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Biology Project

Biology Project

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Published by Shriti Sikta Panda

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Published by: Shriti Sikta Panda on May 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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.ENVIRONMENT Environment is the sum total of all external factors. living beings and conditions that surround an organism and influence the same without becoming its part. substances.

What happens when we add our waste to the environment Wastes are useless leftover or discarded materials. These are divided into two .

microorganisms. These wastes are These wastes are not degraded by degraded by microorganisms. polythene . For example: garbage. nickel. glass . Non Biodegradable Wastes . These do not accumulate These pile up and in nature. livestock wastes. sewage. and undergo biomagnifications.Biodegradable Wastes These are biological in These are commonly man origin. For Example: plastics . accumulate in nature. made. These wastes do not show These enter food chains biomagnifications.

em is the largest man made ecosystem. . another example of system. a self contained ecological system which consist biotic community and the physical environment . ural and functional unit of biosphere. ystem – These ecosystem develop in nature without hu system – These are created and maintained by human b so called man made or anthropogenic ecosystems. an be natural or artificial. both i ging materials between them.ECOSYSTEM AND ITS COMPONENTS.


ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE Ecosystem consists of two types of components. BIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes all the living organisms present in the ecosystem. . For example-all plants and animals. edaphic factors. biotic and abiotic. ABIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes non-living substances and factors of the ecosystem. etc. topographic factors. For example-climatic factors.

Food chain is a sequence of organisms in a biotic community through which food passes with members of a step becoming food of the members of the next step of the sequence. in other words it is a list of ‘who eats whom' in a biotic community. Various levels of consumers and decomposers. Each step or division in food chain which is characterized by a particular method of obtaining food is called trophic level. . It consists of producers.


followed by first order carnivores and so on with top carnivores forming the tip. pyramids are of three types: . sequencewise present in various trophic levels of a food chain with producers forming the base. herbivores above them. An ecological pyramid is a graphic representation of an ecological parameter.




1. 3. . Food web is a network of food chains operating in an ecosystem which get connected at various trophic levels so as to form a no. It does not allow a species to overgrow. It allows endangered population to grow in size. It provides stability to ecosystems. 2. of feeding connections amongst different organisms of the biotic community. Importance of food web: It does not allow any population to starve when members of lower trophic level decrease in no. 4.


3. ozone performs an essential function. Effects of ozone depletion: Skin Cancer 4. Global Warming . 2. like it is known to cause skin cancer in human beings. It shields the surface of the earth from UV radiation from the sun. However at the higher levels of atmosphere.    1. Mutations may occur Cataract 5. The higher energy UV radiations split apart some molecular oxygen into free oxygen atoms. This decrease has been linked to synthetic chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used as refrigerants and in fire extinguishers. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere began to drop sharply in the 1980s. Decline in photosynthesis Death of young ones 6. This radiation is highly damaging to organisms. Ozone at higher levels of the atmosphere is a product of UV radiation acting on oxygen molecule. Ozone is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen. Ozone is a deadly poison.


Combustible components are disposed by burning and non combustible wastes are used in landfill. combustible and non combustible components. components of garbage are separated into decomposable. 2. It consists of three steps: Collection of garbage Transport of garbage from collection site to disposal site. Decomposable wastes are eaten up by pigs and stray animals or they are composted. Like this garbage is managed and disposed in a proper way. 3. . Disposal of garbage Prior to disposal. Garbage management is the non pollutant disposal of the waste. vegetables and fruit articles along with other domestic wastes. Recyclable wastes are taken up by rag pickers. recyclable.  Garbage is refuse of food.Managing the Garbage we Produce   1.

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