ADINA RĂDULESCU

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ENGLISH IN KINETOTHERAPY. A PRACTICAL ENGLISH HANDBOOK

Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine 2004

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook

7

CONTENTS
CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE

UNIT 1
THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED IN RELAXATION TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS

UNIT 2
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS USED BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS

UNIT 3
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE

UNIT 4
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES

UNIT 5
TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS

8 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE PATIENT PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – POSITIONING AND HANDLING THE PATIENT UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – IMPROVING COMMUNICATION UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES BIBLIOGRAPHY CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE .

o ramură a englezei medicale – presupune din partea studenţilor un nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe de limba engleză. engleza economică. Studiul limbilor străine aplicate pe un anumit domeniu de specialitate – în cazul nostru fiind vorba de engleza în kinetoterapie. El răspunde unei nevoi reale – aceea de a avea un instrument practic de lucru pentru desfăşurarea activităţii de seminar. Manualul de faţă se adresează studenţilor secţiei de Kinetoterapie. stăpânirea unor tehnici de muncă individuală şi. atât anului I cât şi anului II de studiu. poate cel mai important. tehnică. dintre care amintim: posibilitatea consultării unei bibliografii de specialitate în limba respectivă. participarea studenţilor la conferinţe internaţionale. posibilitatea de a lucra într-o clinică sau cabinet de profil cu personal şi clienţi străini fie în România fie peste hotare – a constituit motivaţia principală pentru menţinerea interesului studenţilor faţă de această disciplină de studiu şi pentru obţinerea unui certificat de competenţă lingvistică pe specialitatea engleză medicală. În funcţie de specializarea pentru care studenţii optează. a unui nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe generale pe domeniul respectiv de specialitate. din cadrul Facultăţii de Educaţie Fizică şi Sport a Universităţii Spiru Haret Bucureşti. juridică. . eliberat în cadrul Centrului de Limbi Străine al Universităţii Spiru Haret. A practical English handbook 9 Specificul studierii limbilor străine în cadru universitar este reprezentat de trecerea de la studierea limbii străine la modul general la aprofundarea ei pe diverse domenii de specialitate. Conştientizarea avantajelor pe care le presupune stăpânirea unui limbaj de specialitate într-o limbă străină. în cazul nostru. publicarea unor materiale în revistele de specialitate şi. ei vor studia. medicală etc. de asemenea.English in Kinetotherapy.

Selectarea acestor texte din diverse materiale – atlase de anatomie.10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Manualul este structurat pe 10 capitole (Units). etc a avut ca intenţie creearea unui cadru „profesionist” de lucru. nu în ultimul rând. Cu speranţa şi dorinţa că acest manual va răspunde nevoii practice a studenţilor de a aprofunda limba engleză pentru o viitoare practică kinetoterapeutică. care completează limbajul formal în care sunt redate textele de specialitate. prin ceea ce în metodica limbii engleze se numeşte “Role playing”. prin consultarea unei bibliografii actualizate în limba engleză. într-un context socio-profesional artificial creat în sala de seminar. informal. traduceri de text şi exerciţii de redare selectivă a informaţiei prezentate. Autoarea . care-şi asociază diverse exerciţii de vocabular. prin simpla lor participare activă la seminariile de limba engleză. testează capacitatea studenţilor de a se exprima liber şi firesc în limbajul de specialitate asimilat. exerciţiile de la fiecare sfârşit de Unit – “create your own dialogues”. axându-se pe trei componente principale: 1) un corpus de texte de specialitate. având ca scop familiarizarea studenţilor cu utilizarea unui limbaj oral. cursuri de kinetoterapie. închei prin a le mulţumi studenţilor din primele generaţii cu care am lucrat pentru ajutorul pe care mi l-au acordat. efectuată în funcţie de criteriul frecvenţei anumitor structuri gramaticale în limbajul medical şi 3) un set de „discursuri” kinetoterapeut-pacient. “consider yourself as a kinetotherapist” etc. Şi. în conturarea suportului teoretic şi practic al acestui manual. 2) o selecţie a unor probleme de gramatică a limbii engleze. constituind în acelaşi timp un stimulent pentru o perfecţionare permanentă. axate pe tematica fiecărui capitol. precum şi stimularea interesului studenţilor pentru consultarea unor materiale de specialitate în limba engleză.

Feel how safe it is… safe to get in touch with yourself. A practical English handbook 11 UNIT I THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS IN RELAXATION 1. no doorbell disturb you.English in Kinetotherapy. Turn your thoughts inward. You will feel very relaxed and calm as a result. Take one good breath and as you let it out.’ The procedures: ‘Make yourself as comfortable as you can… become aware of the surface underneath you… let your body settle into it… notice how it supports you… notice the points of contact between you and the floor: your head… shoulders… spine… ribs… hips… heels… elbows… forearms and hands… feel your body sinking into the surface you are lying on… feel your body getting heavier as the tension ebbs away… feel at peace…. reflect on the idea that you are going to give the next half-hour to yourself. You may hear sounds around you: voices.’ Trainer’s termination of the procedure: ‘I am going to bring this . Read the following texts containing relaxation techniques and write down the new words: “Trainer’s introduction: ‘This relaxation procedure is one that has been practised for many years now. No telephone can ring for you. horns. feel it carrying all your tensions away… then let your breathing settle into a gentle rhythm…’ ‘As you lie or sit. no one will call your name. It is not the same as hypnosis and you will not lose consciousness at any point. about three feet from the centre. With these thoughts in mind. Create an imaginary bubble… think of the interior as your space… your own private space. It has been studied by researchers and found to be effective. draw an imaginary circle around yourself. sirens. bangs and revs… think of them as being outside your world.

raise your eyebrows… feel the tension… and release the tension… frown… feel the tension… and release it… shut your eyes tightly… feel the tension… and let it go… with your eyes still closed. b)verbal constructions expressing commands and c) prepositions or other words indicating direction and place them in three different columns. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 4. while you register tension in the lips… and cancel the action…. Payne – Relaxation Techniques) 2. For some notions two alternative terms have been provided: . Read the text again. noticing the sensations you get from the action… hold it… and… discontinue… let your jaw drop… feel the tension leaving you… and continuing to leave you… then repeat the action…. 3. Using the vocabulary practice below write the Romanian equivalents for the terms indicating parts of the body. Make a tight ‘O’ with your lips… hold it.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU relaxation sesssion to an end… I’d like you gradually to become aware of the room… feel the floor/chair underneath you … open your eyes… give your limbs a few gentle stretches… have the feeling that you are alert and ready to carry on with your life…’ ‘With your eyes open. bare your teeth… feel the tension in the cheeks… hold it for a few seconds… and release the tension…. select the words that designate: a) parts of the body. spend a few minutes releasing tension in this part of your face… Close the jaws firmly. Feel the muscles drawing it back and note the sensations you get from this action… and… release it… ” (R. A. Press your tongue against your teeth… feel the pressure and release it… Now pull the tongue back towards the throat. Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the human body. Next.

thigh (coapsă). . calf (gambă).nose.eyes. chin (bărbie). . finger pad (perniţa degetului). nostrils (nări). eyebrows (sprâncene). navel/umbilicus (buric). forefinger (deget arătător). knuckle (articulaţia degetului). eyelids (pleoape). dimple in the chin /fossette (gropiţă în bărbie). under jaw (mandibulă). lips (buze). . shin/cannon bone (fluierul piciorului. thorax/chest (torace). ring finger (deget inelar). . palm. wrist/carpus (încheietura mâinii).English in Kinetotherapy. bottom (şezut). nape of the neck (ceafa). jaw (falcă). armpit/axilla (subsuoară). tongue (limbă). Adam’s apple/thyroid cartilage.mouth. waist (talie). tooth . fist (pumn). hollow of the throat (scobitura gâtului). buttocks (fese).shoulder. crook of the arm (îndoitura braţului). hand. cheek bone (os maxilar). fingers – thumb (degetul mare). breast (piept). stomach. cheek (obraz). .ears. elbow (cot). leg. dimple (gropiţă în obraz). fingernail (unghie).hip (şold). little finger.teeth. forearm (antebraţ). ear lobe. A practical English handbook 13 The head: . . arm/upper limb (braţ).limb (membru). . eyelashes (gene). .forehead (frunte). upper jaw /maxilla (maxilar). finger tip (vârful degetului). nipple (mamelon). gum (gingie). The neck: - throat. The body: . tibia). abdomen. middle finger.biceps. shoulder blade/scapula (omoplat).

14 ADINA RĂDULESCU knee (genunchi). a) fingers b) hands c) palms d) arms 3.. a) heel b) sole c) shin d) toe 7. a) toe b) arm c) heel d) head 10. This old lady can’t hear you very well.. The underside both of a foot and a shoe is called a …………. a) stomach b) waist c) abdomen d) throat 9. I have problems with my ………. Nobody is perfect and carelessness is his Achilles’………. Choose the right word that best completes the sentence: 1. You should not drink so much coffee on an empty ……………. a) ankles b) legs c) knees d) toes 6. as he was not wearing his knee-pads when roller skating. He is walking on the tips of his ………… so as not to awake the baby. He fell and hurt his ……… really bad. ankle (gleznă).. toes (degete de la picioare). He has had this nasty habit of biting his ………. I can’t move my left hand.. heel/calcaneus (călcâi). a) ear b) throat c) tooth d) eye 5. a) fingers b) armpit c) wrist d) fists 2. I ate an icecream yesterday and now I have a sore ……………. in your pockets. 5... a) tongue b) toes c) fingers d) nails 4. ever since he was a kid. she has got an ……… infection. instep (scobitura gleznei). It is not polite to talk to somebody when you have your ………. sole (talpă). a) feet b) toes c) fingers d) sole . knee cap (rotulă). a) neck b) eye c) jaw d) throat 8.

either of the two external openings of the nose l. part on either side of the body below the waist where the bone of a person’s leg is joined to the trunk g. containing the stomach.English in Kinetotherapy. part of the body below de chest and diaphragm. the back part of the human foot from the instep to the lower part of the ankle i. k. abdomen 12. the thick. fleshy part of the back of the leg. thigh 9. armpit 7. hip 4. biceps a. tongue 5. between the ankle and the knee b. large muscle at the front of the upper arm. bowels and digestive organs j. heel 11. forehead 3. horny. part of the human leg between the knee and the hip ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE Here is a list of the most commonly used prepositions of place and . fingernail 10. which bends the elbow c. calf 6. the small depression beneath the arm where it joins the shoulder d. organ of taste that aids the mastication and swallowing of food. formed skeletally by the frontal bone of the skull f. A practical English handbook 15 6. wrist 2. nostril 8. the joint between the forearm and the hand h. the part of the face between the natural hairline and the eyes. a thin. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. translucent plate covering part of the dorsal surface of the end joint of each finger e.

în interiorul into = în. vertical Upward (s) = ascendent. sub (fără a indica contact cu suprafaţa superioară) beneath/underneath = dedesubt. către interior Leftward (s) = către stânga. către. în afară Towards = spre. indicând direcţia) Backward (s) = înapoi. spre partea inferioară Forward (s) = înainte. sub (indicând contact cu suprafaţa superioară) Other words indicating movement and direction: -WARDS class (wards = spre. deasupra through = prin. deasupra onto = pe. sub (indicând existenţa unei suprafeţe superioare de protecţie. deasupra (indicând mişcare pentru atingerea poziţiei) over = peste. invers. pe spate Downward (s) = descendent. în direcţia Upright = drept.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU position: above = deasupra. înspre interior (indicând pătrunderea. de deasupra. înapoia in front of = în faţa in = în. către. printre under = dedesubt. în faţă Inward (s) = înăuntru. transversal around/round = de jur împrejurul below = dedesubt. spre partea superioară . separare) between = între (două obiecte) behind = în spatele. mai sus de across/along = de-a lungul. dinspre stânga Outward (s) = către/spre exterior. străbaterea spaţiului) on = pe.

într-o parte ►◄Pair work 7. press your fingertips into the surface. Pause… Roll them now in an anticlockwise direction. • Roll your eyes in a clockwise circle… Now notice the sensations of tension…. . • Bend your knees forwards. let your hips sink forwards. A practical English handbook 17 Sideways = lateral. chair arm or thigh). • Spread your arms sideways and lower them to your sides. • Clasp both hands behind your head. Read the following commands to your deskmate and ask him/her to follow your indications and practise the exercises. • Stretch your arms upwards.English in Kinetotherapy. change activities: • Place your hands around your ankles. • Lean your forearms vertically on the wall. • Rest your elbows on your thighs. 8. drawing them towards your palm so that your hand gradually takes on the shape of a spider… Hold the position. • Place your fingertips on your shoulder. • Place your palm downwards on a surface (table. • Lift your arms above your head. Then. • Arch your body backwards. feel the tension in the hand and then let the tension go and relax the muscles. • Hold your head forward and up. With your heels on the ground and your knees straight. oblic. • Raise your arms above your head and turn the palms towards the ceiling. • Bend your body sideways and give it a good stretch. Read the following sentences and translate them into Romanian: • Without moving your head. turn your eyes upwards behind your closed lids.

Staţi în poziţie depărtată. 7. Apoi îndoiţi-le din coate spre în faţă. . Rotiţi-vă trunchiul alternativ la stânga apoi la dreapta. Menţineţi poziţia cât doriţi. Repetaţi mişcarea de câte ori doriţi. Translate into English. Staţi în poziţie 10 secunde şi apoi reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. 9. 8. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe şolduri. Reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. cu mâinile pe lângă corp. raise your heels up in the air… Now feel the tension in your calf muscles… Relax… drop your heels to the ground and notice the relief. 5. cu capul aplecat şi cu mâinile atârnând pe genunchi.18 ADINA RĂDULESCU • Keeping your toes firmly in contact with the floor. write down five examples of such exercises and then read them to your deskmates. Întindeţi-vă braţele lateral. Îndoiţi-vă uşor genunchii şi apoi rotiţi-vă corpul la stânga şi la dreapta. la nivelul umărului. întindeţi-vă antebraţele şi mişcaţi-vă degetele. the warm tingling sensation in your calves. apoi gambele. using the new words: 1. 3. Apoi ridicaţi mâna stângă şi îndoiţi corpul spre dreapta. ridicaţi mâinile deasupra capului şi arcuiţi-vă uşor trunchiul pe spate.Stând pe un scaun. 4. Ridicaţi mâna dreaptă şi îndoiţi corpul spre stânga. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe umeri. Observaţi ce simţiţi la articulaţiile şoldului. Îndoiţi-vă uşor trunchiul în faţă. 9. Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile pe şold. apoi gleznele şi dacă puteţi chiar şi degetele de la picioare. Staţi ghemuiţi pe vârfurile picioarelor. 10. the comfort. 2. 6. Create your own relaxation techniques. Simţiţi cum vi se relaxează muşchii gâtului. Închideţi ochii. plasaţi-vă ambele coate pe coapse. Atingeţi-vă genunchii. Repetaţi mişcarea de cinci ori.

Încercaţi rotirea braţelor în ambele direcţii. Read the following texts and write down the new words: . Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile întinse lateral şi cu pumnii strânşi.English in Kinetotherapy. Rotiţi-vă simultan braţele. Observaţi ce se întâmplă cu muşchii braţelor şi pieptului. A practical English handbook 19 Înclinaţi-vă spre dreapta. Apoi repetaţi în direcţia opusă. trasând un cerc mic în aer. ridicând piciorul stâng. Menţineţi poziţia pentru 5 secunde. UNIT 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS AND ADVERBS USED 1. 10.

Descriptive and Surgical) “Almost all the elements of the joints of adults are also present in the joints of the newborn. the parts destined to become bones consist of a congeries of cells which constitutes the simplest form of cartilage. The period of ossification varies much in different bones. For a long period after birth. The development of bone articulations is directly dependent on the formation of the bony and connective-tissue structures and muscular tissue. the work of a joint. a thin layer of unossified cartilage remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. until their growth is finally completed. next in the lower jaw. to enclose and protect some of the most important vital organs. Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the skeletal system. ” (R. in which the primitive point appears during the fifth week. The ribs also.20 ADINA RĂDULESCU “The function of the bones is to form a hard skeleton for the softer materials of the body. and the long bones of the limbs. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2. It commences first in the clavicle.D.” (Henry Gray – Gray`s Anatomy. i. appear soon after. All the elements encountered in the joints of the newborn continue their formation and acquire the geometrical shapes of the articular surfaces characteristic of each joint of an adult. Bone development takes place at a very early period. The next step is the ossification of the intercellular substance and of the cells composing the cartilage. The most active factor determining the formation of a joint after birth are the muscles which exert an action on the given joint. The process of ossification is slow and not completed until adult life. Add more terms to the list: .e. In embryonic life. This temporary cartilage is an exact miniature of the bone which in due course is to take its place.

English in Kinetotherapy.sternum /breastbone = stern .shoulder girdle = centură scapulară .pelvis = pelvis . lombare şi coccigiene ale coloanei vertebrale .knee joint = articulaţia genunchiului .vertebra.fibrous joint = articulaţie fibroasă . scapulă .cartilage = cartilaj .sacrum = os sacral .spine/spinal column/backbone = coloana vertebrală .pubis = pubis .thoracic cage = cuşcă toracică . A practical English handbook 21 The skeletal system: .hip joint = articulaţia şoldului .synovial joint = articulaţie sinovială . dorsal. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box.the cervical. -ae /bony ring = vertebră .coccyx = coccis .scapula/ shoulder blade = omoplat.rib = coastă .ligament = ligament . The first one has been done for you as an example: sternum coccyx carpus calcaneus .spinal cord /marrow = măduva spinării . lumbar.articulation /joint = articulaţie .clavicle /collarbone = claviculă .ankle joint = articulaţia gleznei 3. sacral and coccygeal sections of the spine = secţiunile cervicale.skull = craniu .ossification = osificare . dorsale.

articulating by its base with the apex of the sacrum. sphenoid. and ethmoid. The ____________ is the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg. situated in front of the thorax to which are attached the collarbone and the first seven parts of ribs. the spinal column b. The ______________ or heel bone is the largest tarsal bone. The hand is subdivided into three segments: the __________ or wrist. The ____________ is composed of eight bones: the occipital. skull a. articulating with the pelvis above and the knee below. fibro-cartilage. two parietal. the ____________ or palm and the ____________ or fingers. Rings placed one above the other which form a single column. formed of a series of bones called _vertebrae_. flat vertical bone. 6. 4. 9. thickest and heaviest bone in the skeleton. The structures which enter the formation of a ___________ are: bone. breastbone 2. Twelve pairs of curved bones extending from the backbone round the chest . frontal. cartilage. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. 5. 4. The spine is a flexuous column. 8. ligament 3. The ____________ is a small triangular bone at the end of the spinal column. The ____________ is a long. 10.22 ADINA RĂDULESCU scapula tibia phalanges metacarpus cranium femur joint vertebrae 1. flat bone. irregularly cuboidal in form and situated at the lower back part of the foot. The ____________ is a large. triangular in shape which forms the back part of each shoulder. 7. 3. ligament and synovial membrane. Triangular bone that forms the back of the pelvis c. between the knee and ankle. The ____________ is the longest. 2. two temporal.

is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things.) – present + object WHY + was (sg. places. A practical English handbook 23 4. Thin. pelvis 8.) – past + object HOW HOW MANY WHAT – is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things. etc from a limited number: Which is the best treatment in this situation? . ribs d. clavicle 6. vertical bone in the chest. bony and curved column – as a cable for the spinal cord e.) / are (pl. people. people. etc from an indefinite number: What are the main causes of muscular weakness? What is the shape of the spinal column? WHICH .English in Kinetotherapy. vertebrae 5. Though. cartilage 10. Bony framework of the head under the skin AND ADVERBS USED ■ GRAMMAR INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE When forming interrogative sentences with the verb TO BE the rule to be remember is to place the words in the following order: WHAT WHICH WHERE + is (sg. Narrow. Bone joining the breastbone and the shoulder blade j. spine 7. between the ribs i.) / were (pl. flexible tissue that connects bones and holds organs in position h. flat. Tough white flexible tissue attached to bones and joints g. Basin-shaped framework of bones at the lower end of the body f. sacrum 9.

The leg consists of three bones: the patella (knee cap). structure and development? HOW MANY – is used to inquire about the number of things: How many phalanges are for each finger. metatarsus and phalanges. The patella is a small. ________________________________________________________ __? 5. The first two have been done for you as examples: 1. How many ribs are on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column? 2. placed in front of the knee. where.means for what reason or purpose: Why is physical therapy better than surgery in my case? WHERE – means in or to what place or position: Where is the sternum situated? HOW – means in what way or manner: How is the sternum described in terms of shape. The foot consists of three divisions: the tarsus. flat. Ask questions for the underlined phrases using the interrogative words what. position. . ________________________________________________________ __? 4. how many and the verb to be. why. Which are the three divisions of the foot? 3. triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the knee joint. except the thumb? WHY 5. The scapula is situated between the first and seventh ribs. how. There are twelve ribs on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column. which.24 ADINA RĂDULESCU Which is the shortest and the most curved of all the ribs? . the tibia and fibula.

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________________________________________________________ __? 6. The sternum has the shape of an ancient sword, consisting of three parts. ________________________________________________________ __? 7. That form of cartilage which enters into the formation of the joints is called articular cartilage. ________________________________________________________ __? 8. The ligament is pliant and flexible, so as to allow perfect freedom of movement but strong, tough and inextensible, so as not to yield under a severely applied force. (ask three questions)

________________________________________________________ _? 9. There are 206 distinct bones in the entire skeleton of an adult. ________________________________________________________ _? 10. The superior extremity is the largest part of the humerus. ________________________________________________________ _?

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6. Read the following extracts and translate them into Romanian: “Most bones of a human adult consist of a bony and cartilaginous framework, as a result of which a bony part and a cartilaginous part are distinguished in the skeletal system. The bony part makes up most of the bone. The articular cartilages, the epiphyseal cartilages and the costal cartilages form the cartilaginous part of the skeletal system. The long bones (humerus, clavicle, femur, phalanges, etc.) have a middle part, the diaphysis, and two end parts, the epiphyses. The epiphysis located closer to the axial skeleton is called the proximal epiphysis, while the epiphysis of the same bone but situated further from the axial skeleton is called the distal epiphysis. The wider parts of long bones between the diaphysis and the epiphysis are known as metaphysis. Their boundaries are visible only in the bones of children and adolescents when a cartilaginous layer, the epiphyseal cartilage still remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. The red marrow possesses high functional activity and is capable of forming blood cells of the myeloid series. With the development and growth of the organism, the red marrow is gradually replaced by the yellow marrow. The yellow marrow is less active and plays a reserve role, but under certain conditions it may be activated.” (R.D. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) 7. Translate the following questions into English, using the new vocabulary. Providing an answer to these questions will also test your anatomy knowledge: 1. Care este ştiinţa care se ocupă cu studiul oaselor? 2. Care sunt principalele tipuri de oase? 3. Care sunt părţile constituente ale unei articulaţii? 4. Care sunt cauzele care determină traumatismele şi fracturile coloanei vertebrale?

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5. Din câte oase este format craniul şi care sunt acestea? 6. Care articulaţie este cel mai frecvent afectată în fracturi? 7. Câte vertebre are coloana lombară? Dar coloana toracală? 8. Unde este plasat acromionul? 9. Cum este descris sternul în atlasul de anatomie? 10. De ce este intervenţia chirurgicală mai potrivită în acest caz decât fiziokinetoterapia sau balnoeterapia? ►◄ Pair work 8. Question-answer exercise: Using your anatomy courses notes, ask your deskmate questions about the skeletal system.

UNIT 3
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE

Read the following texts about the muscular system and write down the new words: “There are more than 600 skeletal muscles in the human body and their total mass accounts for up to 28-35 per cent of the body mass in females. peculiarly susceptible to local and systemic inflamatory disorders. particularly as population becomes older. Acute inflammation or tissue damage often becomes chronic. structure and function. in response to loading and mechanical demands. and nutrition of the skeletal muscles improves. Up to 50 per cent of the total weight of the skeletal muscles fall to the share of the muscles of the lower limbs.” (The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy) .28 ADINA RĂDULESCU DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE 1.e. In contrast. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) “All elements of the musculoskeletal system are in dynamic equilibrum. continually changing shape. Under conditions of reduced motor activity (hypokinesia) in an active mode of life or when prolongued bed-rest is necessary. perhaps because of continuous movement and mechanical stresses. Each muscle has a developed network of blood vessels. The system is vulnerable to trauma. Musculoskeletal disorders are major worldwide causes of chronic pain and severe physical handicap. D. up to 40-45 per cent in males. new capillaries form. i. The contraction of a muscle promotes rapid flow of blood.” (R. generally fitter. under conditions of motor activity the reserve capillaries open. metabolic processes are reduced and stasis occurs. and up to 45-55 per cent in athlets. up to 30 per cent to those of the upper limbs. and more health conscious. this function of the skeletal muscles is excluded as a result of which the blood flows slower. the muscle is a peculiar ‘pump’ which forces the blood forward. and up to 20 per cent to the share of the muscles of the head and trunk.

they surround the bones and form an important protection to the various joints. forming the parietes of the cavities which they enclose. Add more terms to the list: . In the limbs.muscle = muşchi . flattened and expanded.muscular hypertrophy = hipertrofie musculară .fibers = fibre . Descriptive and Surgical) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2. the deep ones being generally broad.hypertonic muscles = muşchi hipertonici .” (Henry Gray – Gray’s Anatomy.fascia = fascie . In the trunk. Pronounce and learn the main terms and collocations related to the muscular system.muscle tone = tonus muscular . especially the more superficial ones.nerves = nervi .diaphragm = diafragmă .skeletal muscle = muschi scheletic .English in Kinetotherapy.tendon = tendon .muscle bulk = masă musculară .muscular contraction /cramp = contracţie musculară .muscle fatigue = oboseală/ extenuare musculară .muscular endurance = rezistenţă musculară . they are broad. A practical English handbook 29 “Muscles vary considerably in their form. they are of considerable length.musculature = musculatură .hypotonic muscles = muşchi hipotonici .muscular tissue = ţesut muscular .blood vessels = vase sanguine .

Muscle-setting exercise…. … a progressive loss of muscle strength in a variety of muscle groups. A hypertonic muscle feels e. Involuntary movements g. a tumor or disorder characterized by …. 3. … a muscle sprain or degenerative muscle strain. b. arthritis. … is a method of . … of the muscles. Match the half-sentences in column A with their corresponding half-sentences in column B to form correct and complete sentences: A B 1. weak and flabby and is easily moved is a techique… laterally.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU - muscle rigidity = rigiditate musculară muscle spasm = spasm muscular spasticity = spasticitate muscle sprain = luxaţie muscle strain = întindere musculară muscle strength = forţă musculară muscular tension = tensiune musculară muscular weakness = slăbire musculară 3. 2. joints and bones of the body. If you have observed f…. Muscular dystrophy is a c. a. 4. Muscle bulk…. 6. … very soft. may be spastic or rigid and resists sideways movements. Electromyography (EMG) d. an evaluation of the condition and functioning muscle weakness. … gives an indication of the state of the … musculature. 7. 5. a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. …very firm.

capillaries 7. 9. Musculoskeletal sysytem i. muscular dystrophy . fibres 5. … are signs of some neurological disorders. A hypotonic muscle feels j. assessment is … 10. … that records changes of the spine can be caused in the electrical potential during muscle by … contractions. fasciae 3. tendon a. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. Very narrow blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the body e. nerve 6. that helps to control breathing d. Slender threads of which many 2. Strong band or cord of tissue that joins muscle to bone g. 4. …then a detailed test will be necessary for each … muscle. Fibre or bundle of fibres carrying impulses of sensation or of movement between the brain and all parts of the body b. Large muscle at the front of the upper arm.Wall of muscle. Fibrous membranes which form linings for body cavities and cover muscles and organs f. A practical English handbook 31 and tremors … contracting and relaxing a skeletal muscle without moving that part of the body. Low back pain at the base h. 8. blood vessels 4. between the chest and the abdomen.English in Kinetotherapy. which bends the elbow c.

diseases. biceps 10. frozen. Participial adjectives are participial forms used as adjectives: . expanded or the third form of irregular verbs: cut. origin. shape. flattened. colour. Long-lasting illness in which the muscles become gradually weaker ■ GRAMMAR ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE Participial and qualificative adjectives Considering the frequency of certain types of adjectives in medical language we shall deal only with participial and qualificative adjectives. growing . pectoral muscle human. triangular muscle.Past Participle forms: short infinitive + -ED (for regular verbs): reduced. Tubes (arteries. Example: This relaxing atmosphere and these stimulating exercises will have a pronounced effect on your back muscles. diaphragm 9. veins or capillaries) through which blood flows in the body i. Broad. relaxing. animal or plant tissues are formed h. age and general descriptions of objects (parts of the body. symptoms etc) and people: Example: The first piece of the sternum has a triangular form. Qualificative adjectives include all types of adjectives denoting quality. thick.Present Participle forms: short infinitive + -ING: increasing. hidden. situated at the upper and anterior part of the chest that draws the arm towards the body j.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. broad and thick . size.

-y and –ly which form their corresponding degrees of comparison by adding –er and –est (synthetic comparison): thick – thicker – the thickest thin –thinner – the thinnest 2) long adjectives – bisyllabic (ending in -ful and -re). Both participial and qualificative adjectives can either precede the noun. having the same form for all genders. A practical English handbook 33 above and narrowed below.English in Kinetotherapy.(attributive position) The muscles become resistant to fatigue and the patients no longer look exhausted at the end of the session. having the function of predicatives for copulative verbs such as: be. trisyllabic or plurisyllabic which form their degrees of comparison by periphrastic means: more and (the) most (analytic comparison): extensive – more extensive – the most extensive 3) adjectives with irregular degrees of comparison: good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst little – less – the least many/much – more – the most old – older – the oldest (of people and objects) old – elder – the eldest (of people) . turn etc: Example: Moderate exercises have a therapeutic effect on muscles. become. both singular and plural (attributive position) or follow the noun. look.(predicative position) Degrees of comparison According to the way they form their degrees of comparison adjectives fall into three categories: 1) monosyllabic (or short) adjectives and bisyllabic adjectives ending in -er. seem.

choosing the appropriate suffixes in the box. For instance. Form derivational adjectives from the following nouns and verbs. Group them according to their attributive or predicative position. the better you will feel. 5. the greater its strength. which can be either a word or a sentence: I am not as useless as my blind brother /as you think I am. The injury was more severe than we thought. The larger the muscle. Reread the texts about the muscular system and extract all the adjectives. The comparative requires the specification of the second term of comparison. Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and: As your breathing becomes slower and slower you are feeling more and more relaxed. Sometimes the comparatives are placed at the beginning of the sentences: The sooner you practise the exercise. adjectives at superlative will be associated with perfect tenses: This is the most distressing pain I have ever had. For derivational adjectives indicate the noun that they derive from and their suffix or prefix as in the following examples: systemic = system (noun) + -ic (suffix) skeletal = skelet (noun) + -al (suffix) 6. Sometimes more than one suffix can be attached to part of the words: .34 ADINA RĂDULESCU far – farther – the farthest (of space) far – further – the furtest (of time) Constructions with comparisons: The use of adjectives at different degrees of comparison requires the use of certain patterns.

Activitatea fizică prelungită cum ar fi mersul sau pasul alergător poate duce la oboseală musculară. astfel. Tensiunea musculară are strânsă legătură cu modul nostru de a gândi. 3. care poate duce la spasm muscular şi prin urmare la mai multă durere. cu cât suntem mai stresaţi. 5. cu atât mai mare va fi şi tensiunea noastră musculară. Translate the following sentenses into English. using the new vocabulary and grammar notes of this unit: 1. Tensiunea musculară prelungită poate produce durere.English in Kinetotherapy. . A practical English handbook 35 -al -ish -ible -ic -ive -ed -ous -ful -ing -less -able Example: Stern + -al = sternal thorax sphere muscle abdomen stomach anomaly fibre fever cure help comfort to identify to contract access memory to connect to digest health infection pain 7. 4. Ce cauzează hipertrofia musculară? 2. Cu cât rezistenţa musculară este mai mare cu atât va fi mai mare numărul de contracţii musculare.

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

6. Care sunt cauzele principale ale extenuării musculare? 7. Muşchiul gastrocnemian este cel mai superficial muşchi situat în partea din spate a piciorului, care formează cea mai mare parte a gambei. 8. Tendonul lui Ahile este cel mai gros şi mai puternic tendon din corpul uman. 9. Muşchiul deltoid este un muşchi lat, gros, triunghiular, situat pe partea laterală şi posterioară a umărului. 10.Muşchiul abductor al policelui este un muşchi subţire, plat, îngust, plasat imediat dedesubtul tegumentului (integument). ►◄ Pair work: 8. Using your anatomy courses notes, choose a certain muscle and ask your deskmate to describe it. 9. Guessing game: Think of a certain muscle. Your deskmate will ask you as many questions as necessary to guess the muscle. Here are some examples of possible questions: • Is it a muscle of the trunk/head/upper limb/lower limb?→ for general location (It is a muscle of the upper limb) • Is it a muscle of the shoulder girdle or of the free upper limb?→ for specific location (It is a muscle of the shoulder girdle) • Where is it situated? (It arises from the clavicle and scapula.) • What is its function? (It helps the upper arm move forward, backward and horizontally.) • Can you describe it? (It is a thick, triangular muscle with the base facing upwards and the

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook

37

apex downwards) • Is it the deltoid muscle? (Yes, it is indeed.) The following classification of muscles may prove useful for this exercise: A. The muscles of the trunk: • the muscles of the back • the muscles of the neck • the muscles of the chest • the muscles of the abdomen B. The muscles of the head: → the muscles of facial expression: • the muscles of the scalp • the muscles surrounding the eyes • the muscles surrounding the mouth • the muscles surrounding the nose → the muscles of mastication C. The muscles of the upper limb: → the muscles of the shoulder girdle → the muscles of the free upper limb: • the muscles of the upper arm • the muscles of the forearm • the muscles of the hand D. The muscles of the lower limb: → the muscles of the hip joint → the muscles of the free lower limb:

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

• the muscles of the thigh • the muscles of the leg • the muscles of the foot 10. Complete the classifications above with all categories of muscles you have studied so far.

UNIT 4
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES 1. Read the following text and check the glossary below to translate the unknown words. Write down other unknown words and try to approximate their meaning:

If the pacient has been previously examined by a diagnostician who provides full notes.There are some small testing devices that the examiner needs: a tape measure. To use such notes to the maximum. if available. a goniometer.Knowledge of normal parameters should be used to decide whether any of the test records show a need for care in examination and treatment. the position of the examination couch or table in relation to the lighting and. in date order. current work. The initial examination leads to an assessment of the pacients` needs and a decision on the early treatment. A practical English handbook EXAMINING THE PACIENT 39 “Examination of a pacient is a continuous process that starts with your first meeting and continues until treatment ceases prior to discharge. ▪ Reading. sex. some cotton wool. a pin. . test tubes containing hot and cold water. former job and/or retirement status. age. ▪ Noting. the medical events that are former medical history and the events that have marked the development of the current illness/disability and its progress. Any abnormalities indicated by the medical examination sheet need to be checked by the present examiner. adequately warmed area. the clinical examination findings and the results of tests. verbal confidentiality. marital status. It is important that current medications are noted for these may have some effect on selection of or precautions in administrating your treatments. a reflex hammer. divide your perusal into: ▪ Obtaining basic information about the pacient as a social entity: names. cultural background and family circumstances. well ventilated. ▪ Obtaining a record of immediate past and current treatment and medication. quite important. suitable coverings for the pacient. When examining the pacient some things need to be provided: a clean. some useful and time-saving information may be obtained by their careful perusal.English in Kinetotherapy. including X-rays. as different variables such as the subjective assessment of the previous examiner or the change in patient`s condition from the last examination may influence the course of the treatment.

What the patient fails to say may have great relevance. Always allocate sufficient time for an initial examination of the patient. complete only part of the tasks and conclude the examination at a further session. Listening to the patient`s answers requires patience. Remember that too hard a pressure will feel like a drill digging in and too light a pressure will feel like a butterfly coming to rest. lectură atentă former job = slujbă anterioară retirement = pensionare .Yung – Patient examination and assessment for therapists) GLOSSARY to cease = a înceta. Palpation is a skill that is acquired by practice. estimare previously = mai înainte. in firm comfortable contact.Hollis. în prealabil perusal = citire. and listening to the silences is equally important. and if the examination turns out to be more time-consuming than your original estimate. the type of gait abnormalities if any. instant awareness and interpretation.” (Adapted from M. the general mien and posture. Successful questioning produces maximum information with the minimum of questions and is a skill that improves with practice. In neither case will you feel or find anything. P.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU Escorting the patient to the examination area can be an opportunity to observe his/her ability to walk unaided. so that only the finger pads are touching firmly enough.The following procedures are to be used when palpating for specific anatomical features: place more of your hand than you need in contact with the area to be examined. It requires that your hands should be relaxed. a se opri prior to = înainte de discharge = externare assessment = evaluare. lift your palm a little to reduce the contact. and aware of what is under them.Your fingers should be straight so that your nails are unlikely to be in contact.

Scan the text above so as to answer the following questions: 1. mers mien = ţinută. Why does the examiner need to note the patient`s current medication? 5.English in Kinetotherapy. invaliditate clinical examination findings = constatările examinării clinice medical examination sheet = foaie de observaţie clinică testing devices = instrumente de testare tape measure = ruletă. What should basic information about the patient include? 3. What should the examiner observe while escorting the patient to the examination area? . Why is the patient`s initial examination important? 2. A practical English handbook 41 cultural background = formaţie culturală medical history = anamneză disability = incapacitate. comportament posture = postură corporală instant awareness = înţelegere rapidă palpation = palpare finger pad = buricul degetului drill = burghiu to dig in = a înfige 2. Why does the present examiner need to check the patient`s prior medical examination sheet? 4. panglică de măsurat pin = ac cu gămălie goniometer = goniometru reflex hammer = ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor cotton wool = vată test tube = eprubetă gait = umblet. What things need to be provided when examining the patient? 6. What testing devices does the examiner use? 7.

with polysemantic words we can easily notice a semantic feature common to all the elements of a class. He is my heart. What procedures are to be used when palpating the patient? 10. semantically speaking. When can we say that questioning the patient has been successful? 9.that is carried over from one example to the next: Even if his heart stopped beating for several seconds. They are polysemantic words. Create your own examiner – patient dialogues. elephant. past and current medication. of one`s life or of something else . I think you should get to the heart of the matter. Polysemy is closely related to homonymy and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between words that are homonyms and words that are polysemantic. as a polysemantic word.42 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE POLYSEMANTIC WORDS Many words that are pronounced and spelt in the same way can be used in different contexts with different meanings. giraffe and whale and calf as the thick fleshy part of the back of the leg between the ankle and the knee are two homonyms that have nothing in common. etc. clinical examination findings. my reason of living. including questions and answers regarding the patient`s basic information. has a semantic feature associated that of being the central part of a body. former medical history. Here are two examples for each notion: Heart. What should be done if the first examination takes longer than expected? 3. There is still a criterion that can help us distinguish one notion from the other: while with homonymy the words that have the same form do not share any semantic resemblance in their meanings. he did not die. . Calf as a young of cattle (viţel) or of certain other mammals such as the buffalo.

English in Kinetotherapy. release a prisoner from custody). oral questions or practical tasks. launching flying weapons (arrows) 3. Choose from among the meanings of the following polysemantic words the one that has been used in the text Examining the pacient: 1. examination means: a) written exercises. c) a person’s social class. after he has carried out a duty (discharge a soldier. background means: a) part of a view. one can also distinguish between polysemantic words and homonyms as the former are listed with different numbers under the same lexical entry. 2. scene or description that forms a setting for the chief objects. conversation or the action of a film. by looking words up in a dictionary. education. d) a low level of sound. 4. . training or experience. set to test a candidate’s knowledge and skill. b) physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body. c) the formal interrogation of a person on oath (an accused or a witness) by a lawyer in a lawcourt. discharge means: a) an official permission for (sb) to leave. in order to verify health or diagnose disease. b) unloading (cargo) from a ship c) firing (a gun). people. A practical English handbook 43 Moreover. b) information that is needed to understand a problem. a patient. while the latter are listed and treated as separate words: calf1 and calf 2. such as a social activity. lighting whose purpose is to be an unobtrusive or appropriate accompaniment to something else.

You can use the following expressions: . d) a plan or plot. trademark by a noble family. are used with other meanings. used as a heraldic sign. a clever or evil one. except for the version of your choice.44 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. printed or painted design or figure. Write your own contexts in which the polysemantic words above. a scheme. safety device. c) a written. esp. trick. device means: a) a machine or tool adapted for a special purpose (timesaving device. emblem. 5. figures of speech used in literature to produce a certain effect on the reader. b) a particular pattern of words. an explosive device etc).

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • examination paper background music entrance examination working-class background to take an examination background on the company’s financial position pass/fail an examination time-saving device = aparat de uz caznic medical examination labour-saving device = dispozitiv mecanic to be under examination an explosive device = dispozitiv explozibil to stay/keep in the background stylistic device = figură de stil .

any of the sharp needle-like parts on some plants (cactuses) and animals (hedgehogs). under the laces or buckles to protect the instep. part of the body. a person capable of accepting delay that can still remain calm. backbone. 10. 4. below the ankle. 15. 16. 8. lake or river. the back part of a book that is visible when it is in a row on a shelf. head f. the lowest part of the leg. a movable organ in the mouth. licking. part of the body on which one sits. 18. the lowest. patient d. mouth and brain. 17. used in tasting. A practical English handbook 5 6. 14. containing the eyes. a measure of length equal to 12 inches. Match each of the meanings below to one of the seven polysemantic words in the box: a. a language. 11. 3. any of the bundle of fibres carrying sensory or motor impulses between the brain and all parts of the body. 9. bottom c. nose.English in Kinetotherapy. buttocks. spine g. tongue e. a flap of leather on a shoe. nerve 1. 2. 6. ground under the sea. 7. 12. on which a person or animal sits. a person who is receiving medical care in hospital. boldness. dialect or idiom. foam on the top of a poured beer. courage. 13. swallowing and speaking. row of bones along the back of humans and some animals. deepest or farthest removed part of a thing. foot b. 5. . chief person of a group or organization.

mental ability or natural talent for something. rib or vein in a leaf or any of the veins of an insect`s wing. figures = a avea cap de afaceri.= a avea curajul/tupeul de a face ceva to strain every nerve = a-şi încorda toate puterile . cifre at the foot/bottom of the stairs/hill/ mountain/list/page = în partea de jos a … a 7-foot high wall = un zid înalt de 7 picioare to fall on one`s bottom = a cădea în fund the bottom of the sea/lake/river = fundul mării/lacului/râului to go to the bottom = a se scufunda to lose/regain one`s nerve = a-şi pierde/redobândi curajul to have the nerve to do smth. You can make use of the following syntagms and expressions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • to be patient with sb. 7. = a avea răbdare cu cineva mother tongue = limbă maternă to have lost/find one`s tongue = a-şi pierde/redobândi graiul the head of the family = capul familiei head office = sediu central to have a good head for business. 20.6 ADINA RĂDULESCU 19. Write your own contexts for the different meanings of the polysemantic words above.

English in Kinetotherapy. I will be with you in a second. let`s see… what seems to be the problem? • Your brother. I think we talked on the phone. Thomson`s sister. Inquiring about the patient`s problem: • Well. what can I do for you? • Tell me. Mr. Let me introduce myself. How is your back? • You are Dr. Johnson. Green.Green. Dr. Dr. • My name is Dr. Mrs. A practical English handbook 7 ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Greetings. what`s brought you here? • Well. How can I help you? . Johnson. Baum. You were my patient last year. I am your therapist. Mrs. Redcliff. what`s troubling you? • Well. aren`t you? He told me all about you. didn`t we? • I remember you. identification and introductory dialogues Here are some examples of initial greetings and introductory dialogues used before the examination takes place: The therapist: • Good morning. How is your recovery going on? • I understand that you have seen several therapists before. Mrs. Can you tell me more about it? • I can`t tell you how sorry I am about your terrible accident. • Please come in and take a seat. Thomson tells me that you have been having low back pains… • I couldn`t help noticing your slight limp. • Make yourself comfortable.

• Bring me the X-rays and then I will schedule a meeting for you for next week. Practise therapist-patient dialogues using the examples above. ►◄ Pair work 8. I will have to see you twice a week. Terapeutul poate sesiza în mod indirect anumite caracteristici motrice ale pacientului. la un diagnostic anterior şi medicamentaţie se pot dovedi extrem de importante în recomandarea terapiei ulterioare. Translate into English.8 ADINA RĂDULESCU Programming further sessions: • Considering your diagnosis. 3. Recomandarea unui program de exerciţii terapeutice nu se poate face fără o examinare amănunţită a pacientului. • We shall start on Monday and see how it is going. Orice informaţii cu privire la datele personale ale pacientului. • I will meet you for our sessions three times a week. Pe toată durata examinării pacientul trebuie să se simtă relaxat. using the new vocabulary: 1. You can as well come up with your own examples. for six weeks. 9. 2. for at least three weeks. • I am sorry. prin simpla observare a . • For the first two weeks we shall meet every day till your pain goes away. 4. but you should have seen an orthopaedist before coming here. protejat. • I think we can have good results if you come to all your sessions. fiind asigurat de confidenţialitatea discuţiilor sale cu terapeutul.

Immobilization of adjacent joints can be done by using splints. Adjacent joints should be mobilized as soon as possible. all practised under the close supervision of both the physician and the kinetotherapist.” (Adapted from Thomas A. Russell – General Principles of Fracture Treatment) . Read the following extracts and check the glossary below for new words. A practical English handbook 9 posturii sale corporale. depending on the type of fracture and soft tissue stability. Physical therapy should include active exercises for joint mobilization. UNIT 5 TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS 1. however. braces or foot attachments to external fixation systems. a ţinutei generale şi a mersului acestuia. weight-bearing exercises. in open fractures motion of musculotendinous units over fracture surfaces will irritate the soft tissues and may decrease resistance to infection. Then translate these texts into Romanian: Patient rehabilitation after fractures “Patient rehabilitation should begin immediately. as well as range of motion and strengthening exercises. Palparea pacientului şi testarea gradului său de mobilitate sunt indicii clare în stabilirea afecţiunii prezente şi indicarea tipurilor de exerciţii corespunzătoare.English in Kinetotherapy. 5.

” (Adapted from Barry B. followed by a gentle stretching and progressive strengthening program as symptoms resolve.10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Hip dislocation “Hip dislocation is an orthopaedic emergency and must be reduced immediately. Muscle strains are initially treated with ice. the more likely is the possibility of complications. including avascular necrosis of the femoral head and posttraumatic arthritis. LaVelle – Acute Dislocations) Sprains or ligamentous injuries “Most sprains or ligamentous injuries can be treated by immobilization. quickly relieves pain and may be beneficial in reducing the swelling. Failure to regain full flexibility and normal strength of the muscle-tendon unit results in increased risk of further recurrent injury. Terry Canale – Ankle Injuries) Rupture of muscles and tendons “The most frequent cause of partial or complete rupture of a muscle or tendon is eccentric overload of the muscle-tendon unit. diminua .” (Adapted from David G. Most dislocations of the hip can be reduced by close manipulation and this treatment should take precedence over treatment of all other skeletal injuries.” (Adapted from S. Even though immobilization allows the stretching of ligaments. Phillips . It occurs primarily in conjunction with severe multiple trauma from high-speed motor vehicle accidents. many specialists report that early mobilization for these injuries produces superior results to immobilization. The longer the hip remains dislocated. rest and antiinflammatory medication.Rupture of muscles and tendons) GLOSSARY rehabilitation = reabilitare fracture = fractură adjacent joint = articulaţie adiacentă to decrease = a reduce.

adiţional 2. Scan the texts above for modal constructions (can. insuficienţă further = ulterior. a avea loc in conjunction with = în legătură cu avascular necrosis = necroză avasculară femoral head = cap femural arthritis = artrită to take precedence over smth = a avea loc înainte. should.English in Kinetotherapy. intensifica splint = atelă brace = orteză foot attachment = dispozitiv de fixare a piciorului weight-bearing exercise = exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale range of motion = grad de mobilitate strengthening exercises = exerciţii de întărire musculară to occur = a se petrece. must etc) and write them down. a avea prioritate faţă de skeletal injury = leziune a sistemului scheletic sprain = luxaţie. underline the passive ones as in the examples below: Example: Should begin Should be mobilized . may. A practical English handbook 11 to increase = a mări. hernie overload = încărcare excesivă muscle strain = întindere musculară failure = eşec. scrântire to relieve pain = a alina durerea swelling = umflătură rupture = ruptură. Then.

These pills must be taken twice a day. With modal verbs the transformation from active voice to passive voice is made by keeping the modal unchanged and using a passive infinitive: Active Voice → Passive Voice Should avoid → should be avoided (modal + BE + past participle – short inf. Clinical instability may be caused by trauma. it may prove to be useful and practical in situations when passives are preferred to active constructions.+ ED ) . avoid mentioning unknown or indefinite subjects and focus on action and effect rather than on the agent that caused them.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS All scientific languages make use of passive constructions to express impersonal observations. on an empty stomach. neoplastic or infections disorders. Even though the process of converting active constructions into passive ones seems to be artificial. Here are some examples of passives constructions illustrated for modal verbs: Excessive flexion and extension of the neck should be avoided in spinal injuries. Spinal alignment can be obtained by skeletal traction. The pathologic anatomy must be carefully defined before treatment is determined.

in a hurry. 4. Sterile instruments and gloves ……………………. 10. masks when the wound is examined. If bleeding continues. choosing the active or passive form that best completes the sentence: must be applied should wear first direct should be confirmed must be covered should not be done should not be rubbed must be used should may be selected may be 1. 9. A practical English handbook 13 Must take → must be taken (modal + BE + past participle – the 3rd form of irregular verbs) 3. making the .English in Kinetotherapy. Cleaning the wound ……………………. Open hand wounds ………………. Both the examiner and the patient …………. At times it ………… helpful to elevate the arm with the patient lying supine.. immediately with a sterile dressing to prevent further contamination. by direct vision.. Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice. 5. A regional block or general anesthetic …………… depending on the patient`s age and the severity of the injury. manual or digital pressure …………… to the wound through the dressing. 3. The examiner …………… his attention to the circulation and skin and then to bones. Suspected damage to tendons and nerves …………………. tendons and nerves. 2.. The depth of the wound ……………………… with a sponge or a brush. Insert the following modal constructions in their corresponding context. 7. 4. 8. 6.

4. when necessary. . The surgeons may delay the repairs of nerve and tendons. 2. 2. Dacă este imperativ ca pacientul să fie mutat. the agent at the end of the sentence: Example: The surgeon should closely follow the progress of patient`s regeneration. The surgeon must evaluate the extent of the skin loss from the injury. 3. The surgeon must avoid coffee just before surgery. During weeks after nerves repair operation the patient should pay careful attention to avoid fixed contractures. Surgeons can master microsurgical techniques only after countless hours of practice.14 ADINA RĂDULESCU words in italics the subject of the sentence and placing. The patients should also make monthly clinical evaluations. 8. 5. During surgical procedures the assistants should use a double binocular microscope. 7. 10. Translate into English using passive modal constructions: 1. The progress of patient`s regeneration should be closely followed by the surgeon (agent). 9. Pacientul suspectat de fractură a coloanei vertebrale nu trebuie mutat până la sosirea ajutorului calificat. After the operation the patient should begin progressive strengthening exercises. 1. 5. 6. The examiner should advise the patient as to the extent of his injuries. If suitable instruments are available and if the surgeon is rested he may undertake repair of severed nerves on the day of injury.

4. calmant 6. even if they are speaking about the same things. In therapist-patient communications a common informal language should be used to ensure proper communication. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Patient`s symptoms and complaints Formal and informal medical terms Patients and therapists/doctors do not always use the same language. There is a certain difference between a formal medical language used between doctors and medical care takers. 5. informal medical terms: Formal term contusion tenosynovitis arteriosclerosis sedative analgesic Informal term bruise Translation contuzie. eficient şi de preferinţă efectuat de către personal calificat. vânătaie inflamed tendons tenosinovită hardening of the arteroscleroză arteries sleeping pill. Programul de recuperare motorie a pacientului ar trebui început la câteva săptămâni după operaţie. Primul ajutor în caz de rănire trebuie să fie întotdeauna rapid. Here are some examples of the same notions with different formal vs. gâtul şi toracele lui trebuie susţinute în poziţia lor iniţială de către mai multe persoane. Această plagă ar trebui curăţată imediat iar fractura deschisă ar trebui imobilizată.English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 15 capul. the scientific language of all medical texts and an informal medical language that non-specialists (patients) use to describe their symptoms or disabilities. Match the formal term in column A with its corresponding informal term in column B: . 3. dope sedativ pain killer analgezic.

baldness Without assuming to cover at least part of the symptoms and problems that patients may have when coming to see a kinetotherapist. (Am o ruptură de tendon la coapsa dreaptă. some examples of common complaints are presented below: Patient`s symptoms and complaints: • • • • • I have sprained my left ankle. palpitations e. low blood sugar h. dislocation n. (Am o întindere musculară la deltoid. upper jaw o. tachycardia 7. influenza 13. thyroid cartilage 2. halitosis 3. hypoglycaemia 14. maxilla 4. mandible 8.) .) I have snapped a tendon in my left thigh. womb j.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU A 1. myocardial infarction 9. dizziness b. subluxation 11. lower jaw d. (Mi-am întins un tendon muscular.) I have torn a ligament in my right knee. heart attack f. thorax 12. uterus 15. bad breath i. backbone k. (Am o ruptură ligamentară la genunchiul drept. vertigo B a. spine 6. alopecia 5.) I have pulled a hamstring muscle. chest m.ankylosing spondylitis 10. flu l. (Mi-am răsucit/ luxat glezna stângă) I have strained my deltoid muscle. bamboo spine c. Adam`s apple g.

(Am crampe la gambe.) I have pins and needles in my feet all the time.) I have got numb fingers/legs when I wake up. (Am gleznele umflate. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the irregular verb tear (tear.) I have got a severe pain in my left heel. (Simt o senzaţie de furnicături în degete. (Am suferit degerături la degetele de la picioare.) ■ GRAMMAR Present Perfect and Present Tense Simple are the tenses normally used to express complaints in the above sentences.) I get cramp in my calves. tore. Example: Have sprained = Present Perfect Simple. A practical English handbook 17 • • • • • • • • • I have got a cartilage problem in my left knee joint. (Am o durere puternică în călcâiul stâng. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the regular verb sprain (short infinitive + -ed) Have torn = Present Perfect Simple.) I have got swelling of my ankles. Identify each tense in the sentences above and say how they are formed.) My fingers tremble a lot and even my hands have started shaking. torn) Present Perfect Simple is used in the above-mentioned complaints to express previous causes/injuries that still have a certain effect in the . (Am degetele/picioarele amorţite când mă trezesc. (Simt furnicături în picioare tot timpul.(Îmi tremură degetele şi chiar şi mâinile.English in Kinetotherapy. (Am o problemă la nivelul cartilajului articulaţiei genunchiului stâng.) I feel a tingling sensation in my fingers. 7.) I have got chilblains in my toes.

6. Aş dori să am un grad mai mare de mobilitate. Yes.18 ADINA RĂDULESCU present. 8. 2. Am fost în spital şase săptămâni. 5. 5. 4. I ________ already _________ (practise) this stretching exercise three times. the symptoms presented are something felt as usual. while Present Tense Simple makes these complaints a general fact. Când mă scol dimineaţa nu-mi simt picioarele de la genunchi în jos. but you still ___________ (not do) it right. I always ______ (get) cramps in my calves in the morning. 3. sometimes modal verbs are to be used as well: 1. 2. _______ you ever ________ (sprain) your ankle? It`s not so bad but you have to stay in bed for a while. Mi-am dislocat umărul stâng. 4. Cred că mi l-am luxat. My aunt`s fingers always __________ (tremble) when she ________ (give) me my monthly allowance. . Mi-am fracturat şoldul şi am nevoie de exerciţii de reabilitare. 9. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Tense Simple or Present Perfect: 1. Translate into English using Present Perfect Simple and Present Tense Simple as in the above-presented examples of patient`s complaints. Nu pot să-mi îndoi cotul drept. _______ it _________ (hurt) if I touch your swollen ankle? ______ you _______ (feel) a burning sensation? 3. Am adesea crampe durerose în ambele gambe după terminarea meciului de fotbal. I ________________ (not recover) yet. I am still in hospital. Mi-am rupt trei coaste într-un accident de schi.

relaxation. THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES “The goals of therapeutic exercises include the prevention of dysfunction as well as the development. Place yourself in a patient`s situation and complain about your symptoms. using the glossary below.Am contracţii musculare în gamba stângă iar forţa mea musculară nu mai este aceeaşi. UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. Am nevoie de câteva exerciţii de întindere pentru a-mi redobândi flexibilitatea. endurance and cardiovascular fitness. 8. 10. Read the following text and write down the new words. Am fost la mulţi doctori şi m-am horătât să încerc şi nişte exerciţii terapeutice. Am dureri de spate acute. 10. then translate it into Romanian. restoration or maintenance of strength. coordination. stability. asking your colleagues – future kinetotherapists for help and advice. Strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to produce tension . Am o ruptură de tendon în deltoid şi nu-mi pot continua programul de antrenament pentru Olimpiadă. mobility and flexibility. improvement. 9. balance and functional skills.English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 19 7. Am o întindere musculară supărătoare la nivelul gâtului.

for effective positioning and motion of the arms and hands or legs and feet.This process is often coupled with deep-breathing exercise to further promote relaxation.Exercises promoting relaxation are based on the therapeutic use of reflexive and conscious processes. . such as walking or climbing stairs. at the same time. Stability is usually required in more proximal structures. lengthen and yield to a stretch force. such as the trunk. Flexibility is the ability to move a single joint or series of joints through an unrestricted. To increase strength. a load that exceeds the metabolic capacity of the muscle must be used during exercise.Stabilization exercises are the means by which a patient can learn to control proximal areas of the body and. It is necessary for performing repeated motor tasks in daily living. Active exercises that challenge the oxygen transport system will increase endurance . sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. It is dependent upon the extensibility of muscles. either dynamically or statically. a high-intensity exercise (exercise performed against heavy loads) must also be used. Relaxation refers to a conscious effort to relieve tension in muscles. in the relation to the demands placed upon it. Mobility of soft tissues and joints is necessary for the performance of normal functional movements. but for a relatively low number of repetitions. To produce greater muscular tension. maintain a stable. with all body parts well supported and be taught to progressively contract and relax the musculature. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension.20 ADINA RĂDULESCU and a resulting force during a maximal effort. well-aligned position while carrying out functional activities. pain-free range of motion. Exercises are usually directed to large muscle groups. running. as in walking.the major goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs. Thus. hips and shoulder girdle. which allows muscles that cross a joint to relax. the patient should be placed in a comfortable position. swimming and cycling and are to be prolonged and performed for 15 to 45 minutes or more.

so should the speed and timing of movements. balance and the acquisition of functional skills are all interrelated and are complex aspects of motor control. Foundations and Techniques) GLOSSARY dysfunction = disfuncţie restoration = refacere. A practical English handbook 21 Coordination.English in Kinetotherapy. Finally. visual) to enhance motor performance and as the quality of movement improves. functional skills refer to the varied motor skills necessary to function independently in all aspects of daily living. It is the basis of smooth and efficient movement that can occur on a voluntary or involuntary level. întinde . Coordination refers to the ability to use the right muscles at the right time with appropriate intensity. usually while in an upright position. Balance refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support. It is a dynamic phenomenon that involves a combination of stability and mobility. restabilire maintenance = menţinere strength = forţă. Learning functional motor tasks involves constant repetition of simple to more complex motor activities.” (Adapted from Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. use of sensory cues (tactile. vigoare endurance = rezistenţă fizică cardiovascular fitness = tonus cardiovascular balance = echilibru functional skills = abilităţi funcţionale load = greutate a high-intensity exercise = exerciţiu cu intensitate crescută fatigue = oboseală motor tasks = sarcini motorii to challenge = a solicita range of motion = grad de mobilitate to lengthen = a se lungi.

fără întreruperi upright position = poziţie verticală sensory cues = indici senzoriali to enhance = a mări. if I remember corectly. let my see. the goals of therapeutic exercises are…………. What should be done to produce greater muscular tension? Well. Question-answer exercise: Reread the text above on paragraphs. . a realiza to relieve = a destinde. One student will ask his/her colleague one or two questions for each paragraph and he/she should answer it either by reproducing fragments from the text or by freely expressing a summary of that fragment. Here is an example for the first paragraph: Example: What are the main goals of therapeutic exercises? Well. it says here that a high-intensity exercise…. intensifica motor performance = randament motoriu timing = sincronizare ►◄ Pair-work 2. a nu rezista la stretch force = forţă de întindere stable = stabil well-aligned position = poziţie corect adoptată carry out = a îndeplini. How is strength defined in the text? Well.22 ADINA RĂDULESCU to yield to = a ceda. obţinere smooth movement = mişcare lină.. relaxa deep-breathing exercise = exerciţiu de respiraţie profundă acquisition = dobândire. strength is defined as ……….

in your answers you can make use of the following assessment patterns or come up with new ones: • • • • • Well.).English in Kinetotherapy. to me. a state of nervousness will certainly be detrimental to my stability. there are some adjectives that contain the –ly suffix: daily schedule. The following exercises are meant as forms of practising the word formation process. Muscular endurance is not my stong point. WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION Derivation with suffixes and prefixes is one of the means of word formation. A practical English handbook 23 3. I have always had problems with balance. The suffix – ing is used to form the present participle that can be used as a verbal category (She came walking across the field. there are some typical noun/ adjective/ adverb/ verb – forming suffixes and prefixes. Ask your deskmate to make a self-evaluation of his/her physical abilities (strength. daily. but there are cases when the same prefix or suffix is used to form different categories. For instance the suffix –al is used to form both nouns like in arrival. as a noun (Walking can sometimes be very relaxing. my strength is quite bad/ is not so bad/ is actually quite good/ is excellent…. As for my mobility and flexibility. it goes without saying that all I need is a little practice. proposal and adjectives like in functional. . Well. educational. monthly payment.). my stability depends a lot on my mental stability. muscular endurance etc. to get back into shape. refusal. you either have it or not. if you get my meaning.) or as an adjective (He was reading a very amusing novel. usually). The suffix –ly is the most common adverb-forming suffix (rapidly.). Still. it is sometimes that does not improve with practice. Question-answer exercise: Try to find out how much you really know about your physical abilities. Generally.

Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational nouns and include them into their corresponding suffix category as shown in the example: Example: -ion: prevention -ment: development -ance: maintenance -ness: fitness -ity: mobility -ing:walking 5. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adjectives and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ic: therapeutic -al: functional -ing: resulting -ed: prolongued -ive: effective -ly: daily -(i)ous: conscious -able: comfortable -y: sensory 7. Find the corresponding base forms (verbs. Find the corresponding base forms (nouns. adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every derivational noun in the same text: Example: prevention ← prevent (verb) + -ion (suffix) mobility ← mobil (adjective) + -ity (suffix) 6.24 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. verbs) and the corresponding suffixes for every adjective in the text: .

Give other examples of nouns that have the same form as their corresponding verbs and write contexts in which the same word functions both as a noun and as a verb. A practical English handbook 25 Example: therapeutic ← therapeut (noun) + -ic (suffix) 8. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adverbs and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ly: relatively -ally: dynamically 9.English in Kinetotherapy. Find the corresponding base forms (adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every adverb: Example: relatively ← relative (adjective) + -ly (suffix) There are many nouns in English that have an identical form with their corresponding verbs: Verbs to pressure to question to estimate to exercise Nouns pressure question estimate exercise Yet. sometimes there are some slight spelling differences between the noun and its corresponding verb that can easily pass unnoticed: Verbs To practise To respond Nouns practice response 10. .

2. 3. Write in the second column the corresponding nouns for the verbs listed in the first column. 5. 4. Dean in our clinical study. 13. . Dean`s inclusion in our clinical study was more than vital. 8. examine prescribe operate assess decide retire interpret confirm immobilize rehabilitate swell treat dislocate inclusion_ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 12.26 ADINA RĂDULESCU 11. After the therapist assesses the patient`s needs. 7. he will also decide a further treatment. 12. 9. The surgeons operated on the injured man immediately. Rewrite the sentences below using the nouns in the second column (exercise 11) instead of their corresponding verbs. The first one has been done for you as an example: include 1. 11. 2. I will be able to tell you more after I examine the patient. 3. Do not change the meaning of the sentences: Example: It was more than vital to include Mr. 4. You should not take these pills if the doctore did not prescribe them. 10. 6. 1. Mr.

. Our clinic is specialized in rehabilitating patients who suffered severe injuries. 7. Here are some examples of such kinetotherapy exercises that therapists may recommend to their patients: Kinetotherapist`s recommandations: • • • • • You should start with a very simple relaxation technique. A practical English handbook 27 5. he will probably confirm your need for surgery. Strauss retires next month. 8. To immobilize the patient`s fractured leg is one of the first aid measures to be taken. You can practise these self-stretching exercises as part of your home exercise program. 11. What can I do if my ankle swells over night? 10. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Recommending different therapeutic exercises Listening to the patients`complains and symptoms will normally be followed by the therapist`s recommandations regarding different therapeutic techniques and exercises. If the patient`s shoulder is dislocated. I cannot treat patients without their full consent and cooperation. 6. an emergency intervention is needed. As Mrs. Some massage sessions will be good for your local circulation. she will have more time for her therapy. A deep-breathing exercise will help you relax. Passive stretching exercises will lengthen your shortened tissues. 9. After the doctor interprets the results of your X-rays.English in Kinetotherapy.

do not forget to practise your overstretching exercises. 4. 3. Translate the above sentences into Romanian and say whether you are familiar with these exercises. 13. Este foarte important să-ţi alegi un program de exerciţii care să-ţi fie cu adevărat de ajutor. 2. I recommend you to continue with joint mobilization techniques to treat your muscular stiffness. 16. The best solution for you to regain your balance is to practise weight-bearing exercises. choose one type of the exercises above and explain the basic procedure to a colleaguepatient of yours. Dacă vrei să-ţi corectezi postura corporală defectuoasă ar trebui să începi cu exerciţii de întărire a musculaturii slăbite. Exerciţiile de menţinere a greutăţii corporale ar trebui să înceapă cu reînvăţarea schimbării greutăţii corporale. traction techniques are a good option. Consider yourself as a patient with a certain dysfunction (you can choose one of the symtoms presented in Unit 5) and ask your colleague-therapist what exercises he would recommend you. Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist. Exerciţiile de întindere sunt recomandate . Translate into English using the new vocabulary: 1.28 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • • • As a gymnast. Considering your long-term immobilization. In treating your spine injury. you need to practise strengthening exercises every day. 14. 15. give examples of such types of exercises.

rezistenţa şi stabilitatea coloanei vertebrale. A practical English handbook 29 persoanelor în vârstă.a. 7. Urcatul şi coborâtul scărilor într-un bloc fără lift.Toate capacităţile noastre fizice pot fi perturbate atunci când sunt nevoiţi să fim imobilizaţi la pat pentru o perioadă prelungită de timp. a hipomobilităţii articulare ş. Tehnicile de mobilizare a articulaţiilor sunt folosite în tratarea atrofiei cartilajului articular. Rezistenţa musculară nu este intotdeauna rezultatul antrenamentelor susţinute. 8. Poţi să-ţi menţii echilibrul timp îndelungat pe o suprafaţă îngustă şi fiind legat la ochi? 9. a slăbirii ligamentoase.m. indivizilor sedentari şi persoanelor care se refac după operaţii sau o imobilizare prelungită.English in Kinetotherapy.d. 10. Creşterea rezistenţei musculare va duce implicit la îmbunătăţirea tonusului cardiovascular. Read the following extracts and then solve the tasks that follow them: “Movements at a joint are determined by the shape of the articular . alergatul după autobuz sau mersul pe jos ne ţin în formă în fiecare zi. 6. forţa. UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE PATIENT PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – positioning and handling the patient 1. 5. Tehnicile de tracţiune sunt practicate pentru a se redobândi flexibilitatea.

Place both of your hands along the anterior aspect of the distal femur to keep the knee extended. flex the hip as far as possible. in which case the movement is made in the frontal plane. support the patient`s lower leg with your arm or shoulder.” To increase flexion of the hip with the knee extended Hand placement: “With the patient`s knee fully extended. Stabilize the anterior aspect of the tibia with your other hand. with the movement occurring in the horizontal plane.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU surfaces. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) Weight-bearing control and stability “Develop ability to shift the body weight. If the patient cannot bear full weight.” To increase dorsiflexion of the ankle with the knee extended Hand placement “Grasp the patient`s heel (calcaneus) with one hand. Alternate position.” (R. begin in the parallel bars with part of the weight borne on the hands. and finally. . the following movements are possible at the shoulder joint: flexion and extention about the transverse axis with the movements occurring in the saggital plane. rotation about the vertical axis including pronation (medial rotation) and supination (lateral rotation). With the knee in maximum extension. abduction and adduction about the anteroposterior axis. side to side. D. For instances. Kneel on the mat and place the patient`s heel against your shoulder. The patient shifts anteriorly. and obliquely. The opposite extremity is stabilized in extension by a belt or towel and held in place by the therapist`s knee. Stabilize the opposite extremity along the anterior aspect of the thigh with your other hand or a belt or with the assistance of another person. Manual resistance to the motion is added with pressure against the patient`s pelvis.

Pair work: Repeat the task at point 8. What is hand placement? 4. 2. Foundations and Techniques) TASKS 1. Enumerate the movements that are possible at the shoulder joint. 9. Then passively extend the wrist.” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. Name the type of therapeutic exercise that deals with controlling body weight. This may be more comfortable for the therapist or necessary if the patient has a severe wrist flexion contracture. What objects does the therapist use in handling the patient? 8. A practical English handbook 31 Pull the calcaneus downward with your thumb and fingers and gently push upward on the heads of the metatarsals. ankle dorsiflexion and wrist extension? 5. this time with the therapist describing the procedure (in his /her own words) while illustrating it in front of the class. What should the therapist do to to lengthen the wrist flexors? 6. Stabilize the forearm. . 3.English in Kinetotherapy.” To increase wrist extension Hand placement “Pronate the forearm and grasp the patient at the palmar aspect of the hand. allowing the fingers to passively flex. respecting the indications offered in the texts. Which parts needs to be stabilized in: hip flexion. extend the patient`s wrist. Pair work: Choose one of the last three therapeutic procedures and illustrate them. What is recommended if the patient has a severe wrist flexion contracture? 7. To lengthen the wrist flexors. Alternate position: Support the patient`s forearm on the table but allow the hand to drop over the edge of the table.

Complete the missing correspondent in the following adjectiveadverb pairs: ADJECTIVE possible manual comfortable necessary gently passively fully horizontal severe ADVERB anteriorly obliquely to pronate to supinate . 2. describe it to your audience.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU 10. first practise it with your deskmate and then. Complete the missing correspondent in the following verb-noun pairs: VERBS NOUNS flexion extension abduction adduction rotation resistance pressure to stabilize to lengthen to support 3. Invent one type of exercise for a certain purpose.

↓ ↓ subject direct object The patients are sometimes hypnotized by their therapists. Example: Therapists sometimes hypnotize their patients. The direct object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. A practical English handbook 33 ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS In Unit 5 we have already introduced the issue of Passive Voice and exemplified its use in dealing with passive modal constructions. while the subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. Learning how to use the passive forms of the most frequently used verbal tenses is the objective of this unit. As a general rule.English in Kinetotherapy. the passive voice is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the verb in the active voice and adding the past participle of the active verb. ↓ ↓ subject agent Read the chart below to see how the active to passive transformation works for the main verbal tenses: TENSES Present Tense Simple Present Tense Continuous ACTIVE VOICE treat PASSIVE VOICE am/is/are treated is/are being examined is/are examining .

5. The rehabilitation program ________________ (start – Future Tense Simple) as soon as possible.34 Past Tense Simple Past Tense Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Simple Future Perfect Conditional Perfect Conditional Gerund ADINA RĂDULESCU injured was/were transporting has/have found had discharged will/shall include will/shall have healed would recover would have saved practising was/were injured was/were being transported has/have been found had been discharged will/shall be included will/shall have been healed would be recovered would have been saved being practised 4. 2. 1. 6. Little effort _______________ (require – Present Tense . Put the verbs in brackets into the passive voice of the tense indicated: Example: The range of motion of the ankle is restored (restore – Present Tense Simple) by performing stretching exercises. The patient`s lower leg ___________________ (elevate – Present Tense Continuous) now. The ankle ___________________ (immobilize – Present Tense Simple) in a short cast for 3 to 4 weeks. 3. Successive weight-bearing stresses ________________ (impose – Past Tense Simple) on the feet. These faulty foot postures __________________ (cause – Present Perfect) by the excessive adduction of the forefoot. 4.

7. The same motion ____ now ____________ (repeat – Present Tense Continuous) with the patient in alternate position. the therapist will first take measures to alleviate the pain. 9. . Many balance activities _________________ (practise – Past Tense Simple) but without any result. Ankle and foot motions ________ previously ____________ (perform – Past Perfect) by the patient. The patient with acute disk lesions has avoided sitting with the hips and knees flexed or leaning forward. The patient needs bed rest during the first 2days when symptoms are highly irritable. If the patient is experiencing acute inflammation. 10. Muscular endurance _________________ (increase – Present Perfect) by performing the same exercises for a repeated number of times.English in Kinetotherapy. traction exercises temporarily relieved the pressure. In one of my patients with spondylosis. Injury or degeneration of the disk affects spinal mechanics in general. If a disk lesion is the cause of the acute back pain. 5. 4. 7. 5. he should be placed in a less irritating position. 1. 6. Pain from muscle spasm is sometimes described as a headache. the underlined direct objects will become the subjects of the passive sentences: Example: The patient sometimes describes pain from muscle spasm as a headache. 8. 3. Change the following sentences from Active Voice into Passive Voice. A practical English handbook 35 Simple) to maintain this position for extended periods. The therapist will instruct the patient to avoid flexion activities that increase intradiskal pressure. 2.

The patient is cross-sitting. The patient is heel-sitting. 10. with the hands placed in the low-back area. Imbalances in the shoulder girdle will perpetuate faulty postures. Read the following hand placement and stabilization procedure indications to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs. Read the following positioning indications to your colleaguepatient who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • • • • • • • The patient is supine. The patient is prone. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Positioning and handling the patient ►◄ Pair work 6. with hands placed under the shoulders. The patient is sitting. The patient is on hands and knees. wrist over the edge of the table. with the forearm supported on the treatment table.36 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. with the affected hip up. The patient is hook-lying. with arms in resting position. . Many patients have often expressed emotional stresses as increased tension in their lumbar region. with the foot pointing upright to keep the hip neutral to rotation. The patient performs elongation exercises only within tolerance during the early healing phase. 9. ☺Team work 7. The patient is standing. The patient is supine. The patient is side-lying.

Instruct the patient to arch the back by pressing against the floor with the back of the neck and the sacrum. Read the following therapeutic techniques to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • • • • Perform elbow flexion and extension with the forearm pronated as well as supinated. Pull the foot away from the long axis of the leg in a distal direction by leaning backward. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis by flexing the opposite hip and holding the thigh with the hands. Rotate the humerus by moving the forearm like a spoke on a wheel. . Support the patient`s leg with the fingers of the top hand under the patient`s knee and the lower hand under the heel. stabilize the leg between your knees and place one hand on the anterior aspect of the tibia. A practical English handbook 37 • • • • • • • Grasp the patient`s wrist with your lower hand. The hip to be mobilized is in resting position. support the knee with the top hand. Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and abduct the shoulder to 90 degrees. ☺Team work 8.English in Kinetotherapy. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis with the top hand or arm. Sitting on a low stool. Place your thumb on the anterior surface of the proximal end of the clavicle. Place a belt around your shoulder and under the patient`s thigh to help hold the weight of the lower extremity. Flex the patient`s hip and knee to 90 degrees. Flex the patient`s knee until discomfort is experienced in the anterior thigh.

The patient bends his body sideways with one hand over his head. He or she will read the text and then start illustrating the stages of the exercise. The movement is repeated three times for each side. cu mâinile întinse lateral. Translate into English. 2. Translate into Romanian all the sentences from the exercises 6. Here is an example of a hand out: Example: The patient is standing. 3. Create your own therapeutic exercises.38 ADINA RĂDULESCU 9. Prindeţi încheietura mâinii pacientului şi rotiţi-i braţul. 4. ►◄Pair work 10. 7 and 8 above. Plasaţi pacientul în poziţie de supinaţie. The task for the other student is to write down the content of the exercise while watching it. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi menţină greutatea . One student will be given a hand out containing indications for a therapeutic exercise. 5. using the examples provided in this unit and read them to your colleagues. with the hands placed on the shoulders. At the end the teacher or a third student will compare the two texts and comment on their degree of similarity. using the new vocabulary of this unit: 1. 12. Then the patient returns to the initial position. 11. Indicaţi-i apoi pacientului să încerce să facă aceeaşi mişcare singur. The exercise will be repeated several times. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul aflat în sprijin pe mâini şi genunchi.

Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este în poziţia stând pe călcâie. până ce abdomenul se va odihni pe coapsele anterioare. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi întindă mâna de deasupra peste cap.English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 39 corporală pe mâini şi genunchiul stâng şi să-şi întindă uşor genunchiul drept în spate. cu capul între braţele întinse. 9. Greutatea corporală va fi apoi mutată pe mâini şi pe genunchiul drept iar piciorul stâng va fi întins. UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. 5. lăsând-o să atârne pe lângă masă. Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis Osteoporosis Low Back Pain Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis . 7. cu capul plasat la marginea mesei. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este aşezat pe-o parte. 10. 6. 3. pe masa terapeutului. Indicaţi-i pacientului să se aplece în faţă. cu pacientul aşezat în poziţie simetrică. Poziţia trebuie menţinută pentru câteva minute. 4.Aceeaşi mişcare se va repeta pentru braţul opus. Read the following definitions and match the names of the disorders listed below with their corresponding definitions: 1. 6. 2. 8.

and. the entire body. arthritis. arms. An inflammation of the tendon and lining of the tendon sheath characterized by pain on movement of the associated joint. 2. A generalized. A chronic degenerative disease process occurring primarily in the hips and knees and characterized by deterioration of the joint cartilage. D. using the words in the glossary: . Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis A. Translate the definitions above into Romanian. or excessive physical effort involving the back muscles. C. May be caused by a muscle sprain or strain. sitting for prolonged periods of time. A rapidly progressive. or a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. F. legs. E. B. and joint hypertrophy. G. eventually. Other causes are poor posture. causing skeletal weakness and fractures.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU 7. formation of new bone in subchondral areas and joint margins. A systemic inflammatory disorder affecting primarily the spinal column and the large peripheral joints and eventually resulting in hardening and deformity of the affected skeleton. Seventy percent of individuals die within 5 years of diagnosis. a tumor. enlarged prostate gland. A chronic systemic degenerative disease characterized by inflammation of the connective tissues and manifested primarily in and around peripheral joints. sagging abdominal muscles. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. obesity. degenerative disease of the upper and lower motor neurons characterized by atrophy of the hands.

afecţiune. fracture.English in Kinetotherapy. especially in multi-syllable words. . disease. lăsaţi lining = îngroşare tendon sheath = teacă/înveliş al tendonului ♦ PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS Mastering stress-emphasis is one of the keys to pronouncing multisyllable medical terms. 3. întrece subcondral areas = zone subcondrale ruptured cartilage disk = disc cartilaginos rupt poor posture = postură defectuoasă sagging muscles = muşchi căzuţi. column. weakness. boală primarily = în primul rând to harden = a întări bone resorption = resorbţie osoasă to outstrip = a depăşi. English makes use of a primarily/strong stress ( that has this graphic symbol: ') placed before the stressed syllable and of a secondary/weaker stress (that has this graphic symbol¸ ) that usually precedes the primarily stress. Example: circulation [¸s∂: kju'leiſn ] inflammation [¸infl∂'meiſ∂n ] □□■□ □□■□ Note – for the following pronounciation exercises each student should make use of an English dictionary that contains phonetic transcription. A practical English handbook 41 GLOSSARY disorder = disfuncţie. Place the following two-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern:spinal.

pneumonia. combination. Place the following four-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: vaccinated. voluntary.te . pulmonary. reduction. effective. tumor. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ a . systemic. discharge. progressive. treatment.tro – phy □■□ sys . physical. penicillin. alternative. lateral. peripheral. posture. Place the following three-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: atrophy. muscle. compatible. ankle. deformity. tendinitis. relaxation. surgery.42 ADINA RĂDULESCU prostate. emergency. disorder. acute. saturated. restoration. resistance. excessive. phenomenon. bandage. sclerosis. spondylitis. cartilage.tate 4. rotate. independent. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ spi .nal □■ ro . skeleton. maximum. diagnosis.mic 5. endurance. circulation. hypertrophy. arthritis. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ □ vac-ci-na-ted third syllable stress □■□□ pneu-mo-ni-a □□■□ in-de-pen-dent . ability. formation.

stiffness following inactivity. A practical English handbook 43 6. but the onset in men occurs earlier. Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the following multi-syllable words and draw their graphic reprezentation: degenerative. Men and women are equally affected. joint deformity . extensibility. deterioration.English in Kinetotherapy. pathophysiologic. midcourse symptoms: reduced joint motion. grating sensation. individual. musculoskeletal. In women. Symptoms early symptoms: deep. amyotrophic. tenosynovitis. increase in degree and duration of pain. Example: De-ge-ne-ra-tive □■□□□ DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES Read about the main causes and symptoms of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders in the following chart: The disorder 1. joint enlargement late symptoms: tenderness on palpation. aching joint pain that is aggravated by exercise and that worsens as the day progresses. osteoarthritis. rehabilitation. cardiovascular. tenderness. osteoporosis. crepitus. pain with passive range of motion. the incidence increases after menopause. Osteoarthritis Causes The etiology is unknown but is believed to be related in some way to aging and genetics. flexion contractures.

red. fixed flexion of hips. and stiffness in affected joints (most often the fingers) that occurs in a bilateral. stooped posture. painful eyes. and onset typically occurs between 20 and 40 years of age. early symptoms: nonspecific symptoms of fatigue. joint contractures and deformities. women are three times more likely than men to be affected. malaise. early symptoms: recurrent pain in the lower back or large peripheral joints. anorexia. It is three to four times more common in men than in women. anorexia. elbows. diminished joint function.Ankylosing Spondylitis the exact cause is unknown. late symptoms: kyphosis. pain.44 2. paresthesia. and subluxation. knees. fever. limited motion of lumbar spine or limited range of motion in affected joints. weight loss. morning stiffness that is relieved by activity. and a familial link is suspected. fatigue. 3. .Rheumatoid Arthritis ADINA RĂDULESCU The etiology is unknown but the disease is often characterized as an autoimmune disorder. weight loss. and ankles. symmetric pattern and spreads to the wrists. diminished chest expansion. midcourse symptoms: tenderness. A higher than expected level of HLA-B27 tissue antigen is seen in 90% of individuals with the disease. low-grade fever. vertebral fractures. impotence.

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook incontinence, diminished bladder and rectal sensation, angina, pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis (rare). A dull, aching, constant pain and spasm; column diminishes, lordosis leading to compression in the the bones, back muscle spinal mass dorsal increase, multiple fractures particularly chest; the

45

4. Osteoporosis

Inadequate calcium intake, early menopause, sedentary life-style, a familial hystory of the disease, endocrine disorders, prolongued immobility

kyphosis and cervical

of the spine and a 5. Low Back Pain Muscle sprain or strain, arthritis, a tumor, or a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae; poor posture, obesity, enlarged prostate gland, sagging abdominal muscles, sitting for prolonged periods of time, or excessive physical effort involving the reduction in height. The pain may be accompanied by muscle weakness or spasms. It may radiate down the back of one or both legs, as in sciatica. It may be started or increased by coughing, sneezing, rising from a seated position, lifting, stretching, bending, or turning.

46 6. Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis

ADINA RĂDULESCU back muscles. Repetitive movements, strain, or excessive, unaccustomed exercise; underlying systemic disease (rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sclerosis); middleaged and older adults and athletes or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive motion are at greatest risk. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, but proposed explanations include genetics, metabolic disturbances, and external agents. The involved tendons usually show visible swelling; the joint may be tender and hot to the touch; motion of the joint causes pain.

7.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

early symptoms: weakness, cramps in the hands and forearms. midcourse symptoms: fatigue; dyspnea; slurred speech; dysphagia; asymmetric spread of muscle weakness to the rest of the body; spasticity; fasciculations; hyperactive deep tendon and extensor plantar reflexes. late symptoms: paralysis of vocal cords; paralysis of chest muscles, necessitating ventilatory support.

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook

47

►◄Pair work 7. Check if your deskmate has attentively read the chart by asking him/her questions like these: What are the main causes of low back pain? What are the early symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? • What are the late symptoms in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • The symptom of which disease is the visible swelling of tendons? • Which parts of the body are affected by pain in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • In which diseases does stiffness affect various parts of the body? Take turns in asking and answering various questions. 8. Extract or create sentences using the chart above and ask your deskmate to say if they are true or false. Example: Athlets or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive movements are very likely to suffer from Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis. → True Men are three times more likely than women to be affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis. → False 9. Translate the content of the chart above using a medical dictionary. 10. Match the disorders in the first column with their corresponding therapeutic exercises in the second column. Check the symptoms in the chart above so as to make the appropriate choice of the therapeutic exercises: • •

canes. balance of activity and rest. d. elastic bandages for support. rest. Tendinitis Tenosynovitis and . When the pain subsides. Exercise: isometric. range of motion. moist heat for pain. b. strengthening. Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength. paraffin gloves to reduce pain and edema. A corset or back brace may be required. strength. leg braces. pillows under knees. isokinetic. Physical therapy. as may applying dry or moist heat. the patient may increase activity if fatigue is avoided. balance exercise. Therapy and exercise to increase range of motion. splints. walkers to aid mobility. f. use firm 2. Avoid: soft chairs. recliners. exercise. canes. The patient should sleep on a firm mattress with the knees flexed and supported. isotonic. e.Ankylosing Spondylitis 4. Moist heat compresses to joint. traction/back brace in special cases. stretching. The patient should use a straight-backed chair and not cross or extend the legs. moist compresses. Pain killers. Rheumatoid Arthritis 3. Osteoporosis 5.48 ADINA RĂDULESCU The disorder 1. walkers to aid mobility. splints for neutral joint alignment. Low Back Pain 6. walkers to aid ambulation. postural training. occupational therapy for activity of daily living support. speech therapy to aid communication. muscle relaxants. c. rest of joint with controlled progressive exercise program. and tranquilizers may help. Osteoarthritis Therapeutic exercises a. canes. massage. and endurance.

you should really take some urgent measures and start your therapy. but I do believe that you should consider starting your physical therapy as soon as possible. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ►◄ Pair work 11. A practical English handbook bed and hard chairs. And as things are not getting better. Here are some examples to help you: Example: Therapist`s recommandations: • Considering your aggravated joint pain and your stiffness following inactivity. wear sturdy. including weight-bearing hyperextension and resistance exercises to slow calcium loss and strengthen musculature. orthopedic supports for back and neck to prevent stress fractures. Use the charts with medical information.patient who may ask you many questions regarding the duration. it is to your best interest that you should start these therapeutic exercises. g. • I do not want to put any pressure on you. symptoms and treatments above. lowheeled shoes. the difficulty and the expected results of such an exercise programme. Patient`s questions: • In what way will my general condition be improved after . Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist and choose the best way to recommand the corresponding therapeutic exercises to your colleague .English in Kinetotherapy. heat and massage for muscle spasm. 49 7. • Your low back pain now radiates down the back of both your legs. Consistent exercise regimen.

50 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • • starting these therapeutic exercises? How long will this therapy be and how many sessions a week are necessary? Will this therapy be painful? How difficult are the exercises? Do I have to make any changes in my diet or in my daily routine? Will this short-term therapy prevent the disease from getting worse? .

A practical English handbook 51 UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE COMMUNICATION – IMPROVING 1. resulting in flexion of the thorax on the upper lumbar spine. the pain is usually relieved with activity. This is often seen with an increased thoracic kyphosis and forward head and is called a kypholordotic posture. strength and flexibility imbalances will eventually develop. Relaxed or slouched posture This posture is also called swayback. and usually a forward head. This results in an increased lordosis in the lower lumbar region. an increased kyphosis in the lower thoracic region. When standing for prolongued periods. or a characteristic manner of bearing one`s body. the person usually assumes an asymmetric stance in which most of the weight is . The postural pain symdrome refers to the pain that occurs from mechanical stress when a person maintains a faulty posture for a prolongued period.English in Kinetotherapy. Read the following text. Lordotic posture This posture is characterized by an increase in the lumbosacral angle. resulting in hip extension and the thoracic segment is shifted posteriorly. There are no abnormalities in muscle strength or flexibility. A postural fault is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. an increase in the lumbar lordosis. but if the faulty posture continues. the relative arrangement of body parts for a specific activity. The entire pelvic segment is shifted anteriorly. consult the glossary below and translate the text into Romanian: POSTURAL PROBLEMS “Posture is a position or attitude of the body. and an increase in the anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion.

Flat upper back posture This posture is characterized by a decrease in the thoracic curve. Flat low-back posture This posture is characterized by a decreased lumbosacral angle. Therefore. For example. depressed clavicle. schimba stance = poziţie.52 ADINA RĂDULESCU borne on one lower extremity. and a posterior tilting of the pelvis. they can be used as reminders to practise maintaining a good posture. depressed scapulae. cocârja swayback = înclinare spre spate to shift = a deplasa. waits at a red light while driving a car. the patient can be instructed to check the posture every time he or she walks past a mirror. hip extension. If the patient becomes aware of his/her daily routines. enters a room.” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. It is associated with an exaggerated military posture but is not a common postural deviation. a decreased lumbar lordosis. with periodic shifting of weight to the opposite extremity. Foundations and Techniques) GLOSSARY to bear one`s body = a-şi susţine corpul postural fault = defect postural mechanical stress = solicitare mecanică imbalance = dezechilibru eventually = în cele din urmă pelvic tilt = înclinare/aplecare pelviană forward head = cap împins către anterior to slouch = a se gârbovi. the patient should be instructed to use cues throughout the day to check posture. postură . sits down for a meal. or begins talking with someone. It is not normal for a person to always maintain good posture. and a flat-neck posture.

What happens if a patient continues to maintain a faulty posture? 5. What are the visible signs of kypholordotic posture? 6. A practical English handbook 53 bear. 3. in your opinion? 10. Define in your own words what a postural fault is. bore. a duce flat low-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei inferioare a spatelui flat upper-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei superioare a spatelui thoracic curve = curbură toracică depressed scapulae = omoplaţi căzuţi. lăsaţi flat-neck = gât întins cues = indicii throughout the day = pe toată durata zilei 2. 2. What postural habit does the slouched patient manifest while standing? 7. try demonstrating each of them in front of the classroom. There are three main types of . Check your reading comprehension by solving the following tasks: 1.English in Kinetotherapy. When does postural pain syndrome occur? 4. What are the causes of faulty postures. How do you correct your faulty postures when you become aware of them? ■ GRAMMAR CONDITIONAL CLAUSES Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the subordinate clause or the if-clause and the main clause. borne = a purta. After reading about the four faulty postures. What methods can a patient use to correct a faulty posture? 9. What are the characteristics of flat upper-back posture? 8.

Imperative take a break and then start again. hypothetic situation. present or future oriented. If she did what the doctor says. If he had more time. he could come to his sessions. Meaning Real situation. There are also many exceptions from each type but students dealing with conditionals for the first time should simply concentrate on the basic rules that will be presented in the following chart: Types Type I If-clause Present tense simple If the faulty posture continues. Unreal. Type II Past tense simple/continuous If I were you. she might have a chance to avoid surgery. Modal verbs the patient must/should see a doctor. Present simple If the increases. present/past conditions. would could + short should infinitive might I would try the new procedure. Each type is used to express different real/unreal. present or future oriented Present tense simple If you get tired. using certain pairs of tenses. unlikely to happen .54 ADINA RĂDULESCU conditional clauses and various mixed types. tense pain Main clause Future tense simple strength imbalances will develop.

wishes to change the past) 55 If I had known anything about first help. 3. unfulfilled plans. he would not have got stiff-necked. past oriented (regrets. 2. you ……………. If he ………………. 4. too soft. ask him to corret the faulty posture. 7. posture. to feel discomfort. Imaginary situation. 6. and walk every hour. A practical English handbook TypeIII Past perfect simple/continuous would could + have + should past might participle I could have helped the injured cyclist. If the mattress ……. If you were able to notice what posture causes your low back pain. 3. the patient sags and stresses ligaments. If you are experiencing any pain. If you have a sedentary job. 5. his relaxation exercises. If the patient ……………. If you had practised your therapeutic exercises. …………. ... you …………………… it. If you modify your sleeping posture. Fill in the gaps with the verbal constructions in the box to complete the following conditional clauses: may simply disappear would not have felt had performed is begins knew check should get up cannot relax could control 1. you would have felt better. your morning pains ……………………… .English in Kinetotherapy.

I should complain about all these to our personnel manager.. c) You know what they say.56 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. I would not hesitate to immediately adopt it. Just imagine! If I (1)…………. If I ………… what my ideal sleeping posture is. some patients ……………….. If the mattress is too firm. 10. some measures (9) ……………………. (passive – take). If she had slept in a comfortable bed. 9.. (not brake) my leg.. they (13) . b) If this desk height (4) ………… (be) adequate. (express) their complaints.. I (11) …………… (accept) that job offer in Paris. (not fall) on ice and (2) ……………. (not have to) lean over my work. I (5) …………………. 4. She was a nurse in my orthopaedics ward. I had fallen on ice and broken my leg. (passive – not be) injured in that car accident last year. I (3) …………………. my feet (7) ……………. If (10) ……………. (rest) comfortably on the floor. But here I am now… working in this rehabilitation clinic… If people (12) ……… (know) how to deal with their disabilities. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) I met my wife in hospital ten years ago. that it all happens for a reason… Take my example. she ……………………. So I could say that there is nothing so bad as not to be good for something. If more employees (8) …………. so tired in the morning. (not be) so high. My back is killing me! Not to mention the chair! If it (6) ……. (never meet) her.

5. 3. Then. That is why you are always complaing about being tired. That is why the patient may run the risk of paralysis. His heart started beating more rapidly. 7. If the patient suffers from osteoporosis. exercise and postural training. he would not have had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. A practical English handbook 57 ……………. 2. If the patient had slept on a firm mattres. She catches diseases very easily. The old man got panic-striken. They prevent the patient`s condition from getting worse. You do not spend enough time relaxing. 6. He had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. 9. The chances of success may increase to about 20%. That is why he needed that urgent treatment. 10. 4. Rewrite the following sentences. He had his left leg broken. using an if construction: Example: a) The patient suffers from osteoporosis. 5. The family will have to evaluate their options. The infection spread. He has the surgery right now. The diagnosis is correct. exercise and postural training. My mother has a low resistance. (be able) to accept them more easily. I had mild low back pain for a week after. This injury is severe. 1. . 8. I worked hard to finish my science project. he will need physical therapy.English in Kinetotherapy. then he will need physical therapy. He got injured in a football match. b) The patient did not sleep on a firm mattress. These therapeutic exercises are to be practised every day.

2. nu uitaţi să faceţi o pauză scurtă din oră-n oră şi să vă faceţi exerciţiile de întindere.58 ADINA RĂDULESCU 6. locul de muncă etc. scaunele. ar trebui să cunoasă mai întâi . corectează-ţi imediat această tendinţă nesănătoasă. el va trebui să înveţe cum să-şi modifice mediul înconjurător: patul. 9. 10. vei dobândi flexibilitatea şi rezistenţa necesare pentru menţinerea stabilităţii spinale. 3. aceasta va duce la slăbire musculară şi la rezistenţă musculară redusă. Nu poţi obţine stabilitate posturală dacă nu înveţi să-ţi controlezi greutatea corporală. scaunul din maşină. 7. Dacă meseria vă solicită să staţi aplecaţi pentru perioade îndelungate de timp. 5. Dacă vrei să-ţi uşurezi acestă durere acută. 6. Translate the following conditional sentences into English: 1. Dacă aş fi ştiut că oboseala musculară măreşte riscul de accidentare. nu le-ar mai fi teamă de o nouă accidentare. Dacă eşti obosit şi te simţi mult mai relaxat într-o poziţie gârbovită.Dacă pacienţii doresc ca programul lor de exerciţii să fie eficient. 4. Dacă pacienţii ar fi mai conştienţi de programul lor de mişcări sigure. nu m-aş mai fi antrenat atât de mult. Dacă un pacient cu handicap fizic vrea să fie independent. trebuie în primul rând să-ţi modifici obiceiurile posturale. Dacă practici aceste exerciţii regulat. 8. Dacă persistaţi în a vă menţine defectele posturale pentru mult timp.

7. Lean backward and hold the stretch! Did you get it right? Is this too difficult for you? I`m right here if you need me! Don`t worry! I`ll keep an eye on you! You can do it! Give it another try! Need I say this again? You have to trust me on this! Have the cramps gone away now? Lean forward. 3. ENCOURAGING THE PATIENT E. 4. THERAPIST`S INSTRUCTIONS B. resting your abdomen on the anterior thighs. 5. Does this make any sense to you? . BUILDING MUTUAL TRUST F. 8. OFFERING ASSISTANCE FOR THE PATIENT D. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Improving communication 7. 9.GETTING A POST-PRACTISE FEED-BACK FROM THE PATIENT Example: Do you see my point?→B.English in Kinetotherapy. CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE C. 10.(CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE) 1. 2. 11. 6. A practical English handbook 59 foarte bine tehnicile posturale şi numai apoi să le şi execute. Insert the sentences below in their corresponding semantic class: A.

28. 25. 3.60 ADINA RĂDULESCU 12. 16. 19. 13. 26. 23. 24. 17. Create your own therapist-patient dialogues using the semantic classes above and the examples provided for each class. then the checking part and so on so forth). 5. 9. 14. 27. Read the following types of dialogues and match them with their corresponding titles: 1. Are your fingers still numb now? 8. 22. 2. Did you take my hint? If you need a helping hand… I`m not going anywhere! Do your best! It`s worth trying! Does it still hurt when you flex your knee? You will have to learn to trust me. Did you get my message? Do you still feel pins and needles in your feet? I give you my word on this! Don`t you doubt it! Lift both arms simultaneously. Follow the logical order of asking questions (first the instructions. Tuck in your chin and lift your head. 21. 15. 18. 30. Fixing an appointment Changing an apointment Returning a call Taking a family history Taking a social history Examining a patient . 4. Don`t hesitate to ask for my help! You had to deal with worse than this before! Can you manage practising this exercise by yourself now? You have to take my word for it! Are you with me on this? Don`t give up! One more try! Have you experienced any muscle spasms during this exercise? Bend your trunk laterally and hold the position. 29. 6. 20.

Er… how about 25th of September? Mr. it would not be the case.Stiff: Yes. Let me check his schedule. who isn`t ? Dr. Thomson: What about your parents? Are they in good health? Mr. Richards: Can you raise your left leg for me? And hold it for a second? Does it hurt when you rotate it? Mr. in case you can`t make it. Spike: A little bit. but they are no longer living with us.? Mr. Mr. Secretary: Call us. of course. in my left thigh. I am calling to fix an appointment. Richards: Could you just take off your clothes so that I can examine you? Mr. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. Dr. lie flat on the couch for a few minutes? Can you now show me where it hurts? Mr. that`s better. Dr. Wilkinson. I `m afraid it is a bit late. C. Bone cancer. Jones: Oh. Jones: Yes. . Thomson: I`m sorry to hear that. please. I have done this many times… Dr. A practical English handbook 61 A. Dr. please. And my father suffers from osteoarthritis. B. at 11 a. Thomson: Do you have any children? Mr. Dr. Jones: Thank you. Hello. Stiff: Yes. I have an urgent matter. you see… Secretary: Well. Jones: Oh. what about 21st of September.English in Kinetotherapy. Dr. Thomson: Well.m. Stiff: My mother died last year. hello. may I help you? Mr. thank you. are you married? Mr. Richards: Would you. when I return to the initial position. Secretary: Right. Spike: Okay. to see Dr. Spike: Right here.

Hello. Slender: Oh. Jones: Thank you for your trouble. Dr. hello. Jones: It is about my appointment.62 ADINA RĂDULESCU D. Walsh? Dr. Jones. Jones: Yes. two more years till my retirement. Slender: Hello. Mrs. you are still working. . Walsh: Speaking. Mr. what a relief! Dr. Mr. Slender: Is there anything wrong. It is good that you returned my call. Jones: I`m very sorry if I have cause you any inconvenience. E. Slender. Mrs. I have just received your Xrays and it looks that your ankle is not broken. Mrs. isn`t it? Mr. Slender: Ah. I wonder if we could possibly move it to the 25th of September? Secretary: First of all. I`m Jones. Shall I call back another time? Secretary: We have your phone number and if someone cancels an appointment we`ll let you know. Walsh: Yes. Thomson: Yes. doctor? Dr. may I help you? Mr. Jones. Mrs. Walsh: Please. Walsh: No. hello. nothing to worry about. but just sprained. Dr. Slender here. I called you a couple of days ago… Secretary: Yes. Stiff: Yes. F. I won`t be able to make it. Mrs. you change your appointment at short notice and then you want to fix the day for your future appointment? Mr. Mrs. come to see me tomorrow and we`ll discuss more about it. Dr. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. What can I do for you? Mr. Mr.

Recommending a better treatment.English in Kinetotherapy. How to focus your effort. etc. Dealing with home exercises programme. Programming the first session. A practical English handbook 63 Dr. Thomson: Have you pushed yourself too hard lately? Mr. Explaining how the devices work. I hate to bring you the bad news. Dr. Thomson: What about your working hours? Have you considered working part-time? Mr. ►◄ Pair work 10. Stiff: You know how things are. starting from the following titles: Introductory dialogues. I am no longer young and keeping up with the newly hired …… Dr. Otherwise…. Stiff: I`m afraid this is not an option in my field. but you should consider retiring…. Create your own dialogues. . Thomson: Then. The first examination.. Proposing a new experimental programme.

. is a tissue made of cells and fibers. 3. . It is found mostly in the joints. or synovial. and stiff tubes of all sorts. is made up of 33 vertebrae that are separated by spongy disks and protects the spinal cord that runs inside of it among other things..64 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES 1. 2. that connects and supports. as the voicebox (larynx). the chest. cartilaginous. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box: dislocation cartilage balance postural fault muscular dystrophy fracture spinal column joints cardiovascular disease range of motion exercise 1. The ………………. The connections between bones are called ………… each being classified according to structure and movability as fibrous. The ……………….

with one arm up. ………………………. this applies most often to a bone moved from its normal position with a joint.. palm. may cause problems with the heart and blood vessels. c) sitting cross-legged. with the face. b) to flex and elongate the arm successively. c) to pull away the arm from the median axis of the body. any body action involving the muscles. In all forms of …………………… there is a slow loss of strength with increasing disability and deformity. nose. 7. d) side-lying. Being placed in a supine position means: a) lying flat or face downwards. ……………… is the displacement of any part of the body from its normal position. A ……………… is an injury to a bone in which the tissue of the bone is broken. 2. joints. A …………………………. A …………………… is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. d) to turn the arm around its own axis. and ear. b) lying or resting on the back. 9. . 8. 4.. 6. 5. Choose the right version that best completes the sentence: 1..English in Kinetotherapy. 2. To adduct the arm means: a) to draw or pull the arm towards the median axis of the body. usually while in an upright position. 10. A practical English handbook 65 windpipe (trachea). etc upwards. and movements in natural directions of arms and legs. ………………. refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support.

causing skeletal weakness and fractures.. sedentary lifestyle. b) Osteoarthritis. ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. a) strenghtening exercises. c) weight-bearing exercises.66 3. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. c) slouched posture. sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. b) Ankylosing Spondylitis. a) Osteomyelitis. a) Osteoarthritis. ……………………………… is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension. a) kypholordotic posture. increased degree of forward curvature of any part of the spine is the characteristic of ……………. is a generalized. endocrine disorders. prolongued immobility are some of the causes of ……………. d) joint mobilization exercises. …………………. 3. or pain. d) mulcular extensibility. Find the root-verbs that the following nouns are derived from: .. b) stretching exercises. 7. early menopause. 5. d) Osteoporosis. c) Osteoporosis. b) muscular endurance . c) muscular contraction . c) Rheumatoid Arthritis. 6. reversible joint hypomobility. are necessary to treat joint dysfunctions such as stiffness. a) muscle strength . Inadequate calcium intake. d) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. …………………………. b) lordotic posture. An abnormal. d) flat low-back posture.

Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the following two/three/four/multi-syllable words and pronounce them accordingly: affected. diminish. selection. inactivity. Complete each space with a word formed from the words in . A practical English handbook 67 examination. disease. aggravated. function. lumbosacral. decision. paralyse. retirement. repetitional adverb repeatedly 5. suspect. 6. interpretation. information. deformity. disturb. repeater. compression.English in Kinetotherapy. development. diagnostician. expect. swell. contract. increase. immobilize. radiate. compress. hyperextension. explain. fasciculation. questioning. Example: examination ← examine (the root-verb) 4. strengthening. stiffness. include. treatment. recliner. Derive the corresponding nouns. palpation assessment. reduce. duration. repeating. contracture. repeat. alignment. tranquilizer. adjective repeatable. aggravate. propose. limit. Example: verb repeat noun repetition. kypolordotic. pericarditis. adjectives and adverbs from the following verbs: affect. repeated. subluxation.

the amount of force required to elongate noncontractile and contractile tissues and the time the stretch force must be (4) ………………. Warming up soft tissues prior to stretching will increase the (1) …………… of the shortened tissue. spent in solving the problem... A. It is (7) ………………… whether heating should occur prior to or during the stretching procedure. the clinician and patient must always remember that an appropriate warm-up must also occur in the (6) …………………. As the temperature of muscle increases. Here are some ways in which anger can be controlled: • reinterpreting the stimulus in a more positive light. making stretching more (3) …………………. Some anger may serve a (1) ………… purpose. Warm muscles relax and (2)……………. Although stretching is often thought of as a warmup activity and performed prior to (5) …………… exercise. decrease. B.. for the patient.68 ADINA RĂDULESCU capitals.. many situations contain ambiguities which allow EXTEND LENGTH COMFORT APPLY VIGOUR PREPARE DEBATE USE DESTRUCT PROFIT REINTERPRET . The energy that goes into its arousal could often be more (3) ………………. more easily. is purely (2)………………. much anger however. for stretching.

" wide pupils. unbearable. if circumstances seem to be overwhelming. and higher levels of pulse. • introducing humour at (9)…………. cold sweat.. bumps. response takes over. as it is part of being human to make mistakes (7)……………. • being realistic in our (5)………………. moments. burning or in terms of its affective qualities. to be made.. . and ethnic background all affect reactions to pain. for example shooting. for example intense. cruel.. many different physical and mental factors. experience and any measurement must incorporate a degree of (4) ………………. Specific diseases and injuries and the health.. view. for example vicious. or in terms of its evaluative qualities. annoying. to the patient who may find that it is making his or her life (2)…………… . Severe pain causes pale skin.. Patients will describe pain (8) ………. one can try stepping back mentally to get a more (8) …………………. different people and depend (6) ……. of other people. • distancing oneself. when a person smiles and laughs the (10) …………….. fear and anxiety. pain (7) ………….. sharp. blood (10) ………... in terms of its sensory qualities. breathing rate. Reactions to pain vary widely (5) …………. . • giving oneself (6)……………… to make a mistake. Read the text below and choose the version that best completes the empty spaces: Pain is often the reason why the patient has come for attention in the first place. "(9)……. Pain is a/an (3)…………. Always remember that pain is a/an (1) ……………..English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 69 (4) ………………. sickening. EXPECT PERMIT OCCASION OBJECT SUIT RELAX 7.

a) talent b) volition c) ability d) capacity 14. a) point b) limit c) degree d) level 8. you must keep your shoes on. 2. or other sounds.a) bulk b) tension c) spasm d) strain 12. a) rate b) rhythm c) beat d) tempo 13. even with some pain. When brief. If pain lasts for many days. face and body movements. a) or b) either c) neither d) nor 9.. the pulse may be slower and the blood pressure lower than before the pain began. Total body streching. a) illusion b) reality c) dream d) perception 2. Begin the passive sentences with the underlined words: 1. a) usually b) patiently c) regularly d) normally 8. but a patient can learn to live almost (15) …………. a) objectivity b) doubt c) subjectivity d) error 5. groans. and blood pressure may not go up much. may maintain or overstretch a mobile area. a) to b) among c) with d) from 6. a) group b) relation c) test d) pressure 11. Turn the following sentences from active voice into passive voice. The patient's tone of voice. . speed of speech. 1. cries. a) relieve b) cure c) release d) solace 15. Strengthening programs tend to overemphasize flexion exercises. the (13) ………… to fight infections may be lost. a) intolerable b) impossible c) easier d) irritating 3. When performing this kind of stretch. such as toe touches. a) individual b) objective c) personal d) subjective 4. a) hen b) road c) goose d) heat 10. If pain occurs often or is long term. or attempts to withdraw are noted by the physician. strong pain starts to go away. a) on b) of c) in d) with 7. 3. the pulse (12) ……. It is hard to (14) ………… strong or long-term pain.70 ADINA RĂDULESCU and muscle (11)………… .

3. If your sister had practised aerobic activity 3 to 5 times per . you should use appropriate equipment. 9.. (not stress) joints and ligaments at the end of the range. If he wanted to increase his muscular endurance. he ……………………. 5. she …………………. 8.. (perform) the exercises with many repetitions and minimal resistance to the point of muscle fatigue. You would have avoided overuse symdromes if you ………………… (perform) proper warm-up. such as correct footware. jogging or aerobic dancing on hard surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. 7. you ………………… (decrease) effort and rest between sessions. You will warm up the tissues with gentle rhythmic activities. 6. 2. To avoid injuries from stress. 4. the gastrocnemius is stretched. 5. (keep) your knee straight. If she really wanted to protect vulnerable joints. 10. An effective stretching or flexibility routine should not cause pain or excessive stress to tissues. you …………… (avoid) running. Increase the pace of activity so that you can maintain the target heart rate for 10 to 20 minutes. 6. 9. If pain begins while exercising. People often use inappropriately the phrase “No pain. If you do not want to be injured during your aerobic program. Patients should slightly bend their knees when performing forward-bending exercises.English in Kinetotherapy. 7.. A practical English handbook 71 4. Identify the type of the following conditional sentences and fill in the missing tenses or modal constructions to complete them: 1. no gain” as the guideline for intensity of stretch. If you …………. Patients should perform flexibility exercises prior to and after a strengthening program.

primary or metastatic cancer. it ………………… (be) safer to selectively stretch tight structures than the total body. Localized bone pain suggests such disorders such as osteomyelitis. Quitting is associated with stress. 8. the soleus ………. If your patient were excessively mobile in a segment of his body. when a patient had limited range of motion. leukemia. 10. (feel) much better. Concentrate on stretching the tight muscles. and joint mobilization and manipulation techniques are used to safely stretch or snap structures to restore normal joint mechanics with less trauma than passive stretching. Muscle elongation or active inhibition techniques are used to counteract the loss of flexibility in the contractile elements of muscles. (be) stretched. However. without using a dictionary: a) Inability to reverse the normal lumbar lordosis on flexion occurs in degenerative arthritis. b) Normally. compression fracture or herniated disk. which means that the same people may be seeking . if there …… (be) decreased flexibility between antagonistic muscle groups. many such people then wish to quit smoking. and thus they are managing dysfunctions better and with less trauma.72 ADINA RĂDULESCU week. c) It could be argued that smoking has more to do with relaxation than smoking abstinence has. the therapeutic approach was to stretch the region with passive stretching techniques. Limited lumbar flexion is characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis. Over the past 30 years. cross-fiber massage techniques are used to increase mobility in selected ligaments and tendons. she …………………. 9. Translate intoRomanian. If you bend your knee. therapists have identified and learned techniques that deal more directly with stretching the source of limitation. 10. and many people become smokers because they perceive cigarettes as being a source of mental calm.

Apăsaţi uşor cu coatele asupra coapselor. cum ar fi muşchii feţei. în primul rând identificaţi grupele musculare de care aveţi nevoie pentru condus. Apăsaţi apoi din nou. cu tălpile unite către interior şi cu genunchii îndreptaţi lateral către exterior. A practical English handbook 73 relaxation training. Apoi. sunetele şi mirosurile acestui loc. încercaţi să simţiţi cum muşchii se relaxează. 11. Dacă observaţi că aceste grupe sunt tensionate. Pe măsură ce trupul şi mintea se calmează.English in Kinetotherapy. d) Exerciţiile de întindere sunt atât de utile pentru că ajută la menţinerea elasticităţii. relaxaţi-le. permiteţi-i locului dumneavoastră special să ia contur în imaginaţia dumneavoastră. Plasaţi-vă mâinile în jurul gleznelor şi odihniţi-vă coatele pe coapse. Menţineţi-vă relaxaţi şi atunci când viraţi sau schimbaţi viteza. Apoi odihniţivă. Observaţi priveliştea. Închideţi ochii. Verificaţi dacă şi muşchii pe care nu-i solicitaţi când conduceţi. c) Pentru a învăţa să conduceţi relaxaţi. Simţiţi cum începeţi să vă relaxaţi. dar îi şi . b) Staţi aşezaţi. Nu uitaţi zona umerilor. Health care professional increasingly find themselves faced with groups of people who are struggling to give up cigarettes and for whom relaxation training hes been prescribed. eliminând tensiunea de peste zi. Translate into English: a) Staţi întinşi sau aşezaţi într-o poziţie pe care o simţiţi comodă. Ar trebui să simţiţi o întindere plăcută în zona şoldului. sunt relaxaţi. Elasticitatea este una dintre proprietăţile ţesutului muscular care nu numai că permite muşchilor să funcţioneze mai bine.

Ne întindem după ce dormim. obişnuim la modul inconştient să ne întindem. după ce am stat mult timp în aceeaşi poziţie. De multe ori. după ce stăm cu orele la birou. scapulă claviculă os sacral coccis articulaţie articulaţie fibroasă articulaţie sinovială articulaţia şoldului articulaţia genunchiului articulaţia gleznei craniu ţesut .74 ADINA RĂDULESCU protejează faţă de o posibliă accidentare. Se pare că trupul nostru ne-o cere. după ce lucrăm aplecaţi în grădină… GLOSSARY spine/spinal column/backbone = vertebra. -ae/bony ring = spinal cord/marrow = rib = articular cartilage = sternum/breastbone = thoracic cage = shoulder girdle = scapula/shoulder blade = clavicle/collarbone = sacrum = coccyx = articulation/joint = fibrous joint = synovial joint = hip joint = knee joint = ankle joint = cranium/skull = tissue = coloana vertebrală vertebră măduva spinării coastă cartilaj articular stern cuşcă toracică centură scapulară omoplat.

A practical English handbook 75 connective tissue = calcaneus/heel = limb = nostril = thyroid cartilage/Adam`s apple = nape (of the neck) = axilla/armpit = carpus/wrist = knuckle = hip = thigh = calf. calves = shin/cannon bone = patella.English in Kinetotherapy. fluierul piciorului rotulă scobitura gleznei talpă intestine diafiză epifiză cartilaj epifizar vase sanguine masă musculară contracţie musculară rezistenţă musculară oboseală/extenuare musculară hipertrofie musculară tonus muscular muşchi hipotonici muşchi hipertonici rigiditate musculară spasm muscular spasticitate luxaţie întindere musculară . subsuoară încheietura mâinii articulaţia degetului şold coapsă gambă. -e tibia. -ae/knee cap = instep = sole = bowels = diaphysis = epiphysis = epiphyseal cartilage = blood vessels = muscle bulk = muscular contraction /cramp = muscular endurance = muscle fatigue = muscular hypertrophy = muscle tone = hypotonic muscles = hypertonic muscles = muscle rigidity = muscle spasm = spasticity = muscle sprain = muscle strain = ţesut conjunctiv călcâi membru nară cartilaj tiroidian ceafă axilă.

mers ţinută. hernie pansament steril . comportament atelă orteză exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale grad de mobilitate exerciţii de întărire musculară necroză avasculară leziune a sistemului scheletic umflătură ruptură. panglică de măsurat goniometru ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor vată eprubetă umblet.76 ADINA RĂDULESCU muscle strength = muscular tension = muscular weakness = hypokinesia = hyperkinesia = stasis = muscular dystrophy = electromyography = cartilage disk = arthritis = medical history = medical examination sheet = testing devices = tape measure = goniometer = reflex hammer = cotton wool = test tube = gait = mien = splint = brace = weight-bearing exercise = range of motion = strengthening exercises = avascular necrosis = skeletal injury = swelling = rupture = sterile dressing = forţă musculară tensiune musculară slăbire musculară hipokinezie hiperkinezie stază distrofie musculară electromiografie disc cartilaginos artrită anamneză foaie de observaţie clinică instrumente de testare ruletă.

A practical English handbook 77 anesthetic = contusion/bruise = tenosynovitis/inflamed tendons = arteriosclerosis/hardening of the arteries = sedative/sleeping pill/dope = analgesic/pain killer = myocardial infarction/heart attack = halitosis/bad breath = alopecia/baldness = tachycardia/palpitations = hypoglycaemia/low blood sugar = hyperglycaemia/ high blood sugar = ankylosing spondylitis/bamboo spine = sprain one`s ankle/wrist= strain one`s muscle = pull one`s hamstring muscle = tear/pull a ligament = snap a tendon = chilblain/frostbite = cardiovascular fitness = plaster bandage = plaster cast = sticking plaster = anestezic contuzie. calmant infarct miocardic halitoză alopecie tahicardie hipoglicemie hiperglicemie spondilită anchilozantă a-şi luxa glezna/încheietura mâinii a suferi o întindere musculară a-şi întinde un tendon muscular a suferi o ruptură ligamentară a suferi o ruptură de tendon degerătură tonus cardiovascular pansament gipsat formă/matriţă de gips leucoplast .English in Kinetotherapy. vânătaie tenosinovită arteroscleroză sedativ analgezic.

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M. H. . the Promotional Reprint Company Ltd.Effects of immobilization on the extensibility of periarticular connective tissue.English in Kinetotherapy. Butterworth –Heinemann. Recipes for teaching professional and . H.ESP ideas. B. Gray. .Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Basics. R. 1995. L. Diagnosis and Rehabilitation. Holme. 2002. . Hollis.. Garrison. 1991. Practical Guide to Musculoskeletal Disorders. M. .Patient Examination and Assessment for Therapists. Word Formation. S. Blackwell Scientific Publications. P. first published 1985. Anatomy. A practical English handbook 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY Buschbacher. Descriptive and Surgical. Lippincott Company. and Yung.. 1981. London. Randall. Cobuild. J.1991. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Haeper Collins Publishers. R. and Owens-Burkhart. C. . B. J. R. Donatelli.English Guides.

and Colby. Oxford University Press.. 2000. Joints. J. Pârlog. The Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary. . Hutchinson.. Saunders Company. . vol. Moscow. J. Longman. Bucureşti. . . Champaign.Vocabulary. R. Longman. S. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.Atlas of Human Anatomy. Howley. first published 1988. Leech. 1986.A Practical English Grammar. first published 1989..A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. 1995 Quirk. 1994. H. T. . G.. Randall. A. D.86 ADINA RĂDULESCU academic English. Payne. 1986. Thomson. W. McCarthy.International Medical Communication in English. Sinelnikov. A. Sixteenth Edition. Svartvik. Ed. ALL. English Phonetics and Phonology. and Waters. . I.V. B. . Paideia. L. and Franks. Ed. Oxford Advanced Learner`s Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1990. 1997. Bucureşti. MIR Publishers. first published 1996. B. first published 1987. U. Churchill Livingstone.Therapeutic Exercise.English for Specific Purposes.Check Your Vocabulary for Medicine. L. second edition. A Workbook for Users. C. C. Oxford University Press. Zaharia. 1992. A.. Riley. . 1996. C. F. A. S. . D. Peter Collin Publishing. B. Merk Research Laboratories. and Martinet. Foundations and Techniques. Ligaments and Muscles. Kisner. Cambridge University Press.1 – The Science of Bones.Elemente de patologie a aparatului locomotor. . L. . A. New York.Health/Fitness Instructors Handbook. . M. A.. A. 1985.Relaxation Techniques. Davis Company. Oxford University Press. Philadelphia. Maher. A Practical Handbook for the Health Care Profesional. Greenbaum. . Science and Medicine. Oxford:Oxford University Press. first published 1990. The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. R.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.J. R. D. Human Kinetics. E. T.

A practical English handbook 87 .English in Kinetotherapy.

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