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UNIT THREE: AWARENESS OF RISK REDUCTION

As per the Syllabus      Trigger mechanism Constitution of trigger mechanism Risk reduction by education Disaster information network Risk reduction by public awareness    

According to our Omnibus Trigger Mechanism Risk Reduction by Education Risk Reduction by Public Awareness Disaster Information Networks

TRIGGER MECHANISM
Introduction * Need * Activities/Components * Constitution of Trigger Mechanism

1. INTRODUCTION Trigger Mechanism is a quick response mechanism, which would spontaneously set the vehicle of management into motion on the road to disaster mitigation process.

The trigger mechanism has been envisaged as a preparedness plan whereby the receipt of a signal of an impending disaster would simultaneously energise and activate the mechanism for response and mitigation without loss of crucial time.

The Trigger Mechanism is in essence, the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in disaster management in which the implementation of efforts on ground is well laid down.

2. NEED As and when a disaster takes place, be it natural or man-made, the managers struggle to mitigate its effects on human lives and material losses. The immediate response in all disasters has more or less the same parameters. These are to provide rescue and relief and save the precious human life. Thus, the emergency response of the disaster managers is a factor independent of the types of intensity of the disasters. This is the need for trigger mechanism.

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3. ACTIVITIES/COMPONENTS OF TRIGGER MECHANISM The Trigger Mechanism requires the disaster managers to: 1. Identify disasters and their probability of occurrence Identification of hazards and vulnerability of areas/people to the hazards Preparation of District Profile or Area Profile which includes hazards, vulnerability and records of previous disasters Developmental Process and Notable changes in the area

2. Evolve an effective signal / warning mechanism Use of traditional/mordern methods of communication to alert the people Can be availed from agencies like IMD,CWC,AIR,DD etc

3. Identify activities Co-ordination, Command and Control Rapid Assessment of Damage Restoration of Power, Communication and Surface Transport Deployment of Search/ Rescue Teams and Medical Teams Arranging water and food Setting up Temporary Shelters Maintenance of Sanitation and Hygiene Identification and Earmarking of Resources Maintenance of Law and Order

4. Identify sub-activities under each activity Each activity will generally involve three to six sub activities All sub activities need to be listed under respective main activity Eg. Medical Assistance is main activity. Sub Activity – arrangement of doctors, arrangement of medicines, travel of doctors, needs of doctors, inventory and supply of medicines etc.

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5. Define level of response Lower impacts of disaster, lower the level of response. More impacts of disaster, more the level of response. The Levels are named L0 – normal situation or no disaster L1 – disaster can be managed at district level L2 – disaster can be managed at state level L3 – disaster can be managed at national/international level

6. Specify authorities for each level of activity and sub-activity. Every activity is assigned to specific authority. Since many authorities/departments will be involved, all details of authorities should be specified and each authority allotted a unique ID. Like activities and sub activities, authorities should be mapped with sub authorities

7. Determine the response time for each activity In emergency time is always the essence For each activity/sub activity quick response time not more than 20 minutes should be fixed Every authority should be aware of the response time and act accordingly

8. Work out individual plans of each specified authority to achieve as per the QRT Plan for each activity and its sub activities so that the activity is done within the response time List the various resources required for accomplishment Clearly establish the authorities and provide him required powers to arrange for resources The identification and earmarking of resources should be based on availability and functionality

9. Have Quick Response Teams for each specified authority A Special Team (Quick Response Time) having complete knowledge and skills can be allotted for each authority

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The team should have training and preparedness drills. They should always be in communication with each other and the specified authority

10. Have alternative plans and contingency measures Sometimes plans may get struck due to Octopus Effect or poor planning or absence of authority etc. and trigger mechanism may get stopped To avoid this, alternative plans and contingency measures should also be thought in advance. Plan B is essential for any plan

11. Provide appropriate administrative & financial delegations Necessary to ensure administrative, financial and legislative provisions Delegations should be well defined and clearly laid down so that everyone is aware of their own delegations and common delegations

12. Undergo preparedness drills The Quick Response Team should undergo preparedness drills and carry out mock exercises. The teams should update their methodology after the drills and exercises. Even the authorities can undertake this preparedness drills.

4. CONSTITUTION OF TRIGGER MECHANISM The term constitution of trigger mechanism refers to the process of constituting (establishing, appointing; and formation) of trigger mechanism for a particular disaster. The general flowchart for trigger mechanism can be given as follows

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Any trigger mechanism, involves a network of people, operating as given by the following flow diagram

There constitution of trigger mechanism may vary 1. When early warning signals are available 2. When early warning signals are not available Where Early Warning signals are available At the National Level, nodal agencies have been designated for generating/forecasting of events of natural disasters. The onset of disaster shall be indicated through forecasting by the Nodal Agencies with respect to their hazards, as per laid down protocol. In such a case, the first and foremost task shall be informing the community likely to be affected by the disaster through a warning system and undertake evacuation When such early warning signals are available, the constitution of trigger mechanism can be explained as per the following flowchart.

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Where Warning Signals are not Available In disaster situations where no early warning signals are available, the primary objective of the trigger mechanism shall be to mount immediate rescue and relief operations and set the process in as quickly as possible. The following procedure outlined by the flowchart shall be followed in such situations:

RISK REDUCTION BY EDUCATION
Introduction * Formal Education * Informal Education* Examples * People Involved * Model Curriculum

1. INTRODUCTION Education is an important aspect of the development process and it has a direct bearing on the knowledge and attitude a country possesses on disaster management, environmental issues, energy conservation etc. The disaster risks can be reduced through a proper scheme of education – formal and informal. A formal education means what you learned in school or college through organized programmes. Informal education means what you learned by studying on your own initiative or through non organized programmes. The DRR by Education programmes are very important because they (1) augment capacity building of a nation/state/region in DRR (2) induce community based disaster management programmes (3) help in establishing disaster preparedness and mitigation (4) enable easy reach of Government initiatives in DRR

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2. FORMAL EDUCATION Formal curriculum integration of disaster risk reduction may be introduced in the following means Certificate Courses refers to conducting special certificate courses on Disaster Management by organisations like NDMA or NDMI for a short period of time and making it compulsory for high level managers and engineers. This is intended in the case of higher education and not for schools and undergraduate colleges. Curriculum Integration refers to an approach that makes use of specially developed units concentrating on disaster risk reduction and fitting them into several specific course curriculums, for a specific duration. For example, when a ECE student studies Satellite Communication, a unit or a portion of a unit may be related to the disaster risks associated with the concept of satellite communication. Similarly when the student is pursuing a course on Fiber Communication, the applications of fiber communication specifically with disaster risk reduction may be made a part of the syllabus. Curriculum Infusion is a more comprehensive approach that distributes disaster risk reduction as one course/subject of the curriculum, using lessons, readings, activities and problems, enriching the existing curriculum rather than displacing it. Stand-alone courses refer to specialized course curricula focused on disaster risk reduction. In some countries where curriculum permits, these courses may supplement the existing curriculum at specific grade levels, like in India where it is introduced as elective courses. Extra-curricular integration is a compromise where needed disaster management content is slipped in to the school day in form of extracurricular activities for which credit is assigned and awarded. For example, in a private university in India each student has to spend 20 hours a semester in disaster management related studies and submit an assignment for which credit of 2 points is awarded.

3. INFORMAL EDUCATION Informal education can take many forms, offering fun and engaging many ways to introduce important knowledge, skills and competencies for people of all ages. Some of the means are        Distribution of written materials, Use of Posters and Signs, Email campaigns Creative educational materials like toys, games, documentary, short films, storybooks, comics, puzzles, and computer games etc Cultural and performing arts like song, poetry, dance, puppetry, magic, street theatre etc School/College Club Activities. Projects/Assignments related to disaster management for students/ society members/ employees Inter school or Open Competitions and Awards related to disaster management Community fairs and “open house” Exhibitions related to disaster risk reduction

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4. EXAMPLES There are many examples for DRR through education in informal and formal means of education. Some examples in India are highlighted herewith. Disaster Management – Indian CBSE Experience The Government of India in its Tenth Five Year Plan emphasized the need for integrating disaster management in the existing education system in India. As one of the important initiatives, the inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of schools has been recommended to the Boards. In a first ever attempt by any educational institution in the country, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has integrated a short course on Disaster Management in the school curriculum from the year 2003-04 onwards. The Board has introduced the subject on Disaster Management as a frontline curriculum in Social Science for classes VIII in the year 2003, for class IX in 2004 and for class X in 2005. The Board has developed the curriculum, course content and the pedagogy with support from Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India and United Nations Development Programme(UNDP). From this year 2009-10 onwards, it has been made practical-based and chapters on disaster have been incorporated in other parts of the subject. Moreover, schools have also been instructed to introduce project work and assignment. The internal assessment for the same will be sent to the board at the time of annual examinations in class X. The curriculum on Disaster Management contains the following topics: ● The nature and types of hazards ● Natural and man-made disasters and need for their management ● Efforts made in various regions for disaster preparedness and mitigation ● Role of community and schools in Disaster Management. ● Partnership with various Government and Non-Government agencies. ● Use of modern and scientific technologies to combat disasters and ● Survival skills Disaster Management – Anna University of Technology Coimbatore The Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore has introduced a course on disaster management as a part of curriculum for engineering and technology students studying in its nearly 200 constituent colleges. The course has been made a mandatory course for EEE and ECE students at their penultimate and final semesters respectively. It has also been introduced as an elective course for other branches like CSE, IT, Bio Medical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Textile Technology. The course contents include all major topics like fundamentals of disaster management, technologies in disaster management, disaster development linkage, trigger mechanism, DRR initiatives through awareness, community participation, earthquake and tsunami hazards etc.

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5. PEOPLE INVOLVED For the success of the disaster risk reduction through education, there should be active involvement among five sections of the society 1. The Government , at all levels, Central/State and District Level 2. The News and Information Media, at all levels, both the print and audio/visual media 3. Administrators and Teachers 4. NGOs and Community Based Organisations 5. People, Students in particular If the involvement of all sections of the society is available for this project, then disaster risk reduction through education will become a big success. 6. MODEL CURRICULUM A model curriculum for Disaster Management should involve the following whether it is curriculum infusion or integration or stand alone/certified course. The subject should be taught with more of a practical outlook than theoretical basis. 1. Introduction to Disasters 2. Types of Natural and Artificial Disasters and counter measures 3. Disaster Management 4. Initiatives for Disaster Management at Various Levels 5. Technology in Disaster Management 6. Disaster Risk Reduction through Education and Awareness 7. Community Participation in Disaster Risk Reduction 8. Disaster Preparedness Activities in the particular region 9. Emergency Response in the particular region 10. Financial and Legal Measures to support Disaster Risk Reduction

RISK REDUCTION BY PUBLIC AWARENESS
Importance * Aim * Responsibility * Aspects * Existing Programmes

1. IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AWARENESS FOR RISK REDUCTION Wide international and local experiences in disaster management have emphasizes the importance of public awareness in coping with crisis situations. There exists a strong connection between public awareness and virtually every other aspect of disaster management If the public awareness level is high regarding impending disasters, the losses will be reduced and the entire process of disaster risk reduction will become easy and simple. 2. AIM OF PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME The aim of public awareness programs is to promote an informed, alert, and self-reliant community, capable of playing its full part in support with government, in all relevant disaster management matters

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In line with the above aim, most countries recognize that community members need to know the following facts in relation to possible disaster impact.  What the disaster will do?  The best immediate action to take, personally and by families!  What the government has planned to do to help the community?  How best to help other members of the community?  How to participate effectively in the disaster communication and warning process?  What to do during emergency response?  How to improvise shelter and food until assistance is available? 3. RESPONSIBILITIES OF PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME Thee responsibility for public awareness programs needs to be clearly defined. It is probably best to place responsibility with the authorities who are into training. It is also better to have separate teams for training and awareness and enable them compete with each other, provided there are adequate financial resources. The overall responsibility should rest with the NDMA or SDMA and the organisations should have a definite annual plan and budget for public awareness programmes. 4. ASPECTS OF PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME Normally, the following main aspects of public awareness programs need to be clearly established: The information which needs to be communicated to the public, The format in which the information is to be communicated The channel/medium which is to be used to convey the information to the public. The maintenance of awareness programmes In establishing these main program aspects, it is beneficial to consider to the following factors Extent of Government and Community involvement: Community experience of disaster Expectancy and dependency factors Financial Assistance Program Themes . INFORMATION TO BE COMMUNICATED TO THE PUBLIC The information to be communicated to the public can be divided into various categories namely Basic Community Needs Information on Government Assistance Programs Seasonal Preparedness Reminders Post-Impact Information Early Warning Systems and Emergency Operation Centres Community responsibility for taking action on receipt of information

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INFORMATION FORMAT The format for communicating information to the public (as distinct from the channels used) can vary from place to place and depending upon the disaster and vulnerability. Some possible options are: Notices; Posters; Cartoons; Photographs; Films, film clips, videos; Short radio or television features; Talks or presentations; INFORMATION CHANNELS The following are examples of public awareness information channels which have been used in various countries to communicate information • Telephone directories (for display of notices and posters) • Shopping bags (for posters, cartoons and photographs) • Existing government programs (on, say, health education) • Radio and television (radio and television features may be broadcasted/telecasted) • Cinema Shows (a short film of a previous disaster during intervals) • Special information displays (especially National Days/ Disaster Days/Remembrance Days) • Police information channels; • Use of popular sporting events, etc. to display posters or banners. • Community gatherings/meetings of various kinds (Rotary Clubs, Social Clubs etc) • Print media (Posters, Cartoons in Newspapers/Magazines) • Church, Temple, Mosque, Mission and similar sources; • Voluntary organizations (especially if they are coordinated under disaster support system) • School and College programs. Using the information channels, the programmes should be organized in a themed and continuous manner and not as one time or ad hoc manner. Eg. a series of radio broadcasts, repeated and suspense publicity in the print media, School programs throughout the year etc. It is also important to check, where possible, the effectiveness of public awareness programs. This particularly applies to the ability of programs to gain and maintain the interest of the people who are being targeted. It is also advisable to check periodically whether the information being conveyed by programs is being received by the public in its intended sense. MAINTENANCE OF AWARENESS LEVELS The public awareness programmes do not end with conveying information. Rather they are the starting point.It is also the duty of authorities to ensure the maintenance of adequate awareness levels. Otherwise, programs will likely become stale and public interest will fade. The authorities Should keep a watch for any innovative ideas which may help to renew or freshen up awareness interest. He/she shall ensure that awareness programmes are linked to purchase and dispose of FMCG products and household products. In fact, the watchfulness by the responsible disaster management authority is the best insurance for maintaining public interest.

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DISASTER INFORMATION NETWORKS
Definition * Classification * Goals * Benefits * Data in DIN * Examples

1. DEFINITION Disaster Information Network can be defined as a robust, integrated, virtual network for exchange of timely, relevant information that can be used during all phases of disaster management to save lives and reduce economic loss. 2. CLASSIFICATION NDIN (National Disaster Information Network): A specific, country focused Disaster Information Network. e.g. the US-National Disaster Information Network, CARDIN (Caribbean Disaster Information Network), Indian Disaster Resource Network etc. RDIN (Regional Disaster Information Network): The network of NDINs among the nations in a particular continent or geographic zone. e.g. the South Asian Disaster Knowledge Network, Regional Disaster Information system of Latin America GDIN (Global Disaster Information Network): The network of NDINs among the nations of the world. (www.gdin.org) 3. GOALS OF DIN The overall goal of DIN is to reduce disaster losses. This is achieved by the following objectives.  To improve decision making before, during, and after emergencies through improved access to and quality of information  To provide information products that are specifically designed to meet the needs of users  To promote efficiency and cost effectiveness  To stimulate and facilitate mitigation 4.     BENEFITS OF DIN Making disaster information readily available for any needs Leveraging the efforts and experiences of existing DINs Supporting timely and co-ordinated disaster response Creating synergy to derive new information related to disaster

5. DATA AVAILABLE IN DIN Information Needs of Disaster Managers The information needs of disaster managers fall into two distinct, but closely related, categories of activities namely · pre-disaster activities: analysis and research (to improve the existing knowledge base), risk assessment, prevention, mitigation and preparedness · post-disaster activities: response, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

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Data Available for Decision Makers international, national, regional, local maps showing how hazards vary in space & time; estimates of probability of occurrence of hazardous events; estimates and examples of potential effects, especially for structures; real-time display of what is happening during the course of a disaster; systems for contingency planning; codes, standards, and construction methods for structures; Data Available for Users 1. Base Data Topography, Political boundaries, Public land survey system, Geographic names, Demography, Land ownership/use, Critical facilities etc 2. Scientific Data Hydrography/hydrology (surface and subsurface flows and levels), Ocean levels and tides, Soils Rock types/ages/properties/structure, Meteorology and climatology, Archaeology, Seismology. Wildlife and biodiversity details etc 3. Engineering Data Control structures like dams, levees etc., Pump stations, Building inventories/codes, Offshore facilities, Transportation, bridges, tunnels, Utility infrastructure, pipelines, power lines, Communication systems etc. 4. Economic Data Financial Insurance: holdings, losses, Exposure, resources availability and distance etc. 5. Environmental Data Threatened and endangered species, Hazardous sites, Water quality, Critical areas etc. 6. Response Data Evacuation routes, Management plans, Aircraft routes, Personnel deployment, Equipment deployment, Warning system, Shelters, Monitoring system, Loss estimate etc.

6. EXAMPLES OF DIN There are many famous disaster information networks. Some of the prominent DINs are USDIN (United States Disaster Information Network) CARDIN (Caribbean Disaster Information Network) ADMIN (Australian Disaster Management Information Network) IDRN IDKN DISANET The Indian Disaster Information Systems will be briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. INDIAN DISASTER RESOURCE NETWORK India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN), a web based information system, is a platform for managing the inventory of equipments, skilled human resources and critical supplies for emergency response.

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The primary focus is to enable the decision makers to find answers on availability of equipments and human resources required to combat any emergency situation. This database will also enable them to assess the level of preparedness for specific vulnerabilities. IDRN is a national initiative collaborated by National Informatics Centre of Government of India and UNDP. For corporate participation, IDRN has recently collaborated with BAI(Builders Association of India) and CII(Confederation of Indian Industry) IDRN has so far more than 80000 records from more than 530 districts The data are obtained at district levels, digitized and verified at the State Level and integrated with the national database available with National Informatics Centre and Ministry of Home Affairs. The data transfer can be explained through the following illustration

It can be accessed at www.idrn.gov.in INDIAN DISASTER KNOWLEDGE NETWORK India Disaster Knowledge Network (IDKN) is a web portal, that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as knowledge collaboration, networking, maps, emergency contact information system and several other valuable information related to natural disasters. It provides a platform to share knowledge and create an environment to learn about disaster management through interactive process. There are more than 20 knowledge partners in IDKN which includes IITs, CWC, GSI, NDMI etc

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The main goal of IDKN is to create an easy to use unified point of access to disaster management knowledge and services and facilitate in accelerated and improved quality of disaster mitigation and response. IDKN is a part of South Asian Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN). The activities and functioning of IDKN in India can be illustrated as follows

It can be accessed at http://saarc-sadkn.org/countries/india/default.aspx

DISANET DISANET is "Information Network for Natural Disaster Mitigation and Management". This project is INDO-JAPAN collaboration project. The project will bring together researchers from IIT-Madras, IIT-Kanpur and other research institutions in India and Japan, with IIT-H and Keio University as nodal agencies. Hyderabad-based National Geographical Research Institute and Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo will also be part of the project. The key aspects include addressing a robust sensor network for pre-disaster monitoring, rapidly deployable communications and database system for post-disaster relief and key deliverables in the form of a deployed emerging communications system.

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