. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Calciustepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon. Other Ustepts that have both: 1. Other Calciustepts that have both: 1. or paralithic contact. or b. except for the color requirements. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in all parts above the calcic or petrocalcic . Calciustepts that have a petrocalcic horizon and a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one-half or more of the total thickness between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. Lithic Calciustepts KEBC. Typic Sulfudepts Ustepts Key to Great Groups KEA. Other Humudepts that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 60 percent or more either: 1. Typic Humudepts horizon. Durustepts. 183 KEB. and 2. Other Humudepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick. whichever is shallower. or 2. whichever is shallower. after the soil between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm has been mixed. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 60 percent in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. and 2. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. Haplustepts. lithic. Other Humudepts. Other Ustepts. or paralithic contact within that depth. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in Sulfudepts Key to Subgroups KGAA.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. p. 189 KED. No free carbonates within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. 183 KEF. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. p. Either free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. lithic. or 2. Other Ustepts that meet both of the following: 1. One or both of the following: a. p. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Dystrustepts. or paralithic contact that occurs less than 50 cm below the mineral soil surface. or b. 185 Calciustepts Key to Subgroups KEBA. Pachic Humudepts KGDO. one of the following: a. p. Calciustepts. and 2. Lithic Petrocalcic Calciustepts KEBB. in any part of the umbric or mollic epipedon. Humustepts. 182 KEC.

either: 1. or c. Typic Calciustepts I N C Durustepts Key to Subgroups KEAA. and b. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. one of the following: a. one of the following: 1. Other Calciustepts that have. whichever is shallower. Other Calciustepts that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aridic Calciustepts KEBI. isomesic. isomesic. or 2. lithic. All Durustepts (provisionally). and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 3. Torrertic Calciustepts KEBD. A hyperthermic. or 2. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.Inceptisols 183 some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Calciustepts that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Dystrustepts KEDB. Petrocalcic Calciustepts KEBF. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Gypsic Calciustepts KEBG. A hyperthermic. Other Calciustepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Udic Calciustepts KEBJ. isomesic. Other Dystrustepts that have both: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or paralithic contact. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for . A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for four-tenths or less of the consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Typic Durustepts Dystrustepts Key to Subgroups KEDA. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Vertic Calciustepts KEBE. Other Calciustepts that have. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. A hyperthermic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Other Calciustepts. Other Calciustepts that have. Dystrustepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. A linear extensibility of 6. Aquic Calciustepts KEBH.

pumice. One or both of the following: a. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and a. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and b. or 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention. lithic. have one of the following: 1. and 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or paralithic contact within that depth. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.0 mm. A hyperthermic. or paralithic contact. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or 2. or b. Other Dystrustepts that have. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in 6 normal years.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Dystrustepts that have. lithic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or paralithic contact. and pumicelike fragments. Other Dystrustepts that have one or both of the following: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. Vitrandic Dystrustepts KEDF.02 to 2. Other Dystrustepts that have. A hyperthermic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Dystrustepts that. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.0 mm fraction. Aquic Dystrustepts KEDG.184 Keys to Soil Taxonomy four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. whichever is shallower. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. A linear extensibility of 6. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. In the 0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. or 3. or b. or c. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0 mm in diameter. A linear extensibility of 6. Vertic Dystrustepts KEDD. isomesic. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. whichever is shallower. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or 2. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 . isomesic. Other Dystrustepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Fluventic Dystrustepts KEDH. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Torrertic Dystrustepts KEDC. or 2. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower.0. lithic.2 percent or more and no densic. one or both of the following: 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.02 to 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. lithic. Andic Dystrustepts KEDE.

A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. or c. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. and b. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Both a ratio of measured clay in the fine-earth fraction to percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension of 0. Haplustepts that have: 1. A CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+) per kg clay. or b. Other Haplustepts that have both: 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or paralithic contact. or . Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Other Dystrustepts that have. or paralithic contact if shallower: 1. Humic Dystrustepts KEDK. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A hyperthermic. Other Haplustepts that have both: I N C Haplustepts Key to Subgroups KEEA. isomesic. in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. either: a. Lithic Haplustepts KEEC. A hyperthermic. Other Haplustepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aridic Dystrustepts KEDI. Other Dystrustepts that have a color value.00)] is less than 24. lithic. and 2.Inceptisols 185 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.6 or more and the following: the CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) divided by the product of three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon (but no more than 1. dry. lithic. isomesic. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Oxic Dystrustepts KEDJ. or 2. One or both of the following: a. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aridic Lithic Haplustepts KEEB. Other Dystrustepts. of 3 or less and a color value. whichever is shallower. Udertic Haplustepts KEED. one of the following: a. moist. Typic Dystrustepts c. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.

186

Keys to Soil Taxonomy

1. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, one of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or c. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; and 2. One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Torrertic Haplustepts KEEE. Other Haplustepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Haplustepts KEEF. Other Haplustepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm

of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Haplustepts KEEG. Other Haplustepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Haplustepts KEEH. Other Haplustepts that have anthraquic conditions. Anthraquic Haplustepts KEEI. Other Haplustepts that have, in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Haplustepts KEEJ. Other Haplustepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either: 1. 2. 20 or more consecutive days; or 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Haplustepts KEEK. Other Haplustepts that have, in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact if shallower: 1. A CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+) per kg clay; or 2. Both a ratio of measured clay in the fine-earth fraction to percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension of 0.6 or more and the following: the CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) divided by the product of three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon (but no more than 1.00)] is less than 24. Oxic Haplustepts

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KEEL. Other Haplustepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lamellic Haplustepts KEEM. Other Haplustepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent; and 1. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, one of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or c. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; and 2. One or both of the following: a. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface, an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.2 percent or more and no densic, lithic, or paralithic contact within that depth; or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Torrifluventic Haplustepts KEEN. Other Haplustepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent; and 1. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, one of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or

b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or c. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and 2. One or both of the following: a. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface, an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.2 percent or more and no densic, lithic, or paralithic contact within that depth; or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Udifluventic Haplustepts KEEO. Other Haplustepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface, an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.2 percent or more and no densic, lithic, or paralithic contact within that depth; or 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluventic Haplustepts KEEP. Other Haplustepts that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Gypsic Haplustepts KEEQ. Other Haplustepts that have both: 1. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, one of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a

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moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or c. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Haplocalcidic Haplustepts KEER. Other Haplustepts that have both:

temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 3. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and b. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aridic Haplustepts KEEU. Other Haplustepts that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent in some horizon between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface, whichever is deeper, and either a depth of 75 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Dystric Haplustepts KEEV. Other Haplustepts that, when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, have one of the following: 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 3. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Udic Haplustepts KEEW. Other Haplustepts. Typic Haplustepts

1. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, one of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 105 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or c. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Calcic Udic Haplustepts KEES. Other Haplustepts that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Haplustepts KEET. Other Haplustepts that, when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, have one of the following: 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil

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Humustepts
Key to Subgroups KECA. Humustepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Humustepts KECB. Other Humustepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Humustepts KECC. Other Humustepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Humustepts KECD. Other Humustepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. 2. 20 or more consecutive days; or 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Humustepts KECE. Other Humustepts that have, in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact if shallower: 1. A CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+) per kg clay; or 2. Both a ratio of measured clay in the fine-earth fraction to percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension of 0.6 or more and the following: the CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) divided by the product of three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon (but no more than 1.00)] is less than 24. Oxic Humustepts

KECF. Other Humustepts that, when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture, have one of the following: 1. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC; or 3. A hyperthermic, isomesic, or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC; and b. Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aridic Humustepts KECG. Other Humustepts. Typic Humustepts
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Xerepts
Key to Great Groups
KFA. Xerepts that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Durixerepts, p. 190 KFB. Other Xerepts that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fragixerepts, p. 192 KFC. Other Xerepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon. Humixerepts, p. 194 KFD. Other Xerepts that have both: 1. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. Free carbonates in all parts above the calcic or petrocalcic horizon, after the soil between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm has been mixed. Calcixerepts, p. 190

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KFE.

Other Xerepts that have both of the following:

1. No free carbonates within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. A base saturation (by NH4OAc) of less than 60 percent in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 75 cm from the mineral soil surface. Dystroxerepts, p. 191 KFF. Other Xerepts. Haploxerepts, p. 193

b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Calcixerepts KFDF. Other Calcixerepts that have, in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Calcixerepts KFDG. Other Calcixerepts. Typic Calcixerepts

Calcixerepts
Key to Subgroups KFDA. Calcixerepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Calcixerepts KFDB. Other Calcixerepts that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Calcixerepts KFDC. Other Calcixerepts that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrocalcic Calcixerepts KFDD. Other Calcixerepts that have an exchangeable sodium percentage of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 13 or more) in one or more subhorizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sodic Calcixerepts KFDE. Other Calcixerepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and

Durixerepts
Key to Subgroups KFAA. Durixerepts that have both: 1. In one or more horizons above the duripan and within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface, distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage); and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more, above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or more of the following: a. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0; or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or c. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and (1) In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Durixerepts KFAB. Other Durixerepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more, above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Durixerepts KFAC. Other Durixerepts that have, throughout one or more

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horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more, above the duripan and within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Durixerepts KFAD. Other Durixerepts that have, in one or more horizons above the duripan and within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface, distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Durixerepts KFAE. Other Durixerepts that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. Entic Durixerepts KFAF. Other Durixerepts. Typic Durixerepts

of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or more of the following: a. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0; or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or c. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and (1) In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Dystroxerepts KFED. Other Dystroxerepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Dystroxerepts KFEE. Other Dystroxerepts that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Dystroxerepts KFEF. Other Dystroxerepts that have both: 1. Fragic soil properties either: a. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick; and

Dystroxerepts
Key to Subgroups KFEA. Dystroxerepts that have both: 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. A color value, moist, of 3 or less and a color value, dry, of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Humic Lithic Dystroxerepts KFEB. Other Dystroxerepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Dystroxerepts KFEC. Other Dystroxerepts that have both: 1. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage); and 2. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness

I N C

0 mm in diameter. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm. Andic Fragixerepts KFBB. lithic. or paralithic contact within that depth. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface.192 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. A color value.0 g/cm3 or less. lithic. Other Dystroxerepts that have. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). one or both of the following: 1. Other Dystroxerepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. Fragixerepts that have. lithic.02 to 2. Fragiaquic Dystroxerepts KFEG. Aquic Dystroxerepts KFEI. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and 2. moist.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Dystroxerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. or paralithic contact. Typic Dystroxerepts Fragixerepts Key to Subgroups KFBA. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage). throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. pumice. or 2. of 3 or less and a color value. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact within that depth. and pumicelike fragments.0. or 2. and 1. or 30 or more cumulative days. Fragic Dystroxerepts KFEK. whichever is shallower. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and 1. lithic. Humic Dystroxerepts KFEN. or b.2 percent or more and no densic. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. or paralithic contact within that depth. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. moist. and . One or both of the following: a. Oxyaquic Dystroxerepts KFEJ. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. One or both of the following: a. or b. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. Other Fragixerepts that have. of 3 or less and a color value. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. 20 or more consecutive days. measured at 33 kPa water retention. whichever is shallower. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. 2. dry. or 2. Other Dystroxerepts. Fluventic Dystroxerepts KFEM. lithic. Fluventic Humic Dystroxerepts KFEL. Other Dystroxerepts that have a color value. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). lithic. Other Dystroxerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. dry. Fluvaquentic Dystroxerepts KFEH. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Dystroxerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent.2 percent or more and no densic. Other Dystroxerepts that have fragic soil properties either: 1.

Other Haploxerepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0. of 3 or less and a color value. Other Fragixerepts that have one or both of the following: 1. or c. An umbric or mollic epipedon. or paralithic contact. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Typic Fragixerepts KFFD.02 to 2. dry. whichever is shallower. moist. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing.0 mm fraction.0 g/cm3 or less. Saturation with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. in one or more horizons within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface.Inceptisols 193 a. In the 0. one or more of the following: a. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haploxerepts that have both: 1. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. b.0 mm. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Aquic Fragixerepts KFBD. Aquandic Haploxerepts KFFE. and 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Fragixerepts. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and 2. Other Haploxerepts that have both: 1.0 mm fraction. and pumicelike fragments. Other Haploxerepts that have one or both of the following: 1. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. dry. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. lithic. or 2. Humic Lithic Haploxerepts KFFB.02 to 2.0. 20 or more consecutive days.0 g/cm3 or less. Humic Fragixerepts KFBE. or 2. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Haploxerepts that have. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. In one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Haploxerepts KFFC. pumice. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Saturation with water within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: . Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and b. Andic Haploxerepts KFFG. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Andic Oxyaquic Haploxerepts I N C Haploxerepts Key to Subgroups KFFA. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and (1) In the 0. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 g/cm3 or less.0 mm in diameter. of 3 or less and a color value. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. Haploxerepts that have both: 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A color value. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A color value. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Vitrandic Fragixerepts KFBC. Other Haploxerepts that have both: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0. Vertic Haploxerepts KFFF. or b. Other Fragixerepts that have. moist.

Humic Haploxerepts KFFP. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Fluventic Haploxerepts KFFN. and a. Other Haploxerepts that have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. Aquic Haploxerepts KFFK. A clayey.02 to 2. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. and pumicelike fragments. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Lamellic Haploxerepts KFFL. pumice. Fragic Haploxerepts KFFM. of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) either throughout the upper 18 cm of the mineral soil (unmixed) or between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm after mixing. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). clayey-skeletal. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Oxyaquic Vitrandic Haploxerepts KFFH. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact within that depth. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm in diameter. lithic. and 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haploxerepts that have a calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class and depth combinations: 1. lithic. A sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or more of the following: a.0 mm. or b. or 30 or more cumulative days.194 Keys to Soil Taxonomy a. Other Haploxerepts that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.2 percent or more and no densic. moist. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. and (1) In the 0. or 2. Other Haploxerepts that have. or 2. Vitrandic Haploxerepts KFFI. Other Haploxerepts that have fragic soil properties either: Humixerepts Key to Subgroups KFCA. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2. Calcic Haploxerepts KFFO. fine. In the 0. Gypsic Haploxerepts KFFJ. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Lithic Humixerepts KFCB. Other Haploxerepts that have.0 mm fraction. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil .0 mm fraction. or 2. one or both of the following: 1. Humixerepts that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less and a color value. Other Haploxerepts. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. dry. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.0 mm in diameter.0 mm. and pumicelike fragments. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. pumice. b.02 to 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and b. Other Haploxerepts that have a color value. 20 or more consecutive days. Any other particle-size class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or 3.02 to 2. Typic Haploxerepts 2. Other Humixerepts that have both: 1. or paralithic contact. or very-fine particle-size class and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.

2. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. In the 0. or paralithic contact within that depth. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. whichever is shallower. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Humixerepts. Aquandic Humixerepts KFCC. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Humixerepts that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. or 2. Other Humixerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent. or b. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humixerepts that have. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon.02 to 2. in any part of the umbric or mollic epipedon. and pumicelike fragments. Other Humixerepts that have.0 mm. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Entic Humixerepts KFCK.0. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or c. Other Humixerepts that do not have a cambic horizon and do not. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 g/cm3 or less. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. or b. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.2 percent or more and no densic. or paralithic contact. one or both of the following: 1. and (1) In the 0. Other Humixerepts that have an umbric or mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).02 to 2. lithic. 5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 g/cm3 or less. Other Humixerepts that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. and pumicelike fragments.0.Inceptisols 195 surface. except for the color requirements. measured at 33 kPa water retention. 20 or more consecutive days.0 mm fraction. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. lithic. and 2. and 1. At a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. and a. Oxyaquic Humixerepts KFCG. Aquic Humixerepts KFCF. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Other Humixerepts that have. pumice. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Andic Humixerepts KFCD.0 mm in diameter. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and 2. or paralithic contact within that depth. Cumulic Humixerepts KFCH. or 30 or more cumulative days. whichever is shallower. Pachic Humixerepts KFCJ.0 mm fraction. an organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. An umbric or mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. Typic Humixerepts I N C . lithic. and b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Fluventic Humixerepts KFCI. pumice. One or both of the following: a. Vitrandic Humixerepts KFCE.2 percent or more and no densic. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.02 to 2. or 2. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. one or more of the following: a. lithic.02 to 2.0 mm.

.

or paralithic contact or in a layer at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. 5G. or both. or (c) A color value. and 4. or (b) A color value. A soil temperature regime that is warmer than cryic. p. or (2) Directly below the mollic epipedon. and either lies directly below the mollic epipedon or separates horizons that together meet all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon. A calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon. or 2. the requirement for redoximorphic features is waived. p. Chroma of 1 or less in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. or b. Chroma of 2 in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. with chroma of 1 or less. has its lower boundary 18 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. or 5B. Albolls. moist. and 2. and redox concentrations. Aquolls. 199 . or 4. a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 1 or less.5Y or yellower. An argillic or natric horizon. moist. A histic epipedon overlying the mollic epipedon. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one or more of the following: 1. whichever is shallower. or (f) Hue of 5GY. moist. chroma of 2.5Y. hue of 10YR or redder. or M O L (g) Any color if it results from uncoated sand grains. Mollisols that have all of the following: 1.5 cm or more thick. redox concentrations in the form of masses or concretions. of 4 and chroma of 1 or less. one of the following matrix colors: (a) A color value. or 5.alpha-dipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. or (b) 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less on faces of peds or in the matrix. in a layer above a densic. enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. 5BG. An albic horizon that has chroma of 2 or less and is 2. and some redox depletions with a color value. One of the following colors: a. and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or (c) 50 percent or more chroma of 1 on faces of peds or in the matrix and hue of 2. of 4. Other Mollisols that have. hue of 5Y.197 CHAPTER 12 Mollisols Key to Suborders IA. or 3. At a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. An exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 15 or more (or a sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] of 13 or more) in the upper part of the mollic epipedon and a decrease in ESP (or SAR) values with increasing depth below 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. and either (1) Distinct or prominent redox concentrations in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. and 3. lithic. or (d) 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or less on faces of peds or in the matrix. that extends to a lithic contact within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 6. moist. 198 IB. and redox concentrations. In one or more subhorizons of the albic horizon and/or of the argillic or natric horizon and within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. (2) Either directly below the mollic epipedon or within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if a calcic horizon intervenes. or 1 If the mollic epipedon extends to a lithic contact within 30 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. of 5 or more.1 and either (1) Distinct or prominent redox concentrations in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. or (e) 50 percent or more chroma of 0 on faces of peds or in the matrix. hue of 2. and redox concentrations. and redox concentrations. of 4 or more and one of the following: (a) 50 percent or more chroma of 1 on faces of peds or in the matrix. chroma of 2 or less.

or Rendolls. either within or directly below the mollic epipedon. Have.0. Other Mollisols that have either an ustic soil moisture regime or an aridic soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. Albolls that have a natric horizon. whichever is shallower. One or both of the following: a. A linear extensibility of 6. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. Argiaquic Argialbolls IABE. A linear extensibility of 6. and has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 206 Other Mollisols that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Other Mollisols that: Have a mollic epipedon that is less than 50 cm thick. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Cryolls. Do not have an abrupt textural change from the albic to the argillic horizon. Other Argialbolls that do not have an abrupt textural change from the albic to the argillic horizon. 198 Argialbolls Key to Subgroups IABA. A cryic soil temperature regime. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. mineral soil materials less than 75 mm in diameter that have a CaCO3 equivalent of 40 percent or more. or b. Xeric Argialbolls IABF. have a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days during the 120 days following the summer solstice. 230 IG. Other Argialbolls that have. one or more of the following: 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Albolls. a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days during the 120 days following the summer solstice. Other Mollisols that have a gelic soil temperature regime. Argialbolls.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Gelolls. lithic. Xerolls. A udic soil moisture regime. p. or 3. or paralithic contact. 215 IH. Have either or both: a. and 4. and 2. p. p. Other Argialbolls that: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Argialbolls that. p. p. 203 b. p. Ustolls. Udolls.198 Keys to Soil Taxonomy IC. Argiaquic Xeric Argialbolls IABD. 207 ID. Other Mollisols that have either a xeric soil moisture regime or an aridic soil moisture regime that borders on xeric. If not irrigated. 207 Albolls Key to Great Groups IAA.0 g/cm3 or less. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that . p. p. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. have a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for 45 or more consecutive days during the 120 days following the summer solstice. Xerertic Argialbolls IABB. If not irrigated. Vertic Argialbolls IABC. Other Mollisols. 199 IAB. if not irrigated. lithic. and 2. Natralbolls. 1. Other Argialbolls that have one or both of the following: 1. or 2. Argialbolls that have both: 1. IE. IF. 2. and Do not have an argillic or calcic horizon.

Mollisols

199

2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 3. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Argialbolls IABG. Other Argialbolls. Typic Argialbolls

Argiaquolls
Key to Subgroups IBEA. Argiaquolls that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particlesize class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. Arenic Argiaquolls IBEB. Other Argiaquolls that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 100 cm or more. Grossarenic Argiaquolls IBEC. Other Argiaquolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Argiaquolls IBED. Other Argiaquolls that have an argillic horizon that, with increasing depth, has a clay increase of 20 percent or more (absolute, in the fine-earth fraction) within its upper 7.5 cm. Abruptic Argiaquolls IBEE. Other Argiaquolls. Typic Argiaquolls
M O L

Natralbolls
Key to Subgroups IAAA. Natralbolls that have visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. Leptic Natralbolls IAAB. Other Natralbolls. Typic Natralbolls

Aquolls
Key to Great Groups
IBA. Aquolls that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Cryaquolls, p. 200 IBB. Other Aquolls that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Duraquolls, p. 200 IBC. Other Aquolls that have a natric horizon. Natraquolls, p. 202 IBD. Other Aquolls that have a calcic or gypsic horizon within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface but do not have an argillic horizon unless it is a buried horizon. Calciaquolls, p. 199 IBE. Other Aquolls that have an argillic horizon. Argiaquolls, p. 199 IBF. Other Aquolls that have episaturation. Epiaquolls, p. 201 IBG. Other Aquolls. Endoaquolls, p. 200

Calciaquolls
Key to Subgroups IBDA. Calciaquolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrocalcic Calciaquolls IBDB. Other Calciaquolls that have 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more on faces of peds or in the matrix of one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface or that have the following colors directly below the mollic epipedon: 1. Hue of 2.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or more; or 2. Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or more; or 3. Hue of 2.5Y or yellower and chroma of 2 or more if there are no distinct or prominent redox concentrations. Aeric Calciaquolls

200

Keys to Soil Taxonomy

IBDC.

Other Calciaquolls. Typic Calciaquolls

IBAG. Other Cryaquolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick. Cumulic Cryaquolls IBAH. Other Cryaquolls. Typic Cryaquolls

Cryaquolls
Key to Subgroups IBAA. Cryaquolls that have one or both of the following:

1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Cryaquolls IBAB. Other Cryaquolls that have a histic epipedon. Histic Cryaquolls

Duraquolls
Key to Subgroups IBBA. Duraquolls that have a natric horizon. Natric Duraquolls

IBBB. Other Duraquolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks between the soil surface and the top of the duripan that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that is above the duripan; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the soil surface and the top of the duripan. Vertic Duraquolls IBBC. Other Duraquolls that have an argillic horizon. Argic Duraquolls Other Duraquolls. Typic Duraquolls

IBAC. Other Cryaquolls that have a buried layer of organic soil materials, 20 cm or more thick, that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Thapto-Histic Cryaquolls IBAD. Other Cryaquolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or more of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0; or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 3. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Cryaquolls IBAE. Other Cryaquolls that have an argillic horizon. Argic Cryaquolls

IBBD.

Endoaquolls
Key to Subgroups IBGA. Endoaquolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Endoaquolls IBGB. Other Endoaquolls that have both: 1. One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and 2. A mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. Cumulic Vertic Endoaquolls

IBAF. Other Cryaquolls that have a calcic horizon either within or directly below the mollic epipedon. Calcic Cryaquolls

Mollisols

201

IBGC. 1.

Other Endoaquolls that have both of the following: One or both of the following:

plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0; or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 3. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Endoaquolls IBGH. Other Endoaquolls that have a horizon, 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface, that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Duric Endoaquolls IBGI. Other Endoaquolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. Cumulic Endoaquolls IBGJ. Other Endoaquolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls IBGK. Other Endoaquolls. Typic Endoaquolls
M O L

a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and 2. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluvaquentic Vertic Endoaquolls IBGD. Other Endoaquolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Endoaquolls IBGE. Other Endoaquolls that have a histic epipedon. Histic Endoaquolls

Epiaquolls
Key to Subgroups IBFA. 1. Epiaquolls that have both of the following: One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

IBGF. Other Endoaquolls that have a buried layer of organic soil materials, 20 cm or more thick, that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Thapto-Histic Endoaquolls IBGG. Other Endoaquolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or more of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al

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Keys to Soil Taxonomy

b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and 2. A mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. Cumulic Vertic Epiaquolls IBFB. Other Epiaquolls that have both: 1. One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and 2. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluvaquentic Vertic Epiaquolls IBFC. Other Epiaquolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Epiaquolls IBFD. Other Epiaquolls that have a histic epipedon. Histic Epiaquolls IBFE. Other Epiaquolls that have a buried layer of organic soil materials, 20 cm or more thick, that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Thapto-Histic Epiaquolls

IBFF. Other Epiaquolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or more of the following: 1. A fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0; or 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 3. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquandic Epiaquolls IBFG. Other Epiaquolls that have a horizon, 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface, that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Duric Epiaquolls IBFH. Other Epiaquolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. Cumulic Epiaquolls IBFI. Other Epiaquolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Fluvaquentic Epiaquolls IBFJ. Other Epiaquolls. Typic Epiaquolls

Natraquolls
Key to Subgroups IBCA. Natraquolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-

Mollisols

203

shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Natraquolls IBCB. Other Natraquolls that have a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. Glossic Natraquolls IBCC. Other Natraquolls. Typic Natraquolls

IEDB. Other Argicryolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Argicryolls IEDC. Other Argicryolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Argicryolls IEDD. Other Argicryolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Argicryolls IEDE. Other Argicryolls that have an argillic horizon that, with increasing depth, has a clay increase of 20 percent or more (absolute, in the fine-earth fraction) within its upper 7.5 cm. Abruptic Argicryolls IEDF. Other Argicryolls that have, in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface, redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Argicryolls IEDG. Other Argicryolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. 20 or more consecutive days; or
M O L

Cryolls
Key to Great Groups
IEA. Cryolls that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Duricryolls, p. 204 IEB. Other Cryolls that have a natric horizon. Natricryolls, p. 206 Other Cryolls that have both:

IEC.

1. An argillic horizon that has its upper boundary 60 cm or more below the mineral soil surface; and 2. A texture class finer than loamy fine sand in all horizons above the argillic horizon. Palecryolls, p. 206 IED. Other Cryolls that have an argillic horizon. Argicryolls, p. 203 IEE. Other Cryolls that have both: 1. A calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; and 2. In all parts above the calcic or petrocalcic horizon, after the materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm have been mixed, either free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser. Calcicryolls, p. 204 IEF. Other Cryolls. Haplocryolls, p. 204

Argicryolls
Key to Subgroups IEDA. Argicryolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Argicryolls

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Keys to Soil Taxonomy

2.

30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Argicryolls

than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Calcicryolls IEEC. Other Calcicryolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrocalcic Calcicryolls IEED. Other Calcicryolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Pachic Calcicryolls IEEE. Other Calcicryolls that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Ustic Calcicryolls IEEF. Other Calcicryolls that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Xeric Calcicryolls IEEG. Other Calcicryolls. Typic Calcicryolls

IEDH.

Other Argicryolls that have both:

1. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand; and 2. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Pachic Argicryolls IEDI. Other Argicryolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Pachic Argicryolls IEDJ. Other Argicryolls that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Argicryolls IEDK. Other Argicryolls that have either:

1. Above the argillic horizon, an albic horizon or a horizon that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon; or 2. A glossic horizon, or interfingering of albic materials into the upper part of the argillic horizon, or skeletans of clean silt and sand covering 50 percent or more of the faces of peds in the upper 5 cm of the argillic horizon. Alfic Argicryolls IEDL. Other Argicryolls that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Ustic Argicryolls IEDM. Other Argicryolls that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Xeric Argicryolls IEDN. Other Argicryolls. Typic Argicryolls

Duricryolls
Key to Subgroups IEAA. Duricryolls that have an argillic horizon. Argic Duricryolls IEAB. Other Duricryolls that have a calcic horizon above the duripan. Calcic Duricryolls IEAC. Other Duricryolls. Typic Duricryolls

Calcicryolls
Key to Subgroups IEEA. Calcicryolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Calcicryolls IEEB. Other Calcicryolls that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following: 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser

Haplocryolls
Key to Subgroups IEFA. Haplocryolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Haplocryolls IEFB. Other Haplocryolls that have one or both of the following:

Vitrandic Haplocryolls IEFE. Aquic Haplocryolls IEFI. and b. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. lithic. or paralithic contact.0 mm fraction. lithic. and pumicelike fragments.0 g/cm3 or less.0 mm in diameter. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Vertic Haplocryolls IEFC. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. whichever is shallower. and 2. Andic Haplocryolls IEFD. or b. and 2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. and 2. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. Oxyaquic Haplocryolls IEFJ. measured at 33 kPa water retention. 20 or more consecutive days. 2. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplocryolls that have. or paralithic contact. A linear extensibility of 6. In the 0. Calcic Pachic Haplocryolls IEFK. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A slope of less than 25 percent. Other Haplocryolls that have. or 2. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Haplocryolls that have both: 1. Other Haplocryolls that have. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and 1.0. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. and a.Mollisols 205 1. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquic Cumulic Haplocryolls IEFF. Fluvaquentic Haplocryolls IEFH. whichever is shallower. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. pumice. and 3.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).02 to 2. one or both of the following: 1. and 4. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower.02 to 2. Other Haplocryolls that have: 1. Cumulic Haplocryolls IEFG. or 30 or more cumulative days. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. lithic. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or 2. and 3. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Pachic Haplocryolls . Other Haplocryolls that have: 2. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A slope of less than 25 percent.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Haplocryolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Haplocryolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. lithic. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm. Other Haplocryolls that have both: M O L 1.

Other Haplocryolls that have an ustic soil moisture regime. Fluventic Haplocryolls IEFM. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. Gelolls Key to Great Groups IDA. Other Haplocryolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haplocryolls that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or 2. Ustic Palecryolls IECF.5 cm. Other Haplocryolls that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Lithic Haplogelolls IDAB. Other Haplogelolls that have. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. 206 Haplogelolls Key to Subgroups IDAA. Palecryolls that have. Other Palecryolls that have an argillic horizon that. or 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Haplogelolls Natricryolls Key to Subgroups IEBA. Xeric Haplocryolls IEFP. Other Palecryolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Palecryolls that have an ustic soil moisture regime. or 30 or more cumulative days. Aquic Palecryolls IECB. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. All Natricryolls. Other Palecryolls that have a xeric soil moisture regime. Oxyaquic Palecryolls IECC. IDAE. All Gelolls. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Typic Haplocryolls IECD. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Abruptic Palecryolls 2. distinct or prominent redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in the fine-earth fraction) within its upper 7. 2. Other Haplogelolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. Haplogelolls. Xeric Palecryolls Other Palecryolls. has a clay increase of 20 percent or more (absolute. Other Haplogelolls that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Palecryolls IECG. whichever is shallower. Turbic Haplogelolls . Pachic Palecryolls IECE. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Haplocryolls. Typic Natricryolls Palecryolls Key to Subgroups IECA.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Haplogelolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ustic Haplocryolls IEFO. Other Haplogelolls that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Haplogelolls IDAD. 20 or more consecutive days.0 g/cm3 or less. or paralithic contact. with increasing depth. Andic Haplogelolls IDAC.206 Keys to Soil Taxonomy IEFL. p. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).0. Other Palecryolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. Calcic Haplocryolls IEFN.

5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more. 207 ICB. with increasing depth. No densic. Natrudolls. and M O L Rendolls Key to Great Groups ICA. a value. Rendolls that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Lithic Cryrendolls ICAB. 210 IHC. Other Haprendolls that have one or both of the following: 1. and a value. Typic Haprendolls Udolls Key to Great Groups IHA. 213 IHB. dry. A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 3. and b. A mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. after mixing. or paralithic contact. In all parts above the calcic or petrocalcic horizon. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. a clay decrease.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. of 4 or less. and c. or 2. A linear extensibility of 6. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. in one or more subhorizons. Do not have an argillic horizon above the calcic or petrocalcic horizon. of 3 or less. Have a calcic or petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplogelolls. lithic. or 2. Haprendolls. Other Haplogelolls that have both: 1. after the materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm have been mixed. or in an Ap horizon that is 18 cm or more thick. Vertic Haprendolls ICBC. A frigid soil temperature regime. or paralithic contact. lithic. Other Haprendolls that have a color value. An argillic horizon with one or more of the following: (1) In 50 percent or more of the matrix of one or more subhorizons in its lower half. hue of 7. dry. p. Other Udolls that: 1. Udolls that have a natric horizon. or (2) In 50 percent or more of the matrix of horizons that total more than one-half the total thickness. and 2. moist. Inceptic Haprendolls . Other Cryrendolls. All of the following: a. Lithic Haprendolls ICBB. whichever is shallower. or paralithic contact within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. or (3) Many redox concentrations with hue of 5YR or redder or chroma of 6 or more. hue of 2.5YR or redder. p. Other Haprendolls. Cryrendolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udolls that have one or more of the following: 1. Entic Haprendolls ICBE. Typic Haplogelolls ICBD. Cumulic Haplogelolls IDAE. Cryrendolls. Haprendolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. of less than 20 percent (relative) from the maximum clay content (noncarbonate clay). and 2. Typic Cryrendolls Haprendolls Key to Subgroups ICBA. or 3. Other Rendolls. p. of 6 or more either in the upper 18 cm of the mollic epipedon. lithic. whichever is shallower. Other Haprendolls that have a cambic horizon. or both. 207 Cryrendolls Key to Subgroups ICAA. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calciudolls. have either free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser.Mollisols 207 IDAF.

or b. 1. wormcasts. Other Argiudolls that have: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udolls. an albic horizon or a horizon (3) Hue of 2. One or both of the following: a. Other Argiudolls that have both: 1. An argillic horizon that has its upper boundary 60 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. 208 Other Udolls that have a mollic epipedon that: 1. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. or paralithic contact. wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. Argiudolls. and 2. 211 One or both of the following: a. or b. and 2. Vermudolls. In normal years saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: a. A texture class finer than loamy fine sand in all horizons above the argillic horizon. or b. lithic. b. and 2. Hapludolls. A linear extensibility of 6. Oxyaquic Vertic Argiudolls IHDD. and b. Either below an Ap horizon or below a depth of 18 cm from the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or . or filled animal burrows.208 Keys to Soil Taxonomy a. Aquertic Argiudolls IHDC. Paleudolls. contains 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 214 IHD. p. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Pachic Vertic Argiudolls IHDE. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. One or both of the following: a. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Argiudolls that have both: IHE. Other Argiudolls that have: 1. p. Other Udolls that have an argillic horizon. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. Either rests on a lithic contact or has a transition zone to the underlying horizon in which 25 percent or more of the soil volume consists of discrete wormholes. whichever is shallower. Lithic Argiudolls IHDB. or (2) or Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. or paralithic contact. lithic. 50 cm or more thick. 215 IHF. or animal burrows filled with material from the mollic epipedon and from the underlying horizon. 20 or more consecutive days.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. Argiudolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. p. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. Above the argillic horizon. whichever is shallower.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact. moist. and Argiudolls Key to Subgroups IHDA. p. 2. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. wormcasts. whichever is shallower. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic.

[(Al plus 1/2 Fe. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. lithic. and pumicelike fragments. Andic Argiudolls IHDH. Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. Other Argiudolls that have. Other Argiudolls that have one or both of the following: 1. c. One or both of the following: a. or 2. or 2. one or both of the following: 1. Other Argiudolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: 1. and a. Alfic Vertic Argiudolls IHDF. A linear extensibility of 6. or 2. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. A linear extensibility of 6. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less.02 to 2. In the 0. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a.0. 50 cm or more thick.02 to 2. whichever is shallower. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or skeletans of clean silt and sand covering 50 percent or more of the faces of peds in the upper 5 cm of the argillic horizon.0 mm in diameter. A glossic horizon. Other Argiudolls that have both: 1. and b. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. or (2) or Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. Aquic Pachic Argiudolls IHDJ. or b. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. or 2. lithic. or Hue of 2. pumice. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. Other Argiudolls that have. Aquic Argiudolls M O L IHDL. or paralithic contact. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.Mollisols 209 that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon. or b. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Pachic Argiudolls IHDK. Other Argiudolls that in normal years are saturated .0 g/cm3 or less. Other Argiudolls that have aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: 1. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 3. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. and 2. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or interfingering of albic materials into the upper part of the argillic horizon.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value. Vitrandic Argiudolls IHDI. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: a. A color value. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Argiudolls IHDG. or b. moist. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime.0 mm. 50 cm or more thick. moist.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. (3) Hue of 2. or 2. measured at 33 kPa water retention.

5 cm. or IHDR.5 to 20 cm. or paralithic contact. A linear extensibility of 6. Oxic Argiudolls IHDS. or 2. Lamellic Argiudolls IHDN. Other Argiudolls that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argiudolls that have: Calciudolls Key to Subgroups IHBA.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic.210 Keys to Soil Taxonomy with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. Other Calciudolls that have one or both of the following: 1. with increasing depth. Other Argiudolls.5 to 20 cm thick. 1.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Other Argiudolls that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. Above the argillic horizon. Other Calciudolls that have. or 2. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick. Other Calciudolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Abruptic Argiudolls IHDQ. whichever is shallower. or b. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon). Vertic Calciudolls IHBC. and above these horizons there are either: a. Calcic Argiudolls IHDT. A glossic horizon. Other Argiudolls that have a CEC of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) in 50 percent or more either of the argillic horizon if less than 100 cm thick or of its upper 100 cm. Lithic Calciudolls IHBB. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7. or skeletans of clean silt and sand covering 50 percent or more of the faces of peds in the upper 5 cm of the argillic horizon. or interfingering of albic materials into the upper part of the argillic horizon. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. whichever is shallower. Oxyaquic Argiudolls IHDM. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Argiudolls that have an argillic horizon that: Consists entirely of lamellae. or 30 or more cumulative days. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Calciudolls IHBD. Arenic Argiudolls IHDP. Other Argiudolls that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Argiudolls 2. Typic Calciudolls 1. or 3. each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Other Calciudolls. lithic. Fluventic Calciudolls IHBE. an albic horizon or a horizon that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon. Alfic Argiudolls . in the fine-earth fraction) within its upper 7. 2. has a clay increase of 20 percent or more (absolute. each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon. or 2. or paralithic contact. lithic. Other Argiudolls that have an argillic horizon that. Psammentic Argiudolls IHDO. 20 or more consecutive days. Calciudolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. each with an overlying eluvial horizon.

02 to 2. or b. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Hapludolls that have.02 to 2. Lithic Hapludolls IHFB. moist. or 2.0 mm in diameter. a.Mollisols 211 Hapludolls Key to Subgroups IHFA. lithic. lithic. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 2. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. lithic. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value. 50 cm or more thick. 1. or paralithic contact. or (2) or Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hapludolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Vitrandic Hapludolls IHFG. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2.0 mm fraction. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. and a. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Other Hapludolls that have: 1. Aquertic Hapludolls IHFC. or b. and 2. whichever is shallower. Other Hapludolls that have both: 1. of which less than 50 percent meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria. and there is no densic or paralithic contact and no sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Hapludolls that have both: One or both of the following: a.0 g/cm3 or less. whichever is shallower. A linear extensibility of 6. Vertic Hapludolls IHFE. pumice. Either: a. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. or paralithic contact.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. One or both of the following: a. A frigid soil temperature regime and a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick. one or both of the following: 1. or (3) Hue of 2. Other Hapludolls that have. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. or b. Andic Hapludolls IHFF. A linear extensibility of 6. or b. or paralithic contact. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: M O L . and pumicelike fragments. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Hapludolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al + 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0. In the 0. Pachic Vertic Hapludolls IHFD.0 mm. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and b.

Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. One or both of the following: a. or (2) Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. or b. Other Hapludolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. whichever is shallower. of which less than 50 percent meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria. One or both of the following: a. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Fluvaquentic Hapludolls IHFJ. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Hapludolls that have both: 1. and 2. or b. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or paralithic contact. Either: a. and 2. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. or b. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. of which 50 percent or more of the thickness has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. moist. or (3) Hue of 2. A slope of less than 25 percent.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. Aquic Cumulic Hapludolls IHFH. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value. Fluventic Hapludolls IHFK. whichever is shallower. Cumulic Hapludolls IHFI. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. or paralithic contact. lithic.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. A mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick. or (2) Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. or 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or b.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. of which 50 percent or more of the thickness has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. and 2. or paralithic contact. or b. or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. moist. Other Hapludolls that have: 1. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick. and there is no densic or paralithic contact and no sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. lithic.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. and 4.212 Keys to Soil Taxonomy b. or paralithic contact. and 3. and 2. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludolls that have both: 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. lithic. A slope of less than 25 percent. lithic. whichever is shallower.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: . or (3) Hue of 2. and 3. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. whichever is shallower.

or 2. whichever is shallower. or b. and 2. or 30 or more cumulative days. A mollic epipedon that is 60 cm or more thick that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and contains 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. Leptic Vertic Natrudolls IHAC. 50 cm or more thick. Natrudolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. Have free carbonates throughout the cambic horizon or in all parts of the mollic epipedon below a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. or b. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. A glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. or b. or have free carbonates throughout either the cambic horizon or the lower part of the mollic epipedon. or filled animal burrows either below an Ap horizon or below a depth of 18 cm from the mineral soil surface. 50 cm or more thick. Calcic Hapludolls . Entic Hapludolls IHFR. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. Other Hapludolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: 1. Other Hapludolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. or paralithic contact. Glossic Vertic Natrudolls M O L IHFN. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. and 2. Vermic Hapludolls IHFP. Aquic Pachic Hapludolls IHFL. A linear extensibility of 6. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. Either do not have a cambic horizon and do not. Oxyaquic Hapludolls IHFO. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. 2. in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. Other Natrudolls that have: 1.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. One or both of the following: a. lithic. c. One or both of the following: a.Mollisols 213 a. moist. Other Hapludolls that have aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: 1. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: a. except for the color requirements. in any part of the mollic epipedon below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. or b. wormcasts. A linear extensibility of 6. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrocalcic Natrudolls IHAB. Other Hapludolls that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A color value. Other Hapludolls that have both: 1. or 2. Pachic Hapludolls IHFM. Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less. or Hue of 2. Other Natrudolls that have both: 1. Other Hapludolls. and 2. lithic. Other Hapludolls that either: 1. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. Typic Hapludolls Natrudolls Key to Subgroups IHAA. or paralithic contact. except for the color requirements. Visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Aquic Hapludolls IHFQ.

Other Paleudolls that have. or 2. (3) Hue of 2. Other Paleudolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Calcic Natrudolls IHAH. Other Paleudolls that have both: 1. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Natrudolls IHAE. Other Natrudolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Oxyaquic Paleudolls IHCG. Aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) either: a. Calcic Paleudolls IHCH. or 2. or . Leptic Natrudolls IHAF. Pachic Paleudolls IHCE. or (2) or Hue of 10YR or redder and chroma of 2 or less.5Y or yellower and chroma of 3 or less. Other Natrudolls. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. 2. free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser. lithic. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Paleudolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. in one or more subhorizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petrocalcic Paleudolls IHCC. moist. or b. and 2. Vertic Paleudolls IHCB. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Natrudolls that have visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. Aquic Pachic Paleudolls IHCD. Other Paleudolls that have both: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. 50 cm or more thick.214 Keys to Soil Taxonomy IHAD. whichever is shallower. Other Paleudolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is 50 cm or more thick. and 2. lithic. Within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. after the materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm have been mixed. Other Paleudolls. in one or more horizons with a total thickness of 15 cm or more that have one or more of the following: (1) A color value.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Typic Paleudolls Paleudolls Key to Subgroups IHCA. Other Natrudolls that have a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into the natric horizon. in horizons that also have redoximorphic features. A linear extensibility of 6. of 4 or more and redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less. In all parts above the calcic horizon. Aquic Paleudolls IHCF. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. 20 or more consecutive days. or paralithic contact.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Glossic Natrudolls IHAG. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Natrudolls b. Paleudolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Natrudolls that have a calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Mollisols 215 Vermudolls Key to Subgroups IHEA. 215 IGF. Natrustolls. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at M O L . Durustolls. Other Ustolls that have a natric horizon. 219 IGD. contains 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes.5YR or redder or chroma of 6 or more. and either (1) Hue of 7. Calciustolls. p. p. gypsic. Ustolls that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. wormcasts. lithic. after the materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm have been mixed. Either below an Ap horizon or below a depth of 18 cm from the mineral soil surface. 35 percent or more noncarbonate clay in its upper part and a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Other Vermudolls. A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. gypsic. Vermudolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Argiustolls that have both: 1. Do not have an argillic horizon above the calcic. 230 IGG. isomesic. Typic Vermudolls b. in the fine-earth fraction (and there is no densic. no clay decrease of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content (noncarbonate clay) within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface (and there is no densic. p. Haplic Vermudolls IHEC. In all parts above the calcic.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. have either free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser. p. and 2. or 2. 226 IGC. Have either a calcic or gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or filled animal burrows. Other Ustolls that: 1. or c. or both. p.5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more in the matrix.5 cm. A hyperthermic. and 2. or paralithic contact within that depth). A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. With increasing depth. or animal burrows filled with material from the mollic epipedon and from the underlying horizon. Other Ustolls that have a mollic epipedon that: 1. wormcasts. or (2) Common redox concentrations with hue of 7. p. 228 IGE. Haplustolls. Other Ustolls. Other Ustolls that have an argillic horizon. or petrocalcic horizon. or petrocalcic horizon. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface). 221 Ustolls Key to Great Groups IGA. and 3. Either rests on a lithic contact or has a transition zone to the underlying horizon in which 25 percent or more of the soil volume consists of discrete wormholes. have one of the following: a. or Argiustolls Key to Subgroups IGEA. Paleustolls. Argiustolls. Other Vermudolls that have a mollic epipedon that is less than 75 cm thick. Other Ustolls that have either: 1. An argillic horizon that has one or both of the following: a. Lithic Vermudolls IHEB. p. and 2. lithic. Vermustolls. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. 221 IGB.

Other Argiustolls that have both: 2. and 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. either an albic horizon or a horizon that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. and 2. Other Argiustolls that have all of the following: 1. isomesic. Other Argiustolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. lithic. or b. have one of the following: a.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. either: a. or b. or paralithic contact. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. One or both of the following: a. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.216 Keys to Soil Taxonomy a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Above the argillic horizon. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. whichever is shallower. or b. A linear extensibility of 6. A hyperthermic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A linear extensibility of 6. Torrertic Argiustolls IGEF. 50 cm or more thick. Alfic Lithic Argiustolls IGEC. whichever is shallower. Aridic Lithic Argiustolls IGEB. lithic. and 2. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or c. 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. whichever is shallower. and . Aquertic Argiustolls IGEE.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. lithic. or paralithic contact. or b. Other Argiustolls that have both: 1. and 3. Other Argiustolls that have both: One or both of the following: a. Lithic Argiustolls IGED.

0. lithic. isomesic. or b.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 1.Mollisols 217 per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. A hyperthermic. and 2.0 g/cm3 or less. Pachic Udertic Argiustolls IGEG. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. either: a. whichever is shallower. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. lithic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Vertic Argiustolls IGEJ. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or b. measured at 33 kPa water retention. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Argiustolls that have both: One or both of the following: a. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Argiustolls that have both: 1. 50 cm or more thick. A linear extensibility of 6. A linear extensibility of 6. or paralithic contact. Udertic Argiustolls IGEH.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Andic Argiustolls IGEK. or c. or b. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A hyperthermic. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Pachic Vertic Argiustolls IGEI. lithic. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. A hyperthermic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or b. and 2. Other Argiustolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 1. or 2. or b. or paralithic contact. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness M O L . or b. or paralithic contact. Other Argiustolls that have. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. isomesic. whichever is shallower. and 2. one of the following: a. whichever is shallower. isomesic. Other Argiustolls that have both: One or both of the following: a.

A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.02 to 2. Other Argiustolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per . or c. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Argiustolls that. and b. A calcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. have one of the following: 1.0 mm. or 2. In the 0.02 to 2. Other Argiustolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. and a. Alfic Argiustolls IGEQ. Other Argiustolls that have. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2. or 2. or interfingering of albic materials into the upper part of the argillic horizon. pumice. Aquic Argiustolls IGEN. Calcidic Argiustolls IGER. Oxyaquic Argiustolls IGEO. Other Argiustolls that have either: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).218 Keys to Soil Taxonomy of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vitritorrandic Argiustolls IGEL. Pachic Argiustolls IGEP.0 mm in diameter. or b.02 to 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A hyperthermic. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. one or both of the following: 1.0 mm fraction. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. one of the following: a. Other Argiustolls that have both: 1. Other Argiustolls that have. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. 20 or more consecutive days. or 2. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. one or both of the following: a. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. and pumicelike fragments. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and pumicelike fragments. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and (1) In the 0.0 mm fraction. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. an albic horizon or a horizon that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon. Vitrandic Argiustolls IGEM. or skeletans of clean silt and sand covering 50 percent or more of the faces of peds in the upper 5 cm of the argillic horizon. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. isomesic. pumice. A glossic horizon. or 30 or more cumulative days. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. 50 cm or more thick.02 to 2. or 2. 2. Above the argillic horizon.0 mm.

or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. One or both of the following: a. isomesic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. one of the following: a. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or paralithic contact. and M O L Calciustolls Key to Subgroups IGCA. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. isomesic. Salidic Calciustolls IGCB. Udic Argiustolls IGET. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Calciustolls that have a petrocalcic horizon and a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. that either is brittle and has some opal coats or has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Calciustolls that have both: 1. have either: 1. whichever is shallower. A hyperthermic. A hyperthermic. or paralithic contact. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A hyperthermic.Mollisols 219 year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aridic Argiustolls IGES. or b. and b. Other Calciustolls that have both: 1. lithic. or 3. or c. Lithic Calciustolls . and 2. Duric Argiustolls IGEU. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argiustolls that. or b. One or both of the following: a. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A linear extensibility of 6. Torrertic Calciustolls IGCE. Calciustolls that have a salic horizon within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argiustolls. Typic Argiustolls IGCD. whichever is shallower. or b. isomesic. Lithic Petrocalcic Calciustolls IGCC. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Calciustolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argiustolls that have a horizon.

Vertic Calciustolls IGCG. A linear extensibility of 6. have either: 1. Udic Calciustolls IGCN. Oxyaquic Calciustolls 1. isomesic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Aridic Calciustolls IGCM. Gypsic Calciustolls IGCI. whichever is shallower. lithic. or paralithic contact. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. have one of the following: 1. redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). isomesic. Udertic Calciustolls IGCF. Other Calciustolls that have. Other Calciustolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. 50 cm or more thick. Other Calciustolls that. or 2. either: a. 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for four-tenths or less of the consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or 2. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and b. or 3. Other Calciustolls. Petrocalcic Calciustolls IGCH. 20 or more consecutive days. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. A hyperthermic. A hyperthermic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Calciustolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.220 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2. Other Calciustolls that. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Calciustolls IGCJ. Other Calciustolls that have one or both of the following: 1. or 2. Other Calciustolls that have a gypsic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A hyperthermic. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 30 or more cumulative days. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. isomesic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or b. Other Calciustolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: Typic Calciustolls . 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. Pachic Calciustolls IGCL. IGCK.

Other Durustolls that: 1. lithic.Mollisols 221 Durustolls Key to Subgroups IGAA. or . Other Haplustolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Durustolls One or both of the following: a. one of the following: a. Other Durustolls. and 2. is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1. and 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. in 6 normal years. and 2. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or paralithic contact. or b. Durustolls that have a natric horizon above the duripan. Lithic Haplustolls IGGE.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or b. Haplic Durustolls IGAF. or paralithic contact. Aridic Lithic Haplustolls IGGD. Aquertic Haplustolls IGGF. Other Haplustolls that have. A linear extensibility of 6. Haploduridic Durustolls c. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1. or b. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1. Other Durustolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. and Have an aridic soil moisture regime that borders on ustic. a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Ruptic-Lithic Haplustolls IGGC. Entic Durustolls IGAE. whichever is shallower. 2. one of the following: M O L IGAC. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan. Natric Durustolls IGAB. Haplustolls Key to Subgroups IGGA. A hyperthermic. in part of each pedon. in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and (2) Is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that. Haplustolls that have a salic horizon within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Salidic Haplustolls IGGB. Other Durustolls that have a duripan that is strongly cemented or less cemented in all subhorizons. Other Durustolls that do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan. isomesic. Argiduridic Durustolls IGAD. lithic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. One or both of the following: a.

or c. Other Haplustolls that have all of the following: 1. and One or both of the following: a. isomesic. Pachic Udertic Haplustolls IGGH. lithic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. whichever is shallower. 50 cm or more thick. A hyperthermic. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime. isomesic. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. or paralithic contact. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A hyperthermic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 3. or b. isomesic. Udertic Haplustolls IGGI. A linear extensibility of 6. Pachic Vertic Haplustolls . whichever is shallower. 50 cm or more thick.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: a. One or both of the following: a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. or b. either: a. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and 2.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. either: a. 2. lithic. lithic. or b. or paralithic contact. or b.222 Keys to Soil Taxonomy a. or b. or warmer iso soil 1. Other Haplustolls that have both: One or both of the following: a. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1. or b. Torrertic Haplustolls IGGG. and 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A linear extensibility of 6. A hyperthermic. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. or b. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.

but no more than 100. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and 2. Other Haplustolls that have an apparent CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and (1) In the 0. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1.02 to 2. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A linear extensibility of 6. pumice. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and pumicelike fragments. A hyperthermic. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or c. lithic. or paralithic contact. or paralithic contact. Vertic Haplustolls IGGK. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.0 mm fraction. lithic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. but no more than 100. isomesic. (If the ratio of [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon] to the percentage of measured clay is 0. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years remains moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or paralithic contact. then the percentage of clay is considered to equal either the measured percentage of clay or three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon]. (If the ratio of [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon] to the percentage of measured clay is 0. Other Haplustolls that have one or both of the following: 1.0 mm in diameter. or b. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. or b. then the percentage of clay is considered to equal either the measured percentage of clay or three times [percent water retained at 1500 kPa tension minus percent organic carbon].) Oxic Haplustolls IGGM. one of the following: a. A hyperthermic. whichever value is higher. isomesic. or c. one or both of the following: a. lithic.Mollisols 223 IGGJ. whichever is shallower. Other Haplustolls that have. or 2.6 or . A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Andic Haplustolls IGGN.) Torroxic Haplustolls IGGL. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Haplustolls that have both: more. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. one of the following: a.0. An apparent CEC (by 1N NH4OAc pH 7) of less than 24 cmol(+)/kg clay in 50 percent or more of the soil volume between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and M O L 1. whichever value is higher.6 or more. whichever is shallower.0 mm. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.0 g/cm3 or less. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower.

5 percent or more volcanic glass.0 mm in diameter. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. and a. Vitrandic Haplustolls IGGP. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. and there is no densic or paralithic contact and no sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. or b. or paralithic contact.0 mm. Either: .3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. of which less than 50 percent meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and there is no densic or paralithic contact and no sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class at a depth between 40 and 50 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Haplustolls that have. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and 2. Other Haplustolls that have. Other Haplustolls that have: IGGS. of which less than 50 percent meets sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. and 4. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick. A frigid soil temperature regime and a mollic epipedon that is 40 cm or more thick. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. 40 cm or more thick in a frigid soil temperature regime.224 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Haplustolls that have both: 1. Other Haplustolls that have anthraquic conditions. Fluvaquentic Haplustolls IGGT. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or paralithic contact. In one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. and pumicelike fragments. Other Haplustolls that have: 2. or 2.02 to 2. One or both of the following: a. or paralithic contact. lithic. or b. and b.02 to 2. one or both of the following: 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. and 3. or b.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. Vitritorrandic Haplustolls IGGO. Aquic Cumulic Haplustolls IGGQ. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. In the 0. Aquic Haplustolls IGGU. or 1. A slope of less than 25 percent. or b. pumice. whichever is shallower. lithic. Anthraquic Haplustolls 1. Cumulic Haplustolls IGGR. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Haplustolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is either: 1. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in most years (or artificial drainage). whichever is shallower. or b. Either: a. lithic. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. and 2. and One or both of the following: a. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. whichever is shallower. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 3. A slope of less than 25 percent. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. a.

one of the following: a. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. isomesic. or 2. or 3. 2. Either: a. have one of the following: . A hyperthermic. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or c. have one of the following: 1. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or paralithic contact. 20 or more consecutive days. and 2. Other Haplustolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. or b. and 2. and M O L 1. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Haplustolls that: 1. in any part of the mollic epipedon below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or b. whichever is shallower. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Have free carbonates throughout the cambic horizon or in all parts of the mollic epipedon below a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days. except for the color requirements. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A hyperthermic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or b. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Torrifluventic Haplustolls IGGX. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not.Mollisols 225 2.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. or c. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. isomesic. Other Haplustolls that have both: a. Oxyaquic Haplustolls IGGW. lithic. isomesic. Pachic Haplustolls IGGV. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. Torriorthentic Haplustolls IGGY. 50 cm or more thick. A hyperthermic. Other Haplustolls that. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.

or 2. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. except for the color requirements. Entic Haplustolls IGGZe. Fluventic Haplustolls IGGZa. lithic. Other Haplustolls. and 2. isomesic. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. or 2. in any part of the mollic epipedon below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface.226 Keys to Soil Taxonomy b. or have free carbonates throughout either the cambic horizon or the lower part of the mollic epipedon. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Either do not have a cambic horizon and do not. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. Other Haplustolls that: 2. Have free carbonates throughout the cambic horizon or in all parts of the mollic epipedon below a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or paralithic contact. Other Haplustolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. lithic. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. except for the color requirements. in the lower part of the mollic epipedon. Typic Haplustolls Natrustolls Key to Subgroups IGBA. One or both of the following: a. or 1. or . Natrustolls that have all of the following: 1. have either: a. and 2. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. isomesic. Aridic Haplustolls IGGZ. Other Haplustolls that. A hyperthermic. have either: 1. or b. Udic Haplustolls IGGZd. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. that either is brittle and has some opal coats or has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes. Other Haplustolls that either: 1. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. Visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. one of the following: a. Udorthentic Haplustolls IGGZc. A hyperthermic. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or paralithic contact. Duric Haplustolls IGGZb. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. Other Haplustolls that have a horizon. or b.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 3.

One or both of the following: a. whichever is shallower. lithic. isomesic. or b. or b. or paralithic contact. Other Natrustolls that have one or both of the following: 1. or b.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. and 2. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture .0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is shallower. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. lithic. within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. one of the following: a. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Natrustolls that have both of the following: 1. isomesic. or both. or paralithic contact. One or both of the following: a. and 2. A linear extensibility of 6. A linear extensibility of 6. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A linear extensibility of 6. whichever is shallower. A hyperthermic. or c. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Natrustolls that have both: One or both of the following: a. Vertic Natrustolls IGBF. or paralithic contact. or 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A hyperthermic. Leptic Vertic Natrustolls IGBD. Other Natrustolls that have both: M O L 1. 1. Visible crystals of gypsum or of more soluble salts. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or b. Torrertic Natrustolls IGBC. and 2. and 2. lithic.Mollisols 227 c. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into a natric horizon. one of the following: a. or paralithic contact. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. A linear extensibility of 6. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Leptic Torrertic Natrustolls IGBB. Other Natrustolls that have both: 1. lithic. Glossic Vertic Natrustolls IGBE. Visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower.

Paleustolls that have both: 1. or 3. Duric Natrustolls IGBK. or 3. Typic Natrustolls Paleustolls Key to Subgroups IGDA. Other Natrustolls that have visible crystals of gypsum and/or more soluble salts within 40 cm of the mineral soil surface. A hyperthermic. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less and redox concentrations. Other Natrustolls that have. A linear extensibility of 6. or b. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. 50 percent or more chroma of 2 or less and also a higher exchangeable sodium percentage (or sodium adsorption ratio) between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 25 cm than in the underlying horizon. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.5Y or yellower. one of the following: a. or c. and b. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or b. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for fourtenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Other Natrustolls that have a horizon. or 2. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 2. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. isomesic. 50 percent or more chroma of 1 or less and hue of 2. Aridic Natrustolls IGBJ. isomesic. Glossic Natrustolls IGBL. Leptic Natrustolls IGBH. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. in one or more horizons at a depth between 50 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface. Aquic Natrustolls IGBI. Other Natrustolls. 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. Other Natrustolls that. aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and one of the following: 1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. and 2. One or both of the following: a.228 Keys to Soil Taxonomy control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for four-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or . or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Other Natrustolls that have a glossic horizon or interfingering of albic materials into a natric horizon. whichever is shallower. have one of the following: 1. Aridic Leptic Natrustolls IGBG. A hyperthermic. or paralithic contact.

whichever is shallower. Have a calcic horizon within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: a. and 2. One or both of the following: a. or c. Vertic Paleustolls IGDD. A hyperthermic. and 2. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. fine. either: a. Other Paleustolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleustolls that have. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or paralithic contact. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Torrertic Paleustolls IGDB. Any other class and within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic.Mollisols 229 b. or paralithic contact. or b. Petrocalcic Paleustolls IGDG. A hyperthermic. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 M O L . or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: (1) Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. or c. A hyperthermic. or b. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleustolls that have a mollic epipedon that has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand and that is 50 cm or more thick. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. clayey-skeletal. have one of the following: a. isomesic.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Paleustolls that have one or both of the following: 1. lithic. When neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or c. Pachic Paleustolls IGDF. whichever is shallower. Udertic Paleustolls IGDC. isomesic. isomesic. Other Paleustolls that: 1. Clayey. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Paleustolls that have both: 1. or 2. or very-fine and within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. or b. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. Aquic Paleustolls IGDE.

Pachic Vermustolls IGFD. Lithic Vermustolls IGFB. Other Xerolls that have a natric horizon. Entic Vermustolls IGFE. or 3. have either: 1. and (2) Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 2.230 Keys to Soil Taxonomy consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. isomesic. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture. Typic Paleustolls Vermustolls Key to Subgroups IGFA. Is dry in some or all parts for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. in one or more horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some or all parts for fewer than 120 cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. A hyperthermic. clayey-skeletal. or 2. Durixerolls. and b. Any other class and within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface. fine. Calcic Paleustolls IGDK. Other Paleustolls that. isomesic. Calcidic Paleustolls IGDH. Clayey. Aridic Paleustolls IGDI. or very-fine and within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Paleustolls. Other Paleustolls have a calcic horizon within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: 1. Entic Paleustolls IGDL. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for six-tenths or more of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. p. 1. Other Vermustolls that have a mollic epipedon that is less than 50 cm thick. Typic Vermustolls Xerolls Key to Great Groups IFA. Other Vermustolls that have. p. A mesic or thermic soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in some part for four-tenths or less of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 2. Other Paleustolls that have free carbonates throughout after the surface horizons have been mixed to a depth of 18 cm. A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or . Vermustolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Vermustolls. Other Paleustolls that. 234 IFB. Udic Paleustolls IGDJ. A hyperthermic. Is moist in some or all parts for fewer than 90 consecutive days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 8 oC. Aquic Vermustolls IGFC. or warmer iso soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years: a. 239 Other Xerolls that have either: IFC. have one of the following: 1. Natrixerolls. A frigid soil temperature regime and a moisture control section that in normal years is dry in all parts for less than four-tenths of the cumulative days per year when the soil temperature at a depth of 50 cm below the soil surface is higher than 5 oC. or 3. Other Vermustolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 75 cm or more thick. Xerolls that have a duripan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. when neither irrigated nor fallowed to store moisture.

239 IFD. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. pumice. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. p. or paralithic contact. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. and 2. no clay decrease of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content (noncarbonate clay) within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface (and there is no densic. Other Argixerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. p.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. An aridic soil moisture regime. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. One or both of the following: a. 35 percent or more noncarbonate clay in its upper part and. or (2) Common redox concentrations with hue of 7. Argixerolls. Torrertic Argixerolls IFEE. a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. or 2. Andic Argixerolls IFEG. lithic.0 mm in diameter. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Other Argixerolls that have.5YR or redder or chroma of 6 or more.0 mm. or b. or paralithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface). lithic. 231 Other Xerolls. or b. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Argixerolls IFED. either free carbonates or a texture class of loamy fine sand or coarser.0 g/cm3 or less.5YR or redder and chroma of 5 or more in the matrix.5 cm. and the lithic contact. or both. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Haploxerolls. p. Other Argixerolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Xerolls that have both: 1.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. one or both of the following: a. Aridic Lithic Argixerolls IFEB. or b. and pumicelike fragments. In all parts above the calcic or gypsic horizon. Vertic Argixerolls IFEF.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. whichever is deeper. With increasing depth. and 1. in the fine-earth fraction (and there is no densic.0. An aridic soil moisture regime. and 2. whichever is shallower. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. An argillic horizon that has one or both of the following: a. Calcixerolls. Argixerolls Key to Subgroups IFEA. Argixerolls that have both: 1. or paralithic contact within that depth). and 2. and 2. and either (1) Hue of 7. A linear extensibility of 6. 235 IFEC. whichever is shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. at its upper boundary. and 2. Other Argixerolls that have both: M O L IFF. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. or paralithic contact. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either the mineral soil surface or an Ap horizon. A calcic or gypsic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Palexerolls. A linear extensibility of 6. Lithic Ultic Argixerolls . 233 IFE. after the surface soil has been mixed to a depth of 18 cm. An aridic soil moisture regime. Other Xerolls that have an argillic horizon. p. lithic.Mollisols 231 2.

Other Argixerolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. Clayey. Other Argixerolls that have. one or both of the following: 1. Vitrandic Argixerolls IFEI. an albic horizon or a horizon that has color values too high for a mollic epipedon and chroma too high for an albic horizon.232 Keys to Soil Taxonomy (1) In the 0. whichever is shallower. pumice. and 2. Vitritorrandic Argixerolls IFEH. Other Argixerolls that have a horizon within 100 cm of . Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. An aridic soil moisture regime. and b. whichever is shallower. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. 2. Other Argixerolls that have. Aquultic Argixerolls IFEJ. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. or paralithic contact.0 mm fraction. or c. or skeletans of clean silt and sand covering 50 percent or more of the faces of peds in the upper 5 cm of the argillic horizon. Pachic Argixerolls IFEP. In the 0. Aquic Argixerolls IFEK. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. Argiduridic Argixerolls IFEQ. or paralithic contact. or b. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. lithic. lithic. and 2. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. and 2. and a. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). A glossic horizon.0 mm. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Above the argillic horizon. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. clayey-skeletal. or 2. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argixerolls that have either: 1. and 2. or interfingering of albic materials into the upper part of the argillic horizon. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1.02 to 2.02 to 2. A calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: a.0 mm fraction. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm in diameter. whichever is deeper. fine. whichever is deeper. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Alfic Argixerolls IFEM. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Calcic Pachic Argixerolls IFEN. A horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. or 30 or more cumulative days. Pachic Ultic Argixerolls IFEO. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. and pumicelike fragments. Oxyaquic Argixerolls IFEL. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Argixerolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand.02 to 2. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.

Oxyaquic Calcixerolls IFDF. of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Calcixerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. Other Argixerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. fine. and 2.Mollisols 233 the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. whichever is deeper. one or both of the following: 1. Calcic Argixerolls IFEU. An aridic soil moisture regime. and pumicelike fragments. Lithic Calcixerolls IFDC. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Argixerolls. Aquic Calcixerolls IFDE. or c. lithic. A linear extensibility of 6. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. 20 or more consecutive days. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 30 or more cumulative days. Duric Argixerolls IFER. redox concentrations and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or paralithic contact. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.0 mm in diameter. Clayey. whichever is shallower. Other Argixerolls that have both: 1. Calcixerolls that have both: . or 2. lithic. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. Other Argixerolls that have a calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: 1.02 to 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. clayey-skeletal. Aridic Argixerolls IFET. An aridic soil moisture regime. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Other Calcixerolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. Calciargidic Argixerolls IFES. fine. Ultic Argixerolls IFEV. A calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: a. Vitrandic Calcixerolls M O L 1. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 2. and 2. Pachic Calcixerolls IFDG. Vertic Calcixerolls IFDD. Clayey. or 2. Typic Argixerolls Calcixerolls Key to Subgroups IFDA. clayey-skeletal. Other Calcixerolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. or 3. 2. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm. or b. Other Calcixerolls that have. and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Calcixerolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aridic Lithic Calcixerolls IFDB. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. or paralithic contact. Other Calcixerolls that have. pumice. Other Argixerolls that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more.

and (1) In the 0.0 mm fraction. and 2.0 mm fraction. Vertic Durixerolls IFAB. Have an aridic soil moisture regime. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. has a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Vitritorrandic Durixerolls IFAC. Other Durixerolls that have both: 1. An aridic soil moisture regime. Other Durixerolls that have. or filled animal burrows. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Cracks between the soil surface and the top of the duripan that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that is above the duripan.0 mm. 1. Other Durixerolls that: 1. Other Calcixerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. with increasing depth. Abruptic Argiduridic Durixerolls IFAG. Cambidic Durixerolls IFAH. one or both of the following: a. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.02 to 2. Haploduridic Durixerolls Other Durixerolls that have both: IFAI.234 Keys to Soil Taxonomy IFDH. wormcasts. Other Durixerolls that have both: 1.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. 2. In the 0. Other Durixerolls that: Have an aridic soil moisture regime. and 3.0 mm. or b. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. with increasing depth. An aridic soil moisture regime. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Have a duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon. and Do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan. and 2. A duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon.02 to 2.5 cm.5 cm. Other Durixerolls that have all of the following: Durixerolls Key to Subgroups IFAA. Other Calcixerolls that have a mollic epipedon that has. Paleargidic Durixerolls IFAF. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Calcixerolls 2. pumice.0 mm in diameter. or 1. and 3. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. and a. in one or more horizons above the duripan. 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2.0 cm or more between the soil surface and the top of the duripan. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. An aridic soil moisture regime. Aridic Calcixerolls IFDI.02 to 2. An argillic horizon that.0 mm in diameter. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Durixerolls that have. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. and Do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan. 2. Other Calcixerolls.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. and pumicelike fragments. Vermic Calcixerolls IFDJ. Aquic Durixerolls IFAE. and . one or both of the following: 1. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. An aridic soil moisture regime. and b. pumice. below any Ap horizon. Durixerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. 1. or 2. and 2. has a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Vitrandic Durixerolls IFAD. An argillic horizon that.

A linear extensibility of 6. and 2. Other Haploxerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either the mineral soil surface or an Ap horizon.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Haploxerollic Durixerolls IFAO. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedge-shaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser . Do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan.5 cm. Have a duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon. and 2. and 2. and 2. one or both of the following: a. Other Haploxerolls that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Other Durixerolls. measured at 33 kPa water retention. or 2. An aridic soil moisture regime. has a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. lithic. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. Other Durixerolls that: 2. Other Durixerolls that have an argillic horizon that.0 g/cm3 or less.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Palexerollic Durixerolls IFAM. whichever is shallower. Aridic Lithic Haploxerolls IFFB. or b. whichever is deeper. A lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon. Argiduridic Durixerolls IFAK. Lithic Ultic Haploxerolls IFFC. A duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon. and 1.0. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Durixerolls that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. has a clay increase either of 20 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. An aridic soil moisture regime. Argidic Durixerolls IFAJ. Haplic Durixerolls IFAP. An aridic soil moisture regime. and 2.5 cm or of 15 percent or more (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2.Mollisols 235 2. Haplic Haploxerollic Durixerolls IFAN. or paralithic contact. Vertic Haploxerolls IFFF. Other Durixerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. An argillic horizon that. and the lithic contact. lithic. or paralithic contact. Other Haploxerolls that have. with increasing depth. Lithic Haploxerolls IFFD. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. Haploxerolls that have both: 1. 1. Other Haploxerolls that have both: One or both of the following: a. Andic Haploxerolls IFFG.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Typic Durixerolls M O L Haploxerolls Key to Subgroups IFFA. with increasing depth. Torrertic Haploxerolls IFFE. Other Durixerolls that do not have an argillic horizon above the duripan. Haplic Palexerollic Durixerolls IFAL. A linear extensibility of 6. Other Durixerolls that have a duripan that is neither very strongly cemented nor indurated in any subhorizon.5 cm.

02 to 2. and 3. Other Haploxerolls that have all of the following: 2.0 mm. whichever is shallower. whichever is shallower. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. or paralithic contact. and (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Fluvaquentic Haploxerolls . A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. or paralithic contact. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. and 2. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0.0 mm fraction.0 mm in diameter.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Cumulic Haploxerolls IFFL. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 3. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe.236 Keys to Soil Taxonomy than 2. and 2. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. A slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: a. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. one or both of the following: 1. and 4. lithic. and 3. or b. Cumulic Ultic Haploxerolls IFFK. and a. A slope of less than 25 percent. and (1) In the 0. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. or b. of which more than 66 percent is cinders.02 to 2. and 4. lithic.0 mm. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. lithic. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. or paralithic contact.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. or b.0 mm in diameter. or b. Other Haploxerolls that have all of the following: 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. and pumicelike fragments. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. whichever is shallower. lithic. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface. lithic. and 2.02 to 2. One or both of the following: a. One or both of the following: a. whichever is deeper. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. pumice.02 to 2. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. or paralithic contact. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Aquic Cumulic Haploxerolls IFFJ. Vitrandic Haploxerolls IFFI. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. A slope of less than 25 percent. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. A slope of less than 25 percent. Other Haploxerolls that have. or 2. One or both of the following: a. and 1. Other Haploxerolls that have all of the following: 1. whichever is shallower. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. pumice.0 mm fraction. or b. In the 0. and b. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Vitritorrandic Haploxerolls IFFH.3 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface.

and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. or b. A horizon. Torrifluventic Haploxerolls IFFU. An aridic soil moisture regime. Pachic Haploxerolls IFFT. or paralithic contact. or . A horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Haploxerolls IFFP. Oxyaquic Haploxerolls IFFQ. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. A calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: a. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). or paralithic contact. Other Haploxerolls that have both: M O L 1. or c. and 2. or 30 or more cumulative days. Aquultic Haploxerolls IFFO. whichever is deeper. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. An aridic soil moisture regime. lithic. and 3. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Clayey. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. or b. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Other Haploxerolls that have all of the following: 1. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: a. or b. or paralithic contact. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. Aquic Duric Haploxerolls IFFN. whichever is shallower. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. and 2. fine. and 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). clayey-skeletal.Mollisols 237 IFFM. Pachic Ultic Haploxerolls IFFS. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. clayey-skeletal. Clayey. that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. Duridic Haploxerolls IFFV. and 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Haploxerolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. fine. A slope of less than 25 percent. Other Haploxerolls that have both: IFFR. and 2. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. lithic. An aridic soil moisture regime. 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls that in normal years are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for either or both: 1. 2. Other Haploxerolls that have. and 2. Other Haploxerolls that have both: 1. One or both of the following: a. whichever is deeper. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. and 2. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Calcic Pachic Haploxerolls 1. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface.

Other Haploxerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls that have a sandy particle-size class in all horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. Other Haploxerolls that have a slope of less than 25 percent and one or both of the following: 1. Other Haploxerolls that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. Ultic Haploxerolls IFFZg. or paralithic contact. Clayey. Other Haploxerolls that have both: has granular structure and that has. Entic Ultic Haploxerolls IFFZf. Psammentic Haploxerolls IFFZb. Torriorthentic Haploxerolls IFFY. or 2. Calcidic Haploxerolls IFFW. 2. Other Haploxerolls that have a mollic epipedon that 1. and 2. except for the color requirements. Have free carbonates throughout the cambic horizon or in all parts of the mollic epipedon below a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. in any part of the mollic epipedon below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. Vermic Haploxerolls IFFZd. whichever is shallower. Torripsammentic Haploxerolls IFFX. Have free carbonates throughout the cambic horizon or in all parts of the mollic epipedon below a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. Other Haploxerolls that: 1. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. in any part of the mollic epipedon below 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. wormcasts. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not. A sandy particle-size class in all horizons within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. An organic-carbon content (Holocene age) of 0. An aridic soil moisture regime. Typic Haploxerolls . whichever is deeper. or b. whichever is shallower. below any Ap horizon.3 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Either: a. or 2. Calcic Haploxerolls IFFZe. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. or 3. or paralithic contact. or very-fine and within 90 cm of the mineral soil surface. 1. Any other class and within 110 cm of the mineral soil surface. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not. Other Haploxerolls that either: 1. Do not have a cambic horizon and do not. Other Haploxerolls that have a calcic horizon or identifiable secondary carbonates within one of the following particle-size class (by weighted average in the particle-size control section) and depth combinations: 1. fine. lithic. Fluventic Haploxerolls IFFZc.238 Keys to Soil Taxonomy c. Aridic Haploxerolls IFFZ. except for the color requirements. meet the requirements for a cambic horizon. clayey-skeletal. except for the color requirements. Entic Haploxerolls IFFZh. Duric Haploxerolls IFFZa. or filled animal burrows. Have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more horizons between either an Ap horizon or a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls. An irregular decrease in organic-carbon content (Holocene age) between a depth of 25 cm and either a depth of 125 cm below the mineral soil surface or a densic. lithic. and 2. Sandy or sandy-skeletal and within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploxerolls that: Have an aridic soil moisture regime. and either a depth of 75 cm or a densic. lithic. 50 percent or more (by volume) wormholes. or 2. whichever is deeper. or paralithic contact. whichever is shallower. in the lower part of the mollic epipedon.

15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. and pumicelike fragments. or paralithic contact. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more . Other Palexerolls that have a mollic epipedon that is 50 cm or more thick and has a texture class finer than loamy fine sand. Duric Natrixerolls IFBF. Other Palexerolls that have a horizon. one or both of the following: 1. Petrocalcidic Palexerolls IFCF. A linear extensibility of 6. or 2. Other Palexerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. Other Palexerolls that have.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. Vitrandic Palexerolls IFCC. Vertic Palexerolls IFCB.Mollisols 239 Natrixerolls Key to Subgroups IFBA. lithic. Aridic Palexerolls 1.02 to 2. Aridic Natrixerolls IFBE. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 mm fraction. Palexerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. whichever is shallower. of which more than 66 percent is cinders. that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm ruptureresistance class when moist. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0. and 2.0 mm. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Palexerolls that have. or 2. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Vertic Natrixerolls IFBB. percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. An aridic soil moisture regime. and b. Aquic Duric Natrixerolls IFBC. Natrixerolls that have one or both of the following: 1. or paralithic contact. A horizon. Aquic Natrixerolls IFBD. that either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Aquic Palexerolls IFCD. Other Natrixerolls that have both: for some time in normal years and slickensides or wedgeshaped peds in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Natrixerolls M O L Palexerolls Key to Subgroups IFCA. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe. Other Natrixerolls that have. Other Natrixerolls that have a horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface that is 15 cm or more thick and either has 20 percent or more (by volume) durinodes or is brittle and has at least a firm rupture-resistance class when moist. pumice. Other Natrixerolls that have an aridic soil moisture regime. A petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.02 to 2. in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. lithic. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm in diameter. or 2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and a. 5 percent or more volcanic glass. Other Natrixerolls. redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). whichever is shallower. In the 0. 15 cm or more thick within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Pachic Palexerolls IFCE. Duric Palexerolls IFCG. Other Palexerolls that have both: 1.

in the fine-earth fraction. Haplic Palexerolls IFCK. or 2.240 IFCH. Less than 35 percent clay in the upper part. Other Palexerolls that have an argillic horizon that has either: 1. Other Palexerolls that have a petrocalcic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface.5 cm. Other Palexerolls. Petrocalcic Palexerolls IFCI. At its upper boundary. Typic Palexerolls . Other Palexerolls that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 75 percent or less in one or more subhorizons either within the argillic horizon if more than 50 cm thick or within its upper 50 cm.5 cm and less than 15 percent (absolute) within a vertical distance of 2. a clay increase that is both less than 20 percent (absolute) within a vertical distance of 7. Ultic Palexerolls IFCJ.

241 . Ustox. or EAB. 241 EAD. 246 EC. p. 50 percent or more hue of 2. p. Plinthic Acraquox EAAB.alphadipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated. Aeric Acraquox EAAC. Torrox. p. Typic Acraquox O X I 4. an apparent ECEC of less than 1. enough active ferrous iron to give a positive reaction to alpha. Other Aquox. Other Eutraquox that have. in one or more subhorizons of an oxic or kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. a horizon 10 cm or more thick that has 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more. b. a horizon with one or both of the following: a. 242 EAC. of 3 or less and. Within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Udox. p. a horizon 10 cm or more thick that has 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more.241 CHAPTER 13 Oxisols Key to Suborders EA.0 or more. and. An epipedon with a color value. 242 EE. moist. 247 Eutraquox Key to Subgroups EACA. Plinthic Eutraquox EACC. Distinct or prominent redox concentrations within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Eutraquox that have a histic epipedon. Oxisols that have aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and have one or more of the following: 1. Aquox that have. Histic Eutraquox EACB. Aquox. 251 ED. directly below an epipedon. p. Other Oxisols that have an aridic soil moisture regime. Other Acraquox. Acraquox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. or 3. or 2. directly below it. Other Oxisols. or Chroma of 3 or less. p. p. Plinthaquox.5Y or yellower. A histic epipedon.50 cmol(+) per kg clay and a pH value (1N KCl) of 5. Other Oxisols that have an ustic or xeric soil moisture regime. a horizon with chroma of 2 or less. Other Oxisols that have a perudic soil moisture regime. Other Aquox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. directly below an epipedon. 241 EB. directly below it. 242 Acraquox Key to Subgroups EAAA. Other Acraquox that have. Aeric Eutraquox Aquox Key to Great Groups EAA. p. Perox. Acraquox. an epipedon. p. Other Eutraquox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Haplaquox. Eutraquox. Other Aquox that have plinthite forming a continuous phase within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Redox depletions with a color value. Other Haplaquox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.50 cmol(+) per kg clay and a pH value (1N KCl) of 5. moist. 242 . Other Perox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Acroperox that have. Aeric Haplaquox EADD. Typic Eutraquox EDC. Haploperox. p. Other Haplaquox that have. Other Plinthaquox. Kandiperox. Aquic Petroferric Acroperox EDBB. Other Perox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Perox that have a sombric horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Sombriperox. Lithic Acroperox EDBE. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and EADB. Other Acroperox that have a delta pH (KCl pH minus 1:1 water pH) with a 0 or net positive charge in a layer 18 cm or more thick within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 243 EDD. p. Other Haplaquox. Other Acroperox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Haplaquox EADE. Other Acroperox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Eutraquox EACE. A petroferric contact. Redox depletions with a color value. 245 EDE. Plinthic Haplaquox EADC. Aquic Lithic Acroperox EDBD. Other Eutraquox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. moist.242 Keys to Soil Taxonomy EACD. redox depletions with a color value. p. a horizon 10 cm or more thick that has 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more. Acroperox. and 2. Other Perox. Other Perox that have. an apparent ECEC of less than 1. directly below an epipedon. directly below an epipedon. A lithic contact. Typic Haplaquox Plinthaquox Key to Subgroups EABA. p. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Acroperox that have. Other Acroperox that have. Eutroperox. and 2. both: 1. Petroferric Acroperox EDBC. Other Haplaquox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aeric Plinthaquox EABB. both: 1. Other Acroperox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Plinthaquox Perox Key to Great Groups EDA. Haplaquox that have a histic epipedon.0 or more. p. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthic Acroperox EDBG. moist. 246 EDB. Histic Haplaquox Acroperox Key to Subgroups EDBA. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 244 Haplaquox Key to Subgroups EADA. a horizon 10 cm or more thick that has 50 percent or more chroma of 3 or more. Plinthaquox that have. Other Eutraquox. in one or more subhorizons of an oxic or kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Anionic Acroperox EDBF.

of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). moist. Plinthic Eutroperox EDCG. Kandiudalfic Eutroperox EDCI. Redox depletions with a color value. Aquic Petroferric Eutroperox EDCB. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Acroperox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. both: 1. Humic Rhodic Acroperox EDBI. Other Acroperox that have both: 1. Aquic Eutroperox EDCH. moist. and 2. A petroferric contact. Other Eutroperox that have. Other Acroperox that have. moist. and Rhodic Acroperox EDBL. redox depletions with a color value.Oxisols 243 also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Hue of 2. Other Acroperox that have both: and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). moist. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.5YR or redder. Eutroperox that have. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Humic Xanthic Acroperox EDBJ. Redox depletions with a color value. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. Plinthaquic Eutroperox EDCF. Other Eutroperox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and b. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. moist. and 2. Humic Acroperox EDBK.5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Acroperox. moist. A value. Other Eutroperox that have. Other Eutroperox that have both: 1. of 3 or less. Lithic Eutroperox EDCE. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Other Eutroperox that have. and 2. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist. Hue of 2. 50 percent or more hue of 7. Xanthic Acroperox EDBM. Eutroperox Key to Subgroups EDCA. Other Eutroperox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. A value. and 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Eutroperox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petroferric Eutroperox EDCC. Humic Inceptic Eutroperox O X I 1. Other Acroperox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. and 2. both: 1. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Aquic Acroperox EDBH.5YR or redder. moist. Aquic Lithic Eutroperox EDCD. of 4 or more . Other Eutroperox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. both: 1. A lithic contact. and 2. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. An oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Acroperox 2. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.

5YR or redder.0 g/cm3 or less. moist. Plinthaquic Haploperox EDEF. moist. A petroferric contact.5YR or redder. Petroferric Haploperox EDEC. and b. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. A value. moist. Haploperox that have. Other Haploperox that have. both: 1. Hue of 2. Other Eutroperox that have an oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. and 2. Other Eutroperox. moist. Other Eutroperox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Other Haploperox that have. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.0. and 2. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A value. moist. Andic Haploperox EDEI. and 1. Other Haploperox that have. and 2. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. of 3 or less. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Other Eutroperox that have both: and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and Rhodic Eutroperox EDCO. Inceptic Eutroperox EDCK. Haploperox Key to Subgroups EDEA. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Haploperox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haploperox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Other Eutroperox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Redox depletions with a color value. moist. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. Other Eutroperox that have both: 1. of 4 or more . In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Aquic Haploperox EDEH. Other Haploperox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Eutroperox EDCN. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Aquic Lithic Haploperox EDED. and 2. Humic Xanthic Eutroperox EDCM.244 Keys to Soil Taxonomy EDCJ. A lithic contact. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. Aquic Petroferric Haploperox EDEB. redox depletions with a color value. of 3 or less. both: 1. Lithic Haploperox EDEE. both: 1. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. Humic Rhodic Eutroperox EDCL. Other Haploperox that have. 50 percent or more hue of 7. measured at 33 kPa water retention. Redox depletions with a color value. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Xanthic Eutroperox EDCP. Plinthic Haploperox EDEG. moist. Other Haploperox that have both: 1. Other Eutroperox that have. Typic Eutroperox 2. Hue of 2. and 2.

within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Rhodic Kandiperox b. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. Hue of 2. moist. Xanthic Haploperox EDEN. and 2. and EDDC. and 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Hue of 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A petroferric contact. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Plinthic Kandiperox EDDG. redox depletions with a color value. Other Haploperox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.5YR or redder. Other Haploperox that have both: 1. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Haploperox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. A lithic contact. of 3 or less. A value. Typic Haploperox 2. Other Kandiperox that have. Humic Haploperox EDEL. A value. Aquic Petroferric Kandiperox EDDB.0. Humic Rhodic Haploperox EDEJ. Other Kandiperox that have. Other Kandiperox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. both: 1. of 3 or less. Petroferric Kandiperox O X I . and 2.Oxisols 245 2. moist. moist. Other Kandiperox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. Redox depletions with a color value. Other Haploperox that have. moist. Aquic Lithic Kandiperox EDDD. Other Kandiperox that have both: 1. A value. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 g/cm3 or less. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Humic Xanthic Haploperox EDEK. Other Haploperox. Andic Kandiperox EDDI. Kandiperox Key to Subgroups EDDA. both: 1. Lithic Kandiperox EDDE. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.5YR or yellower and a color value. of 3 or less. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist.5YR or redder. Other Kandiperox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Kandiperox that have. and 2. and 2. moist. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. moist. Plinthaquic Kandiperox EDDF. Hue of 2. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiperox that have. both: 1. and Rhodic Haploperox EDEM. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Aquic Kandiperox EDDH. 50 percent or more hue of 7. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist.5YR or yellower and a color value. measured at 33 kPa water retention. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. Other Kandiperox that have. and b.

Acrotorrox. Other Eutrotorrox. 246 Acrotorrox Key to Subgroups EBAA.5YR or redder.0 or more. an . Petroferric Eutrotorrox EBBB. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. Other Kandiperox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Other Sombriperox. Other Acrotorrox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Rhodic Kandiperox EDDM.50 cmol(+) per kg clay and a pH value (1N KCl) of 5. in one or more subhorizons of an oxic or kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Sombriperox EDAD. Typic Eutrotorrox Sombriperox Key to Subgroups EDAA. Petroferric Acrotorrox EBAB. Petroferric Haplotorrox EBCB. 246 EBC. p. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. moist. Other Sombriperox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Other Torrox.5YR or yellower and a color value. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Lithic Eutrotorrox EBBC. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Lithic Haplotorrox EBCC. Other Haplotorrox. Other Kandiperox that have both: 1. Acrotorrox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Kandiperox 2. moist. 246 EBB. Sombriperox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Petroferric Sombriperox EDAB. Eutrotorrox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Acrotorrox EBAC. Humic Xanthic Kandiperox EDDK. Typic Sombriperox Haplotorrox Key to Subgroups EBCA. Haplotorrox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiperox.246 Keys to Soil Taxonomy EDDJ. Haplotorrox. Other Eutrotorrox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. and 2. A value. Other Kandiperox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Lithic Sombriperox EDAC. Typic Acrotorrox Eutrotorrox Key to Subgroups EBBA. Other Haplotorrox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Eutrotorrox.5YR or yellower and a color value. Typic Haplotorrox Torrox Key to Great Groups EBA. Humic Kandiperox EDDL. Other Sombriperox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Xanthic Kandiperox EDDN. Other Torrox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hue of 2. 50 percent or more hue of 7. Other Acrotorrox. moist. apparent ECEC of less than 1. Other Kandiperox that have. Torrox that have.

Aquic Petroferric Acrudox EEBB. redox depletions with a color value.Oxisols 247 Udox Key to Great Groups EEA. Redox depletions with a color value. A value. moist. Other Acrudox that have. 251 EEB. of 3 or less. Humic Xanthic Acrudox EEBL. p. and 2. Udox that have a sombric horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Eutrudox. Eutric Acrudox EEBJ. Anionic Acrudox EEBG. 250 EEE. Hapludox. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Acrudox that have. moist. and 2. O X I . Other Acrudox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Acrudox.50 cmol(+) per kg clay and a pH value (1N KCl) of 5. moist. in one or more subhorizons of an oxic or kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. moist. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. Acrudox that have. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Hue of 2. Anionic Aquic Acrudox EEBF. p. Petroferric Acrudox EEBC. moist. both: 1. Other Udox. and 2. A lithic contact. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. moist. Aquic Acrudox EEBI. Other Acrudox that have. Sombriudox. 247 EEC. Other Acrudox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Acrudox that have both: 1. Aquic Lithic Acrudox EEBD. 248 EED. Other Acrudox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A petroferric contact. p. Other Udox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Other Acrudox that have a delta pH (KCl pH minus 1:1 water pH) with a 0 or net positive charge in a layer 18 cm or more thick within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. and Humic Rhodic Acrudox EEBK.0 or more. both: 1. 249 EEBE. Other Acrudox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic b. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Plinthic Acrudox EEBH. both: 1. Lithic Acrudox 1. Other Acrudox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Acrudox that have both: Acrudox Key to Subgroups EEBA. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Kandiudox. 50 percent or more hue of 7. an apparent ECEC of less than 1. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A delta pH (KCl pH minus 1:1 water pH) with a 0 or net positive charge in a layer 18 cm or more thick. Other Udox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Udox that have. and 2. Redox depletions with a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.

Other Acrudox that have. Other Eutrudox that have both: 1. Other Eutrudox that have an oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. moist. Aquic Lithic Eutrudox EECD. Other Eutrudox that have both: Eutrudox Key to Subgroups EECA. both: 1. Other Eutrudox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrudox that have. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. A petroferric contact.5YR or redder. Redox depletions with a color value. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. Humic Inceptic Eutrudox EECJ. and 2. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrudox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Eutrudox that have both: 1. Aquic Petroferric Eutrudox EECB. A value. Other Acrudox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Other Eutrudox that have. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 50 percent or more hue of 7. A lithic contact. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. Xanthic Acrudox EEBO. Other Acrudox. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. Kandiudalfic Eutrudox EECI. and 2. moist.5YR or redder. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Acrudox 2. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. moist. and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Lithic Eutrudox EECE. of 4 or more 1. both: 1. An oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthaquic Eutrudox EECF. and 2. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrudox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. both: 1. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Hue of 2. and Redox depletions with a color value.5YR or yellower and a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Plinthic Eutrudox EECG. moist. moist. and Rhodic Acrudox EEBN. redox depletions with a color value. and 2. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. and Humic Rhodic Eutrudox EECL. Hue of 2. Eutrudox that have. Petroferric Eutrudox EECC. Humic Xanthic Eutrudox b. Redox depletions with a color value. Other Eutrudox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Humic Acrudox EEBM. Inceptic Eutrudox EECK. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. 2. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Aquic Eutrudox EECH. A value. moist.248 Keys to Soil Taxonomy carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. and 2. Other Eutrudox that have. . moist.

Other Hapludox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. Other Hapludox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. moist. and 2.0. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. moist. Other Hapludox that have. of 3 or less. Hapludox that have. moist. and 2.Oxisols 249 EECM. and 2. A value. Aquic Petroferric Hapludox EEEB. A petroferric contact. Other Hapludox that have. Hue of 2. A lithic contact. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Redox depletions with a color value. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. moist. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with a color value. Other Hapludox that have an oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. both: 1. and O X I b. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Redox depletions with a color value. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludox that have. Inceptic Hapludox EEEI. both: 1. and Rhodic Eutrudox EECO. . Other Eutrudox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Plinthic Hapludox EEEG. Typic Eutrudox 2. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Xanthic Eutrudox EECP. Hapludox Key to Subgroups EEEA.5YR or yellower and a color value.0 g/cm3 or less. both: 1. and Humic Rhodic Hapludox EEEK. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludox that have both: 1. Redox depletions with a color value. Humic Xanthic Hapludox EEEL.5YR or redder. moist. Hue of 2. Humic Eutrudox EECN. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Aquic Lithic Hapludox EEED. Other Eutrudox. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Hapludox EEEH. A value. Lithic Hapludox EEEE. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). measured at 33 kPa water retention. Andic Hapludox EEEJ. Humic Hapludox 2. Other Hapludox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludox that have. Plinthaquic Hapludox EEEF. Other Eutrudox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. 50 percent or more hue of 7. moist. moist. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).5YR or yellower and a color value. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. Petroferric Hapludox EEEC. Other Eutrudox that have. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Other Hapludox that have both: 1.

moist. and b. of 3 or less. Other Kandiudox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1. and 2. Redox depletions with a color value. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Hapludox. both: 1. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Hapludox that have. Plinthic Kandiudox EEDG. and 2. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. 50 percent or more hue of 7. A value. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. measured at 33 kPa water retention. throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. of 3 or less. EEDF. Humic Kandiudox EEDL. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. A value. and Rhodic Hapludox EEEN. Aquic Petroferric Kandiudox EEDB. Other Kandiudox that have. Xanthic Hapludox EEEO. both: 1. Petroferric Kandiudox EEDC.0 g/cm3 or less. moist. Andic Kandiudox EEDI. Plinthaquic Kandiudox 1. Typic Hapludox 2. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Lithic Kandiudox EEDD. A petroferric contact. and Rhodic Kandiudox 2. Humic Rhodic Kandiudox EEDJ. moist. and 2.5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Kandiudox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. moist. Other Hapludox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Other Kandiudox that have. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Humic Xanthic Kandiudox EEDK. Other Kandiudox that have.5YR or yellower and a color value. Redox depletions with a color value. A value. and 2.5YR or redder. redox depletions with a color value. Other Kandiudox that have. Hue of 2. Kandiudox that have. Other Kandiudox that have both: Kandiudox Key to Subgroups EEDA.5YR or redder. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. . Redox depletions with a color value.5YR or redder. Other Kandiudox that have both: 1. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiudox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Hue of 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A lithic contact. Other Kandiudox that have. Other Kandiudox hat have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1. Lithic Kandiudox EEDE. both: 1. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. moist.0. moist. Aquic Kandiudox EEDH.250 Keys to Soil Taxonomy EEEM. Hue of 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). moist. moist.

moist. an apparent ECEC of less than 1. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. p. p. Other Kandiudox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Sombriustox. 251 ECC. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and Sombriudox Key to Subgroups EEAA. Other Sombriudox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 254 ECE. 255 ECB. and 2. Xanthic Kandiudox EEDN. Anionic Acrustox ECBG. p. Other Acrustox that have. Other Ustox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Acrustox that have. Other Ustox. Ustox that have a sombric horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Acrustox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in one or more subhorizons of an oxic or kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Ustox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Typic Kandiudox Acrustox Key to Subgroups ECBA. Humic Sombriudox EEAD.5YR or yellower and a color value. both: 1. Lithic Acrustox ECBE. Eutrustox. Other Sombriudox. p. Other Ustox that have. Typic Sombriudox Ustox Key to Great Groups ECA. Other Acrustox that have. p. 252 ECD. Other Acrustox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Kandiustox. Aquic Lithic Acrustox ECBD. Other Acrustox that have. moist. Haplustox. Redox depletions with a color value. both: 1. Other Acrustox that have a delta pH (KCl pH minus 1:1 water pH) with a 0 or net positive charge in a layer 18 cm or more thick within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Acrustox.50 cmol(+) per kg clay and a pH value (1N KCl) of 5. Sombriudox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plinthic Acrustox ECBH. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Sombriudox EEAC. Redox depletions with a color value.0 or more. A petroferric contact. moist. Petroferric Sombriudox EEAB.Oxisols 251 EEDM. and 2. Anionic Aquic Acrustox ECBF. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Kandiudox. A lithic contact. Petroferric Acrustox ECBC. Other Acrustox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 253 O X I . Aquic Petroferric Acrustox ECBB. moist. redox depletions with a color value. Other Sombriudox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. and 2. Redox depletions with a color value. both: 1. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A delta pH (KCl pH minus 1:1 water pH) with a 0 or net positive charge in a layer 18 cm or more thick.

Aquic Lithic Eutrustox ECCD. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. and 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). of 3 or less. and 2. Other Acrustox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. Plinthic Eutrustox ECCG. Other Eutrustox that have. Humic Acrustox ECBM. Other Acrustox. 50 percent or more hue of 7. Eutrustox that have. Other Eutrustox that have. moist. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. both: 1. Aquic Acrustox ECBI. both: 1. A value. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. A lithic contact. moist. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Other Acrustox that have both: 1. Other Eutrustox that have.5YR or redder. Other Acrustox that have. moist. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and Humic Rhodic Acrustox ECBK. and Rhodic Acrustox ECBN. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Other Acrustox that have both: Eutrustox Key to Subgroups ECCA. Typic Acrustox 2. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. redox depletions with a color value. moist. b. Hue of 2. Humic Xanthic Acrustox ECBL. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrustox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. A value. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Acrustox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Redox depletions with a color value. Xanthic Acrustox ECBO. Eutric Acrustox ECBJ. Aquic Eutrustox . of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Petroferric Eutrustox ECCB. moist. Other Acrustox that have a base saturation (by NH4OAc) of 35 percent or more in all horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. moist. Hue of 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Lithic Eutrustox ECCE. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 2. Plinthaquic Eutrustox ECCF.5YR or redder. moist. Petroferric Eutrustox ECCC. moist.252 Keys to Soil Taxonomy also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. Redox depletions with a color value. A petroferric contact. Other Eutrustox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 1. both: 1. Redox depletions with a color value. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. of 3 or less. Other Eutrustox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.

Other Eutrustox that have both: b. Other Haplustox that have. Aqueptic Haplustox 2. A lithic contact. Plinthaquic Haplustox ECEF. Haplustox that have. Other Haplustox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Kandiustalfic Eutrustox ECCI. and 2. Hue of 2. Other Haplustox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Haplustox ECEE. A value. Xanthic Eutrustox 2. Hue of 2. Aquic Petroferric Haplustox ECEB. and Rhodic Eutrustox ECCO. both: 1. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. moist. Other Eutrustox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. moist. Other Haplustox that have. A value. 1. . of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Redox depletions with a color value. and 2. both: 1. of 3 or less. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Lithic Haplustox ECED. The lower boundary of the oxic horizon.Oxisols 253 ECCH. Other Eutrustox that have a kandic horizon within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Eutrustox Haplustox Key to Subgroups ECEA. Redox depletions with a color value. moist. Other Eutrustox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Redox depletions with a color value. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. and Humic Rhodic Eutrustox ECCL. Redox depletions with a color value. moist. Plinthic Haplustox ECEG. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Eutrustox that have an oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. of 3 or less. and 2. A petroferric contact. Other Eutrustox that have both: 1. 50 percent or more hue of 7. Humic Xanthic Eutrustox ECCM. both: 1. Inceptic Eutrustox ECCK. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. both: 1. Other Haplustox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. Other Eutrustox that have both: ECCP.5YR or redder. Other Eutrustox that have. and 2. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). moist. Other Eutrustox. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. and 2. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or yellower and a color value. and 2. Humic Eutrustox ECCN.5YR or redder. moist. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Other Haplustox that have. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist. An oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. Petroferric Haplustox ECEC. Humic Inceptic Eutrustox ECCJ. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and O X I 1.

Redox depletions with a color value. Other Haplustox that have an oxic horizon that has its lower boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplustox that have 50 percent or more hue of 2. Kandiustox that have. redox depletions with a color value. Humic Xanthic Haplustox ECEM. moist. and 2. Other Kandiustox that have. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiustox that have.5YR or redder. Redox depletions with a color value. A lithic contact. Plinthic Kandiustox ECDG. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiustox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). moist. or 30 or more cumulative days. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: 1. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. of 3 or less. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. Typic Haplustox Kandiustox Key to Subgroups ECDA. Other Kandiustox that have. Xanthic Haplustox ECEP. Humic Rhodic Haplustox ECEL. of 3 or less. Other Haplustox that have both: 7. and 2. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Lithic Kandiustox ECDE.5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Haplustox that have. and 2. and b. both: 1. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). both: 1. and 2. moist. A value. Aquic Lithic Kandiustox ECDD. Inceptic Haplustox ECEK. Aquic Petroferric Kandiustox ECDB. Other Haplustox that have. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. Other Kandiustox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.5YR or redder. moist. in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiustox that have 5 percent or more (by volume) plinthite in one or more horizons within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface.254 Keys to Soil Taxonomy ECEH. Plinthaquic Kandiustox ECDF. Redox depletions with a color value. moist. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Humic Haplustox ECEN. A petroferric contact. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Aquic Haplustox ECEI. . A value. and Rhodic Haplustox ECEO. Other Haplustox that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Hue of 2. Oxyaquic Haplustox ECEJ. within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. redox depletions with 1. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). both: 1. 50 percent or more hue of 7. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Petroferric Kandiustox ECDC.5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Haplustox. 2. Hue of 2. 20 or more consecutive days. moist. Other Haplustox that have both: 1. moist. moist. Other Haplustox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm.

Other Kandiustox that have 50 percent or more hue of 7. and Rhodic Kandiustox 2. moist. Petroferric Sombriustox ECAB. Humic Sombriustox ECAD. Typic Kandiustox Sombriustox Key to Subgroups ECAA. A value. moist. Humic Kandiustox ECDK.5YR or redder. Other Kandiustox. Hue of 2. A value.5YR or redder. Humic Rhodic Kandiustox ECDI. Humic Xanthic Kandiustox ECDJ.5YR or yellower and a color value. 1. Aquic Kandiustox ECDH. Sombriustox that have a petroferric contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. and 2. of 3 or less. moist.Oxisols 255 a color value. Hue of 2. In all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. of 4 or more and chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Sombriustox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. of 3 or less. Xanthic Kandiustox ECDM. Other Kandiustox that have 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Lithic Sombriustox ECAC. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: O X I . Other Kandiustox that have. in all horizons at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. Other Kandiustox that have both: 1. 16 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. 50 percent or more hue of 7.5YR or yellower and a color value. Other Kandiustox that have both: ECDL. Typic Sombriustox 1. Other Sombriustox that have a lithic contact within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Sombriustox. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. more than 50 percent colors that have both of the following: a. and b. moist. of 6 or more at a depth between 25 and 125 cm from the mineral soil surface. moist.

.

Alaquods. p. Alfic Arenic Alaquods CABE. p. Alaquods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Spodosols that have aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and have one or both of the following: 1. 259 Alaquods Key to Subgroups CABA. Aquods that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Other Aquods that have. and 2. A histic epipedon. Within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Histic Alaquods CABD. 258 CAB. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 to 125 cm. 259 CAD. and 2. Cryods. Epiaquods. Placaquods. Other Aquods. Duraquods. Other Aquods that have less than 0. 257 CB. p. p. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 to 125 cm. Aquods. p. Duric Alaquods CABC. 261 CC. Within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface.0 percent or more organic carbon in a layer 10 cm or more thick within the spodic horizon. p. Other Aquods that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p. Fragiaquods. 258 CAF. Other Spodosols that have a gelic soil temperature regime. 259 CD. 258 CAE. 259 S P O . Other Aquods that have episaturation.10 percent iron (by ammonium oxalate) in 75 percent or more of the spodic horizon. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Gelods. p. Other Alaquods that: 1. Other Spodosols that have a cryic soil temperature regime. Have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Aquods that have a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in 50 percent or more of each pedon. redoximorphic features in an albic or a spodic horizon. Cryaquods. Arenic Ultic Alaquods Aquods Key to Great Groups CAA. 257 CAC. Other Alaquods that have a histic epipedon. Humods. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. p. 262 CAG. Lithic Alaquods CABB. p. Other Spodosols. Orthods. Other Alaquods that have. Other Alaquods that: 1. or 2. have an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Endoaquods. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. 261 CE. p.257 CHAPTER 14 Spodosols Key to Suborders CA. Other Spodosols that have 6.

Duraquods that have a histic epipedon. Endoaquods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Alaquods. whichever is shallower. Lithic Cryaquods CAAB. Entic Cryaquods CAAF. Other Alaquods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Have an umbric epipedon. Histic Duraquods CAEB. Andic Cryaquods CAAE. Other Endoaquods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Alaquods throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Cryaquods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Alfic Alaquods CABJ. whichever is shallower.258 Keys to Soil Taxonomy CABF. Duric Cryaquods CAAD. Typic Duraquods Endoaquods Key to Subgroups CAGA. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Alaquods that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 125 cm or more. Aeric Alaquods CABL. Lithic Endoaquods CAGB. and 2. Other Alaquods that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 to 125 cm. whichever is shallower. Arenic Alaquods CABH. Other Alaquods that have an ochric epipedon. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 cm or more. Argic Endoaquods CAGE. Other Cryaquods. Ultic Alaquods CABK. Other Alaquods that have. Arenic Umbric Alaquods CABG. Other Cryaquods that have a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in 50 percent or more of each pedon. Other Cryaquods that have andic soil properties . Other Endoaquods that have a histic epipedon. Other Alaquods that: 1. Andic Duraquods CAEC. Other Cryaquods that have. Other Duraquods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Typic Cryaquods Duraquods Key to Subgroups CAEA. Umbric Endoaquods Cryaquods Key to Subgroups CAAA. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Endoaquods CAGD. Other Endoaquods that have an umbric epipedon. Other Duraquods. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Other Cryaquods that have a spodic horizon less than 10 cm thick in 50 percent or more of each pedon. Placic Cryaquods CAAC. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. Grossarenic Alaquods CABI. Histic Endoaquods CAGC. Other Endoaquods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.

Placocryods. Other Fragiaquods that have a surface horizon 30 cm or more thick that meets all of the requirements for a plaggen epipedon except thickness. Other Epiaquods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Duricryods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Cryods that have 6. Humicryods. Epiaquods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Epiaquods that have a histic epipedon. Histic Epiaquods CAFC. Umbric Epiaquods Other Epiaquods. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. Andic Duricryods S P O Fragiaquods Key to Subgroups CACA. 259 CCC. p. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. Other Epiaquods that have an umbric epipedon. Other Fragiaquods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Plagganthreptic Fragiaquods CACC. Argic Fragiaquods CACD. whichever is shallower. Fragiaquods that have a histic epipedon.Spodosols 259 CAGF. Other Epiaquods that have. whichever is shallower. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. 261 CCB. CAFG. Typic Placaquods Epiaquods Key to Subgroups CAFA. Andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Haplocryods. Placaquods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Typic Fragiaquods . Other Placaquods.0 percent or more organic carbon throughout a layer 10 cm or more thick within the spodic horizon. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Cryods that have a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in 50 percent or more of each pedon. Typic Endoaquods Placaquods Key to Subgroups CADA. Duricryods that have both: 1. 260 Duricryods Key to Subgroups CCBA. Other Cryods. Andic Placaquods CADB. Lithic Epiaquods CAFB. Other Epiaquods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. and 2. Ultic Epiaquods CAFF. Other Cryods that have. Other Endoaquods. Duricryods. Typic Epiaquods Cryods Key to Great Groups CCA. Alfic Epiaquods CAFE. Aquandic Duricryods CCBB. Other Fragiaquods. Histic Fragiaquods CACB. Andic Epiaquods CAFD. p. Redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 260 CCD. p.

Andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties.260 Keys to Soil Taxonomy CCBC. Other Duricryods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). whichever is shallower. and 2. Redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. whichever is shallower. Aquandic Humicryods CCCC. Folistic Humicryods CCCE. Other Haplocryods. Andic Humicryods CCCD. Other Haplocryods that have both: 1. Other Humicryods that have a folistic epipedon. Other Haplocryods that have 1. Other Haplocryods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Haplocryods that have a folistic epipedon. or 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Duricryods CCBE. Aquic Duricryods CCBD. Other Humicryods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).1 percent or less organic carbon in the upper 10 cm of the spodic horizon. whichever is shallower. Aquandic Haplocryods CCDC. 20 or more consecutive days. Entic Haplocryods CCDH. Other Haplocryods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Humicryods CCCF. Haplocryods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Duricryods CCDF. 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Humicryods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. Other Humicryods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Duricryods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Lithic Humicryods CCCB. Other Haplocryods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. and 2. Oxyaquic Haplocryods CCDG. Andic Haplocryods CCDD. Other Humicryods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Other Humicryods that have both: 1. Lithic Haplocryods CCDB. Folistic Haplocryods CCDE. 2.0 percent or more organic carbon throughout a layer 10 cm or more thick within the spodic horizon. or Haplocryods Key to Subgroups CCDA. Other Duricryods. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Duricryods that have 6. Aquic Haplocryods . Humic Duricryods CCBF. or 30 or more cumulative days. Typic Haplocryods Humicryods Key to Subgroups CCCA.

Durihumods.0 percent or more organic carbon throughout a layer 10 cm or more thick within the spodic horizon. Turbic Humigelods CBAE. whichever is shallower. p. Humods that have a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in 50 percent or more of each pedon. Other Placocryods. Turbic Haplogelods CBBE. 261 Typic Humigelods Gelods Key to Great Groups CBA. Other Haplogelods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). 30 or more cumulative days. 261 CBB. Other Humicryods. Placohumods. Other Haplogelods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Haplogelods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humods that have. Fragihumods.Spodosols 261 2. whichever is shallower. p. 262 S P O . Oxyaquic Humicryods CBBD. p. Lithic Haplogelods CBBB. Haplohumods. Other Haplogelods. Gelods that have 6. Humic Placocryods CCAC. Humigelods. Andic Placocryods CCAB. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Gelods. Aquic Haplogelods Humods Key to Great Groups CDA. Haplogelods Key to Subgroups CBBA. Typic Haplogelods CCCG. whichever is shallower. Other Humigelods that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humigelods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Aquic Humigelods CBAD. Andic Haplogelods CBBC. p. Humigelods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplogelods that have gelic materials within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Humigelods. Lithic Humigelods CBAB. Haplogelods. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. 262 CDB. p. Andic Humigelods CBAC. 262 CDD. 262 CDC. Other Humods. Placocryods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. p. Typic Humicryods Placocryods Key to Subgroups CCAA. Other Placocryods that have 6.0 percent or more organic carbon in a layer 10 cm or more thick within the spodic horizon. Other Humigelods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Humods that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Typic Placocryods Humigelods Key to Subgroups CBAA.

20 or more consecutive days. p. 263 CEC. p. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Alorthods that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 to 125 cm. Other Orthods that have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria . Haplorthods. Typic Durihumods Orthods Key to Great Groups CEA. Orthods that have. 264 Fragihumods Key to Subgroups CDCA. Oxyaquic Alorthods CEDB. Durorthods. 263 Typic Fragihumods CED. Other Haplohumods that have a surface horizon 30 cm or more thick that meets all of the requirements for a plaggen epipedon except thickness. p. Arenic Ultic Alorthods CEDC. Other Alorthods that: 1. Other Durihumods. Andic Durihumods CDBB. Other Alorthods that: Placohumods Key to Subgroups CDAA. a cemented horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Andic Haplohumods CDDC. Have an argillic or kandic horizon below the spodic horizon. Typic Haplohumods Alorthods Key to Subgroups CEDA. Haplohumods Key to Subgroups CDDA. whichever is shallower. in 50 percent or more of each pedon. 2. 262 CEE. p. Placorthods.262 Keys to Soil Taxonomy Durihumods Key to Subgroups CDBA. Arenic Alorthods CEDD. in 90 percent or more of each pedon. Durihumods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Other Orthods. and 2. Lithic Haplohumods CDDB. Meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 75 to 125 cm. Other Haplohumods. Other Placohumods. Plagganthreptic Haplohumods CDDD. Typic Placohumods 1. 265 CEB. Placohumods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. All Fragihumods (provisionally). Alorthods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. whichever is shallower. a placic horizon within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. p.10 percent iron (by ammonium oxalate) in 75 percent or more of the spodic horizon. Other Orthods that have. Other Haplohumods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. Haplohumods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. whichever is shallower. Andic Placohumods CDAB. Other Orthods that have less than 0. Fragiorthods. Alorthods.

Andic Durorthods CEBB. Oxyaquic Fragiorthods CECD. or 30 or more cumulative days. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and b. Fragiorthods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and .0 percent organic carbon in the upper 2 cm of the spodic horizon. Are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. Within the upper 7. Ultic Alorthods CEDJ. either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample). Aquic Fragiorthods CECB. Alfic Fragiorthods CECF. loamy very fine sand. Durorthods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. less than 3. Typic Alorthods also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). Other Alorthods that have a surface horizon 30 cm or more thick that meets all of the requirements for a plaggen epipedon except thickness. in 10 percent or more of each pedon. fine sand. Alfic Alorthods CEDI.2 percent organic carbon. whichever is shallower. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Other Fragiorthods that have a spodic horizon that has one of the following: 1. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. Other Fragiorthods that: 1. Plagganthreptic Alorthods CEDH. or finer. in 10 percent or more of each pedon. Have. A weighted average of less than 1. b. less than 3.5 cm. 20 or more consecutive days. and 2. A thickness of 10 cm or less. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Fragiorthods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. or coarser S P O Durorthods Key to Subgroups CEBA. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Fragiorthods that have. Other Alorthods. A texture class of loamy fine sand.Spodosols 263 throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 125 cm or more. Plagganthreptic Fragiorthods CECE. Have. Other Alorthods that meet sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class criteria throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of a spodic horizon at a depth of 125 cm or more. 2. Other Durorthods. and c. Other Alorthods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Alfic Oxyaquic Fragiorthods CECC. Other Alorthods that have. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Other Fragiorthods that have a surface horizon 30 cm or more thick that meets all of the requirements for a plaggen epipedon except thickness.0 percent organic carbon in the upper 2 cm of the spodic horizon. Other Alorthods that have. Other Fragiorthods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Grossarenic Alorthods CEDG. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Entic Alorthods CEDF. Typic Durorthods Fragiorthods Key to Subgroups CECA. or 2. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. A texture class of very fine sand. and a. Ultic Fragiorthods CECG. Entic Grossarenic Alorthods CEDE.

A weighted average of less than 1. Other Haplorthods that have fragic soil properties either: 1. Within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Oxyaquic Ultic Haplorthods 1. A spodic horizon with a texture class of very fine sand. Other Haplorthods that have: 1. and b. Other Haplorthods that have: 1.5 cm. b. Other Haplorthods that have both: CEEH. Within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. or coarser and either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample) in the upper 2. Other Haplorthods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) and either: 1. loamy very fine sand. Within the upper 7. Other Haplorthods that have both: 1. Other Haplorthods that have redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). and 2. either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample).2 percent organic carbon. A thickness of 10 cm or less. A thickness of 10 cm or less. or 2. or b. or 30 or more cumulative days. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick.2 percent organic carbon. A spodic horizon with a texture class of loamy fine sand. and 2. Fragiaquic Haplorthods CEED. A spodic horizon with a texture class of very fine sand. an argillic or kandic horizon.5 cm. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. Aquentic Haplorthods CEEF. loamy very fine sand. A spodic horizon with a texture class of loamy fine sand.5 cm. and a. Entic Lithic Haplorthods CEEB. Typic Fragiorthods CEEE. Entic Fragiorthods CECH. Other Fragiorthods.5 cm. or 2. Haplorthods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and either: 1. either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample). Within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and 2. A weighted average of less than 1.264 Keys to Soil Taxonomy and either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample) in the upper 2. 20 or more consecutive days. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. and 2. Redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage). an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Fragic soil properties: a. b. fine sand. Within the upper 7. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or . and c. Aqualfic Haplorthods CEEI. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. or coarser and either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample) in the upper 2. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. Redoximorphic features in one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage).5 cm. and c. Other Haplorthods that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Alfic Oxyaquic Haplorthods Haplorthods Key to Subgroups CEEA. fine sand. and a. or finer. Lithic Haplorthods CEEC. or 30 or more cumulative days. or finer. Aquic Haplorthods CEEG. 20 or more consecutive days. and b.

or 2. Lamellic Oxyaquic Haplorthods CEEK. Other Haplorthods that have andic soil properties throughout horizons that have a total thickness of 25 cm or more within 75 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties. 20 or more consecutive days. Other Haplorthods that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: 1. Entic Haplorthods CEEQ.5 cm. A thickness of 10 cm or less. loamy very fine sand. have lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. fine sand. below the spodic horizon but not below an argillic horizon. an argillic or kandic horizon that has a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 35 percent or more in some part. A weighted average of less than 1. b. within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. and c. and a. Lamellic Haplorthods CEEL. Andic Haplorthods Placorthods Key to Subgroups CEAA. Typic Haplorthods 1. All Placorthods (provisionally). Alfic Haplorthods CEEO. 2. Other Haplorthods that have. or 30 or more cumulative days. or 2. A texture class of loamy fine sand. whichever is shallower. Other Haplorthods that have a spodic horizon that has one of the following: 1. A texture class of very fine sand. or 30 or more cumulative days. Other Haplorthods that.5 cm. Oxyaquic Haplorthods CEEM.Spodosols 265 more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Other Haplorthods that have an argillic or kandic horizon within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. or coarser and either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample) in the upper 2. Within the upper 7. lamellae (two or more) within 200 cm of the mineral soil surface. Fragic Haplorthods CEEJ. or finer. and b. Saturation with water in 1 or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both: a. Ultic Haplorthods CEEP. either or both a moist color value or chroma of 4 or more (crushed and smoothed sample). Below the spodic horizon but not below an argillic horizon. Other Haplorthods that have both: CEEN. Other Haplorthods.2 percent organic carbon. Typic Placorthods S P O . 20 or more consecutive days. and 2.

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and 2. 271 HAB. do not have a clay decrease of 20 percent or more (relative) from the maximum clay content. and 3. lithic. 281 HE. whichever is deeper. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. paralithic. Ultisols that have aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage) in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface and one or both of the following: 1.alphadipyridyl at a time when the soil is not being irrigated.4 cm/hr or slower (moderately low or lower Ksat class) in the argillic or kandic horizon. Albaquults. 12 kg/m2 or more organic carbon between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 100 cm. Have a kandic horizon. Within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface. isothermic. Udults. Other Aquults that have an abrupt textural change between the ochric epipedon or albic horizon and the argillic or kandic horizon and have a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 0. or b. p. Other Ultisols that have a udic soil