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Ganapathy - Steam Plant Calculations Manual

Ganapathy - Steam Plant Calculations Manual

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ST€AM PLANT CALCULATIONS MANUAL

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books

Editor L. L. Faulkner Columbus Division, BattelleMemorial Znstitute f and Department o Mechanical Engineering me Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

1. Spring Designer's Handbook, Harold Carlson 2. Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan 3. Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills 4. Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman 5. Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and C. Poli 6. Centrifugal Pump Clinic, lgor J. Karassik 7. Computer-Aided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan 8. Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part Materials and CompoA: for Processes, edited by nents;Part B: ProcessesandDesign Edward Miller 9. Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, EarlLogan, Jr. 10. Vibrations of Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel 11. Flat Corrugated and Diaphragm Design Handbook, Mario Di Giovanni 12. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design, Alexander Blake 13. An Introduction to the Design and Behavior Bolted Joints, John of H. Bickford 14. Optimal Engineering Design: Princr;Oles and Applications, James N. Siddall 15. Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson 16. Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Lewis H.Bell 17. Gears andTheir Vibration: ABasicApproach to Understanding Gear Noise, J. Derek Smith 18 . Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and Applications Handbook, American Chain Association 19. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, edited by Philip A. Schweitzer 20. Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter Lynwander

21. Controlling ln-Plant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and Calculations, John D. Constance Charles S.Knox 22. CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation, Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, 23. Probabilistic James N. Siddall Application, Frederick W. Heilich 111 24. Traction Drives: Selection and and Eugene E. Shube 25. Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and Chris E. Passerello of 26. Mechanical Fastening Plastics: An Engineering Handbook,Brayton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden 27. Lubrication in Practice: Second Edition, edited by W. S. Robertson 28. Principles of Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan 29. Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini for 30. Engineering Documentation CAD/CAMApplications, Charles S. Knox Dimensioning with Computer Graphics Applications, 31. Design Jerome C. Lange 32. Mechanism Analysis: Simplified Graphical and Analytical Techniques, Lyndon 0.Barton 33. CAD/CAM Systems: Justification, Implementation, Productivity Measurement, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia 34. Steam Plant Calculations Manual, V. Ganapathy 35. Design Assurance for Engineers and Managers, John A. Burgess 36. Heat Transfer fluids and Systems for Process and Energy Applications, Jasbir Singh 37. Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions, Robert H. Kirchhoff 38. Computer-Aided Graphics and Design: Second Edition, Daniel L. Ryan Appli39. Electronically Controlled Proportional Valves: Selection and cation, Michael J. Tonyan, edited by Tobi Goldoftas 40. Pressure Gauge Handbook, AMETEK, U.S. Gauge Division, edited by Philip W. Harland 41. Fabric Filtration for Combustion Sources: Fundamentals and Basic Technology, R. P.Donovan 42. Design of Mechanical Joints, Alexander Blake 43. CAD/CAM Dictionary, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia 44. Machinery Adhesives for Locking, Retaining, and Sealing, Girard S. Haviland 45. Couplings and Joints: Design, Selection, and Application, Jon R. Mancuso 46. Shaft Alignment Handbook, John Piotrowski

47. BASIC Programsfor Steam Plant Engineers: Boilers, Combustion, Fluid Flow, and Heat Transfer, V. Ganapathy 48. SolvingMechanicalDesignProblems with ComputerGraphics, Jerome C. Lange 49. Plastics Gearing: Selection and Application, Clifford E. Adams 50. Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, William C. Orthwein 51. Transducers in Mechanical and Electronic Design, Harry L. Trietley 52. Metallurgical Applications of Shock- Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena, edited by Lawrence E. Murt, Karl P. Staudhammer, and Marc A. Meyers 53. Magnesium Products Design, Robert S. Busk 54. How toIntegrate CAD/CAM Systems: Management and Technology, William D. Engelke 55. Cam Design and Manufacture: Second Edition; with cam design software for the IBM PC and compatibles, disk included, Preben W. Jensen Application, Sylves56. Solid-state AC Motor Controls: Selection and ter Campbell 57. Fundamentals of Robotics, David D. Ardayfio 58. Belt Selection and Application Engineers, edited by Wallace D. for Erickson 59. Developing Three-Dimensional CADSoftware with the IBM PC, C. Stan Wei 60. Organizing Data for CIMApplications, Charles S. Knox, with contributions by Thomas C. Boos, Ross S. Culverhouse, and Paul F. Muchnicki 61. Computer-Aided Simulation in Railway Dynamics, by Rao V. Dukkipati and Joseph R. Amyot 62. Fiber-Rein forced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, P. K. Mallick 63. Photoelectric Sensors and Controls: Selection and Application, Scott M. Juds 64. finite' ElementAnalysis with PersonalComputers, Edward R. Champion, Jr., and J. Michael Ensminger 65. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Dale Ensminger 66. Applied Finite ElementModeling: Practical ProblemSolvingfor Engineers, Jeffrey M. Steele 67. Measurement and Instrumentation in Engineering: Princr;Oles and Basic Laboratory Experiments, Francis S. Tse and Ivan E. Morse 68. Centrifugal Pump Clinic: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, lgor J. Karassik 69. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design: Second Edition, Revised and Exmnded, Alexander Blake

70. An Introduction to the DesignandBehavior of Bolted Joints: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, John H. Bickford 71. High Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Marsbed H. Hablanian 72. Pressure Sensors: Selection and Application, Duane Tandeske 73. Zinc Handbook: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, Frank Porter 74. Thermal Fatigue Metals, Andrzej Weronski and Tadeuz of Hejwowski 75. Classical and Modern Mechanisms for Engineers and Inventors, Preben W. Jensen 76. Handbook of Electronic Package Design, edited by Michael Pecht in 77. Shock- Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena Materials, edited by Marc A. Meyers, Lawrence E. Murr, and Karl P. Staudhammer 78. Industrial Refrigeration: Principles, Design and Applications, P. C. Koelet 79. Applied Combustion, EugeneL. Keating 80. Engine Oils and Automotive Lubrication, edited by Wilfried J. Bartz 8 1 Mechanism Analysis: Simplified and Graphical Techniques, Second Barton Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lyndon 0. 82. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics for the Practicing Engineer, James W. Murdock 83. Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, Second Edition, Revised and Expended, P. K. Mallick 84. Numerical Methods for Engineering Applications, Edward R. Champion, Jr. 85. Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Earl Logan, Jr. 86. Vibrations of Shells and Plates: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Werner Soedel 87. Steam Plant Calculations Manual: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, V. Ganapathy 88. Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lewis H.Bell and Douglas H. Bell

.

Additional Volumes in Preparation
Fhite Elements: Design Performance, Their and MacNeal Richard H.

Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lawrence E. Nielsen and Robert F. Landel

Mechanical Engineering Sofhyare
Spring Design with an IBM PC, AI Dietrich Mechanical Design Failure Analysis: With Failure AnalysisSystem Software for the IBM PC, David G. Ullrnan

ST€AM PLANT CALCULATIONS MANUAL
SBCOND (DITION, RBVISBD AND EXPANDBD

V. CANAPATHY
ABCO Industries Abilene, rexes

m
MARCEL
D E K K E R

MARCEL DEKKER, INC.

NEWYORK BASEL. HONGKONC

Library of Congress

Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Ganapathy, V.

Steam plant calculations manual / V. Ganapathy. - 2nd e d , , rev. and expanded. p. cm. - (Mechanicalengineering ; 87) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8247-9 147-9 1. Steampower-plants-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. 1 . Series: Mechanical engineering (Marcel Dekker, Inc.) ; 87 1 TJ395.G35 1993 6211'8-dc20 . 93-9048 CIP

The publisher offers discounts on this bookwhenorderedinbulk quantities. For more information, write to Special SalesProfessional Marketing at the address below. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright 0 1993 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither thisbook nor any part may be reproduced transmitted in any or form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 Current printing (last digit): l 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

To my fami1y-G. Shantha, G. Padma, G. Sivapriya

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Preface to the Second Edition

The second edition of Steam Plant Calculations Manual is completely revised, with 70 additional problems covering emissions, boiler efficiency, heat transfer equipment design and performance, circulation, and various other aspects of steam plants. The first chapter containsa few new problems related to estimating deaeration steam quantity based system water chemistry per on ASME and ABMA boiler water guidelines. Examples illustrate the computation of steam purity and quality and their interrelationship. Conversion between boiler horse power and steam production is also explained. Because of regulations concerning NO, and CO, plant engineers frequently have to compute emission these pollutants or relate them of from mass units such as l b h to ppm or vice versa. In Chapter 2 this conversion is explained for both gas turbine exhaust and conventional fired boilers. Cogeneration and combined cycle plants use heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), which are often fired with auxiliary fuel using the oxygen in the exhaust gases. The relationship between oxygen consumption and amount fuel fired is derived and explained of with an example. Correlations for dew points of various acid gases,
V

vi

Preface to the Second Edition

such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, and hydrobromicacid, are cited andthe effect of gas temperature on tube metal temperature is explained to illustrate the possibility of corrosion.The effect of excessairon efficiencyofdifferent fuels isexplainedandsimpleequations are developed for computing boiler efficiency. Boiler circulation is explained in Chapter 3 and examples illustrate its computation for both fire tube and water tube boilers. Importance of steamqualityand factors affectingdeparturefromnucleateboiling (DNB) conditionsare explained. Determination of steam flow in blowoff lines and flow in blow-down lines are illustrated with examples. Over 45 additionalproblems,coveringvariousaspectsofheat transfer equipment design, are included in Chapter 4. These include: Effect of fouling on tube wall temperature and duty in fire tube and water tube boilers Computation of natural convection heat transfer Design and off-design performance and simplified design procedures for fire tube and water tube boilers and air heaters Simulation of HRSG design and off-design performance and understanding pinch and approach points Prediction of furnace heat transfer in both fired and unfired (waste heat) boilers and distribution of radiation to tube banks Correlations for critical heat flux in both tubes and water tubes and fire several more on equipment design Several examples related to HRSGs explain the method of evaluating alternative designs considering initial and operation costs. The effect of gas analysis and pressure on heat transfer is also explained. A few examples illustrate the effect of wind velocity, casing emissivity on heat losses, and casing temperature. The principle behind the use of HRSG hot casing is explained. Consideration of variables affecting performance testing is explained with an example. A fewproblemshavebeenaddedinChapter 5 to explainthe importance of ambient temperature on boiler fan sizing andthe effect of feedwater temperature on pump performance. Since gas turbinesare becoming the workhorses of the future, examples show the effect of variables onthe efficiency of a simple Bryaton cycle, with and without regeneration.

Preface to the Second Edition

vii

Steam plant engineers who found the first edition useful will find the new edition packed solid with information and with several completely solved problems of practical significance.
V . Ganapathy

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Preface to the First Edition

Engineersconnectedwiththeperformance, operation, andmaintenance of steam power and process plants often have to perform simple and sometimes involved calculations related to boilers, pumps, fans, fuels, combustion, fluid flow, valve selection, heat transfer, and energy utilization. These are not the routine, lengthy design calculationsa design office would perform, but rather simple calculations done to realize the following objectives:

To understand the performance characteristics of the equipment To check if the equipment is performing within predicted range of parameters To evaluate cost effectiveness of proposals To utilize energy in an optimal manner To specify equipment for different service conditions
Plant engineersof today haveto be more energy andcost conscious than they werea few yearsago, when knowledge of equipment and its performance alone was adequate. With the increasing cost of energy, all aspects of energy utilization and economics of operation must be considered by plant engineers their day-to-day work. Examples have in
ix

X

Preface to the First Edition

been dispersed throughout this text to illustrate the above-mentioned subjects. The book is divided into five chapters and is written in a questionand-answer style. This approach, it is felt, will be appealing to plant engineers, who have little time to go into theory. Chapter 1 deals with the general category of calculations such as conversion of mass-to-volume flow rates, energy utilization from boiler blow-down and exhaust gases, ASME code calculations to figure pipe sizes for external and internal pressure applications, life cycle costingmethods,andestimationofnoiselevels.Afewexamples illustrate how gas leakage across dampers, its cost, and leakage rates of steam through openingscan be found. Importance of moisture in air and water dew point also explained. Application of cycle costing is life to equipment selection is explained. Purchase of equipment based on initial cost may not be generally a good proposition. Chapter 2 deals with fuels, combustion, and boiler or heater efficiency. Often, fuel analysis will not be available and plant engineers may be requiredto estimate the combustion air requirements, the excess air, or the boiler efficiency. A few examples illustrate how these can be done. The dollar savings that can be realized reducing by the oxygen levels in the flue gas can also be estimated. Engineers are often confused between the efficiencies based on higher and lower heatingvalue of the fuel. Oftenfurnaces are designed to buma particular fuel and may be required to burn a different one later. The factors that are to be considered in burner are also discussed. Chapter 3 deals with fluidflow, sizing of flow meters, and selection of control and safety valves. Importance permanent pressuredrop in of flow meters and its cost is discussed, followed by examples on selection of safety and control valves. Relieving capacity of a given safety valve when used on a different fluidand different pressure conditions is also discussed. Correction of orifice meter readings for different steam parameters is discussed, followed by pressure drop calculations for fluids inside pipes, and flow over plain and finned tube bundles. Knowledge of pressure drop also helps the plant engineer to check whether or not fouling has occurred. A large increase in gas pressure drop acrossaneconomizertubebundle, for example, meansthat fouling could have taken place and cleaning cycles may have to be initiated.

Preface l the First Edition o

xi

In Chapter 4 on heat transfer, several problems covering estimation of heat transfer coefficients flow over plain and finned for tubes, flow inside tubes, nonluminous radiation and prediction of performance the of heat transfer devices are illustrated. A simple approach has been used, and lengthy, routine methods are avoided. Estimation of performance of a given thicknessof insulation and determining the optimum thickness of insulation using life cycle costing are also discussed. The last chapter deals with pumps, fans, and turbines. Often plant engineers switch fans from one site to another without considering aspects such as the ambient temperatureelevation on the fan perforor mance. Based on motor current readings, one can double-check whether a fan or a pump is working well. Examples have been provided to illustrate these points. Net positive suction head (NPSH) and power requirements for centrifugal and reciprocating pumps also covered. are Cogeneration is an important topic and several plantsare using steam turbines for power generation and process steam applications. A few examples illustratehow the steam requirements and power generation can be evaluated. In all, over 125 examples covering practical aspects of equipment utilizationandenergymanagementareworked out, whichshould makethisbook a goodcompanion for plant engineers, operators, managers, and design engineers. It would also be of interest to engineers perparing for professional license examinations. During the past severalyears, I have had the privilegeof authoring several articlesin various magazines such asPlant Engineering, Power Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Hydrocarbon Processing, and Oil and Gas Journal,Based on the interactionI have had with several readers, I felt that a book of this nature would be helpful to a large cross section of steam plant engineers and managers. This being the first edition, there are likely to be a few errors and topics that havebeen missed. I shall be glad if the readers could bring these to my attention. Finally I would like to thank the various journals and organizations that gaveme permission to reproduce material from their publications.
V . Ganapathy

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition

V

ix
1
53

1. BASICSTEAM PLANTCALCULATIONS

2. FUELS,COMBUSTION, AND EFFICIENCY OF BOILERS AND HEATERS

3. FLUID FLOW, VALVE SIZING; AND PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS
4. HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE 5. FANS, PUMPS, AND STEAM TURBINES
Appendix Tables

105

177
353

391
xiii

xiv

Contents

Bibliography Glossary
Conversion Factors

409
413
417 423

Index

l
Basic Steam Plant Calculations

1.01:

Converting liquid flow in Ib/hr to gpm, and vice versa; relating density, specific gravity, and specific volume Relating head of liquid or gas column to pressure; converting feet of liquid to psi; relating inches of water column gas to of psi and feet of gas column Estimatingdensity of gases;relatingmolecularweightand density; effect of elevation on gas density; simplified formula for density of air and flue gases at sea level Relating actual and standard cubic lb/hr feet of gas per minute to

1.02:

1.03:

1.04:

1.05:

Computing density of gas mixture; relating to mass volumetric flow; computing velocity of gas in duct or pipe Relating and mass linear velocities
I

1.06:

2

Ganapathy

1.07:
1.os:
1 .09:

Calculating velocity of wet and superheated steam in pipes; computing specific volumeof wet steam; useof steam tables Relating boiler horsepower to steam output Calculating amount of moisture in air; relative humidity and saturation vapor pressure Water dew point of air and water vapor flue gases; partial pressure of

1.10: 1.11:

Energy absorbed bywetandsuperheatedsteaminboilers; enthalpy of wet and drysteam; use of steam tables; converting MM Btu/hr (million Btu/hr) to kilowatts Relating steamby volume, steamby weight, and steam quality; relating circulation ratio and quality

1.12:

1.13a: Determining steam quality using throttling calorimeter 1.13b: Relating steam quality to steam purity 1.14: 1.15: 1.16: 1.17: 1.18: Water required for desuperheating steam; energy balance attemperators, desuperheaters Water required for cooling gas streams Calculatingsteamvolumeafterthrottlingprocess;use steam tables Determining blowdown and steam for deaeration Calculating flash steam from boiler blowdown; economics of flash steam recovery of in

1.19a: Estimating leakageof steam through openings; effect wetof ness of steam on leakage

Basic steam Plant Calculations 1.19b: Estimating air flow through openings 1.20:

3

Estimating leakageof gas across dampers; calculating energy loss of leakage flow; sealing efficiency of dampers on area and flow basis

1.21: l .22: 1.23:
1.24:

loss; Economics of waste heat recovery; annual cost of energy simple payback period calculation
Life-cycle costing applied to equipment selection; interest and escalation factors; capitalized and life-cycle cost Life-cyclecostingapplied systems to evaluation of heatrecovery

Calculating thickness of boiler tubes toASME Code; allowable stresses for various materials Calculating maximum allowable working pressuresfor pipes Sizing tubes subject to external, pressure On sound levels: OSHA permissible exposure levels Adding decibels Relating sound pressure and power levels Effect of distance on noise level Computing noise levels from engine exhaust Holdup time in steam drum Convert 50,000 lb/hr of hot water at a pressure of 1000 psia and 390°F to gpm.

1.25:

1.26:
1.27: 1.28: 1.29 1.30: 1.31: 1.32:
10 .1

Q:

4

(;anapathy

A: To convert from Ib/hr to gpm, or vice versa, for any liquid, we
can use the following expressions:
W = 8
4 V

p = 62.4s =

1 V

where
W = flow, Ib/hr q = flow, gpm (gallons per minute) p = density of liquid, Ib/cu ft S = specific gravity of liquid v = specific volumeof liquid, cu ft/lb

For hot water we can obtain the specific volume from steam the tables (see the Appendix). v at 1000 psia and 390°F is 0.0185 cu ft/lb. Then, from Eq. ( l ) ,
q = 50,000 x

0.0185 8

=

115.6 gpm

For water at temperatures 40 to 100"F,for quick estimates we of divide Ib/hr by 500 to obtain gpm. For example, 50,000 Ib/hr of water at 70°F would be 100 gpm.

1.02a Q: Estimate the head in

feet developed by a pump when it is pumping oil with a specific gravity of 0.8 through a differential pressure of 150 psi. Conversion from feet of liquid to psi, or vice versa, is needed in pump calculations. The expression relating the 'variables is

A

H I
where

= 144 h V = 2.3 p

S

h p

(3)

AP

=

differential pressure, psi

H, = head, feet of liquid

Basic Steam Plant Calculations Substituting for AP and
S,

we have

H = 23 I .

X

150 0.8

=

431.2 ft

Q: If a fan develops 8 in. WC (inches of water column) with a flue
gas density of 0.05 Ibku ft, what is the head in feet of gas and in psi?

A: Use the expressions AP HR = 144 PR

H , = 27.7 h p where HR = head, feet of gas H, = head, in. WC p* = gas density, lbku ft
Combining Eqs. (4)and ( 3 , we have

HR = 1 4 4

X

8 27.7 X 0 0 .5

=

835 ft

8 h p = - = 0.29 psi 27.7

I .03 Q: Estimate the densityof air at 5000 ft elevationand 200°F.

A: Thedensity of any gas can beestimated from
pR = 492 X

MW

X

P 359 X (460

+ t) X
1.1)

1. 47

(6)

where P = gas pressure, psia MW = gas molecular weight (Table

6

Cianapathy

Table 1, l GasMolecularWeights
Gas Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen
Air

MW
2.016 32.0 28.016 29.2 16.04 30.07 44.09 58.12 17.03 44.01 28.01 44.02
30.01 46.01 64.06

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane Ammonia Carbon dioxide Carbonmonoxide Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur trioxide

Water

80.06 18.02

t = gas temperature, "F pR = gas density, Ib/cu ft

The pressure of decreases as the elevation increases, shown air as in Table 1.2, which gives the term (W14.7)X MW of air = 29. Substituting the various terms, we have
p* = 29 X 492 X
359 x 660
= 0.05

Ib/cu ft

A simplified expression for air at atmospheric pressure and at temperature t at sea level is
p* -

-

40 460 t

+

For a gas mixturesuchas flue gas, themolecularweight (MW) can be obtained as discussed in Q1.05. In the absence of

Basic Stcam Plant Calculations

7

Table
0

1.2 Density Correction for Altitude

Altitude (ft)
lo00
2000

Factor
1 .o

3000 4000
5000 6000

0.964 0.930 0.896 0.864 0.832
0.801

7000
8000

0.772 0.743

data on flue gas analysis, Eq. (7) also gives a good estimate of density. When sizing fans, it is the usual practice to refer to 70°F and sea levelasstandard conditions for air or flue gas density calculations.
1. M a

Q:

What is acfm(actual cubic feet perminute),and how does it differ from scfm (standard cubic feet per minute)?

A. acfm is computed using the density of the gas at given conditions of pressure and temperature, and scfmis computed using thegas density at 70°F and at sea level (standard conditions).

4 =
where

60 PR

W

9 = gas flow in acfm (at 70°F and sea level, scfm and acfm are equal; then q = W/4.5) pR = gas density in Ib/cu ft (at standard conditions p! I = 0.075 Ib/cu ft) W = gas flow in lblhr = 4.59 at standard conditions

8

Ganapathy

1.Wb

Q: Convert 10,000 Ib/hr of air to scfm.
A:

Using Eq. (6),it can be shown that at P = 14.7 and t = 70, for air pg = 0.75 lb/cu ft. Hence, from Q. (8),

1.04C

Q: Convert 3000 scfm to acfm at
flow in lb/hr? The fluid is air.

35 psiaand 275°F. What is the

A:

Calculate the density at the actual conditions.
pg = 29 X 492 X

35 359 x 735 x 14.7

=

0.129 l b h ft

From the above, W = 4.5 x 3000 = 13,500 Ib/hr Hence acfm =
1.05

139500 = 1744 cfm 60 X 0.129

Q: In a process plant, 35,000 lb/hr of flue gas having a composition
N2 = 75%, O2 = 2%, CO2 = 15%, and H20 = 8%, all by volume, flows through a duct cross section 3 ft2 at a temperaof ture of 350°F. Estimate the gas density and velocity. Since the gas pressure is only a few inches of water column, for quick estimates the gas pressure may be taken as atmospheric. A:
To compute the density of gas, we need the molecular weight. For a gas mixture, molecular weight is calculated as follows:

MW

=

Z(MW

X yi)

Basic Steam Plant Calculations where

Y

W. = molecular weight of gas i
Hence

yi = volume fraction of gas i

MW = 0.75
From Q. (6),

X 28 0.02 X 32 X 18 = 29.68
492

+

+ 0.15 X

4 4

+ 0.08

ps = 29.68 X

359 X 810

=

0.05 Ib/cu ft

The gas velocity

V, can be obtained as follows:

v, =
where
=

W
60 pgA

velocity, fpm

A = cross section, ft2

Hence

v,

=

35,000 60 x 0.05 x 3

= 3888 fpm

The normal range of air or flue gas velocities in ducts is 2000 to 4000 fpm. Equation (9) can also be used in estimating the duct size. In theabsence of flue gas analysis, we could have used (7) Eq. to estimate the gas density.
1.06

Q: A term that is frequently used by engineers to describe the gas

flow rate across heating surfaces is gas mass velocity. How do we convert this to linear velocity? Convert 5 0 Ib/ft2 hr of hot 00 air flow at 130°F and atmospheric pressure to fpm.

IO

Ganapathy

A

Use expression the

v , = 6op,
where G is the gas mass velocity calculate pg.
Pe

G

in lb/ft2 hr. Use Eq. (7) to

-

- 460

40

+ 130

=

0.0678 lbku ft

Hence

v,=
l .07a
Q:

50 00

60 X 0.0678

= 1230fpm

What is thevelocitywhen 25,000 lb/hr of superheatedsteam at 800 psia and 900°F flows through a pipe of inner diameter 2.9 in.? Use expression (1 1) to determine the velocityof any fluid inside tubes, pipes, or cylindrical ducts.
V = 0.05 X W X

A

d:

V

where

V = velocity, fps v = specific volume of the fluid, cu ft/lb di = inner diameter of pipe, in. Forsteam, v can be obtainedfromthesteamtables Appendix.
v = 0.9633 cu ft/lb

in the

Hence

V = 0.05 X 25,000 X

0.9633 2.9*

=

143fps

The normal ranges of fluid velocities are

Basic Steam Plant Calculations Water: 3 to 12 fps Steam: 100 to 200 fps

1.07b
Q: Estimate the velocity of 70% quality steam in a 3-in. schedule
80 pipe when the flow is lo00 psia. 45,000 lb/hr and steam pressure is

A: Weneed to estimatethespecificvolume ofwet steam.
v =
AVg

+ (1

-

X)Vf

where vg and vfare specific volumes saturated vapor and liquid of at the pressure in question, obtained from the steam tables, and x is the steam quality (see Q1.12 for a discussion of x). From the steam tables, at lo00 psia, vg = 0.4456 and vf = 0.0216 cu ft/lb. Hence the specific volume of wet steam is
v = 0.7 X 0.4456

+ 0.3

X 0.0216 = 0.318 cu ftnb

dj The pipe inner diameter from Table1.3 is 2.9 in. Hence, from

Eq. ( 1 1 1 9
V = 0.05 X 45,000 X
1.OS

0.318 - = 85 fps 2.9*

Q: What is meant by boiler horsepower? How is it related to steam
generation at different steam parameters?

A: Packaged fire tube boilers are traditionally rated and purchased
in terms of boiler horsepower (BHP). BHP refers to a steam capacity of 34.5 lb/hr of steam at atmospheric pressure with feedwater at212°F. However, a boiler plant operates at different pressures and with different feedwater temperatures. Hence conversion between BHP and steam generation becomes necessary.

W =

33,475 X BHP Ah

Table 1.3 Dimensions of Steel Pipe (IPS)
Nominal pipe size, IPS (in.)
%
!I4

Flow area

Surface per linear ft

Weight

Schedule

OD (in.)
0.405

No.
4oa

ID (in.)
0.269 0.215 0.364 0.302 0.493 0.423 0.622 0.546 0.824 0.742 1.049 0.957 1.380 1.278 1.610 1.500 2.067 1.939

Per Pipe

(ft2/ft)
Outside
0.106

() i n . '
0.058 0.036 0.104 0.072 0.192 0.141 0.304 0.235 0.534 0.432 0.864 0.718
1S O

Inside

per Iin ft (Ib steel)
0.25 0.32 0.43
0.54

80b

0.540
0.675
0.840

40"
80b 40"

0.141 0.177 0.220 0.275

Y 3
? h
3/4

sob
4oa

80b 1.05 1.32 1.66 1.90 2.38

40"
80b

1
1%

40"
80b

0.344
0.435 0.498 0.622

40"
80b 40" SOb
4oa

1% 2

SOb

1.28 2.04 1.76 3.35 2.95

0.070 0.056 0.095 0.079 0.129 0.111 0.163 0.143 0.216 0.194 0.274 0.250 0.362 0.335 0.422 0.393 0.542 0.508

0.57 0.74 0.85 1.09 1.13 1.48 1.68 2.17 2.28 3.00 2.72 3.64 3.66 5.03

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

1 3

1 4

Ganapathy

where

W = steam flow, Ib/hr Ah = enthalpyabsorbedbysteamlwater = (hg -hfw) BD X (hf - h,) where hg = enthalpy of saturated steam at operating steam pressure, Btu/lb h, = enthalpy of saturated liquid, Btu/lb hf, = enthalpy of feedwater, Btullb BD = blowdownfraction

+

For example, if a 500-BHP boiler generates saturated steam at 125 psig with a 5% blowdown and with feedwater at 230°F, the steam generation at 125 psig will be W = 500 x 33,475 = 16,714 lb/hr (1193 - 198) 0.05 X (325 - 198)

+

where 1193, 198, and 325 are the enthalpies of saturated steam, feed water, andsaturated liquid, respectively,obtainedfrom steam tables. (See Appendix.)

Q: Why do weneed toknow the amountofmoisturein

air?

A

In combustion calculations (Chapter 2) we estimate the quantity of dry air required to bum a given amount of fuel. In reality, the atmospheric air is never dry; it consists of some moisture, depending on the relative humidity and dry bulb temperature. To compute the partial pressure of water vaporthe flue gas, which in is required for calculating nonluminous heattransfer, we need to know the total quantity of water vapor in flue gases, a part of which comes from combustion air. Also, when atmospheric air is compressed, the saturated vapor pressure (SVP) of water increases, and if the air is cooled below the corresponding water dew point temperature, water can condense. The amount of moisture in air or gas fixes the water

team

Basic Calculations Plant

1 5

dew point, so it isimportant to knowthe amount of water vapor in air or flue gas.

1.Wb Q: Estimate the pounds of water vapor to pounds of dry air when the
dry bulb temperature is 80°F and the relative humidity is 65%.

A. Use the equation

M =
where

0.622 X

1 . - pw 47

Pw

M = lb water vapodlb dry air p w = partial pressure of water vapor in air, psia
This may be estimated as the v01 % of water vapor X total air pressure or as the product of relative humidity and the saturated vapor pressure (SVP). From the steam tables we note that at 80"F,SVP = 0.5069 psia (at 212"F,SVP = 14.7psia). Hence pw = 0.65 X 0.5069.
= 0.0142 14.7 - 0.65 X 0.5069 Hence, if we needed 1000Ib of dry air for combustion, we would .12 size the fanto deliver 1000 X 1 0 4 = 1014.2 lb of atmospheric air.

M = 0.622 X 0.65 X

0.5069

I. loa Q: What is the waterdewpoint Q1.05?
47 pressure is 1 . psia will be

of the flue gases discussedin

A The partial pressureof water vapor when the v01 % is 8 and total :
p w = 0.08 X 1 . = 1 1 psia 47 .9

From the steam tables, we note that the saturation temperature corresponding to 1 1 psia is 107°F.This is also the water dew .9

1 6

Ganapathy

point. If the gases are cooled below this temperature, water can condense, causing problems.

1.lOb Q: What is the water dew point of compressed air when ambient air
at 8OoF, 14.7 psia, and a relative humidity 65% is compressed of to 35 psia?

A. Use the following expression to get the partial pressure of water vapor after compression:
Pw2 = P w l

x -

p2 PI

where
p w = partialpressure,psia P = totalpressure,psia

The subscripts 1 and stand for initial andfinal conditions. From 2 Q1.09b, pwl = 0.65 X 0.5069.
pw2 = 0.65 X 0.5069 X

- = 0.784 psia 35
14.7

From the steam tables, we note that corresponding 0.784 psia, to the saturation temperature is 93°F. This is also the dew point after compression. Cooling the to below 93°F would result in air its condensation.

1.lla Q: Calculate the energy absorbed bysteaminaboilerif

400,000 lb/hr of superheated steam at 1600 psia and 900°F is generated with feedwater at 250°F. What is the energy absorbed, in megawatts?

A: Theenergyabsorbed is given by Q = W X (h2 - h , ) (neglecting blowdown) (15)

Basic Steam Plant Calculations where

1 7

W = steam flow, Ib/hr h*, hl = steam enthalpy and water Q = duty, Btu/hr

enthalpy, Btu/lb

From the steam tables, h, = 1425.3 Btu/lb and h, = 224 Btu/lb.

Q

= 400,000 X (1425.3 = 480.5 X lo6 Btu/hr
= 480.5

- 224)

million Btu/hr (MM Btu/hr) lo6 = 141 MW 3413 X lo3

Using the fact that 3413 Btu/hr = 1 kW, wehave
Q = 480.5 X

1.llb

Q: Estimate the energy absorbed bywet steam at 80% quality in a boiler at 1600 psia when the feedwater temperature is 250°F.

A: Theenthalpy of wetsteam can becomputed as follows:
h = Xh,

+ (1

- X)hf

(16)

where h is the enthalpy in Btu/lb. The subscriptsg andfstand for saturated vapor and liquid at the referenced pressure, obtained from saturated steam properties. x is the steam quality fraction. From the steam tables, h, = 1163 Btu/lb and hf = 624 Btu/lb at 1600 psia. The enthalpy of feedwater at 250°F is 226 Btu/lb.
h2 = 0.8 X 1163 0.2 X 624 = 1054 Btu/lb, h, = 226 Btu/lb Q = 1054 - 226 = 828 Btu/lb

+

If steam flow were

400,000 Ibhr, then
X lo6 = 331

Q = 400,000 X 828 = 331

MM Btu/hr

1 8

Ganapathy

1.12

Q: How is the wetnessinsteam
A.

specified? How do weconvert steam by volume (SBV) to steam by weight?

A steam-watermixture is described by the term quality, x, or
dryness fraction. x = 80% means that in l lb of wet steam, 0.8 lb is steam and 0.2 lb is water. To relate these twoterms, we use the expression 100 SBV = 1 [(loo - x)/x] x & v

+

where v/, vg = specific volumes of saturated liquid and vapor, cu ft/lb x = quality or dryness fraction From the steam tables at 1000 psia, vf = 0.0216 and vg = 0.4456 cu ft/lb. 100 = 98.8% SBV = 1 [(l00 - 80)/80] X 0.0216/0.4456

+

Circulation ratio (CR)is another term used by boiler engineers to describe the steam quality generated.

A CR of 4 means that the steam quality is0.25 or 25%; in other
words, 1 lb of steamwouldhave remainder water.
0.75 lb of steamand

the

1.13~1 Q: How is the quality of steam determined using a throttling rimeter?

cab-

A

Throttling calorimeter (Fig. 1.1) is widelyusedinlow-pressure steam boilers for determining the moisture or wetness (quality)

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

1 9

Plastic lnsuiat

Figure 1. I Throttling calorimeter.
of steam. A sampling nozzle is located preferably in the vertical section of the saturated steam line far from bends or fittings. Steam enters the calorimeter through a throttling orifice and into a well-insulated expansion chamber. Knowing that throttling is an isoenthalpic process, we can rewrite Eq. (16) for enthalpy balance as h, = h, = Xh, where h,, h,, hf, hg = enthalpies of steam, mixture, saturated liquid, and saturated steam, respectively x = steam quality fraction The steam temperature after throttling is measured at atmospheric pressure, and thenthe enthalpy is obtained with the help of steam tables. The steam is usually in superheated condition after throttling.

+ (1

- x)hf

20

Ganapathy

EXAMPLE A throttling calorimeter measures a steam temperature 250°F of when connected to a boiler operating at 100 psia. Determine the steam quality. Solution. h, atatmosphericpressureandat250°F = 1168.8 Btu/lb from steam tables; h, = 1187.2 and hf = 298.5 Btu/lb, also from steam tables. Hence 1168.8 = 1187.2~ or
x = 0.979 or 97.9% quality

+ (l - ~)298.5

1.13b
Q:
How is steamqualityrelated to steampurity?

A: Steampurityrefers

to theimpuritiesinwetsteaminppm.A typical value in low-pressure boilers would be 1 ppm of solids. However, quality refers to the moisture in steam. The boiler drum maintains a certain concentration of solids depending on ABMA or ASME recommendations as discussed in Q 1.17. If at 500 psig pressure the boiler water concentration is 2500 ppm, and if steam should have 0.5 ppm solids, then the quality can be estimated as follows:
% Moistureinsteam
=

OS - x 100
2500

= 0.02%

or Steamquality = 100 - 0.02 = 99.98%
1.14

Q: How do we estimate the required water

for. desuperheating steam? Superheated steam at 700 psia and 800°F must cooled be to 700°F using a spray water at 300°F. Estimate quantity of of the water needed to do this.

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

21

A

Fromanenergybalanceacross
W,hl

the desuperheater,weget
(19a)

+ Whf = Wzh2

where
W,, W, = steam flows before and after desuperheating

W = water required h ] , h2 = steam enthalpies before and after the process hf = enthalpy of water
Also, from mass balance,

W, = W,

+W

Hence we can show that

h1 - h, Neglecting the pressure drop across the desuperheater, we have from the steam tables: h, = 1403, h2 = 1346, and hf = 271, all in Btu/lb. Hence W/W2 = 0.05. That is, 5% of the final steam flow is required for injection purposes.
1.15

w=w2x

hl

-

h2

Q: How is the water requirement for cooling a gas stream estimated? Estimate the water quantity required cool 100,000 lb/hr of flue to gas from 900°F to 400°F. What is the final volume of the gas?

A Fromanenergybalanceitcanbeshown : q = 5.39 x 1 0 - ~ x (rl - r2)
X

[l] that

1090

+

W 0.45 X

(t2

- 150)

where
tl,
q = water required, gpm = initial and final gas temperatures, O F W = gas flow entering the cooler, Ib/hr

r2

22

Ganapathy

Substitution yields
= 5.39 X 10-4 X (900 - 400)
X

1090 = 23 gpm The final gas volume is given by the expression (460

+

100,OOO 0.45 X (400 - 150)

+ tz) x (&

+ 0.341)

The final volume is 43,000 acfm.
1.16

Q:

In selecting silencers vents or safety valves, we need to figure for the volume of steam after the throttling process. Estimate the volume of steam when60,000lb/hr of superheated steam at650 psia and 800°F is blown to the atmosphere in a safety valve. whichmaybe considered an isoenthalpic process; that is, the steam enthalpy remains the same at 650 and 15 psia. From the steam tables, at 650 psia and 800"F,h = 1402 Btu/ lb. At 15 psia (atmospheric conditions), the temperature corresponding to an enthalpy of 1402 Btu/lb is745°F.Again from the steam tables, at pressure of 15 psia anda temperature of 745"F, a the specific volume of steam is 48 cu ft/lb. The total volume of steamis 60,000 X 48 = 2,880,000cu ft/hr.

A: We have to find the final temperature of steam after throttling,

1.17

Q: How do we determinethesteamrequired
boiler blowdown water requirements?

for deaeration and

A:

Steamplantengineershave to frequentlyperformenergyand massbalancecalculationsaroundthedeaeratorandboilerto obtainthevalues of makeupwater,blowdown,ordeaeration steamflows.Boilerblowdownquantitydependsonthe TDS

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

23

(total dissolved solids) boiler water and the incoming makeup of water. Figure 1.2 shows the scheme around a simple deaerator. Note that there could several condensate returns. This analysis be does not consider venting of steam from the deaerator or the heating of makeup using the blowdown water. These refinements can be done later to fine tune the results. ABMA(AmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation)and ASME provideguidelinesontheTDS of boilerwateras a function of pressure (see Tables 1.4 and 1.5). The drum solids concentration can be at or less than the value shown in these tables. Plant water chemists usually set these valuesreviewafter ing the complete plant chemistry.

EXAMPLE A boiler generates 50,000 Ibhr of saturated steam at 300 psia, out of which 10,OOO lb/hr is takenfor process and returns to the 180°F.The rest is consumed. Makeup deaerator as condensate at water enters the deaerator at 70"F,and steam is available at 300 psia for deaeration. The deaerator operates at a pressure of 25 psia. The blowdown has a total dissolved solids (TDS)of 1500 ppm, and the makeup has 100 ppm TDS.

TO PROCESS

. .

.
,

10.000 0

1 '

5m o
BOILER
F

M

MAKE U>

'-DA

~

FUMP

v 0 B O DOWJ T LW
B

Figure 1.2 Scheme of deaerationsystem.

Table 1.4

Suggested Water Quality Limitsa

Boiler type: industrial water tube, high duty, p i a y fuel fired,d u type rmr rm Makeup water percentage: up to 100% of feedwater Conditions: includes superheater, turbine drives, or process restriction on steam purity
~ ~

~

~

_

_

_

~

_

_
~

_

~~

_

~

_

~

~

Drum operating Pressureb, MPa (psig)
Feedwatef

0-2.07 (0-300)

2.08-3.10 (301-450)

3.11414
,

(451-600)

4.15-5.17 (601-750) <0.007

5.184.21 (751-900) <0.007

6.22-6.89
(901-1oOO)

6.9&10.34 (1001-1500) <O.W7

10.3913.79 (1501-2000) <00.007

Dissolved oxygen (mgL 02) measured before oxygen
scavenger additiond Total iron (mgL Fe) Total copper (mg/L Cu) Total hardness (mgL CaCO,) pH range @ 25°C Chemicals for preboiler system protection Nonvolatile TOC (mg/L C)" Oily matter (rng/L) Boiler water Silica ( m e SiOd Total alkalinity (mg& CaCO,) Free hydroxide alkalinity (m& CaC03)h Specific c6nductance (Wmhdcm) 25°C without neutralization

<O.W

<O.M

<0.007

C0.007

50.100 50.050 50.300 7.5-10.0

50.050 50.025 10.300 7.5-10.0
<1

50.030 S0.020
~0.200

7.5-10.0
C0.5 c0.5

50.025 50.020 50.200 7.5-10.0 <0.5
C0.5

50.020
50.015

50.020 10.015
10.050

~0.100 7.5-10.0
<0.5 <0.5

10.010 SO.010 n.d.

50.010 10.010 n.d.

8.5-9.5
-As -As

9.0-9.6

9.0-9.6

Use only volatile alkaline materials

<I <I
5150 <350f
n.s.

<I
590 <3Wf n.s.

low as possible, (0.2low as possible, <0.2-

s o
<250' n.s.

530 <200' n.s.

120 <150' n.d.g

S8

<loo'
n.d.8

12 n.s.8 n.d.8

S l

n.s8
n.d.g

6

Y

Basic Steam Plant Calculations
25

Table 1.5 Water Tube Boilers-Recommended
Load Operation-hm-Type Boilers Range total dissolved solids," boiler water (ppm) ( m a )
700-3500 600-3000 500-2500 200-1000 150-750 125425 100 50 25 15
0.05

Boiler Water Limits and Associated Steam Purity at Steady-State Full

Drum
pressure (psig)

Range total alkalinity,b boiler water (PPm)
140-700 120-600 100-500 40-200 30-150 25-1 25

Suspended solids,
boiler water (ppm)(mW
15 10 8 3 2 1 1

Range total dissolved solids,bsc steam (ppm) (max expected value)
0.2-1 .o 0.2-1.0 0.2-1.0 0.1-0.5 0.1-0.5 0.1-0.5 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05

0-300
301-450 45 1-600 601-750 75 1-900 901-1Ooo 1001-1800 1801-2350 235 1-2600 2601-2900
1400 and above

-

d

n.a. n.a. n.a. once through boilers n.a.

n.a.

0.05

n.a. =not available. 'Actual values within the range reflectthe TDS i the feedwater. Higher values are for high sotids, lower values are for low s l d in the feedwater. n ois 'Actual values within the range are d i d y proportional to the actual value of TDS of boiler water. Higher values are for the high solids, lower values are for low solids in the boiler water. These values are exclusive of silica. dDictated by boiler water treatment. Source: American Boiler Manufacturers Association, 1982.

am

Basic

Plant Calculations

27

Solution,

This problem demonstrates evaluation the of two important variables: deaeration steam and blowdown water requirements. From mass balance around the deaerator, 10,OOO

+D +M +

= F = 50,000

+B
38

(21)

From energy balance around the 10,OOO x 148 1202.8 x D = 209 X F = 209 X (50,000 100 X M = 1500 X B

deaerator,

+M x + B)

(22) (23)

From balance of solids concentration, In Q. (22), 1202.8 is the enthalpy of steam used for deaeration, 209 the enthalpy of boiler feedwater, 148 the enthalpy of Btu/lb. The condensate return, and 38 that ofmakeup,allin equation assumes that the amountof solids in returning condensate and steam is negligible, which is true. Steam usually has a TDS of 1 ppm or less, and so does the condensate. Hence, for practical purposes we can neglect it. The net solids enter the system in the form of makeup water and leave as blowdown. There are three unknowns, D , M ,and B, and three equations. From Q. (21), D M = 40,000 + B (24)

+

substituting (23) into (24), D D

+ 15B = 40,000 + B2 + 14B = 40,000 +
1202.80

or

From (22), 1,480,000 209B

+

+ 38

X 15B = 209 X 50,000

Solving this equation, we have B = 2375 lb/hr, D = 6750 lb/hr, M = 35,625 Ib/hr, and F = 52,375 Ib/hr. Considering venting of steam from the deaerator to expel dissolved gases and the heat 1 to 3% higher steam quantity. losses, we may consume

28

Ganapathy

1.18

Q:

Howcan the boilerblowdownbeutilized?A600-psiaboiler of operates for 6000 hr annuallyanddischarges4000Ib/hr blowdown. If this is flashed to steam at 100 psia, how much steam is generated? If the cost of the blowdown systemis $8000, how longdoes it take to pay back? Assume that cost of steam the is $2 per 1000 lb.

A To estimate the flash steam produced we may use the expression :

h

= xh,

+ (1 - x)hf

(26)

where h = enthalpy of blowdown water at high pressure, Btu/lb hB, h . = enthalpies of saturated steam and water at the flash pressure, Btu/lb x = fraction of steam that is generated at the lower pressure From the steam tables, at 600 psia, h = 471.6, and at 100 psia, h, = 1187 and hf = 298, all in Btu/lb. Using Eq. (26), we have 471.6 = 1 1 8 7 ~ (1 or x = 0.195 About 20% of the initial blowdown is converted to flashsteam, the quantity being 0.2 X 4000 = 800 lb/hr. This 800 lblhr of 100-psia steam can be used for process. The resulting savings . annually will be
800X2X

+

- ~)298

6000 - = $9600 1000

Simplepaybackwillbe 8000/9600 = 0.8 year or about10 months. Tables are available that give the flash steam produced if the initial and flash pressures known. Table 1.6 is one such table. are

Table 1.6 Steam Flash and Heat Content at Differential Temperatures
Initial pressure (psig) Temp. of liquid
(OF)

Percent of flash at reduced pressures
Atma pressure
5 Ib

10 lb
10.3 11.8 13.2 14.4
15.5

15 Ib 9.3 10.9 12.3 13.4 14.6 15.5 16.5 18 19.5 21 22 23.2 24.3 25
1164

20 lb 8.4 10 11.4 12.5 13.7 14.7 15.6 17.2 18.7 20 21.3 22.4 23.5 24.3 1167 259 11.9

25 lb 7.6 9.2 10.6 11.6 12.9 13.9 14.9 16.5 18 19.3 20 21-7 22.8 23.6 1169 267 10.5

30 lb 6.9 8.5 9.9 11.1 12.2 13.2 14.2 15.8 17.3 18.7 19.9 21.1 22.2 23

35 lb 6.3 7.9 9.3 10.4 11.6 12.6 13.6 15.2 16.7 18.1 19.3 20.5 21.6 22.4 1174 280 8.5

40 lb
5.5 7.2 8.5 9.7 10.9 11.9 12.9 14.5 16 17.5 18.7 19.9 20.9 21.8 1176 287 7.8

100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350
400

450 500 550 600

338 353 366 377 388 397 406 42 1 435 448 459 470 480 488

13 14.5 16 17 18 19 20 21.5 23 24 25 26.5 27.5 28

11.5 13.3 14.6 15.8 16.9 17.8 18.8 20.3 21.8 23 24.3 25.4 26.5 27.3 1155 225 21

.

16.5 17.4 19 20.5 21.8 23 24.1 25.2 26 1160 240 16.3

Btu in flash per Ib Temp. of liquid (T) Steam volume (cu ftllb)
Source: Madden Corp. catalog.

1150 212 26.8

250 13.7

1172 274 9.4

30

Ganapathy

Q: Estimate the leakage of steam through a hole 1/8 in. in diameter
in a pressure vessel at 100 psia, the steam being in a saturated condition.

A Thehourly loss of steam in lb/hr is givenby [2] : AP W = 50
1

+ 0.00065(t - tMt)

where
W = steam leakage, lb/hr

A = hole area, in.*

P = steampressure,psia
t , tsat= steam temperature and saturated steam temperature, "F

If the steam is saturated, t = tsat. the steam is wet with a steam If quality of x fraction, then the leakage flowis obtained fromEq. , (27) dividedby fi. Since the steam is saturated (x = l),

W

= 50 x 3.14 x

(t)' 7
X

1

X 100 = 61

lblhr

If the steam were superheated and at

900"F, then

W =

1

+ 0.00065 X

61

(900 -

544)

= 50

lbhr

544°F is the saturation temperature at 1000 psia. If the steam
were wet with a quality of
80%, then

W

=

-

61

ps

= 68 lb/hr

1.19b Q: How is thedischargeflow of airfromhighpressuretoatmospheric pressure determined?

A

Critical flow conditions for air are foundinseveralindustrial applicationssuch as flowthroughsootblowernozzles,spray

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

31

guns, and safety valves and leakage through holes in pressure vessels. The expression that relates the variables is [83

W

= 356 X AP X

(”)” >””

(28)

where

W = flow, Ib/hr A = area of opening, in? MW = molecular weight of air, 28.9 T = absolute temperature, “R P = relief or discharge pressure, psia What is the leakage air flow from a pressure vessel at40 psia if the hole is 0.25 in. in diameter? Air is at 60°F.
A = 3.14 X 0.25 X

-= 4

0.25

0.049 in?

Hence,

W
1.20a

= 356 X 0.049 X 40 X

(- = 164 lb/hr 2 >”” ;

Q: Deriveanexpression for theleakage of gasacross a damper, stating the assumptions made.

A: Most of the dampers used for isolation of gas or air in ducts are
not 100% leakproof. They have a certain percentage of leakage area, which causesa flow of gas across the Considering the area. conditions to be similar to those of flow across an orifice, we have

where

V, = gas velocity through the leakage area, fps H, = differential pressure across the damper, in. WC ,,

32

Ganapathy
p, p, = density of gas and water, lb/cu ft g ,, g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec2 c d = coefficient of discharge, 0.61

The gas flow W in Ibhr can be obtained from

(%). Most where E is the sealing efficiency on an area basis dampers have an E value of 95 to 99%. This figure is provided by the damper manufacturer. A is the duct cross section, ft2. d Substituting c = 0.61 and pg = 40/(460 f) into (29) and (30) and simplifying, we have

+

46?+ f where f is the gas or air temperature, "F.
E)

W = 2484A(100

-

J

1.20b Q: A boiler flue gas duct with a diameterof 5 ft has a damper whose
sealingefficiency is 99.5%. It operatesunderadifferential pressure of 7 in. WC when closed. Gas temperature is 540°F. Estimate the leakage across the damper. If energy costs $3/MM Btu, what is the hourly heat loss and the cost of leakage?

A:

SubstituteA = 3.14 X 5*/4, H,,, = 7, t = 540, and E = 99.5 into 4. (31). Then
W = 2484 X 3.14 X
= 2040 lb/hr

52 4

x (loo - 99.5) x -

P

7

The hourly heat loss can be obtained from

Q

WCJt - t,) = 2040 X 0.26 X (540 = 240,000 Btu/hr = 0.24 M M Btu/hr
=

-

80)

where Cpis the gas specific heat, Btu/lb "F. Values of 0.25 to 0.28 can be used for quick estimates, depending on temperagas

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

33

ture. f a is the ambient temperature in "F. 80°F was assumed in

this case. The cost of thisleakage = 0.24 X 3 = $0.72/hr.

1.2oc

Q:
A:

How is thesealingefficiency of a damperdefined? The sealing efficiency of a damper is defined on the basis of the area of cross section of the damper and also as a percentage of flow. The latter method of definition is a function of the actual gas flow condition. In Q 1.20b, the damperhad an efficiency of 99.5%on an area 230,000 Ib/hr. Then, basis. Assume that the actual gas flow was on a flow basis, the efficiency would be

-

2040 230,000

= 99.12%

If the flow were 115,000 lb/hr and the differential pressure were on still maintained, the efficiency an area basis would be 99.596, while that on a flow basis would be
100 2040 115,000
= 98.24%

Plantengineersshould be aware of thesetwomethods stating the efficiency of dampers.

of

1.21 Q: 50,000 lb/hr of flue gas from a boiler exists at 800°F. If a waste heat recovery system is added to reduce it to 350°F, how much energy is saved? If energycosts $3/MM Btuandtheplant operates for 6000 hr/year, what is the annual savings?If the cost $1 15,000, what is the simple of the heat recovery system is payback?

A: The energy savings

Q = WCp(?,- t2)

. temperatures before and

t , and t2 are gas after installation of the heat recovery

34

Ganapathy

system, "F. C,, is the gas specific heat, Btu/lb "F. Use a value of 0.265 when the gas temperature is in the range 400 to 600°F.

Q

50,000 X 0.265 X (800 - 350) = 5.85 X lo6 = 5.85 M M Btu/hr Annual savings = 5.85 X 6000 X 3 = $105,000
=

Hence Simplepayback =

1 15,000 = 1 . 1 years, or 13 months 105,000

1.22 Q:

What is life-cycle costing? Two bids are received for a fan as shown below. Which bid is better?
Bid 1
10,Ooo Flow (acfm) Head (in. WC) Efficiency (%) 21,000 Total cost, fanandmotor ($) 10,Ooo 8
60

Bid 2
8 75

17,000

A: Life-cycle costing is a methodology that computes the total cost
of owning and operating the equipment over its life. Several financing methods and tax factors would make this a complicated evaluation. However, let us use a simple approach to illustrate the concept. To begin with, the following data should be obtained. Cost of electricity, C, = $0.25/kWh Annual period of operation, N = 8000 hr Life of equipment, T = 15 years Interest rate, i = 0.13 (13%) Escalation rate, e = 0.08 (8%) If the annual cost of operation is C,, the life-cycle cost (LCC) is
LCC = C,

+ C,F

(32)

team

Basic Calculations Plant

35

where C, is the cost of equipment. F is a factor that capitalizes the operating cost over the of the equipment. It can shown life be [4,5] that l + e X l + i

F =

The annual cost of operation is given by
C, = PC,N

(34)
SHW -

where P is the electric power consumed, kW.

P

=

1.17 X 10-4 X

where

T f

(35)

H,

= head, in. WC q = efficiency, fraction f q = flow, acfm

Let us use the subscripts

1 and 2 for bids 1 and 2. 8 - = 15.6 kW 0.60 8 -= 0.75 12.48 kW

p1 = 1.17 X 10-4 X 10,000 X
p 2 = 1.17 X 1 0 - ~ X 10,000 X

From Eq. (33), substituting e = 0.08, i = 0.13, and T = 15, we get F = 10.64. Calculate C, from Eq. (34):
C,, = 15.6 X 8000 X 0.025 = $3120 C,, = 12.48 X 8000 X 0.025 = $2500

Using Q. (32), calculate the life-cycle cost. LCC, = 17,000 LCC2 = 21,000

+ 3120 X + 2500 X

10.64 = $50,196 10.64 = $47,600

We note that bid 2 has a lower LCC and thus may be chosen. However, we have to analyze other factors such as period of operation, futurecost of energy, and so on, before deciding.If N were lower, it is likely that bid 1 would be better.

36

Ganapathy

Hence, choosing equipment should not be based only on the initial investment but on an evaluation of the life-cycle cost, especially as the cost of energy is continually increasing.
1.23

Q:

A process kiln exits 50,000 Ib/hr of flue gas at 800°F. Two bids were received for heat recovery systems, as follows:
Bid 1 Bid 2

Gastemperature leaving system, "F 450.000 Investment, $

450 215,000

300

If the plant operates 6000 hr/yr, and interest, escalation for rates, and life of plant are as in 41.22, evaluate the two bids if energy costs $4/MM Btu.

A. Letus calculate the capitalized savings and compare them with the investments. For bid 1:
Energyrecovered = 50,000 X 0.25 X (800 - 450) = 4.375 MM Btu/hr This energy is worth 4.375 X 4 = $17.5/hr Annual savings = 6000 X 17.5 = $105,000 The capitalizationfactor from Q1.22is 10.64. Hence capitalized savings (savings through the life of the plant). = 105,000 X 10.64 = $1.12 X lo6.A similar calculationfor bid 2 shows that thecapitalizedsavingswillbe $1.6 X lo6. Thedifferencein capitalized savings of $0.48 X lo6, or $480,000, exceeds the difference in the investment of $235,000. Hence bid 2 is more attractive.

team

Basic Calculations Plant

37

If, however, energy costs $3/MM Btu and the plant works for 2500 hrlyear, capitalized savings on bid l will by $465,000 and that of bid 2 = $665,000. The difference of $200,000 is less than the difference in investmentof $235,000. Henceunder these conditions, bid 1 is better. Hence cost of energy and period of operation are important factors in amving at the best choice.

l .24 Q: Determine the thickness of the tubes required for a boiler super-

heater. The material is SA 213 T 11; the metal temperature is 900°F (see Q4.16a for a discussionof metal temperature calculation), and the tube outer diameter is 1.75 in. The design pressure is 1000 psig.
Code, Sec. 1, 1980, p. 27, the following equation can be used to obtain the thickness or the allowable pressurefor tubes. (A tube is specified by the outer diameter and minimum wall thickness, while a pipe is specified by the nominal diameter and average wall thickness.) Typical pipe and tube materials used in boiler applications are shown in Tables 1.3 and 1.7.
t, =

A: Per ASME Boiler and PressureVessel

pd 2s, + P
d

+ 0.005d + e
2, t

P=S,X

- 0.01d - 2e - (t, - 0.005d -

e)

where in. P = design pressure, psig d = tube outer diameter, in. e = factor that accounts for compensation in screwed tubes, generally zero S, = allowable stress, psi
t, = minimumwallthickness,

Table 1.7 Allowable
Material specifications

Stress

Values, Ferrous Tubing, 10oO psi

Temperatures not exceeding (“F):
20 to 650 10.0 12.8 11.8 15 17.5 15.0 15.0 700 750 9.0 11.0 10.6 13.0 14.8 15.0 15.0 13.1 15.5 16.1 15.7 14.7 800 7.8 9.2 9.2 10.8 12.0 15.0 15.0 12.5 15.2 15.9 15.5 14.7 850 6.7 7.4 7.9 8.7 7.8 14.4 14.4 12.5 14.9 15.7 15.4 14.7

900
5.5 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.0 13.1 13.1 12.0 14.7 15.5 15.3 14.7

950 3.8

loo0
2.1 2.1 2.5 2.5 1.5 7.8 7.8 8.5 13.8 15.3 14.0 14.4

1200

1400

SA 178 gr A
SA 192 gr C SA 210 g~ A-1 SA 53 B
SA 213 T 11, P 11 T 22, P 22 T9 SA 213 TP 304 H TP 316 H

grc

-

-

TP321 H TP 347 H

9.7 12.2 11.5 14.4 16.6 15.0 15.0 13.4 15.9 16.3 15.8 14.7

3.8
4.5 4.5 3.0 11.0 11.0 10.8 14.4 15.4 15.2 14.6

1.2 1.6

-

-

2.3 2.3 1.9 2.5

-

-

-

6.1 7.4 5.9 7.9

Source: ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. 1, Power boilers, 1980.

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

39

From Table 1.7, S, is 13,100. Substituting into Eq. (36) yields
tw =

x 2 X 13,100

OO '0

+

1000

+ 0.005 X

1.75 = 0.073 in.

The tube with the next higher thickness would be chosen. A corrosion allowance, if required, may be added to t,.
1.25

Q:

Determine the maximum pressure that an SA 53 B carbon steel a metal pipe of size 3 in. schedule 80 can be subjected to at temperature of 550°F. Use a corrosion allowance of 0.02 in. mining allowable pressures headers is
t, =

A: By the ASME Code, Sec. 1, 1980, p. 27, the formula for deteror thickness of pipes, drums, and

Pd BaE

+ 0.8P

+ C

where E = ligament efficiency, 1 for seamless pipes c = corrosionallowance
From Table 1.3, a 3-in. schedule 80 pipe has an outer diameter of 3.5 in. and a nominal wall thicknessof 0.3 in. Considering the manufacturing toleranceof 12.5%, the minimum thickness availableis0.875 X 0.3 = 0.2625 in. Substituting S, = 15,000 psi (Table 1.7) and c = 0.02 into Q. (38), wehave

0.2625 =

3.5P 2 X 15,000

+ 0.8P + 0.02

Solving for P , we have P = 2200 psig. For alloy steels, the factor 0.8 in the denominator would be different. The ASME Code may be referred to for details [6]. Table 1.8 gives the maximumallowablepressures for carbon steel pipes up to a temperature of 650°F [7].

40 .

Ganapathy

Table 1.8 Maximum Allowable Pressure"
Nominal pipe size (in.)
1 I4 12 1 1 1 12 1 2 1 2 12

Schedule 40
4830 3750 2857 2112 1782 1948 1693 1435 1258 1145 1006

Schedule 80
6833 5235 3947 3000 2575 2702 2394 2074 1857 1796 1587

Schedule 160
6928 5769 4329 4225 3749 3601 3370 3191 3076 2970

-

3 4 5 6
8

'Based on allowable stress of 15,000 psi; corrosion allowance is zero. Source: Chemical Engineering, July 25, 1983.

1.26

Q:

How is the maximum allowable external pressurefor boiler tubes determined? nal pressures of tubes
1.

A: According to ASME Code Sec. 1, 1989, para PFT 51, the exteror pipes can be determined as follows. For cylinders having dolt > 10 [9],

where

A, B

p,

= =

maximum allowable external pressure, psi factors obtainedfromASME Code, Sec. 1, depending on values of dolt and Wd,, where .L,do, and t refer to tube length, external diameter, and thickness.

team

Basic

Plant Calculations

41

2. When dolt <10,A and B are determined from tablesor charts as in 41.25. For dolt <4,A = 1.l/(do1t)*.Two values of allowable pressures are then computed, namely, P,, and p02.

where

stress valuesatdesignmetaltemperaturefromthe

is the lesser of 2times the maximumallowable code stress tables or 1.8 times the yield strength of the material at design metal temperature. Then the smaller of the P,, or pOz is used for P,.

EXAMPLE Determine the maximum allowable external pressure at 600°F for ft 120-in. SA 192 tubes of outer diameter 2 in. and length 15 used in fire tube boilers. Solution.
"

do

L
t

-

"

do

-

15 X 12 = 90 2.0 2 - = 16.7 0.120

and

FromFigure 1.3, factor A = 0.004. From Figure 1.4, B = 9500. Since dolt > 10,
P ' ,

4B 3(d01t)

= 4 x

9500
3116.7

= 758psi

1.27

Q: What is a decibel? How is itexpressed?

A: The decibel (dB) is the unit of measure used in noise evaluation.
It is a ratio (not an absolute value) of a sound level to a reference level and is stated as a sound pressure level (SPL) or a sound

42

Ganapathy

Figure

1.3 Factor A for use in external pressure calculation [9].

power level (PWL). The reference levelfor SPL is 0.0002 pbar. A human ear can detect from about 20 dB to sound pressures 100,000 times higher, 120 dB. Audible frequencies are divided into octave bands for analysis. The center frequencies in hertz (Hz) of the octave bands are 3l S , 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000,4000, and 8000 Hz. The human ear is sensitive to frequencies between 500 and 3000 Hz 1000 Hz, and less sensitive to very high and low frequencies. At for example, 90 dB is louder than it is at 500 Hz. The sound meter usedin noise evaluation has threescales, A, B, and C, which selectively discriminate against low and high frequencies. The A scale (dBA) is themostheavilyweighted

i:
U.

E

4

0 ." e
Y

C

0

a
U

0

m

44

Ganapathy

scale and approximates human ear's responseto noise (500 to the 6000 Hz). It is used in industry and in regulations regardingthe evaluation of noise. Table 1.9 gives typical dBA levels of various noise sources, and Table 1.10 gives the permissible OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) noise exposure values.

Table 1.9 TypicalA-WeightedSoundLevels
Perceptionhearing dBA
140 130 120 110 100
70 60 50 40 20 10 0
90 80

Source
~~~

30

Jet engine at 25 ft High-pressure safety vent at 25 ft Large FD fan plenum area 8000-hp engine exhaust at 25 ft Compressor building Boiler room Pneumatic drill Commercial area Normal 'conversation Average home Nighttime residential area Broadcast studio Whisper

Unbearable Threshold of pain Uncomfortably loud Very loud
Loud

Comfortable Barelyaudible Threshold of hearing

Table 1.10 PermissibleNoiseExposures(OSHA)
(hr) Duration per day
8 6 4 3 2 1 12 1 1 1/2 114 or less

(dBA) level Sound
90 92 97 100

95

102 105 110
115

Basic Steam Plant Calculations
1.28

45

Q: How are decibels added? A noise source has the following dB
values at center frequencies:

Hz
dB 97

31.5
97

63

125 95

250 91

500
84 80

1000 82

2000

4000
85

8000 85

What. is the overall noise level?

A: Decibels are added logarithmically and not algebraically. 97 dB
plus 97 dB is not 194 dBbut 100 dB. P = 10 log(lOp’~lo loPz/’O 1Op’”O = 10 lOg(109.7 109.7 109.5 109.1
.

+

108.2

+

+ +

108

+

+

+

108.5

+

+

+

-a)

+

108.4

108.5)

= 102 dB

1.29

Q:

What are SPLandPWL? andenvironmentand is easily measuredwith.asound-level meter. SPL values should be referred to distance. PWL is sound power level andis a measureof the total acoustic power radiated by a given source. It is defined as PWL = 10 log

A: SPL is sound pressure level, which is dependent on the distance

- dB IOt2

PWL is a constant for a given source and is independent of the environment. It cannot be measured directly but must be calculated. PWL can be roughly described as being equal to the watt rating of a bulb. Manufacturers of fans and gas turbines publish the values of PWL of their machines. While selecting silencers for these equipment, PWL may be converted to SPL depending on distance, and the attenuation desired at various frequencies

46

Ganapathy

may be obtained. A silencer that gives can then be chosen.
1.30

the desired attenuation

Q: A sound level of 120 dB is measured at a distance of 3 ft from a
source. Find the value at 100 ft. SPL = PWL - 20 log L where L = distance, ft PWL is a constant for a given source. Hence SPL 20 log L = a constant 120 + 20 log 3 = SPL, + 20 log 10 0

A

The following formula relates the PWL and SPL with distance:

+ 2.5 dB

(41)

+

Hence SPL, = 89.5 dB Thus wesee that SPL has decreasedby 30 dB with a change from 3 ft to 100 ft. While selecting silencers, one should be aware of the desired SPL at the desired distance. Neglecting the effect of distance can lead to specifying a large and costly silencer.
1.31

Q:

How is the noiselevelfromexhaust

of enginescomputed?

A: A gas turbine exhaust has the noise spectrum given in Table l . 1 l
at various octave bands. The exhaust gases flow through a heat recovery boiler into a stack that is 100 ft high. Determine the noise level 150 ft from the top of the stack (of diameter 60 in.) and in front of the boiler. Assumethattheboilerattenuation is 20 dBatall octave bands. In order to arrive at the noise levels at the boiler front, three correctionsare required: (1) boiler attenuation, (2) effect of directivity, and (3) divergence at 150 ft. The effectof directivity

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

47

Table

1.11

Table of NoiseLevels
~ ~

1. Frequency

(Hz)

2. PWL (XlO"*W dB) (gas turbine) 3. Boiler attenuation (dB) 4. Directivity(dB) 5 . Divergence (dB) 6. Resultant 7 . A scale (dB) 8. Net

63 130 -20 0 -41 69 -25 44

125 134

250 136 -20 -2 -41 73 -9
64

500 136 -20
-5

1K 132 -20 -8 -41 63 0 63

2K 130 -20 -10 -41 59 1 60

4K 131 -20 -13 -41
57 1

8K 133 -16 -41 56 -1 55
-20,

69

56

- 56

- 20 -1 -41 72 -16

-41 70 -3 67

58

1

65

60

69
l

66.5
1

71

I

is shown in Table 1.12.The divergence effectis given by 20 log L - 2.5, where L is the distance from the noise source. Row 8 values are converted to dBAbyadding the dBat various frequencies. The final value is 71 dBA.
1.32

Q: How is the holdup or volume of water in boiler drums estimated? 10,000 Ib/hr ofsteam at 400 psig has a 42-in. A boiler generating : drum 10 ft longwith 2l ellipsoidalends.Findtheduration availablebetweennormalwaterlevel(NWL)andlow-level cutoff (LLCO) if NWL is at 2 in. below drum centerline and LLCO is 2 in. below NWL.

A

The volume of the water in the drum must include the volume due to the straight section plus the dished ends. is given by Volume in straight section,

v,

v = L X R 2 X

- sin a X cos a

where a is the angle shown in Figure 1 S . The volume of liquid in each end is given by

Table 1.12 Effect of Directivity Based on”Angle to Direction of Flow and Size of Silencer Outlet

5-6
4

(

0

1

l

o

[

0

1

0

1

0

1

0 0

1 1

-3

J

0

1

-1

I

-6 -3

Source: Burgess Manning.

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

49

Figure 1.5 Partialvolume of water in boiler drum.

g

=

0.261 X H* X (3R

- H)

where
= straight length of drum R = drumradius In this case, H = 120 in.and R = 21 in. Let us compute yI and K,, the volume of the straight section and each end corresponding to the 19-in. level from the bottom of the drum.

H

cos a =

2 21
=

= 0.09523. Hence

a = 84.5" sin and

a

0.9954.

v, = 120 x 21 x 21 x (-- 0.09523 X 0.9954) 84S3 57.3
= 73,05 1 cu in.

VI = 0.261 x

19 x 19 x (3 x 21

- 19) = 4146cuin.

Hence total volume of liquid up to 19-in. level = 73,051 2 X 4146 = 81,343 cu in. = 47.08 cu ft. Similarly, we can show that total volume of water up to the ft. 17-in.level = 34.1cu ft. Hencethedifferenceis13cu Specific volume of water at 400 psig
Normal evaporationrate
= 3.2 cu ft/min
= 10,000 X =

+

0.0193 cufVlb 0.0193 60

50

Ganapathy

Hence the duration between the levels assuming that the water = 13/3.21 = 4.05 min. supplyhasbeendiscontinued

NOMENCLATURE
Area of opening, in.*, or duct cross section, ft2 factors used in Q 1.26 A, B BD Blowdown, fraction BHP Boiler horsepower C Corrosion allowance, in. Initial investment, $ c c Coefficient of discharge Cost of electricity, $/km cl! Specific heat, Btu/lb "F c, d Tube or outer diameter, in. Tube or pipe inner diameter, in. 4 e Escalation factor Sealing efficiency, %; ligament efficiency, fraction E Factor defined in Eq. (33) F Gas mass velocity, lb/ft2 hr G Enthalpy, Btu/lb h Height of liquid column, in. H h*' h/ Enthalpy of saturated vapor and liquid, Btu/lb Head of gas column, ft HR Head of liquid, ft HI Differential pressure across damper, in. WC H W Interest rate i Distance,ft L LCC Life-cycle cost, $ Moisture in air, lb/lb M Molecular weight MW Annual period of operation, hr N Partial pressure of water vapor, psia P W Gas pressure, psia; design pressure, psig P Differential pressure, psi h p PWL Sound power level Volumetric flow, gpm or cfm 4 Energy,Btu/hr Q A

Basic Steam Plant Calculations R

51

RH
S
sa

SBV SPL SVP
t
tw

T
V

x,
Y
P
W
X

Y

Radius of drum, in. Relative humidity Specific gravity Allowable stress, psi Steam by volume Sound pressure level Saturated vapor pressure, psia Fluid temperature, "F Minimum wall thickness of pipe or tube, in. Life of plant, years Specific volume, cu ft; subscripts g and f stand for saturated vapor and liquid Volume of drum ends, straight section, cu in. Velocity of gas Mass flow, Ib/hr Steam quality Volume fraction Density, lbku ft; subscript g stands for gas

REFERENCES
1 V. Ganapathy, Determining operating parameters for hot exhaust gas . cooling systems, PlantEngineering, Mar. 3, 1983, p. 182. 2. V. Ganapathy, Nomograph estimates steam leakage and cost, Heating Piping and Air-Conditioning, Nov. 1982, p. 101.

of loss, 3. V. Ganapathy, Quick estimates damper leakage and cost energy Oil and Gas Journal, Sept. 21, 1981, p. 124. 4. V. Ganapathy, Applied Heat Transfer, PennWell Books, Tulsa, Okla., 1982, p. 186. 5. Brown and Yanuck, Life Cycle Costing, Fairmont Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1980, p. 188. 6. ASME, Boiler and PressureVessel Code, Sec. 1 New York, 1980, , p. 119. 7. V. Ganapathy, Estimatemaximum allowable pressures for steel piping, ChemicalEngineering, July 25, 1983, p. 99. 8. ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. 8, Div. 1, Para. UG 131, 1980. 9. ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. 1, Para. PFT 51, 1989.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

2
Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f

2.01:

Estimating HHV (higher heating value) and LHV (lower heating value) of fuels from ultimate analysis; relating heat inputs based on HHV and LHV; relating boiler efficiencies based on HHV and LHV Estimating HHV and LHV of fuel oils if degree API is known Calculatingcost of fuels on MM Btu(millionBtu)basis; comparing electricity costs with that of fuels Estimatingannual fuel costforpowerplants;relatingheat rates with efficiency of power plants Determininggasregulatorsettings for differentfuels

2.02:

2.03:
2.04:

2.05: 2.06:

Correctingfuelflowmeterreadingsforoperatingfuelgas pressures and temperatures

53

54.

Ganapathy

2.07:

Determining energy, steam quantity, andelectricheatercapacity required for heating air Determining energy, steam quantity, andelectricheatercapacity required for heating fuel oils Combustion calculations fromultimateanalysis of fuels; determining wet and dry air and flue gas quantities; volumetric analysis of flue gas on wet and dry basis; partial pressures of water vapor and carbon dioxide in flue gas; molecular weight and density of flue gas Combustioncalculationson MM Btu basis;determining air and flue gas quantities in the absence of fuel data Estimating excess air from flue gas COzreadings Estimating excess air fromCOzand O2 readings;estimating excess air from O2 readings alone Effect of reducingoxygenin flue gas;calculating flue gas produced; calculating energy saved and reduction in fuel cost Effect of fuel heating values on boilers air and flue gas produced in

2.08:

2.09:

2.10:

2.11: 2.12:

2.13:

2.14:

2.15:

Determining combustion temperature of different fuels inthe absence of fuel analysis flue gases

2.16a: Calculatingashconcentrationin

2.16b: Relating ash concentration between mass and volumetric units 2.17: Determiningmeltingpointofashknowingashanalysis

Fuels. Combustion, Efficiency and
2.18:

o Boilers and f Heaters

ss

Determining SO2 and SO3 in flue gases in lb/MM Btu and in pprn (volume) Determining efficiency of boilers and heaters; efficiency on HHV basis; dry gas loss; loss dueto moisture and combustion of hydrogen; loss due to moisture in air; radiation loss; efficiency on LHV basis; wet flue gas loss; relating efficiencies on HHV and LHV basis Determining efficiency of boilers and heaters on HHV and LHV basis from flue gas analysis

2.19:

2.20 2.21: 2.22: 2.23: 2.24: 2.25a:

Loss due to CO formation
Simple formula for efficiency determination Determining radiation losses in boilers and heaters if casing temperature and wind velocity are known Variation of heat losses and efficiency with boiler load Sulfur dew point of flue gases

2.25b: Computing acid dew points for various acid vapors 2.25~: Effect of gas temperature on corrosion potential 2.26a: Converting NO, and CO from lb/hr to ppmfor turbine exhaust gases

2.26b: Converting NO, and CO from Ib/hr to ppm for fired boilers 2.27: 2.28: Oxygen consumption versus input for gas turbine exhaust fuel gases Relating heat rates of engines to fuel consumption

56

Ganapathy

2.01

Q:

How are the HHV (higher heating value) and LHV (lower heating value) of fuels estimated when the ultimate analysis is known?

A We can use the expressions [l] :
HHV = 14,500 X C

+ 62,000 X
X H2

+ 4000
LHV = HHV

X S

- 9720

- 111OW

(1) (2)

where W is the fraction by weight of moisture in fuel, and C, HZ, 02, S are fractions by weight of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and and sulfur in the fuel. If a has coal C = 0.80, H2 = 0.003, O2 = 0.005, W = 0.073, S = 0.006, and the rest ash, find its HHV and LHV. Substituting in Eqs. (1) and (2), we have HHV = 14,500 X 0.80

+ 62,000 X

+ 4000 X 0.006 = 11,771 Btu/lb

(0.003 -

8

LHV = 11,771 - 9720 X 0.003 - 1 1 10 X 0.073 = 11,668 Btu/lb Fuelinputstofurnacesandboilersand efficiencies are often specified without reference to the heating values, whether HHV or LHV, which is misleading. If a burner has a capacity Q MM Btu/hr (million Btu/hr) on of an HHV basis, its capacity on an LHV basis would be LHV
QLHV

=

QHHV

X

Similarly, if T H and T H are the efficienciesof a boiler on an HV LV HHV and an LHV basis, respectively, they are related tis follows: T H X HHV = T H X LHV HV LV (3b)

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

o Boilers and f Heaters

57

2.02a
Q: How can we estimate theHHVandLHVofafueloilinthe
absence of its ultimate analysis?

A: Generally, the degree API of a fuel oil will be known, and the
following expressions can be used: 57.5 X %PI - 102.2 X %S HHV = 17,887 LHV = HHV - 91.23 X %H2 where %H2 is the % hydrogen, by weight. %H2 = F where

+

(4a) (4b)

- O P2122.5 A 1 + 131.5

F = 24.50 for 0 5 O P I9 A1 F = 25.00 for 9 < O P I20 A1 F = 25.20 for 20 < O P 5 30 A1 F = 25.45 for 30 < O P I 40 A1 HHV and LHV are in Btu/lb.

2.02b Q: Determine the HHV and LHV of 30" API fuel oil in Btu/gal and
in Btu/lb. Assume that %S is 0.5.

A

From Eq. (4a), HHV = 17,887 = 19,651 Btullb

+ 57.5 X

30

- 102.2

X 0.5

of To calculate the densityor specific gravity fuel oils we can use the expression
S =

141.5 131.5 OP A1

+

-

141.5 131.5 30

+

=

0.876

(6)

Hence Density = 0.876 X 8.335 = 7.3 lblgal

58

Ganapathy

8.335 is the densityofliquidsinlb/galwhen HHV BTU in From Eq. (5), %H2 = 25.2 2122.5 - 131.5 + 30
=

S

= 1.

gas = 19,561 X 7.3 = 142,795

12.05

LHV = 19,561 - 91.23 X 12.05 = 18,460 B t d b = 18,460 x 7.3 = 134,758 Btu/gal

2.03a Q: A goodway to compare fuel costs is to check their values per
MM Btu fired. If coal having HHV = 9500 Btu/lb costs $ 2 9 long ton, what is the cost in $/MM Btu?

A 1 long ton :
105 X

= 2240 lb. 1 MM Btu has 106/9500 =

105 lb of coal.

Hence 105 lb would cost

25 Btu - = $1.17/MM
2240

2.03b
Q:

If NO.6 fuel oil costs 30 centdgal, is it cheaper than the coal in Q2.03a?
Hence 1 MMBtuwouldcost 152,400
lo6
X 0.30 = $1.96/" Btu

A: Table 2.1gives the HHVof fuel oils. It is 152,400Btu/gal.

2.03C Q: Which is less expensive, electricity at 1.5 cents/kWh or gasat
$31" Btu?

A: 3413 Btu

= 1 kwh. At 1.5 centskWh, 1 MMBtu of electricity costs ( 106/3413) X 1.5/1OO = $4.4. Hence in this case, electric-

I
W

v "

l I"" .
.

%l?

00000

-h(*ww mv-lmmm 99999
0 0 0 0 0
00000 000 00000 0 0 0

gsssg
mrwwlmw4wmN
0 0 0 0 0

-mml-

m t -~- t -t - w m c mww m w r r * o

vmIv)vIv
0 0 0

rI 0 .- 0

W m N

v v m

0 0 0 0 0

o m w w sssq?
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

d.wmhl

* o m

. ""- . . .
. . .

.

o m m m

O N * W W

60

Ganapathy

ity is costlier than gas. This exampleservestoillustratethe conversion of units and does not imply that this situation will prevail in all regions.

20. .4 Q: Estimate the annualfuelcost

for a 300-MW coal-firedpower plant if the overall efficiency is 40% and the fuel cost is $1.11 MM Btu. The plant operates for 6000 hrlyear. 35 to 42%. Another way of expressing this is to use the term heat rate, defined as 3413 BtukWh efficiency, in fraction In this case it is 3413/0.4 = 8530 Btu/kWh. Annualfuelcost = 1000 X megawatt X heatrate year) X cost of fuel in $/MM Btu Heat
=

A. Power plants have efficiencies in the range
rate

X

(hr/

= 1000 X 300 X 8530 X 6000

x-

1.1 lo6 = $16.9 X lo6

The fuel cost any other type of power plant couldbe found in for a similar fashion. Heat rates are provided by power plant suppliers.

2.05 Q: A 20-MM Btu/hr burner was firing natural gas of HHV

= 1050 Btu/scf with a specific gravity0.6. If it is now required to bum of propane having HHV = 2300 Btu/scf with a specific gravity of 1S , and if the gas pressure tothe burner was set at psig earlier 4 for the same duty, estimate the new gas pressure. Assume that the gas temperature in both cases is 60°F.

A. The heat input to the burner is specified on an HHV basis. The fuel flow rate would be Q/HHV, where Q is the duty in Btu/hr. The gas pressure differential between the gas pressure regulator

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

61

and the furnace is used to overcome the flow resistance according to the equation
hp=

2 %
P

where

h p = pressure differential, psi K = a constant
P '

W,=

gas density = 0.075s ( S is the gas specific gravity; s = 1 for air) fuelflowrate in Ibhr = flow in scfh X 0.075s
1 and 2 denotenaturalgasandpropane,
X 0.075 X 0.6 X 0.075 X 1.5 X 0.6, and p2 = 0.075 X 1.5.Hence,

Let thesubscripts respectively.

W ,

=

2o x lo6

1050

y = 2

2o 2300 x lo6

hp, = 4, pI = 0.075
from Eq. (7),
- =

4

0.6 x (1050)2

(2300)2
1 S

or
hp2

=

2.08 psig

2 the Hence, if the gas pressure is set at about psig, we can obtain same duty. The calculation assumes that the back pressure has not changed.
2.06

Q: Gas flow measurement using displacement meters indicates actual cubic feet of gas consumed. However, gas is billed, generally, at reference conditions 60°F and 14.65 psia (4 oz). Hence gas of flow has to be corrected for actual pressure and temperature. Plant engineers should be aware of this conversion.

62

Ganapathy

In a gas-fired boiler plant, lo00 cu f of gas per hour was t measured, gas conditions being60 psig and 80°F. the gas has a If higher calorific value of 1050 Btuhcf, what is the cost of fuel consumed if energy costs $4/MM Btu?

A

The fuel consumption at standard conditions is found as follows.
m

where
V,, V, = fuel consumption, standard and actual, cu ft/hr T, = reference temperature of520"R Tu = actualtemperature, "R P,, P, = standard and actual pressures, psia

V,
Hence

=

100 X (30

+

14.22) X

14.65 x 540

520

= 2900scfh

Energyused = 2900 X 1050 = 3.05 MM Btu/hr Cost of fuel = 3.05 X 4 = $12.2/hr Ifpressureandtemperaturecorrections are notused,the displacement meter reading can lead to wrong fuel consumption data.
2.07

Q: Estimate the energy in Btuhr and in kilowatts for heating 75,000
lb/hr of air from90°Fto225°F.What is thesteamquantity required if 200 psia saturated steam is used to accomplish the duty noted above? What size of electric heater would be used?

A: Theenergyrequired to heat the air can be expressed as Q = Wacp AT
where
Q = duty, B t u h W, = air flow, lb/hr

(9)

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

63

C,,= specific heat of air, Btu/lb "F AT = temperature rise, "F
C,, may be taken as 0.25 for the specified temperature range.

Q = 75,000 X 0.25
1o6

X

(225

-

90) = 2.53 X lo6 Btu/hr

Using the conversion factor 3413 Btu = 1 kwh, wehave
Q = 2.53 X

- = 741 kW 3413

A 750-kW heater or the next higher size could be chosen. If steam is used, the quantity can be estimated by dividing Q in Btu/hr by the latent heat obtained from the steam tables (see the Appendix). At 200 psia, the latent heat is 843 Btu/lb. Hence Steam required
= 2.55 x

843

1o6

= 3046 lbkr

2.08

Q:

Estimate the steam required at 25 psig to heat 20 gpm of 15"API fuel oil from 40°F to 180°F. If an electric heater is used, what should be its capacity?

A. Table 2.2 gives the heat content of fuel oils inBtu/gal [2]. At 180"F, enthalpy is 529 Btu/gal, and at 40°F it is 26 Btu/gal. Hence the energy absorbed by the fuel oil is
Q = 20 X 60 X(529
=

- 26)

= 0.6 X lo6 Btu/hr

0.6 X

- = 175 kW lo6 3413

Latent heat of steam (from the steam tables) is 934 Btu/lb at 25 psig or 40 psia. Hence Steam required
= 0.6 X

lo6 - = 646 lb/hr 934

If an electric heater is used, its capacity willbe a minimum of 175 kW. Allowing for radiation losses, we may choose a 200kW heater.

64.

Ganapathy

Table 2.2 HeatContent(Btu/gal) of Various Oilsa
Gravity, "API at 60°F (15.6"C)
15 Temp. ("F) 32 60 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 300 400
500

10
1.oooO
0 0

Specific gravity, 60"F/60°F 0.96590.87620.8017 0.93400.8498 0.90420.8251
0 0

0
0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

95 237 310 384 460 538 617 697 779 862 1034 1489 1981 251 1 3078
3478

93 233 305 378 453 529 607 686 766 848 1017 1463
2088

92 229 300 37 1 445 520 596
1371

90 226 295 366 438 51 1 587 663 74 1 820 984 1416
2041

89 222 290 360 43 1
1236

87 219 286 355 425 496 569 643 718 795 954 1372
1997

86 215
1065 28 1 1116

85
965 1062 1112 1164 1217 1272 1327 1384 1442 1502 1626

349
1169

418
1223

503
1293

488
1278

577
1352

560
1335

674
1434

652
1412

633
1393

753
1498

729
1474

707
1452

833
1563

807
1537

783
1513

999
1699

968
1668

939
1639

1439
2064

1393
2018

1352
1977

1333
1958

1947
2497

1914
2464

1884
2434

1854
2404

1826
2376

1799
2349 228 1 2756

1774
2324

600

2467
2942

2426
2901

2387
2862

2350
2825

23 14
2789

2248
2723

700 800

3025
3425

2974
3374

2927
3327

288 l
3281

2837
3237

2796
3196

2756
3156

3683
4008

36 19
3944

3559
3884

3502
3827

3447
3772

3395
3720

3345
3670

3297
3622

'Values in regular type are for liquid; bold values are for vapor.

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and f Heaters

65

In theabsenceofinformationonfueloilenthalpy,use a specific gravityof 0.9 and a specific heatof 0.5 Btu/lb "F. Hence the duty will be

Q

= 20 X

60 X 62.40 X

0*9
7.48

X .05 X (180

- 40)

= 0.63 X IO6 Btu/hr

(7.48 is the conversion factor from cubic feet
2.09a

to gallons.)

Q: Natural having gas

CH, = 83.4%, C2H6 = 15.8%, and N2 = 0.8% by volume is fired in a boiler. Assuming 15% excess air, 70°F ambient, and 80% relative humidity, perform detailed combustion calculations and determine flue gas analysis.

A: FromChapter I weknow thatairat70°Fand80%

RH has a moisture content of 0.012 ib/lb dry air. Table 2.3 can be usedto figure air requirements of various fuels. For example, see that we CH, requires 9.53 mol of air per mole of CH,, and C2H6requires 16.68 mol. 100 Let us base our calculations on mol of fuel. The theoretical dry air required will be
83.4 X 9.53

+

16.68 X 15.8 = 1058.3 mol

Considering 15% excess, mol Actual dry air = 1.15 X 1058.3 = 1217 Excessair = 0.15 X 1058.3 = 158.7 mol Excess 0 = 158.7 X 0.12 = 33.3 mol , mol Excess N2 = 1217 X 0.79 = 961 (Air contains 21%by volume 02, the rest is and Moisture air in
=

N. ,)

1217 X 29 X

0.0 12 - = 23.5 mol 18

(We multiplied molesof air by 29 to get its weight, and then the water quantity was divided by18to get moles of water.) Table 2.3 can also be used to get the moles CO2, H20, and of 0 ~31. ,

66

Ganapathy

Table 2.3 Combustion Constants
Heat of combustion'
Lb per Cu ftb

Mol.
Vo. Subsfam
I Carbon 2 Hydmgen 3 Oxygen 4 Nitrogen (arm) 5 Carbon monixide 6 Carbon dioxide

Formula

Wr
12.01

Cu ft per Ibb

SP gr air = 1.ooob

Btu per cu ft
Gross

Btu per Ib
Gross

Ne6

NeP

-

-

-

2.016 0.005327 32.000 0.08461 28.016 0.0743P 28.01 0.07404 44.01 0.1170 16.041 0.04243 30.067 0.0802P . 44.092 0 I I%'
58.118 58.118
0.1582* 0.1582= 72.144 0.1904'

187.723 0.06959 11.819 1.1053 1 . 4 ' 0.9718* 343 13.506 0.9672 8.548 I S282 23.565 12.4W 835 .6' 631 .2' 631 .2' 5.252 5.252 5.25T 4.3964 13.412 9.007 6.756= 676 .5' 5.4W 0.5543 1.04882' 151' .67 2065' .664 2.06654' 247' .82 2.4872 247' .82 2.9704' 0.9740 I.4504e 193c .36 I .9336c 2.41W

- 325.0 275.0 - - 321.8 321.8 - 1013.2 913.1 1641 1792 2590 2385 3370 3113 1363 3IO5 1016 3709 4008 3 7 l 6 3993 3693 0762 4412 1613.8 2336 3084 3068 3836 375I 4484 5230 1499
5854' 1513.2

1 , 9 ' 1.9' 403 403 61.100 51.623

-

4.347 4.347

-

Parallin s d a C J I ~ , ~ ee
7 Methane
8 Ethane 9 Propane IO n-Butane I 1 lsobutane I2 n-Pentane 1 lsopentane 3 14 Neopentane 15 n-Hexane

72.144 0.19W 72.1440.1904c 86.1690.2274'
28.051 42.077 56.102 56.102 70.128

23.879 21,520 22.320 20.432 2.6 1 6 1 19.944 21.308 19.680 21.257 19.629 21.091 19.517 21.052 19.478 20.970 19,396 20,940 19.403
21.614 21,041 20.840

Olefin &CS CBh 16 Ethylene 1 Propylene 7 I8 n-Butene (butylene) 1 lsobutene 9 20 n-Pentene Ammetic aeries C&.-, 21 Benzene 22 Toluene 23 Xylene

0.07456 0 I 1 l@ . 0.148ff 0.1480' 0.1852c

2186 2885 2869 3586 301 60 4284 4980
1448

20.295 19.691 19.496 20.730 19.382 20.712 19.363 18.210
18.440

78.107 0 . 2 W 92.132 0.2431' 106.158 0 2 0 ' .83 26.0360.06971 128.1620.3384' 32.041 0.0846c 46.0670.1216c 17.031 0.0456" 32.06
64.06

4.852 2.692@ 4 1 3 3.17W .1' 3.567 3.6618' 14.344 0.9107 2 9 5 4.4208' .5' 11.82@ l.lOS2 8 2 1 1.58W .2' 21.9Ic O.5%Ic

18.650

17.480 17,620 17.760

Mlsnlla~~ous gases 24 Acetylene
25 Naphthalene 26 Methyl alcohol 27 Ethyl alcohol 28 Ammonia

5654' 867.9 768.0 1600.3 1450.5 441.1 365.I

2 ,500 20.776 1 1.9' 1 . 0 ' 728 678 10.259 9.078 13,161 11.929 9,668 8.001
3.983 7.100 3.983 6,545

29 Sulfur
30 Hydrogen sulfide 3 Sulfur dioxide 1 32 Water vapor 33 Air

-

-

-

647

5%

34.076 0.091W 0.1733 18.016 0.04758' 0.07655 28.9

10.97P I.189V 5.770 2.264 21.017' 0.6215' 13.063 1 . o o o O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

All gas volumes eomcted to 60°F and 30 in Hg dry. For gases saturated with water a1 60°F. 1.73% of the Btu value must be deducted. 'Calculated from atomic weights given in Journal of the American Chemical Soriefy. February 1937. bDensitiescalculated from values given in grams per liter at 0°C and 760 mmHs in the International Critical Tables allowing for the known deviations from the gas laws. Where the coeficient of expansion was not available, the assumed value was taken as 0.0037 per 'C. Compare this with 0.003662 which is the cocfficient for a perfect gas. When no densities w e n available. the volume of'thc mole was taken as 22.4115 liters. 'Convnted to mean Btu per Ib (l1180 of the heat per Ib of wntcr from 32 to 212°F)from data by Frtderick D.Rossini. National Bureau of Standards. letter of April IO, 1937, except as noted.

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

67

Cu It per cu R of combustible

Lb per Ib of combustible Required for combustion Oz Air NZ 8.863 26.407

Required combustion for Flue
Cr, Air N2
"

pmducu COz H 2 0
"

Flue pmdwu CO1

Ixperimental ermr in hear of combustion
(2%)

NZ

H20

N2

"

2.382 1.882 0.5
"
"

"
"

1.0

2.664 1.882 7.937

11.527 3.664 34.344

-

8.863 8.937 26.407
" "

-

0.012 0.015

"

"

"

-

"

"

"

2.382 1.882 0.5
"

1.0
"

2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0

1.882

0.571

1.900

2.471 1.571
"

I. m 0.045

"

"

"

-

2.0 3.5 5.0 6.5 6.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 6.0 7.5

7.528 13.175 18.821 24.467 24.467 30.114 30.114 30.114 35.760

9.528 16.675 23.821 30.967 30.967 38.114 38.114 38.114 45.260

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 6.0

7.528 13.175 18.821 24.467 24.467 30.114 30.114 30.114 35.760 11.293 16.939 22.585 22.585 28.232

3.990 3.725 3.629 3.579 3.579 3.548 3.548 3.548 3.528 3.422 3.422 3.422 3.422 3.422

13.275 17.265 12.394 16.119 12.074 15.703 11.908 15.487 11.908 15.487 11.805 15.353 11.805 15.353 11.805 15.353 11.738 15.266 11.385 11.385 11.385 11.385 11.385 14.807 14.807 14.807 14.807 14.807

2.744 2.246 2.927 1.798 2.994 1.634 3.029 1.550 3.029 1.550 3.050 1.498 3.050 1.498 3.050 1.498 3.061 1.464 3.138 3.138 3.138 3.138 3.138 1.285 1.285 1.285 1.285 1.285

13.275 12.394 12.074 11.908 11.908 11.805 11.805 11.805 11.738

0.033 0.030 0.023 0.022 0.019 0.025 0.071 0.11 0.05

11.293 14.293 16.939 21.439 22.585 28.585 22.585 28.585 28.232 35.732

2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0

11.385 11.385 11.385 11.385 11.385

0.021 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.037

7.5 28.232 35.732 9.0 33.878 32.878 10.5 39.524 50.024

6.0 7.0 8.0 2.0 10.0 1.0 2.0

3.0 4.0 5.0
1.0 4.0 2.0 3.0 1.5

28.232 33.878 39.524 9.411 45.170 5.646 11.293 3.323

3.073 3.126 3.165 3.073 2.996 1.498 2.084 1.409 0.998 1.409 4.688 6.097

10.224 13.297 3.381 10.401 13.527 3.344 10.530 13.695 3.317 10.224 9.968 4.984 6.934 4.688 3.287 4.285 1.998

0.692 0.782 0.849

10.224 10.401 10.530 10.224 9.968 4.984 6.934 5.511 3.287

0.12 0.21 0.36 0.16

. 9.411 2.5
12.0 45.170 5.646 1.5 11.293 3.0 0.75 2.823
"

11.911 57.170 7.146 14.293 3.573

-

13.297 3.381 0.692 12.964 3.434 0.562 6.482 1.374 I . 125 9.018 1.922 1.170 6.097 1.587 SO2

-

1

-

0.027 0.030 0.088 0.07 I 0.30

"

"

-

SO2

s1 o
1.0
5.646

7.146 5.646 1.5
"

1.0
"

1.880 0.529 4.688
" "

"

"

"
"

"
"

"
"

"
"

"
"

"
"

-

'Deduction from gross to ne1 heating value determined by deducting 18.919 B u per pound mol of water i t Mechanical Engineering. p. 163. March 1935. and Osbome. Stimson. and Flock. combustion. Osbome. Stimson and Ginnings, National Bureau of Standards Research Paper 209. 'Denotes thateither the densityor the coefficient of expansion has been assumed. Some the materials cannot exist gases at of as 60°F and 30in. Hg pressure, in which cases the values are themtical ones 8iven forease of calculationof gas problems. Under the actual comnmtions in which thesematerials arc present their partial pressure is low enough to keepthem as gases. 'Fmm third edition of Combustion. 'Ntional Bureau of Standards. RP 1141. Source: Reprinted from Fuel Flue Gases, 1941 edition, cwttesy of American Gas Association.

68

Ganapdthy
CO2 = l x 83.4 + 2 x 15.8 = 115 mol 3 x 15.8 23.5 = 237.7 mol H20 = 2 x 83.4 O2 = 33.3 mol N2 = 961 0.8 = 961.8 mol

+

+

+

The total moles of flue gas produced is 1 15 961.8 = 347.8. Hence

+

+ 237.7 + 33.3

%C02 =

'l5 1347.8

x 100 = 8.5

Similarly,
%H20

= 17.7,

%02

= 2.5,

%NZ

=

71.3

The analysis above is on a wet basis. On a dry flue gas basis,
%CO2 = 8.5 X
10 0

100

-

17.7

= 10.3%

Similarly,
%02 3.0%, =

%N2 = 86.7%

To obtain W,,, W,,, wdg,and W,,, we need the density of the fuel or the molecular weight, which is
-x
100
W,

1

(83.4 x 16

+

15.8 X 30

+ 0.8

X

28) = 18.30

= 1217 X = 19.29

29
1 0 0 X 18.3

= 19.29 Ib dry air/lb fuel = 19.52 Ib wet aidlb fuel

W,,,,

+

23.5 X 18 18.3
X

100

Wdg

=

115 x 4 4

+ 33.3 x
1830

32 32

+ 961 x 28

= 18 Ib dry gasllb fuel

wwg

=

115 x 44

+ 33.3 x

+ 237.7
1830

x 18

+ 961.8

X 2 8

= 20.40 Ib wet gasllb fuel

This procedure can be used when the fuel analysis is given. More air often, plant engineers will required to perform estimates of be for combustion without a fuel analysis. In such situations, the MM Btu basis of combustionandcalculationswillcome in handy.Thisis discussed in Q2.10.

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f

69

2.Wb Q: For the case statedin Q2.09a, estimate the partialpressure of water vapor, pw, and of carbon dioxide, pc, in the flue gas. Also estimate the density of flue gas at 300°F.

A Thepartialpressures :

of water vapor carbon and dioxide are importantin the determination of nonluminousheattransfer coefficients.
Pw

=

volume of water vapor = 0.177 atm = 2.6 psia total flue gas volume volume of carbon dioxide = 0.085 atm = 1.27 psia = total flue gas volume

To estimate the gas density, its molecular weight must be obtained (see Q1.05).

MW

=

Z (MW X yi)
28 X 71.3

-

+ 18 X 17.7 + 32 X 2.5 + 44 X 8.5
100
14.7 359 X 760 X 14.7

= 27.7

Hence, from Eq. (6),
ps = 27.7
X

492 X

= 0.05 Ib/cu ft

The gas pressure was assumed to be 14.7 psia. In the absence of flue gas analysis, wecanobtain the density as discussed in
41.03.
PS

=

40 760

= 0.052 Ibku ft

2 loa . Q: Discuss the basis for the millionBtumethodofcombustion
calculations.

A Each fuel such as natural gas, coal, or oilrequiresacertain : amount of stoichiometric air per MM Btu fired (on anHHV
basis). This quantity does not vary much with the fuel analysis

70

Ganapathy

and hence has become valuable method of evaluating combusa tion air and flue gas quantitiesproduced when fuelgas analysis is not available. For solid fuels such as coal and oil, the dry stoichiometric air W&, in lb/lb fuel can be obtained from
wda

= 11.53 x

c+

34.34 x (Hz -

")8 + 4.29 x S

where C, HZ, 02,and S are carbon, hydrogen,oxygen,and sulfur in the fuel in fraction by weight. For gaseous fuels, W,, is given by
W,,

= 2.47 X

+ +

CO 34.34 X H2 17.27 X CH4 13.3 X CzH2 14.81 X C2H4 16.12 X CzH6 - 4.32 X 0 2

+

+

+

EXAMPLE 1

Let us compute the amount of air required per MM Btu fired for fuel oil. C = 0.875, H = 0.125, and OAP1 = 28. Solution. From (4a), HHV = 17,887
= 19,497

+ 57.5 X
Btu/lb

28 - 102.2 X 0

Amount of air in lb/lb fuel from the above equation is
W,,

= 11.53 X 0.875

+ 34.34 X

0.125 = 14.38 lb/lb

fuel

1 MM Btu of fuel fired requires(1 X 106)/19,497 = 51.28 lb of fuel. Hence, from the above, 51.28 lb of fuel requires
51.28 x 14.38 = 737 lb ofdry air

Table 2.4 shows a range of 735 to 750. To this must be added excess air; the effect of moisturein the airshouldalsobe considered.

EXAMPLE 2 Let us take the case of natural gas with the following analysis: methane = 83.4%, ethane = 15.8%, and nitrogen = 0.8%. Solution. Convertingthistopercentweight basis, wehave

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f

7 1

Table 2.4 Combustion Constant A For Fuels
No.

Fuel Blast furnace gas Bagasse Carbon monoxide gas Refinery and oil gas Natural gas Furnace oil and lignite Bituminous coals Anthracite
Coke

A
575 650 670 720 730 745-750 760 780
800

Fuel
30

%

v01

MW
16

Col 2 x col 3
1334.4

% Wt 72.89
1.22

CH4
C2H6 N222.4

83.4 15.8 0.8

28

Let us compute the air required in lb/lb fuel. From Table 2.3, Air required = 17.265 X 0.7289 16.119 X 0.2589 = 16.75lb/lbfuel H W of fuel = 0.7289 X 23,876 0.2589 X 22,320 = 23,181Btu/lb

+

+

where 23,876 and 22,320 are HHV of methane and ethane from Table 2.3. would be The amount of fuel equivalent to 1 MM Btu X 16.75 = (1 X 106)/23,181 = 43.1Ib,whichrequires43.1 722 Ib of air, or 1 MM Btu fired would need 722 lb of dry air; this is close to the value indicated in Table 2.4. Let us take the case of 100% methane andsee how much air it needs for combustion. From Table 2.3, air required per lb of methane is 17.265 lb, and its heating value is 23,879 Btu/lb. In

72

Ganapathy

this case 1 MM Btu is equivalent to (1 X 106)/23,879 41.88 = lb of fuel, which requires 41.88 X 17.265 = 723 Ib of dry air. Taking the case of propane, 1 lb requires 15.703Ib of air. 1 MM Btu equals 1 X 106/21 ,661 = 46.17lb of fuel. This would require 46.17 X 15.703 = 725 lb of air. Thus for all fossil fuels we can come up with a goodestimate of theoretical dry per MM Btu air fired on anHHV basis, and gas analysis does not affect this value significantly. The amount of air per MM Btuis termed A and is shown inTable 2.4for various fuels.
2.lob

Q: A fired heater is firing natural gas at an input of 75 MM Btu/hr
on an HHV basis. Determine the dry combustion air required at 10% excess air and the amount of flue gas produced if the HHV of fuel is 20,000 Btu/lb.

A: From Table 2.4, A is 730 lb/MM Hence total Btu. the
required is

air

W, = 75

X

1.1 x 730 = 60,200lb/hr

The flue gas produced is

W, = W, + W, = 60,200 +

lo6
20,000

=

60,250 lb/hr

These values can be converted to volumeatanytemperature using the procedure described in Chapter 1. The MM Btu method is quite accurate for engineering purposes such as fan selection and sizing of ducts and air and gas systems, Its advantage is that fuel analysis need not be known, which is generally the case in power and process plants. The efficiency of heaters and boilers can also be estimated using the MM Btu method of combustion calculations.
2.1oc

Q: A coal-fired boiler is firing coal of HHV = 9500 Btu/lb at 25%
excess air. Ifambientconditions are 80°F,relativehumidity 80%, and flue gas temperature 300"F, estimate the combustion

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

o Boilers Heaters f and

73

air in Ib/lbfuel, the volume of combustionair in cu ft/lb fuel, the flue gas produced in Ib/lb fuel, and the flue gas volume in cu ft/lb fuel.
A:

Since the fuel analysis is notknown, let us use the MM Btu method. From Table 2.4, A = 760 for coal. 1MM Btu requires 760 X 2.15 = 950 Ib of dry air. At 80% humidity and 80"F, air contains 0.018 Ibof moistureperpoundof air (Chapter 1). Hence the wet air required per MM Btu fired is 950 X 1.018 lb. Also, 1M M Btu fired equals 106/9500= 105 Ib of coal. Hence
= dry air, Ib/lb fuel
W,,,,

=

950 - = 9.05 105

=

wet air, Ib/lbfuel = 950 X

1.018 - = 9.21 950 492 359 X 540

pa = density of airat80°F

= 29 x

= 0.0736 Ib/cu ft (see Ch. 1 Q . 1.03) ,

Hence Volume of air =
9.21 0.0736

= 125 cu ft/lb fuel

ps = density of flue gas =
Wdg

40 760

= 0.0526 Ib/cu ft
105 10.05 0.0526

=

dry flue gas in Ib/lb fuel =

950

+ 105

= 10.05 = 191

Volume of flue gas, cu fVlb fuel =
2.11

A:

Yes. A good estimate of excess air E in percent can be obtained from the equation

74

Ganapathy

Table 2.5 K, Factors for Fuels
~~

Fueltype coals

K,
18.6 20.5 15.5 13.4 12.5

Bituminous Coke Oil Refinery gas and gas oil Natural s furnace Blast
Source: Ref. 1.

25.5

%CO2 is the percent of the carbon dioxide in dry flue gas by volume, and K, is a constant depending on the type of fuel, as seen in Table 2.5. For example, if %CO2 = 15 in flue gas in a coal-fired boiler, then for bituminouscoal (K,= 18.6), E=100X

( --1 ) 15

18.6

=

24%

2.12 Q: Discuss the significance of %CO2 and %02 flue gases. in

A: Excess air levels in flue gas can be estimated if the %CO2 and

%02 dry flue gas by volume is known. The higher theexcess in air, the higher the flue gas quantity and the greater the losses. Plant engineers should control excess air levels to help control plant operating costs. The costof operation with high excessair is discussed in 42.13. A formula that is widely used to figure the excess air is [l]

E = 100 X

02

-

0.264 X

N2

c1 02 - ( , - C0/2) 0

(1Ob)

where 02,CO, and N2 are the oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen in dry flue gas, v01 %, and E is the excess air, %. Another formula that is quite accurate is [l]

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f

75

Table 2.6
Fuel

Constant KZ Used in Eq. (1Oc)

K2
100

Carbon Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Sulfur Methane
Oil

121 100

80

Coal Blast furnace gas Coke oven gas
Source: Ref. 1.

223 89.3

90 94.5 97

E=K2X

21 -

0 2
0 2

where K2 is a constant that depends on type offuel (see Table the 2.6).
2.13

Q:

In a natural gas boiler of capacity 50 MM Btuhr (HHV basis), the oxygen level in the flue gas is reduced from 3.0% to 2.0%. What is the annual savings in operating costs if fuel costs $4/ MM Btu? The HHV of the fuel is 19,000 Btu/lb. The exit gas temperature is 500"F,and the ambient temperature is 80°F.

A. The original excess air is 90 X 3/(21 - 3) = 15% (see 42.12). The excess air is now
E=90X

2.0 21 - 2

=

9.47%

With 15% excess, the approximate air required (see Q2.10a) is 50 x 746 x 1.15 = 42,895 Ib/hr. Flue gas = 42,895

+ 50 X

1o6 19,000

= 45,256 lblhr

76

Ganapathy

With 9.47% excess air, Airrequired = 50 X 746 X 1.0947 = 40,832 lbhr lo6 50 X Flue gas produced = 40,832 19,000 = 43,463 Ib/hr Reductioninheatloss = (45,526 - 43,463) X 0.25 x (500 - 80) = 0.22 M M Btu/hr

+

This is equivalent to an annual savings of0.22 X 4 X 300 X 24 = $6336. (Weassumed 300 days of operationa year.) This could be a significant savings considering the life of the plant. Henceplant engineers shouldoperate the plantrealizing the implications of high excess air and high exit gas temperature. Oxygen levels can be continuously monitored and recorded and hooked upto combustion air systems inorder to operate the plant more efficiently. (It may be noted that exit gas temperature will also be reduced if excess air is reduced. The calculation above indicates the minimum savings that can be realized.)
2.14

Q:

Fuels are often interchanged in boiler plants because of relative availability and economics. It is desirable, then, to analyze the effect on the performance on the system. Discuss the implications of burning coal of 9800 Btu/lb in a boiler originally intended for 11,400-Btu/lb coal.

A. Let us assume that the duty does not change and that the efficiency of the unit is not altered. However, the fuel quantity will change. Combustion air required, being a function of MM Btu fired, will not change, but the flue gas produced will increase. Let us prepare a table. We can use the same fans, as the variation in flue gas produced is not significant to warrant higher pressure drops. We gas must look into other aspects, such as the necessity of higher

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters
Coal I
Coal 2
9800 102

77

Fuel HHV, Btu/lb Fuel fired per MM
Btu ( I 06/HHV) Air required per MM Btu (25% excess air)

1 1,400 87
760 X 1.25 = 950 1037 1

760 X 1.25 = 950

Flue gas, Ib

Ratio of flue gas

1052
1.015

combustion air temperature (due to higher moisture in the fuel), ash concentration, and fouling characteristics of the new fuel. If a different type fuel is going to be used, say oil, this will be a of major change, and. the fuel-handling system burners and furnace design will have to be reviewed. The gas temperature profiles will change owing to radiation characteristics, and absorption of surfaces such as superheaters and economizers will be affected. A discussion with the boiler design engineers will help.
2.15

Q:

What is meantbycombustiontemperature estimated?

of fuels? How is it

A: The adiabatic combustion temperature is the maximum temperature that can be attained by the products of combustion of fuel and air. However, because of dissociation and radiation losses, this maximum is never attained. Estimationof temperature after dissociation involves solving several equations. For purposes of estimation, we may decrease the adiabatic combustion temperature by 3 to 5% to obtain the actual combustion temperature. From energy balance it can be shown that
tc =

LHV Aa X HHV X CPa X (t, - 8O)/lO6 (1 - % ash/100 Aa X HHV/106) X C,,*

+

+

(1 1)

78

Ganapathy

where LHV, HHV = lower and higher calorific value of fuel, Btu/lb A = theoretical air required per million Btu fired, lb c = excess air factor = 1 x ,!?/l00 t,, t, = temperature of air and combustion temperature, "F C C,, = specific heats of air and products of com, bustion, Btu/lb "F

+

For example, for fuel oil with combustion air at 300"F, LHV = 17,000 Btu/lb, HHV = 18,000 Btu/lb, a = 1.15, andA = 745 (see Table 2.4). We have
t, =

17,000 + 745 X 1 1 X 18,OOO X 0.25 X (300 - SO)/106 .5 (1 + 745 x 1 1 x 18,000/106) 0.32 .5 x = 3400°F

C and C,, were taken as 0.25 and 0.32, respectively. ,
2.16a

Q: How is the ashconcentrationin

flue gasesestimated?

A: Particulateemissiondata are neededto size dust collectors for
coal-fired boilers. In coal-fired boilers, about 75% of the ash is carried away by the flue gases and 25% drops into the ash pit. The following expression may be derived using the MM Btu method of combustion calculation [5]:

c, =
where

T X [7.6 X

X HHV X ( 1 0 0

240,000 X (%ash/100) + E ) + 1 - (%ash/100)]( W

C, E T HHV

= ash concentration, grainslcu ft = excess air, % = gas temperature, "R
=

heating value, Btu/lb

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and f Heaters

79

EXAMPLE If coals of HHV = 11,000 Btu/lb having 1 1% ash are fired in a 850"R, boiler with25% excess air and theflue gas temperature is determine the ash concentration. Solution. Substitutinginto Eq. (12a), wehave

c, =
=

240,000 X 0.11 850 X (7.6 X 2.75 grainsku ft
X 11,000 X

125 + 1

- 0.1l )

2.16b Q: How do you convert the ash concentration in the flue gas in %
weight to graindacf or graindscf?

A: Flue gases from incineration plants or solid fuel boilers contain
dust or ash, and often these components are expressed in mass units such as Ib/hr or % by weight while engineers involved in selection of pollution control equipment prefer to workin terms of grainslacf or grainskcf (actual and standard cubic feet). The relation is as follows:
C = 0.01 X A X 7000 X p = 70A ,
( 12b)

where
p = gas density, Ibku ft = 39.5/(460
t =

+ t)

gas temperature, " F C, = ash content, grains/acf or graindscf depending on whether density is computed at actual temperature or at 60°F. A = ash content, % by weight The expression for density is based on atmospheric flue gases having a molecular weight of 28.8 (see 41.03). Flue gases contain 1.5% by weight of ash. The concentration in grains/acf at 400°F is
C, 70 X 1.5 X

- = 4.8 graindacf 39.5
860

80

Ganapathy

and at 60"F,
C, = 70 X 1.5 .X - = 7.98 graindscf 520

39.5

2.17

Q: Discuss the importance of the melting point of ash in coal-fired boilers. How is it estimated?

A: In the design of steam generators and ash removal systems, the
ash fusion temperatureis considered an important variable. Low ash fusion temperature may cause slagging and result in deposition of molten ash on surfaces like superheaters and furnaces. The furnace willthenabsorbless energy, leading to higher furnace exit gas temperatures and overheating of superheaters. A quick estimate of ash melting temperature in "C can be made using the expression [6]
t,,, =

19 X A1203 15 X (SO2 X Ti02) 10 X (CaO MgO) 6 X (Fe203 Na20 K20)

+ +

+

+ +

+

(13)

where l,,, is the fusion temperature in and the rest of the terms "C, are percent ash content oxides of aluminum, silicon, titanium, of calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, and potassium. EXAMPLE Analysis of a given ash indicates the following composition: A1203 = 20%, F%03 Na20

+

+

Si02 TiOz = 30% K 2 0 = 20%, CaO

+

+ MgO =

15%

Find the fusion temperature. Solution Substituting into Q. (13), we find that t,,, = 1100°C. 2.18a

Q: What is the emission of SO2 in lb/MM Btu if

coals of HHV =. 11,OOO Btu/lb and having 1.5% sulfur are fired in a boiler?

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

o Boilers and f Heaters

8 1

A

The following expression gives e, the emission of SOz in lb/MM Btu:
e = 2 X 104

S HHV

(14)

where S is the % sulfur in the fuel.
e = 2 x 104x

1I ,000

= 2.73 Ib/MM Btu

If an SO2 scrubbing system of 75% efficiency is installed, the exiting SO2 concentration will be 0.25 X 2.73 = 0.68 lb/MM Btu.

2 I8b . Q: What is the SO2level in ppm (parts per million) by volume if the
coals in Q2.18a are fired with 25% excess air? method,
wg =

A: We have to estimate the flue gas produced. Using the MMBtu

11,Ooo

+

1 2 X 760 = 1041 Ib/" .5 Btu

Let the molecular weight be 30, which is a good estimate in the absence of flue gas analysis. Then,

Moles of flue gas = - = 34.7 per MM Btu fired Molesof SO2 =
2.73 64
= 0.042

1041 30

(from Q2.18a and Table 1.1)

(64 is the molecular weightof SO2. Dividing weight by molecu-

lar weight gives the moles.) Hence ppm of SO2 in flue gas will be 0.042 X 34.7/106= 1230 ppm.

82

Ganapathy

2.18C

Q: If 5% of the SOzgets convertedto SO,, estimate theppm of SO,
in the flue gas.

A

Moles of SO, = 0.05 X Hence ppm by volume of SO, =

2.73 - = 0.0017 per MM Btu 80

0.0017 34.7
SO,).

x

106

= 49 ppm

(80 is the molecular weight of

2.19a
Q:

How is the efficiency of a boiler or a fired heater determined?
computation of several losses such as those due to flue gases leaving the unit, unburned fuel, radiation losses, heat loss due to molten ash, and so on. Readers may refer to the ASME Power TestCode [7] for details. Two methods are widely used, one based on the measurement of input and output and the other based on heat losses. The latter is preferred, as it is easy to use. There are two ways of stating the efficiency, one based on the HHVand the other on LHV. As discussed in 42.01,
THHV

A: The estimation of the efficiency of a boiler or heater involves

X HHV =

qLHv

X LHV

The various losses are [l], onanHHV
1.
Dry gas loss, L,:

basis,

2. Loss due to combustion of hydrogen and moisture in fuel, L2:

t

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f
3. Loss due to moisturein air, L,:

83

4. Radiation loss, L4. The American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) chart [7] may be referred to to obtain this value. A quick estimate of L4 is
L 4

-

100.62-0.42 log Q

(15d)

For Eqs. (15a) to (15d),
W@ W ,

=

dry flue gas produced, Ib/lb fuel

= dry air required, Ib/lb fuel

HP, W = hydrogenandmoisturein fuel, fraction M = moisture in air, Ib/lb dry air (see Q1.09b) te, t, = temperatures of flue gas, air, "F Q = dutyinMMBtu/hr
5 . To losses L , to L4 must be added a margin loss, L5. Hence efficiency becomes

or unaccounted

Note that combustion calculations are a prerequisiteto efficiency determination. If the fuel analysis is not available, plant engineers can use the MM Btu method to estimate wag rather easily and then estimate the efficiency (see 42.20). The efficiency can also be estimated on an LHV basis. The various losses considered are the following.
1. Wet flue gas loss:
wwg

x

c,

x

tR - t,

LHV

(C,, gas specific heat, will be in the range of 0.25 to 0.265 for wet flue gases.) 2. Radiation loss (see 42.23) 3. Unaccounted loss, margin

84

Ganapathy

Then
TLHV

= 100 - (sumoftheabovethreelosses)

One can also convert q H H V to T H using Eq. (3b) (see 42.01). LV

2.19b Q: Coals of HHV = 13,500 and LHV = 12,600 Btu/lb are fired in a boiler with excess air of 25%. If the exit gas temperature is 300°F and ambient temperatures is80"F,determine the efficiency on an HHV basis and on an LHV basis.

A

From the MM Btu method of combustion calculations, assuming that moisture in air is 0.013 lb/lb dry air,

- 1.013
wwg

-

X 760 X 1.25

106/13,500

+

106/13,500

"

1036 74

=

14.0

(760 is the constant obtained from Table 2.4.) Hence Wet flue gas loss = 100 X 14.0 X 0.26
X

300 - 8o 12,600
=

=

6.35% by 1.3%. Then

Let radiation and unaccounted losses
qLHV qHHV

100

- (6.35

+ 1.3) = 92.34%

= 92.34 x

12,600 = 86.18% 13,500

(Radiation losses vary from to 1.O% in large boilers andmay 0.5 go up to 2.0% in smaller units. The major loss is the flue gas loss.)
2.19~

Q: Determinetheefficiency

of a boilerfiringthe fuel given in Q2.09a at 15% excess air. Assume radiation loss = l%, exit gas

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

85

temperature = 400"F, andambient = 70°F. Excess air and relative humidity are the same as in Q2.09a (15% and 80%).

A: Resultsofcombustioncalculations D y flue gas = 18 Ib/lbfuel r

are alreadyavailable.

Moisturein air = 19.52 - 19.29 = 0.23 Ib/lb/fuel Water vapor formed due to combustion of fuel = 20.4 - 18 - 0.23 = 2.17 Ib/lbfuel HHV = 83.4 X 1013.2 + 15.8 X 1792 = 1 128 Btu/cu ft 100

Fueldensity at 60°F = 18.3/379 = 0.483 Ib/cu ft, so HHV = 128 0.0483
= 23,364 Btu/lb

The losses are
1. Dry gas loss,

L, = 100 X 18 X 0.24 X
2.
1080

400 - 70 23,364

=

6.1%

Loss due to combustion of hydrogen and moisture in fuel,

L 2

= 1 0 0 X 2.17 X

+ 0.46 X

23,364

400 - 70

= 11.1%

3. Loss due to moisture in air,

L3 = 1 0 X 0.23 X 0.46 X 0 4. Radiation loss = 1 .O% 5. Unaccountedlossesandmargin Total losses = 6.1 Hence EfficiencyonHHVbasis
=

400 - 70 23,364
= 0%

= 0.15%

+

11.1

+ 0.15 +
100

1.0 = 18.35%
=

- 18.35

81.65%

One can convert this to LHV basis after computing the LHV.

86

Ganapathy

2.19d

Q: How do excess air andboiler exit gastemperatureaffectthe
various losses and boiler efficiency?

A: Table 2.7 shows the results of combustion calculations for various fuels at different excess air levels and boiler exit gas temperature. It also shows the amount CO2generated perMM Btu of fired. It can be seen that naturalgas generates the lowest amount of c02. CO2/" Btu natural gas
=

lo6 23,789

X 19.17 X

9'06 x 44
27.57/100

= 116.5 Ib

(The above is obtained by converting the volumetric analysis to weight basis using the molecular weights of CO2 and the flue gas.) For oil, CO2generated = 162.4 Ib, and for coal, 202.9 lb.

2.20

Q: A fired heater of duty 100 MM Btu/hr (HHV basis) firing No. 6
oil shows the following dry flue gas analysis: C02 = 13.5%,
02

= 2.5%,

N2 = 84%

The exit gas temperature and ambient temperature are 300 and 80"F, respectively. If moisture in air is 0.013 lb/lb dry air, estimate the efficiency the unit on an LHV and an HHV basis. of LHV = 18,400 Btu/lband HHV = 19,500 Btu/lb.

A. Since the fuel analysis is not known, let us estimate the flue gas
produced by the MM Btu method. First, compute the excess air, which is

E = 94.5 X

2.5 21

- 2.5

= 12.8%

The factor 94.5 is from Table2.6 (see 42.12). The wet flue gas produced is

Table 2.7 Combustion Calculations for Various Fuels
Gas

Oil
350 15 450 15 350 5 450 5 350 15 450 15 450 25

coal
550 25

T**' "F EA,%

350 5

450 5

9.06 19.11 70.93 0.90 19.17 4.74 6.44 0.12 0.09 11.32 10.89

8.34 17.70 71.48 2.48 20.9 5.23 7.09 0.10 0.13 10.89 11.32

12.88 12.37 73.83 0.92 16.31 5.13 6.96 0.09 0.12 6.63 6.89

11.82 11.47 74.19 2.53 17.77 5.62 7.63 0.10 0.14 6.63 6.89

13.38 7.10 75.43 3.94 0.15 13.42 8.91 11.25 0.15 0.19 4.3 4.46

Gas

Oil
350 15
~

coal
350 15 86.7 92.3 450 15
~ ~~~

Tgo.F O EA,%
~~

350 5
~

450 5
~

450 15

350 5

450 5

450 25 85.6 89.0
'

550 25

L ,% 4
Eh,

%

E,, 5%

M w

83.2 92.3

81.1 89.9 27.57

82.9 91.7

80.5 89.2 27.66

1.o 87.1 85.0 92.8 90.0 28.86

84.3 89.9 28.97

83.0 86.4 29.64

Coal:C=72.8, H2=4.8, N2=1.5, 02=6.2, S=2.2, H20=3.5, ash=9.0 (% weight); HHV=1313 Btunb; LHV=12,634 BWIb Oil: C=87.5, H2= 12.5 (% weight); "API=32; HHV= 19,727 Btu/lb; LHV= 18,512 Btu/lb G s Ch.,=97; G & = 2 , C,H,= 1 ( 6 vol); HHV=23,789 Btu/lb; LHV=21,462 Btunb a: 9

88

Ganapathy

745 X 1.128 X 1.013 lo6 (106/19,500) Hence

+

lo6 19,500

) = 17.6 lb/lbfuel

300 - 80 = 5.47% 18,400 The radiation loss on an HHV basis can be approximated by Q. (15d):

Wet gas loss = 100 X 17.6 X 0.26 X

Radiation loss = 10°.62-0.42 Q = 0.609’ log 0; Q = 1 0 0 M M Btu/hr Let us use 1.0%on an LHV basis, although this may be a bit high. Hence the efficiency on an LHV basis is 1 0 0 - 6.47 = 93.53%. The efficiency on an HHV basis would be [Eq. (3b)l q H H V X HHV = q L H V X LHV or

Thus, even in the absence of fuel ultimate analysis, the plant personnel can check the efficiency of boilers and heaters based on operating data.
2.21

Q: How is the loss due to incomplete combustion such as formation
of CO determined?

A. Effortsmustbemade

by the boilerandburnerdesignersto ensure that complete combustiontakesplaceinthefurnace. However, because of various factors such as size of fuel particles, turbulence, and availability of air to fuel and the mixing process, some carbon monoxide will be formed, which means losses. If CO is formed from carbon instead CO2, 10,600 Btu/ of lb is lost. This is the difference between the heat of reaction of the two processes C + O2 + CO2 and C O2 ”-* CO

+

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f The loss inBtuAb is given by [ l ] L =
CO

89

+ CO,

X 10,160 X C

where C is the carbon in fuel, fraction by weight, and CO and CO, are v01 % of the gases.
EXAMPLE

Determine the losses due to formation ofif coal with HHV of CO 12,000 Btu/lb is fired in a boiler, given that CO and CO, in the flue gas are 1.5% and 17% and the fuel has a carbon content of
56%.

Solution.

Substituting into the equationgiven above,

loss or 3.8% on HHV basis (dividing in Btu/lb by HHV)
2.22

Q:

Is there a simple formula to estimate the efficiency of boilers and heaters if the excess air and exit gas temperature are known and the fuel analysis is not available?
between the flue gas exit temperature and the ambient temperature. The following expressions have been derived from combustion calculations of typical natural gas and oil fuels. These may be used for quick estimations. For natural gas:

A: Boiler efficiency depends mainly onexcess air and the difference

+ 0.0195 X EA) X AT TLHV, % = 99.0 - (0.001244 + 0.0216 X EA) X AT
THHV, % = 89.4 - (0.001123

(16a)
(16b)

For fuel oils:
% = 92.9 - (0.001298 TLHV, % = 99.0 - (0.001383
7)HHV,

+ 0.01905 X EA) X AT + 0.0203 X EA) X AT

where
EA = excess air factor (EA = 1.15 means 15% excess

air)

90

Ganapathy

AT = difference between exit gas and ambient temperatures EXAMPLE Natural gas at 15% excess air is fired in a boiler, with exit gas temperature 280°F and ambient temperature 80°F. Determine the boiler efficiency. EA = 1.15 and AT = (280 - 80) = 200°F. Solution.
qHHV

= 89.4 - (0.001123
=

+ 0.0195
+

x 1.15)

qLHV

X (280 - 80) = 84.64% 99.0 - (0.001244 0.0216 x 1-15) X (280 - 80) = 93.78%

The above equations are based 1% radiation plus unaccounted on losses.
2.23

Q:

The average surface temperature of the aluminum casing of a 'gas-fired boiler was measured to be 180°F when the ambient 5 mph. The temperature was 85°F and the wind velocity was boiler was firing 50,000 scfh of natural gas with LHV = 1075 Btulscf. Determine the radiation loss on an LHV basis total if the surface area of the boiler was 2500 ft2. Assume that the emissivityofthecasing = 0.1. This example shows how radiation loss can be obtained from the mph measurement of casing temperatures. The wind velocity 5is = 440 fpm. From 44.51 we see that the heat loss q in Btu/ft2hr will be
= 0.173 X lo-* X 0.1 X [(460

A

+ 180)4 - (460 +

+ 0.296
Btu/ft2
= 252

x (180
hr

-

85)'.25 x

/,

440

69

+ 69
(17)

The total heat loss will be2500 X 252 = 0.63 X lo6 Btulhr. The radiation loss on an LHV basis will be 0.63 X IO6 X 1001

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

of Boilers and Heaters

9 1

(50,000 X 1075) = 1.17%. If the HHV of the fuel were 1182 Btulscf, the radiation loss on an HHV basis would be 0.63 X 1182/1075 = 1.06%.

2.24

Q: How does the radiation loss vary with boiler duty or load? How
does this affect the boiler efficiency?

A

The heat losses from the surface of a boiler will be nearly the same at all loads if the ambient temperature and wind velocity are the same. Variations in heat losses can occur owing to differences in the gas temperature profilein the boiler, which varies with load. However, for practical purposes this variation can be considered minor. Hence the heat as a percent will increase loss as the boiler duty decreases. The boiler exit gas temperature decreases with a decrease in in load or duty and contributes to some improvement efficiency, which is offset by the increase in radiation losses. Hence there will be a slight increase in efficiency as the load increases, and after a certain load, efficiency decreases. or The above discussion pertains to fired water tube fire tube boilers andnot waste heatboilers, which have to be analyzed for each load because the gas flow and inlet gas temperature can vary significantly with load depending on the typeof process or application.

2.25a Q: Discusstheimportanceofdewpointcorrosion
heaters fired with fuels containing sulfur.

in boilersand

A: During the process of combustion, sulfur in fuels such as coal,
oil, and gas is converted to sulfur dioxide. Some portion of it (1 to 5%) is converted to sulfur trioxide, which can combine with water vapor in the flue gas to form gaseous sulfuricacid. If the surface in contact withthe gas is cooler thanthe acid dew point, sulfuric acid can condense on it, causing corrosion. ADP (acid

92

Ganapathy

dew point) is dependent on several factors, such as excess air, percent sulfur in fuel, percent conversion of SOz to SO3, and partial pressure of water vapor inthe flue gas. Manufacturers of economizers andair heaters suggest minimum cold and temperatures that are required to avoid corrosion. Figures and 2.2 are 2.1 typical. Sometimes, the minimum fluid temperature, which affects the tube metal temperature, is suggested. The following [8]: equation gives a conservative estimate of the acid dew point
Z& = 1.7842 0.0269 log pw - 0.129 log pso, 0.329 log pw X log pso,

+

+

(18)

where
p w = partial pressure of water vapor, atm pso, = .partial pressure of sulfur trioxide, atm

G = acid dew point, K ,

Area of Corrosion, Fouling and Acid Soot Emission
c 0 .W V

c

L

I
c

c

0

Area of Safe

100

120

140

160

Acid Dewpoint Temperature (ADT'C)

Figure 2.1 Therelationshipbetween SO3 and ADT. (Courtesy of Land Combustion Inc.)

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f
260 I

93

I

I

I

I

I

m .I n 0
Q)

C

120 0.0001
(1ppm)

1

0.001 (10 ppml

I

0.0 1 (100 ppm)

I

0. l

I

1.0

I I IIU

3.0 5.0

Sulfur in Fuel % by Weight (as fired)

Figure 2.2 Limiting tube-metal temperatures to avoid external corrosion
in economizers and air heaters when burning fuels containing sulfur. (From Steam: Its Generation and Use, 39th ed., Babcock and Wilcox, courtesy of the publisher.)

Table 2.8 givestypical psoJ values for variousfuelsand excess air. 4 2 . 1 8 ~ shows how pso, can be computed. A practical way to determine GPis to use a dew point meter. An estimation of the cold-end metal temperature can give an indication of possible corrosion.

2.25b Q: How is the dewpointofanacid
A:

gas computed?

Table 2.9 shows the dew point correlationsfor various acid gases 1, 111. 9 Flue gas from an incinerator has the following analysis: H20 = 12, SOz = 0.02, HCl = 0.0015% by volumeandtherest oxygen and nitrogen. Gas pressure = 10 in. wg. Compute the dew points of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids given that 2% of

Q4

Ganapathy
SO3 inFlueGas(ppm)

Table 2.8
air Fuel Oil Coal
(%)

Excess

Sulfur (%)

0.5 2 6 37 -

1.0
3

2.0
3 8

3.05.0 4 10 2040

4.0
5 12 27-54

5
11 25

7 7-14

14-28

6 14 33-66

Table 2.9 Dew Points of Acid Gases'
Hydrobromic acid

1000/Tdp= 3.5639 - 0.1350 h (PH20) - 0.0398 In (PHBr) + 0.00235 In (PHzo) In (PHBr)
Hydrochloric acid 1000/7'~p 3.7368 - 0.1591 In = (PHzO) - 0.0326 In (pH,-,) + 0.00269 In (PHzO) In ( P H ~ ) Nitricacid loOO/Tdp = 3.6614 - 0.1446 h (pH@) - 0.0827 In (PHNO,) 0.00756 In (PHP) In (PHNo,) Sulfurousacid 1000/Td, = 3.9526 - 0.1863 In (P,,) + 0.000867 In (Psa) - 0.000913 In (PH20)In (PS&) Sulfuric acid loOO/Tdp = 2.276 - 0.0294 h (pH2())0.0858 In (PH,SO,) + 0.0062 In (P& In (PH~SO,)

+

*Tdp dew point temperature (K), and P is partial pressure (mm Hg). Compared with is published data, the predicted dew points are within about 6 K of actual values except for H,SO,, which is within about 9 K. Source: HCI, HBr, HN03 and SOz correlations werederived from vapor-liquid equilibrium data. The H,SO, correlation is from Ref. 5 .

SO1 converts to SO3. In order to use the correlations, the gas pressuresmustbeconvertedto mm Hg. Atmospheric pressure = 10 in. wg = 10/407 = 0.02457 atmgor 1.02457 atm abs.

PH~O 0.12 X 1.02457 X 760 = 93.44 mm Hg, = ln(PHz(-J = 4.537

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

95

PHc, = 0.00015 X 1.0245 X 760 = 0.1168 m m Hg, ln(PH,-,) = - 2.1473

Partial pressures of sulfuric acid and SO3 are equal. Hence P ,'
= 0.02 X 0.0002 X 760 X 1.0245 = 0.0031 mmHg, ln(Pso,) = -5.7716

Substituting into the equations, we obtain the following. For hydrochloric acid:

'Oo0= 3.7368 - 0.1591 X 4.537 + 0.0326 X 2.1473
" - 0.00269
X 4.537 X 2.1473 = 3.0588

or T+ = 327 K = 54°C = 129°F

For sulfuric acid:

'Oo0= 2.276 - 0.0294 X 4.537 + 0.0858 X 5.7716
4.537 X 5.7716 = 2.4755 or qp = 404 K = 131°C = 268°F Thedewpoints manner. of other gases can be obtained in a similar

" - 0.0062 X

2.256 Q: Does the potential for acid dew point corrosion decrease gas temperature at the economizer is increased?

if the

A

Acid dewpointswerecomputedin Q2.25a. If the tubewall temperatures can be maintained above the dew point, then con. densation of.vapors is unlikely. However, the tube wall temperature in a gas to liquid heat exchanger suchas the economizer is governed by the gas film heat transfer coefficient rather than the tube-side water coefficient, which is very high. It can be shown by using the electrical analogy and neglecting the effects of fouling that 191
fm = to

-

(to - ti)

x

hi

+ h,

hi

96

Ganapathy

where

r, = tube wall temperature r, = gas and tube-side fluid temperature hi = tube-side heat transfer coefficient h, = gas-side heat transfer coefficient In aneconomizer, hi is typically.about loo0 Btu/ftz hr "F and h, is about 15 Btu/ft2 hr "F. Let us assumethat water temperatureti = 250°F and compute the walltemperature r, for two gas temperatures, 350°F and 750°F.
rml = 350
tmz =

-

(350 - 250)0 x O ' o 250) X

- = 252"F, 1015
- = 258°F looO 1015

750

- (750 -

Hence for a variation of400°F in gas temperature, the tube wall temperature changes by only 6°F because the gas film heat transfer coefficient is so low compared to the water-side coefficient. Even with finned tubes the difference would be marginal. We see that by specifying a higher stack temperature when gas selecting or designing an economizer we cannot avoid corrosion concerns if the water temperature is low or close to the acid dew point. A better way is to increase the water temperature entering the economizer by raising the deaerator pressure or by using a heat exchanger to preheat the water.
2.26a

Q:

How do youconvertpollutantssuch as NO, and CO from gas turbine exhaust gases from mass units such as lbhr to ppm? With strict emission regulations, plant engineers and consultants of often find it necessary to relate mass and volumetric units pollutants such as NO, and CO. In gas turbine cogeneration and combined cycle plants, in additionto the pollutants from thegas turbine itself, one has to consider the contributions from duct burners or auxiliary burners that are added to increase the steam generation from the HRSGs (heat recovery steam generators).

A

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

o Boilers and f Heaters

97

One can easily obtain the total lbhr of NO, or COin the exhaust gas. However,regulationsreferto NO, andCOin ppmvd (partsper million volume dry) referred 15% oxygen in to the gas. The conversion can be done as follows. If W lb/hr is the flow rateof NO, (usually reported as NO2) ain turbine exhaust flowof W lb/hr, the following expression gives NO,in volumetric units on dry basis [9].

v=
where

100 x

(w/46)/( WIMW) 100 - %H20

%H20 = volume of water vapor MW = molecular weight of the exhaust gases The value of Vobtained with (19) must be converted to 15% Eq. oxygen on dry basis to give ppmvd of NO,:
v,=

V
21

- 100

X (21 - 15) X lo6 X %02/(100 - %H,O)

=

v

x l(20)

where %02 is the oxygen present in the wet exhaust gases and factor F converts V to 15% oxygen basis, which is the usual basis of reporting emissions.Similarly, CO emission in ppmvd can be obtained as

V , (for thesame W lbhr rate) because the ratio of the molecular weights of NOz and CO is 1.642.
X

V, = 1.642

EXAMPLE Determinethe NO, andCOconcentrations in ppmvd,15% oxygen dry basisif 25 lbhr of NO, and 15 lb/hr of CO are present in 550,000 lb/hr of turbine exhaust gas that has the following analysis by % volume (usually argon is added to nitrogen content): C02 = 3.5, H20 = 10, N2 = 75, 0 2 = 11.5 Solution. First, MW = (3.5 X 44 + 10 X 18 75 X 28 11.5 X 32)/100 = 28

+

+

98

Ganapathy

Let us compute NO, on dry

basis in the exhaust.

V = F =
Hence

100 X (2946) = 0.OOO03074. (550,000/28)/(100 - 10) lo6 X (21 - 15) = 0.73 X 21 - [100/(100 - lo)] X 11.5

lo6

V , = 0.00003074 X 0.73 X 10' = 16.4 ppmvd Similarly, V , = (15/25) X 1;642 X 16.4 = 16.2 ppmvd.

2.26b Q: How can the emissions due to NO, and CO be converted from
ppm to lb/MM Btu or vice versa [lo]?

A

Packaged steam generators firing gas or oil must limit emissions of pollutants in order to meet state andfederalregulations. Criteria on emissions of common pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NO,) are often specified in 3% oxygen. On the parts per million volume dry (ppmvd) at other hand, burner and boiler suppliers often cite or guarantee values in pounds per million Btu fired. Table 2.10 demonstrates a simple method for calculating the conversion. It should be noted that excess air has little effect on the conversion factor. Table 2.10 shows the results of combustion calculations for natural gas and No. 2 oil at various excess air levels. The table shows the flue gas analysis, molecular weight,, and amount of flue gas produced per million Btu fired on higher heating value (HHV) basis. Using these, we will arrive at the relationship between ppmvd values of NO, or CO to the corresponding values in lb/MM Btu fired. CALCULATIONS FOR NATURAL GAS From simple mass to mole conversions we have 21 - 3 N v , = l O 6 X Y X - x - MW x 21 - 0 2 x Y 46 Wgm

(21)

Fuels, Combustion, Efficiency and

o Boilers Heaters f and

99

Table 2.10 Results of CombustionCalculations
Percent excess air
0
10 20 30

0

10

20

30

Component (v01 %)
~~ ~

Natural gas'
9.47 19.91 70.62 0 27.52 768 8.68 18.38 71.22 3.18 1.72 8.02 17.08 71.73 7.45 15.96 72.16 4.43 27.77 966 13.49 12.88 73.63 0 28.87 790

No. 2 oilb
12.33 11.90 74.02 1.76 28.85 864 11.35 11.07 74.34 3.24 28.84 938 10.51 10.36 74.62 4.50 28.82 1011

c02 H20
N2
0 2

MW
Wgm

27.62 27.68 841 914

"Natural gas analysis assumed: C, =97, C,= 2, C,= 1 v01 %. (Higher and lower heating values = 23,759 and 21,462 Btullb, respectively.) WO. 2 oil analysis assumed: C=87.5%, Hz= 12.5%. deg API=32. (Higher and lowerheatingvalues = 19,727 and 18,512 Btullb, respectively.)

where MW = molecular weight of wet flue gases N = pounds of NO, per million Btu fired O2 = % volume of oxygen in wet flue gases V , = parts per million volume dry NO, Wgm = flue gas produced per MMBtu fired, Ib Y = 100/(100 - %H,O), where H20is thevolume of water vapor in wet flue gases. From Table 2.10, for zero excess air: Wgm = (106/23,789) X 18.3 = 769 Y = 100/(100 - 19.91) = 1.248 MW = 27.53, 02 = 0 Substituting these into Eq. (21) we have

V, =
X

106 X 1.248 X

N

X 27.52

18 (46 X 769 X 21)

= 832 N

100

Ganapathy

Similarly, to obtain ppmvd CO (parts per million volume dry CO), one would use 28 instead of 46 in the denominator. Thus 46 and the calculated the molecular weight ofNO,wouldbe molecular weight of CO would equal 28.

V, = 1367 CO where CO is the pounds of CO per MM Btu fired on higher heating value basis. Now repeat the calculations for 30% excess air:
Wgm = 986.6, MW = 27.77,

Y
02

100 = 4.43

=

-

10 0 15.96

= 1.189,

V, = lo6
X

46 18 21 - (4.43 X 1.189)

X 1.189 X

N 27.77 - x-

986.6

= 832 X

N

Thus, independent of excess air, we obtain 832 as the conversion factor for NO, and 1367 for CO. Similarly, the No. 2 oil and using values from Table 2.10,

V, = 783 N and V, = 1286 CO EXAMPLE If a natural gas burner generates Ib of NO, per MM Btu fired, 0.1 thentheequivalent would equal 832 X 0.1 = 83 ppmvd.

2.27
Q: In gas turbine cogeneration and combined cycle projects the heat recoverysteamgeneratormaybefiredwithauxiliaryfuelin order to generate additional steam. One of the frequently asked questions concerns the consumptionoxygen in the exhaust gas of versus fuel quantity fired. Would there be sufficient oxygen in the exhaust to raise the exhaust gas to the desired temperature?

A Gas turbine exhaust gases typically contain to 16% oxygen by : 14

21 volume compared to % in air. Hence generally there is no need r for additional oxygen to fire auxiliary fuel such as gas or oil o

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency o Boilers and Heaters f

101

even coal while raising its temperature.(If the gas turbine is injected with large amounts steam, the oxygen content will be of lower, and we should refer the analysis to a burner supplied.) Also if the amount of fuel fired very large, then we can run is out of oxygen in the gas stream. Supplementary firing or auxiliary firing can double or even quadruple the steam generation in the boiler comparedto its unfired modelof operation [l]. The energy Q in Btu/hr required to raise W lbhr of exhaust gases from a , temperature of tl to t2 is given by

Q

=

W, X

(h, - h )

where

hl, h2 = enthalpy of the gas at tl and t2, respectively. The fuel quantity in Ib/hr is W,in Q/LHV, where LHV is the lower heating value of the fuel in Btu/lb. If 0% volume of oxygen is available in the exhaust gases, the , equivalent amount of air W in the exhaust is [g]

W, = 100

X W, X 0 X 32 23 X 100 X 29.5

In this equation we are merely converting the moles of oxygen from volume to weight basis. molecular weightof 29.5 is used A for the exhaust gases, and 32 for oxygen.The factor 100/23 converts the oxygen to air. W, = 0.0417 X Wg X 0 (22) Now let us relate theair required for combustion with fuelfired. From Q1.03 to Q1.OS we know that each MM Btu of fuel fired A on an HHVbasis requires a constant amount of air. A is 745 for oil and 730 for natural gas; thus, 106/HHV Ib of fuel requires A lb of air. Hence Q/LHV Ib of fuel requires

Q HHV X A X - Ib of air LHV 1 o6 and this equals W, from (22).
LHV
Q

x A x - HHV
1 o6

=

W, =

0.0417

W, X 0 (23)

102

Ganapathy

or
Q = 0.0417 X

W, X

0 X lo6 X

LHV A x HHV

(24)

Now for natural gas and fueloils, it can be shown that LHV/(A X HHV) = 0.00124. Hence substituting into Eq. (24), we get

Q = 58.4 X W X 0 , (25) This isa very important equation, as it relates the energy input by the fuel (on an LHV basis) with oxygen consumed. EXAMPLE It is desired to raise the temperatureof 150,000 Ib/hr of turbine exhaust gases from 950°F to 1575°F in order to double the output of the waste heat boiler. the exhaust gases contain volume If 15% of oxygen, and the fuel input is 29 MM Btu/hr (LHV basis), determine the oxygen consumed. Solution. From (4), 29 X lo6 = 3.32% O= 150,000 X 58.4 Hence if the incoming gases had 15% volume of oxygen, even after the firing of29 MM Btu/hr, wewould have 15 - 3.32 = 11.68% oxygen in the exhaust gases. A more accurate method would be to usecomputer program a [9], but the above equation clearly tellsif there is likely to be us a shortage of oxygen.
2.28

Q: How can the fuel consumption

for power plant equipment such as gas turbines and diesel engines determined if the heat rates be are known? indirectly to the efficiency. Efficiency = 3413 HR

A: The heat rate (HR) of gas turbines or engines in Btu/kWh refers

where 341 3 is the conversion factor from Btu/hr to kW. One has to careful about the basis for the heat whether be rate,

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

103

it is on an HHVor LHV basis. The efficiency will be on the same basis.

EXAMPLE If the heat rate for a gas turbine is 9000 BtukWh on an LHV basis, and the higher and lower heating values of the fuel are 20,000 and 22,000 Btu/lb, then
Efficiency on LHVbasis
=
3413 - = 0.379, 9000

or 37.9%

To convert this efficiency to an HHV basis, simply multiply it by the ratio of the heating values: Efficiency HHV on basis = 37.9 X
20,000 22,000
= 34.45%

NOMENCLATURE
A

c, CO, CO;!
cll c,
e

E EA HHV

HR
hi, h,

K K , , K;! L, to L, LHV MW
pc,
pH20

Theoretical amount ofair for combustion per MM Btu fired, lb Carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide Ash concentration in flue gas, grainsku ft Specific heat, Btu/lb "F Emission rate of sulfur dioxide, lb/MM Btu Excess air, % Excess air factor Higher heating value, Btullb or Btuhcf Heat rate, Btu/kWh Inside and outside heat transfer coefficients, Btu/ftz hr "F Constant used in Eq. (7) Constants used in Eqs. (loa) and (1Oc) Losses in steam generator, % Lower heating value, Btu/lb or Btulscf Molecular weight Partial pressures of carbon dioxide and water vapor,atm Partial pressure of sulfur trioxide, atm Actual and standard pressures, psia Differential pressure, psi

104

Ganapathy

Heat loss, Btu/ft2 hr Energy, Btu/hr or kW Specific gravity Sulfur in fuel Temperatures of air, gas, "F Melting point of ash, "C; tube wall temperature, "C Acid dew point temperature, K Standard and actual temperatures, "R Standard and actual volumes, cu ft CO and NO,, ppmvd Weight of air, Ib/lb fuel; subscript da stands for dry air; wa, wet air; wg, wet gas; dg, dry gas Moisture, Ib/hr Flow rates of air, gas, and fuel, Ib/hr Efficiency; subscripts HHV and LHV denote the basis Density, lbku ft; subscript g stands for gas, f for fuel

REFERENCES
1 .

V. Ganapathy, Applied Heat Transfer,PennWell Books, Tulsa, Okla.,
1982, pp. 14-24.

2. North American Combustion Handbook, ed., North American Mfg. 2nd Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1978, pp. 9-40. 3. Babcock and Wilcox, Steam: Its Generation and Use, 38th ed., New

4.
5.

6. 7.
8.

9. 10.
1. 1

York, 1978, p. 6-2. V. Ganapathy, Use chart to estimate furnace parameters, Hydrocarbon Processing, Feb. 1982, p. 106. V. Ganapathy, Figure particulate emission rate quickly, Chemical Engineering, July 26,1982, p. 82. V. Ganapathy, Nomogram estimates melting point ash, Power Engiof neering, March 1978, p. 61. ASME, Power Test Code, Performance test code for steam generating units, PTC 4.1, ASME, New York, 1974. V. Ganapathy, Estimate combustion gas dewpoint, Oil and Gas Journal, April 1978, p. 105. V. Ganapathy, Waste Heat Boiler Deskbook, Fairrnont Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1991. V. Ganapathy, Converting ppm to IblMM Btu; an easy method, Power Engineering, April 1992, p. 32. K.Y.Hsiung, Predicting dew pointsof acid gases. Chemical Engineering, Feb. 9,1981, p. 127.

3
Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

3.01: Sizingflowmeters;dischargecoefficientsfor orifices, venturis, and nozzles; permanent pressure drop across flow meters; correctingsteamflowreadingsfordifferentoperating conditions 3.02: Sizing orifices for water flow measurement; avoiding trial-anderror procedure 3.03: Sizingorificesforsteamflowmeasurement
3.04: Significance of permanent pressure drop flow meters; cost in of

permanent pressure drop across flow meters
3.05:

Convertingpitottubereadingstoair

velocity, flow in ducts

3.06:
3.07:

Sizingsafetyvalves for boilers; ASME Codeprocedure Relieving capacities for steam service; orifice designations for safety valves; relating set and accumulated inlet pressures
105

106

Ganapathy

3.08: 3.09: 3.10: 3.11: 3.12: 3.13: 3.14: 3.15: 3.16: 3.17:

Selecting safetyvalves for boilersuperheater;actualandrequired relieving capacities Relieving capacities of a given safety valve on different gases Relieving capacity of safety relief valve for liquid service air

Determining relieving capacity of a given safety valve on and steam service Sizingcontrolvalves;valvecoefficient
C,

Calculating C, for steamservice;saturatedandsuperheated steam; critical and noncritical flow Calculating C, for liquidservice On cavitation:recovery factors Selectingvalves for laminarflow Calculatingpressure loss inwater line; determiningfriction factor for turbulent flow; equivalent length of piping; viscosity of water Pressure loss in boiler superheater; estimating friction factor in smooth tubes; pressure drop in smooth tubing; Reynolds number for gases Determining pressure drop under laminar conditions; pressure drop in fuel oil lines; effect temperature on specific volume, of viscosity of oils Pressure drop for viscous liquids; friction factor under turbulent conditions

3.18:

3.19:

3.20:

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and
3.21: 3.22: 3.23:

Drop Calculations

107

Calculating flow in gpm and in lb/hr for fuel oils; expansion factors for fuel oils at different temperatures Pressure loss in natural gas lines using Spitzglass formula Calculating pressure dropof flue gas and air in ducts; friction factors; equivalent diameter for rectangular ducts; Reynolds number estimation Determining Reynolds numberfor superheated steamin tubes; viscosity of steam; Reynolds number forair flowing over tube bundles Determining flow in parallel passes of a superheater Equivalent length piping system; equivalent length valves of of and fittings Pressure drop of air and flue gases over plain tube bundles; friction factor for in-line and staggered arrangements Pressure drop of air and flue gases over finned tube bundles Factors influencing boiler circulation Purpose of determining circulation ratio Determining circulation ratio in water tube boilers

3.24:

3.25: 3.26:

3.27: 3.28: 3.29: 3.30: 3.31:

3-32: Determining circulation ratio in fire tube boilers 3.33: 3.34: 3.35:

Determining steam flow in blowoff lines Sizing boiler blowdown lines Stackheightandfrictionlosses

18 0

Ganapathy

3.01a

Q: How are flow meterssized?

A The basic equation for pressure differential in head meters (ven:
turi, nozzles, orifices) is [l]

where
W = flow of the fluid, Ib/hr do = orifice diameter, in. Y = expansion factor, which allows for changes in densityof compressible fluids (for liquids Y = 1, and for most gases it varies from 0.92 to 1.0) p = ratio of orifice to pipe inner diameter = dJdi p = density of fluid, Ibku ft c = a coefficient of charge d
c may d

be taken as 0.61 for orifices and 0.95 to 0.98 for venturis and nozzles. It is a complicated function of Reynolds number and orifice size. The permanent pressuredrop, Ap, across a flow meter is important, as itmeanslossinpower or additional consumption of energy. It is the highest for orifices [2]:

AP = h X (1 - p2) For nozzles,
h P = h x
1 1

(1b)

- p2 + p2

and for venturis it depends on the angle divergence but varies of from 10 to 15% of h. 43.04 discusses the significanceof permanent pressure drop and the cost associated with it.

3.01b Q: The differential pressure across an orifice of a steam f

l meter ~ ~ shows 180 in. WC when the upstream conditions are 1600 psia and 900°F. The steam flow was calibrated at 80,000 Ib/hr under

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and

Drop Calculations

IO9

these conditions. Because of different plant load requirements, 800°F. If the differenthe steam parameters are 900 psia and now tial pressure is 200 in. WC, what is the steam flow?

A From :

Q. (la),

where
W = steamflow,Ib/hr v = specific volume, cu ft/lb h = differentialpressure,in. WC p = density,Ib/cuft

From the steam tables (see the Appendix),
v I = 0.4553 cu ft/lb at1600psia,900°F
v, = 0.7716 cu ft/lb at 900 psia, 800°F

h, = 180, find W,. 80,000

h, = 200,

and W, = 80,OOO. We to need

180 X 0.7716= 1.235 W2 200 X 0.4553 Hence W , = 64,770 lblhr
3.02

=J

Q: Determine the orifice size to iimit the differential pressureto 100
in in. WC when 700 Ib/sec of water at 60°F flows a pipe of inner diameter 18 in. The density of water is 62.4 lb/cu ft.

A: Equation (la) is not handy to use when it is required to solve for the orifice diameter do. Hence, by substituting for p = dJdi and
simplifying, we have

This equation is easy to use either when orifice size is needed or whenflowthrough a givenorificeisrequired.Theterm p

I10

Ganapathy

is a functionof p and can be looked up from Table 3.1. Substituting for W = 700 X 3600, C, = 0.61, Y = 1 p = , 62.4, and h = 100, wehave
700 X 3600 = 359 X 0.61 X 1 X 18* d62.4 X 100

m

x F(P)

or F @ ) = 0.45 From Table 3.1, by interpolation, we note that (3 = 0.64. Thus the orifice diameter do = 0.64 X 18 = 11.5 in.
3.03

Q: What size of orifice is needed to pass a saturated steam flow of

26,480 lb/hr when the upstream pressure is 1000 psia and line size is 2.9 in. and the differential is not to exceed 300 in. WC?

A

Using Eq. (2) andsubstituting Y = 0.95, p = l/v = 1/0.4456 = 2.24 lbku ft, and di = 2.9, wehave

W

= 26,480 = 359 X 0.61 X 0.95 X 2.92 X

F(P)

X d2.24 X 300

Hence

F(P) = 0.58
From Table 3.1, p = 0.71. Hence
do = 0.71
X 2.9 = 2.03

in.

Table 3.1 F(p) Values for Solving Eq. (2)
B
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
0.8

F(@)

=

p 2 / K q F

0.09

0.162

0.258 0.39
0.83

0.562

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations
3.04

111

Q: What is the significance of a permanent pressure drop across the

flow measurement device?I .3 million scfh of natural gas witha 2 specific gravity of 0.62 at 1 5 psia is metered using an orifice plate with a differential head of 100 in. WC. The line size is 12 in. What are the operating costs involved? Assume that electricity costs 20 mills/kWh. orifice. Use a molecular weight of 0.62 X 29 = 18 to compute the density. (The molecular weight of any gas = specific gravity X 29.) From Q 1.03,
p = 18 X 492 X
359 X 520 X 1 5

A: The first step is to size the

15 2

= 0.39

Ibku ft

(A temperature of 60°F was assumed.) The density at standard conditions of 60"F, 15 psia, is
p=18X 492 359 X 520
= 0.047

Ib/cuft
122

Hence mass flow is

W

= 1.3 X

IO6 X 0.047 = 359

X 0.61 X

F @ ) = 0.31

X d0.39 X 100 X F @ )

From Table 3.1, p = 0.55, so p2 = 0.3. The permanent pressure drop, from 43.01, is
h = (l p

- p2)h =

(1 - 0.3)

X

100 = 70 in. WC

The horsepower consumed in developing this head is HP = scfh X (460

+ t) x

AP
P
X

107

Itwasassumedinthederivationof Q. (3) thatcompressor efficiency was 75%. Substitution yields HP = 1;3 X lo6 X 520 The annual cost of operation
X

17 X 15 0 2

70

= 38

is

38 X 0.746 X 8000 X 0.02 = $4535

112

Ganapathy (8000 hours of operation was assumed per year; factor converting horsepower to kilowatts.)
0.746 is the

3.05 Q: Often, pitot tubes are used to measure air velocities in ducts in order to compute the air flow. A pitot tubein a duct handlingair
at 200°F shows a differential of 0.4 in. WC. If the duct cross section is 4 ft2, estimate the air velocity and the flow rate.

A: It can be shown [3] by substituting p
pitot,

= 40/(460

+ t ) that for a

V = 2.85 x .\/h x
where
V = velocity, fps

(460

+ t)

h = differential pressure, in. WC t = air or flue gas temperature, "F V = 2.85 X d0.4 X 660 = 46 fps The air flow rate in acfm will be 46 X 4 X 60 = 11,040 acfm. The flow W in Ib/hr = 11,040 X 60 X 40/660 = 40,145 lb/hr. [W = acfm X 60 X density, anddensity = 40/(460 t).]

+

3.06

Q: How are safetyvalves for boilerssized?

A

The ASME Code for boilers and pressure vessels (Secs. 1 and 8) describes the procedure for sizing safety or relief valves. For boilers with 500 ft2 or moreofheating surface, two or more safety valves must be provided. Boilers with superheaters must have at least one valve on the superheater. The valves on the 75% of thetotalboilercapacity. drummustrelieveatleast Superheater valves must relieve at least 20%. Boilers that have on the reheater reheatersmusthaveatleastonesafetyvalve outlet capable of handling a minimum of 15% of the flow. The remainder of the flow must be handledby valves at the reheater
inlet.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop

Calculations

I3 1

If there are only two valves for a boiler, the capacity of the smaller one must be at least 50% of that of the larger one. The difference between drum pressure and the lowest set valve may be at least 5% above drum pressure but never more than the design pressure and not less than 10 psi. The range between the is not to be lowest set boiler valveandthehighestsetvalue greater than 10% of the set pressure of the highest set valve. After blowing, each valve is to close at 97% of its set pressure. The highest set boiler valve cannot be set higher than 3% over the design pressure. Theguidelinesabove are some ofthoseusedinselecting safety valves. For details the reader should refer to the ASME Code [4].

3.07 Q: How are the capacities of safety valves for steam service determined?

A The relieving capacities of safety valves are given by the follow. ing expressions. ASME Code, Sec. 1 uses a 90% rating, while Sec. 8 uses a 100% rating [ 5 ] . W = 45APSsh (5a) W = 50APJsh (5b) where W = lb/hr of steam relieved A = nozzle or throat area of valve, in.2 P, = accumulatedinletpressure = P , X (1 + acc) 15, psia (The factor acc is the fraction of pressure accumulation.) P, = setpressure,psig &, = correction factor for superheat (see Figure 3. l )

+

The nozzleareas of standard orifices are specified by letters D to T and are given in Table 3.2. For saturated steam, the degree of superheat is zero, so Ksh= 1. The boiler safety valves are sized for 3% accumulation.

1l4

Ganapathy

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

i

TEMPERATURE.OF

Figure 3.1 Correction factors superheat. for
3.08

Q: Determinethe sizes of valves to be usedonaboilerthathasa
superheater; the parametersarethe following.
= 650,000 Ibhr Totalsteamgeneration Designpressure = 1500 psig = 1400 psig Drumoperatingpressure Steamoutlettemperature = 950°F Pressureaccumulation = 3% Superheateroutletoperatingpressure = 1340 psig

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

I l5

Table 3.2
Type

Orifice Designation

Area (in.2)
0.110 0.196 0.307 0.503 0.785 1.287 1.838 2.545 2.853 3.600 3.976 4.340 6.380 II .05 16.00

D E F
G H J
K K2 L M M2

N P

Q
R

A: Thesetpressuremustbesuch

that the superheater valve opens before the drum valves. Hence the set pressure can be (1500 60 - 40) = 1400psig(60isthepressuredropand40is a margin).Theinletpressure P, = 1.03 X 1400 15 = 1457 psia.FromFigure 3.1, Ksh = 0.79. W 130,000 A = = 2.51 in.2 45 X 0.79 X ’1457 45Kshpa

+

Weused a value of 130,000 Ib/hr, which is 20% of the total boiler capacity. A K2 orifice is suitable. This relieves (2.545/ 2.51) X 130,000 = 131,550 Ib/hr.ThedrumvalvesmustreAbout 260,000 lieve 650,000 - 131,550 = 518,450 Ib/hr. Ib/hr may be handled by each drum valve if two are used. Let the first valve be set at 1475 psig, or P, = 1.03 X 1475 15 = 1535 psia

+

andthenext Area of

at P, = 1575psia. first valve:

A

=

260’ooo 45 X 1535

= 3-76 ins2

16 1

Ganapathy

260,000 = 3.67 in.* 45 X 1575 UsetwoM2 orifices, which each have an area of 3.976 in.2 Relieving capacities are Area of second valve:
A =

3.976 3.76

+ - 3'976 3.67

X

260,000 = 556,000 lb/hr

which exceeds our requirement of 520,000 Ib/hr.

3.ma Q: How is the relieving capacity safety valves for gaseous service of
found?

A

The expressionusedforestimatingtherelievingcapacityfor gases and vapors [6] is

W

= CKAP,

J "T"

-

where
C = a function of the ratio ( k ) of specific heats of gases (Table 3.3) K = valve discharge coefficient, varies from 0.96 to 0.98 P, = accumulatedinletpressure = P,( 1 acc) 15, psia P, = set pressure, psig MW = molecular weight of gas T = absolute temperature, "R

+

+

3.Wb Q: A safety valve is setfor 100 psig for air service at 100°F and uses
if it isusedon a G orifice. Whatistherelievingcapacity ammonia service at 50"F, pressure being the same?

A: Assumethat k isnearlythesameforboth

air andammonia. Hence for the valve, C K A P , is a constant. For air, use C = 356, K = 0.98, A = 0.503, MW = 29, and T = 560.

Table 3.3 Constant C for Gas or VaporRelatedtoRatio
of Specific Heats ( k = C&,)
Constant

onstant

k
1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.10 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.24

C

k
1.26 1.28 1.30 1.32 1.34 1.36 1.38 1.40 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.48

C

k
1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.70 2.00 2.20

C

315 318 320 322 324 327 329 331 333 335 337 339

343 345 347 349 351 352 354 356 358 359 361 363

366 368 369 371 372 374 376 377 379 380 400 412

341

Source: Ref. 5 .

W, = 356 x 0.98 X 0.503 X (1.1 X 100
= 4990lblhr

+

15)

(An acc value of 0.10 was used above.) From Eq. (6), substituting MW = 17 and T = 510 for ammonia,wehave

Hence
Wamm

=

- = 4006 Ib/hr 4990 1 .246

3. loa Q: How are therelieving capacities for liquidsdetermined?

A: An expression for relieving capacity at 25% accumulation [5] is
q = 27.2AKs

vb

(7)

I18

Ganapathy

where
P , = setpressure,psig Pb = backpressure,psig K, = f i , S being the specific gravity A = orifice area, in.2 q = capacity, gpm
3.lob

Q: Determine the relievingcapacity of areliefvalueonaneconomizer if the set pressure is 300 psig, back pressure is 15 psig, and S = 1. Thevalvehasa G orifice (A = 0.503 in.2).

A

Using Eq. (7), we have q = 27.2 X 0.503 X 1 X v300 - 15 = 231 gpm = 231 X 500 = 115,000 lb/hr At 10% accumulation, q would be 0.6 X 231 = 140 gpm and the flow W = 70,000 Ib/hr. (500 is the conversion factor from gpm to lb/hr when S = 1.)

3.11

Q: A safety valve bears a rating of 20,017 Ib/hr at a set pressure of 450 psig for saturated steam. If the same valveis to be used for
air at the same set pressure and at 100"F, what capacity?
A:

is its relieving

For a given valve, CKAP, is a constant if the set pressure is the same. (See Q3.09a for definition of these terms.) For steam, 20,017 = 50 X KAP, Hence

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations For air,

19 1

W = CKAP,

, F /
o ::

C = 356, M W = 29, and T = 560"R for the case of air. Hence,
W, = 356 X 400.3 X

,/

= 32,430 lb/hr

Converting to acfm, we have
q = 32,430 X 560 X

15 0.081 x 492 x 465 x 60

= 244 acfm

(The density of air was estimated at 465 psia and 100°F.)
3.12

Q: How is the size of control valves for steam service determined?

A

Controlvalves are specifiedby C, or valve coefficients. The manufacturers of control valves provide these values(see Table 3.4). The C, provided must exceed the C, required. Also, C, at several points of possible operation of the valve must be found, and the best C, characteristics that meet the load requirements must be used, as controllability depends on this. For example, a quick-opening characteristic (see Figure 3.2) is desired for onoff service. A linear characteristic is desired for general flow control and liquid-level control systems, while equal percentage trim is desired for pressure control or in systems where pressure varies.Thecontrol valve supplier must be contacted for the selection and for proper actuator sizing. ( P , < 2P,) [7], For the noncritical flow of steam

c, =
c,
=

W X [l 0.00065 X (t - t,)] 2.11 x

+

m,

For critical flow (P, 2P,), I

W

X .[I

+ 0.00065 X
1.85 X P ,

( t - t,)]

Table 3 4 Flow Coefficient C . ,
Body
size (in.)

Port
diameter (in.)
!4
78

Total travel (in.)

Valve opening (% total travel)

Km
80
90
100

1 0 0.075 0.120 0.235 0.075 0.120 0.235 0.380 0.075 0.120 0.265 0.380 0.930 0.075 0.120 0.265 0.380 0.930 0.957 0.075 0.120 0.265 0.380 0.930 11 .5 1.92

20 0.115 0.190 040 .0 0.115 0.190 0.410 0.700 0.115 0.190 0.420 0.700 13 .9 0.115 0.190 0.420 0.700 13 .9 14 .5 0,115 0.190 0.420 0.700 13 .9 22 .9 31 .3

30 0.165 0.305 060 .0 0.165 0.305 0.610 11 .0 0.165 0.305 0.620 11 .0 2.12 0.165 0.305 0.620 11 .0 2.12 23 .1 0.165 0.305 0.620 11 .0 2.12 34 .1 48 .3

40

50

60 0.448 0.900 16 .5 0.448 0.910 18 .0 34 .0 048 .4 0.910 19 .0 37 .0 61 .2 0.448 0.910 19 .0 3.70 6.45 98 .6 0.448 0.910 19 .0 37 .0 6.70 86 .9 2. 46

70 0.625 12 .4 21 .5 0.625 13 .5 2.50 5.00 0.625 1.35 2.64 53 .0 81 .3 0.625 1.35 2.64 5.53 9.31 15.2 0.625 13 .5 2.64 57 .0 9.90 1. 25 35.9

and C,

0"

1

3 4

9 5
1
Y 4

! h

Y4
1%

w
1

! 4

%

Y4

2

!4 %
!42

Y4

1
3
1% '/4

% %

Y4
1 1% 2

0.230 0.321 0.450 0.628 0.860 1 1 .6 0.230 0.321 0.450 0.630 0.900 1 2 .6 2.36 15 .7 0.230 0.321 0.450 0.630 0.915 1.31 24 .5 16 .5 3.10 4.44 0.230 0.321 . 0.450 0.630 .1 0.915 1 3 16 .5 24 .5 31 .0 4.50 3.70 6.05 0.230 0.321 0.450 0.630 .1 0.915 1 3 2.45 16 .5 4.50 31 .0 4.77 6.44 1. 26 7.93

.5 0.870 1 1 16 .8 21 .8 28 .5 34 .0 .0 0.870 1 2 2.78 19 .7 4.50 34 .5 6.67 6.30 .0 0.870 1 2 2.78 19 .7 45 .6 36 .5 88 .8 7.10 11.5 1. 01 .0 0.870 1 2 27 .8 1.97 4.89 3.65 1. 03 8.00 1. 57 1. 29 22.0 20.2 .0 0.870 1 2 27 .8 19 .7 4.89 36 .5 1. 23 8.66 1. 79 13.2 26.7 1. 92 43.4 40.5

14 .7 26 .9 36 .6 15 .6 3.68 53 .6 6.95 15 .6 36 .8 6.04 1. 02 1. 22 15 .6 3.68 6.44 1. 23 1. 78 22.0 15 .6 36 .8 6.44 1. 48 23.6 32.2 4. 43

0.70 0.80 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.80 0.75 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.70 07 .0 0.75 0.79 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.65 0.74 0.72

2
= u'

E

2

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and

Drop Calculations

121

Figure 3.2 Typical control valve characteristics.
where
t , t, = steamtemperatureandsaturationtemperature(for saturatedsteam, t = ts)

W = steam flow, Ib/hr P, = totalpressure ( P ,
3.13a

+ P2), psia

Q:

Estimate the C, required when 60,000 Ib/hr of superheated steam at 900"F,1500 psia flows in a pipe. The allowable pressure drop is 30 psi.

122

Ganapathy

A. Since this is a case of noncritical flow, fromEq. (8), substituting
t =

800 and t, = 596, we have 60,000 X [ l 0.00065 X (900 - 596)] 1470) 2.1 1 X d30 X (1500 = 114

c, =

+

+

If the steam issaturated, t = t, and C, = 95. We have to choose from the valve supplier’s catalog a valve that gives this C, or more at 90 to 95% of the opening of the trim. This ensures that the valve is operating at about 90% of the trim opening and provides room for control.

3.13b
Q:

In a pressure-reducing station, 20,000 lb/hr of steam at 200 psia, 500°F is to be reduced to 90 psia. Determine C,. Use Eq. (9) for criticalflowconditions:

A

c,

=

20,000 X [l

+ 0.00065 X
1.85 X 200

(500 - 382)]

= 58

(382 is the saturation temperature at 200 psia.)
3.14

Q: Determine the valve coefficient liquids. A liquid with density for
45 lbku ft flows at the rate of 100,000 lb/hr. If the allowable pressure drop is 50 psi, determine C,.

A: Thevalvecoefficient for liquid, C,, is given by [8]
7

c, =
where
4 = flow, gpm
h = p
S

=

pressure drop, psi specificgravity

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, andPressure Drop Calculations From Q1.Ol,

123

W

= 8qp

S

AP
Hence

100,OOO = 278 gpm 8x45 45 = - = 0.72 62.4 = 50

3.15

Q:

How is cavitation caused? How is the valve sizing to done consider this aspect? liquid. The pressure distribution through a valve explains the phenomenon. The pressure at the vena contracta is the lowest, and as the fluid flows it gains pressure but never reaches the upstream pressure. If the pressure at the port or vena contracta to should drop below the vapor pressure corresponding upstream conditions, bubbles will form. If the pressure at theexit remains below the vaporpressure,bubblesremaininthestreamand flashing occurs. A valve has a certain recovery factor associated with it. If the recovery of pressure is high enough to raise the outlet pressure above the vapor pressure of the liquid, the bubbles will collapse or implode, producing cavitation. High-recovery valves tend to be more subjectto cavitation [9]. The formationof bubbles tends to limit the flow throughthe valve. Hence the pressure drop used is in sizing the valve should allow this reduced capacity.Ma,, for used in sizing,
Ma11

A: Flashing and cavitation can limit the flow in a control valve for

= K m (p1

-

rcf'v)

(1 1 )

124

Ganapathy

where K, P, r, P,
= valve recovery coefficient (depends on valve make)
= =

upstreampressure,psia critical pressure ratio (see Figure 3.3) = vapor pressure at inlet liquid temperature, psia

Full cavitation will occur if the actual h is greater than Mall p and if the outlet pressure is higher than the fluid vapor pressure. p p If the actual h is less than h p a I , , the actual h should be used for valve sizing. To avoid cavitation, select a valve with a low recovery factor (a high K , factor).
3.16

Q: How are valvesselected for laminarflowandviscousliquids?

A

Calculate the turbulent flow C, from Eq. (10) and the laminar C, from [lo]

VAPOR PRESSURE-PSIA

Figure 3.3 Critical pressure ratios for water.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and lam C, = 0.072
X

Drop Calculations

125

(ST

Use the larger C, in the valveselection. (p is the liquid viscosity in centipoise.)

3.17a

Q: Determine the pressure loss in a 3-in. schedule 80 line caving is water at 100°F and 2000 psia if the total equivalent length 1000
ft. Flow is 38,000 Ib/hr. olds number

A: The expression for turbulent flow pressure drop of fluids (Reyn-

> 2100) is [ 1 l]
X

AP
where

= 3.36 X

fW2L,

V df

AP

= f = W = L, =

pressure loss, psi Darcy friction factor flow, Ib/hr equivalent length, ft (43.26 shows how the equivalent length can be computed) v = specific volume of fluid, cu ft/lb di = tube inner diameter, in.

For water at100°F and 2000 psia, from Table 11 v = 0.016. In ., industrial heat transferequipment such as boilers, superheaters, economizers, and air heaters, the fluid flow is generally turbulent, and hence we need not check for Reynolds number.(43.24 shows how Re can be found.) However, let us quickly check Re here: Re = 15.2

W dip

Referring to Table 3.5, water viscosity,p at 100°F is 1.645 lb/ft , hr. Re = 15.2 X
389000 2.9 x 1.645
= 121,070

Table 3.5 Viscosity of Steam and Water (Ib m/hr ft)
Pressure (psia)
Temp. (T)
1500 1400 1300 1200 1loo lo00 900 800 700 600 500
400

1

2

5

10
0.0938 0.0892 0.0834 0.0776 0.0730 0.0672 0.0614 0.0556

20

50

100

200 0.0952 0.0892 0.0834 0.0776 0.0730 0.0672 0.0614 0.0568 0.0510 0.0440 0.0382 0.442 0.551 0.726 1.032 1.645 3.142 4.239

500
0.0952 0.0892 0.0846 0.0788 0.0730 0.0683 0.0625 0.0568 0.0510

1000

2000

5000
0.1066 0.1019 0.0973 0.0926 0.0892 0.0857

300 250 200 150 100 50 32

0.0996 0.0996 0.0938 0.0938 0.0892 0.0982 0.0834 0.0834 0.0776 0.0776 0.0730 0.0730 0.0672 0.0672 0.0614 0.0614 0.0556 0.0556 0.0510 0.0510 0.0452 0.0452 0.0394 0.0394 0.0336 0.0336 0.0313 0.0313 0.0290 0.0290 0.0255 0.0255 1.645 1.645 3.144 3.144 4.240 4.240

0.0996 0.0996 0.0996 0.0996 0.0996 0.0996 0.1008
0.0938 0.0892 0.0834 0.0776 0.0730 0.0672 0.0614 0.0556 0.0510 0.0452 0.0394 0.0336 0.0313 0.0290 1.032 1.645
3.144

4.240

0.0938 0.0938 0.0892 0.0892 0.0834 0.0834 0.0776 0.0776 0.0730 0.0730 0.0672 0.0672 0.0614 0.0614 0.0556 0.0556 0.0510 0.0510 0.0510 0.0452 0.0452 0.0452 0.0394 0.0394 0.0394 0.0336 0.0336 0.0336 0.0313 0.0313 0.55 1 0.725 0.0290 0.725 1.032 1.032 1.032 1.645 1.645 1.645 3.144 3.144 3.144 4.240 4.240 4.240

0.0952 0.0892 0.0834 0.0776 0.0730 0.0672 0.0614 0.0568 0.0510 0.0452 0.0394 0.441 0.551 0.725 1.032 1.645 3.144 4.240

0.1008 0.0961 0.0903 0.0846 0.0799 0.0741 0.0683 0.0637 0.0579 0.0510 0.0440 0.250 0.317 0.320 0.444 0.445 0.554 0.552 0.729 0.729 1.034 1.033 1.645 1.646 3.141 3.139 4.231 4.236

0.1019 0.0973 0.0915 0.0867 0.081 1 0.0764 0.0707 0.0660 0.0625 0.210 0.255 0.323 0.448 0.558 0.732 1.037 1.646 3.134 4.222

0.0846 0.0973 0.171 0.221 0.268 0.335
0.460 0.569 0.741 1.044 1.648 3.119 4.192

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

i27

Table 3.6 Tube Diameter Versus
Friction Factor (Darcy) for Turbulent Flow

di(in.)
0.5 0.75

.f
0.028 0.0245 0.0230 0.0210 0.0195 0.0180 0.0175 0.0165 0.0160 0.0140 0.013

3.O 4.0 5.0 8.0 10.0

1.o 1.5 2.0 2.5

The inner diameter of 2.9 for the pipe was obtained from Table 1.6. For turbulent flow and carbon alloy steels of commercial or 3.6. Hereffor a tube inner grade,fmay be obtained from Table diameter of 2.9 in. is 0.0175. Substituting in Eq. (13) yields

A€’ = 3.36

X low6 X 0.0175 X (38,000)2 X 100

x-

0.016 2.95

=

6.6 psi

3.17b Q: Estimate the pressure drop a superheater of a boiler that hasan in
equivalent length of 200 ft. The tube inner diameter is 2.0 in., the flow per pass is 8000 lb/hr, the steam pressure is 800 psia, and the temperature is 700°F.

A

Using Q.(13) and substitutingv = 0.78 cu ft/lb andf = 0.0195 for turbulent flow from Table3.6 (generally flow in superheaters, economizers, and piping would be turbulent), we obtain
h = p

3.36 X

X 0.0195 X 200 X 80002

x-

0.78 25

= 21psi

128

Ganapathy

3.18a

Q: How does friction factor dependonpiperoughness?

A

f is given by [121

For smooth tubes such as copper and other heat exchanger tubes,

Re-0.174 Substituting this in Eq. (13) gives us

f

= 0.133 X

(15)

(pis the viscosity, lb/ft hr; V is the velocity, fps.)

3.18b Q: Determine the pressure drop per 100 ft in a drawn copper tube of
inner diameter 1.0 in. when 250 lbhr of air at a pressure of 30 psig and at 100°F flows through it.

A

Calculate the density(seeChapter
p = 29 X 492 X

l):
=

45 359 X 560 X 15

0.213 lb/cu ft

The effect of pressure can be neglected in the estimation of viscosity of gases up to 40 psig. For a detailed computation of viscosity as a function of pressure,readers mayrefer to the author's book, Ref. 1 1 . From Table 3.7, p = 0.04f lb/ft hr. The velocity is

V = 250 X

576 3600 X 3.14 X 0.213

=

60 fps

10 0

= 0.0267 X 0.213°.8267 0.047°.'74 X

x-

601326
1
=

7.7 psi

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and
Table 3.7 Viscosity of Air
Temperature (“F)
100 20 0 400 1000 1200 1400
1600
600 800

Drop Calculations

I29

Viscosity (Ib/ft hr)
0.0459

0.0520 0.062 0.0772 0.0806
0.0884 0.0957

1800

0.1027 0.1l o o 0.1512

3.19a

Q:

Derive the expression for AP for laminar flow of fluids.
as that occurring with

A: For laminar flow of fluids in pipes such
oils, the friction factor is
64 f = -

Re Substituting into Eq. (13) and using Eq. (14) gives us

AP

= 3.36 X

X 64 X dipW2

L, x v 15.2 X W d :

Converting lb/hr to gph (gallons per hour),we can rewrite this as
h = p

4.5 x

x L, x C x S

S

gph x df

(18)

where CS = viscosity, centistokes S = specific gravity

130

Ganapathy

Equation (18) is convenient for calculations for oil flow situations.

3.19b Q: Estimate the pressure drop per 100 ft in an oil line when the oil
has a specific gravityof 16"API and is at 180°F. The line size is 1 .O in., and the flow is 7000 lb/hr.

A: We must estimate Re. To do this we need the viscosity [l31 in
centistokes: CS = 0.226 SSU C = S

- i95 ssu 135 0.220 ssu - ssu

for SSU 32 to 100 (19) for

ssu > (20) 100

,

SSU representstheSaybolt seconds, a measure of viscosity. Also, CS X S = cP, where CPis the viscosity in centipoise, and 0.413 CP = 1 lb/ft hr. The specific gravity is to be found. At 180"F, from Q. (23) (see 43.21) it can be shown that the specific volume 180°F is at 0.0176 cu ft/lb. Then
S =

1

0.0176 X 62.4

=

0.91

Hence CP = 0.91 X 24.83, where CS = 0.22 X 118 and
p = 2.42 x 0.91 x 24.83 = 54.6 lb/ft hr

135 - 118

=

24.83

Re = 15.2 X

7000 0.91 x 24.83 x 2.42

= 1948

(2.42 was used to convert CP to lb/ft hr.) From Eq. (17a),

f

=

64 - = 0.0328
1948

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and pressure Drop Calculations

11 3

Substituting into Eq. (17b) yields
h p

= 14 X
X

1 0.91 X 62.4

X 54.6 X 7000 X 100

= 9.42 psi

3.20a

Q: Forviscous fluids in turbulent flow, how is thepressuredrop
determined?

A: For viscous fluids, the following expression can
friction factor:

be used for the

Substituting into Q. (13) gives us

AP

= 3.36 X 1O"j X 0.361 X (dip,)o.22L,W2
X
V

(15.2W)0.22d5

3.20b Q: A fuel oil system delivers4500 Ib/hr of light oil 70°F in a pipe. at
30"F, assuming that What is the flow that can be delivered at ~ 7 0 / ~ 3 0 0.5, v7dvN = 0.95, andflowisturbulent? =

A

Using Eq. (22), we have v wl.78 0.22 = v ~1.780.22
1

I

P 1

2

2

P 2

45001.78 0.5°.22 x 0.95 = X or
W, = 4013 lb/hr

132

Ganapathy

3.21

Q: What is the flow in gpm if lo00 lb/hr of an oil of specific gravity
(60/60"F) = 0.91 flows inapipeat 60°F andat 168"F?

A: Weneed to knowthedensityat
At 60°F:

60°F and at 168°F.

Density = p = 0.91 X 62.4 = 56.78 lb/cu ft
v60 =

- = 0.0176 cu ft/lb 56.78

Hence at 60"F,

'

lo00 = 0.293 cu ft/min (cfm) = 60 X 56.78 = 0.293 x 7.48 = 2.2 gpm

At 168"F, the specific volume of fuel oils increases with temperature: V, =
vM[1

+ E(t - 60)] + 0.0004 X

(23)

where E is the coefficient of expansion as given in Table 3.8 [13]. For this fuel oil, E = 0.0004. Hence,
v168

=

0.0176 X (1

108) = 0.01836 cu ft/lb

Table 3.8 ExpansionFactorfor Fuel Oils
"API
14.9 15-34.9 35-50.9 51-63.9 64-78.9 79-88.9 89-93.9 94-100

E
0.00035 0.00040 0.00050 0.00060

0.00070

0.00080 0.00085 0.00090

Hence
q168

= 1000 x

0*01836 = 0.306 cfm = 0.306 X 7.48 60

= 2.29 gpm

3.22 Q: How is the pressure loss in natural gas lines determined? Determine the line size to limit the gas pressure drop to 20 psi when 20,000 scfh of natural gas of specific gravity 0.7 flows with a source pressure of 80 psig. The length of the pipeline is 150 ft.

A: TheSpitzglassformulaiswidelyusedforcompressiblefluids
[ 131:

q = 3410 X F

SL

where
q = gas flow, scfh
S = gas specific gravity P , , P , = gas inlet and exit pressures, psia F = a function of pipe inner diameter (see Table 3.9) L = length of pipeline, ft

Substituting, we have 20,000 = 3410
X

F

/-

Hence F = l .03. From Table 3.9 we see that d should be l V in. I Choosing the next higher standardor d limits the pressure drop F to desired values. Alternatively, if q, d, L, and P , are given, P , can be found.

3.23 Q: Determine the pressure loss in a rectangular duct 2 ft by 2.5 ft in cross section if 25,000 lb/hr of flue gases at 300°F flow through it. The equivalent length is lo00 ft.

134

Ganapathy

Table 3.9 Standard Steel Pipea Data (Black, Galvanized, Welded,
and Seamless) Nominal pipe size [in. (mm)]
‘/s (6) ‘/4 (8) % (10) ! (15) h Y (20) 4 1 (25) 1 % (32) 1 % (40) 2 (50) 2% (65) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 8 (200) 10 (250) 10 (250) 12 (300) 12 (300)

Scheduleb
40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40
40
40

Outside diameter [in. (mm)]
0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.500 5.563 6.625 8.625 8.625 10.75 10.75 12.75 12.75 (10.2) (13.6) (17.1) (21.4) (26.9) (33.8) (42.4) (48.4) (60.2) (76.0) (88.8) (1 14.0) (139.6) (165.2) (219.1) (273.0) (323.9)

Inside diameter (in.)
0.269 0.364 0.493 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 5.047 6.065 7.981 8.071 10.020 10.136 11.938 12.090

Wall thickness (in.)
0.068 0.088 0.091 0.109 0.113 0.1 13 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203 0.216 0.237 0.258 0.280 0.322 0.277 0.365 0.307 0.406 0.330

Functions of inside diameter, F“ (in.)
0.00989 0.0242 0.0592 0.117 0.265 0.533 1.17 1.82 3.67 6.02
11.0

40 40 40 40 40 30 40 30 40 30

22.9 41.9 68.0 138 142 247 254 382 395

,

“ASTM A53-68, standard pipe. bSchedulenumbers are approx. values of
1000 x maximum internal service pressure, psig allowable stress in material, psi

‘F = 1 0.03d + 3.6/d) for use in Spitzglass formula 5/23 for gas line pressure loss Source: Adapted from Ref. 13.

vd( +

A:

The equivalent diameter of a rectangular duct is given by
d , = 2 x a x
=

b a + b

= 2 x 2 x

2.5 - = 2.22 ft 4.5

26.64 in.

The friction factorfin turbulent flow region for flow in ducts and pipes is given by [ 1 11

Fluid Flow, Valve
f =

Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

135

0.316 -

~ ~ 0 . 2 5

We make use of the equivalent diameter calculated earlier [Eq. (14)] while computing Re:

W dip From Table 3.7 at 300°F, p = 0.05 Ib/ft hr. 25,000 Re = 15.2 x = 285,285 26.64 x 0.05
Re = 15.2

-

Hence
=

0.316 = 0.014 285,285°.25

For air or flue gases, pressure loss is generally expressed in in. WC and not in psi. The following equation gives h p g [l l]:
hpg

=

93 x

xf x

w2 x

v x

Le
d5

(26)

where diis in inches and the specific volume is v = Up. 40
p =

460

+ 300

=

0.526 lbku ft

Hence
v =

1 0.0526
= 93 X
X

= 19 cu ft/lb

Substituting into Q. (26), we have
hpg

X 0.014 X 25,OOO2 X 19

1000 (26.6 4 ) 5

= 1.16 in. WC

3.24.a

Q: DeterminetheReynoldsnumberwhen

500,000 lb/hr ofsuperheated steam at 1600 psig and 750°F flows through a pipe of inner diameter 10 in.

136

Ganapathy

A: The viscosity of superheated steam does not vary as much with
pressure as it does with temperature (see Table 3.5).
p = 0.062 Ib/ft hr

UsingEq. (14), wehave Re = 15.2 X

W -=

4P

15.2 X

500,000
10 X 0.062

32. .4b Q: Determine the Reynolds number when hot air flows over a tube
bundle. Airmassvelocity = 7000 lb/ft2 hr Temperature of air film = 800°F Tube size = 2 in. OD Transversepitch = 4.0 in.

A: The Reynolds number when gas or fluids flow over tube bundles
is given by the expression Re = where
G = fluid mass velocity, Ib/ft2 hr d = tube outer diameter, in. p = gas viscosity, lb/ft hr
Gd 12Y

At 800"F, the air viscosity from Table 3.7 is 0.08 lb/ft hr; thus Re = 7000 X
2

12 X 0.08

= 14,580

3.25 Q: There are three tubes connected between two headers of a superheater, and it is required to determine the flow in each parallel pass. Following are the details of each pass.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

137

Equivalent Tube no. (pass no.)
~

Inner diameter
(in.)
2.0 1.75 2.0

length (ft)
400 350 370

1 2

3

Total steam flow is 15,000 Ib/hr, and average steam conditions are 800 psia and 750°F.

A.

As the passes connected are between same the headers, the pressure drop in each will be the same. the total steam flow Also, will be equal to the sum of the flow in each. That is,

hp,

=

LW2

=

h p 3

In other words, using the pressure drop correlation,

we have

and
W,

+ W , + W , = totalflow + W2 + W3 =

The effect of variations in steam properties in the various tubes can be neglected, as its effect will not be very significant. Substituting the data and using f from Table 3.6, we obtain
15,000 400 350 W : X 0.0195 X 7 W f X 0.02 X = 2 (1 .75)5 370 = W; X 0.0195 X - = a constant 2 5

W1

Simplifying and solving for flows, we have

W ,=

5353 Ib/hr,

W , = 4054 Ib/hr, W , = 5591 Ib/hr

This type of calculation is done to check if each pass receives 2 had the least adequate steam flow to cool it. Note that pass

138

Ganapathy

flow, and hence a metal temperature check must be performed. If the metal temperature is high, the tube length or tube sizes must be modified to ensure that the tubes protected from overheatare ing.
3.26

Q: How is the equivalent length of a piping system determined? 0 10 ft of a piping system has three globe valves, acheck valve, and
three 90" bends.If equivalent length. the line size is 2 in., determine the total

A. The total equivalent length is the sum of the developed length of the piping plus the equivalent lengths of valves, fittings, and bends. Table 3.10 gives theequivalentlength of valvesand 17.2 fittings. A globe valve has58.6 ft, a check valve has ft, and

Table 3.10 Equivalent Length L, for Valves
and Fittingsa
4b (in.)
1 2 3 4 6

Pipe size

3b Ib 0.70 1.40 2.00 2.70 4.00 5.30 6.70 10.00 12.50
8.00

2b 8.70 17.20 25.50 33.50 50.50 33.00 41-80 50.00 62.50 78.40 30.00 60.00 87 .00 114.00 172.00 225.oo 284.00 338.00 425.00 533.00 2.60 5.20 7.70 10.00 15.20 20.00 25.00 30.00 37.50 47.oo

12 16 20

8 1 0

'LL, Kd,/12f, where diis the pipe inner diameter (in.) and = K is thenumber of velocityheads (adaptedfromCrane
Technical Paper 410). f is the Darcy friction factor. b l , Gatevalve,fullyopen; 2, swingcheckvalve,fully open; 3, globe valve, fully open; 4, 90" elbow.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and

Pressure Drop Calculations

139

a 90” bend has 5.17 ft of equivalent length.equivalent length The of all valves and fittings is 3 X 58.6 X 17.2

+3X

5.17 = 208.5 ft

Hence the total equivalent length is (100

+ 208.5) = 308.5 ft.

3.27
Q:
Determine the pressure drop of flue gases and air flowing over a tube bundle under the following conditions: Gasmassvelocity = 7000 lb/ft2 hr Tube size = 2 in.OD Transversepitch = 4.0 in. Longitudinalpitch = 3.6 in. Arrangement:in-line Averagegastemperature = 800°F Numberofrowsdeep = 30

A

The following procedure may be used to determine gas pressure drop over tube bundles in in-line and staggered arrangements r.111.

mg=
where
hpg

9.3 x 10”O x

$S2

x

NH
P&?

G = gas mass velocity, lb/ft2 hr = gas pressure drop, in. WC f = friction factor pg = gas density, Ib/cu ft NH = number of rows deep

where, for in-line arrangement for S,/d = 1.5 to 4.0 and for 2000 < Re < 40,000 [12],

where ST is the transverse pitch and S, is the longitudinal pitch, in.

14.0

Ganapathy

For a staggered arrangement

for STld = 1.5 to 4.0, 0.1175 (sT/d -

f

=

Re-.16 X

In the absence of information on gas properties, a molecuuse l a r weight of 30 for flue gas. Then, from Chapter l ,
pg = 30 X

492 359 x (460

+ 800)

= 0.0326 lb/cu ft

The viscosity is to be estimatedatthe gas filmtemperature; however, it can be computed at the averagegas temperature, and the difference is not significant for Reynolds number computations. From Table 3.7, p = 0.08 lb/ft hr. From Eq. (27),
Gd Re= - 1 % 12 x 0.08

7000 x

= 14,580

From Q. (29),

f = (14,580)-0.L5 (0.044 +
APg

1

= 9.3 X 10-o X 0.0484 X 7 O 2 X OO
=

30 o.0326

2.03 in. WC

Similarly, using Eq. (30) we can estimate A P g for a staggered arrangement. Note: The foregoing procedure may be used in absence of the field-tested data or correlation.
3.28

Q: Determine the gas pressure drop over a bundle of circumferentially finned tubes in an economizer when Gas mass velocity of (Themethodofcomputing discussed in Chapter 4.)

flue gas = 6000 lb/ft2 hr
G for plainandfinnedtubes

is

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations Average gas temperature = 800°F Tube size = 2.0 in. Transversepitch.S, = 4.0 in. Longitudinalpitch S, = 3.6 in. Numberofrows deep = 10

11 4

A:

The equation of Robinson and Briggs [l l]may be used in the absence of site-provendata or correlation providedby the manufacturer for staggered arrangement:

where
G MW d F(2) S,, S,

gas mass velocity, lb/ft hr = gas molecular weight = tube outer diameter, inc.
=

= X (460 t) = transverse and longitudinal pitch,

+

in.

F(2) is given as a function of gas temperature in Table 3.11. Substituting into Eq. (31) gives us
hpg

= 1.58 x

IO-* x 60001.684x 2°.6'1 X 556

= 3.0 in.

WC

3.29
Q:
What is boiler circulation, andhow is itdetermined?

A. The motive force driving the steamwater mixture through boiler tubes (water tube boilers) or over tubes (in fire tube boilers) is often the difference in density between the cooler water in the downcomer circuits and the steam-watermixtureintheriser

142

Ganapathy

Table 3.11 F(t) Versus t for Air or FlueGases
200
400

600
800 1000 1200 1600

25 1 348 450 556 664 776 1003

tubes (Figure 3.4). A thermal head is developed because of this difference, which forces a certain amount of steam-water mixture through the system. This head overcomes several losses in the system such as Friction loss in the downcomers Friction loss and flow acceleration loss in the risers and connecting pipes to the drum Gravity loss in the evaporator tubes and the riser system Losses in the drum internals Generally, the higher the drum operating pressure, the lower the difference betweenthedensitiesofwaterandthesteamwater mixture, and hence the lower the circulation rate. Circulation ratio (CR)is defined as the ratio between the mass of the steam-water mixture flowing through the system and the mass of the steam generated. If CR = 15, then a boiler generating 10,000 lb/hr of steam would have 150,000 lb/hr of steamwatermixtureflowingthroughthedowncomers,risers,internals, etc. The quality of steam at the exit of the riser = 1/CR, or 0.067 if CR = 1 . In other words, 6.7%would be the average 5 wetness of steam in the mixture. Low-pressure systems have an average CR ranging from 10 to 40. If there are several parallel circuits for the steam-water mixture, each would have a different resistance to flow, and hence CR would vary from circuit to circuit. For natural circulation systems, CR is usually arrived at by trial and error or by iterative calculation, which first assumes

-1 0

.

C

1
Figure 3.4 Scheme of natural circulation boiler showing furnace, drum,
riser, and downcomer circuits.

144.

Ganapathy

a CR and computes all the losses and then balances the losses
with the available thermal head. This computation is carried on until the available head and the losses balance. Sometimes the difference in density between the waterthe and steam-water mixture is inadequate circulate to the mixture through the system. In suchcases, a circulation pump installed is atthebottom of the steam drum, whichcirculatesadesired quantity of mixture through the system (Figure3.5). This system is called a forced circulation system. One has to ensure that there are an adequate number of pumps to ensure circulation, as the failure of the pump would mean starvation of flow in the evaporator tubes. Since we are forcing the mixture through tubes, the the CR is preselected, and the circulating pump is chosen accordingly. A CR of 3 to 10 is typical. This system is usually used when the pressure drop through the evaporator is likely to be high such as when horizontal tubes are used. When horizontal tubes are used, the critical heat flux to avoid DNB (departure fromnucleateboiling)conditions is lower, andhenceforced circulation helps to ensure adequate flow inside the tubes. Circulatingpumps are also usedwhentheboilerpressure is high

l
(

gas n i

I
boiler
Figure 3.5 Scheme of forcedcirculationboiler.

1 1
)

-

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and

Drop Calculations

145

owing to the lower difference in density between the water and the steam-water mixture.
3.30

Q: What is the mainpurposeofdetermining

CR?

A

Determinationof CR is not the endin itself. The CR value is used to determine whether a given circuit in boiier has allthe the conditionsnecessarytoavoidDNB(departurefromnucleate boiling) problems. For each pressure and quality(or CR)there is aparticularheatfluxbeyondwhichthetypeofboiling may change from nucleate, which is preferred, to film boiling, which is to be avoided, as this can cause the tube wall temperatures to rise significantly, resulting in tube failure. DNB occurs at heat fluxes of 100,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft2 hr depending on size and orientation of tubes, pressure, mass velocity,quality, and roughness of tubes. DNB occurs at a much lower heat flux in a horizontal tube than in an equivalent vertical tube because the steam bubble formation and release occurs more freely and rapidly in vertical tubes than in horizontal tubes where therepossibility is a of bubbles adhering to the top of the tube and causing overheating. More information on DNB and circulation can be found in references cited in Refs. 1l and 14. Note that the heat flux in finned tubes is much higher than in bare tubes owing tothe large ratio of external to internal surface area; this aspect is also discussed elsewhere. Hence has tobe one careful in designing boilers with extended surfaces ensure that to the heat flux in the finned tubes does not reach critical levels or cause DNB. That is why boilers with very high gas inlet temperatures are designed with a few rows of bare tubes followed by a few rows of low-fin-density tubes and then high-fin-density tubes. As the gas cools, the heat flux decreases.

3.31a

Q:

Describe the procedure for analyzing the circulation system for the water tube boiler furnace shown in Figure 3.4.

14.6

Ganapathy

A

First, thethermaldatasuchasenergyabsorbed,steamgeneration, pressure, and geometry of downcomers, evaporator tubes, and risers should be known. These are obtained from an analysis of furnace performance(see example in Chapter 4). The circulation ratio (CR) is assumed; then the flow through the system is computed, followed by estimation of various pressure losses; Thom'smethod is used for evaluating two-phase flow losses [15,16]. The losses canbe estimated as follows.,the friction loss D , in two-phase flow (evaporatordrisers), is given by

The factor r3 is shown in Figure 3.6. Giis the tube-side mass

OPERATING PRESSURE. PSlA

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and

Pressure Drop Calculations

I47

velocity in lb/ft2hr. The friction factor used is that of Fanning, which is 0.25 the Moody friction factor. h p g , the gravity loss in the heated riserlevaporator, given by is

where r, is obtained from Figure 3.7. h, the acceleration loss, which is significant at lower presp , sures and at high mass velocities, is given by

h = 1.664 p ,

X

10""

X

vf

X

G? X r2

(34)

Figure 3.8 gives r,. Single-phase pressure losses such as losses in downcomers, are obtained from
hp=12xfxLexpx

V2
2g X di

OPERATING

PRESSURE,

PSlA

Figure 3.7 Thorn's two-phase multiplication factor gravity for
111,15,16].

loss

148

Ganapathy

WERATING

PRESSURE, P S l A

Figure 3.8 Thorn’s two-phase multiplication factor for acceleration loss
[11,15,16].

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations
or
h = 3.36 X p

149

X

W2 fLeV d!

where
= flow per tube, Ib/hr V = fluid velocity, fps f = Moody's friction factor L, = effective or equivalent length of piping, ft v = specific volume of the fluid, cu ft/lb

W

The unheated riser losses can be obtained from
Aq=fX

-x 12Le
4

G :

X

vf rf

2g x 144

9 is given in Figure 3.9.
The equivalent lengths have to be obtained after considering the bends, elbows, etc., in the piping; see Tables 3.10 and 3.12.

OPERATING PRESSURE, psia

Figure 3.9 Two-phasefrictionfactor for unheatedtubes

[ 11,15,16].

150

Ganapathy

Table 3.12 LJdi RatiosforFitting
Turbulent Flow Fitting
45" elbows

Lddi
15 32 26 20 75 50 60 90

90" elbows, radius standard radius 90" elbows, medium sweep 90" elbows, long 180" close-return bends 180" medium-radius bends return elbow, (used Tee as entering run) Tee entering (used branch) elbow, as s, Gate one-quarter valves, closed Gate sed valves, Gate Gate valves, three-quarters closed Gate valves, open alves, Angle

7
40 200 800 300

170

A heat balanceis first done aroundthe steam drumto estimate
the amount of liquid heat be added to the steam-water mixture to before the start of boiling. The mixture considered to be water is until boiling starts. Once all of the losses are computed, the available head is compared withthe losses. If they match, the assumed circulation rate is correct; otherwise anotheriteration is performed. As mentioned before, this method gives an average circulation rate for a particular circuit. If there are several parallelcircuits, then the CR must be determined for each circuit. The circuitwith the lowest CR and highest heat fluxes should be evaluated for DNB. In order to analyze for DNB, one may compute the allowable steam quality at a given location in the evaporator with the actual quality. The systemis considered safe if the allowable quality is higher than the actual quality. The allowable quality is based on the heat flux, pressure, mass velocity, and roughness and orientation of the tubes.Studies have been performed to arrive at these values. Figure 3.10 shows a typical chart [ 14) that gives the

T)E

NUMBER ON EACW CURVE INDICATES HEAT FLUX AS

WEE SURFACE.

A

B

0

0

I

10 10 WALlTY, '1- STEAM

I

I

30 B Y W€IGWt

b

40

I

50

i

Figure 3.10 Allowable quality for nucleate boiling at 2700 psia, as a function of mass velocity and heat flux inside tubes. (Courtesy of Babcock and Wilcox.)

152

Ganapathy

allowable steam quality a function of pressure and heat as flux. It canbeseenthatasthepressure or heat flux increases,the allowable quality decreases. Another criterion ensuring thata for flux system issafe is that the actual heat on the steam side (inside tubes in water tube boilers and outside tubes fire tube boilers) in flux must be lower than the critical heat (CHF) for the particular conditions of pressure, flow, tube size, roughness, orientation, etc. CHF values are available in the literature; boiler manufacturers have developed their CHF correlations based on their own experience. See Chapter 4 for an example.
3.31b

Q: Computethecirculationratioandcheckthesystemshown
Figure 3.4 for DNB.

in

A: Figure

on naturalcirculation principles. The basis for estimating the flow through water walls is briefly as follows. 1. Assume a circulationratio(CR)basedonexperience.For low-pressure boilers(< 1000 psia), CR could be from 20 to 50. For high-pressure boilers (1000 2700 psia), CR could to range from 9 to 5. The following expression relates circulation ratio and dryness fraction, x : CR = 1 X
(37)

3.4 shows a boiler schematic operating

Hence,flowthroughtheevaporator = CR X thesteam generated. 2. Furnacethermalperformancedatasuchas efficiency, furnace exit temperature, and feedwater temperature entering the drum should be known before the startof this exercise, in addition to details such as the location the drum, bends, of size, and length of various circuits. 3. Mixture enthalpy entering downcomers is calculated as follows through an energy balance at the drum. hfw + CR X h, = h, + CR X h, (36)

4.

As the flow enters the water walls, gets it heated, and boiling starts after a particular distance from the bottom of the furnace. This distance is called boiling height, and it increases as thesubcoolingincreases. It is calculated as follows.

Beyond the boilingheight, the two-phaseflowsituation begins. 5. Friction loss invarious circuits such as downcomers, connecting headers, water-wall tubes (single-phase, two-phase losses), riser pipes, and drums are calculated. Gravity losses, A P g , are estimatedalong the accelerationlosses, Ma, a boiling regime. The head available in in the downcomeriscalculatedandequatedwiththelosses. Ifthey balance, the assumed CR is correct; otherwise, arevised trial is made until they balance. Flow through water-wall the tubes is thus estimated. 6. Checks for DNB are made. Actual quality distribution along furnace height is known. Based onthe heat-flux distribution (Figure 3.1l), the allowable quality along furnace height the may be found. If the allowable quality exceeds actual quality, the design is satisfactory; otherwise, burnout possibilities exist, and efforts must be made to improve theflow through water-wall tubes.

EXAMPLE A coal-firedboilerhasafurnaceconfiguration as shownin Figure 3.4. Following are the parameters obtained after performing preliminary thermal design:
generated Steam Pressure at drum Feedwater temperature entering drum from economizer Furnace absorption Number and size of downcomers

600,OOO Ib/hr
2700 psia

570°F
320 X lo6 BTU/hr
4, 12-in. ID

Ganapathy

3

W 120 . 160 40 Abeorption Rate lo00 Btu/tt'hr.

I

i

I

Figure 3.1l Typicalheatabsorptionratesalongfurnaceheight.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and
Number and size of water-wall
tubes

Drop Calculations

155

416, 2%-in. OD X 0.197 in. thick 54 in. 8400 ft2

Number and size of riser tubes 15, 6-in. ID
DrumID Furnace projected area

Since it is difficult to estimate flow through parallel paths,let us assume that flow in each tube or circuit of downcomers, water walls, and risers may be nearthe average flow values. However, computer programs may be developed that take care of different circuits. Since the manualmethodsgivesagoodidea of the solution procedure (though approximate), it is described below.

METHOD Let circulation ratio CR = 8. Then, x = 0.125. From the steam tables,
h, = 1069.7 Btu/lb hf = 753.7 Btu/lb vr = 0.0303 cu fVlb vg = 0.112 cu ft/lb hf, = 568 BWlb Enthalpy of steam leaving water walls, h, = 0.125
X 1069.7

fat = 680°F

+ 0.875

X 753.7 = 793.2

Btu/lb

Heat balance around the drum gives Steamflow = 600,000 Ib/hr Water-wall, downcomer flow = 8 X 600,000 = 4,800,000 Ib/hr
600,000 X 568

= 600,000 X 1069.7

+8

X 600,000 X 793.2

+8X

600,000 h,,,

Hence, h,,, = 731 Btu/lb. From the steam tables,

v,,, = 0.0286 cu fVlb

v, = 0.125
fVlb

X 0.11 2

+ 0.875

X 0.0303 = 0.0405 cu

156

Ganapathy

a. b.

hpg

= headavailable = 106/(0.0286 X 144) = 25.7 psi. = losses indowncomer circuit.

A&

The downcomer has one bend and one entrance and 90" exit loss. Using an approximate equivalent length of 7di,
L, = 104

+

16

+ (7

X

12) = 204 ft
= 1 . fps 21
=

The value5 from Table 3.6 is around 0.013.

v, = ,

8 X 600,000 X 0.0286 X 576 3600 X 1~ X 144 X 4

-

0.013 X 204 X (12.1)2 X 1 2 2 x 32 x 12 x 0.0286 x 144

psi

c. Estimate boiling height:
Lb = 100 X 8 x 600,000 X

fi Hence, up to a height of 31 ft, preheating of water occurs. Boilingoccursoveralength of 100 - 31 = 69 ft only.

753.7 - 731 320 x IO6

= 31

d. Gravity loss inboilingheight: 0.0286 V,, mean specific volume =
=
31 0.02945 X 144
= 0.02945

+ 0.0303
2

cu ftllb

hpg

= 7.3 psi

e. Frictionloss in boilingheight.Computevelocitythrough i water-walltubes: d = 2.1 in.

v ,

=

8 X 600,000 X 576 X 0.02945 416 X T X (2.1)2 X 3600 I

= 3.93 fps

From Table 3.6,5 = 0.019. One exit loss, one 135" bend, and one 45" bend can be considered for computing an equivalent length. works out L, to about 45 ft.
h= p , 0.019 x 45 x (3.93)2 x 12 = 0.28 psi 4 2 x 32 x 2.1 x 0.02945 x 1 4

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

157

f. Computinglosses in two-phase flow, fromFigures3.6to 3.8, for x = 12.5% and P = 2700 psi, r2 = 0.22, r3 = 1.15, r, = 0.85 For computing two-phase losses:
APa

= 1.664 X lo-"

X vfr2 G:
=

Gi =
APa

x 600'ooo x 576 416 X IT X (2.1)2

480,000 lb/ft2 hr

=

1.664 X IO-" X 0.0303 X (4.8 X 105)2 X 0.22 = 0.026 psi 0.0019

Friction loss,
APf

=

4 X

X

0.0303 X

x 69

X (4.8 X 10512 X

1.15 - = 0.5 psi 2. I

Gravity loss,
APg

=

6.944 X

X 69 X 0.85

0.0303

= 13.4psi

Totaltwo-phase loss = 0.026 psi, or 14.0 psi

+ 0.5 +

13.4 = 13.926

g. Riser circuit losses. Thom's Use method two-phase for unheated tubes. Let the total equivalent length, considering bends and inlet and exit losses, be 50 ft. rf = 1.4 (Figure 3.9),
Gi =

x = 0.015 fromTable

3.6

576 x
IT

X 36 X 15

x 6oo~ooo = 1.63 X IO6 lb/ft2 hr

A = 0.015 X P '
X

50 x 12 x (1.63 x 106)2 2 6 X 32 X 36002 1.4 X 0.0303 = 1.41 psi
14 4

158

Ganapathy

Note that in estimating pressure drop by Thom’s method for heated tubes, the Darcy friction factor was used. For unheated tubes, Moody’s friction factor could be used. Void fraction a‘ fromFigure 3.12 = 0.36. From Q. 38.
h != p

[pf (l-a’) pp’]

+

L 14 4

(38)

=

[( 0.0303
x 5 - = 0.85 psi 144
=

1

Total losses inrisercircuit

14 .1

+ 0.85 = 2.26 psi.

QUALITY

Figure 3.12
[11,16].

Void fraction as a function of quality and pressurefor steam

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and
h.

Drop Calculations

I59

Losses in drum. This is a negligiblevalue;use 0.2 psi. (Generallythesupplier of thedrumsshouldfurnishthis figure.) Totallosses = b d e f g h = 1.47 7.3 0.28 14.0 0.2 = 25.51psi Availablehead = a = 25.70psi

+

+ + + + + + + +'

+ 2.26

Hence, as these two match,an assumed circulation ratio of 8 is reasonable. This is onlyan average value for the entire system. If one is interested in a detailed analysis, the circuits should be separated according to heat loadings, and a rigorouscomputeranalysisbalancingflowsandpressure drop in each circuit can be carried out. ANALYSIS FOR DNB Typical furnace absorption profiles for the actual fuel fired are desirable for DNB analysis. Since these dataare generally based on field tests, for the problem at hand let us use Figure 3.11, which gives typical absorption profiles for a boiler. Average heat flux = 320 X 106/8400 = 38,095 Btu/ft2 hr There is a variation at any plan cross section a boiler furnace of between the maximum heat and the average heat flux flux, based on the burner location, burners operation, excessair used, etc. in This ratio between maximum and average could be 20 to 30%. Let us use 25%. Again, the absorption profile along furnace height shows a peak at some distance above the burner where maximum heat release has occurred. It decreases as the products combustion of leavethefurnace.Theaverage for the entire profile may be found, and the ratio of actual to average heat flux shouldbe computed. For the sake illustration, use the following ratios of of actual to average heat flux at locations mentioned.

160

Ganapathy

Distance from
bottom (ft)
40 56 70 80 100

average actual Ratio to of
heat flux
1.4 1.6

1.o 0.9 0.4

We must determine the maximum inside heat fluxat each of the locations and correct it for flux inside the tubes to check for DNB. Hence, considering the tube OD to ID ratio of 1.19 and the 25% nonuniformity at each furnace elevation, we have the following local maximum inside heat flux at the locations mentioned

Location (ft)

q (Btu/f? hr) i

40
56 70 80 100

1.4 x 38,095 x 1.25 X 1.19 = 79,335

90,440
56,525 50,872 22,600

It is desirable to obtain allowable quality of steam at each of theselocationsandchecktobesureactualquality does not exceed it. DNB tests based on particular tube profiles, roughness, and water quality as used in the operation give the most realistic data for checking furnace tube burnout. Correlations, though available in the literature, may give a completely wrong picture since they are based on tube size, heating pattern, water quality, and tube roughness that may not tally with actual operating conditions. Correlations, however,givethe trend, whichcouldbe

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

11 6

useful. For the sake illustrating our example, let us use Figure of 3.10. This gives a good estimate only, as extrapolation mustbe carried out for the low heat flux in our case. We see the following trend at Gi= 480,000 lb/ft2 hr and 2700 psia: Location (ft)
40
56 70 80

Allowable quality (%)
25 22 30 34 42

100

Figure 3.13 shows the actual quality (assuming linear variation, perhapsin reality quadratic)vs. allowable quality. It shows that a large safety margin exists; hence, the design is safe. This exercise should be carried out at all loads (and for all circuits) before coming to a conclusion.

3.32a Q: How is thecirculationsystemanalyzed
A

in fire tubeboilers?

The procedure is similar to that followed for water tube boilers in that the CR is assumed and the various losses are computed. If the losses associated with the assumed and the resulting mass CR flow balance the available head, then the assumed is correct; CR otherwiseanotheriterationisdone.Since fire tubeboilers in general use horizontal tubes, the allowable heat flux to avoid DNB is lowerthanwhenverticaltubesareused.Withgas in hydrogenplant streamscontaininghydrogenandsteamas wasteheatboilers,thetube-sideandhencetheoverallheat transfer coefficient and heat will be rather high compared flux to flue gas stream from combustion of fossil fuels. Typical allowableheatfluxes for horizontaltubesrangefrom100,000 to 150,000 Btu/ft2 hr.

Ganapathy

TY
ACTUAL O U A L I T Y

Figure 3.13

Actualquality vs. allowablequalityalongfurnaceheight.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and
3.3233

Drop Calculations

163

Q:

Perform the circulation calculations for the system shown in Figure 3.14 with the following data: Steam flow
= 20,000

Ib/hr, steam pressure

= 400

psig

Assume that saturated water enters the drum.

A: Fromsteam tables, vf

and = 1.12 cu ft/lb Assume there are two downcomers of size 4 in schedule 40 (di= 4.026 in.) and tworisers of size 8 in schedule 40 (di= 7.981 in.). The total developed length of each downcomer is 22.5 ft, and each has two 90" bends; the riser pipes have a total developed length of 5 ft. Exchangerdiameteris 6 ft, andthe center distance between the exchanger and the steam drum is 8 ft.
= 0.194

1. Assume

CR

= 15;

then

Mixturevolume

= 0.067 X 1.12 = 0.0931

+ 0.933

X

0.0194

The head available due to the column of saturated water is 11/(0.0194/144) = 3.94 psi, where 11 ft is the height of the water column.

Figure 3.14

Circulation scheme in fire tube boiler.

164

Ganapathy

2. Losses downcomers: in

a. Water velocity
X

= 0.05 X

2

0.0194 = 9 fps (4. 026)2

Inlet plus exist losses = 1.5 velocityhead
= 1.5 X 9 X

9 2 x 32 x 144 x 0.0194

= 0.68 psi

b. Total developedlength = 22.5 2 X 10 = 42.5 ft, where 10 ft is the equivalent length of a90” bend from Table 3.10.

+

h= 3.36 p ,

X

0.0165

X

(15

X

E)’X 2

42.5

X

0.0194 (4.026)5

= 0.98 psi

where 0.0165 is the friction factor. Equation (13) was used for pressure drop of single-phase flow. Totaldowncomerlosses = 1.66 psi
3.
= 0.68

+ 0.98

Frictionandaccelerationlossesin the exchangermaybe neglected for this first trial, as in a fire tube boiler they will be negligible due to the low mass velocity. 4. Gravity losses in the exchanger: Figure Using 3.7, r4
= 0.57.
APg

= 0.00695 X 6 X

0.57 0.0194

= 1.22 psi

5 . Gravity loss inriserpipe:
APg

=

0.0931/144

5

= 0.37 psi

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing. Pressure and

Drop Calculations

I65

6. Friction loss in riser:

Velocity = 0.05 X Inletplusexitlosses
= 15 X .

0.0931

(7.9812)

= L 1 fps

velocityhead

15 X 11 X 1 1 . = 0 2 psi .1 2 x 32 x 0.0931 x 1 4 4
= 3.36 X 0.014 X = 0.02

Frictionloss
x 5 x

0.0931 (7.981)’

psi

where 5 ft is the developed length of the riser. Let the losses in druminternals = 0.5 psi. This canvary depending on the type of internals used. Then Totallosses
= 1.66

+ 1.22 + 0.37 + 0.21 + 0.02 + 0.50 = 3.98 psi

= 15 is the This is close to the available head;henceCR circulation ratio for this system. The calculations can be fine tuned with actual dimensions after the layout is done. One can compute the heat flux and compare it with the allowable heat flux to check if the circulationrate is adequate. Usually circulationis not a problem in type ofboiler, as the heat flux low, on the this is order of 20,000 to 30,000 Btu/ft2 hr, while the allowable flux could be 100,000 to 150,000 Btu/ft2 hr. See Chapter 4 for correlations for CHF (critical heat flux).

3.33

Q:

How is the flowinsteamblowofflinesdetermined? Whenever steam flows to the atmosphere from a high-pressure vessel, the flow reaches critical flow conditions, and beyond a certain pressure further lowering of pressure does not increase the steam discharge. The flow is given by the equation [ 171

A

166

Ganapathy

Thevalueof h tobechosendependson p resistance, where
fie K=12X d

K , thesystem

where

L, = total equivalent length of all downstream piping including valves, fittings, ft f = Darcy friction factor d = pipe inner diameter, in. Y = expansion factor (see Table 3.13) U = specific volume of steam before expansion, cu ft/lb h = pressure drop, lower of actual upstream pressure p downstream pressure or that obtained from Table
3.13

Table 3.13 LimitingFactorsForSonic
Velocity k = 1.3
K
1.2 1.5 2.0 4 6 8 10 15 20 40 100
3

Y
0.525 0.550 0.593 0.642 0.678 0.722 0.750 0.773 0.807 0.831 0.877 0.920
0.612

0.631 0.635 0.658 0.670 0.685 0.698 0.705 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

167

EXAMPLE Determine the flowof saturated steam froma vessel at 170 psia to atmosphere if the total equivalent system resistance K = 10 and pipe inner diameter = 2.067 in. Solution. Specific volume of steam at 170 psia = 2.674 ft3/lb. Actual AP = 170 - 14.7 = 155.3 psia. From Table 3.13, for K = 10, @/P, = 0.773, or AP = 170 X 0.773 = 131.5 psia. Hence, use AP = 131.5 psia. Also from Table 3.13for K = 10, Y = 0.705.Hence

W

= =

1891.0 x 0.705 x (2.067)* x 12,630 lb/hr

(

>””

3.34

Q: Howistheflowthroughboilerblowdownlinesdetermined?

A

Sizing of blowdown or drain lines is very important in boiler or process plant operations. The problem of estimating the discharge rates from a boiler drum or vessel to atmosphere or to a vessel at low pressures is involves two-phase flow calculations and a lengthy procedure m]. Presented below is a simplified approach to the problem that can save considerable time for engineers who are involved in sizing or estimating discharge rates from boilerdrums, vessels, or similar applications involving water. Several advantagesare claimed for these charts, including the following.
No reference to steam tables is required. No trial-and-error procedure is involved.

Effect of friction can be easily studied. Obtainingpipesize to discharge a desiredrate of fluid, the reverse problem, is simple.

168

Ganapathy

THEORY The basic Bernoulli’s equation can be writtenfollows for flow as in a piping system:
104vdP

+

V2 V - dk+ - d v + d H = O
2g
g

(40)

Substitutingmassflowrate dP m’ 2g

m = V/v:
=

(dk + 2“)dv v

-104 X - - V
V2

(41)

Integrating between conditions 1 and 2:

J2
I

dP -V

S’

v2
X (-104

m = [k
I

S’ dP
V

+ 21n (u2/ul) 2g
dH

where

K

= jVd,

the equivalent pipe resistance

When the pressure of the vessel to which the blowdown pipe is connected is decreased, the flow rate increases until critical pressure is reached at the end of the pipe. Reducing the vessel pressure below critical pressure does not increase the flow rate. If the vessel pressure is less than the critical pressure, critical flow conditions are reached and sonic flow results. From thermodynamics, the sonic velocity can be shown to e b:

v, =
and

J-

g

x 104

(43)

m, = 100

J-

g

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and

Drop Calculations

19 6

The term (dP/du),refers to the change in pressure to volume ratio at critical flow conditions at constant entropy. Hence, in order to estimate m,,Eqs. (42) and (44) have to be solved. This is an iterative procedure. For sake of simplicity, the the term involving the height differences will be neglected. For high-pressure systems the error in neglecting this term is marginal, on the order of 5%. The problem is, then, given K and P,, to estimate P, and m. This is a trial-and-error procedure, and the steps are outlined below, followed by an example. Figure 3.16 and 3.17 are two charts that can be used for quick sizing purposes.
1. Assume a value for P,. 2. Calculate (dpldu), at P, for constant-entropy conditions. The volumechangecorrespondingto 2 to 3% of P, can be calculated, and then (dPldu), can be obtained. 3. Calculate m, using Eq. (44). 4. SolveEq.(42b)for m,.

The term [ Simpson's rule:
-104

dPlu] computed using is as follows

f -dp V

-lo4

f

pdP

where
pm = density at a mean pressure of ( P ,

+ P,)/2.

The densitiesarecomputedasisenthalpicconditions. The term 2 In (v2/uI) 2 In (,, = p) @ is then found. Then m is computed using Eq. (42b). If m computed using Eqs. (42b) and (44) tally, the assumedP, and the resultant are m, correct. Otherwise P, has to be changed, andall steps have tobe m, repeated until m and agree.

EXAMPLE A boiler drum blowdown line is connected a tank set at8 atm. to K Drum pressure is 100 atm, and the resistance of the blowdown

I 70

Ganapathy

line is 80. Estimate the critical mass flow rate and the critical m, pressure P,. The procedure will be detailed for an assumed pressure P of , 40 atm. For steam table P, = 100 atm, S = 0.7983 (kcal/kg "C); hl = 334 kcalkg, u, = 0.001445 m3kg or p = 692 kg/m3. Let pc = 40 atm; then h, = 258.2 kcallkg, h, = 669 kcalkg, SI = 0.6649, S, = 1.4513, U / = 0.001249, U, = 0.05078. Hence:
x =

S

-

S 1

S - S1 , = 0.1696
= U,
=

-

0.7983 - 0.6649 1.4513 - 0.6649
VI)

U

0.001249 + 0.1696 X (0.05078 - 0.001249) = 0.009651m3/kg

+

X(U,

Again, compute v at 41 atm (2.5% more than Using steps P,). similar to those described above, v = 0.0093 m3/kg. Hence,

= loo

J

9.8 X 1 0.00965 - 0.0093

= 16,733 kg/m2sec

Compute the densities as
=

1 0.001445

=

692kg/m3
40 atm at isenthalphic condition is

The dryness fraction at
x =

334 - 258'2 = 0.1845 669 - 258.2 U, = 0.001249 0.1845 X (0.05078 - 0.001249) = 0.010387m3/kg p = 96.3 kg/m3 ,

+

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, Pressure and Similarly, at P, = (100

Drop Calculations

171

+ 40)/2
or

=

70 atm,

v, = 0.03785 m3/kg
- 104
X (692

pm = 264 kg/m3

dp
V

=

100

- 40

+4

X 264

+

6 96.3)

= 184 X lo6 X 2 X = 2 X In (f)

In

= 4.6

Substituting the various quantities into Q. (42b),

m

x 9'8 X 184 X lo6 80 4.6 = 6530 kg/m2 sec
=

.J

+

The two values m and m, do not agree. Hence we have to repeat the calculations for another P,. This has been done for P, = 30 and 15, and the results are presented in Figure 3.15. At about 19 atm, the two curves intersect, and the mass flow rate is about 7000 kg/m2 sec. However, one may do the calculations at this pressure and check.
USE OF CHARTS As seen above, the procedure is lengthy and tedious, and trial and error is involved. Also, reference to steam tables makes it cumbersome. Hence with various K values and initial pressure P,, a calculator was used to solve P, and m,and the results are for presented in Figures 3.16 and 3.17.

3.35 Q: Whatistheeffectofstackheightonfriction

loss, draft?

A

Whenever hot flue gases flowin a vertical stack, a natural draft is createdowingtothedifference in densitybetweenthelow-

I72

Ganapathy

10

15

25

P

3 6 4 0

Figure 3.15

Calculation results.

Figure 3.16

Solving for m.

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

173

Figure 3.17 Solving for P .
density flue gases and ambient air, which has a higher density. However, due to the friction losses in the stack, this available draft is reduced.
EXAMPLE If 100,OOO lb1hr of flue gases at 400°F flow in a 48-in. ID stack of 50 ft height,determinethenetstackeffect.Ambientair temperature is 70°F. Solution. Density of flue (see gases 41.02) at 400°F = 39.51860 = 0.0459 Ibku ft. Density of air at 70°F = 401530 = 0.0755 Ibku ft. Hence

Totaldraftavailable lb/ft2

= (0.0755 - 0.0459) X 50 = 1.48

= (0.0755 - 0.0459) X 50 X

l2 - = 0.285 in. 62.4

WC

(The factor 62.4 is density of water, and 12 converts ft. to in.) Let us see how much the friction loss per unit length is. From Q. (261,

I 74

Ganapathy

AP = 93 x 10-6 x f x

w2 x

d5

V

v = U0.0459 = 21.79 cu ftllb. To estimate the friction factorf, we need the Reynolds number. From the Appendix, p = 0.058 lb/ft hr. Hence
Re = 15.2 X
=
h = p

48/0.058
=

loo’ooo

= 546,000.

0.316
(546,000)0.25
93 x

0.012
21.79 4’ 8

x 0.012 x (1OO,OoO)2 x 50 x

= 0.048 in. WC

Hence Net draft available = 0.285

-

0.048 = 0.237 in. WC

NOMENCLATURE
Area of orifice, in.2 A constant depending on ratioof gas specific heats Circulation ratio Discharge coefficient Control valve coefficient Tube or pipe outer diameter, in. Orifice diameter and pipe or duct inner diameter, in. Expansion factor for fuel oils Friction factor Gas mass velocity, Ib/ft2hr Differential pressure across flow meter, in. W C Enthalpy of mixture at exit, Btu/lb Enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated steam, mixture, and feedwater, respectively, Btu/lb System resistance Valve recovery coefficient

Superheat correction factor Length of pipe, ft Equivalent length, ft Constant used in 43.25 mass flow at critical condition, kg/m2 sec Molecular weight of gas or vapor Number of rows deep in a tube bundle Accumulated inlet pressure, psia Back pressure, psig Set pressure, psig Vapor pressure, psia Inlet and exit pressures, psia Pressure drop, psi Gas pressure drop, in. WC Acceleration loss, friction loss, and loss dueto gravity, psi Fluid flow, gpm Reynolds number Factors used in two-phase pressure drop calculation Entropy Specific gravity of fluid Transverse and longitudinal pitch, in. Fluid temperature, "F or "R Saturation temperature, "F Specific volume of fluid, cu ft/lb Critical velocity, m/s Fluid velocity, ft/sec Specific volume of saturated liquid, steam, and mixture, cu ft/lb Flow,lb/hr Steam quality, fraction Volume fraction of gas Expansion factor dJdi ratio Fluid viscosity, Ib/ft hr Density of fluid, lb/cu ft; subscript g stands for gas Specific volume of fluid, m3/kg

I 76

Ganapathy

REFERENCES
1. V. Ganapathy, Determining flowmeter sizes, Plant Engineering,Sept. 18,1980, p. 127. 2. ChemicalEngineers'Handbook, 5thed.,McGraw-Hill,NewYork, 1974, pp. 5-7. 3. V. Ganapathy, Converting pilot tube readings, Plant Engineering, June 24,1982, p. 61. 4. ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. 1, New York, 1980, pp. 59, 67. 5. Crosby Valve Catalog 402, Crosby, Wrentham, Mass., 1968, p. 27. 6. ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. 8, New York, 1980, Appendix 11, p. 455. Plant Engineering, Aug. 20, 7. V. Ganapathy, Control valve coefficients, 1981, p. 80. 8. V. Ganapathy, Nomogram estimates control valve coefficients, Power Engineering, December 1978, p. 60. f 9. F. D . Jury, Fundamentals o valve sizingfor liquids, Fisher Technical Monograph 30, Fisher Controls Co., Marshalltown, Iowa, 1974, p. 2. 10. Masoneilan, Handbook for Control Valve Sizing, 6th ed., Norwood, Mass., 1977, p. 3. 11. V. Ganapathy, Applied Heat Transfer, PennWell Books, Tulsa, Okla., 1982, pp. 500-530. of Oil 12. V. Ganapathy, Chart speeds estimates gas pressure drop, and Gas Journal, Feb. 4, 1980, p. 71. 2nd 13. North American Combustion Handbook, ed., North American Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1978, pp. 20-25. 14. Babcock and Wilcox, Steam: Its Generation and Use, 38th ed. 15. J. R. S. Thorn, Prediction of pressure drop during forced circulation boiling of water, International Journal of Heat Transfer, no. 7, 1964. Roshenow and J. P. Hartnett, Handbook o Heat Transfer, f 16. W. McGraw-Hill,NewYork, 1972. 17. Crane Company Technical Paper 410. Trans18. F. J. Moody, Maximum two-phase vessel blowdown from pipes, actions of ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, August 1966, p. 285.

4
Heat 'TI-ansferEquipment Design

and Performance

4.01:

Estimating surface area of heat transferequipment;overall heat transfer coefficient; approximating overall heat transfercoefficientinwater tube boilers, fire tubeboilers,and air heaters; log-mean-temperature difference Estimatingtube-sideheattransfercoefficient;simplified pression for estimating tube-side coefficient ex-

4.02:
4.03:

Estimatingtube-sidecoefficient for air, flue gas, water,and steam Estimatingheattransfercoefficientoutsidetubes Estimatingconvectiveheattransfercoefficientoutsidetubes using Grimson's correlations Effect in-line staggered of vs. arrangement
177

4.04:

4.05:

4.06:

178

Ganapathy

4.07a: Evaluating nonluminous radiation heat transfer using Hottel’s charts 4.07b:Nonluminousradiationusingequations 4.08a:Predictingheattransfer 4.08b: Design of radiant section
4.09:

in boilerfurnaces for heat recovery application

Evaluatingdistribution of radiationtotubebanks fire tube boilers

4.10: Sizing 4.1 l:

Effect ofgas velocity, tube size on fire tube boiler size
flux, tube temperatures wall

4.12: Computing heat

4.13: Effect of scale formation on tube wall temperature and boiler performance 4.14: Design of water boilers tube

4.15a: Predicting off-design performance 4.15b:Logic for off-designperformanceevaluation boilers for watertube

4.16: Estimating metal temperature in a boiler superheater tube; thermal resistances in heat transfer; calculating heat flux 4.17:Predictingperformance of fire tubeandwatertubeboilers

4.18:Whyfinnedtubesareusedandtheirdesignaspects 4.19a: Heat transfer and pressure drop in finned tubes using ESCOA correlations

Heat Transfer Equipment Design 4.19b: 4.20: 4.21: 4.22: 4.23: 4.24: 4.25: 4.26: 4.27: 4.28: 4.29: 4.30: 4.3 1 : 4.32: 4.33: 4.34: 4.35: 4.36:

and Performance

I79

Heat transfer in finned tubes using Briggs and Young correlation Sizing of finned tube evaporator Comparison of bare tube versus finned tube boiler In-line versus staggered arrangement Effect of tube-side heat transfer on fin configuration Effect of tube-side fouling on bare and finned tube boilers

Estimating weight of finned tubes Effect of fin thickness, conductivity on boiler performance and tube and fin tip temperatures
Is surface area an important criterion for boiler selection?

Design of tubular air heaters Off-design performance of air heaters Predicting performance of economizers using NTU method Evaluating natural convection heat transfercoefficients in air Natural convection heat transfer in liquids Determining size of coil/tube bundle immersed in liquids Evaluating gadsteam temperature profiles in Simulating off-design performance Why gas exit temperature cannot be assumed in HRSGs

HRSGs

180

Ganapathy

4.37:How 4.38: 4.39: 4.40: 4.41: 4.42:

to optimize temperatureprofilesinHRSGs

Efficiency of HRSGs according to ASME Power Test Code Effect of fresh air fan size on HRSG performance How to evaluate operating costs in HRSGs Why economizer steaming occurs in gas turbine HRSGs

Why water tube boilers are preferred to fire tube boilers for gas turbine applications Why 10% increase in surface area does not mean 10% more duty in boilers or heat transfer equipment Time required to heat up boilers Parameters tobe considered in testing performance HRSGs of Estimating boiling heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux in water tube boilers Relating heatflux, steam pressure, quality, flow in water tube boilers

4.43: 4.44: 4.45: 4.46: 4.47a:

4.47b: Estimating critical heat flux in fire tube boilers 4.48: 4.49: 4.50: 4.5 1: Simplified approach to designing fire tube boilers Simplified approach to designing water tube boilers Estimating tube bundle size Estimatingthickness of insulation for flat andcurvedsurfaces; effect of wind velocity; estimating thickness to limit surface temperatures

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
4.52:

11 8

Estimating surface temperature of given thickness of insulation; trial-and-error procedure to determine casing temperature Sizing insulation to prevent freezing; determining water dew point Estimating heat loss from pipes for various insulation thicknesses Estimating temperature drop of fluids in insulated piping Optimum thickness of insulation; life-cycle costing; annual heat loss and capitalizedcost; annual heatloss if no insulation is used Design of hot casing Temperature of duct or stack wall with and without insulation Effect of wind velocity, casing emissivity on heat

4.53: 4.54a: 4.54b: 4.55:

4.56: 4.57: 4.58: 4.59a:

loss

Checking for noise and vibration problems in heat transfer equipment

4.59b: Determining natural frequency of vibration of a tube bundle 4.59c: 4.59d: 4.59e: 4.60: Computing acoustic frequency Determining vortex shedding frequency Checking for bundle vibrations Estimating specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity for a gas mixture gas analysisonheattransfer

4.61:Effectof

182

Ganapathy

4.62: 4.63:
4.01

Effect of gas pressureonheattransfer Convertinggasanalysisfromweight to volumebasis

Q: How is the surface area of heat transfer equipment determined?
What terms can be neglected while evaluating the overall heat transfer coefficient in boilers, economizers, and superheaters?

A

The energy transferred in heat transfer equipment,Q , is given by the basic equation
Q = U X A X A T

(1)

Also, W, X Ahh = W, Ahc where
A = surface area, ft2 W = fluid flow, lb/hr Ah = change in enthalpy (subscripts h and c stand for hot and cold) AT = corrected log-mean temperature difference, "F U = overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F

For extended surfaces, U can be obtained from [l]

where
A, = surface area of finned tube, ft2/ft Ai = tube inner surface area = 7rdi/12, ft2/ft A,,, = averagewall surface area = 7r(d di)/24, ft2/ft K, = thermal conductivity of the tube wall, Btu/ft hr "F d , di = tube outer and inner diameter, in.

+

4f,

1

rlh,

+

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

183

ff,, ff, = fouling factors inside and outside the tubes, ft2

hr "F/Btu h,, h, = tube-side and gas-side coefficients, Btu/ft2 hr "F q = f in effectiveness If bare tubes are used instead of finned tubes, A = nd/l2. , Equation (3) can be simplified to

+ ffi x

d 4

+ ff,

where h, is the outside coefficient. Now let us take the various cases. WATER TUBE BOILERS, ECONOMIZERS, AND SUPERHEATERS The gas-side heat transfer coefficient h, is significant; the other terms can be neglected. In a typical bare-tube economizer, for example, hi = 1500 Btu/ft2 hr "F, ffj and ff, = 0.001 ft2 hr "F/Btu, and h, = 12 Btu/ft2hr "F.d = 2.0 in., di = 1.5 in., and K,,, = 25 Btu/fthr "F. Substituting in Eq. (4) yields
"

1

U

-

2.0 1500 x 1.5

+ - 12 l

+

24 X 25

*eo

x In l .5

2

+
=

2.0 0.001 x l .5

+ 0.001

0.0874 Btu/ft2 hr "F

Hence,

U

= 11.44

Thus we see that the overall coefficient is close to the gas-side Coefficient, which is the highest thermal resistance. The metal thermalresistanceandthetube-sideresistance are nothigh enough to change the resistance distribution much. However,inaliquid-to-liquidheat exchanger, alltheresistances willbeofthe same order, andhencenoneof the resistances can be neglected.

184

Ganapathy

Even if finned tubes were used in the case above, with A,/Ai inEq. (3), U = 9.3 Btu/ft2 hr"F, which is close to h,. Thus, while trying tofigure U for economizers, water tube boilers, or gas-to-liquid heat exchangers, U may be written as
= 9 substituting

U = (0.8 to 0.9)

X

h,

(5)

FIRE TUBE BOILERS, GAS COOLERS, AND HEAT EXCHANGERS WITH GAS FLOW INSIDE TUBES WITH LIQUID OR STEAM-WATER MIXTURE O N THE OUTSIDE h, is large, on the order of 1000 to 1500 Btu/ft2 hr "F, while hi will be about 10 to 12 Btu/ft2hr "F. Again, using Eq. (4), it can be shown that

4 U=hiX d All the other thermal resistances canbe seen to be very small, and V approaches the tube-side coefficient hi.
GAS-TO-GAS HEAT EXCHANGERS (EXAMPLE: AIR HEATER IN BOILER PLANT) In gas-to-gas heat transfer equipment, both hi and h, are small and comparable, while the other coefficients are high. Assumingthat h, = 10and hi = 15,andusing the tube configuration above,
"

1

U

-

2.0
15 X 1.5

+ - lo + 0.001 +
L

9.6 X 10-4

+ 0.001
or

x - - 0.1922 1.5

U = 5.2 Btu/ft2 hr "F Simplifying Eq. (4), neglecting the metal resistance term and
fouling, we obtain
U = h , x h,di/d h,di/d h,

+

Thus both h, and hi contribute to U.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

185

AT, thecorrectedlog-mean-temperaturedifference,canbe estimated from

where F isthecorrectionfactorforflowarrangement.For T countefflow cases, FT = 1 .O. For other typesof flow, textbooks may be referred to for FT. It varies from 0.6 to 0.95 [2]. AT,, and ATmin are the maximum and minimum terminal differences. In a heat exchanger the hotter fluid enters at 1000°F and leaves at 400"F, while the colder fluid enters at 250°F and leaves at 450°F. Assuming counterflow, wehave AT,, = 1000 - 450 = 550"F, ATmin = 400 - 250 = 150°F Then

In boiler economizers and superheaters, FT could be taken as I . In tubular air heaters, F could vary from 0.8 to 0.9. If accurate T values are needed, published charts can be consulted [l ,2].
4.02

Q:

Howisthetube-sideheattransfercoefficient Thewidelyusedexpression for hi is [l] is

hi estimated?

A

Nu = 0.023 X Reo.' X
where the Nusselt number
hi X di 12k
X di

Nu

=

the Reynolds number is

P where W is the flowin the tubein lb/hr, and the Prandtl number is

Re = 15.2 x

W

Ganapathy

Pr = where

F x k

c,

(1 1)

p = viscosity,Ib/fthr C = specific heat, Btu/lb "F ' k = thermal conductivity, Btu/ft hr "F

all estimated at the fluid bulk temperature. Substituting Eqs. (9) through (l l ) into Q. ( 8 ) and simplifying, we have
w0.8k0.6c0.4

df.8P0.4 where C is a factor given by
k0.6c0.4

hi = 2.44 X

P

= 2.44

Wo.8C x df.*

(12)

C =

P

C is available in the form of charts for various fluids [ l ] as a function of temperature. For air and flue gases, C may be taken
from Table 4.1. Forhotwaterflowinginside tubes, Q. (8) hasbeensimplified and can be written as below [3], for c < 300°F: hi = (150

+

1.55t) X

dpz

v0.8

Table 4.1 Factor C for Air and Flue Gases
Temp. ("F)

c
0.162 0.172 0.180 0.187 0.194 0.205

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance where
V = velocity, fVs t = water temperature, "F

187

For very viscousfluids, Eq. (8) has to.be corrected by the term involving viscosities at tube wall temperature and at bulk temperature [ ] l.
4.03a

Q: Estimate hi when 200 lb/hr of air at 800°F and at atmospheric pressure flows in a tube of inner diameter 1 7 in. .5
A. Using Table 4.1 and Eq. (12), we have C = 0.187.

hi = 2.44 x 2oO0.* x
where
W

O. 87 1.75'.*

=

11 S 5 Btu/ft2hr"F

= flow, Ib/hr

di = inner diameter, in. For gases at high pressures, Ref. l gives the C values.

4.03b
Q: In an economizer, 50,000 Ib/hr of water at an average temperature of 250°F flows in a pipe of inner diameter 2.9 in. Estimate hi.

A: Let us use Eq. (13). first the velocity has. to be calculated. From
V = 0.05

Q1.07a, V = O.O5(wv/d3. v , the specific volumeof hot water at 250"F, is 0.017 cufVlb. Then,
X

50,000

X

0.017 - = 5.05 ft/sec 2.9*
5.05'.* - = 1586 Btu/ft2 hr "F 29. .'*

Hence, from Eq. (13),
hi = (150 + 1.55 X 250) X

188

Ganapathy

4.03C

Q: Estimate the heat transfer coefficient when 5000 Ib/hr of superheated steam flows inside a tube of inner diameter 1.78 in. in a boilersuperheater.Thesteampressure is 1000 psia, and the temperature is 800°F. Quick estimates ofheat transfer coefficients for saturated and superheated steam in tubes or pipes can be made using Eq. (12) with factor C given in Table 4.2.

A

Using Eq. (12)anda C value of 0.345, wehave

hi

=

2.44 X 5000°.8 X

0*345 = 271 Btu/ft* hr 1.78'.'

"F

If the steam were saturated, C would be 0.49. Then we would have

hi = 2.44 X 5O0Oo.* X
4.04

0'49 1 .78'.8

= 385 Btu/ft2 hr

"F

Q:

How is the outside gas heat transfer coefficient h, in boilers, air heaters, economizers, and superheaters determined?

Table 4.2 Factor C for Steam
Pressure (psia): Sat.: 0.417 Temp. ("F)
400
500

100 0.244

2000 500

1000

0.490

0.273 0.413 0.358 0.345 0.305 0.347 0.360 0.322 0.316 0.320 0.327

-

-

5

600 700 0.520 800 0.420 900 0.394 1000

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

189

A: The outside gas heattransfercoefficient h, is the sum of the
convectiveheattransfercoefficient transfer coefficient h,. h, = h, -l-h,
h, andnonluminousheat
(1 ) 4

For finned tubes, h, should be corrected for fin effectiveness. hN is usually small if the gas temperature is less than 800°F and can be neglected. ESTIMATING h FOR BARE TUBES , A conservative estimate of for flow of fluids over bare tubes in h, in-line and staggered arrangements is given by [l] Nu = 0.33 X Reo.6 X

(15)

Substituting, we have the Reynolds, Nusselt, and Prandtl numbers Re = Nu = and
G x d

12
h, X d

12k

where
G = gas mass velocity, lb/ft2 hr d = tube outer diameter, in. p = gas viscosity, Ib/ft hr k = gas thermal conductivity, Btu/ft hr C;, = gas specific heat, Btu/lb "F

"F

All the gas properties above are to be evaluated at the gas film temperature.Substituting Eqs. (16) to (18)into Eq. (15)and simplifying, we have

h, = 0.9 X

GO.6

X

F
d0.4

190

Ganapathy

where

Factor F has been computed for air and flue gases, and a good estimate is given in Table 4.3. The gas mass velocity G is given by

where

NW = number of tubes wide
, = transverse pitch, in. S L = tube length, ft W = gas flow, lb/hr , For quick estimates, gas film temperature $can be taken as the average of gas and fluid temperature inside the tubes. EXAMPLE Determine the gas-side convective heat transfer coefficient a for bare-tube superheater tube of diameter in. with the following 2.0 parameters: Gasflow = 150,000 Ib/hr Gastemperature = 900°F Averagesteamtemperature = 500°F = 12 Numberoftubeswide

Table 4 3 F FactorforAirand .
Temp. ("F)
200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Flue Gases
F
0.094 0.103 0.110 0.116 0.123 0.130

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

11 9

Lengthof the tubes = 10.5 ft Transversepitch = 4.0 in. Longitudinalpitch = 3.5 in.(staggered) Solution. Estimate G. From Eq. (21),
G=12X

150,000
12 X 10.5 X (4

-

2)

= 7142

lb/ft2 hr

Using Table 4.3, at a film temperature of Hence,

700"F, F = 0.1 13.

h,

= 0.9

x 7142°.6 x

0.1 13 20.4

= 15.8 Btu/ft2 hr "F

As the gas temperature is not high, the hN value will be low, so U = h, = .h, = 15.8 Btu/ft2 hr "F
(Film temperature may be taken the average of gas and steam as temperature for preliminary estimates. If an accurate estimate is required, temperature drops across various the thermal resistances as discussed in Q4.16a must be determined.) Convectiveheattransfercoefficientobtained by theabove method or Grimson's method can be modified to include the effect of angle of attack a of the gas flow over the tubes. The correction factor F, is 1 for perpendicular flow and decreases as shown in Table 4.4 for other angles [l]. If, for example, h, = 15 and the angle of attack is 60"' then h, = 0.94 X 15 = 14.1 Btu/ft2 hr "F.
4.05

Q: How is the convective heat transfer coefficient for air and flue
gases determined using Grimson's correlation?

Table 4.4 Correction Factor for Angle of Attack
a,

deg

90
1.0

80
1.0

70
0.98

60
0.94

50 0.88

40

30

20

1 0
0.42

F"

0.78

0.67

0.52

192

Ganapathy

A: Grimson's correlation, whichiswidelyused
111, is Nu = B X ReN (22)

for estimating h,

Coefficient B and power N are given in Table 4.5.

EXAMPLE 150,000 Ibhr of flue gases having an analysis COz = 12, H20 = 12, N, = 70, and O2 = 6, all in % volume, flows overa tube bundle having 2-in. OD tubes at 4-in. square pitch. Tubes per row = 18; length = 10 ft. Determine h, if the fluid temperature is 353°F and average gas temperature is 700 "F. The Appendix tables give the properties of gases. At a film temperature of 0.5 X (353 700) = 526"F, C, = 0.2695, p = 0.0642, and k = 0.02344. Then mass velocityG is

+

G=12x

150,000 18 X 10 X (4 - 2)

= 5000 Iblft'hr

From Table 4.5, for &Id = S,/d = 2, B = 0.229 and N = 0.632, so Re = 5000 X 2 12 X 0.0642
= 12,980

Table 4.5 Grimson's Values of B and N

Staggered .
1.25 1S O 2.0 3.0 0.518 0.451 0.404 0.310 0.348 0.367 0.418 0.290

0.556 0.568 0.572 0.592 0.592 0.586 0.570 0.601

0.505 0.460 0.416 0.356 0.275 0.250 0.299 0.357

0.554 0.562 0.568 0.580 0.608 0.620 0.602 0.584

0.519 0.452 0.482 0.44 0.100 0.101 0.229 0.374

0.556 0.568 0.556 0.562

0.522 0.488 0.449 0.421

0.562 0.568 0.570 0.574

In-line
1.25 IS O 2.0 3.0

0.704 0.702 0.632 0.581

0.0633 0.752 0.0678 0.744 0.198 0.648 0.608 0.286

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design Performance

193

NU = 0.229 X 12,980°.632= 91 =

h, x 2 12 X 0.02344

or h, = 12.8 Btu/ft2 hr "F
4.06

Q: How does an in-line arrangement compare a withstaggered
arrangement for bare tubes?

A

In-linearrangement is preferredtostaggeredwithbaretubes because the gas-side heat transfer coefficient is nearly the same while the gas pressure drop is much higher. To illustrate, let us work out an example.

EXAMPLE 150,OOO Ibhr of flue gases at 900°F is cooled to 500°F in a boiler generating 125 psigsteam.Neglecting the effect of the nonluminousheattransfer coefficient, study the effect ofusing longitudinal pitches of 3, 4, and 6 in. Tube diameter 2 in., and is transverse pitch is 4 in. Boiler duty is 16 MM Btu/hr. Tubes per row = 18. Effective length = 10ft. Gas analysis (% vol) is CO2 = 12, H20 = 12, N2 = 70, O2 = 6. Log-meantemperature difference (AT) = 319°F. Using Grimson's correlation, h, was computedfor the various configurations. Overall heat transfer coefficient was then arrived at and used to determine surface areas. Then the number of rows deep for each case and the gas pressure drop were evaluated for each case. The results are shown in Table 4.6.
The staggered arrangement does not have a significant increase in h, over the in-line arrangement when longitudithe nal pitch-to-diameter ratio exceeds 2. It appears attractive below a ratio of 1 S . However, this ratio is not widely used in the industrybecauseoflowligament efficiency, the possibility of bridging of particulates, cleanability, access for welding, etc. 2. The gas pressure drop ismuchhigher for thestaggered arrangement. For example, whenwehavea &id = S,/d
1.

194

Ganapathy

Table 4.6 Study of In-line VersusStaggered Arrangements
SLld = 1.5

SLld = 2.0

SLld = 3.0

In-line In-line Staggered Staggered
h,, Grimson h,, Fishenden Friction factor h,, average No. of rows h, in W C p,
10.96 13.79 11.90 14.35 0.0396 0.0807 1S O 1 14.07 49 40 1.32 2.12 12.81 13.20 0.04928 13 43
14 .4

In-line
13.13 13.56 0.0807 13.35 42 2.29

Staggered

12.91 12.69 13.30 13.20 0.0686 0.0807 13.10 12.95 43 43 2.00 2.33

= 2, the staggered arrangement has nearly same number the of rows but the gas pressure drop is 40 to 50% higher.

tubes. For finned tubes, see Q4.22.

In conclusion, in-line arrangements are widely used for bare

4.07a

Q: How is nonluminousradiationheattransfercoefficientevaluated?

A: In engineering heat transfer equipment as boilers, fired heaters,
and process steam superheaters where gases at high temperatures transfer energy to fluid inside tubes, nonluminous heat transfer plays a significant role. During combustion of fossil fuels such as coal oil, or gas-triatomicgases--for example, watervapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are formed, which contribute to radiation. The emissivitypattern of thesegaseshasbeen studied by Hottel, and charts are available to predict gas emissivity if gas temperature, partial pressure of gases, and beam length are known. Net interchange of radiation between gases and surroundings (e.g., a wall or tube bundle or a cavity) can be written as

Q A

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

195

where emissivity of gases at 5 ag = absorptivity at T, Tg = absolute temperature of gas, "R T, = absolute temperature of tube surface, O R
=

is given by
= E,

+T

X

E,

-

AE

cyg is calculated similarly at T,. q is the correction factor for the water pressure, and AE is the decrease in emissivity due to the presence of water vapor and carbon dioxide. Although it is desirable to calculate heat flux by (22), it is tedious to estimate agat temperatureT,.Considering the fact that T: will be muchsmallerthan T i , with a verysmallloss of accuracy, we can use the following simplified equation, which lends itself to further manipulations.

e =UEg(Ti - T:) = h,& A

- C)

(24)

Nonluminous heat transfer coefficient h, can be written as

To estimate h,, partial pressures of triatomic gases and beam length L dre required. L is a characteristic dimension that dependson the shape of the enclosure.For a bundleoftubes interchanging radiation with gases, it can be shown that

L = 1.08 X

STS, - 0.7858
d

L is taken approximately as 3.4 to 3.6 times the volume of the space divided by the surface area of the heat-receiving surface. For a cavity of dimensions a, b and c,
L = 3.4 X abc 2(ab + bc + ca)

-

l/a

+

1.7

l/b

+

l/c

(26b)

In the case of fire tube boilers, L = di.

196

Ganapathy

500

W00

1500

1000

,2200

3000

3500 1000 1500

5000

(4

ABSOLUTE

TEMPERATURE

(TOR

1

Figure 4.1 (a) Emissivity of carbon dioxide.
(b) Emissivity of water vapor.

(c) Correction factor for emissivity of water vapor. (d) Correction term due to presence of water vapor and carbon dioxide. (From. Ref. 1.)

can be estimated using Figure 4.1, which gives E ~ ,,, q, E,, and A€. For purposes of engineering estimates, radiationeffects of SO2 can be taken as similar to those of CO2. Hence, partial pressures of CO2 and SO2 can be added and Figure 4.1 used to get E,.

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

197

z W

(b)

ABSOLUTE

TEMPERATURE("R

EXAMPLE 1 Determinethebeamlength L if S = 5 in., S = 3.5 in-, and , , d = 2 in. Solution L = 1.08 x
5 X 3.5 - 0.785
CI

X

4

L

= 7.8 in.

EXAMPLE 2 In a fired heater firing a waste CO2in flue gases = 12%and gas, H20 = 16%. Thegasesflowovera bank of tubes the in

198

Ganapathy

0.0

!
0.0

i

1

i

0.2

0.4

0.6

as

i

i

1.0

1.2

i

lh(p+pw) ( a W

0.0;

0.06 0.05
~~

0.01
0.03

0.02 D 01
0
02
06 0.8

OL

10

0

02

OL

pw
PC. Pw

PC'

0.6 Pw Pw

08

10

0

02

OL

06 08 PW Pc. Pw

10

Figure 4.1 Continued

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

199

convectivesectionwheretubes are arranged as inExample 1 (hence L = 7 8 .Determine hN if fg = 1650°F and to = 600°F. .) Solution.

78 . P,L = 0.12 x - = 0.078 atm ft 1 2 7.8 P,L = 0.16 X - = 0.104 atm ft 1 2 InFigure 4. l a at = (1650 460) = 2 IR and P,L = 1O ' 0.078.E, = 0.065.In Figure 4. Ib, at q = 2 10"R and P,L = 1 0.104, E, = 0.05. In Figure 4.lc, corresponding to (P P)2 ,/ = 1.16/2= 0.58 and PJ = 0.104, q = 1.1. In Figure 4.ld, P,) = 0.16/0.28 (P, P,) L = and corresponding to P,/(P, 0.182,AE = 0.002.Hence,

+

+

+

+

0.065 (1.1 X 0.05) - 0.002 = 0.118 Using Eq. (25) with the Boltzmann constantU = 0.173 X 21104 - 10604 h = 0.173 X N X 0.118 X 2110 - 1060 = 3.6 Btu/ft2 hr "F Thus, hN can be evaluated for gases.
=

+

4.07b
Q: Cangasemissivitybeestimatedusing
equations?

A: Gasemissivitycanbeobtained

as follows. hN is givenby

where

7 and T, = gas and tube

U

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 0.173 X

outer wall temperature, "R

gas emissivity, is obtained from Hottel's charts or from the expression [ 13

200

Ganapathy
= 0.9 X

(1

-

e-KL)

(27a)

K =

(0.8

+

1 . 6 ~ ~ )(1 - 0.38T,/1000) X

d(Pc + P W W (27W x (Pc + Pw) T8 is in K. L is the beam length in meters, andpc and pw are the partial pressuresof carbon dioxide and water vapor in atm. the L, beam length, can be estimated for a tube bundle by

L = 1.08

ST X S,

- 0.785d2
d

ST and S, are the transverse pitch and longitudinal pitch. Methods of estimating pc and pware given in Chapter 1.
EXAMPLE In a boiler superheater with tubes, the averagegas temperabare ture is 1600°F and tube metal temperature 700°F. Tubesize the is is 2.0 in. ,and transverse pitchST = longitudinal pitch S, = 4.0 in. Partial pressure of water vapor and carbon dioxide are pw = 0.12, pc = 0.16. Determine the nonluminous heat transfer coefficient. From Q. (26a), the beam length L is calculated.

L = 1.08 X
= 0.176 m

4 X 4

- 0.785
2

X 2 X 2

=

6.9 in.

Using Eq. (27b) with we obtain (0.8 Factor K =
X

Tg

=

(1600 - 32)/1.8

+ 273 = 1114 K,

+

1.6 X 0.12) X (1 - 0.38 X 1.114) d0.28 X 0.176

0.28 = 0.721

From Q. (27a),
= 0.9 X [l

- exp( -0.721

X 0.176)] = 0.107

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

201

Then, from Eq. (25), hN = 0.173 X 0.107 X IO-' X
= 3.33 Btu/ft2 hr O F

20604 - 1 1604
,600

- 7oo

4.08a Q: How is heattransfer in aboilerfurnaceevaluated?

A: Furnaceheattransfer

is acomplexphenomenon,anda single formula or correlation cannot be prescribedfor sizing furnacesof all types. Basically, it is an energy balance between two fluidsgas and a steam-water mixture. Heat transfer in a boiler furnace is predominantly radiation, partlydue to the luminous part the of flame and partly due to nonluminous gases. A general, approximate expression can be written for furnace absorption using an energy approach:

Gas temperature (G) is defined in many ways; some authors define it as the exit-gas temperature itself. Some put it as the mean of theoretical flame temperatureand re. However, plant experience shows that a better agreement between measured and calculated values prevails when tg = t, 300 to 400 "F [l]. The emissivity of gaseous flame is evaluated as follows [l]:

+

ef = P(I

-

e-KPL)

(29)

p characterizes flame-filling volumes.
f3 = 1.O for nonluminous flames = 0.75 for luminous sooty flames of liquid fuels

= 0.65 for luminous and semiluminous flames fuels L = beam length, m

of solid

202

Ganapathy

K

= attenuation factor, which depends on fuel type and

presence of ash and its concentration. For nonluminous flame it is

K =

0.8

+ 1.6pw

VC +P W b W

X

(

;g8')

X

(pc

+ p,)

(27b)

For semiluminousflame, the ash particle size and concentration enter into the calculation:

K =

0.8
V(Pc

+

1 . 6 ~x ~ + PWIL

( 1 ;00i38z ) x
r 3

@c

+ P,)

+ 7 p x (s,XT,z where

dmis the mean effective diameterof ash particles, in microm-

eters

dm = 13 for coals ground in ball mills
mills

= 16 for coals ground in medium- and high-speed

= 20 for combustion of coals milled in hammer mills = ash concentration in T, = furnace exit temperature, K

mm3

For luminous oil or gas flame, 1AT, K = - - 0.5 1000
pw and pc are partial pressures water vapor and carbon dioxide of in the flue gas. a trend. A wide variation could The above equations only give exist due to the basic combustion phenomenon itself. Again, the flame does not fill the furnace fully. Unfilled portions are subjected to gas radiationonly, the emissivityof which is far below (0.15 to 0.30) that of the flame. Hence, ~~decreases. Godridge reports that in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, emissivity varied as follows with respect to location [3]:

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
Excess air Furnace exit Middle
15% 0.6 0.7

203

25% 0.5 0.6

Also, furnace tubes coated with ferric oxide have emissivities,
E,,

of the orderof 0.8, depending on whether slag layer covers a E, considerably. Thus, only an them.Sootblowingchanges estimate of E . and E, can be obtained, which varies with type of unit, fuel, and operation regimes. To illustrate these concepts, a few examples are worked out. The purpose is only to show the effect of variables like excess air and heat release rates on furnace absorption and furnace exit-gas temperature.
EXAMPLE 1

Determinetheapproximatefurnaceexit-gastemperature of a boiler when net heat inputis about 2000 X IO6 Btu/hr, of which 1750 X IO6 Btu/hr is due to fuel and the rest isdue to air. HHV and LHVof coals fired are10,000and 9000 Btu/lb, respectively, and a furnace heat release rate of 80,000 Btu/ft* hr (projected . area basis) hasbeen used. The values E, and E may be taken as 0.6 and 0.5, respectively; 25% is the excess used. Water-wall air outer temperature is 600°F. Ash content in coal is 10%.
Solution

2
AP

= 80,000 =

LHV W, X AP

From combustion calculation methods discussed in Chapter 1, using 1 MM Btu fired basis, we have the following ratio of flue gas to fuel:

= 10.4

Q = A p E,E.U

Ib/lb X (Ti

- 7':)

=

W, X

LHV - %h,

Ganapathy

Dividing throughout by Wf,

A

W,

E,

u(T: - T:) = LHV -

2h,

W W,

Ap/wf = LHV/80,000 = 0.1 125 Assume t, = 1900°F. C,,,, = 0.3 Btu/lb"F ts = (1900 300) = 2200°F = 2660"R

+

E ,

Let us see if the assumed re is correct. Substituting for AJwf, ef, U T,, T, in the above equation, we have , LHS = 0.1125 X 0.6 X 0.5 X 0.173 X (26.64 - 10.64) = 2850 RHS = (9000 - 10.4 X 1900 X 0.3) = 3072

Since these do not tally, try variation in C,,,,:

t,

= 1920 "F. Neglect the effect of

LHS = 0.1125 X 0.6 X 0.5 X (26.84 - 10.64) X 0.173 = 2938 RHS = 9000 - 1920 X 0.3 X 10.4 = 3009 Since theseagree closely, furnaceexit-gastemperature is around1920°F.Notethat the effect of externalradiationto superheaters has been neglected the energy balance. This may in give rise to an error of to 2.5% in re, but its omission greatly 1.5 simplifies the calculation procedure. Also, losses occurring in the furnace were omitted to simplify the procedure. The error introduced is quite low. EXAMPLE 2 It is desired to use a heat loading of 100,000 Btu/ft2 hr in the furnaceinExample 1. Otherfactorssuch as excessairand emissivities remain unaltered. Estimate the furnace exit-gas temperature. Solution: LHV A 100,000 = W, x A ' W, , A ,

e=

-

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
LHV 100,Ooo
= 0.09

205

XL
Wf

=

10.4,

te = 2000 "F;

tg =

2300°F
= 2760"R

C,, = 0.3 Btu/lb

"F;

Tg

= 2300

+ 460

LHS = 0.09 X 0.6 X 0.5 X 0.173 X (27.64 - 10.64) = 2664 RHS = (9000 - 10.4) X ZOO0 X 0.3 = 2760
From this it is seen that t, will be higher than assumed. Let
t, = 2030"F,
@ = 2790"R

Then LHS = 0.09 X 0.6 X 0.5 X 0.173 X [(27.9)4 - (10.6)4] = 2771 RHS = 9000 - 10.4 X 2030 X 0.3 = 2667 Hence, t, will lie between 2000 and 2030"F, perhaps 2015°F. The exercise shows that the exit-gas temperature in any steam generator will increase as more heat input is given to it; that is, the higher the load the boiler, the higher the exit-gas ternperaof ture. Example 3 shows the effect of excess air on t,.
EXAMPLE 3 What will be the furnace exit-gas temperature when40% excess air is usedinsteadof 25%, heatloadingremainingatabout 100,OOO Btu/ft2 hr inthe furnace mentioned in earlier examples? Solution

Q A ,

=

100,Ooo =

LHV wf -,

A

W,

= 0.09

"Wg =

760 x
1950"F, 300

W,
te =

1o6

x lo4

+ 0.9

= 11.54 Ib/lb

+

+ 460

Cpm= 0.3 Btu/lb "F,
= 2710"R

Tg

= 1950

206

Ganapathy

LHS = 0.09 X 0.6 X 0.5 X 0.173 X [(27.1)4 - (10.6)4] = 2460 RHS = 9000 - (11.54 X 1950 X 0.3) = 2249 These nearly tally; hence, teis about 1950"F, compared to about 2,030 "F in Example 2. The effect of the higher excess air has been to lower t,. EXAMPLE 4 If E, X E . = 0.5 instead of 0.3, what will be the effect on t, when heat loading is 100,OOO Btu/ft2hr and excess air is 40%? Solution
Let
te =

1800°F; = 1800 300 460 = 2560"R LHS = 0.09 X 0.5 X 0.173 X [(25.6)4 - (10.6)4] = 3245 RHS = 9000 - (11.54 X 1800 X 0.3) = 2768

TB

+

+

Try:
te =

1700°F;

T g = 2460"R

Then LHS = 0.09 X 0.5 X 0.173 X [(24.6)4 - (10.6)4] = 2752 RHS = 9000 - (11.54 X 1700 X 0.3) = 3115 Try:
t, = 1770°F;

5

=

2530"R.

Then RHS = 2872 LHS = 3091 ; Hence, te will be around 1760 "F. This example shows that when surfaces are cleaner and capableof absorbing more radiation, te decreases. In practice, furnace heat transfer is evaluated as simply as not shown above becauseof the inadequacy of accurate dataon soot emissivity,particle size, distribution, flame size, excess air, presence and effectof ash particles,etc. Hence, designers devel-

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design PerfOmXInCe

207

op data based on field tests. Estimating is the starting pointfor t, the design of superheaters, reheaters, and economizers. Someboilerfurnaces are equipped with tiltingtangential burners, while some furnaces have only front rear nontiltable or wall burners. The location of the burners affectst, significantly. Hence, in these situations, correlations with practical site data would help in establishing furnace absorption and temperature profiles. A promisingtechnique for predictingfurnaceheattransfer performance is the zone method of analysis. It is assumed that the patternof fluid flow, chemical heat release, and radiating gas concentration are known, and equations describing conservation of energywithinthefurnacearedeveloped.Thefurnaceis divided into manyzones, and radiation exchange calculations are carried out.

4.OSb Q: How is heattransferevaluated inunfiredfurnaces?
A. Radiant sections using partially or fully water-cooled membrane wall designs are used to cool gas streams at high gas temperatures (Figure4.2). They generate saturated steam may operand ate in parallel with convective evaporators if any. The design procedure is simple and may involve an iteration or two. The higher the partial pressures triatomic gases, the higherwill be of the nonluminous radiation and hence the duty. If a burner is used as in the radiant section of a furnace-fired HRSG, the emissivity of the flame must also be considered. As explained elsewhere [g], radiant sections are necessary to cool so the gasesto below the softening points of any eutectics present as to avoid bridging or slagging at the convection section. They a are also required to cool gases to reasonable temperatureat the superheater if it is used.

EXAMPLE 150,000 pph of flue gases at 10' has to be cooled to 1500°F 70F in a radiant sectionof a waste heat boiler of cross section ft X 8

208

Ganapathy

drum
gas out

radlont section

Figure 4.2 Radiantfurnaceinawasteheat
10 ft. Saturatedsteamat

boiler.

150 psig is generatedbythegases. Determine the length. Gas analysis (% vol) is CO2 = 12, H20 = 12, N2 = 70, and O2 = 6.. Solution. Let length the = 2 ft. 5

Beamlength = 3.4

X

volume surface

-

3.4 x 8 x 10 x 2 5 8X25X2+10x25X2+2XlOX8

= 6.4 ft = 2 m

Averagegastemperature = 1600°F = 1 K. Using (27), 144

K

= (0.8
X

+ 1.6 X

= 0.9 X (1 -

0.24 = 0.194 (0.24 X 2)0.5

0.12) (1 - 0.38 X 1.144)

0.29

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

209

Let the average surface temperature of the radiant section be 400°F. Surface area for heat transfer = (8 10) X 2 X 25 = 900 ft.*. Transferred energy is

+

Q, = 0.173

X 0.9 X 0.29 X [(20.6)4 - (8.6)4] X 900

= 7.1 MM Btu/hr

Requiredduty = 150,000 X 0.99 X 0.308 X 200 = 9.15 MM Btu/hr Since there is a large discrepancy and the required duty is more, a larger surface area is required. As the furnace length does not significantly change the beam length and hence the gas emissivity, we can assume thatthe transferred dutyis proportional to the surface area. Hencetherequiredfurnacelength = (9.197.1) X 25 = 32 ft.
4.09

Q:

How is the distribution ofexternalradiationtotubebundles evaluated? Discuss the effect of tube spacing. Tubebanks are exposed to direct or externalradiationfrom flames, cavities, etc., in boilers. Depending on the tube pitch, the energy absorbed by each row of tubes varies, with the first row facing the radiation zone receiving the maximum energy. It is necessarytocompute the energyabsorbed by each row, particularly in superheaters as the contribution of the radiation can result in high tube wall temperatures. The following formula predicts the radiation to the tubes [8].

A

where a is the fraction of energy absorbed by the first row. The secondrowwouldthen absorb (1 - a ) X a; the thirdrow, {l -[a+(1 -a)a]}a; and so on.

210

Ganapathy

EXAMPLE 1 MM Btu/hr of energy from a cavity radiated to a superheater is tube bank that has 2-in. OD tubes at a pitchof 8 in. If there are six rows, estimate the distribution of energy to each row. Solution. Substituting d = 2, S = 8 into Q. (30), wehave

+ v 4 x 4 - 1 -

-1

8 2

= 0.3925 - 0.25 (0.2526

+

-4) =' 0.361

Hence the first row absorbs 0.361 MM Btu/hr. The second row would receive(1 - 0.361) X 0.361 = 0.231 or 0.231 MM Btu/hr. The third row receives [l - (0.361 0.231)] 0.361 = 0.147 M M Btu/hr The fourth row, [l (0.361 0.231 0.147)] X 0.361 = 0.094 MM Btu/Hr, and so on. It can be seen that the first row receives maximum energy the and the amount lessens as the number of rows increases. For a tube pitch S of 4 in., a = 0.6575. The first row receives 0.6575 MM Btu/hr; the second, 0.225 M Btu/hr; and the third, 0.077 MM Btu/hr. Hence if the tube pitch is small, a large amount of energy is absorbed within the two tothree rows, resultingin first high heat flux in those tubes and consequently high tube wall temperatures. Hence it is better to use a wide pitch when the external radiation is large so thattheradiation is spread over more tubes and the intensity is not concentrated within two or three tubes. Screen tubes in boilers and fired heaters perform this function.

+

+

+

4.10

Q: Determine the size of a fire tubewasteheatboilerrequiredto

cool 100,OOO lb/hr of flue gasesfrom 1500°F to 500°F. Gas analysis is (% vol) CO2 = 12, H 2 0 = 12, N2 = 70, and O2 = 6; gas pressure is 5 in. WC. Steam pressure is 150 psig, and

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

211

feedwater enters at 220°F. Tubes used are 2 X 1.77 in. (outer and inner diameter); fouling factors are gas-side ff Btu/ft = "F hr 0.002 and steam-side ff = 0.001 ft*"F/Btu. Tube metal thermal conductivity = 25 Btu/ft hr F. Steam-side boiling heat transfer coefficient = 2000 Btu/ft*"F. Assume that heat losses and margin = 2%andblowdown = 5%.

A

Use Eq. (4) to compute the overall heat transfer coefficient, and then arrive at the size from (1).

1 + - h0

hi, the tube-side coefficient, is actually the sum of a convective portion h, plus a nonluminous coefficient h,. h, is obtained from 44.04:
h, = 2.44 X
wO.~

X

L d,!.8

At the average gas temperature of 1000"F, the gas properties can be shown to be C, = 0.287 Btu/lb"F, p = 0.084 Ib/ft hr, and k = 0.0322Btu/fthr°F.Hence,

0, O O Boiler duty Q = 1 0 O X 0.98 X 0.287 X (1500 - 500) = 28.13 X IO6 Btu/hr

Enthalpies of saturated steam, saturated water, and feedwater from steam tables are1195.5,338, and 188 Btu/lb, respectively. The enthalpy absorbed by steam is then (1 195.5 - 188) 0.05 X (338 - 188) = 1015 Btu/lb, where 0.05 istheblowdown factor corresponding to 5% blowdown. Hence

+

Steam generation

=

28'13 x lo6 1015

= 27,710 Ib/hr

212

Ganapathy

In order to compute hi,the flow per tubeW is required. Typically W ranges from 100 to 200 Ib/hrfor a 2-in. tube. Let us start with 600 tubes;hence W = 100,000/600 = 167 lb/hr. h, = 2.44
X

0.208

X

167°.8 = 10.9 Btu/ft2 hr "F (1.77p8

The nonluminous coefficient is usually small in fire tube boilers as the beamlengthcorresponds to the tubeinnerdiameter. However, the procedure used Q4.07 can also be used here. Let in us assume that it is 0.45 Btu/ft2 hr "F. Hence hi = 10.90

+ 0.45

= 11.35 Btu/ft2hr

"F

Let us compute U.Since it is based on tube outside surface, let us call it U,.
"

1

-

U0

2/ 1.77 11.35

+ 0.001 + 0.002 x
24 X 25

2 1.77

2 x " In (m)
= 0.10 = 0.10417

+ o.Ooo5

+ 0.001 + 0.00226 + 0.00041 + 0.0005

Hence, U, = 9.6 Btu/ft* hr "F. The various resistances in ft2 hr "F/Btu are
transfer heat Gas-side fouling Gas-side resistance Metal fouling Steam-side transfer Steam-side heat
0.10 0.00226
0.00041

0.001 0.0005

If U is computed on the basisof tube inner surfacearea, then Ui is given by the expression
Ai x

V i = A x U,. Hence ,

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

213

Vi = 9.6 X

L - = 10.85 Btu/ft2 hr "F 1.77

Log-mean temperature difference is

AT =
Hence

(1500 - 366) - (500 - 366) . = 468"F In[( 1500- 366)/(500 - 366)]

A ,

=

28'13 x lo6 = 6261 ft2 = 3.14 x 2 x 600 468 X 9.6 L x 12 20 12

so required length L of the tubes = 19.93 ft. Use 20 ft. Then

A = 3.14 X 2 X 600 X ,
Ai = 5558 ft2

=

6280 ft2,

Let US compute the gas pressure drop using ter 3.

Eq. (12) of ChapV

ug 93 =

x

x w2 x f x L, x

Friction factorfdepends on tube inner diameter and can be taken as 0.02. The equivalent length L, can be approximated by L 5di to include the tube inlet and exit losses. Specificvolume v obtainedas l/density, or v = l/p.Gas density the at average temperature gas of 1000°F is pg = 3911460 = 0.0267 lb/cu ft. Therefore,

+

APg

= 93 X

X 1672 X 0.02

X

20 5 X 1.77 = 3.23 in. WC 0.0267 X (1 .77)5

+

This is only one design. Several variables such as tube size and massflowcouldbechangedtoarriveatseveraloptionsthat couldbereviewed for optimum operating and installed costs.

214

Ganapathy

4.11

Q: What is the effect of tube size and gas velocity on boiler size? Is
surface area the sole criterion for boiler selection?

A

Surface area should notbe used as the sole criterion for selecting or purchasing boilers, as tube size and gas velocity affect this variable. for Shown in Table4.7 are the design options the same boiler duty using different gas velocities and tube sizes; the procedure The described in 44.10 wasusedtoarriveattheseoptions. purpose behind this example is to bring out the fact that surface area can vary by as much as 50% for the same duty. increases, thesurfacearearequired decreases, which is obvious. 2. The smaller the tubes, the higher the heat transfer coefficient for the same gas velocity, which also decreases the surface area. 3. For the same gas pressure drop, the tube length is smaller if the tube size is smaller. This fact helps when we try to fit a boiler into a small space. 4. For the same tube size, increasing the gas velocity results in a longer boiler, a greatergaspressure drop, butsmaller surface area. In the case of water tube boilers, more variables suchas tube spacing and in-line or staggered arrangement, addition to gas in
1. As thegasvelocity

Table 4.7 Effect of Tube Size and Gas Velocity
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Size Velocity, fps Tubes L, ft
S,, f1*

U,
M , , in. WC

P, kW

1.75 X 1.521 98 163 123 lo00 800 600 15.75 16.75 18 6269 5333 4298 19.47 11.08 13.70 6.23 3.34 2.05 25.4 47.4 15.6

2.0 X 1.77 98 123 162 750 600 450 18.75 20 21.5 6513 5558 4480 13.19 10.68 9.07 6.00 3.20 1.97 45.6 24.4 15.0

2.5 98 162 470 24.75 6812 12.72 10.29 8.73 1.95 14.9

X 2.238 123 375 280 26.0 28.50 5710 4673

3.16 24.0

6.00 45.6

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

215

velocity and tube size can affect surface area. This is discussed elsewhere.
4.12

Q: How is the tube wall temperature in fire tube boilers evaluated?
Discuss the importance of heat flux.

A

To compute the tube temperatures, flux wall heat must known.
qo = heat flux outside tubes = V, X (tg

be
ti)

-

Btu/ft2 hr

Similarly, qi (heat flux inside the tube) would be Vi X (tg - ti). However,heatflux outside the tubes is relevantin fire tube boilers as boiling occursoutside the tubes, whereas in water tube boilers, the heat flux inside the tubes would be relevant. A high heat flux can result in a condition called DNB (departure from nucleate boiling), which will result in overheatingof tubes. It is preferable to keep the actualmaximumheatfluxbelowthe critical heat flux, which varies from 150,000 to 250,000 Btu/ft2 hr depending on steam quality, pressure, and tube condition[l]. An electrical analogycan be used in determining tube wall the temperatures.Heatflux is analogous to current, electrical resistance to thermal resistance, and voltage drop to temperature drop. Using the exampleworkedin Q4.10, wehavethat at average gas conditions the product of current (heat flux) and resistance (thermal resistance) gives the voltage drop (temperature drop):
qo = heat flux
=

9.6 X (1000 - 366) = 6086Btu/ft2

hr Temperature drop across gas film = 6086 X 0.1 = 609°F Temperature drop across gas-side fouling = 6086 X 0.00226 = 14°F Temperature drop across tube wall = 6086 X O.OOO41 = 3°F Temperature drop across steam-side fouling = 6086 X 0.001 = 6°F Temperature drop across steam film = 6085 X 0.0005 = 3°F

216

Ganapathy

Hence, Average inside tubewalltemperature = 1000 - 609 - 14 = 377°F Outside tubewalltemperature = 377 - 3 = 374°F. The same results are obtained working from the steam side. Outside tubewalltemperature
= 366

+ 6 + 3 = 375°F

One can also compute the maximum tube wall temperature by obtaining the heat flux at the hot gas inlet end.
4.13

Q: What is the effect of scale formation on tube wall temperatures? A. If nonsoluble salts such as calcium or magnesium salts or silica
are present in the feedwater, they can deposit in a thin layer on tube surfaces duringevaporation, thereby resulting higher tube in wall temperatures. Table 4.8 lists the thermal conductivity k of a few scales. Outside fouling factor ff, can be obtained the scale information if is available.

Table 4.8 ThermalConductivitiesofScale
Materials Material Analcite
Calcium phosphate

Thermal conductivity [(Btu/ft2 hr "F)/in.]
8.8 25 16

Calcium sulfate Magnesiumphosphate Magnetic iron oxide Silicate scale (porous) Boiler steel Firebrick Insulating brick

15 20 0.6 310

. 7
0.7

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance ff, = thickness of scale conductivity

217

Let us use the same example as in 44.10 and check theeffect of ff, on boiler duty and tube wall temperatures. a silicate scale Let of thickness 0.03 in. be formed. Then, ff, =

- = 0.05 ft2 hr"F/Btu 0.6

Assumethat other resistances have not changed. (Because of differentdutyand gas temperature profile, thegas-sideheat transfer coefficient will be slightly different. However, for the sake of illustration, we neglect this.) We have

U0

= ' 0.10

+ 0.00226 + 0.00041 + 0.05 + 0.0005

= 0.15317

Hence, U, = 6.52 Btu/ft*hr"F Heat flux qo = 6.52 X (lo00

- 366)

=

4133 Btu/ft2 hr.

Temperaturedropacrossoutsidesteamfilm = 0.0005 X 4133 = 2°F. Temperature drop across steam-side fouling layer scale = or 4133 X 0.05 = 207°F. Temperaturedropacrosstubewall = 4133 X O.OOO41 = 2°F. We see that average tube wall temperature has risen to 366 2 207 2 = 577°F from anearlier value of about 375°F. Scale formation is a serious problem. Note that the heat flux is now lower, but that does not help. At the front end, where the heat flux is higher, the tubes would be much hotter. Now let us check the effect on boiler duty. It can shown [1, be 81 that

+

+

+

218

Ganapathy

where hlf is the heat loss factor.If 2% losses are assumed, then h,, = 0.98. We know that V, = 6.52, A, = 6820, tg, = 1500, tat = 366. Hence, In 6.52 X 6280 tg, - 366 100,000 X 0.98 X 0.287 1500 - 366 = 1.456, or = 4.29 tg2 - 366 1500

- 366 -

Hence tg2 = 630°F comparedto 500°F earlier. The reason for tg2 going up is the lower U, caused by scale formation. = 100,000 X 0.98 X 0.287 X (1500 Hencenewduty 630) = 24.47 X lo6 Btu/hr. The decrease induty is 28.13 24.47 = 3.66 MM Btu/hr. Even assuminga modest energy cost of $3/MM Btu, the annual loss due to increased fouling is 3.66 X 3 X 8000 = $87,800. The steamproductionin turn gets reduced. Plant engineers should check the performance of their heat transfer equipment periodically to seethe exit gas temperature if rises for the same inlet gas flow and temperature. it does, then If it is likely due to fouling on either the gas or steam side, which can be checked. Foulingon the gas side affects only the duty and steam production, but fouling on the steam side increases the tube wall temperature addition to reducing the duty and steam in production. To ensure that variations exit gas temperatureare not due to in fouling but are due to changes in gas flow or temperature, one can use simulation methods. For example, if, for the same gas flow, the inlet gas temperature 180O0F, we can expect the exit is gastemperatureto rise. Undercleanconditions,thiscanbe estimated using Eq. (35). 1500 - 366 500 - 366
-

1800 - 366 , tR2 - 366

or tR2 = 535°F

Now if, in operation, the exit gas temperature were to 600"F, 570 then fouling could be suspected; butif the gas temperature were only about 535"F, this would only be due to the increased gas

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

219

inlet temperature. Similarly, one can consider the effect of gas flow and saturation temperature.
4.14

Q: Howisthe size of a watertubeboilerdetermined?

A: The starting point in the design of an evaporator bundle (Figure
4.3) is the estimation overall heat transfer coefficient.crossof The sectional data such as the number of tubes wide, spacing, and length of tubesare assumed. U is estimatedon the basis of mass velocity. The surface area is then determined, followed by the number of rows deep. The gas pressure drop is then evaluated. This is only a feasible design. Several options are possible depending on the and operatingcost, which is influencedby size the gas pressure drop. Optimization is then resorted to, preferably using a computer program. EXAMPLE 150,000 pph of flue gas must be cooled from 900°F 520°F in to an evaporator generating saturated steam at 125 psig with 230°F feedwater. Blowdownis 5%. Gas analysis(% vol) is as follows: CO2 = 12, H20 = 12, N = 70, and 0 = 6. Heat loss from , , the casing = 1.O%. Fouling factors on steam and gas side = 0.001 ft2 hr "F/Btu. Solution. Let us assume the following. Tube size = 2 x 0.105 in. (inner diameter = 1.77 in.); number wide = 18; tube length = 10 ft; Transverse and longitudinal pitch are in. each. Aver4 age gas temperature = 0.5 x (900 520) = 710°F = 650 K. Fluid temperature inside tubes 353°F. Hence film temperature = = 0.5 X (353 + 710) = 531°F. The gas properties from the , Appendix are C = 0.270, p = 0.0645, and k = 0.02345. The = 0.277. gas specific heat at the average gas temperature

+

Duty Q = 150,000 X 0.99 X 0.277 X (900 - 520) = 15.60 MM Btuhr Steamenthalpychange = (1193 - 198) 0.05 X (325 - 198) = 1001.4 Btu/lb

+

220

Ganapathy

I

Figure 4.3 Boiler evaporator

bundle.

Hence Steam generation
G = 150,000 X
=

15*60 x lo6 = 15,580 Ib/hr 1001.4
= 5000 Ib/ft2 hr

12 18 X 10 X (4 - 2)
L

Re = 5000 X

12 X 0.0645

=

12920. of 4 in. in-line,

Using Grimson's equation, for a spacing

Nu = 0.229 X (12,920)0.632 90.8 = h, = 2 X 12 x 0.02345 Hence, h, = 12.78 Btu/fthr°F.

Heat Transfer

Equipment Design

and Performance

221

Let us compute the nonluminous coefficient. Partial pressures of CO2 and H 2 0 = 0.12; beam length L = 1.08 x (4 x 4 0.785 X 4)/2 = 6.95 in. = 0.176 m;

K

1.6 X 0.12) (1 - 0.38 X 0.650) 0.24 X = 0.872, (0.24 X 0.176)0.5 = 0.9 x (1 - ,-0.872Xo.176 ) = 0.128
(0.8

+

Assumethat the surface temperature is 400°F.Areasonable assumption is 30 to 40°F above the average fluid temperature.
h = 0.173 X 0.9 X 0.128 X N

11.74 - 8.64 = 0.85 1170 - 860

(An additional factor of 0.9 was used to account for the emissivity of the surface.) of Usingan hi value of 2000Btu/ft2hr"F,foulingfactors 0.001 for both inside and outside the tubes, and a tube metal conductivity of 25 Btu/ft hr°F
"

1

U

-

0.85

+

1 12.78

+ 0.001 + 0.001
+

x

2 1.77

1 + - 2000

2 l .77 = 0.07326 0.001 + 0.0004 = 0.07633

x-

+

+

(2/ 1.77) x In 24 x 25 0.0011 0.000565

+

Hence, U = 13. l Btu/ft2 hr"F. Log-mean temperature difference = [(900 - 353) - (520 353)]/1n (547/167) = 320°F Required surface area = A = 320 X 13.1
15~600~000 3721 ft2 =

X 18 X 10 X Nd 12 or Nd = 39.5;use 40. Provided surface area = 3768 ft2.

= 3.14 X

-

222

Ganapathy

Let us compute the gas pressure drop. Gas density

MW = -x
359 460
X

492

+ te

= 2 9

492 359 X 1170 = 0.034 lbku ft f = 12,950-0.'5 (0.044 0.08 X 2) = 0.0493 X 0.0493 h = 9.3 X 1' p , 0 " X 5OOO2 X 40 X 0.034 = 1.35 in. WC

+

The average heat flux q (based on inner diameter)
=

is

U

X (tg

-

t,) = 13.1 X (710 - 353) X

2 1.77

= 5285

Btu/ft2 hr.

The temperature drops across the various resistances comare puted. Drop across inside film = 5285/2000 = 2.7"F Dropacrossinside fouling = 5285 X 0.001 = 5.3"F Drop across wall tube
= 1.9"F =
") -X

2

5285

Hence the outer walltemperature = 353 2.7 5 3 . 19 . = 363°F. Note that this is only an average outer wall temperature. The heat flux and the tube wall temperature should be evaluated at the gas inlet, considering the nonuniformity in gas flow and temperature profile across the boiler cross section. Note also that the heat flux with bare tubes is low compared to that with finned tubes, as will be shown later. Also, an evaporator section may have several combinations of tube spacings andfin configurations. This design would be used in clean gas applications when the inlet gas temperature is very

+

+

+

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

223

high, where,due to heat flux and tube wall fin tip temperature or concerns, a few baretubes would be used followed by tubes with increasing fin density. Also, in dirty gas applications, the tube spacing would be wide at the gas inlet because of slagging or bridging concerns. In these cases, an analysis of each sort of arrangement for heat transfer and pressure drop be warranted. may

4.15a Q: How is the off-design performance of a boiler evaluated?

A

Let us see how the boiler in 44.14 behaves when the gas inlet temperature andflow change while the steam parameters remain unchanged.

EXAMPLE Predict the performance the boiler in of 44.14 when the gas flow = 130,000 pph and inlet gas temperature = 1500°F. Gas analysis is unchanged. Solution. Performance calculations are more involved than design calculations, as we have a given surface area and the heat balance has to be arrived at through a trial-and-error procedure. The basic steps are
1 Assume a value for the exit gas temperature. .

2. Calculate U. 3. Computetheassumedduty x htf.
4. 5.

Q,, = W, X C, X (T, - T2)

Calculatethelog-meantemperaturedifference AT. Computethetransferredduty Q, = U X A X AT. 6 . If Q, and Q, do not agree, go back to step 1 and try another exit gas temperature. For evaporators this is nottedious calculations, but for econa omizers or superheaters, particularly there is more than one when stage, thecalculations are time-consuming. Let theexitgas temperature = 700°F. The average film temperature = [OS X (1500 700) 3531 = 725°F. Gas properties at 725°F from , the Appendix are C = 0.277, p = 0.07256, and k = 0.027.

+

+

224

Ganapathy

G = 130,000 X

12 18 X 10 X (4 - 2)
L

= 4333 lb/ft2 hr

Re = 4333 X

. 12

X 0.007256

= 9954

Nu = 0.229 X 9954°.632= 77 = h, X

2 12 x 0.027

Hence h, = 12.47. Average gas temperature = 0.5 X (1500 700) = 1100°F = 866 K

+

K =

1.6 X 0.12) (1 - 0.38 X 866) = .782 d0.0.24 X 0.176 = 0.9 X (1 - e-0.782x0.176)= 0.1286. [(15.4)4- (8.6)4] = 1.49 h, = 0.173 X 0.9 X 0.1286 X 1540 - 860 1 1 1 2 x2000 1.77 U 12.47 1.49 2 In (2/ 1.77) 0.001 x 1.77 (24 X 25) = 0.0747, U = 13.38 (0.8

+

+

+-

+

Theassumedduty = 130,000 X 0.99 X (1500 - 700) = 29.8 MM Btu/hr (C, at average gas temperature = 0.289,) Log-mean temperature difference - (1500 - 353) - (700 - 353) In (1 147/347) = 669°F

.

Transferredduty Q,= 3768 X 13.38 X 669 = 33.72 MM Btu/hr. Since the discrepancy is large and the transferred duty is higherthan the assumed duty, another trial is required: Try 650°F as exit gas temperature. There is no need to compute U again as the difference will be marginal. T y assumedduty Q, = 130,000 X 0.289 X (1500 - 650) r X 0.99 = 31.61 MM Btu/hr

AT

= 629;

U

=

13.38;

A = 3768

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

225

Transferred duty Q,= 629 x 13.38 x 3768 = 31.71 M M Btu/hr. This is close enough. Hence the new duty is 31.71 M M Btdhr, and the corresponding steam flow = (31.71/15.60) X 15,580 = 31,670 Ib/hr. Gas pressure drop is computed as before. , Averagegastemperature
p=29X
=

492 (359 x 1534)

1075°F = 1535"R
= 0.0259 Ibku ft

hpq

= 9.3 X 10"'

X 4333* X 40 X

0.051 2 0.0259

= 1.39 in. WC

Tubewalltemperatureandheat before. 4.15b

flux canbecomputedas

Q: Discuss the logic for determining the off-design performance a of
water tube waste heat boiler with the configuration shown Figure 4.4 in

A

In thedesignprocedure one calculatesthesize of thevarious heatingsurfacessuchassuperheaters, evaporators, andeconomizers by the methods discussed earlier based on the equation A = Q/(U X AT). Inthissituation,theduty Q, log-mean temperature difference AT, and overall heat transfer coefficient U are known or can obtained easilyfor a given configuration. be Intheoff-designprocedure,whichismoreinvolved,the purpose is to predict the performance a given boiler under difof ferent conditions of gas flow, inlet gas temperature, and steam parameters. In these calculations several trial-and-error steps are required before arrivingat the final heat balance and as the duty, surface area is nowknown. The procedure is discussed for a simple case, configuration 1of Figure 4.4, which consists of a screen section, superheater, evaporator, and economizer.

226

Ganapathy

Key EVAP = Evaporator ECON = Econonlzer SH = Superheater

Figure 4.4 Configurationsforwatertubeboiler.
Assumeasteamflow W,basedon gas conditions. 2. Solve for the screen section, which is actually an evaporator, by using the methods discussed in Q4.15a. 3. Solve for the superheater section, either,using the NTU method or by trial and error. Assume a value for the duty and compute the exit gadsteam temperatures and then AT. Assumedduty Q, = where
h,,, h,; = enthalpies of steam at exit and inlet Tgi, Tgo= gas inlet and exit temperatures.
1.

W, X

C X (T’, - T’,) hv = W, ,

x (h,, - h,;)

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

227

4.

5.

6.
7.

Compute U . Then transferred duty isQ, = U X A X AT. If Q, and Q, are close, then the assumed duty and gadsteam temperatures are correct, and proceedto the next step; otherwise assume another duty and repeat step 3. Solve for the evaporator section as in step 1 No trial and . error is required, as the steam temperature is constant. Solve for the economizer as in step 3 Assume a value for . the duty and then compute gadwater temperatures, AT, exit and Q,. Iteration proceeds untilQ, and Q, match. The NTU method can also be used to avoid several iterations. The entire HRSG duty is now obtained by adding all of the transferredduty ofthe four sections. The steamflowis corrected based on the actual total duty and enthalpy rise. If the actual steam flow fromstep 6 equals that assumedin step 1, then the iterations are complete and the solution is over; if not, go back to step 1 with the revised steam flow.

The calculations become more complex supplementary firif ing is added to generatea desired quantityof steam; the gas flow and analysis change as the firing temperature changes, and the calculations for U and the gadsteam temperature profile must take this into consideration. Again, multipressure HRSGSs are if involved, the calculationsare even more complex and cannot be done without a computer.
4.16a

Q:

Determinethetubemetaltemperatureforthe heater under the following conditions:

case of a super-

Averagegastemperature = 1200°F Averagesteamtemperature = 620°F Outside gas heat transfer coefficient = 15 Btu/ft2 hr "F Steam-side coefficient = 900 Btu/ft2 hr "F (Estimation of steam and gas heat transfer coefficients is discussed in 44.03 and 4.04.) Tube size = 2 X 0.142 in. (2in. OD and 0.142 in. thick)

Table 4.9 Thermal Conductivity of Metals, Btu/ft hr T
Temperature (3 Material Aluminum (annealed) Type 1100-0 Type 3003-0 Type 3004-0 Type 6061-0 Aluminum (tempered) Type 1100 (all tempers) Type 3003 (all tempers) Type 3004 (all tempers) Type 6061-T4and T6 Type 6063-T5and T6 Ty~e 6063-T42 Cast iron Carbon steel Carbon moly (%%) steel

200 I26 111 97 102 123 96 97 95 116 111 31 30 29

300

400

500

600

700 120 111 13 0 106 118 102 103 100 115 111 27 25 25

800 118 111
104

900

lo00 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500

124 111 98 13 0 122 97 98 96 116 111 31 29 28

123 111 99 104 121 98 99 97 116 111 30 28 27

122 111 100 105 120 99
100

121 111 102 106 118
100

106 118
104 104

98 116 111 29 27 26

102 99 116 111 28 26 25

102 114 111 26 24 24

25 23 23

22
22
2

2

2
13

22
22
m - o w
N m N -

v ,

wm-2 N N N

230

Ganapathy

Tube thermal conductivity steel)

= 2 Btu/ft hr "F (carbon 1

(Thermal conductivity of metals can be looked up from 4.9.)

Table

A

Since the average conditions are given the and average tube metal temperatureis desired, we must havethe parameters noted above under the most severe conditions of operation, such as the highest gas temperature, steam temperature, heat flux, and so on. Let us use the concept .of electrical analogy, inwhich the thermal and electrical resistances, heat flux, and current, temperature difference, and voltage are analogous. For the thermal resistance of the tube metal,
R, =
d - In 2K 4,

<f)

=

In

(m) 2 x 24
15

2
X

2 1

= 0.0006 ft2 hr "F/Btu

Outside gas filmresistance R, = "F/Btu Insidefilmresistance

= 0.067 ft2 hr

1 Ri = - = 0.0011 ft2 hr "F/Btu 900

Totalresistance R, = 0.067 0.0006 0.0011 = 0.0687 ft2 hr "F/Btu Hence Heat flux Q =

+

+

200 - 620 0.0687

=

8443 Btu/ft* hr

Temperature drop across the gasfilm = 8443 X 0.067 = 565°F Temperature drop across the tube metal = 8443 X 0.0006 = 5°F Temperature drop acrosssteamfilm = 8443 X 0.0011 = 9.3"F

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

231

(Here we have applied the electrical analogy, where voltagedrop is equal to the product of current and the resistance.) Hence, Average tube metaltemperature = (1200 - 565)

+ (620 - 9.3)
0

L

= 632°F

We note thatthe tube metal temperature is close to the tube-side fluid temperature. This is because of the high tube-side coefficient compared to the gas heat transfer coefficient. This trend would prevail in equipment such water tube boilers, superheaas ters, economizers, or anygas-liquidheat transfer equipment. An approximate estimate of the tube metal temperature for bare tubes in a gas-liquid or gas-gas heat transfer device is
t, = to

- hi + h, x hi

(to

-

ti)

where

hi,h, = heat transfer coefficients inside and outside the
tubes, Btu/ft2 hr "F ti, to = fluid temperatures inside and
4.I6b

outside, "F

Q:

Inaboiler air heater, h, = 9, hi = 12, ti = 200"F,and 800°F. Estimate the average tube wall temperature t,.

to =

A: Using Eq. (31), we have
t, = 800 -

12

l2

+9

X (800

- 200)

= 457°F

4.17

Q:

How is the performance of fire tubeandwatertubeboilers evaluated? Can we infer the extent of fouling from operational data? A water tube boiler waste heat boiler as shown in Figure 4.5 generates 10,OOO lb/hr of saturated steam at 300 psia when

232
Fire tube boiler Steam

Ganapathy

T1

0 0 0 0 00 0 0
"0" 0

Water .tube boiler

Figure 4.5

Sketch of fire tubeandwatertube

boilers.

the gas flow is 75,000lb/hr and gas temperatures in and out are 1000°F and 500°F. What should the steam generation and exit gas temperature be when 50,000 Ib/hr of gas at 950°F enters the boiler?

A:

It can be shown that in equipment with a phase change

[ 1, 81,

where
tl, t2 = tsat=

A = U =
W = ,

gas temperatures entering and leaving the boiler, "F saturationsteamtemperature, "F surface area, ft2 overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F total gas flow, lb/hr

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

233

instantaneous gas specific heat at the average temt2)/2 Btu/lb "F perature of (tl For fire tube boilers, the overall heat transfer coefficient is dependent on the gas coefficient inside the tubes; that is, U is proportional to W : . 8 . In a water tube boiler, U is proportional to Substituting these onto Eq. (32) gives us the following. For fire tube boilers:

C ,

=

+

For water tube boilers:

As long as the fouling is not severe, Eqs. (33) and (34) predict the exit gas temperatures correctly. t2 is greater than predicted, If we can infer that fouling has occurred. Also,if the gas pressure drop across the boiler is .more than the calculated value (see Chapter 3 for pressuredropcalculations), wecaninfer that fouling has taken place. Calculate K2 from Q. (34). tsst = 417 from.the steam tables (see the Appendix). K2 = In

( '500o0 417 O - 417 -

X

(75,000)0.4= 173
W = 50,000. ,

Let us predict the exit gas temperature when

Now the actual exit gas temperature is 520"F, which means that the fouling is severe. The energy loss due to fouling is Q = 50,000 X 0.26 X (520 - 471) = 0.63 X lo6 Btu/hr

234

Ganapathy

If energy costs $3/MM Btu, the annual loss of energy due to fouling willbe 3 X 0.63 X 8000 = $15,120 (assuming 8000 hours of operation a year).
4.18

Q:

When and where are finned tubes used? What are their advantages over bare tubes? Finned tubes are used extensively in boilers, superheaters, economizers,andheaters for recoveringenergyfromcleangas streams such as gas turbine exhaust flue gas from combustion or of premium fossil fuels. the particulate concentration the gas If in stream is very low, finned tubes with a low fin density may be used. However, the choice of fin configuration, particularly in clean gas applications, is determined by several factors such as tube-sideheattransfer coefficient, overall size, cost, andgas pressure drop, which affects the operating cost. Solid and serrated fins (Figure 4.6) are used in boilers and heaters. Finned surfaces are attractive when the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients on the outside tubesto that inside of the is very small. In boiler evaporators or economizers, the tube-side

A

Figure 4.6 Solid and serrated fins.

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

235

coefficient could be in the range of 1500 to 3000 Btu/ft2 hr "F, while the gas-side coefficient could be in the range of 10 to 20 Btu/ft2 hr "F. A large fin density or a large ratio of external to internal surface area is justified in this case.As the ratio between the outside and inside coefficientsdecreases, the effectivenessof using a large ratio of external to internal surface areas decreases. For example, in superheatersor high-pressure air heaters, where the tube-side coefficient could be inthe range of 30 to 300 Btu/ ft2 hr "F, it does not pay to use a large fin surface; in fact, it is counterproductive, as willbe shown later. A moderate fin density such as two or three fins per inch wouldbe adequate, while for economizers or evaporators, five or even sixfins per inch may be justified if cleanliness permits. The other important fact to be kept in mind is that more surface area does not necessarily mean more energy transfer. It is possible, through poorchoice of fin configuration, to have more surface area and yet transfer less energy. One has to look at the product of surface area and overall heat transfer coefficient and not at surface area alone. The overall heat transfer coefficient is significantly reduced as we increase the fin surface or use more fins per inch. Finned tubes offer several advantages over bare tubes suchas a compact design that occupies less space, lower gas pressure drop, lower tube-side pressure drop due to the fewer rowsof tubes, and a smaller overall weight and cost. Solid fins offer slightly lowergas pressure drop over serrated fins, which have a higher heat transfer coefficient for the same fin density and configuration. Particulates, if present, are likely to accumulate on serrated finned tubes, which may be difficult to clean.
4.19a

Q: How are the heat transfer and pressure drop over finned tubes
and tube and fin wall temperatures evaluated?

A: The widely used

ESCOA correlations developed by ESCOA Corporation [9] will be used to evaluate the heat transfer and

236

Ganapathy

pressure drop over solid and serrated finned tubes in in-line and staggeredarrangements.Thebasicequation for heattransfer coefficient with finned tubes is given by Eq. (3). The calculation for tube-side coefficient hi is discussed earlier. h, consists of two parts, anonluminouscoefficient h,, which is computed as discussed in 44.07, and h,, the convective heat transfercoefficient. Computation of h, involves an elaborate procedure and the solving of several equations, as detailed below. DETERMINATION OF h, 19) h, = d

c3c*ccj(
X GC, X

+2h
d k

(xr

r5 (
x

t, to

+ 460 + 460

)0.25

G =
A,=

W,

[(S7-/12) - A,INlL d nbh 6 12

+-

C,, and C, are obtained from Table 4.10. C,,
Gd Re = 12 1 S = - -6 n

FIN EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS For both solid and serrated fins; effectiveness q is
q = l - ( l - E ) X For solid fins,
A,=

L L A,
+ 4h2 + 2bd + 4bh)
24

v n X

(4dh

A, = Af

+ 7~

d X (1 - nb) 12

N w 4

238

Ganaparhy

E = 1/{1 where

+ 0.002292 m2h2 [(d+2h)/dI0.’} (43)
(44)

m = (24 h,/Kb)’.’

For serrated fins,
Af =

12ws ( 1 - nb) A = A/ 7 ~ d , 12 tanh (mh) E = mh

7~

dn

2h (ws

+ b) + bws

(45) (46) (47)

+

where m = [
24 X h,(b Kbws

+

WS)

l

0.5

Gas pressure drop
hpg

APg

is
(49)

= (f

+ a)

G2Nd pg X 1.083 X lo9

where

arrangement for staggered
=

c2c4c6 x

d

+ 2h
d

(50)

for in-line arrangement

(51)

B =
C2,C,,

( freegasarea
totalarea

)2

(53)

c are given in Table 6

4.10 for solid and serrated fins.

TUBE WALL AND FIN TIP TEMPERATURES For solid fins the relation between tube wall and fin tip temperatures is given by

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

239

The various Bessel functional data are shown in Table 4.11 for serrated fins, treated as longitudinal fins: 1 tg tb cosh (mb) A good estimate of $can also be obtained for either type of fin as follows:
t* tf

-

-

t/ =
=

tb

(tg

X

tb)

X (1.42

- 1.4
R,)

X E)

(56)

tb, the fin base temperature, is estimated as follows:
tb ti

+q

(R3

+ R,

(57)

where R,, R4,and RS are resistancesto heat transferof the inside film, fouling layer, and tubewall, respectively and heat qo is flux given by
qo

=

K (tg -

ti)

(58)

The following example illustrates the use of the equations.
EXAMPLE

A steam superheater is designed for the following conditions.
Gasflow = 150,000 pph Gasinlettemperature = 1000°F Gasexittemperature = 861°F Gas analysis(% vol): CO, = 12, H 2 0 = 12, N = 70,02 = 6 , Steamflow = 30,000 pph Steam temperature in = 491°F (sat) Steamexittemperature = 787°F Steampressure(exit) = 600 psig Tubes used: 2 X 0.120 low alloy steel tubes; 18 tubeshow, 6 deep, in-line arrangement 4-in. with square and pitch nine streams. Tube inner diameter = 1.738 in.; outer diameter = 2 in. Finsused:solidstainless steel, 2 findin., 0.5 in. highand 0.075 in thick. Fin thermal conductivity K = 15 Btu/ft hr. "F.

240

Ganapathy

Table 4.11 Io, 11,KO, and K I ValuesforVariousArguments
0 0. l 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.o 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 .O 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0
1.o 1 .002 1.010 1 .023 1.040 1.063 1.092 1.126 1.166 l .213 1.266 1.394
1S 5 3

1.75 1.99 2.28 2.629 3.049 3.553 4.157 4.881 5.747 6.785 8.028 9.517 11.30 13.44 16.01 19.09 22.79 27.24

0 0.05 0.10 0.152 0.204 0.258 0.314 0.372 0.433 0.497 0.565 0.715 0.886 1.085 1.317 1.591 1.914 2.298 2.755 3.301 3.953 4.734 5.670 6.793 8.140 9.759 11.70 14.04 16.86 20.25 24.34

8 2.427 1.753 1.372 1.114 0.924 0.778 0.66 0.565 0.487 0.421 0.318 0.244 0.188 0.146 0.114 0.0893 0.0702 0.554 0.0438 0.0347 0.0276 0.0220 0.0175 0.0140 0.0112 0.0089 0.0071 0.0057 0.0046 0.0037

8 9.854 4.776 3.056 2.184 l .656 1.303 1.05 0.862 0.7 16 0.602 0.434 0.321 0.241 0.183 0.140 0.108 0.0837 0.0653 0.05 1 1 0.0402 0.0316 0.0250 0.0198 0.0157 0.0125 0.0099 0.0079 0.0063
0.0050

0.0040

Hear Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

241

Determine the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. Solution.

G =

18 X 10 X [(4/12) - 0.179171

150,000

=

5420 lb/ft2 hr

The gas properties at the average gas temperature (from the Appendix) are
C, = 0.2851,
p = 0.08146,

k = 0.03094

Re =
C, =
S

c,

= =

C, =

5420 x 2 = 11,090 12 X 0.08146 0.25 X (1 1,090)-0.35 = 0.0096, 1/2 - 0.075 = 0.425 0.2 + 0.65 e-0.25X0.510.425 = 0.6843 1.1 - (0.75 - 1.5 (e-2x4’4) = 1.0015

Assume that the average fin temperature is 750°F. The average gas temperature = 930”F, and steam temperature = 640°F. K The fin thermal conductivity is assumed to be 15 Btu/ft hr “F. Then,
h, = 0.0096 X 0.6843 X 1.0015 X
+

x

( 930 + 460 750 460

r2’

(
.

3
.

5

x 5420 x 0.2851

= 15.74 x Usingmethodsdiscussedin 44.07, wefind h, = 1.12. The beamlength for finnedtubes is computed as 3.4 X volume/ surface areas. Hence h, = 15.74 1.12 = 16.86, m = 24 X 16.86 r 5 = 19 15 X 0.075 E = 1/(1 + 0.002292 x 19 x l 9 x 0.5 x 0.5 x = 0.80

(

0.3094 0.2851 X 0.08146

>”’”

(

+

a)

242

Ganapathy
A,= 3.14 X 2
X

4 X 2 X 0.5

+ 4 X 0.5 X 0.5 + 2 X 0.075 X 2 + 4 X 0.075 X 5
24

= 1.426

A, = 1.426

+ 3.14 X 2 X
X

1- 2 X .075 = 1.871 1 2

Hence
= 0.8

+ (1 - 0.8)
X

-= 1.871

0.848

Let us compute hifor steam.'W = 30,000/9 = 3333 Ib/hr per tube.FromTable 4.2, factor C = 0.337.

hi = 2.44
"

0.337 X

1

U

-

1 16.85 X 0.848

3333°.8 (1 .738)'.8

= 200

Btu/ft2hr "F

+

1 2

X

1.872 200 X 3.14 X 1.738

+ 0.001
2
= 0.0699

o'OO1 x
X

1.871 X 1 2 3.14 X 1.738

+ 0.0211 + 0.001 + 0.0041 + 0.0024 = 0.0985
U, = 10.16 Btu/ft2hr "F Calculation o tube wall and fin tip temperature f
Heatflux q = 10.16 X (930 - 640) = 2945 Btu/ft2 hr
tb = 640 2945 X (0.0024 = 722 "F

24 X 20 X 3.14 X 1.738

1 .S71

+

+ 0.0041 + 0.0211)
mr, = 1.58 ft
= 0.0837,

Using the elaborate Bessel functions,
1.5 mr, = 19 X - = 2.38 ft, 12

K (2.38) O

= 0.07,

K1 (2.38)

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
10 (2.38) = 3.048,

243

K (1.58) O
Hence,

=

0.186,
-

I , (2.38) = 2.295 Io(1.58) = 1.74

930 - tf 930 - 722

0.0837 X 3.048 2.295 X 0.07 0.0837 X 1.74 0.186 X 2.295 = 0.723; 9 = 780°F l .4 X 0.8) X (930 - 722) = 785°F

+ +

Using the approximation

9=

tb

+ (1.42 -

Note thatthis is only an average base and fin temperature. For tip material selection purposes one should look atmaximum heat the flux, which occurs, for instance, at the gas inlet in a counterflow arrangement, also and consider the nonuniformity or maldistribution in gas and steam flow. A computer program can be developed to compute the tube wall and fin tip temperatures at various points along the tube length and the results used to select appropriate materials. It can be noted from the above that there are a few ways to reduce the fin tip temperature:
1 . Increase fin thickness. This reduces the factor m and hence

2. Increase the thermal conductivity of the fin material. This may bedifficult, as the thermal conductivity of carbon steels is higher than that of alloy steels, and carbon steels can withstand temperatures only up to850"F, which alloy steels can withstand up to1300°F depending on the alloy composition. 3. Reduce h, or the gas-side coefficient by using a lower gas mass velocity. 4. Reduce fin height or density. 5. In designs where thegas inlet temperatureis very high, use a combination of bare and finned rows. The first few rows could be bare, followed by tubes with a low fin density or height or increased thickness and then followed by tubes withhigherfindensity or height or smallerthicknessto

9-

244

Ganapathy

obtain the desired boiler performance. row-by-row analyA sis of the finned bundleis necessary, which requires the use of a computer program. Computation o gas pressure drop f
C = 0.07 , 8 X (1 ,090)-0.45 = 0.191 1 C, = 0.08 X [O.15 X 2]-l.'1x(0.5'0.425)0'15 0.3107

+

C, = 1 ,

B '

( 0.33 - 0.17917 l2 = o.2089, 0.33
861 - 1000 460 930

f = 0.191

X 0.3107 X 1 X

3 2

= 0.089

a =
AP8

+

x

1 0.2089 24

+

= - 0.005
6

= 0.084 X 5420 X 5420 X

0.0288 X 1.083 X lo9

= 0.53 in. WC

Computer solution of the above system of equations saves a 4.7) that lot of time. However, I have developed a chart (Figure can be used to obtainh, (or h,) and q values for serratedfins and in-line arrangement for various fin configurations and gas mass velocities for gas turbine exhaust gases at an average gas temperature of 600°F. Although a computer programthe besttool, is the chart canbeusedtoshowtrendsandtheeffect of fin configuration on performance of finned surfaces. The use the of chart is explained later with an example. The following points should be noted.
1 From . Figure
4.7, it can seen be that for a given mass velocity, the higher the fin density or height, the lower the gas-side coefficient or effectiveness, which results in lower U . The amount of energy transferred in heat transfer equip, ment depends on the product of the overall heat transfer coefficient and surface area and not on surface area alone. We willsee later that one can have more surface area and yet transfer less duty due to poor choice of fin configuration.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

245

A

P G A 0 ROWS

- 74

* t
TUBE OD = 20 .' SQUARE PITCH = 4.0'

10
9
5000

G LB/SP FT H (MASS VELOCITY)
6000

7000

8000

12000 l1000 10000 9000

I

Figure

4.7 Chart of convectiveheattransfercoefficientandpressure dropversus fin geometry. [8, 101

2. Higher fin density or height resultsin higher Ms. after Even adjusting for the increased surface area per row, it can be shownthatthehigher the findensity or the greater the height, the higher the gas pressure drop will be for a given mass velocity.

4.19b
Q: DescribeBriggsandYoung'scorrelation.

A

Chartsandequationsprovidedbythemanufactureroffinned tubes can be used to obtain h,. In the absence of such data, the following equation of Briggs and Young for circular or helical finned tubes in staggered arrangement [4] can be used.

Ganapathy

12k

=

0.134 x

(-)Gd

0.681

x

(*733 X (:,”
~0.313

Simplifying, we have

h,

= 0.295 X

7 X

~0.681

k0.67~0.33 P

x

h0.2b0.113

(60)

where
N,,,L(ST/ 12 - A,) [Q. (3611 S = fin clearance = (l/n - b), in. [Q. (39)] d, h, b = tube outer diameter, height, and thickness, in. d nbd A = finobstruction area = , 12 6 ’ ft2/ft [Q.(37)]

G

=

gas mass velocity =

W,

+-

The gas properties C’, p and k are evaluated at the averagegas , temperature. b, The gas heat transfer coefficient has to be corrected for the temperature distribution along fin heightby the fin efficiency the 1 E = (61) d 2h

+

where

K,,, the fin metal thermal conductivity, in Btu/ft hr “F. is
In order to correct for the effect of finned area, a term called fin effectiveness is used. This term, q, is given by
q = 1

- (1

- E ) x L. !

A,

[Eq.40)]

where the finned area A, and total area A, are given by

Heat Equipment Transfer
m

Design and Performance

247

A f = - x (4dh
24

+ 4h2 + 2bd + 4bh)

[Q. (41)]

n is the fin density in finslin. The factor
k0.67~0.33

F =

P

is given in Table 4.12. The overall heat transfer coefficient with finned tubes, U,can be estimated as U = 0.85qhc, neglecting the effect ofnonluminous heat transfer coefficient.

EXAMPLE Determine the gas-side heat transfer coefficient when 150,000 lb/hr of flue gases at anaverage temperature of 900°F flow over helically finned economizer tubes with following parameters: the d = tube outer diameter = 2.0 in. It= fins/in. = 3 h = fin height = 1 in. b = finthickness = 0.06 in. L = effective lengthoftubes = 10.5 ft NW = number of tubeswide = 12 S, = transversepitch = 4.5 in. (staggered)

Table 4.12 Factor F for Finned Tubes
Temp. (“F)
200 400

F
0.0978 0.1250 0.1340 0.1439 0.1473 0.1540 0.1650

600
1000

800

1200 1600

248

Ganapathy

Calculate A Af, and A. From Eq. (37), , ,

A0 =

2 ( +3X y

0.06 X

L)= 0.2 ft2/ft

From Eq. (41),

.

A f = ( m X24 X 0.06 X 2

~ ) X ( 4 X 2 X

+4

X0.06) = 4.9 ft'/ft

From Eq. (42),

From Eq. (36),
G =
150,000

12

X 10.5 X

(4.5/12- 0.2)
0.06 = 0.27

= 6800 lb/ft* hr

Fin pitch S =

- -

1 3

Using Eq. (62)with F = 0.145 from Table 4.12 gives us
h, = 0.295 X 6880°.68' X 0.145
02°33 .7.' 10.2 x 0 0 O I 3 = 12.74 B .6.l tu/ft2 hr "F

x

20.319

x

Calculate fin efficiencyfrom Eq. (61).Letmetalthermal conductivity of fins (carbon steel) = 24 Btu/ft hr "F.

m = J
' E=
1

24 X 12.74 24 X 0.06

= 14.57

+ 0.33 X (14.57X 1/12)'X d(2+ 2)/2 = 0.6
0.6) X 4.9 -= 5.33 0.63

1

Fin effectiveness q = 1 - (1 Hence,

qh, = 0.63 X 12.74 = 8 Btu/ft2 hr "F

K, ranges from23 to 27 Btu/ft hr "F carbon steels, depending for
on temperature [ ] For alloy steels it is lower. l.

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design Performance

249

Table 4.13 Data for GasTurbineExhaustGases'
Temp., "F

Sp. heat

Viscosity
0.05172 0.0612 0.0702

"h. cond
0.0182 0.02176 0.02525 1

F

529 584

200 400

7885 0.2705 800 0.0321lo000.0870

600

0.2643 0.2767

0.1152 0.1238 0.1316 0.1392

4.20

Q: Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
for a finned tube boilerfor gas turbine exhaust under the following conditions: Gas flow = 150,000 l b h (% v01 CO2 = 3, H 2 0 = 7, N2 = 75, and O2 = 15) Gasinlettemperature = 1000°F Exitgastemperature = 382°F Duty = 150,000 X 0.2643 X 0.99 X (1000 - 382) = 24.25 MM Btu/hr (1% heat loss assumed); C, = 0.2643 was taken from Table 4.13. Steampressure = 150psig Feedwatertemperature = 240°F Fouling factors ffi, ff, = 0.001 ft2 hr "F/Btu Boiler configuration: 18 tubeshow; square pitch = 4.0 in.; length = 10 ft; 18 tubeshow; serrated fins; 4 findin., 0.75 in. = high, 0.05 in, thick; all-carbon steel (K,,, 25) surface area of finned tube = 5.35 ft2/ft Let us use Q. (3) and Figure 4.7 to arrive ath, and U . Note , The to that h, and hg are used synonymously. gas properties have be computed first. Table 4.13 gives the properties along with the factor F used to compute hg.
F =

(5)""
X k0.67

To obtain hg (or hc), the gas mass velocityG must be computed. Using the equations given earlier,

250

Ganapathy

A,=

2 12

+5

X 0.75 X

- = 0.1979 ft2/ft 0*06 6
=

G =

150,000 18 X 10 X (0.33 - 0.1979)

6308 lb/ft2 hr

FromFigure 4.7, h, = 11.5; fin effectiveness = 0.745; gas pressure dropl10 rows = 1.5 in, WC. (Note that Figure4.7 has been developed for gas turbine exhaust gases for average gas an temperature of 600°F and for serrated tubes; therefore, corrections for gas data or fin type should be done as required. gas The pressure drop is 10 rows, and corrections should made for for be actual number of rows.) Let us assume that the tube-side coefficient hi = 2000. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is very high compared gasto the side coefficient and hence does not affect h,.
"

A ,

-

5.35

3.14 X 1.77/12 Then, substituting into Eq. (3), we have
"

Ai

= 11.55.

1 U0

1

X 0.745)

+ 0.001 X

11.55 + 2000 11.55 + 0.001 + 2

X 10.85

Hence U, = 7.17. Since the average gas temperature in our case is closeto 600°F and the gas analysis the same as that used is for the chart, nocorrection is required.Otherwiseitwould be necessary to compute factor F and correct h,. Also, because of the low gas temperature, the nonluminous heat transfer coefficient was neglected. The log-mean temperature difference AT is

AT =

(1000 - 366) - (382 - 366) In [(lo00 - 366)/(382 - 366)] = 168°F 24,250,000 - 20,140 ft2 Surface area required = 168 X 7.17

[

1

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

251

20,140 = 5.35 X 18 X 1 X Nd,so Nd = number of rows deep = 21. Hence gas pressure drop = (21/10) X 1.5 = 3.15 in. WC. Thus the chart can be used simplify the calculations. (h, and hg to shown in the chart are the same.)
4.2l

Q: How does a finned surface compare with a bare tube bundle for
the same duty?

A: Let

us try to design a boiler for the same application and duty using bare and finned tubes and compare the two designs. 44.04 discusses the methodology for design of bare tubes. Let us use the same cross section and tubes per row, length, tube size, and pitch as in 44.20. For the bare tube design,

G = 150;OOO X

12 18 X 10 X (4

- 2)

= 5000 Ib/ft2hr

Gas film temperature = 0.5 X
=

( 'Oo0 382 + 366) 2
k = 0.024

528°F

From the Appendix,
C, = 0.262,
p = 0.675,

0.024°.67 = 0.1093 0.0675°.27 0.1093 h, = 0.9 X 5000°.6 X 20.4 = 12.36

F = 0.262°.33X

The nonluminous heat transfer coefficient more significantfor is 0.5 bare tubes thanfor finned tubes;h, can be shown to be about Btu/ft2 hr "F. Hence h, = h, hN = 12.86.

+

"

1 U0

- - l

12.86

+ - l .77

x 0.001

+ 0.001

252

Ganapathy

Table 4.14 Comparison of BareTubeandFinnedTubeBoilersa
Finned tubeBare tube
1 Gas flow, pph . 2. Inlet gas temp, "F

150,000 382 24.25 150 240 24,500
1000

3. Exit gas temp, "F 4. Duty, MM B t u h 5. Steam pressure, psig 6. Feedwater temp, "F 7. Steam flow, pph 8. Surface area, ft2 20,140 9. U,, Btu/ft2 hr "F 7.17 3.15 10. Gas pressure drop, in. WC 1 . Number of rows deep 1 12. Heat flux, Btu/ft2 hr 52,295 13. Tube wall temp, "F

11,670 12.86 4.5 124 9213
385

21

484

'Number of tubes wide = 18; length = 10 ft; square pitch = 4.0 in.; finned tubes use

four finslin.; serrated fins, 0.75 in. high, 0.05 in. thick.

U, = 12.37 Btu/ft2hr "F
Surface area required =
=

2492509000 = 11,670 ft2 (168 X 12.37)

Nd 3.14 X 2 X 18 X 10 X - = 94.Wd; 12 N = 124 d

Gas pressuredrop can be computed as Chapter 3 and shown to in equal 4.5 in. WC. Table 4.14 shows the results. The advantages is of using finnedtubes are obvious. The finned tube boiler more compact, has lower gas pressuredrop, and should also cost less, considering the labor involved with the smaller number of rows of tubes. It also weighs less.

4.22 Q: Which is the preferred arrangement for finned tubes, in-line or
staggered?

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

253

A

Bothin-lineandstaggeredarrangementshavebeenusedwith extended surfaces. The advantages of the staggered arrangement are higher overall heat transfer coefficients and smaller surface area; cost could be marginally lower depending the configuraon tion; gas pressure drop could be higher or lower depending on the gas mass velocity used. If cleaning lanes are required for soot blowing, an in-line arrangement is preferred. Both solid and serrated are used in the industry. Generally fins solid fins are used in applications where the deposition of solids is likely. The following example illustrates the effect of arrangement on boiler performance.

EXAMPLE 150,000 Ib/h of turbine exhaust gases at 1000°F enter an evaporator ofawasteheatboilergeneratingsteam at 235 psig. Determine the performance using solid and serrated fins and inline versus staggered arrangements. Tube size is 2 X 1.77 in. Solution. Using the ESCOA correlations and the methodology discussed above for evaporator performance, the results shown in Table 4.15 were arrived at.

Table 4.15 ComparisonBetween Staggered and In-LineDesigns
for Nearly SameDuty and Pressure Drop" Serrated Fins
In-line
Stagg.

SolidFins In-line Stagg.
2 x .75 x .05 x 0 18 20

Fin config. Tubeshow No.16 fins deep of 10 Length

4
Q
Surface
"Duty. MM Btuhr;
hp,,

v,

5 x .75 x.05 x .l57 18 20 16 20 10 7.18 8.36 3.19 3.62 23.24 23.31 20524 1824

20 10 9.75 l .72 21.68 9802

l1 10.02 1.42 21.71 9584

in. WC; surface, ft2; temperature, OF; Vo, Btulft' hr "F.

254

Ganapathy

4.23 Q: How does the tube-side heat transfer coefficient or fouling factor
affecttheselection of finconfigurationsuch height, and thickness? as fin density,

A

Fin density, height, and thickness affect the overall heat transfer coefficient as seen in Figure4.7. However, the tube-side coefficient also has an important bearing on the selection of fin configuration. A simple calculation can be done to show the the tubeof effect , side coefficient on U . It was mentioned earlier that the higher thetube-sidecoefficient,thehighertheratio of external to internal surface area can be. In other words, it makes no sense to use the same fin configuration, say 5 finslin. fin density, for a superheater as for an evaporator. and Rewriting Q. (3) based on tube-side area neglecting other resistances,

4.7, Using the data from Figure vi values have been computed hi valuesforthe fordifferent fin densitiesandfordifferent configuration indicated in Table 4.16. The results are shown in

Table 4.16 Effect of hi on V?'
5 2 5 2 5591 559 6366 1 6366 .01546 .W867 A M i r l h O ) .W867 .01546 2.73 1.31 7.03 4.12 V0 17.00 53.55 39.28 15.28 Vi Ratio Vi 1.11 1 .363 Ratio@. 1.3 1.6 hi n, finslin. G, lb/ft2 hr

20

lo00 5 2 559 1 6366 .01546 4086' 11.21 8.38 62.66 109 1.74 1.02

"Calculations based on 2.0 X 0.105 tubes, 29 tubeslrow, 6 ft long, 0.05 in. thick serrated fins; tube lw on 4.0 in. square pitch; fin height = 0.75 in.; gas f o = 150,000 pph; gas inlet temp = I0o0"F 'Surfacearea of 2 finslin. tube = 2.59 ftz/ft and for 5 finslin. = 6.02 ft*/ft.

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

255

Table 4.16. Also shown are the ratio of Vi values between the 5 and 2 findin. designs as well as their surface area. The following conclusions can be drawn [ 101.

1. As the tube-side coefficient decreases, the ratio of Vi values (between 5 and 2 findin.) decreases. With hi = 20, the & ratio is only 1 . 1 1 . With an hi of 2000, the Ui ratio is 1.74. What this means is that as hi decreases, the benefit of increasing the external surface becomes less attractive. With 2.325 times the surface area we have only 1.1 1-fold improvement in Ui. With a higher hi of 2000, the increase is better, 1.74. 2. A simple estimation of tube wall temperature can tell that us the higher the fin density, the higher the tube wall temperature will be. For the case of hi = 100, with n = 2, Ui = 39.28, gas temperature = 900"F, and fluid temperature of 600"F,
Heatflux qi = (900 - 600) Btu/ft2 hr
X

39.28 = 11,784

The temperature drop across the tube-side film (hi = 100) = 11,784/100 = 118°F. Thewalltemperature = 600 118 = 718°F. With n = 5 , Q = 53.55, qi = 53.55 X 300 = 16,065 Btu/ft2 hr. Tubewalltemperature = 600 f (16,065/100) = 761°F. Note that we are comparing for the same height. The increase in wall temperature is 43°F. 3. The ratio of the gas pressure drop between the 5 and 2 fins/ in. designs (after adjusting for the effect of Vi values and differencesin surface area for thesameenergytransfer) increases as the tube-side coefficient reduces.It is 1.6 for hi = 20 and 1.02 for hi = 2000. That is, when hi is smaller, it is prudent to use a smaller fin surface.

+

EFFECT OF FOULING FACTORS The effects of inside and outside fouling factors ffi and ff, are shown in Tables 4.17 and 4.18. The following observations can be made.

256

Ganapathy

Table 4.17 Effect of fi., Tube-Side Fouling Factor
Fins/in., n U,, clean
.

fi
U,, dirty U, as %

2 11.21 0.001 10.54 100

2 11.21 8.38 0.01 0.01 6.89 65

5
8.38 0.001 7.56 100

5

4.01 53

Table 4.18 Effect of ff,, OutsideFoulingFactor
Findin., m U,,clean
ffo

U,, dirty U, as %

2 11.21 0.001 11.08
100

2 8.38 11.21 0.01 0.01 10.08 91

5 8.38 0.001 8.31
100

5
7.73 93

Tube-sidecoefficient = 2000.

With a smaller findensity, the effectof ffi is less. With0.01 fouling and 2 findin., U, = 6.89 compared with 10.54 with 0.001 fouling. The ratio is 0.65. With 5 findin., the corresponding values are 4.01 and 7.46, the ratio being 0.53. That means that with increased tube-side fouling, it makes sense touse a lower fin density or smaller ratio of external to internal surface area. The same conclusion was drawn with a smaller tube-side coefficient. 2. The effect of ff, is less significant, as it is not enhanced by A the ratioof external to internal surface area. review of Eq. (1) tells usthatthetube-sideheattransfercoefficient or fouling factor is increased by the ratio of the external to internal surface area, and hence its effect is easily magnified.
1.

4.24

Q: Compare the effect of tube-side fouling on bare,
finned tubes.

low, and high

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

257

A:

Three boiler evaporators were designed using bare tubes, 2 fins/ in. and 5 findin., to cool 150,000 lb/hr of clean flue gases from 1000°F to 520°F. The effect of fouling factors of 0.001 and 0.01 on duty, tube wall temperatures, and steam production are shown in Table 4.19. The following points may be observed [ 111. With bare tubes, the higher tube-side fouling results in the lowest reduction in duty, from 19.65 to 18.65 MM Btu/hr, with the exit gas temperature going up to 545°F from 520°F-see columns 1 and 2. With 2 finslin., the exit gas temperature increases to 604°F from 520"F, with the duty reducing to 16.3 from 19.65 MM Btu/hr. The steam generation is about 3200 lb/hr lower. With 5 f i n s h . , the reduction in duty and steam generation are the greatest. 2. The heat flux increases with fin density. Therefore, with high-temperature units one has to be concerned with DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) conditions; however, heat flux decreases because of fouling.
1.

Table 4.19 Effect of Fouling Factors
C dse
1. Gas temp in., O F 2. Exit temp, O F 3. Duty, MM Btu/hr 4. Steam flow, lb/hr 5 . ff,, Ft2 hr "F/Btu 6. Heat flux Btu/ft2 hr 7. Wall temp, O F 8. Fin temp, O F 9. AJA, 10. Fins 11. Tubedrow 12. No. deep 13. Length, ft 14. Surface area, ft2 15. Gas Ap, in. WC

I
1000 520 19.65 19,390 0.001 9,3 14 437 1.13 bare 20 60 8 5024 3.O

2 lo00 545 18.65 18,400 .o 1 8,162 516
-

3 1000 520 19.65 19,390

4

5

6

1.13 bare
20 60 8 5024 3.1

1000 604 16.30 I ,6110 .001 .01 35,360 23,080 490 680 730 840 5.6 5.6 (2 x 0.75 x 0.05 x 0.157) 20 20 16 16 8 8 6642 6642 1.80 1.90

1000 lo00 520 646 19.65 14.60 19,390 14,400 .oo1 .01 55,790 30,260 530 760 725 86 1 12.3 12.3 (5 x 0.75 x 0.05 x 0.157) 20 20 10 10 8 8 9122 9122 2.0 2.1

258

Ganapathy

3. The tube walltemperatureincreasessignificantlywithfin density. The same fouling factor results in a much higher tubewalltemperature for finnedtubescompared to bare 530°F to tubes. The tube wall temperature increases from 437°F to 5 16°F 760°F with5 findin., while it increases from for bare tubes. The effect of fouling is more pronounced in tubes of high fin density, which means that high fin density tubes have to kept cleaner than bare tubes. Demineralized be water and good water treatment are recommended in such situations.

4.25 Q: How is the weightofsolidandserrated A

fins determined?

Theweight of fins is givenby the formulas Wf = 10.68 X Fbn X (do h) X (h + 0.03) for solid fins W = 10.68 X Fbnd, X (h 0.12) , for serrated fins

+

+

(Ma) (ab)

where

W = the fin weight, lb/ft (The segment of width does not ,
affect the weight.) b = fin thickness, in. n = fin density, fins/in. h = fin height, in. do = tube outer diameter, in. Factor F corrects for material of finsand is given in Table 4.20 [9]. The weight of the tubes has to be added to the fin weight to give the total weight of the finned tube. Tube weight per unit length is given by

W,= 10.68
where

X F X

dm

X t,

(65)

dm = mean diameter of tube, in. zm = averagewallthickness, in.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

259

Table 4.20 Table of F Factors
Material Carbon steel Type 304,316,321 alloys Type 409, 410, 430 Nickel 200 Inconel 600, 625 Incoloy 800 Incoloy 825 Hastelloy B
1

F
1.024 0.978 1.133 1.073 1.013 1 .038 1.179

EXAMPLE Determine the weight of solid carbon steel fins on a 2-in. OD tubeifthe fin densityis 5 fins/in., height = 0.75in., and thickness = 0.05 in. Average tube wall thickness is 0.120 in. Solution. F fromTable 4.20 = 1. Using Q. (Ma), wehave

W/ = 10.68

X 1 X 0.05 X 5 X (2

+ 0.03)

+ 0.75)

X (0.75

= 5.725Ib/ft

The tube weight has to be added to this. The tube weight is given by W, = 10.68 X 1.94 X 0.12 = 2.49 lb/ft Hence the total weight of the finned tube 8.215 Ib/ft.
4.26
= 2.49

+ 5.725 =

Q: Whatistheeffect

of fin thicknessandconductivityonboiler performance and tube and fin tip temperatures? different fins. 2 X 0.120 carbon steel tubes; 26 tubeslrow, 14 deep, 20 ft. long. 4 X 0.75 X 0.05 thick solid fins-surface area = 35,831 ft2 4 X 0.75 X 0.102 thick solidfins-surface area = 36,426ft2

A: Table 4.21 givestheperformance of a boilerevaporatorusing

260

Ganapathy

Table 4.21 Fin Configuration and Performance
~ ~~~~

Fin Tube Fin cond.
(Btu/ft hr "F)
2 5

Fin thickness
(in.)
0.05

Duty (MM Btu/hr)

temp.

temp.

("F)

("F)

V (Btulft' hr "F)

25 1 5 1 5

0.05 0.102

104 996 673 106.35 874 692 98.35 1164 642 103.48 990 670

8.27 9.00 6.78 7.98

In-line arrangement, 4 in. square pitch. Gas flow = 430,000 lb/hr at 1400°F in; % v01 CO2 = 8.2,
H 0 = 2

Steampressure = 635 psig Fouling factors = 0.001 ft2 hr "F/Btu on both gas and steam. It can be seen that

20.9, NZ = 67.51,

02

= 3.1

Due to the slightly larger surface and area higher heat transfer coefficient, more duty is transferred with higher fin thickness. 2. Overall heat transfer coefficientis increased owing to higher fin effectiveness for the same fin conductivity and greater fin thickness. 3. Lower fin conductivity reduces the fin effectiveness and the overall heat transfer coefficient U,and hence less duty is transferred. 4. Though fin tip temperature is reduced with greater fin thickness, owing to improved effectiveness, the tube wall temperature increases. This is due to the additional resistance imposed by the larger surface area.
1.

4.27 Q: Is surfaceareaanimportantcriterion
boiler designs?

for evaluatingdifferent

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

261

A: The answer is yes if the person evaluating the designs is knowledgeable in heat transfer-related aspects and no if the person simply compares different designs looking only for surface area information. As we have seen in the case of fire tube boilers 44.1 1, where, due to variations in tube size and gas velocity, different designs with over40 to 50% differencesin surface areas were seen for the same duty. In the case of water tube boilers also, due to variations in tube size, pitch, and gas velocity, one can have different surface areas for the same duty; hence one has to be careful in evaluating boilers based only on surface areas. In the case of finned tube boilers, in addition to tube size, pitch, and arrangement (staggered or in-line), one has to review the fin configuration-the height, thickness, and fin density. The higher the fin density or ratio of external to internal surface area, the lowerthe overall heat transfer coefficient will be even though the surface area can be 100 to 200% more. It is also possible to transfer more duty with less surface area by proper selection of fin geometry.

EXAMPLE A superheater is to be designed for the conditionsshown inTable 4.22. Study the different designs possible with varying fin configurations.

Table 4.22 Data for HRSG Superheater
Design
200,000 1200
7

Gas flow, pph mperature, inlet Gas "F Gas analysis, % by volume Carbon dioxide Water Nitrogen Oxygen Steam flow, pph Entering steam temperature, "F pressure, psig Leaving steam

12 75 6 100,000 49 1 600

262

Ganapathy

Solution. Using the methods discussed above, various designs werearrived at, with the resultsshown in Table 4.23 [lo]. Several interesting observations can be made.In cases 1 and 2, the same energyof 14.14 MM Btu/hr is transferred; however, the surface area of case 2 is much higher because of the high fin density, which decreases U , the overall heat transfer coefficient. Also, the tube wall and fin temperatures are higher because of tip the large ratio of external to internal surface area. Comparing cases 3 and 4, we see that case 3 transfers more energywithless surface areabecause of better fin selection. Thus it is not a good idea to select or evaluate designs based on surface area alone, as this can be misleading. In addition, excessive fin surface can lead to higher tube wall and fin temperatip tures, forcing one to use better materials and increasing cost. the Some purchasing managers believe incorrectly that if they can get more surface area for the same price, they are getting a good deal. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Table 4.23 EffectofFinGeometryonSuperheaterPerformance
Case
1

Case
2 14.18 691 1.20 950 5 0.75 0.075 5342 908 1033 5.50

Case
3 17.43 747 1.15 893 2.5 0.75 0.075 5077 905 1064 8.04
11.0 7

Case
4 17.39 747 1.37 892 4 0.75 0.075 6549 931 1057 6.23 9.0 6

Duty, MM Btu/hr Leaving steam temperature, "F Gaspressuredrop, in. WG Leaving gas temperature, "F Fins per in. Finheight, in. Finthickness, in. Surface area, ft2 Max tube wall temperature, "F Fin tip temperature, "F Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F Tube side pressure drop, psi 6.5 4 Number of rows deep

14.14 689 0.65 951 2 0.50 0.075 2471 836 949 11.79 9.0 6

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
4.28

263

Q:

How are tubular air heatersdesigned?
Let and W, be thegasand air quantities.Normally, flue gas flows inside the tubes whileair flows across the tubes in crossflow fashion, as shown in Figure 4.8. Carbon steel tubes of l!h to 3.0 in. OD are generally used. Thickness ranges from to 0.06 0.09 in. since high pressures are not involved. The tubes are arranged in in-line fashion and connected to the tube sheets are at in the ends. More than one block may be used series; in this case, air flows across the tube bundles withfew turns. Hence, while a calculating log-mean temperature difference, we must consider correction factors F T . Flue gas velocity is the rangeof 40 to 70 fps, while air-side in mass velocities range from 4000 to 8000 Ib/ft2 hr. and Nd, NW the number of tubes wide and deep, can be decided on the basis of ductdimensionsleadingtothe air heater. In thecaseof a or separate heater, we have the choice of NW Nd.In a boiler, for example, duct dimensions at the economizer section fix dimensions of the air heater also, since the air heater is located below the economizer. To size the air heater, first determine the total number tubes of

A

N,:11 1

N, =

0.05

W,

di"

PR

v,
"

ST/d and S,/d rangefrom 1.25 to 2.0. Forthegas-sideheat transfer coefficient hi, Eq. (12) is used:

Values of C are evaluated at average flue gas temperature. h, isgiven by Eq. (19) Air-sideheattransfercoefficient (variation in h, betweenstaggeredandin-linearrangement is small in the range of Reynolds number and pitches one comes across), F h, = 0.9 X Go.6 X d . 04

Ganapathy
GAS IN

t
Figure 4.8 Tubular air heater.
The value h, is calculated at air-film temperature. Since the temperature drops across the gas and air films are nearly the same, unlike an evaporatoror superheater, film temin perature is approximatedas
t = (3 f

t*

+ tJ4

(66)

Hear Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

265

where tg and fa refer to the average of gas and air temperatures. Calculate U using
1 -

U

x = [ l hidid

+

+l
L

Metal resistance is neglected. Air- and gas-side pressure drops can be computed by Eqs. (26) and (28) of Chapter 3, after surfacing is done:

ug 93 =

x
X

x fw2
10"'
X

+ 5di
P&:

uair = 9.3

f

X

G2

Nd
Pair

It is also good to check for partial-load performanceto see if dew point corrosion problems likely. Methods like air bypass are or steam-airheatingmust be considered.Vibration of tube bundles also must be checked. C and F are given in Table 4.24 for easy reference.

EXAMPLE A quantity of 500,000 lb/hr of flue gas from a boiler is cooled from 700°F;400,000 lb/hr of air at 80°F is heated to 400°F. Design a suitable tubular air heater. Carbon steel tubes of 2 in. OD and 0.087-in. thickness are available. Solution. Assumethatductdimensions are notalimitation. Hence, the bundle arrangement is quite flexible. Choose Sdd

Table 4.24 C and F Factors for Calculating
hi and h, of Tubular Air

Temp. ("F)
200 400

C

F
0.094 0.103

0.162 0.172
0.18 0.187

0.110 600
800

0.1 16

266

Ganapathy
= 1.5 and S,/d = 1.25 in. in-line;useamaximumflue-gas velocity of 50 ft/sec. From energy balance, assuming negligible losses and for a specific heat of 0.25 for gas and 0.24 for the air side,

Q

= 500,OOO X 0.25 X (700 - C) 400,000 X 0.24 X (400 - 80) = 30.7 X lo6 B t d h

Hence, the gas temperature leaving the air heater is 454°F. The average flue gas temperature is (700 454)/2 = 577°F. Let the molecular weight of the flue gas be 30. Then

+

PS

=

30 3

x

492 460

+ 577

= 0.0396 Ib/cu ft

From Q. (65), 0.05 X 500,000 N, = 1.8262 X 0.0396 X 50 S, = 3.0 in., S, = 2.5 in. Let NW = 60. Hence, the width of the 60 X

= 3800

air heater is

3 .O 12

= 15 ft
X

N d

= 63 as

N, = NW

Nd, SO

Depth = 63 X 2.912 = 13.2 ft At 577"F, from Table 4.24 we have C = 0.178: hi = 2.44 x

( 500,000 )"'" x 3780

0.178 (1.826)'.*

= 7.2 Btu/@ hr "F

To estimate h,, G is required. This requires an idea of L. We must assume a valuefor the length and check later to see if it is L sufficient. Hence, it is a trial-and-error approach. Try = 15 ft:
FGA =

- d X NwL = - x 60 x 15 = 75 ft2 12 12 G = 400,000/75 = 5333 Ib/ft2 hr
ST

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

267

Average gas and air temperatures are tg = 577"F, t, = 240"F, 3 x 577 240 = 4920F tf= 4

+

From Table 4.24, F is 0.105. Then
h, = 0.9 X 5333O.'j X 0.105/2°.4 = 12.3Btu/ft2hr "F 1 2.0 1 U1 = - x 7.2 1.826 12.3 = 0.152 0.081 = 0.233 U = 4.3 Btu/ft2hr"F

+-

+

We must calculate FT, the correction factor for AT, for the case of one fluid mixed andother unmixed. From Figure 4.9 (singlepass crossflow), 700 - 454 = 0.77 400 - 80 400 - 80 P = = 0.516 700 - 80 F T = 0.9 R = Therefore,
AT = 0.9 X

(454

-

80) - (700 - 400) In (3741300)

= 3020F

L = 11.95 ft Hence, the assumed L is not correct. Try L = 11.0 ft.
FGA =

- x 75 l1
15

= 55 ft2

G

=

7272 Ib/ft2 hr

268

Ganapathy

1.0
L

h

- 0.7 7
U
. )

= 0.8 5

c. U

o

0-9

0.6

a5
C.

c" "
11- 'l

Figure 4.9 Crossflow correction factors for log-mean temperature difference. [ 1,2]

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance Taking ratios,
=
1

269

7272 (W) X I x 2.0 7.2 X 1.826

12.3 = 14.8 Btu/ft2 hr "F
1 + - 14.8
=

"

V

-

0.152

+ 0.067

0.219 V = 4.56 Btu/ft2 hr "F 30.7 X IO6 A = = 22,293 ft2, 4.56 X 302
=

L = 11.25 ft

The calculated and assumed lengths are close to each other, and the design may be frozen. Check the metal temperature at the exit portion. Since the gas-side resistance and air-film resistances are 0.152 and 0.067, the metal temperature at the exit of the air heater can be calculated as follows. The drop across the gas film will be 0.152(454 - 80) 0.152 0.067

+

=

260"F

Metaltemperaturewill be 454 - 260 = 194°F. If the flue gas contains sulfur, dew point corrosion may occur at the exit. Since the air-side heat transfer coefficient high, the is drop across its film is low compared to the gas-side film drop. If we increase the flue gas heat transfercoefficient, the drop across its film will be low and the metal temperature will be higher.
4.29

Q: How is the off-designperformance evaluated?
The air heater described in 44.28 works at partial loads. W,
= 300,000 lb/hr, and flue gas enters the air heater at 620°F. W, = 250,000 Ib/hr, and the air temperature is 80°F. Check the exit

gas temperatures of gas and air.

A:

Assumethe gas leavesthe air heaterat400°F.Then

270

Ganapathy

Q = 300,000 X 0.25 X (620 - 400) = 250,000 X 0.24 (t - 80) = 16.5 X lo6 Airtemperatureleaving = 355°F

To calculate hi and h,, see Table 4.24. At an average flue gas temperature of 620

" 400 2

=

510"F,

C = 0.175

And at a film temperature of [3 X 510 = 437"F, F = 0.104 hi = 2.44 X 300,000 3825 = 4.75 Btu/ft2 hr "F

+ (355 +
0.175 1.826'**

80)/2]/4

(

>"'8

x

G =

2509000

75

=

3333 lb/ft2 hr

h, = 0.9 X
"

(3333)0.6 20.4 2
X 0.104 = 9.22 Btu/ft2 hr

1

U

1.826 X 4.73 U = 4.22 Btu/ft2 hr "F

-

+

1 - = 0.238 9.22

"F

From Figure 4.9;
355 - 80 = 0.51, 620 - 80 620 - 400 R = = 0.8 355 - 80 FT = 0.9 (400 - 80) - (620 - 355) AT = 0.9 X In (320/265) P =

=

2620F

Transferred Q = 4.2 X 262 X 23,640 = 26 X io6 Btulhr, andassumed Q = 16.5 X lo6 Btu/hr.They don't tally. Since an air heatercan transfer more energy, assume a higher air temperature, 390"F, at the exit:

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
Q = 250,000 X 0.24 (390 - 80) = 18.6 X lo6 = 300,000 X 0.25 X (620 - t)

271

Then gas temperatureleaving = 372°F Assume U remains the same at 4.2 Btu/ft2 hr "F. Then 0.8, AT = 213°F
=

R

P

=

0.574,

FT

=

0.82,

TransferredQ Again,theydon't

= 4.2 X 23,640 X 213 = 21.1 X lo6Btuhr

tally. Next, try Q = 20 X lo6 Btu/hr.

Airtemperatureleaving = 410°F Gastemperatureleaving = 353°F FT = 0.75, AT = 0.75 X 242 = 182°F TransferredQ = 4.2 X 23,640 X 182 = 18 X 106Btuhr Again, try an exit air temperature at 400°F. Then Q = 250,000 X 0.24 X (400 - 80) = 19.2 X IO6 Btu/hr 19.2 X lo6 Exit gas temperature = 620 300,000 X 0.25 364°F 320 R = 0.8, P = - = 0.593, FT = 0.77 540 284 - 220 AT = 0.77 X = 193°F In (284/220)
=

Transferred Q = 4.2 X 193 X 23,640 = 19.16 X lo6 Btu/hr

Q = 19.2 X IO6 Btu/hr The gas leaves at 364°F against 454°F at full load. Metal temperature can computed as before. At lowerloads, be metal temperature is lower, and the air heater should be given some protection. This protection may take two forms: Bypass part of the air or use steam to heat the air entering the heater to

272

Ganapathy
1 0 to 120°F. Either of these will increase the average metal 0 temperature of the air heater. In the first case, the air-side heat transfer coefficient will fall. Because U decreases, the gas temperature leaving the air heater will increase and less Q will be transferred. Hence, metal temperature will increase. In the second case, since air temperature entering increases, protection of the metal is ensured. Again, the gas temperature differential at the exit will be higher, causing a higher exit gas temperature.

EXAMPLE Solve the problem using the N W method. Solution. Often the NTU method is convenient when trial-anderror calculations of the type shown above are involved.

mu=
Cmixed Cumnixed

UA -=
Cmin

4.2 X 23,640 250,000 x 0.24

=

1.65

=

250,000 X 0.24 300,000 X 0.25

= 0.80
Cmax

E =

effectiveness = 1 - exp

[l - exp( - N W X C ) ] )
= 1 - exp { - 1.25 X [l - exp( - 1.65 X 0.8)]} = 0.59

Effectiveness = 0.59 =

air temperature rise 620 - 80 Air temperaturerise = 319°F 80 = 399°F Airtemperatureleaving = 3 19

+

This compares well with the answer 400°F.When U does not change much, this method is very handy.
4.30

Q: Predict the exit gas and temperatures the water and energy
transferred in an economizer under the following conditions:
tR1 =

gas temperaturein

= 1000°F

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
tWl

273

U = overall heat transfer coefficient = 8 Btu/ft2 hr "F CpR= gas specificheat = 0.265 Btu/lb "F
C,, = waterspecificheat
= 1

= watertemperature in = 250°F A = surface area = 6000 ft2 Wg = gasflow = 75,000 Ib/hr W, = waterflow = 67,000 Ib/hr

Btu/lb "F

A: Figure 4.10 shows the arrangement ofan economizer. A trialand-error methodis usually adopted to solve for the duty of any heat transfer equipment if the surface area is known. This proin cedure is detailed 44.29. Alternatively, thenumber oftransfer units (NTU) method predicts the exit temperatures and duty. For more on this theory, the reader is referred to any textbook on heat transfer [2]. Basically, the duty Qis given by

Q

= ~Cmin(tgl -

twl)

(69)

where E depends onthetype of flow, whether countefflow, parallel flow, or crossflow. In economizers, usually a counterflow arrangement is adopted. E for this is given by
E =

1 - exp [-NTU x (I - C)] 1 - C exp [-NTU x (l - C)]

Figure 4.10 Economizer.

274

Ganapathy

where

(WC,Jrnin= 75,000 X 0.265 = 19,875 = 67,000 X 1 = 67,000 19,875 = 0.3 C = 67 ,000 6000 NTU = 8 X = 2.42 19,875
Substituting into Eq. (70) yields
E =

1 - exp( -2.42 X 0.7) 1 - 0.3 X exp( -2.42 X 0.7)

=

0.86

From Eq. (69), Q = 0.86 X 19,875 X (1000 - 250) 12.8 X lo6 Btu/hr Let u s calculate the exit water and gas temperatures.

Q

=

WwCpw(tw~ -

L I ) = WgCpg(fgl

-

tg2)

Hence,
twz = 250
tg2

+
-

12.8 X

=

1000

lo6 = 441°F 67,000 X 1 lo6 = 355°F 12.8 X 75,000 X 0.265

The NTU method can be used to evaluate the performance of other types of heat transfer equipment, Table 4.25 gives the effectiveness factor E.
4.31

Q:

How is the natural or free convection heat transfer coefficient in air determined?

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

275

Table 4.25 Effectiveness Factors
Exchanger Parallel flow, single-pass Cuunterflow,single-pass Shell-and-tube (one shell pass; 2, 4, 6, etc., tube passes) Shell-and-tube (n shell passes; 2n. 4n. 6n, etc., tube passes) Crossflow,bothstreams unmixed Crossflow, both streams mixed Crossflow,stream C,, unmixed Crossflow,stream C ,, unmixed
E =

z =

- exp [ - W X (I +C)] I +c I - exp [-NTU x ( I - C ] ) 1 - C exp [-NTU x ( I - C)]
I I I

+ exp [ -NTU
- exp [ -NTU

x (1 X (I

+ C')'"] + C2)'"]

A: The situationsof interest to steam plant engineers would be those
involving heat transfer between pipes tubes andair as when an or insulated pipe runs across a room or outside it and heat transfer can take place with the atmosphere. Simplified forms of these equations are the following [ 1 1 2.

1. Horizontalpipesinair: AT h, = 0.5 X
where

(r)
0.25

AT = temperature difference between the hot surface and cold fluid, "F do = tube outside diameter, in.

276

Ganapathy

2. Long vertical pipes: AT h, = 0.4 X
3.

( ) 7

0.25

Verticalplates less than 2 ft high: AT 0.25 h, = 0.28 (y) where
z = height, ft

4.

Verticalplatesmorethan h, = 0.3 X

2 ft high:
(71 4

5 . Horizontalplates facing upward:
h, = 0.38 X

(71e)
(7 1f )

6 . Horizontalplatesfacingdownward: h, = 0.2 X

EXAMPLE Determine the heat transfer coefficient between a horizontal bare pipe of diameter 4.5 in. at 500°F and atmospheric air at 80°F. Solution.
h, = 0.5 X

( 50045 8o

r'25

= 1.55 Btu/ft2 hr "F

Note that the above equations have been modified include the to effect of wind velocity in the insulation calculations; see l. 44.5

4.32 Q: How is the natural or free convectionheattransfercoefficient
between tube bundles and liquids determined?

A One has to determine the free convection heat transfer coefficient :
when tube bundles such as desuperheater coils or drum preheat coils are immersed in boiler water in order to arrive at the overall heat transfer coefficient and then the surface area. Drum coil

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

277

Figure 4.11 Exchangerinsideboiler

drum.

desuperheaters are used instead of spray desuperheaters when solids are notpermitted to beinjectedintosteam.Theheat 4.1 l), exchanger is usedtocoolsuperheatedsteam(Figure which flows inside the tubes, while the cooler water is outside the tubes in the drum. Drum heatingcoils are used to keep boiler water hot for quick restart or to prevent freezing. In this heat exchanger, steam condenses inside tubes while the cooler water is outside the tubes. The natural convection coefficient between the coil and drum water has to be determined to arrive at the overall heat transfer coefficient and then size or the surface area. The equation that relates h, with other parameters is [2] Nu = 0.54

[ d3p2gf!AT P*
( x P

x

pcp10-25
k

Simplifying the above we have h, = 1 4 x 4 where
do = k = C, = f! = AT = p = p =
p2pMAT O

r25

(73)

tube outer diameter, in. fluid thermal conductivity, Btu/ft hr "F fluid specific heat, Btu/lb "F volumetric expansion coefficient, "R" temperature difference between tubes and liquid, "F viscosity of fluid, Ib/ft hr fluid density, lb/ft3

Table 4.26 Properties of Saturated Water

32 40 50 60 70 80

90
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

1.009 1.005 1.002 1.Ooo 0.998 0.998 0.997 0.997 0.997 0.997 0.998 0.998 0.999 1.Ooo 1.001

62.42 62.42 62.38 62.34 62.27 62.17 62.11 61-99 61.84 61.73 61.54 61.39 61.20 61.01 60.79

4.33 3.75 3.17 2.71 2.37 2.08 1.85 1.65 I .49 1.36 1.24 1.14 1.04 0.97 0.90

0.0694 0.0601 0.0508 0.0435 0.038 1 0.0334 0.0298 0.0266 0.0241 0.0220 0.0202 0.0186 0.0170 0.0159 0.0148

0.327 0.332 0.338 0.344 0.349 0.355 0.360 0.364 0.368 0.372 0.375 0.378 0.381 0.384 0.386

0.0052 0.0053 0.0054 0.0055 0.0056 0.0057 0.0058 0.0059 0.0060 0.0060 0.0061 0.0062 0.0063 0.0063 0.0064

0.03 X 0.045 0.070 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.35

13.37 11-36
9.41

7.88 6.78 5.85 5.13 4.52 4.04 3.65 3.30 3.01 2.72 2.53 2.33

g 8 Q \ Q \ Q \ Q \ Q \ Q \ o \ Q \ Q\Q\chQ\W m m m * m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

mmm CnWWWW

W W m - *

m a o w

279

280

Ganapathy

In Q. (73) all the fluid properties are evaluated at the mean temperature between fluid and tubes except for the expansion coefficient, which is evaluated at the fluid temperature. Fluid properties at saturation conditions are given in Table 4.26. EXAMPLE l-in. pipes are used to maintain boiler water at 100°F in a tank usingsteamat212"F,which is condensedinside the tubes. Assume that the pipes are at 200"F, and estimate the free convection heat transfer coefficient between pipes and water. Solution. From Table 4.26, at ameantemperature of 150°F, k = 0.381, F = 1.04, p = 0.0002, p/ z= 61.2 C, = 1.0, AT = 100, do = 1.32 61.22 X 1.0 X 0.0002 X 100 1.04 X 1.32 = 188 Btu/ft* hr "F

4.33 Q: Estimate the surface area of the heat exchanger required to
maintain water in a boiler at 100°F using steam at 212°F the as in example of 44.32. Assume that the heat loss to the cold ambient from the boileris 0.5 MM Btu/hr. Steam is condensed inside the tubes. l-in. schedule 40 pipes are used.

A: Theoverallheattransfercoefficientcanbeestimatedfrom
1 R, ffi ff, h, hi where R, = metalresistance,and ffi and ff, are insideand outside fouling factors; see Eq. (3). h,, the free convection heat transfer coefficient between the tubes and boiler water, obtained from 44.32, = 188 Btu/ft2hr "F.Assume h, = 1500, ffi = ff, = 0.001,and
" "

1

U,

+

-

1

+

+

+

Metalresistance R, =

24K

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance Then
” ”

281

1

V, or V,

1 188

+ - 1500 + 0.0025 = 0.00849,
“F

= 1 17 B tu/ft2 hr

AT = log-mean temperaturedifference = 212 Then,
Surface area
4.34

- 100 = 112°F.
= 38 ft2.

A

=

Q -= &AT

500’000 117 X 112

Q: Canwe determinegas or steamtemperatureprofiles in a heat
recovery steam generator (HRSG) without actually designing it?

A Yes.Onecanstimulatethedesignaswellastheoff-design :
performance of an HRSG without designing it in terms of tube size, surface area, etc. The methodologyhasseveralapplications. Consultants and plant engineers can determine a given for set of gas inlet conditionsfor an HRSG how much steam can be generated, what the gadsteam temperature profilewill look like, andhencewritebetterspecifications for the HRSG or select auxiliaries based on this simulation without going boiler firm to a for this information. Thus several options can be ruled out or ruled in depending on the HRSG performance. The methodology has applicationsin complex, multipressure cogeneration comor bined cycle plant evaluation with gas turbines. More information on HRSG simulation can be found in refs. 8, 11, and 12. EXAMPLE 140,000 Ib/hr of turbine exhaust gases at 980°F enter an HRSG generatingsaturatedsteamat200psig.Determinethesteam generation and temperature profiles if feedwater temperature is 230°F and blowdown = 5%. Assume that average gas specific heat is 0.27 at the evaporator and 0.253 at the economizer. Twoimportanttermsthatdeterminethedesignshouldbe defined here (see Figure 4.12). Pinch point is the difference between the gas temperature leaving the evaporator and satura-

282

Ganapathy
pinch mTg3-T-t

To1

app-ooch=Ttat-Tw2

T

L
Twl

Figure 4.12 Pinchandapproach

points.

240

Figure 4.13 Temperatureprofile in an HRSG.
tion temperature. Approach point is the difference between the saturation temperature and the water temperature entering the evaporator. More information on how to select these important values and how they are influenced by gas inlet conditions is available in the references. For unfired gas turbine HRSGs, pinch and approach points lie in the range of 15 to 30°F. The higher these values, the smaller . will be theboiler size and cost, andviceversa. Let us choose a pinch point of 20°F and an approach point of 15°F.Saturationtemperature = 388°F.Figure 4.13 shows the temperature profile. The gas temperature leaving the evaporator = 388 20 = 408"F, and water temperature entering it = 388 - 15 = 373°F.

+

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design Performance

283

Evaporatorduty = 140,000 X 0.99 X 0.27 X (980 - 408) = 21.4 MM Btu/hr (0.99 is the heat loss factor with a 1% loss.) Enthalpy absorbed by steam in evaporator = (1199.3 - 345) 0.05 X (362.2 - 345) = 855.2 Btu/lb

+

(1199.3, 345, and 362.2 are the enthalpies of saturated steam, water enteringthe evaporator, and saturated water, respectively. 0.05 is the blowdown factor for 5% blowdown.) Hence Steam generated 21'4 x = 25,000 Ib/hr 855.2 Economizer duty = 25,000 X 1.05 x (345 - 198.5) = 3.84 M M B t u h 3,840,000 Gas temperature drop = 140,000 X 0.253 X 0.99 = 109°F
=

Hence temperature gas leaving economizer = 408 - 109 = 299°F. Thus the thermal design of the HRSG is simulated.

4.35 Q: Simulate the performanceof the HRSG designed in 44.34 when
a gas flowof 165,000 lb/hr enters the HRSG at 880°F. The HRSG will operate at 150 psig. Feedwater temperature remains at 230°F.

A

Gas turbine exhaust flow and temperature change with ambient conditions and load. As a result the HRSGhasto operate at different gas parameters, and hence simulation is necessary to determine how the HRSG behaves under different and steam gas parameters. The evaporatorperformancecan bedeterminedusing Eq. (34). Based on design conditions, compute K.

Ganapathy

980 - 388 408 - 388 K = 387.6

In

] = K X (140,000)-0.4

=

3.388;

Under the new conditions, In 880 - 366] = 387.6 X (165,000)-0.4 = 3.1724 tg2 - 366 Hence rgz = 388°F. Evaporatorduty
=

[

165,000 X 0.99 X 0.27 X (880 - 388) = 21.70 MM Btu/hr

In order to estimate the steam flow, the feedwater temperature leaving the economizer be must known. This is arrived at through a series of iterations. Try twz = 360°F.Then Steamflow = (1195.7 - 332) + 0.05 X (338.5 - 332) = 25,110 Ib/hr
21.70
X

lo6

Economizer assumed dutyQ, = 25,110 X 1.05 X (332 - 198.5) = 3.52MMBtuIhr
= Compute the term (Undesign Q/AT for economizer based on design conditions.

Q = 3.84 X lo6 and (299 - 230) - (408 AT = In (69/35)

- 373)

=

50°F

Hence (US)design = 3,840,000/50 = 76,800. Correct thisfor offdesign conditions.

The economizer transferred duty then ( S , X AT. Based on is U), 360°F water leaving the economizer, Q, = 3.52 MM Btu/hr and the exit gas temperature is

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance 3,520,000
fg2

285

=

165,000 x 0.99 x 0.253

= 85°F

Hence

fg2 =

388

- 85

=

303"F,and
= 470F.

AT =

(303 - 230) - (388 - 360) In (73128)

Transferredduty Q, = 85,200 X 47 = 4.00 MM Btu/hr Since the assumed and transferred duty to not match, another iteration is required.We can show that at duty of 3.55 Btu/ MM hr the assumed and transferred duty match. Water temperature exit leaving eco = 366°F (saturation); gas temperature = 301°F. Steamgeneration = 25,310 Ib/hr. Since the calculations are quite involved,I have developed a software program called HRSGS that can simulate the design and off-design performanceof complex, multipressure firedand unfired HRSGs. More information can be had by writing to V. Ganapathy, P.O. Box 673, Abilene, Texas 79604.
4.36

Q: Canwe assume that a particularexitgastemperaturecan
obtainedingasturbineHRSGswithoutdoing profile analysis?

be a temperature

A

No. It is not good practiceto assume theHRSG exit gas temperature and compute the dutyor steam generation as some consultants and engineers do. The problem is that, depending on the steam pressure and temperature, the exit gas temperature will vary significantly. Often, consultants and plant engineers assume that any stack gas temperature can be achieved. For example, I haveseencatalogspublishedbyreputablegasturbinefirms suggestingthat300°Fstackgastemperaturecan beobtained irrespective of the steam pressure or parameters. Now this may be possible at low pressures but not at all steam conditions. In order to arrive at the correct temperature profile, several heat balance calculations haveto be performed, as explained below. It will be shown that one cannot arbitrarily fix the stack gas temperature or the pinch point.

286

Ganapathy

Looking at the superheater and evaporator

W, x c,, x (31 W, x

of Figure 4.12,
(74)

33)

=

K

x (h,

- hw2)

Looking at the entire HRSG,

x (TI - 34) = K x (h, - hwl) (75) Blowdown was neglected in the above equations for simplicity. we Dividing (74) by (75) and neglecting variations in CPg, have

c,,

Factor X depends only on steam parameters and approach point used.. Tg3 depends on the pinchpointselected.Hence if is known, T4 can be calculated. It can be concluded from the above analysis that one cannot assume that anyHRSG exit gas temperature can be obtained. To illustrate, Table 4.27 shows several operating steam conditions As or and X values and exit gas temperatures. the steam pressure steam temperature increases, so does the exit gas temperature, with the result that less energy is transferred to steam. This also tells us why we need to go in for multiple-pressure-level HRSGs when the mainsteampressureishigh.Notethatevenwith

Table 4.27 HRSG Exit GasTemperaturesa
Steam temp.

Sat. temp.
("F)

Pressure (psig)
150 250 400 400 600 600
100

("F)

X

Exit gas temp. ("F)

600

sat sat sat sat

sat

300 0.904 338 366 313 0.8754 406 332 0.8337 448 353 0.7895 450 367 0.8063 373 0.740 490 398 0.7728

"Basedon 15°F approach point, 20°F pinch point, 900°F gas inlet temperature, and no blowdown. Feedwater temperature is 230°F. Similar data can be generated for other conditions.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

287

infinite surface areas cannot achievelow temperatures, as this we is a thermodynamic limitation. EXAMPLE 1 Determine the HRSG exit gas temperature when the gas inlet temperature is 900°F and the steam pressure is 100 psig sat. Solution. X = 0.904. Saturation temp = 338°F. Hence with a 20°Fpinch point, q3= 358"F,and tw2 = 323°Fwith a 15°F approach point. 900 - q4 = 0.904, 900 - 358

or

Tg4 =

300°F

EXAMPLE 2 What is q4when steam pressure is 600 psig and temperature is 750"F? Solution. X = 0.7728. Saturation temperature = 492°F; tw2 = 477°F; q 3 = 5 12°F. 900 - 512 = 0.7728, 900 - Tg4 or
TB4

= 398°F

So a 300°F stack temperature i not thermodynamicallyfeasible. s

Let us see what happens if we try to achieve that. EXAMPLE 3 Can you obtain 300°F stack gas temperature with 900°F inlet gas temperature and at600 psig, 750°F and 15°F approach temperature? Solution. X = 0.7728. Letus see, using Q. (76), what q3 results in a of 300"F, as that is the only unknown. (900 - q3)/(900 - 300) = 0.7728, or q3= 436"F, which is not thermodynamically feasible as the saturation temperature at 615 psig is 492"F! This is the reason one has to be careful in specifying HRSG exit gas temperatures or computingsteam generation based on a particular exit gas temperature.

T4

EXAMPLE 4 What should be doneto obtain a stack gas temperature 300°F of in the situation described in Example 3? Solution. One of the options is to increase the gas inlet tem-

288

Ganapathy

perature to the HRSGsupplementary If by firing. is increased, then it is possible to get a lower Tg4. Say Tg, = 1600°F. Then 1600 - q 3 = 0.7728, 1600 - 300

or Tg3

=

595°F

This is a feasible temperature as the pinch point is now (595 492) = 103°F. This brings us to another important rule: Pinch point and exit gas temperature cannot be arbitrarily selected in the fired mode. It is preferable to analyze the temperature proT files in the unfired mode and evaluate the off-design performance using available simulation methods [8].

EXAMPLE 5 If gas inlet temperature in Example 1 is 800°F instead of 900"F, what happens to the exit gas temperature at 100 psig sat?
Solution.

or = 312°F versus 300°F when inlet gas temperature was the 900°F. We note that theexit gas temperature increases whenthe gas inlet temperature decreases, and vice versa. This is another important basic fact. Once the exit gas temperature is arrived at, one can use Eq. (75) to determine how much steam can be generated.

T4

4.37
Q:

HowcanHRSGsimulationbeusedtooptimize temperature profiles?

gas and steam

A: HRSG simulation is amethodofarrivingatthedesign

or offdesignperformance ofHRSGswithoutphysicallydesigning them as shown in 44.34. By using different pinch and approach points and different configurations, particularly in multipressure HRSGs, one can maximize heat recovery. We will illustrate this with an example [8, 121.

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design Performance

289

EXAMPLE A gas turbine exhausts 300,000 lb/hr of gas at900°F. It is desired to generate about 20,500 Ib/hr of superheated steam at600 psig and 650°F andasmuchas200psigsaturatedsteamusing feedwater at 230°F. Using the method discussed in 44.34, we can arrive at the gadsteam temperature profiles and steam flows. Figure 4.14 shows results obtained with HRSGS software. In option 1, we have the high-pressure (HP) section consisting of thesuperheater, evaporator, andeconomizerfollowed by the low-pressure (LP) section consisting of the LP evaporator and economizer. By using a pinch point of 190°F and approach point of15"F,wegenerate 20,438 Ib/hrofhigh-pressuresteamat
900
HP PRESS = 600 PSIG

LP PRESS = 200 PSIG

\

492

,

GAS F O = 3m.mIBA LW
4 8

W STEAM = 2El5EEI LP STEAM = lE,?EEI LB/H

Figure 4.14 Optimizing temperature profiles.

290

Ganapathy

650°F. Then, using a pinch point of 20°F and approach of 12"F, we make 18,670 lb/hr low-pressure steam. The stack gas temperature is 370°F. In option2, we have the HP section consisting of the superheater and evaporator and the LP section .consisting of only the evaporator. A common economizer feeds both HP the and LP sections with feedwater at 375°F. Due to the larger heat sink available beyond the LP evaporator, the stack gas tempera321°F. The HP steam generation adjusted using is ture reduces to is the pinchpoint to make 20,488 lb/hr whiletheLPsteam allowed to float. With a pinch pointof 20"F, we see that we can make 22,400 lb/hr in comparison with the 18,673 lb/hr earlier. TheASMEsystemefficiencyismuchhighernow.Thusby manipulating the HRSG configuration, one can maximize the heat recovery.
4.38

Q: How is the HRSG efficiencydeterminedaccording
Power Test Code 4.4?

to ASME

A

Theefficiency E is givenby
E =

energy given to steadwatedfluids fuelinputon LHV basis gas flow X inletenthalpy

+

To evaluate the efficiency, the enthalpy of the turbine exhaust the gas should be known. The Appendix gives enthalpy based on a particular gas analysis. Fuel input on LHV basis shouldalso an be known if auxiliary firing is used. In 44.37 the efficiency in the design case is E = (21.4 3.84) x lo6 140,000 X 242

+

=

0.715, or 71.5%

If steam or water injection is resorted to, then the gas analysis will change, and the enthalpy has to be computed based on the actual analysis. The HRSG system efficiency in gas turbine plants will improve with the addition auxiliary fuel, which increasesthe gas of

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

291

temperature to the HRSG and hence increases its steam generation. There are two reasons for this. Addition of auxiliary fuel reduces the effective excess air in the exhaust gases, as no air is added, only fuel. Hence the exhaust gas loss in relation to steam production is reduced. 2. With increased steam generation, usually the HRSG exhaust gas temperature decreases. This is due to the increased flow of water in the economizer, which offers a larger heat sink, which in turn pulls down the gas temperature further. In gas turbine units, the gas flow does not vary much with steam output as in conventional steam generators, which accounts for the larger temperature drop. More information on HRSG temperature profiles can be found inRef. 8. Table 4.28 shows the performance of an HRSG under different operating conditions. Case 1 is the unfired case, while cases 2 and 3 have different firing conditions. It can be seen that the system efficiency is higher when more fuel is fired, for reasons explained above.
1.

Table 4.28 Data for Supplementary Fired Boilee
Case 1
Gas flow, pph

Case 2
150,000 900 1290 17.30 40,000 200 240 315 39.90 79.2

Case 3
150,000 900 1715 37.60 60O O ,O 200 240 310 59.90 84.90

Inlet gas temp., "F Firing temperature, "F Burner duty, LHV, MM Btu/hr Steam flow, pph Steam pressure, psig Feedwater temp., "F Exit gas temp., "F Steam duty, M M Btu/hr System efficiency 96

150,000 900 900 22,780 200 240 327 22.67 68.7
0

"Gas analysis (in % vol) co2=3, H,O=7, N2=75, 02= blowdown=3%. 15;

292

Ganapathy

4.39

Q: In some cogeneration plants with gas turbines, a forced draft fan
is used and to send atmosphericair to the HRSG into which fuel is fired to generate steam when the gas turbine is not in operation. What should be the criteria for the fan size?

A

The air flow should be large enoughtohaveturbulentflow regimes in the HRSG and at the same time be small enough to minimize the loss due toexiting gases. If the air flow is high, the firing temperature will be low, but the system efficiency willbe lower and the fuel input will be higher. This is illustrated for a simple case of two fans generating 130,000 and 150,000lbhr of air flow in the HRSG discussed above. The HRSGS program was used in the simulation. See Table 4.29 [ 8 ] . It can be seen that though the firing temperature is higher with the smaller fan, the efficiency is higher due to the lowerexit gas losses consideringthe lower mass flow and gas temperature. exit It should be noted that as the firing temperature increases, the exit gas temperature will decrease when an economizer is used. Also,with the smallerfan the initialandoperatingcostsare lower. One should ensure that the firing temperature does not increase to the point of changing the basic design concept of the HRSG.For example, insulatedcasingdesign is usedup to 1700°F firing temperature, beyond which a water-cooled membrane wall design is required. See Ref. 8 .

Table 4.29 Fresh Air FiringPerformance
150,000 Air flow, pph Inlet temp., "F Firing temp., 1294 "F 314 Exit gas temp., "F Steam flow, pph 50.32 Burner duty, MM Btu/hr Efficiency, %79.25 I30,OOO 60 1424 308 40,000 48.72 81.8
60

40,OOo

Heat Equipment Transfer
4.4.0

Design and Performance

293

Q:

How does one evaluate the operating costs of an HRSG? Would an HRSG that generates more steam but costs more be preferred to a lower cost alternative that generates less steam?

A. Let us illustrate the situation with the design of two HRSGs for gas turbine exhaust application, the two having different pinch points. A larger pinch point naturally means a smaller boiler and hence lowercost. The performanceof both options is unfired and fired modes when 30,000 lblhr of steam is to be generated is presented in Table 4.30. The largerboiler, design B, has a larger gas pressure drop but a smaller fuel input to generate the same amountofsteamin the fired mode. Let us assume that each boiler operates for 50% of the time in both the unfired and fired modes.

Table 4.30 Performance of Alternative Designs
Design A Fired Unfired Gas flow, pph Gas temp to evap, "F Temp to eco, "F Stacktemp,"F Gas d,,, in. WC Steam (1 50 psig sat) Feedwater temp, "F Temp to evap, "F Burner duty, MM Btulhr Gasturbineoutput,kW (nominal) Surfacearea, evap, ft2 eco, ft2 Pinch point, "F 53 Approach point, "F
150,000 1086 900 419 407 332 329 4.20 4.60 30,000 22,107 230 340 351 337 0 8.10 4500 13,227 5948 26 29

Design B Fired Unfired
150,000 900 1062 388 393 309 302 5.40 5.80 22,985 30,000 230 352 0 6.90 4500 16,534 8922 27

41 1 5

2 2

14

294

Ganapathy

Let fuel cost = $2.7/MM Btu (LHV),cost of steam = $3/1000 lb, and electricity 5ClkWh. Assume 8000 hr of operation per year. Assume also that an additional 4 in. WC of gas pressure drop is equivalent to 1.1% decrease in gas turbine output, which is a nominal 4500 kW. Design B has the following edge over design A in operating costs: Due to higher steam generation in unfired mode: (22,985 - 22,107) X 3 X
4000 - = $10,536 l000

Due to lower fuel consumption in fired mode:
(8.1 - 6.9) X 2.7 X 4000 = $12,960

Due to higher gas pressure drop of 1.2 in. WC:
1.1 x

-x
4

4500 x 0.05 x - = - $5940 *Om 100
'

Hence the net benefit of design B over A = (10,536 12,960 - 5940) = $17,556 per year. If the additional cost of design B is $35,000, the payback is less than 2 years. Detailed economic option. If HRSG the evaluation may be donetoselectthe operates for only, say, 3000 hr per year, option B will take a much longer time to pay back and hence may not be viable.
4.41
Q:

+

What is steaming, and why is it likely in gas turbine HRSGS and not in conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers? or HRSGstartsgenerating steam, particularly with downward flow water, problems can of arise in the form of water hammer, vibration, etc; With upward water flow design, a certain amount steaming, 3 to 5%, can be of tolerated as the bubbles have a natural tendency to go up along with the water. However, steaming should generally be avoided. To understand why the economizer is likelyto steam, we should

A Whentheeconomizerinaboiler :

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

295

first look at the characteristics of a gas turbine as a function of ambient temperature and load (see Table 4.31). In single-shaft machines, which are widely as the ambiused, ent temperature or load decreases, the exhaust gas temperature decreases. The variation in mass flow is marginal compared to fossil fuel-fired boilers, while the steam or water flow drops off significantly. (The effect of mass flow increase in most cases does not offset the effectof lower exhaust gas temperature.) The energy-transferring abilityof the economizer, which is governed by the gas-side heat transfer coefficient, does not change much with gas turbine load or ambient temperature, and hence nearly the same duty is transferred with a smaller water flow through the economizer, which results in a water exit temperature approaching saturation temperature as seen in 44.35. Hence we should design the economizer such that it does not steam in the lowest unfired ambient case, which will ensure that steaming does not occur at other ambient conditions. A few other steps may also be taken, such as designing the economizer[8] with a 4.15). This horizontalgasflowwithhorizontaltubes(Figure ensures that the last few rows economizer, which are likely of the to steam, have a vertical flow of steadwater mixture. In conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers the gas flow decreases inproportion to thewater flow, andtheenergy-transferring ability of the economizer is also lower at lower loads. Hence steaming is not a concern in these boilers; usually the approach point increases at lower loadsin fired boilers, while it is a concern in HRSGs.
4.42

Q: Why are water boilers tube generally preferred to
boilers for gas turbine exhaust applications?

fire tube

A: Firetubeboilersrequire

a lotofsurfaceareatoreduce the temperature of gas leaving the evaporator to within to 25°F of 15 saturation temperature (pinch point). They have lower heat transfer coefficients than those of bare tube water tube boilers (see

296

Ganapathy

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

297

"I

t

t

i

i
i

i j

Figure 4.15 Horizontal gas flow economizer.
Q4.10), which do not compare well with finned tube boilers. Water tube boilers can use extended surfaces to reduce pinch the point to 15 to 25°F in the unfired mode and hence be compact. fire tube boilers are used, and The tubes willbeverylongif hence the gas pressure drop will be higher.(A fire tube boiler can be made into a two-pass boiler to reduce the length; however, this will increase the shell diameter and the labor cost, as twice the number of tubes will have to be welded to the tube sheets.) The fire tube boiler will have to be even larger if the same gas pressure drop is to be maintained. Table 4.32 compares the performance of water tube and fire tube boilersfor the same duty and pressure drop.

298

Ganapathy

Table 4.32 WaterTube vs. FireTube Boiler for Gas Turbine
Exhaust
~~ ~

Water t u b e a

tubeb Fire
~~ ~~

Gas flow, l b h 100,000 Inlet temp., "F Exit temp., O F 313 Duty, M M Btuhr 13.72 Gas pressure2.75 in. W C drop, Feedwater220 temp., "F Steam pressure, psig
Steam flow, lb/hr 13,500 Surface area, ftz 9798

100,OoO 900 373 13.72 2.75 220 125 13,500 12,315

900

125

"Water tube boiler: 2 X 0.105 in. tubes, 20 wide, 18 deep, 6 ft long, with 5 serrated finslin., 0.75 in. high, 0.05 in. thick. bFire tube boiler: 1400 1.5 X 0.105 in.tubes, 21 ft long

It can be seen from the table footnotes that the water tube boiler is very compact. If the flow is very small, say less than gas 50,000 Ib/hr, then a fire tube boiler may be considered.
4.43

Q:

Does addition of 10% surface area to a boiler increase its duty by lo%?
The increased temperature drop across the boiler and the temdue perature rise of water or steam (if single-phase) to the higher duty results in a lower log-mean temperature difference. This results in lower transferred duty, even assuming that the overall heattransfercoefficient U remainsunchanged.Ifthelarger surface area results in lower gas velocities, the increase in duty will be marginal as U is further reduced. As an example, consider the performance of a tube boiler fire with 10% and 20% increase in surface area as shown in Table 4.33. As can be seen, a 10% increase in surface area increases the duty by only 3%, anda 20% increaseinsurfaceareain-

A: No. The additional surface area increases the duty only slightly.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

299

Table 4.33 BoilerPerformancewithIncreasedSurfaceArea"
tubes Case
1 2 3

No. of temp. Duty gas Length Surface Exit (ft)
390
390

(ft')

(MM Btu/hr)
20.53 21.16 21.68

("F)
567 533 505

390

1 6 17.6 19.2

2839 3123 3407

"Gas f o = 70,000 Ibhr; inletgastemperature = 1600°F. Gasanalysis (% vol): lw COz = 7, H20= 12, NZ = 75, O2 = 6; steam pressure = 125 psig saturated. Tubes: 2 X 0.120 carbon steel.

creases the duty by only 6%. Similar trends may be shown for water tube boilers, superheaters, economizers, etc.
4.44

Q:

How do we estimate the time required

to heat a boiler?

A

A boiler can take a long time to get heated, depending on the initial temperature of the system, mass of steel, and amount of water stored. The following procedure gives quick estimate of a the time required to warm up a boiler. The methodology is applicable to either fire tube or water tube boilers. Gas at a temperature ofGI enters the unit, which is initially at a temperature of tl (both the water and the boiler tubedmetal). Thefollowingenergybalanceequationcanthen bewritten neglecting heat losses:
dt

dz
where
M C

(77)
= water equivalent of the boiler = mass of steel X specificheat of steel mass ofwater X specific heatofwater (Weight of the boiler tubes, drum, casing, etc.,

+

is included in the steel weight.) dtldz = rate of change of temperature, "F/hr

300

Ganapathy

W, = gas flow, Ibhr
$1,

c,, = gas specific heat, Btu/lb "F q 2 = entering and exit boiler gas temperature, "F
A = surface area, ft2

U = overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr"F
=

AT

log-mean temperature difference, "F

t = temperature of the waterhteam in boiler, "F

From (77) we have

T, - t ,
or
q 2 = t +

UA

t e UAIWgCpg
-

T,,

= c +

T,, - t
K

(79)

Substituting (79) into (77), we get

or

K - l dt x dz Tgl - t M C K To estimate the time to heat up the boiler from an initial temperature tl to t2, we have to integrate dt between the limits tl and r2.

The above equation can be used toestimate the time required to heat up the boiler from a temperature of, to t2, using flue gases t entering at TI. However, in order to generate steam, we must first bring the boiler to the boiling point at atmospheric pressure and slowly raise steam pressure through manipulation vent the of valves, drains, etc; the first term of Eq. (77) would involve the term for steam generation and flow in addition to metal heating.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

301

EXAMPLE A water tube waste heat boiler weight 50,000 Ib and containof ing 30,000 Ibof water is initially at a temperature of 100°F. 130,000 Ib of flue gases at 1400°F enter the unit. Assume the following:

Gas specific heat = 0.3 Btu/lb "F Steel specific heat = 0.12 Btu/lb "F Surface area of boiler = 21,000 ft2 Overall heat transfer coefficient = 8 Btu/ft2 hr "F Estimate the time required to bring Solution
"

the boiler to 212°F.

8 x 21,000 = 43 . W P t ! 130,000 X 0 3 . K = e4.3 = 74 M, = 50,000 X 0.12 30,000 X 1 = 36,000 130,000 X 0.3 In[ = 0.09 = x - 73 x z 74 36,000 or z = 0.084 hr = 5.1 min. Onecould develop acomputerprogramto solve (77) to include steam generation and pressure-raising terms. In real-life boiler operation, the procedure is corrected by factors based on operating data of similar units. It can also be noted that, in general, fire tube boilers with the same capacity as water tube boilers would have a larger water equivalent and hence the startup time for fire tube boilers would be larger.

U

-

:!Iiyi ] :

+

44 .5 Q: Discuss the parameters influencing the test results ofanHRSG
during performance testing.

A

The mainvariablesaffecting the performance of anHRSG are the gas flow, inlet gas temperature,gas analysis, andsteam parameters. Assuming that an HRSG has been designed for a

302

Ganapathy

given set of gas conditions, in reality several of the parameters could be different at the time of testing. In the case of a gas turbine HRSG in particular, ambient temperature also influences the exhaust gas conditions. The HRSG could, as a result, be receiving a different flow at a different temperature, in which gas case the steam production would different from that predicted. be Even if the ambient temperature and gas turbine load were the toremainthe same, it is difficult to ensure that the HRSG receives the design gas flow at the design temperature. This is duetoinstrument errors. Typically, in large ducts, the gas measurement could be off.by 3 to 5% and the gas temperatures could differ by 10 to 20°F according to ASME Power Test Code 4.4. As a result itis possible that the HRSG is receiving 5% less flow at 10°F lowergastemperaturethandesign conditions, although the instruments record design conditions. As a result, be the HRSG steam generation and steam temperature wouldless than predicted through no of the HRSG design. Figure 4.16 fault shows the performance of an HRSG designed for 500,000 Ib/hr gas flow at 900°F; steam generation is 57,000 lblhr at 650 psig and 750°F. The chart shows how the same HRSG behaves when the mass flow changes from 485,000 to 5 15,000 lblhr while the exhausttemperaturevariesfrom 880°F to 902°F. Thesteam temperature falls to 741°F with 880°F gas temperature, while is it 758°F at 920°F. The steamflow increases from52,900 to 60,900 lb/hr as the gas mass flow increases. Thus the figure shows the map of performance of the HRSG for possible instrument error variations only. Hence HRSG designers and plant users should mutually agree upon possible variations in gas parameters and their influence on HRSG performance before conducting such tests.
4.46

Q: Estimatetheboilingheattransfercoefficientinsidetubes for water andthe tube wall temperature rise a given heatflux and for steam pressure.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design
66

and Performance

303

765

' E3- ..-....-.-.-..---...62
3

X

6 4 - ....

....

......... U
~

-760

g 60 0
r l

-.-....-..I--.--

.............

I

f55 ' i7 /
""

E

5 8 -...-....-"I
56 -

..-....-...

-750

.........
-'740 " .......
"

52 49

"

..-..........-.......
I
I

"

..

- 7 35
510

50 490 485

500

5

GAS FUIW, 1000 LB/H

505

,

730 515

-920 F+880 F+880 F-6-920
I

F

l

temperature.

Figure 4.16

HRSG performance as a function of gas flow and exhaust

A

Subcooled boiling heat transfer coefficient inside tubes for water can be estimated by the following equations: According to Collier [ 1 1 3, AT = 0.072e-P"260 40.5 According to Jens and Lottes [ 131, AT = 1.9e-P'm qO." where
AT = difference between saturation temperature and tube walltemperature, "F P = steampressure,psia q = heat flux inside tubes, Btu/ft2 hr

(82b)

304

Ganapathy

The heat transfer coefficient is then given by

hi = q/AT
EXAMPLE What is the boiling heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes and the tube wall temperature if the heat flux inside boiler tubes is 60,000Btu/ft2 hr and steam pressure = 1200 psia? Solution. Using Collier's equation, AT = 0.072 X e-1200'12m X 60,000°.5 6.8"F = hi = 60,000/6.8= 8817 Btu/ft2hr "F

Using Jens and Lottes's

equation,

AT = 1 9 X e-1200'900 X 60,000°.25 7.8"F . = hi = 60,000/7.8= 7650 Btu/ft2 hr "F The tube surface where boiling occurs is assumed to be smooth and clean in the above expressions.

4.47a Q: What is the relationamongcriticalheat
quality, and flow in water tube boilers?

flux, steampressure,

A

Several variables influence the critical heat flux or the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) condition. These are Steam pressure Mass velocity of mixing inside the tubes Steam quality Tube roughness and cleanliness Tube size and orientation Correlations such as the Macbeth correlation are available in the literature [ 131. The Macbeth correlation is
qc = 0.00633 X

lo6 X hfRdi-O.'(Gi/106)0.5' - x) X ( l

(83)

where

hf,

qc = critical heat flux, Btu/ft2 hr = latent heat of steam, Btu/lb

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
Gi = mass velocity inside tubes, lb/ft2 hr x = steam quality, expressed as a fraction di = tube inner diameter, in.

305

EXAMPLE

Estimate the critical heat flux under the following conditions: steam pressure = 1000 psia, tube inner diameter = 1.5 in. mass velocity = 600,000 Ib/ft2 hr, andsteamquality = 0.20.
qc = 0.00633 X lo6 X 650 X 1.50-’.I
X 0.6°.5’ X (1 - 0.2) = 2.43 X lo6 Btu/ft2 hr

In real-life boilers, the allowable heatflux to avoid DNB is much lower, say 20 to 30% lower, than the values obtained by laboratory tests undercontrolledconditions due tofactorssuchas roughness of tubes, water quality, andsafetyconsiderations. Boiler suppliers have their own data and design boilers accordingly.

Q: How is the critical heat flux qc determined pool in boiling situations as in fire tube boilers?

A: Several correlations are available in the literature, but only two
will be cited. Motsinki suggests the simple equation [l31 where e, p, are the steam pressure and critical pressure, both in psia. Zuber’s correlation takes the form [ 131

X

( Pg + Pf >”’”
U

where
= surface tension

306

Ganapathy
p = density h,, = latent heat g, g = acceleration due to gravity and conversion factor , g and force units

all in metric units.
EXAMPLE Determine the critical heatflux for steam at 400 psia under pool boiling conditions. Solution. The following can data be obtained steam from tables:

Saturation temperature at 400 psia = 445°F Density of liquid = 51 lb/cu ft (827 kg/m3) Density of vapor = 0.86 lb/cu ft (13.8 kg/m3) Latent heat of vaporization = 780 Btu/lb (433 kcalkg) From Table 4.26 at saturation temperature of 445”F,surface tension is 0.0021 lbdft (0.31 kgdm)
g = 9.8 X 3600’ m/h$, g,, = 9.8 X 360O2

kgnlk3, hi2 Substituting into (84a): 3208
qc = 803 x 3208 x
= 1.102

(-,”400 ” 3208

x (l

-r9
400

M M Btu/ft’ hr

Using Eq. (84b),
qc = 13.8 X 433 X 0.13 X (0.0031 X 813 X 9.8’
X

(13.8)2 36004 x 827 13.8 = 2.95 X lo6 kcal/m’ = 1.083 MM Btulft’hr Again, as before,factors such as surface roughness, water quality, scale formation, and bundle configuration a role, and for play conservative estimates, boiler designers usea value that is 20to 30% of these values.

r’*’ (

+

Heat Transfer Equipment

Design and Performance

307

4.48

Q: Discussthesimplifiedapproach

to designing fire tubeboilers.

A

Engineersoftenmust estimate the size of heattransferequipment, such as heat exchangers, gas coolers, boilers, and economizers, for preliminarycostingandtocheck space requirements. With the approach presented here, one quickly can determine one or more configurations to accomplish a certain amount of heat transfer. One can also size equipment so as to limit the pressure drop, without performing lengthy calculations. Life-cycle costing canthenbeappliedtoselecttheoptimum design. Several situations will be discussed [ 8 ] . The tube-side heat transfer coefficient governs the overall heat transfer.Examples: fire tubeboilers; gas coolers;heat exchangers in which a medium such as air or flue gas flows on the tube side and a fluid with a high heat transfer coefficient flows on the outside. Phase changes can alsooccuron the outside of the tubes. The shell side governs. Examples: water-tube boilers, steam-air exchangers, and gas-liquid heat transfer equipment. See
44.49.

TUBE-SIDE TRANSFER GOVERNS In a fire tube boiler, gas flows inside the tubes; a steam-water mixture flows on the outside. The gas heat transfer coefficientis small, about 10 to 20 Btu/ft2 hr "F, compared to the outside coefficient of 2000to 3000 Btu/ft2hr "F. The metal resistance is also small, and hencethe gas-side coefficient governs overall the coefficient and the size of the equipment. The energy transferred is given by

Q = UA AT = WCp X (TI - T,)
The overall heat transfer coefficient

(85)

is obtained from Eq. (4),

308

Ganapathy

+

ffi

x

(+) + ff,

Since the inside coefficient governs we can rewrite Eq.(4) U, as follows (neglecting lower-order resistances, such h,, metal as resistance, and fouling factors, which contribute to about 5% of U):

U = 0.95hi

X

4 d 0

The value of the tube-side coefficient is obtained from the familiar Dittus-Boelter equation, Q. (8), Nu = 0.023 where

The fluid transport properties evaluated at the bulk temperaare ture. and Substituting Eqs. (8) to(11) into Eq. (86) simplifying, we have the following expression [Eq. (12)]:

hi = 2 . 4 4 ~ ~ . ~ F ~ / d / . ~
where Fl = (Cp/p)0.4k0-6 (87) Combining Eqs. (86), (85), and (87), we have, after substituting A = 3.14diLN/12, and for flow per tube W = W / N ,

Q
AT FlWp.8

= 0.606 X

dqs

m. 0 2

This simple equation relates several important variables. Given Q , AT, q,and F , , one can try combinations of L, di,and N to amve at a suitable configuration. Also, for given thermal data, LN0.*/dY8is constant in Q. (88). F 1 is shown in Table 4.34 for flue gas andair. For othergases, FI can be computed from Eq. (87).

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

309

Table 4.34 Factors F,IC,, FzICp F2 and F3 for Air and Flue Gas'
Temp. ( F F3 ")
FdCp F21Cp F2
~ ~~

Air
100 200 300 400 600 lo00 1200

0.6660 0.6870 0.7068 0.7225 0.7446 0.7680 0.7760

0.7150

0.0897 0.0952 0.1006 0.1056 0. I150 0.1220 0.1318 0.1353

0.3730 0.3945 0.4140 0.4308 0.4591 0.4890 0.5030

0.5920 0.6146 0.6350 0.6528 0.6810 0.6930 0.7030

Flue gas'
200 300 400 0.6590 0.6780 0.6920 0.7140 0.7300 0.7390 0.7480

600
800 1000 1200

0.W54 0.1015 0.1071 0.1170 0.1264 0.1340 0.1413

0.3698 0.3890 0.4041 0.4300 0.4498 0.4636 0.4773

0.585 1 0.6059 0.6208 0.6457 0.6632 0.6735 0.6849

'Flue gas is assumed to have 12% water vapor by volume. When a phase change occurs, as in a boiler, AT is written as

Combining Eqs. (88) and (89) and simplifying, we arrive at the expression

Factor F,ICp is also given in Table 4.34. Equation (90) relates the major geometric parameters to thermal performance. Using this method, need not evaluate heat one transfer coefficients.

310

Ganapathy

GAS PRESSURE DROP Now, consider gas pressure drop. The equation that relates the geometry to tube-side pressure drop in in. H 2 0 is
= 9.3 x 10-5f x

(T)'5di) W (L +

x

d :
V

where
K2 =

f(L

+ Sdi)/d?

(92)

Combining Eqs. (90) to (92) andeliminating N,

where

K ] = (L

+ 5di)0.1Lf0.'/df.3

(94)

K, and K2 appear in Tables 4.35 and 4.36, respectively, as a function of tubeIDandlength.Intheturbulentrange,the

Table 4.35 Values of K, asaFunction of TubeDiameterand
dj (in.)
L (ft)
8 10 12 14 16

Length

1.00 7.09 8.99 10.92 12.89 14.88 16.89 18.92 20.98 23.05 25.13 27.24

3.00 2.25 1.50 1.25 2.00 2.75 1.75 2.50 5.33 6.75 8.20 9.66 11.14 12.65 14.16 15.70 17.24 18.80 20.37 4.22 5.34 6.48 7.63 8.80 9.98 11.17 12.38 13.59 14.81 16.05 3.46 2.92 4.38 3.70 5.31 4.48 6.25 5.27 7.21 6.07 6.88 8.17 7.70 9.14 8.52 10.12 11.11 9.35 12.11 10.19 13.11 11.00 2.52 3.17 3.85 4.53 5.21 5.91 6.60 7.31 8.02 8.74 9.46 2.20 2.78 3.36 3.95 4.55 5.15 5.76 6.37 6.99 7.61 8.74 1.95 2.46 2.98 3.50 4.02 4.56 5.10 5.64 6.19 6.74 7.30
2.21

1.75

20 22 24 26 28

18

2.67 3.14 3.61 4.10 4.56 5.05 5.54 6.03 6.52

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

311

Table 4.36 Values of K,

as a Function of Tube Diameter and Leneth

di (in.)
8
0.2990 0.3450 0.1027 0.1171 0.1315 0.1460 0.1603 0.1892 0.2036 0.2180 0.2320 0.2469 0.0428 0.0484 0.0539 0.0595 0.0650 0.0760 0.0816 0.0870 0.0926 0.0982 0.0424 0.0229 0.0252 0.0277 0.0302 0.0350 0.0375 0.0400 0.0423 0.0447 0.0109 0.0121 0.0134 0.0146 0.0158 0.0183 0.0195 0.0207 0.0219 0.0231 0.0062 0.0069 0.0075 0.0082 0.0088 0.0101 0.0108 0.0114 0.0121 0.0217 0.0037 0.0041 0.0045 0.0049 0.0053 0.0060 0.0064 0.0067 0.0071 0.0075 0.0024 0.0016 0.0027 0.0018 0.0029 0.0019 0.0031 0.0021 0.0033 0.0022 0.0038 0.0025 O.Oo40 0.0027 0.0042 0.0028 0.0045 0.0030 0.0047 0.0031

0 2.00 (ft) 1.25 2.25 L 1.50 1.00 1.75

0.391012 0.437014 0.4830 16 0.5750 20 0.621022 0.667024 0.7130 26 0.7590 28

IO

friction factor for cold-drawn tubes is a function of inner diameter. Using Q. (93),one can quickly figure the tube diameter and length that limit tube pressure drop to a desired value. Any two of the three variables N, L , and di, determine thermal performance as well as gas pressure drop. Let us discuss the conventional design procedure:
1. Assume W , calculate N. 2 . Calculate V ,using Eqs. (4) and (86). 3.Calculate L after obtaining Afrom (85). 4. Calculate from Eq. (91).

e.

If the geometry pressure drop obtained is unsuitable, repeat or steps 1-4. This procedure is lengthy. Some examples will illustrate the simplified approach. The preceding equations are valid for single-pass design. However, with minor changes, one can derive the relationships for multipass units (e.g., use length = L/2 for two-pass units). EXAMPLE 1 A fire tube waste heat boiler will cool 66,000 lb/hr of flue gas from 1160°F to 440°F. Saturation temperatureis 350°F. Molecular weight is 28.5, and gas pressure is atmospheric. If L is to be

312

Ganapathy

limited to 20 ft due to layout, determine N and M. two tube for sizes: (1) 2 X 1.77 in. (2 in. OD, 1.77 in. ID) and (2) 1.75 X 1.521 in. Solution. Use Eq. (88) to find N . Use 2-in tubes. (F,/C,) from of Table 4.34 is 0.73 for flue gas at the average gas temperature 0.5 X (1 160 440) = 800°F.

+

2.197 = 0.606 X 0.73
= 0.6089N0.2,

x

No

x

20

(66,000)0.2x (1.77)'.*

N = 611

Compute M using Q. (91). From Table 4.36, K2 is 0.035. . Compute the gas specific volume. 492 Density@) = 28.5 X = 0.031 Ib/ff, 359 X (460 800)

+

or

v

=

32.25f?/lb

Substituting in Eq. (91), wehave
= 9.3 X 10-5 X
=

( 667000 611

X 0.035 X 32.25

1.23 in. H20

Repeat the exercise with 1.75-in tubes; length remains at 20 ft. From Eq. (88), we note that for the same thermal performance and gas flow, N0.2L/dF8= a constant. The above concept comes in handy when one wants to quickly figure the effect geometry of on performance. Hence, 611°.2 X 20 ( 1.77)O.'
N0.2

X

20 (1.521)0.8

or N = 333

With smaller tubes, one needs fewel. tubes the same duty. for This is due to higher heat transfer coefficient; however, the gas a pressure drop would be higher. From Table 4.36, K2 = 0.076 for 1.521-in. tubes. From Eq. (91),

Heat Equipment Transfer
Q.

Design and Performance
10-5

313

= =

9.3 X

X

X

0.076 X 32.25

8.95 in. H O ,

EXAMPLE 2 Size the heat exchanger 2.0-in. tubes, with a pressure dropof for 3.0 in. H,O. For the same thermal performance, determine the geometry. Solution. The conventional approach would take several trials to arrive at the right combination. However, with Eq. (93), one can determine the geometry rather easily:

From Table 4.34, (Fl/Cp)= 0.73; M = 3, v = 32.25. Then

In

[

z:13] 3 ; :

= 2.197 = 0.24K, X (32.25)O.I

From Table 4.35, we can obtain several combinations tube of diameter and length that have the samevalue and would yield K1 the same thermal performance and pressure drop. For the 1.77in. ID tube, Lis 21.75 ft. Use Eq. (88) to calculate the number of tubes,
N . 0 2

2.197 = 0.606 X 0.73 X 21.75 X
or N =

(66,000)0.2 (1.77)O.’ ’ X

402

Thus, several alternative tube geometries can arrived atfor be the same performance, using the preceding approach. One saves a lot of time by notcalculating heat transfer coefficients and gas properties. LIFE-CYCLE COSTING Such techniques determine the optimum design, given several alternatives. Here, the major operating cost is from moving the gasthrough the system, andtheinstalled cost isthatof the

314

Ganapathy

equipment and auxiliaries such as the fan. The life-cycle cost is the sum of capitalized costof operation and the installed cost: the LCC =

cco +
1

IC

The capitalized cost of operation is
C& = CY ,

- YT

l-Y

where

Y = ( + e)/(l 1

+ i)
in kW is

The annual cost of operating the fan is estimated as
C, = 0.001 X PHC,

where the fan power consumption

The above procedure is used to evaluate LCC. The alternative with the lowestLCC is usually chosen if the geometry is acceptable. [C, is cost of electricity.]
4.49

Q: Discuss the simplified approach to designing water tube boilers.

A

Whenevergasflowsoutside a tubebundle-asinwatertube boilers, economizers, and heat exchangers with high heat transfer coefficients on the tubeside-the overall coefficient is governed by the gas-side resistance. Assuming that the other resistances contribute about to the total, and neglecting theeffect 5% of nonluminous transfer coefficients, one may write the expression for U as

U = 0.95h0
where the outside coefficient, h,, is obtained from

(95a)

Nu = (95b) Re0.6Pr0.3 0.35
where, Eqs. (16) to (18), and

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

315

NU =

hod0 -’ 12k

Re =

Gd -,
1%

Pr =

A k

Equation (95) is valid for both in-line (square or rectangular pitch) and staggered (triangular pitch) arrangements. For bare tubes, the difference in h, between in-line and staggered arrangements at Reynolds numbers and pitches found in practiceis 3 to 5%. For finned tubes, the variation is significant. Substituting Eqs. (17) to (21) into Eq. (95) and simplifying,

h, = 0.945G0.6F21d:.4 U = 0.9G0.6F21d8.4 where
F2 = ko~7(Cp/p)o.3

(96)
(97) (98)

F2 is given in Table 4.34. Gas Transport properties computed are at the film temperature.

A = +TdoNWNdL/12

Combining the above with
QIAT
=

Eq. (85) and simplifying gives

UA = 7 ~ 0 . 9 ~ ~ F ~ d , N ~ N ~ L I 1 2 d ~ . ~ = 0.235 F2Go.6NwNdLd 8.6
Eq.

Substituting for G from

(21)

The above equation relates thermal performance to geometry. When there is a phase change, as in a boiler, further simplification leads to In[
T -T,

- ts

] = 2.82 x

-x F2 Nd , C,, G0.4(STId,- l ) d 0.4 (loo) ,

If the tubediameter and pitch are known, one can estimate Nd or G for a desired thermal performance.

316

Ganapathy

Let us now account for gas pressure drop. The equation that relates the gas pressure drop to G is Eq. (28) of Chapter 3:
WO= 9.3 X 10"'
Nd X G7 -

P

For in-line arrangements, the friction factor is obtained from Eq. (29) of Chapter 3: f = Re-'.I5 X where

Another form of Eq. (3.28) is

(loo), Substituting forfin Q. (3.28) and combining with Eq. we can relate W,,to performance in a single equation:

WO= 4.78 x 10"'
X

x

(S, - do) In

[ TI - 4 ] 4
2

X

d:.75 F3p

where

F3 = (F2/Cp)p-0.15 (103) F3 is given in Table 4.34. With the above equation, one can easily calculate the geometry for a given tube bankso as to limit the pressure drop to a desired value. An example will illustrate the versatility of the technique.
EXAMPLE In a water tube boiler, 66,000 Ib/hr of flue gas is cooled from 1160 to 440°F. Saturation temperature is 350°F. Tube outside is diameter is 2 in., and an in-line arrangement used with S, = ST = 4 in. Determineasuitableconfigurationtolimit the gas pressure to 3 in. H20.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

317

Let us use Eq. (102). Film temperature is 0.5 X (800 350) = 575°F. Interpolating from Table 4.34 at 475"F, F3 = 0.643. Gas density at 800°F is 0.031 lb/ft3 from Example 1.

+

hp, = 4.78 X 10"O X

X (4

- 2)

(0.044 0.08 X 2) 20.75 X 0.643 X 0.031 = 128 x 10"o x = 3

x

+

Hence, G = 5200 lb/ft2 hr. FromEq. different combinations of NW and L: If NW= 8 , then L = 9.5 ft. Calculate Nd from Eq. (100): In
X

(21) one canchoose

N,L = 66,000 X 12/(2 X 5200) = 76

[

Il ] ; !
Nd

=

2.197 = 2.82

F2 c,

@.4(ST/d0- l)d:.4

2.197 = 2.82 X 0.426Nd/(5200°.4X 1 X 2°'4) O Nd = 74 r Thus, the entire geometry has been arrived at.

45 .0 Q: How is the bundle diameter ofheatexchangers
boilers determined?

or fire tube

A

Tubes of exchangers heat and fire tubeboilers are typically arranged in triangularor square pitch (Figure 4.17). The ratioof tube pitch to diameter could range from 1.25 to 2 depending on the tube size and the manufacturer's past practice. hoking at the triangular pitch arrangement, we see that half of a tubearea is locatedwithinthetriangle,whosearea is given by

318

Ganapathy

Figure 4.17

Triangular and squarepitchfor

hiledexchanger tubes.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance Areaoftriangle
= 0.5 X

319

0.866~’ = 0.433~’

If there are N tubes in the bundle, Total area occupied = 0.866Np2 If thebundlediameter bundle = 0.866Np’ or is D ,then3.14
X D2/4 = area of

D

=

1.05~NO.~

(104)

Similarly, for the square pitch, the area occupied one tube by = p’. Hencebundlearea = 3.14 X D2/4 = Np’, or

D

=

1.128pNo.5

(105)

In practice, a small clearance is added to the above numberfor manufacturing purposes.
EXAMPLE If 500 tubes of 2-in. diameter are located in a fire tube boiler shell at a triangular pitchof 3 in., the bundle diameter wouldbe

D D

= 1.05 X 3 X 500°.5 = 70.5 in. = 1.l28 X 3 X

If the pitch were square, the bundle diameter would be
=

75.7 in.

Sometimes tubes have to be located withina given sectorof a circle. In suchcases, it is helpful to know the area sector of a a of circle given its height and diameter. Table 4.37 gives the factor C , which when multiplied by D2 gives the sector area.
EXAMPLE Find the area of a sector of height 10 in. and diameter 24 in. Solution. For h/D = 10/24 = 0.4167, C fromTable4.37 = 0.309. lIence

Area = C X D2 = 0.309 X 24 X 24 = 178 in.’
4.51

Q: How is the thickness of insulation for a flat or curved surface
determined? Determine the thickness of insulation to limit the

w

Table 4.37 C Factors for Finding Area of Sector (Area
MD
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005

= C P ) of a Circle

8

C
0.00004 0.00012 0.00022

WD
0.050 0.05 1 0.052 0.053 0.054 0.055 0.056 0.057 0.058 0.059

C
0.01468 0.01512 0.0 1556 0.01601 0.01646 0.01691 0.01737 0.01783 0.01830 0.01877 0.01924 0.01972 0.02020 0.02068 0.021 17 0.02166 0.022 15 0.02265 0.02315 0.02366 0.02417 0.02468 0.025 20 0.02571

WD
0.100 0.101 0.102 0.103 0.104 0.105 0.106 0.107 0.108 0.109 0.110 0.111 0.112 0.113 0.114 0.115 0.116 0.1 17 0.118 0.119 0.120 0.121 0.122 0.123

C
0.04087 0.04148 0.04208 0.04269 0.04330 0.04391 0.04452 0.04514 0.04578 0.04638 0.04701 0.04763 0.04826 0.04889 0.04953

WD
0.150 0.151 0.152 0.153 0.154

C
0.07387 0.07459 0.07531 0.07603 0.07675 0.07747 0.07819 0.07892 0.07965 0.08038 0.081 11 0.08185 0.08258 0.08332

WD
0.200 0.201 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.206 0.207 0.208 0.209 0.210 0.21 1 0.212 0.213 0.214 0.215 0.216 0.217 0.218 0.219 0.220 0.221 0.222 0.223

C
0.11 182 0.11262 0.11343 0.11423 0.11504 0.11584 0.1 1665 0.11746 0.1 1827 0.11908 0.11990 0.12071 0.12153 0.12235 0.12317 0.02399 0.12481 0.12563 0.12646 0.12729 0.1281 1 0.12894 0.12977 0.13060

0.006
0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.01 1 0.012 0.013 0.014

0.015 0.016 0.017 0.018 0.019 0.020 0.021 0.022 0.023

O.OOO34 0.00047 0.00062 0.00078 0.00095 0.001 13 0.00133 0.00153 0.00175 0.00197 0.00220 0.00244 0.00268 0.00294 0.00320 0.00347 0.00375 0.00403 0.00432 0.00462

000 .6
0.061 0.062 0.063 0.064 0.065

0.066
0.067 0.068 0.069 0.070 0.071 0.072 0.073

0.050 16 0.05080 0.05145 0.05209 0.05274 0.05338

0044 .50
0.05469 0.05535

0.155 0.156 0.157 0.158 0.159 0.160 0.161 0.162 0.163 0.164 0.165 0.166 0.167 0.168 0.169 0.170 0.171 0.172 0.173

0046 .80
0.08480 0.08554 0.08629 0.08704 0.08779 0.08854 0.08929

0.09004
0.09080

3 3BF2W m m m m m m
m o b m
b d
0 0

lzmm-

Q\lz\ov)z

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

mmmNmmmd"14] 0 0 v ) N ~ \ o m - wzmd o l \ob0000Q\ \ o w \ o \ o \ o o -z b b b bl

0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

d v)Wb00Q\ 0 " N r n d v)\ob00Q\ b b b l z b b 0000000000 0000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

8 8 gZ! 2 8 0 ?% 0 " a0 0 0 0 - & g0 0
0 0 0 0 0

d
0

N N m N h l N m m m m m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

v)rob00Q\

o - m m v

M W b 0 0 0 \
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

m m m m m 38883 33z33
0 0 0 0 0

4 m m

0 0 0 0 0

32 I

m
m
N G0 S
M m

M3z

2

22 2
2

c? S

2

8 2

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

M m b o 0 b b b w w w E Mm mM S v ) w b w M s w m m 3 G 3 w ow m b ” N m M M M M m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m q q m m m m m
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

322

w

8

0.274 0.275 0.276 0.277 0.278 0.279 0.280 0.28 1 0.282 0.283 0.284 0.285 0.286 0.287 0.288 0.289 0.290 0.291 0.292 0.293 0.294 0.295 0.296 0.297 0.298 0.299

0.17465 0.17554 0.17644 0.17733 0.17823 0.17912 0.18002 0.18092 0.18182 0.18272 0.18362 0.18452 0.18542 0.18633 0.18723 0.18814 0.18905 0.18996 0.19086 0.19177 0.19268 0.19360 0.1945 1 0.19542 0.19634 0.19725

0.324 0.325 0.326 0.327 0.328 0.329 0.330 0.331 0.332 0.333 0.334 0.335 0.336 0.337 0.338 0.339 0.340 0.341 0.342 0.343 0.344 0.345 0.346 0.347 0.348 0.349

0.22040 0.22134 0.22228 0.22322 0,22415 0.22509 0.22603 0.22697 0.22792 0.22886 0.22980 0.23074 0.23169 0.23263 0.23358 0.23453 0.23547 0.23642 0.23737 0.23832 0.23927 0.24022 0.241 17 0.242 12 0.24307 0.24403

0.374 0.375 0.376 0.377 0.378 0.379 0.380 0.381 0.382 0.383 0.384 0.385 0.386 0.387 0.388 0.389 0.390 0.391 0.392 0.393 0.394 0.395 0.396 0.397 0.398 0.399

0.26805 0.26901 0.26998 0.27095 0.27192 0.27289 0.27386 0.27483 0.27580 0.27678 0.27775 0.27872 0.27969 0.28067 0.28164 0.28262 0.28359 0.28457 0.28554 0.28652 0.28750 0.28848 0.28945 0.29043 0.29141 0.29239

0.424 0.425 0.426 0.427 0.428 0.429 0.430 0.43 1 0.432 0.433 0.434 0.435 0.436 0.437 0.438 0.439

0.440
0.441 0.442 0.443 044 .4 0.445

0.446
0.447 0.448 0.449

0.31699 0.31798 0.31897 0.31996 0.32095 0.32194 0.32293 0.32392 0.32491 0.32590 0.32689 0.32788 0.32887 0.32987 0.33086 0.33 185 0.33284 0.33384 0.33483 0.33582 0.33682 0.33781 0.33880 0.33980 0.34079 0.34179

0.474 0.475 0.476 0.477 0.478 0.479 0.480 0.481 0.482 0.483 0.484 0.485 0.486 0.487 0.488 0.489 0.490 0.491 0.492 0.493 0.494 0.495 0.4% 0.497 0.498 0.499 0.500

0.36671 0.36771 0.36871 0.36971 0.37071 0.37171 0.37270 0.37370 0.37470 0.37570 0.37670 0.37770 0.37870 0.37970 0.38070 0.38170 0.38270 0.38370 0.38470 0.38570 0.38670 0.38770 0.38870 0.38970 0.39070 0.38170 0.39270

324

Ganapathy

casing surface temperature a pipe operatingat 800°F to 200"F, of when Ambienttemperature tu = 80°F Thermal conductivity of insulation Km at average temperature of 500°F = 0.35 Btu in./ft2 hr. "F Pipe outer diameter d = 12 in. Windvelocity V = 264 ft/min (3 mph) Emissivity of casing = 0.15 (oxidized)

A

The heatloss q fromthesurfaceisgiven q = 0.1746

[( ts + 459.6

)4

-

( + 459.6 )'3
to

by [7] 100

E

may betakenas 0.9 foroxidized steel, 0.05 for polished aluminum, and 0.15 for oxidized aluminum. Also,

where t is the hot face temperature, "F,and Le is the equivalent thickness of insulationfor a curvedsurfacesuchas a pipe or tube. L, = d + 2 L 2

In

d

+ 2L
d

Substituting ts = 200, tu = 80, V = 264, and E = 0.15 into Eq. (106), wehave q = 0.173 X 0.15 X (6.64

- 5.44) + 0.296

= 285Btu/ft2hr

From Eq. (107), L, = 0.35 X 800

- 200
285

= 0.74 in.

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance
of Insulation, L, (in.)"

325

Table 4.38 EquivalentThickness
Thickness Tube diam. d (in.) .

of insulation L (in.)
0.5 0.69 0.61 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51
d

3.0 2.0 1.5 1 1.65 1.39 1.28 1.22 1.18 1.15 1.12 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.05
In d
d

4.0 4.0 3.30 2.97 2.77 2.65 2.55 2.43 2.35 2.30 2.23 2.19 6.80 5.50 4.94 4.55 4.34 4.16 3.92 3.76 3.65 3.50 3.41 9.90 8.05 7.15 6.60 6.21 5.93 5.55 5.29 5.11 4.86 4.70

5.0 13.2 10.75 9.53 8.76 8.24 7.85 7.50 6.93 6.65 6.31 6.10

6.0 16.7 13.62 12.07 11.10 10.40 9.80 9.15 8.57 8.31 7.83 7.52

1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 8

12 16 20

2.77 2.29 2.08 1.96 1.88 1.82 1.75 1.70 1.67 1.63 l .61

"L, =

+ 2L
2

+ 2L

. For example, ford = 3 and L

= 1.5, Le = 2.08.

We can solve for L given L, and d using Eq. (108) by trial and error or use Table 4.38. It can be shown that L = 0.75 in. The A trial-andnextstandardthicknessavailablewillbechosen. error method as discussed next will be needed to solve for the surface temperature t,. (Note that L is the actual thickness of insulation.)
4.52

Q: Determine the surface temperature of insulationin 44.51 when
1.0-in-thickinsulation is usedonthepipe.Otherdata given earlier. are as

A: Calculatethe equivalent thickness L,. From Eq. (108),
L, =
1 2 2

+2

In

1 2

14

= 1.08

in.

326

Ganapathy

Assumethatforthefirsttrial t, = 150°F. Let K,,, a mean at temperature of (800 150)/2 = 475 be 0.34 Btu in./ft2 hr "F. From Eq. (106),

+

q = 0.173 X 0.15 X (6. l4

x (610
=

-

540)'.25 x

( 2642)"'" 69
= 205 Btu/ft2 hr

- 5.44) + 0.296

145Btu/ft2hr

From Eq. (107), q = 0.34 X

800 - 150 1.08

Since these two values of q do not agree, wemustgo anothertrial.Try t, = 170°F. Then, from Eq. (106), q = 200 Btu/ft2 hr andfrom Eq. (107), q = 198Btu/ft2hr

for

These two are quite close. Hence the final surface temperature is 170"F, and the heat loss is about 200 Btu/ft2 hr.

4.53 Q: A horizontal flat surface is 10°F. The ambient dry bulb tempera80%. Determine the ture is 80°F and the relative humidity is thickness of fibrous insulation that will prevent condensation of water vapor on the surface. Use K, = 0.28 Btu/ft hr "F. The wind velocity is zero. Use a surface emissivity of 0.9 for the casing.

A

The surface temperaturemust be above the dew point of water to prevent condensation of water vapor. Q1.10 shows the dew how point can be calculated. The saturated vapor pressure is 80"F, fromthesteamtablesintheAppendix,is 0.51 psia. At80% will be 0.8 X 0.51 = relativehumidity,thevaporpressure 0.408 psia. From the steam tables, this corresponds to a satura-

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

327

tion temperature of 73"F, which also the dew point. Hence we is must design the insulation so the casing temperature is above 73°F. From Eq. (106), q = 0.173 X 0.9 X (5.44 - 5.334) 0.296 x (80 - 73)Ia2' = 10.1 Btu/ft2 hr

+

Also, from Q. (107),
q =
(td

- t,) x

K m L

=

(73 - 10) x

0.28 L

(In this case of a flat surface, L, = L.). Note that the heat flow is from the atmosphere the surface. to td and t, are the dew point and surface temperature, "F. Solving for L, weget L = 1.75 in. Hence, by using the next standard insulation thickness available, we can ensure that the casing is above the dew point. To obtain the exact casing temperature with the standard thickness of insulation, a trial-and-error procedure as discussed in 44.52 may beused.Butthisisnotreallynecessary,aswehave provided a safe design thickness.
4.54a

Q:

A 1%-in. schedule 40 pipe1000 ft longcarries hotwaterat 300°F. What is the heat from its surface if it is not insulated loss (case 1) or if it has l-in.-, 2-in.-, and 3-in.-thick insulation (case 2)? The thermal conductivity of insulation may be assumed as 0.25 Btu in./ft2 hr "F. The ambient temperatureis 80"F, and the wind velocity is zero.
Case I

A:

Equation (106) can be used to determine the heat loss. For the bare pipe surface, assume that E is 0.90. Then
q = 0.173 X 0.9 X (7.64 - 5.44) 0.296 X (300 - 80)'.25 = 638Btu/ft2hr.

+

328

Ganapathy
Case 2 Determination of the surface temperature given the

insulation thickness involves a trial-and-error procedure as discussed in 44.52 and will be done in detail for the l-in. case. Various surface temperatures are assumed and q is computed from Eqs. (106) and (107). Let us use a E value of 0.15. The following table gives the results of the calculations.

110 120 140

26 37 61

34 32

28

We can draw a graph of t, versus U with these values and obtain the correct t,. However, we see from the table, by interpolation, that at t, =.115"F, q, from both equations, is about 33 Btu/ft*hr. Totalheat loss = 3.14 X

3.9 12

x 1000 x 33

= 33, 675Btu/hr

Similarly, we may solve for q when the thicknesses are 2 and 3 in. It can be shown that at L = 2 in., q = 15 Btu/ft2hr, and at L = 3 in., q = 9 Btu/ft2 hr. Also, when L = 2 in., t, = 98°F and total heat loss = 23,157 Btu/hr. When L = 3 in., t, = 92°F and total loss = 18,604 Btu/hr.

4.mb
Q: Estimate the drop in water temperature of l-in.-thick insulation
were used in Q4.54a. The water flow is 7500 Ib/hr.

A: The total heat loss has been shown to be 33,675 Btu/hr. This is
AT, lost by the water and can be written as 7500 where AT is the drop in temperature, assuming that the specific heat is 1. Hence

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

329

AT =

33,675 7500

=

4.5"F

By equating the heat loss from insulation to the heat lost by the fluid, be it air, oil,steam, or water, one can compute the drop in temperature in the pipeor duct. This calculation is particularly important when oil lines are involved, as viscosity is affected, leading to pumping and atomization problems.

4.55 Q: In Q4.54 determine the optimum thicknessof insulation with the
following data. Costofenergy = $3/MM Btu Costofoperation = $8000/year = 12%and7% Interestandescalationrates Life of the plant = 15 years Total cost of l-in.-thick insulation, including labor and material = $5200; for 2-in. insulation, $7100; andfor 3-in. insulation, $10,500.

A. Letus calculatethecapitalizationfactor
1.07 F = -x 1.12

F from 41.22.

1 - (1.07/1.12)15 = 10.5 1 - (1.07/1.12)

Let us calculate the annual heat loss. For L = 1in.,
8000 C = 33,675 X 3 X - = $808 , 1o6

For L = 2 in.,
C = 23,157 X 3 X ,
For L = 3 in.,

-= l o6

8000

$555

C = 18,604 X 3 X ,

8O OO - = $446 I o6

330

Ganapathy

Calculate capitalized cost = CaF. For L = 1 in., CaF = 808 X 10.5 = $8484 For L = 2 in.,
C,F = 555 X 10.5 = $5827

For L = 3 in.,
CaF = 446 X 10.5 = $4683

Calculate total capitalized cost or life-cycle cost (LCC): For L = 1 in., LCC = 8484

+ 5200 = $13,684

For L = 2 in., LCC = $12,927; and for L = 3 in., LCC = $15,183.

is about 2 in. With Hence we see that the optimum thickness higher thicknesses, the capital becomes more than the benecost fits from savings in heat loss. A trade-off would be to go for 2-in.-thick insulation. Severalfactors enter intocalculations of thistype. If the period of operation wereless, probably a lesser thickness would be adequate. If the cost of energy were more, we might have to go for a higher thickness. Thus each case must be evaluated before we decide on the optimum thickness. This examples gives only a methodology, and the evaluation can be as detailed as desired by the plant engineering personnel. If there were no insulation, the annual heat loss would be
3.14 X

1

-x 12

1000 x 638 x 3 x

8000 - = $7600 o6

Hence simple payback even with l-in.-thick insulation is 5200/(7600 - 808) = 0.76 year, or 9 months.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
4.56

331

Q: What is a hot casing? What are itsuses?

A: Wheneverhotgasesarecontainedin

an internallyrefractorylined (or insulated) duct, the casing temperature can fall below the dew point of acid gases, which can seep through the refractory cracks and cause acid condensation, which is a potential problem. To avoid this, some engineers prefer a “hot casing” or thevessel or duct design, which ensures thatthecasing containing the gases is maintained at high enough temperature a to minimize or prevent acid condensation. At the same time, the casing is also externally insulated to minimize heat losses to the the ambient (see Figure 4.18). A “hot casing” is a combination of internal plus external insulation used to maintain the casing at a highenoughtemperature to avoidacidcondensationwhile ensuring that the heat losses to the atmosphere are low. Consider the use of a combination of two refractories inside the boiler casing:4 in. of KS4 and 2 in. of CBM. The hot gases are at 1000°F. Ambient temperature = 60”F, and wind velocity is 100 ft/min. Casing emissivityis 0.9. To keep the boiler casing

gas f l o w

stng

ftbsr

\

Figure 4.18 Arrangement of hotcasing.

332

Ganapathy

hot, an external 0.5 in. of mineral fiber is added. Determine the boiler casing temperature, the outer casing temperature, and the heat loss. One can perform the calculations discussed earlier to arrive at the temperatures and heat loss. For the sake of illustrating the point, a computer printout of the result is shown in Figure 4.19. Itcan be seen that theboiler casing is at392"F,whilethe loss outermost casing is at 142°F. The heat is 180 Btu/ft2hr. The boiler casing is hot enough to avoid acid condensation, while the heat losses are kept low.

4.57 Q: Whathappens if ducts or stackshandling flue gases are not
insulated? What would the gas or stack wall temperature be?

A: This question faces engineers involved in engineering

of boiler plants. If ducts and stacks are not insulated, the heat loss from the casing can be substantial. Also, the stack wall temperature can drop low enough to cause acid dew point corrosion. Let the flue gas flow = W lb/hr at a temperature of tg, at the inlet to the duct or stack (Figure 4.20). The heat loss from the casing wall is given by Eq. (106),

RESULTS-INSULATION PERFORMANCEProject: HOT CASING NAME Casing deltbd/mf/fib cbm ks4 THICK-IN
0.00

flat surface

TEMP-F 142.27
880.12

TEMP1
0.00
200.00 800.00

COW1
0.00

TEMP2
0.00

COW2
0.00
0.72

392.02 0.50 200.00 400.00 0.32 0.45
2.00

0.57
6.02

1001.42 4.00

600.00 1600.00

6.20

HEAT LOSS -BTU/ftPh- 179.5997 Number oflayers of insulation- 3
AMEt TEMP- 70 WIND VEL-fpm- 100 EMISS- .9 MAX LOSS-BTU/FTZH- 9330.736

Figure 4.19 Results of printout on casing temperature.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
detail A
stack wall

333

V.Ta

gas flow _I TQl

Figure 4.20 Stack wall temperature.
q = 0.174 E X

t,

+ 460
X

>'

-

( t, Tm46O
:6 99

+ 0.296 (t, tR - tw, = q

"

Thetemperaturedropacrossthe
doidi -

gas film is given by

r5

>'l

h,

where h, = convective heat transfer coefficient Btu/ft2 hr "F do, di = outerandinnerdiameter of the stack, in. h, = 2.44
X

WO% d,!.8

where,from Eq. (12),

334

Ganapathy

The duct wall temperature drop is given by Eq. (107), which can be rearranged to give

where tw,, twoare the inner and outer wall temperatures, "F. The total heat loss from the duct or stack is Q = 3. 14d0 X H/12, where H is the height, ft. The exit gas temperature is then

Theabove equations have to besolvediteratively. A trial value for tg2is assumed, and the gas properties are computed at theaverage gas temperature.Thecasingtemperature is also obtainedthroughaniterativeprocess.Thetotalheat loss is computed and which tg2is again evaluated. If the assumed and calculated tg2 values agree, theniteration stops. A computer program canbe developed to obtain accurate results, particularly if the stack is tall and calculations are better done inseveral segments.
EXAMPLE

110,OOO Ib/hr offlue gases at410°F enter a 48-in. ID stack thatis 50 ft long and 1 in. thick. If the ambient temperature is 70°F and wind velocity is 125 ft/min, determine the casing temperature, total heat loss, and exit gas temperature. Flue gas properties can be assumed to be as follows at 400°F (or computed from methods discussed in Q4.12 if analysis is known): C, = 0.265, p = 0.058 Ib/ft hr, k = 0.0211 Btu/ft hr "F. Let the gas temperature drop in the stack = 20°F; hence the exit gas temperature = 390°F. The gas-side heat transfer coefficient is

2.44 x (1 1O,OOo)O~* x
= 4.5 Btu/ft2 hr "F

(- " x (0.0211)0.6 0.058 )"'
t, ( = two withoutinsulation)

Letthecasingtemperature 250°F.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
q = 0.174 X 0.9 X [(7.1)4 - (5.3)4]

33s

+ 0.296

X (710

- 530)'.25 X

( 1252>"' 69

= 601 Btu/f?hr

Gastemperature drop across gas film = 601/4.5 = 134°F Temperature drop across the stackwall = 601 X 50 In (50148) X = 2°F (24 X 25) Hence wall stack outer temperature = 400 - 134 - 2 = 264°F. It can be shown thatat a casing or wall temperatureof 256 "F, the heat loss through gas film matches the loss through the stack = wall.Theheat loss = 629 Btu/ft2 hr, andtotalheatloss 41 1,400 Btu/hr. Gas temperature drop = 411,400 = 14 110,000/0.265
OF.

The average gas temperature = 410 - 14 = 396"F, which is close to the 400°F assumed. With a computer program, one can fine tune the calculations to include fouling factors.
4.58

Q:

What are the effects of wind velocity and casing emissivity on heat loss and casing temperature? Using the method described earlier, the casing temperature and heat loss were determined for the case of an insulated surface at 600°F using 3 in. of mineral fiber insulation. (Aluminum casing has an emissivity of about 0.15, and oxidized steel 0.9.) The results are shown in Table 4.39. It can be seen that the wind velocity does not result in reduction of heat losses though the casing temperature is significantly reduced. Also the use of lower emissivity casing does not affect the heat loss, though the casing temperature is increased, particularly at low wind velocity.

A

336

Ganapathy

Table 4.39 Results of InsulationPerformance
Casing Emissivity
Aluminum Aluminum
0.15 0.15 0.90 0.90

Wind vel. (fpm)
135 109
0 1760

Heat loss Casing temp.
67 71 70 70 91
88

(OF)

Steel Steel

1760

0

4.59a Q: How does one check heat transfer equipment for possible noise and vibration problems?

A: Adetailedprocedure is outlinedinRefs.

1 and 8. Hereonlya brief reference to the methodology will be made. Whenever a fluid flows across a tube bundle such as boiler tubes in an economizer, air heater, or superheater (see Figure 4.21), vortices are formedandshedin the wakebeyond the tubes. This sheddingon alternate sides of thetubescausesa harmonicallyvarying force onthetubeperpendicularto the normal flow of the fluid. It is a self-excited vibration. If the frequency of the von Karman vortices as they are called coincides with the natural frequency of vibration of the tubes, resonance occurs and tubes vibrate, leading to leakage and damage at supports.Vortexshedding is moreprevalentin the rangeof Reynolds numbers from 300 to 2 X lo5. This is the range in whichmany boilers, economizers, ,and superheatersoperate. Another mechanism associated with vortex shedding is acoustic oscillation, which is normal to both fluid flow and tube length. This is observed with gases and vapors only. These oscillations coupled with vortex shedding lead to resonance and excessive noise. Standing waves are formed inside the duct. Hence in order to analyze tube bundle vibration and noise, three frequencies must be computed: natural frequency vibraof tion of tubes; vortex shedding frequency; and acoustic frequency. When these are apart by at least 20%, vibration and noise may be absent. Q4.59b to Q4.59e show how these values are computed and evaluated.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

337

Atr h t or a

Superhor1.r

Figure 4.21 Crossflow of gas over tube bundles.

338

Ganapathy

Q: How is

the naturalfrequency determined?

of vibration of a tubebundle

A

The natural frequencyof transverse vibrations of a uniform beam supported at each end is given by (1 loa) where
C = a factor determined by end conditions E = Young's modulus of elasticity I = moment of inertia = T (d 2 - df)/64 I M, = mass per unit length of tube, lb/ft (including ash deposits, if any, on the tube.) L = tube length, ft

Simplifying (1 loa), we have for steel tubes (1 lob) where do and di are in inches. Table 4.40 gives C for various end conditions.

4.59c Q: How is the acousticfrequencycomputed?

A

fa

isgivenby VJX, where V, = velocityofsound at thegas temperature in the duct orshell, ft/sec. It is given by the expression V , = (g, U For flue gases and air, sonic velocity is obtained by substituting 32 for g,, l .4 for U, and 1546/MW for R , wherethemolecularweightfor flue gases is nearly 29. Hence,

V,

=

49 X To.'

11)

(1

Wavelength X = 2W/n, where W is the duct width, ft, and n is the mode of vibration.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design

and Performance

339

Table 4.40 Values of C for E q . (1 lob)
Mode of vibration End support conditions Both ends clamped 120.9 61.67 One clamped, one hinged 104.2 49.97 Both hinged 88.8 39.48

l

2

3

22.37 15.42 9.87

4.59d Q: How is the vortexsheddingfrequency f, determined?

A

f, is obtainedfromtheStrouhalnumber
S = f&lO/l2V

S:

where
do = tube outer diameter, in. V = gas velocity, ft/sec

S is available in the form of charts for various tube pitches; it typically ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 (see Figure 4.22) [ l , 81. Q4.59e shows how a tube bundle is analyzed for noise and vibration. 4.59e

Q: A tubular air heater 1 1.7 ft wide, 12.5 ft deep, and 13.5 ft high is and used in a boiler. Carbon steel tubes of 2 in. O.D. 0.08 in.
thickness are used in in-line fashion with transverse pitchof 3.5 a in. and longitudinal pitchof 3.0 in. There are 40 tubes,wide (3.5 in. pitch) and 60 tubes deep (2.5 in. pitch). Air flow across the tubes is 300,000 Ib/hr at an average temperature of 219°F. The if bundle tubes are fixedatboth ends intubesheets.Check vibrations are likely. Tubemassperunitlength = 1.67 Ib/ft.

A: First compute fo, f,, andf,. L

= 13.5 ft, do = 2 in., di = 1.84 in., M, = l .67 Ib/ft, and, from Table 4.40, C = 22.37.

Ganapathy

1

2

3

2

(a)

ST/d

Figure 4.22 Strouhal number (a) for in-line bank of tubes; for (b) staggered bankof tubes; (c) for staggered bank tubes; (d)for in-line bank of of tubes.

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

341

1

2
T/d

3

L

Using Eq. (l lob), we have

90 X 22.37 x (24 - 1.844)0.5 = 18.2 Hz = (13.5)* ( 1 .67)0.5 This is in mode 1. In mode 2, C = 61.67; hence f, is 50.2 Hz. n (Thefirsttwomodesareimportant.) Let us computef,. S fromFigure 4.22 for &/do = 3.512 = 1.75 and a longitudinalpitchof 3.0/2 = 1.5 is 0.33.

0.27

0.23

0.12

0.20

0.16

0.21

0.20

2 8

- 0.18
0.27
0.19

0.2 2

0.20

0.20

1 0.23

Figure.

4.22 Continued

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

343

From E q . (1) of Chapter 1, p = 40/(219 + 460) = 0.059 Ib/ cu ft. Free gas area = 40 X (3.5 - 2) X 1 3 3 1 2 = 67.5 Ib/ft2 hr. (13.5 is the tube length, and tubes wide is used with 40 a pitch of 3.5 in.) Hence air velocity across tubes is
V =

300,000 67.5 x 3600 x 0.059

= 21ft/sec

Hence 12sv 0.33 x 21 L ? = - = 12 x 2 do
= 41.6 Hz

Let us computef,. T = (219 460) = 679"R. Hence V, = 49 X 679O.' = 1277 ft/sec. Width W = 11.7 ft, and A = 2 X 11.7 = 23.4 ft. Formode1 or n = 1,
fa,

+

= 1277123.4 = 54.5 Hz = 54.5 X 2 = 109Hz

For n = 2,
fa2

The results for modes 1 and 2 are summarized in Table 4.41. It can be seen that without baffles the frequencies fa and f, are within 20% of each other. Hence noise problems are likely to two arise. If a baffle or plate is used to divide the duct width into regions, the acoustic frequency is doubled as the wavelength or width is halved. This is a practical solutionto acoustic vibration problems.

Table 4.41 Summary Frequencies of
forModes 1 and 2
n
1

rationof Mode
A,(CPS ,
fa

2

or Hz)

f,, @PS or Hz) 41.6
(without baffles) A(with one baffle) , ,

18.2 41.6 54.5 109

50.2
109 218

3. 44

Ganapathy

4 6 . 0

Q: How are the gas properties C,, p , and k estimated for a gaseous
mixture? Determine C,, p , and k for a gas mixture having the following analysis at 1650°F and 14.7 psia. Gas
N2
0 2
SO2

Vol% 80 12 8

C,

P 0.108 0.125 0.105

k 0.030 0.043 0.040

MW 28 32

0.286 0.270 0.210

64

Mixture properties are needed to evaluate heat transfer coefficients. Forflue gas obtained from the combustionfossil fuels, of in the absence of flue gas ana1ysis;one can use the data on air.

A

For a gaseousmixtureatatmosphericpressure,thefollowing relations apply. For high gas pressures, readers are referred to Ref. 1. (1 13a) (1 13b)

c,,
where

=

ZCDiMW X 9, Z M W x iyi

(1 13c)

MW = molecularweight y = volume fraction ofany constituent Subscript m stands for mixture. Substituting in Eqs. (1 13), we have 0.286 X 0.8 X 28 + 0.27 X 0.12 X 32 + 0.21
c ,
=

X

0.08

X

64

0.8
= 0.272 Btunb "F

X

28

+ 0.12 X

32

+ 0.08 X

64

Heat Equipment Transfer
km =

Design and Performance
+ 0.043 x
28l" x 0.80

345

0.03 x 28"' x 0.80

+ 32It3 x 0.12 + 64"' x 0.08
X X

32'" x 0.12

+ 0.04 x 64'"

x 0.08

= 0.032 BWft hr P 0.108
h=
X

fiX 0.8 + 0.125 fiX 0.8 +

0.12

+ 0.105 X

a

X

0.08

m

X

0.12

+ 6X 0.105

= 0.109 Ib/ft hr

4.61

Q: How do gasanalysisandpressureaffectheattransferperformance?

A The presenceofgasessuchashydrogenandwatervaporin:
creases the heat transfer coefficient significantly, which can affect the heat flux and the boiler size. Also, if the gas is at high pressure, say 100 psi or more, the mass velocity inside the tubes (fire tube boilers) or outside the boiler tubes (water tube boilers) can be much higher due to the higher density, which also contrib4.42 utes tothe higher heat transfer coefficients. Table compares two gas streams, reformed gases froma hydrogen plant and flue gases from combustion of natural gas. Factors C and F used in the estimation heat transfer coeffiof cients inside and outside the tubes are also in Table 4.42. It given can be seen that the effect of gas analysis is very significant. Even at low gas pressures reformed gases(50 to 100 psig), the of shown, within factors C and F would be very close to the values 2 to 5%.
4.62

Q: How doesgaspressureaffecttheheattransfercoefficient?

A: The effect of gas pressure on factors C and F for some common
gases is shown in Figures 4.23 and 4.24. It can be seen that the

34.6

Ganapathy

Table 4.42 Effectof Gas Analysis on HeatTransfer
Flue Reformed gas
c 2 % v01 0, H20, % v01 Nz, % VOI 0 2 , % v01 CO, % v01 H?, % VOI CH4, % VOI Gas pressure, psia
5.0 38.0

gas
17.45 18.76 62.27 1.52

-

Temp,"F
C Btu/lb "F , p Ib/ft hr , k , Btu/ft hr "F Factor C" Factor F

9.0 45.0 3.0 400 1550 675 0.686 0.615 0.087 0.056 0.109 0.069 0.571 0.352

15 700 1540 0.320 0.286 0.109 0.070 0.046 0.028 0.225 0.142

pressure effect becomes smaller at high gas temperatures, while at low temperatures there is a significant difference. Also, the pressure effect is small and can be ignored to a gas pressure of up 200 psia.
4.63

Q: How do we convert gas analysis in % by weight to % by volume?

A

One of the frequent calculations performed by transfer heat engineers is the conversion from weight volume basis and vice to versa. The following example shows how this is done.

EXAMPLE A gas contains 3% CO2, 6% H20, 74% N2,and 17% O2 by weight. Determine the gas analysis in % by volume. Solution.

Heat Equipment Transfer

Design and Performance

347

Figure 4.23 Effect pressure of
(FromRef. 1.)

on

heat transfer-flow tubes. inside

348

Ganapathy

.

Figure 4.24 Effectofpressureonheattransfer-flowoutsidetubes.
(From Ref. 1.)

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
Gas
c02
% Weight

349

MW
44 18

Moles
0.068 18 0.3333 2.6429 0.5312 3.57563

% Volume

28 32

H20
N2
0 2

3 6 74 17

Total 100

1.91 9.32 73.91 14.86

Moles of a gas are obtained by dividing the weight by the molecular weight; moles of CO, = 3/44= 0.06818. The volume of each gas, then, is the mole fraction X 100. Percent volumeof 0 = (0.5312/3.57563) X 100 = 14.86, and , so on. One can work in reverse and convert from volume (or mole) basis to weight basis.

NOMENCLATURE
Surface area, ft2 fin, total, inside, and obstruction surface areas, ft2/ft Area of tube wall, ft2/ft Factor used in Grimson's correlation Fin thickness, in. Factor used to estimate heat transfer coefficient Specific heat, Btu/lb "F; subscripts g, W , m stand for gas, water, and mixture Factors usedin heat transfer and pressure drop calculations for finned tubes Exchanger diameter, in. Tube outer and inner diameter, in. Escalation factor used in life-cycling costing calculations; base of natural logarithm Efficiency of HRSG or fins Frequency, Hz or cps; subscripts Q, e, n stand for acoustic, vortex-shedding, and natural Fouling factor, ft2 hr OF/Btu; subscripts i and o stand for inside and outside

350

Ganapathy

F

hlf

hN

Ah i k

Nu NTU P
P w , Pc

Pr

Q
4
9c

R Re R, S

Factor used in the estimation of outside heat transfer coefficient and in the estimation of capitalized costs Gas mass velocity, Ib/ft2 hr Fin height, in. Convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F Heattransfercoefficientsinsideandoutside tubes, Btu/ft2 hr "F Heat loss factor, fraction Nonluminous heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F Change in enthalpy, Btu/lb Interest rate Thermal conductivity, Btu/ft hr "F or Btu in./ft2 hr "F; subscript m stands for mixture Metal thermal conductivity, Btu/ft hr "F Constants Length, ft; thickness of insulation, in.; or beam length Equivalent thickness of insulation, in. Factor used in Eq. (25b) Water equivalent, Btu/"F Weight of tube, lb/ft Molecular weight Number of fins per inch Constant used in Grimson's correlation; also number of tubes Nusselt number Number of transfer units Term used in temperature cross-correction Partial pressure of water vapor and carbon dioxide Prandtl number Energy transferred, Btu/hr; heat flux, Btu/ft2 hr Heat flux, heat loss, Btu/ft2 hr Critical heat flux, Btu/ft2 hr Thermal resistance,ft2 hr "F/Btu; subscripts i, 0 , and t stand for inside, outside, and total Reynolds number Metal thermal resistance, ft2 hr "F/Btu Fin clearance, in.; Strouhal number

Heat Equipment and Transfer Design Performance

351

t

tm

tsat

T
AT

U
V
vs

W

Transverse and longitudinal pitch, in. a, S, b, stand for Fluidtemperature,"F;subscripts ambient, surface, fin base Fin tip temperature, "F Metal temperature, "F Saturation temperature, "F Absolutetemperature, K or "R; subscripts g and W stand for gas and wall Log-mean temperature difference, "F Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/ft2 hr "F Fluid velocity, fVsec or ft/min Sonic velocity, ft/sec Fluid flow, Ib/hr;subscripts g, S, W stand for gas, steam, and water Flow per tube, Ib/hr Steam quality, fraction Volume fraction of gas Effectiveness factor , Emissivity of CO2 and HO Gas emissivity Emissivity correction term Fin effectiveness Viscosity, lb/ft hr; subscript m stands for mixture Fin efficiency gas density, Ibku ft wavelength, ft ratio of specific heats

REFERENCES
V. Ganapathy, Applied Transfer, Heat PennWell Books, Tulsa, Okla., 1982. 2. D.Q . Kern, ProcessHeatTransfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. 3. V. Ganapathy, Nomogram determines heat transfer coefficient for water flowing pipes or tubes, Power Engineering, July 1977, p. 69. 4. V. Ganapathy, Charts simplify spiral finned tube calculations, ChemicalEngineering, Apr. 25, 1977, p. 117.
1.

352

Ganapathy

5. V. Ganapathy,Estimatenonluminousradiationheattransfercoefficients, Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1981, p. 235. 6. V. Ganapathy, Evaluate the performance of waste heat boilers, ChemicalEngineering, Nov. 16, 1981, p. 291. 7. W. C. Turner and J. F. Malloy, Thermal Insulation Handbook,
8.

9. 10.
11.

12.
13.

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981, pp. 40-45. V. Ganapathy, Waste Heat Boiler Deskbook, Fairmont Press, Atlanta, 1991. ESCOA Corp., ESCOA FintubeManual, Tulsa,Okla., 1979. V. Ganapathy, Evaluate extended surfaces carefully,Hydrocarbon Processing, October 1990, p. 65. V. Ganapathy,Fouling-the silentheattransferthief, Hydrocarbon Processing, October 1992, p. 49. V. Ganapathy, HRSG temperature profiles guide energy recovery, Power, September 1988. W. Roshenow and J. P. Hartnett, Handbook o Heat Transfer, f McGraw-Hill,NewYork, 1972.

5
Fans, Pumps, and Steam Ttrrbines

5.01:

Determiningsteamratesinsteamturbines;actualandtheoreticalsteamrates;determiningsteamquantityrequiredto generate electricity; calculating enthalpyof steam after isentropic and actual expansion its advantages

5.02a:Cogenerationand

5.02b: Comparison energy of utilization betweencogeneration a plant and a power plant 5.03: Which is the better location boiler or turbine? for tapping deaeration steam,

5.04:

Determiningfanpowerrequirementsandcost of operation; calculating BHP (brake horsepower) of fans;actualhorsepower consumed if motor efficiency is known; annual cost of operation of fan
353

354

Ganapathy

5.05:

Effect of elevationand air density onfanperformance of air andselectionoffancapacity

5.06a:Density

5.06b: How fan horsepower varies with densityfor forced draft fans 5.07: Determining power requirements of pumps

5.08:Electricandsteamturbinedrives for pumps;annualcost of operation using steam turbine drive; annual cost operation of with motor 5.09a: How specificgravity of liquidaffectspumpperformance; BHP required at different temperatures
5.09b: Howwatertemperatureaffectsboiler
feed pumppowerre-

quirements 5.10:Effect ofspeedonpumpperformance;effectofchangein supply frequency 5.1 1: Effect of viscosity onpump flow, head, and efficiency

5.12:Determiningtemperatureriseofliquidsthroughpumps

5.13:

Estimatingminimumrecirculationflowthroughpumps

5.14:Netpositivesuctionhead(NPSH)anditsdetermination
5.15:

Effect of suction pump conditions on NPSH) NPSH, (required NPSH)

NPSH, (available for centrifugal pumps

5.16: Estimating 5.17: Determining 5.18:

NPSH, for reciprocating pumps

Checking performance of pumpsfrommotorreadings;relat-

Fans, Pumps, and Turbines Steam

355

ing motor current consumption to pump flow and head; analyzing for pump problems
5.19: 5.20: 5.21: 5.22:

Checking performanceof fan from motor data; relating motor current consumption to fan flow and head Evaluating performance of pumps in series and in parallel Parameters affecting Brayton cycle efficiency How to improve the efficiency of Brayton cycle

5.01

Q:

How is the steamrate for steamturbinesdetermined? The actual steam rate (ASR) for a turbine is given by the equation

A

where ASR is the actual steam rate in lb/kWh. This is the steam flow in Ib/hr required to generate 1 kW of electricity. hl is the steam enthalpy at inlet to turbine, Btu/lb, and h, is the steam enthalpy at turbine exhaust pressure if the expansion is assumed to be isentropic, Btu/lb. That is, the entropy is the same at inlet condition and at exit. Given hl, h, can be obtained either from the Mollierchart or by calculation using steam table data the (see Appendix). q, is the efficiency of the turbine, expressed as a fraction. Typically, qt ranges from 0.65 to 0.80. Anotherwayto estimate ASR is to usepublished data on turbine theoretical steam rates (TSRs) (see Table 5.1).

h1 - h, TSR divided by qt gives ASR. The following example shows how the steam rate can be used to find required steam flow.

TSR =

3413

356

Ganapathy
for SteamTurbinesat

Table 5.1 TheoreticalSteamRates

Some CommonConditions(Ib/kWh)

Inlet
200 psig, 200 psig, 825"F, 825°F. 750"F, 750°F. 500"F,

400 psig,

600 psig,

600 psig.

850 psig,

150 psig, 61"F, Exhaust 388"F, 302°F.94°F. 366"F, 2 in. Hg 4 in. Hg 0 psig 10.52 11.76 19.37 23.96 33.6 46.0 53.9 63.5 69.3

pressure superheatsuperheat saturated superheat saturated superheat superheat
10.01 11.12 17.51 21.09 28.05 36.0 40.4 45.6 48.5

IO psig
30 psig 50 psig

60 psig 70 psig 75 psig Source: R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton. Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 51h ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974,
pp.

9.07 10.00 15.16 17.90 22.94 28.20 31.10 34.1 35.8

7.37 7.99 11.20 12.72 15.23 17.57 18.75 19.96 20.59

7.09 7.65 10.40 11.64 13.62 15.36 16.19 17.00 17.40

6.77 7.28 9.82 10.96 12.75 14.31 15.05 15.79 16.17

6.58 7.06 9.31 10.29 1 l .80 13.07 13.66 14.22 14.50

18-20.

EXAMPLE How many lb/hr of superheated steam at 1000 psia, 900°F, is required to generate 7500 kW in a steam turbineif the back pressure is 200 psia andthe overall efficiencyof the turbine generator system is 70%? Solution. From the steam tables, at 1000 psia, 900"F,hl = 1448.2Btu/lb and entropy sI = 1.6121 Btu/lb "F. At 200 psia, corresponding to the same entropy, wemustcalculate h, by interpolation. We can note that steam is in superheated condition. h, = 1257.7 Btu/lb.Then

3 13 4 = 25.6 lb/kWh 0.70 X (1448 - 1257.7) Hence, to generate 7500 kW, the steam flow required is W, = 25.6 X 7500 = 192,000lb/hr
ASR =

5.02~1 Q: What is cogeneration? How does it improve the efficiency of the
plant?

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

357

Fuel

Power

Figure 5.1 Cogeneration produces power and steam from the same fuel
source by converting the turbine exhaust heat in a boiler, which produces steam for process.

A

Cogeneration is thetermused for simultaneousgeneration of power and process steam from single full source, as in a system a of gas turbine and process waste heat boiler, wherein the gas turbine generates electricityandtheboilergeneratessteam for process (see Figure 5.1). In a typical power plant that operates at 35 to 43% overall efficiency, the steam pressure in condenser is about 2 to 4 in. the Hg. A lot of energy is wasted in the cooling water, which condenses the steam in the condenser. If, instead, the steam is generated at a high pressure and expanded in a steam turbine to the process steam pressure, we can use the steam for process, and electricity is also generated. full A credit for the process steam can be given if the steam is usedhence the improvementinoverallenergyutilization.Q5.02b explains this in detail.

5.02b

Q: 50,000 Ib/hrofsuperheatedsteamat

1000 psiaand 900°F is available in a process plant. One alternative is to expand this in a

358

Ganapathy

steam turbine to 200 psia and usethe 200-psia steam for process (cogeneration). Another alternative is to expand the superheated steam in a steam turbine to l psia, generating electricity alone in a power plant. Evaluate each scheme.

A: Scheme I . The steam conditionsare as in Q5.01, so let us use the
data on enthalpy. Assume that turbine efficiencyis 70%. The the electricity produced can be written as follows using Eq. (1):
h 1

P

= W,rlr

x

- h2s 3413

P is inkilowatts. h, = 1448 Btu/lband h, = 1257.7 Btu/lb, from Q5.01. Substituting in Eq. (3), we have OS7O - = 1954 k W 341 3 Now let us calculate the final enthalpy at condition 2, h2. Using the equation
P = 50,000 X (1448
X

- 1257.7)

qr(h - ha) = h, - h2

(4)

we obtain 0.70 X (1448 - 1257.7) = 1448 - h2 or
h2 = 1315 Btu/lb

This enthalpy is available for process in the cogeneration mode. The energy Q available is the cogeneration mode is the sum of the electricity produced and the energy to process, all in Btu/hr. Hence the total energy is
Q = 1954 X 3413

+ 50,000 x 1315 = 72.4 X 106Btu/hr

Scheme 2. Let us takethe case when electricityalone is generated. Let us calculate the final steam conditions at a pressure of 1 psia. s, = 1.6121 = s At 1 psia, from the steam ., tables, at saturated conditions, sf = 0.1326 and se = 1.9782. sf and sg are entropies ofsaturatedliquidandvapor. Since the entropy sb is inbetween sf and sR, thesteamatisentropic conditions is wet. Let us estimate the quality x. From basics,

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines 0.1326(1 Hence
X

359

-

X)

+

1.9782~ 1.6121 =

= 0.80

The enthalpy corresponding to this condition is h = (1 - X)hf or h b = 0.80 X 1106

+ xh, + 0.2 X
- 900)
70 = 900 Btu/lb

(h, and h, are 70 and 1106 at 1 psia.) Using a turbine efficiency of 75%, from EQ. (3) we have

P

=

50,000 X (1448

X

OS7’ - = 6023 kW 3413

= 20.55 X IO6 Btu/hr

Hence we note that there is a lot of difference in the energy patternbetweenthetwo cases, with the cogenerationscheme using much more energy than that used in Scheme 2. Even if the steam in Scheme 1 were used for oil heating, the latent heat of 834 Btu/lb at 200 psia could be used. Total output = 1954 X 3413 50,000 X 834 = 48.3 X lo6 Btu/hr This is still more than output in the case of power generation the alone. Note, however, that if the plant electricity requirement were more than 2000 kW,Scheme 1 should have more steam availability, which means a bigger boiler should that be available. Evaluationof capitalinvestment is necessarybeforeaparticular scheme is chosen. However, it is clear that in cogeneration the utilization of energy is better.

+

5.03 Q: Which is a better location for tapping steam for deaeration in a cogeneration plant with an extraction turbine, the HRSG or the
steam turbine?

360

Ganapathy

A: When steam is taken for deaeration from the HRSG and not from
an extraction point in a steam turbine, there is a net loss to the system power output as the steam is throttled and not expanded to the lower deaerator pressure. Throttling is a mere wasteof energy, whereas steam generates power whileexpands to a lower it pressure. To illustrate, consider the following example.

EXAMPLE An HRSG generates 80,000 Ib/hr of steamat 620 psig and 650°F from 550,000 Ib/hr of turbine exhaust gases at 975°F. The steam is expanded in an extraction-condensing steam turbine. Figure 5.2 shows the two schemes. The condenser operates at 2.5 in. Hg abs. The deaerator is at 10psig. Blowdown losses = 2%. Neglecting flash steam and vent flow, we can show that when steam is taken for deaeration from the HRSG, 81,700 X 208 = 1700 X 28 + (80,000 - X) X 76 1319X

+

M

D -EARATOR M -"W TANK
H- m H
T-TURBINE

H

I

P -PUMP V -VALVE

M

Figure 5.2 Options for taking steam

for deaeration.

Steam Fans, and Pumps,

Turbines

36 I

where 208, 28, 76, and1319areenthalpiesoffeedwater at 240"F, makeup water at 60"F, condensate at 108"F, and steam at 620 psig, 650°F. The deaeration steamX = 8741 Ib/hr;use 8785 to account for losses. Now compute the actual steam rate (ASR) in the steam turbine (see Q5.01). It can be shown that ASR = 11.14 Ib/kWh at 70% expansion efficiency; hence power output of the turbine generator = 0.96 X (80,000 - 8785)/11.14 = 6137 kW, assuming 4% loss in the generator. Similarly, when steam is taken at 30 psia from the extraction point in the steam turbine, the enthalpy steam for deaeration is of 1140.6 Btu/lb. An energy balance around the deaerator shows 81,700 X 208 = 1140.6X 1700 X 28

+

+ (80,000 - X) X

76

Hence X = 10,250 Ibkr. Then ASR for expansion from 620 psig to 30 psia = 19 Ib/kWh and 11.14 for the remaining flow. The power output is
+

P = 0.96 X

( 10,250 19

80,000 - 10,250 11.14

) = 6528 kW

Thus a significant differencein power output can be seen. However, one has to review the costof extraction machine versus the straight condensing type and associated piping, valves, etc.

5.04 Q: A fan develops an 18-in. WC static head when the flow is 18,000
fan acfm and static efficiency of the is 75%. Determine the brake horsepower required, the horsepower consumed when the motor has an efficiency of 90%, and the annual cost of operation if electricity costs 5 cents/kWh and the annual period of operation is 7500 hr.

A

The power required when the flow is q acfm and the head is H, in. WCis BHP = q X

H W
6356~f

362

Ganapathy

where qf is the efficiency of the fan, fraction; in this case, qf = 0.75. The horsepower consumed is
Hp=

BHP ?m

where qm the motor efficiency, fraction. Substituting the data, is we have BHP = 18,000 X and
= 76 hp 0.9 The annual cost of operation will be 76 X 0.74 X 0.05 X 7500 = $21,261

18 0.75 X 6356

= 68 hp

HP =

68 -

(0.74 is the conversion factor from hp to kW.)
5.05

Q: A fandevelops 18,000 acfmat 18 in. WCwhen the ambient
conditions are 80°F and the elevation is 1000 ft (case 1). What are the flow and the head developed by the fan when the temperature is 60°F and the elevation is 5000 ft (case 2)?

A

The head developed by a fan would vary with densityas follows:

- - Hw2

PI P2 where p is the density, Iblcu ft, and the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to

(7)

any two ambient conditions. The flowq in acfm developed a fan would remain the same by for differentambientconditions;however,theflowinlblhr would vary as the density changes. Let us use Table 5.2 .for quick estimation ofdensityasa function of elevation and temperature. p = 0.07Wfactorfrom Table 5.2. At 80°F and 1000 ft. elevation,

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines
p = '
= 0.0707

363

lb/cu ft

At 60°F and 5000 ft,
p2=

0.075 11 = 0.0636 lb/cu ft .8

Substitution into Eq. (7) yields
18 0.0707

-

0.0636

Hw2

Hw2 = 16.1 in. W C In case 1 flow will be
18,000 X 0.0707
X 60 = 76,356

Ib/hr

and in case 2 the flow will be
18,000 X 0.0636 X 60 = 68,638 lb/hr

The exact operating point of the fan can be obtained after plotting the new H , versus q characteristic and notingthe point of intersection of the newcurve with the system resistancecurve.

5.ma
Q: Whyshould the capacityofforceddraft reviewed at the lowest density condition?
fans for boilersbe

A

For the same heat input to boilers, the air quantityrequiredin mass flow units(Ib/hr)remains the sameirrespective of the ambient conditions.
W = 60pq

where

W = mass flow, Ib/hr p = density, lb/cu ft q = volumetric flow, acfm Fans dischargeconstant volumetric flow at any density. Hence if the fan is sized to give a particular volumetric flow at the high-

Table 5.2 Temperature and Elevation Factors

1.29

1

1.32

I

1.34

I

1.36

I

1.39

1

1.42

I

1.44

I

1.47

I

1.50

I

1.53

I

1.55

500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850
900

950 lo00

1.81 1.91 2.00 2.09 2.19 2.28 2.38 2.47 2.57 2.66 2.76

1.84 1.94 2.04 2.13 2.23 2.32 2.42 2.52 2.61 2.71 2.81

1.88 1.98 2.07 2.17 2.27 2.37 2.46 2.56 .2.66 2.76 2.86

1.91 2.01 2.11 2.21 2.31 2.41 2.51 2.61 2.71 2.81 2.91

1.95 2.05 2.15 2.25 2.35 2.46 2.56 2.66 2.76 2.86 2.96

1.98 2.09 2.19 2.29 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.71 2.81 2.91 3.02

2.02 2.13 2.23 2.34 2.44 2.55 2.65 2.76 2.86 2.97 3.07

2.06 2.17 2.27 2.38 2.49 2.60 2.70 2.81 2.92 3.02 3.13

2.10 2.21 2.32 2.43 2.53 2.64 2.75 2.86 2.97 3.08 3.19

2.14 2.25 2.36 2.47 2.58 2.69 2.80 2.92 3.03 3.14 3.25

2.18 2.29 2.40 2.52 2.63 2.74 2.86 2.97 3.08 3.20 3.31

2.22 2.33 2.45 2.56 2.68 2.80 2.91 3.03 3.14 3.26 3.37

2.26 2.38 2.50 2.61 2.73 2.85 2.97 3.08 3.20 3.32 3.44

366

Ganapathy

density condition, the mass flow would decrease when density decreases as can be seen in the equation above. Hence the fan must be sizedto deliver the volumetric flow at lowest density the condition, in which case the output in lb/hr willbe higher at the higher density condition, which can be then controlled. p the Also, the gas pressure drop h in in. WC across wind box is proportional to W2/p. If the air density decreases as at hightemperature conditions, the pressure drop increases, because W remains unchanged for a given heat input. Considering the fact that H/p is a constant for a given fan, where H is the static head in in. WC, using the lowest p.ensures that the head available at, higher density will be larger.

5.Wb Q: How does the horsepower of aforceddraft heaters change with density?

fan for boilers or

A: Equation
BHP

(5) gives the fanhorsepower:
6356 qf

=

4Hw

Using the relation W = 60 q p we can rewrite the above as , BHP =
381,360 p q/

W Hw

For a boiler at a givenduty, the air flow in Ib/hr and the head in in. WC, H,,,, remain unchanged, and hence as the density decreases, the horsepower increases. This is yet another reason to if check the fan power at the lowest density condition. However, the application involves an uncontrolled that delivers a given fan volume of air at all densities, then the horsepower should be evaluated at the highest density case as the mass flow would be higher as well as the gas pressure drop.

5.07 Q: A triplex reciprocating pump is used for pumping 40 gpm (gallons per minute) water at 100°F. The suction pressure 4 psig of is

and Pumps, Fans,

367

and the discharge pressure is lo00 psig.Determine the BHP required.

A: Use the expression
BHP = q X where
q = flow, gpm
h = p h p

1715~~

differential pressure, psi

q = pump efficiency, fraction , ,

In the absence of data on pumps, use0.9for triplex and 0.92for quintuplex pumps. BHP = 40 X

'o O0 1715 X 0.90

= 2 . hp 58

A 30-hp motor can be used. The same expression can be used for centrifugal pumps. The efficiency can be obtained from the pump characteristic curve at the desired operating point.
5.08

Q:

A pump is required to develop 230 gpm of water at 60°F at a head of 970 ft. Its efficiency is 70%. There are two options for the drive: anelectric motor with an efficiency 90% or a steam of turbine drive with a mechanical efficiency of95%. Assume that the exhaust is used for process and not wasted. If electricity costs 50 mills/kWh,steam for the turbine is generated in a boiler with an efficiency 85% (HHV basis), and of fuel costs $3/MM Btu (HHV basis), determine the annual cost of operation of each drive if the plant operates for 6000 hr/year.

A: Anotherformof
BHP = W X

Eq. (8) is

H
1,98O,OOOq,,

368

Ganapathy

where

W H

= =

flow, lb/hr head developed by the pump, ft of liquid

For relating head inft with differential pressure in psi flow in or lb/hr with gpm, refer to Ql.01. Substituting into Eq. (9) and assumingthat S = 1, W = 230 X 500 lb/hr, BHP = 230
X

500 X

0.70

970
X

1,980,000

=

81hp

The annual cost of operation with an electric motor drive will be 6000 = $20,142 0.90 (0.746 is the conversion factor from hp to kW.) If steam is used, the annual cost of operation will be 81 x 0.746 x 0.05 x

x 2545 x 6000 x

0.85 x 0.90 x lo6

3

=

$4595

(2545 B t u h = 1 hp; 0.85 is the boiler efficiency; 0.95 is the mechanical efficiency.) Hence the savings in cost operation is of (20,142 - 4545) = $15,547/year. Depending on the difference in investment between the two drives, payback can be worked out. In the calculation above it was assumed thatthe back-pressure steam was used process. for If it was wasted, the economics may not work the same way. out

5.ma Q: How does the specific gravity or density of liquid pumped affect
the BHP, flow, and head developed?

A

A pumpalways delivers thesameflowingpm(assumingthat viscosity effects can be neglected) and head in feet of liquid at any temperature. However, due to changes in density, the flow in lb/hr, pressure in psi, and BHP would change. A variation of Eq. (9) is BHP = q X h p = w x h p 1715qp 857,000qps

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines where
W = liquid flow, lb/hr
S

369

q = liquid flow, gpm

AP
Also,

= specific gravity = pressure developed, psi H = head developed, ft of liquid

H = 2.31 X

S

EXAMPLE If a pump can develop 1000 gpmof water at 40°F through 1000 ft, what flow and head canit develop when the water is at 120"F? Assume that pump efficiency is 75% in both cases. Solution. S, at 40°F (from the steam tables; see the Appendix) is 1. s2 at 120°F is 0.988.

AP,

= 1000 x

l - = 433 psi 2.31 433
X

From Eq. ( l l ) ,
=

O x 0.75 ' o 0

1715

= 337 hp

W, = 500q,s, = 500 X 1000 X l = 500,000 Ib/hr

At 120"F,

=

OOx '0

427 0.75 X 1715

=

332hp

W = 500 X 0.988 X lo00 = 494,000 Ib/hr ,

If the same W is to be maintained, BHP must increase.

5.Wb

Q: How does the temperature of water affect pump power consumption?

370

Ganapathy

A: The answer can be obtained by analyzing the following equations
for pump power consumption. Oneis based on flow in gpm and the other in lb/hr. BHP = where flow, gpm H head, ft of water S = specific gravity qp = efficiency
= =

3960qp

QHs

Q

In boilers, one would like to maintain a constant flow in Ib/hr, not in gpm, and at a particular pressure in psi. The relationships are
Q =

W 500s

and

H

= 2.31 x

h p S

where
W = flow, Ib/hr

AP = pump differential, psi
Substituting these terms into (l), we have BHP = W X

AP
857,000r)ps

As S decreases with temperature, BHP will increase if we want to maintain the flow in Ib/hr and head pressure in psi. However, or if the flow in gpm and head inft should be maintained, thenthe BHP will decrease with a decrease in which in turn is lower at S, lower temperatures. A similar analogy can be drawn with fans in boiler plants, which require acertain amount of air in Ib/hr for combustion and a particular head in in. WC.
5.10

Q: A centrifugal pump delivers 100 gpmat 155 ft ofwaterwitha
60-Hz supply. If the electric supply is changed to 50 Hz, how will the pump perform?

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines apply:

37 I

A: For variations in speed or impeller size, the following equations

where

H N

q = pump flow, gpm = head developed, ft = speed, rpm

Use of Eq. (14) gives us the head and the flow characteristics of a pump at different speeds. However, to get the actual operating point, one must plot the new head versus flow curve and note the point of intersection of thiscurvewiththesystemresistance curve. In the case above,
42

= 100 X

H2 = 155 X

(%r
60

50 -

= 83

gpm

= 107 ft

In this fashion, the new H versus 4 curve can be obtained. The new operating point can then be found.
5.11

Q: How does the performance of a pump change with the viscosity of the fluids pumped?

A: The Hydraulic Institute has published charts that give correction
factors for head, flow, and efficiency for viscous fluids when the performance with water is known (see Figures 5.3a and 5.3b). EXAMPLE A pump delivers 750 gpm at 100 ft head when water is pumped. What is the performance when it pumps oil with viscosity 1000 SSU? Assume that efficiency with water is 82%. Solution. In Figure 5.3b, go up from capacity 750 gpm to cut 0 the head line at 1 0 ft and move horizontally to cut viscosity at IO00 SSU; move up to cut the various correction factors.

372

Ganapathy

10)

CAPACITY-GALLONS PERMINUTE

Figure 5.3 (a) Viscosity corrections. (b) Determination of pump performance when handlingviscous liquids. [Courtesy of Hydraulic InstitutelGould Pump Manual.]

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

373

(b)

CAPACITY

IN 100 GPM

374

Ganapathy

C ,

= 0.94,

C, = 0.92,

C = 0.64 ,

Hence the new data are
q = 0.94 X 750 = 705 gpm H = 0.92 X 100 = 92 ft q = 0.64 X 82 = 52% ,

The new H versus q data can be plotted for various flows to obtain the characteristic curve. The operating point can be obtained by noting the point of intersection of system resistance curve with the H versus q curve. C,,C,, and C are correction , factors for flow, head, and.efficiency.

5.12 Q: What is the temperature rise of water when a pump delivers 10 0 gpm at loo0 ft at an efficiency of 60%?

A

The temperature rise of fluids through the pump is an important factor in pump maintenance and performance considerations and must be limited. The recirculation valveused toensure that the is desired flow goes through pump at low load conditions of the the plant, thus cooling it. From energy balance, the friction losses are equated to the energy absorbed by the fluid.
AT = (BHP - theoreticalpower) X 2545

WC,

where
AT BHP W C ,
= temperature rise of the fluid, "F = brakehorsepower
= =

flow of the fluid, lbhr specific heat of the fluid, Btu/lb "F

For water, C = 1. , FromEq. (g),
BHP = W X H
q X 3600 X 550 ,

and Pumps, Fans,

Turbines

375

where qp is the pump efficiency, fraction. Substituting into Eqs. (15a) and (9) and simplifying, we have

A T = H x

l/qp - l

778
-qp

(1 5b)
= 0.6, then

If H = 100 ft of water and

AT = 1000 X
5.13

1.66

778

-

1

= 1°F

Q:

How is the minimumrecirculationflowthroughacentrifugal pump determined? Let us illustrate this with the case of a pump whose characteristics are as shown in Figure5.4. We need to plot the AT versus Q characteristicsfirst. Notice that at low flows when efficiency the
PUMPING TEMPERATURE:250°F SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.943

A

."

CAPACITY (GPM)

Figure 5.4 Typical characteristic curveof a multistage pump also showing temperature rise versus capacity.

376

Ganapathy

is low, we can eirpect a large temperaturerise. At 100 gpm, for example,
qp = 0.23

and

H

= 2150 ft

Then
AT = 2150 X

1/0.23 - 1 778

=

In a similar fashion, AT is estimated at various flows. Note that AT is higher at low flows due to the low efficiency and also because of the lesser cooling capacity. The maximum temperature rise is generally limited to about 2OoF, depending on the recommendations of the pump manufacturer. This means that at least gpm must be circulated through 40 the pump in this case. If the load is only 30 gpm, then depending on the recirculationcontrol logic, 70 to 10 gpm couldbe recirculated through the pump.
5.14

Q: What is net positive suction head (NPSH), and how is it calculated?

A: The NPSH is the net positive suction head in feet absolute deter-

mined at the pump suction after accounting for suction piping losses (friction) and vapor pressure. NPSH helps one to check if is there is apossibility of cavitation at pump suction. This likely when the liquid vaporizes or flashes due to low local pressure andcollapsesatthepumpassoonasthepressureincreases. NPSH determined from pump layout in this manner is NPSH, (NPSH available). This will vary depending on pump location as shown in Figure 5.5. NPSH, (NPSH required) is the positive head in feet absolute required to overcome the pressure drop due to fluid flow from th pump suction to the eye of the impeller and maintain the liquid above its vapor pressure. NPSH, varies with pump speed and capacity. Pump suppliers generally provide this information.

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines
SUCTION SUPPLY OPEN TO ATMOSPHERE -wilh Sucllon Ufl
4b SUCTION SUPPLY OPEN TO ATMOSPHERE -with Suction Haad

377

LW

NPSHA

-

P m

+ LW -W + h,)

4d CLOSED SUCTION SUPPLY "With Sucllon Head

-Pressure on surlace 01 liquld In cl& 8ucIIonlank. In Ieet absolute. Maxlmum slalic auction IlH In Isol. LH Minlmum slatlc SucIIon head In foeL h, Fliction loai) In leet In suclion plpe at requlrod capaclty

P

L ,

-

Figure 5.5 Calculation of system NPSH available for typicalsuction conditions.
NPSH, can be determined by a gauge reading at pump tion: NPSH, = PS - VP +- PG where
VH PG VP ' P
= velocity head atthegauge
= = =

suc(16)

+ VH

connection, ft pressuregaugereading,converted to feet vaporpressure, ft absolute barometricpressure,ft (if suction is atmospheric)
be greater than NPSH,.

To avoid cavitation, NPSH, must

378

Ganapathy

5.15 Q: Does the pumpsuctionpressurechange

NPSH,?

A. NPSH, is given by
NPSH, = P, where

+H

- VP - HI

P, = suction pressure, ft of liquid
H = headof liquid, ft VP = vapor pressure of the liquid at operating temperature, ft Hf = friction loss in the suction line, ft For saturated liquids, VP = P,, so changes in suction pressure do not significantly change NPSH,.
EXAMPLE

Determine theNPSH, for the system shownin Figure 5.5b when H = 10 ft, H, = 3 ft, and VP = 0.4 psia(from the steam tables). Assume that the water has a density of 62 lb/cu ft. Solution. 144 VP = 0.4 X - = 0.93 ft
62

Suction pressure NPSH, = 33.9

= 14.6

psia = 14.6 X

- = 33.9 ft 62

166

-

3 - 0.93

+

10 = 40 ft

5.16

Q: In the absence of informationfromthepump
estimate NPSH,?

suppler, can we

A

A good estimate of NPSH, can be made from the expression for specific speed S.
S = N X

NPSH;.l5

G

S ranges from 7000 to 12,000 for water.

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

379

For example, when q = 100 gpm, N = 1770, and assuming that S = 10,000 for water,

NPSH, = 1770 X Even if we took a conservative value 7000 for S, we would get of NPSH, = 3.43 ft This information can be used in making preliminary layouts for systems involving pumps.

5.17

Q: How is NPSH, for a reciprocatingpump amved at?

A

NPSH, for a reciprocating pump is calculated the same way as in for a centrifugal pump except that the acceleration head H, is included with the friction losses. This is the head required to accelerate the liquid column each suction strokeso that there on will be no separation of this column inthe pump suctionline or in the pump [l]:

H, =
where

W C -

K*

L

= length of the suction line, ft (actual length, not

developed) V = velocity in the suction N = pump speed, rpm

line, ft/sec

C is a constant: 0.066 for triplex pump, 0.04 for quintuplex, and

0.2 for duplex pumps.K is a factor: 2.5 for hot oil, 2.0 for most hydrocarbons, 1.5 for water, and 1.4 for deaerated water. g = 32 ft/sec2. Pulsationdampenersareusedtoreduce L significantly. By proper selection, L can be reduced to nearly zero. EXAMPLE A triplex pump running at 360 rpm and displacing gpm has a 36 3-in. suction line 8 ft long and a 2-in. line 18 ft long. Estimate the acceleration head required.

380

Ganapathy

Solution. First obtain the velocity of water in each part of the line. In the 3-in. line, which has an inner diameter of 3.068 in.,

36 = 1.57 ft/sec (3.068)2 In the 2-in. line having an inner diameter of 2.067 in.,
V = 0.41
= 0.41 x

4 di

V = 0.41 X

36 = 3.45 ft/sec (2.067)2 the 3-in. line is 0.066 1.4 X 32 0.066 1.4 X 32
=

The acceleration head in

H, = 8

X 360 X 1.57 X

6.7 ft

In the 2-in. line,
H, = 18 X 3.45 X 360 X
=

32.9 ft

Thetotalaccelerationhead
5.18

is 32.9

+ 6.7 = 39.6 ft.

Q: How can we check the performance of a pump from the motor
data?

A: A good estimate of theefficiency of apump or afancan be
obtained from the current reading if we make a few reasonable assumptions. The efficiency of a motoris more predictable than that of a pump due to its small variations with duty. The pump differential pressure and flow can be obtained rather easily and accurately. By relating the power consumed by the pump with that delivered by the motor, the following can be derived. The pump power consumption, P , in kW from Eq. ( 8 ) is P = 0.00043q X Motor power
q
h p -

TP

output = 0.001732EZ cos

+7 1 ,

(21) (22)

Equating Eqs. (20) and (21) and simplifying, we have

AP

=

4EI cos

+ qpqm

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

38 I

where
q = flow, gpm
h = p

E I qp,q m cos 4

= = = =

differential pressure, psi voltage, V current, A efficiency of pump and motor, fraction power factor

From Eq. (22) we can solvefor pump efficiency given the other variables. Alternatively, we can solve for the flow by making a reasonable estimate of qpand check whether the flow reading is good. The power factor cos 4 typically varies between 0.8 and 0.9, and the motor efficiency between 0.90 and 0.95. EXAMPLE A plant engineer observes that at a 90-gpm flow of water and lo00 psi differential, the motor current 100 A. Assuming that is 0.85, andthemotor thevoltage is 460 V, thepowerfactoris efficiency is 0.90, estimate the pump efficiency. Solution. Substituting the data in Q. (22), weobtain 90 X lo00 = 4 X 460 X 100 X 0.85 X 0.90 X qp Solving for qp, we have qp = 0.65. We can use this figure check if something is wrong with the to system. For instance,if the pump has been operating at this flow for some time but the current drawn is more, one can infer that themachineneedsattention.Onecanalsocheckthepump efficiency from its characteristic curve and compare the calculated and predicted efficiencies.
5.19

.

Q: Deriveanexpressionsimilar
A

to (22) relatingfanandmotor.

Equating the power consumption of a fan with that delivered by its motor,

P

= 1.17 X

X q H , = 0.001732EI cos

+ qm (23)

382

Ganapathy

where
q = flow, acfm H , = static headof fan, in. WC

Other terms are as in Q5.18. If theefficiencyofafan is assumedtobe 65% when its differential head is 4 in. WC, themotorvoltage is 460, the factor is 0.8 andthemotor current is 7 A, thenthepower efficiency is 85%. Solving for q, we have
1.17 X
X 0.80 X 0.85 X 0.65 X q X 4 = 0.001732 X 460 X 7

or
q = 5267 acfm

One can check from the fan curve whether the flow is reasonable. Alternatively, if the flow is known, one can check the head from Eq. (23) and compare it with the measured value. If the measured head is lower, for example, we can infer that something is wrong with fan or its drive or that the flow measured the is not correct.

5.20 Q: How is the performance of pumps in evaluated?

series and in

parallel

A: Forparalleloperationoftwo

or morepumps, the combined performance curve ( H versus q ) is obtained by adding horizontally the capacities of the same heads. For series operation, the combined performancecurve is obtained by adding vertically the heads at the same capacities. The operating point the intersection of the combined perforis mance curve with the system resistance curve. Figure 5.6 explains this. Head and floware shown as percentages [2]. ABC is the H versus q curve for a single pump, DEF is the H versus q curve for two such pumps in series, and AGH is the H versus q curve for two such pumps in parallel.To obtain the curve DEF,

Pumps, Fans, Steamand

Turbines

383

Figure 5.6 Series and parallel operationsof pumps with flat head capacity curves.[Courtesy of KarassikCentrifugalPumpClinic,MarcelDekker

Inc.,NewYork.]

H we add the heads at a given flow. For example, at q = lo%, with one pump is loo%, and with two pumps H will be 200%. Similarly, AGH is obtained by adding flows at a given head. At H = 100, q for twopumpswillbe 200%. Let the system resistance curve be KBGE. When one pump alone operates, the operating point is B . Withtwopumps in series, E is the operating point. With two pumps in parallel, is G the operating point. BHP curves also have been plotted and revealthat with series operation, BHP = 250% andwithpumpsinparallelBHP = 164%, indicating that BHP/q is larger in series operation than in parallel. This varies with pump and system resistance characteristics.' NPSH, also increases with pump capacity. Note that if the full capacity of the plant were handledby two 'pumps in parallel, and tripped, the operating BHP would not one be 50% of that with two pumps, but more, depending on the

384

Ganapathy

nature ofthe H versus q curve and the system resistancecurve. In the case above, with KBGE as the system resistance, G is the two operating point with pumps, and if one trips, B would be the operating point. BHP at G is 142%, while at B it is 100% (see the inset of Figure 5.6). Hence in sizing drives for pumpsin parallel, this fact must be taken into account. It is a good idea to check if the pump has an adequately sized drive. A similar procedure can be adopted for determining the performance of fans in series and in parallel and for sizing drives.

5.21 Q: DeterminetheparametersaffectingtheefficiencyofBrayton cycle [3].

A

Figure 5.7a shows a simple reversible Brayton cycle used in gas turbineplants.Air is takenata'temperature TI absolute and compressed, and the temperature after compressionis T2. Heat is added in the combustor, raising gas temperature to T3;the hot the
3

S

S

Figure 5.7 Simple andregenerativeBrayton cycle.

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

385

gases expandto T4 in the turbine performing work. Following are some of the terms used to describe the performance. Thermal efficiency TE = where
Q4

Q,

Qr

Q, = heat added to cycle, Btdlb
Q, = heat rejected, Btullb

Q,
Qr

= C, (T3

= Cp (T4

- T2) - 7'1)
and

P2 = P3
Also,

P, = P4

where
p2 p3 pressure ratio = - = P I p4 k = ratio of gas specific heats C = gas specific heat, Btu/lb , TI to T4 = temperatures, "R Pl to P4 = pressures, psia Using the above, we can write

r

=

(29)

TE=1-

Qr Q,

T4 - T, T3 - T2

EXAMPLE A simple cycle takes in air at 80°F and 14.7 psia and compresses of it at constant entropy through a pressure ratio 4. The combus-

386

Ganapathy

tor raisesthe gas temperature to 1500°F. The heated air expands to 14.7 psia at constant entropy in the turbine. Assume k = 1.3 and C = 0.28. Find (1) compression work, W,; heat input to , (2) cycle, Q,; (3) expansion work, Q,; (4) thermal efficiency, TE. Solution. From ( 5 ) , T2 = (80 + 460) X 4(1.3-1)11.3 = 742"R Notethat 4('.3-1)11.3 1.375. Hence =

W, = , C

X (T2 -

TI)

=

0.28 X (742

- 540)

C Heat input to cycle = Q, = ' X (T3 - 7'') = 0.28 X (1500 460 - 742) = 341 Btdlb

= 56.6 Btu/lb

+

Expansion work Q, = 0.28 X (1960 - 1425) = 150 Btu/lb 150 - 56.6 = 0.273, or 27.3% TE= 34 1 Using Q. (30), TE = 1 - 1/1.375 = 0.273. Itcan be seenthat as the pressure ratio increases, TE increases. Alsoas inlet air temperature decreases, the efficiency increases. That is why some gas turbine suppliers install chillers or air coolers at the compressor inlet so that during summer months theturbineoutput does not fall offcompared to the winter months.

5.22

Q: How can tte: efficiency of

a simple Brayton cycle be improved?

A: One of the ways of improving the cycle efficiency is to utilize the
energy inthe exhaust gases (Figure 5.7b) and use it preheat the to air entering the'combustor. This is called regeneration. Assuming 100% regeneration, the exhaust gas at temperature T4 preheats air from T2 to T, while cooling to T6. The actual heat

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

387

rejected corresponds to a temperaturedrop of T6 - T I ,while the heat added corresponds to T3 - T,, and hence the cycle is more efficient. Assuming constant C,,,

-1 -

11

m

(as T61Tl = T,/T,, fromabove)

Ti

Hence

EXAMPLE Using the same data as above, compute the following for the ideal renerative cycle: (1) Work of compression, W,; (2) heat added to cycle; (3) heat addedto regenerator; (4) expansion work in turbine; (5) cycle efficiency. Solution. For the same inlet temperature and pressure ratio, W, = 56.6 and T2 = 742"R. Exhaust temperature from above = 1425"R = T,.
Heataddedinregenerator = C X (T, - T2) = 0.28 , X (1425 - 742) = 191.3 Btullb Heataddedincombustor = Q, = C X (T3 - Ts) ' = 0.28 X (1960 - 1425) = 150 Btullb Heatrejected = Q, = C, X (T6 - TI) = 0.28 X (742 - 540) = 56.6 Btu/lb

388

Ganapathy

Q m=1- L
Q,
Using (8),

= l -

56.6 - = 0.622, or 62.2% 150

m=1-

540

x

4(1.3-1)/1.3

=

1960

0.621, or 62.1%

It is interesting to note thatas the pressure ratio increases, the efficiency decreases. As the combustor temperature increases, the efficiency increases. However, it can be shown that the power output increases with increases in the pressure ratio; hence industrial gas turbines operate at a pressure ratio between9 to 18 and an inlet gas temperature of 1800 to 2200°F.

NOMENCLATURE
ASR BHP

c,, c,, c,
d

c,
E h

H
HP

H,
I k L

N
NPSH P
h p

Actual steam rate, Ib/kWh Brake horsepower, hp Factors correcting viscosity effects for flow, head, and efficiency Specific heat, Btu/lb "F Tube or pipe diameter, in.; subscript i stands for inner diameter Voltage Enthalpy, Btu/lb; subscripts f and g stand for saturated liquid and vapor Headdeveloped by pump, ft; subscript a stands for acceleration Horsepower Head developed by fan, in. WC Current, A Ratio of gas specific heats, C & Length, ft Speed of pump or fan, rpm Net positive suction head, ft; subscripts a and r stand for available and required Power, kW Differential pressure, psi

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines
4

389

Qm Q,
r
S

AT TE T TSR V W
W C

rl

P

Flow, gpm or acfm Heat added, rejected, Btu/lb Pressure ratio Specific gravity Entropy of saturated liquid and vapor, Btu/lb "R Specific speed Temperature rise, "F Thermal efficiency Temperature, "R Theoretical steam rate, Ib/kWh Velocity,ft/sec Flow, Ib/hr Work of compression, Btu/lb Efficiency, fraction; subscriptsf, m,p , and t stand for fan, motor, pump, and turbine Density, lbku ft

REFERENCES
Ingersoll Rand, CameronHydraulic Data, 16th ed., WoodcliffLake, N.J., 1981, p. 5.1. 2. I. Karassik, Centrifugal Pump Clinic, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981, p. 102. 3. PowerMagazine,PowerHandbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983.
1.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Appendix nbles

Table A1 Thermodynamic Properties Pressure Table Table A2 Thermodynamic Properties Temperature Table

of Dy Saturated Steamr of Dry Saturated Steam-

Table A3ThermodynamicPropertiesofSuperheatedSteam Table A4Enthalpy
of CompressedWater

Table A5 SpecificHeat,Viscosity,andThermalConductivity of Some Common Gases at Atmospheric Pressure Table A6 Specific Heat, Viscosity, and Thermal Conductivity of Air Flue Gas, and Gas Turbine Exhaust Gases Table A7Enthalpyof Gases

Table A8 CorrelationsforSuperheatedSteamProperties Table A9 Coefficients to Estimate Properties Steam with Equation of Dry, Saturated

39I

Table A1 Thermodynamic Roperties of Dry Saturated Stean+Pressm Table

Temp. T

~

AbS

Specific volume Sat. Iiquid

press..
psi.
1.t

t P --

Sat. vapor
he

Yf
0.01614 0.01623 0.01630 0.01636
0.01640

Sat. liquid hf 69.70 93.99 109.37 120.86 130.13 137.96 144.76 150.79 156.22 161.17 180.07 181.11 196.16 208.42 218.52 227.91 236.03 243.36 250.09 256.30 262.09 267.50 272.61 277.43 282.02 286.39 290.56 294.56 298.40 303.66

Evap.
we

Sat.
vapor

Sat.

Entropy Evap.
sfc

Internal energy
Sat.
vapor se

Abs

he

2.t 3.c 4.c
5s

6 . C 7.c 8C . 9.c 10 14.m 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 I10

101.74 126.01 141.48 152.97 162.24 170.06 176.85 182.86 188.28 193.21 212.00 213.03 227.96 240.07 250.33 259.28 267.25 274.44 281.01 287.07 292.71 297.97 302.92 307.60 312.03 316.25 320.27 324.12 327.81 334.77

0.01645 0.01649 0.01653 0.01656 0.01659 0.01672 0.01672 0.0 1683 0.01692 0.01701 0.01708 0.01715 0.01721 0.01727 0.01732 0.01738 0.01743 0.01748 0.01753 0.01757 0.01761 0.01766 0.01770 0.0 1774 0.01782

333.6 173.73 118.71 90.63 73.52 61.98 53.64 47.34 42.40 38.42 26.80 26.29 20.089 16.303 13.746 11.898 10.498 9.401 8.515 7.787 7.175 6.655 6.206 5.816 5.472 5.168 4.8% 4.652 4.432 4.049

1036.3 1022.2 1013.2 1006.4 1001.0 996.2 992. I 988.5 985.2 982.1 970.3 %9.7
960.1

1106.0 1116.2 1122.6 1127.3
1131.1

0.1326
0.1749 0.2008 0.2198 0.2347 0.2472 0.2581 0.2674 0.2759 0.2835 0.3120 0.3135 0.3356 0.3533 0.3680 0.3807 0.3919 0.4019 0.41 10 0.4193 0.4270 0.4342 040 .49 0.4472
0.4531

liquid $

Sat. liquid

rrf
69.70 93.98 109.36 120.85 130.12 137.94 144.74 150.77 156.19 161.14 180.02 181.06 1%. 10 208.34 218.73 227.80 235.90 243.22 249.93 256.12 261.90 267.29 272.38 277.19 28 I .76 286. I 1 290.27 294.25 298.08 305.80

Sat. vapor ue 1044.3 1051.9 1056.7 1060.2 1063.1 1065.4 1067.4 1069.2 1070.8 1072.2 1077.5 1077.8 1081.9 1085.1 1087.8 1090.1
1092.0

press.,
psi

E

P
1.O

952.1 945.3 939.2 933.7 928.6 924.0 919.6 915.5 911.6 907.9
904.5

901.1 807.8 894.7 891.7 888.8 883.2

1134.2 1136.9 1139.3 1141.4 1143.3 1150.4 1150.8 1156.3 1160.6 1164.1 1167.1 1169.7 1172.0 1174.1 1175.9 1177.6 1179.1 1180.6 1181.9 1183.1 1184.2 1185.3 1186.2 1187.2 1188.9

0.4587
0.1641

0.4692 0.4740 0.4832

1.8456 1.7451 1.6855 1.6427 1.6094 1.5820 1.5586 1.5383 I S203 I so41 I .4446 1.4415 1.3962 1.3606 1.3313 1.3063 1.2844 I .2650 1.2474 1.2316 1.2168 1.2032 1.1906 1.1787 1.1676 1.1571 1.1471 1.1376 1.1286 1.1117

I .9782 1.9200 I .8863 1.8625 1.8441 1.8292 1.8167 1.8057 1.7962 1.7876 I .7566 1.7549 1.7319 1.7139 1.6993 1.6870 1.6763 1.6669 1.6585 1.6509 1.6438 1.6374 1.6315 I .6Z9 1.6207 1.6158 1.6112 1.6068 1.6026 1.5948

2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10 14.696
15

1093.7 1095.3 1096.7 1097.9 1099.1 1100.2 1101.2 1102. I 1102.9 1103.7 1104.5 1105.2 1106.5

20 25 30 35 40 45
50

55 60 65 70 75 85 90 95 100 I0 1

3 a, 'D

a,

n

2
L.

G

-

341.25 0.01785 347.32 0.01796 140 353.02 0.01802 I50 358.42 0.01809 1 0 363.53 0.01815 6 170 3 8 4 0.01822 6.1 I80 373.06 0.01827 190 377.51 0.01833 8.9 200 3 1 7 0.01839 250 100.95 0.01865 300 117.33 0.01890 350 131.72 0.01913 400 144.59 0.0193 450 156.28 0.0195 6.1 500 1 7 0 0.0197 7.4 . 1 9 550 1 6 9 0 0 9 1 6 2 0.0201 8.1 600 9.0 650 1 4 9 0.0203 0.0 700 i 3 1 0.0205 750 i10.86 0.0207 1.3 800 1 8 2 0.0209 850 25.26 0.0210 i 1 9 0.0212 3.8 900 950 i 6 4 0.0214 3.3 i 4 6 0.0216 4.1 lo00 1 6 3 0.0220 5.1 I100 67.22 0.0223 1200 77.46 0.0227 I300 1400 87.10 0 0 3 .21 %2 . 3 0.0235 1500 2000 35.82 0.0257 68.13 0.0287 2500 95.36 0 0 4 3000 .36 3206.2 05.40 0.0503

120 I0 3

3.728 345 .5 3.220 3.015 2.834 2.675 2.532 2.404 228 .8 1.8438 I s433 1.3260 1.1613 1.0320 0.9278 0.8424 0.7698 0.7083 0.6554 0.6092 0.5687 0.5327 0.5006 0.4717 0.4456
0.4001

0.3619 0.3293 0.3012 0.2765 0 I878 . 0.1307 0.0858 0.0503

312.44 388 1.1 324.82 305 3.1 333.93 341.09 346.03 307 5.9 353 5.6 376.00 338 9.4 409.69 424.0 437.2 449.4 460.8 471.6 418 8. 491.5 500.8 509.7 518.3 566 2. 534.6 524 4. 557.4 571.7 585.4 587 9. 6 16 1. 617 7. 706 3. 825 0. 902.7

879 7. 879.9 868.2 836 6. 859.2 854.9 808 5. 846.8 843.0 851 2. 890 0. 794.2 780.5 767.4 755.0 731 4. 731.6 720.5 709.7 699.2 688.9 678.8 668.8 659.I 649.4 630.4 6 17 1. 593.2 574.7 563 5. 463.4 360.5 217.8 0

1190.4
11 1 7 9.

1193.0 19. 141 19. 151 1 I%.O 19. 169 1197.6 1198.4 1201.I 1202.8 1203.9 1204.5 1204.6 1204.4 1203.9 10. 232 1202.3 10. 212 1200.0 1198.6 1197.I 1195.4 1193.7 1191.8 18. 178 18. 134 1178.6 17. 134 1167.9 13. 151 1091.I 12. 003 902.7

i.96 i41 0.4995 0.6069 0.5138 0.5204 0.5266 0.5325 0.5381 0.5435 0.5675 0.5879 0.6056 0.6214 0.6356 0.6487 0.6608 0.6720 0.6826 0.6925 0.7019 0.7108 0.7194 0.7275 0.7355 0.7430 0.7575 0.77I I 0.7840 073 .% 0.8082 0.8619 0.9126 0.9731 108 .50

1.0962 101 .87 I .0682 1.0556 I .0436 I .0324 1.0217 101 .16 1.0018 0.9588 0.9225 0.8910 0.8630 0.8378 0.8147 0.7934 0.7734 0.7548 0.7371 0.7204 0.7045 0.6891 0.6744 0.6602 0.6467 0.6205 0.5956 0.5719 0.5491 0.5269 0.4230 0.3197 0.1885 0

I S878 1.5812 155 .71 1.so94 I s640 I3 9 0 1.5542 159 .47 1.5453 I S263 1.5104 1.4966 1.4844 1.4734 I .4634 1.4542 I .4454 147 .34 14% .2 142 .23 1.4153 I .N85
1.4020

135 .97 1.3897 1.3780 136 .67 1.3559 1.3454 135 .31 124 .89 1.2322 111 .65 108 .50

31 . 5 20 318.38 324.35 330.01 335.39 340.52 345.42 350.I5 354.68 375.14 392.79 408.45 422.6 435.5 447.6 458.8 469.4 479.4 488.8 598.0 506.6 515.0 531 2. 530.9 538.4 552.9 566.7 580.0 592.7 605.1 662.2 773 1. 783.4 872.9

1107.6 1108.6 1109.6I 105 1. 1111.2 1111.9 1 112.5 11. 131 11 1 . 37 1 115.8 11. 171 I180 1. 111 . 85 I11. 87 1118.6 I11. 82 11 1 . 77 11. 171 I11 . 63 11 1 . 54 1114.4 1113.3 11. 121 11 1 . 08 1109.4 1106.4 1103.0 1099.4 1095.4 1091.2 16. 056 13. 006 972.7 829 7.

120 10 3
140

> g
0

150 160 170 180 10 9 200 250 300 350
400

3 a

n X

3

8

450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850
900

950 lo00 1100 1200 1300
1400

1500

Zoo0
2500
3000 3206.2

W
W

(0

Source: Abridged from Joseph

H. K e n a n and FRdaicL G. Keyes. T h e d y m ' c Properties ofSrcam. John Wiley & Sons. Inc..

New York. 1'

394

Ganapathy

Appendix Tables

395

. . . . . .LIA-0
" " 4

0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 0 ~ 0 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

VI

E W?E? $;ggz g$$$$
VIVIVIWI-

~g~~~ 3 G g E g % g
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 c 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

o c

396

Ganapathy

f 2 : : : : : : p ? T% 2 F Z m q s~ . :. ~:. .: F: .: . : .: .: . ::. ::.:: . :. : :.: :.: .: . :: .: .: .: ~ g : : : : : : : : : : -PI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U 0
" "

: :

;u i d n; ;

. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
;id
G;, G;, G;, G;,

G>,

Gdd $2, G

Appendix Tables
397

Jzv)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . id
d id, i d ,
id,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
id,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

id,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

i d ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . . .. . . . . . . . . ..

. . . .. . . . . .. . . ..

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

id,

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

id,

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

~~

. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..

. . .. . . .. . .. . . ..

~~

id.

398

Ganapathy

gm$ N . - e a $ p ? ,mm - 2 , 62. 0 " 02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-*m
"mm

~

m y v )

""%

: . :. :. : :. :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: :. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

:. . . . .

:. : . . . . . . . . .

:. : . : . :. : . : . :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix Tables
399

8

Table A4 Enthalpy of Compressed Water
p (t Sat.)
t
V

0
U

580 (467.13) h
S

loo0 (544.75)
S V

V

U

h

U

h
542.38 2.99 20.94 70.68 120.40 170.32 220.61 271.46 323.15 375.98 430.47 487.5 499.4 515 1. 523.8 536.3
549.2 562.4 576.0 590.I 604.9 620.6 637.5

5

Sat.

32
50 100

150 200
250

300
350

400 450 500

.OM022 ,016024 .016130 .016343 .016635 .017003 .017453 .018000 .018668 .019503 .02m .02087 .02116 .02148 .02182 .02221 .02265 .02315

-.01

-.01

18.06
68.05

18.06
68.05

117.95 168.05 218.32 269.61 321.59 374.85 429.96 488.1 500.3 512.7 525.5 538.6 552.1 566.I 580.8

117.95
168.05

218.32 269.61 321.59 374.85 429.96 488.I 500.3 512.7 525.5 538.6 552.1
566.1

-.oooo3 0.3687 .I2963 .21504 .29402 .36777 .43732 SO359 -56740 .62970 .6919 .7#6 -7173 .7303 .7434 .7569 .7707 .7851

.019748 .015994 .015998 .016106 .01631 8 .016608 .016972 .017416 .017954 .018608 .019420
.02048 .02073 .02190 .02130 .02162 .02198 .02237 .02281 .02332 .02392

447.70 449.53 .oo 1.49 95 18.02 1 . 0 67.87 69.36 117.66 119.17 6.9 167.65 1 9 1 217.99 219.56 268.92 270.53 320.71 322.37 373.68 375.40 428.40 430.19
485.9 497.9 530. I 522.6 535.3 548.4 562.0 576.0 590.8
606.4

.64904

.m
.03599 .12932 .21457 .29341 .36702 .43641 SO249 .56604 .62798

538.39 .03 1.9 79 67.70 117.38 167.28 217.47 268.24 319.83 .018550 372.55 .019340 426.89 .02036 .02060 .02086 .02114 .02144
. -02177

.319 I251 .015%7 .015972 .016082 .O 16293 .O 16580 .016941 .017379 .017909

.i43 .Ooo
.035 .129 .214 .292 .366 .435

501
.564

.626

510 520 530 540
550 560 570 580 590 600 610

487.8 499.8 512.0 524.5 537.3
550.5 564.0

.68%
.7021 .7146 .72 73 .7402 .7532 .7666 .78# .7946 ,8096

483.5 495.6 507.6 519.9 532.4
545.I 558.3 571.8 585.9 600.6 616.2 632.9

.a
.695 .712 .724 .737 .749 ,763 .776 -789 .894 .818 .834

580.8

578.1 592.9 608.6

.02213 .02253 .02298 .02349 .02409 .02482

p (t Sat.)
t
V

1500 (596.39)
U

2000 (636.00)
S

2500 (668.31)
S
V

h

V

U

h

U

h

5

Sat.

32 50
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590

.023461 .015939 .015946 .016058 ,016268 .016554 .016910 .017343 .017865 .018493 .019264 .02024 .02048 .02072 .02099 .02127 .02158 .02191 .02228 .02269 .02314
.02366 .02426 .02498 .02590

604.97 611.48 4.47 .05 17.95 22.38 71.99 67.53 117.10 121.62 166.87 171.46 216.96 221.65 267.58 272.39 318.98 323.94 371 4 376.59 .5 425.44 430.79 481.8 487.4 493.4 499.1 511.0 505.3 523.1 517.3 529.6 535.5 548.1 542.1 554.9 561.0 568.0 574.2 581.6 5 7 9 8. 595.7 602.I
610.4 625.8 642.5 616.9 432.6 649.4 668.0

.SO824 .oooo7 .03584 .I2870 .21364 .29221 .36554 .43463 so034 .56343 .62470 .6853 .6974 .70% .7219 .7343 .7469 .7596 .7725 .7857 .7993
.8134 .a281 .a437 .a609

.025649 .O 1591 2 .O 15920 .016034 .016244 .016527 .016880 .O 17308 .017822 .018439 .019191 .02014 .02036 .02060 .02085 .02112 .02141 .02172 .02206 .02243 .02284 .02330 .02382 .02443 .02514
.02603 .02724

662.40 671.89 5.95 .06 23.81 1.1 79 67.37 73.30 116.83 122.84 166.49 172.60 216.46 222.70 266.93 273.33 318.15 324.74 370.38 377.21 424.04 431.14 479.8 487.3 491.4 498.9 503.1 510.7 514.9 522.6 527.0 534.8 539.2 547.2 551.8 559.8 564.6 572.8 577.8 586.I 591.3 599.8 605.4 620.0 635.4 651.9 669.8
690.3

.86Z7 .oooO8 .03575 .12839 .21318 .29162 .36482 .43376 .49929 .56216 .62313 .6832 .6953 .7073 .7195 .7317 .7440 .7565 .769I .7820 .795 1 .8066 .8225 3371 .8525
.a691

.028605 .015885 .015895 .016010 .016220 .016501 .016851 .017274 .O 17780 .018386 .019120

717.66 .08 17.88 67.20 116.56 1 6 11 6. 215.96 266.29 317.33 369.34 422.68 . 2 478.0 0w .02025 489.4 .02048 501.0 .02072 512.6 .02098 524.5 .02125 536.6 .02154 548.9 .02186 561.4 .0222 574.3 1 .02258 587.4

730.89 7.43 25.23 74.61 124.07 173.75 223.75 274.28 325.56 377.84 431.52 487.3 498.8 510.4 522.2 534.2 546.4 558.8 571.5 584.5 597.9 611.6 625.9 640.7 656.3 672.9 690.8 711.0
735.3

.9130

.oooo
.0356 ,1280 .2127 .2910 .3641 .4329 .4982
5609

.6216 .681? .693? 705 1 .7171 .7292 .7413 .7536 .7659 .7785 .7913 .8043 .8177 .8315 .8459 .8610 .8773 .8954 .9172

600 610 620
630

614.0 628.8
644.5

660.8

661.2
679.4 700.4

e E

640 650 660 670

.a881

.02300 .02346 .02399 .02459 .02530 .02616 .02729
.02895

610 0. 615.0 629.6 644.9 661.2 678.7 698.4
722.1

Table A5 Specific Heat, Viscosity, and Thermal Conductivity of Some Common Gases at Atmospheric Pressure"
Temp.
(OF)

CIJ

C r o dioxide abn P k
.a38

Water vapor
CP P

Nitrogen
k

c,
.2495 -2530 .2574 .2624 .2678 .2734 .2791 .2846 .2897 .2942

8 N
k
.0189 .0219 .0249 .0279 .0309 .0339 .0369 .0399 .0429
.0459

CL

~-

200

400
600 800 lo00 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

.2162 .2369 .2543 -2688 .2807 .2903 .2980 .3041 .3090 .3129

.0544 .0645 .0749 .0829 .0913
.0991

.I064 .1130 .1191

.0125 .0177 .0227 .0274 .0319 .0360 .O400 .0435 .0468
.0500

.4532 .4663 .4812 .4975 S147 S325 306 S684 357 .6019

.0315 .0411
.0506

.0597 .0687 .0773 .0858 .0939 .0119 .lo95

,0134 .0197 .0261 .0326 .0393 .0462 .0532 .0604 .0678 -0753

.0518

.0608
.0694 -0776 .OW4 0927 .0996 .lo61 .1122 .1178

Oxygen Temp. ("F)
200 400 600 800 lo00 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
CD
CL
~

SuIfur dioxide

Hydrogen chloride

k
.OI86 .0229 .0272 .03 I3 -0352 -0389

CD
~

P

k

CP

P

k
.0113 .0143 .0175 .0209 .0245 .0283 .0327 .0364 .0407 .0452

.2250 .2332 .2w -2468 .2523 .2570 .2611 .2647 .2678 .2705

.0604 .0716 .0823 .0924 .I021 '.I111 .I197 .I278 .I353 .1423

.1578
-1704

.0386 .a93
.0595

.7 w4

.om

.0425
.0460 -0492 .0523

.1806 .1887 .I950 .I997 .2030 .2054 .2069 .2079

,0692 .0784 .087 1
.0954

.I030
.1103

.1170

.0143 .0175 .0205 .0234 .0261 .0286 .0310 .0332

.1907 .1916 .I936 -1965 .2002 .2043 .2086 .2128 .2168 .2203

.0412 .0534
.0655

.0774 .0892 .loo9 .1124 -1239 -1351 .la3

5 Y

5

3 a ,

C, = gas specific heat, Btu/lb OF; p. = viscosity, Ib/ft

h , k = thermal conductivity, B#fi hr O . r F ' r m heat transfer considerations, the pressure effect becomes significant above 250 psig and at gas temperatures below 400°F. Fo

Table A6 Specific Heat, Viscosity, and Thermal Conductivity of Air, Flue G s and Gas Turbine Exhaust Gases a,
Air (dry) Temp.
(OF)

Flue gasa

Gas turbine exhaust gasesb

C P
.2439 .2485 .2587 .2696 -2800 -2887

P
.0537 .0632

k
.0188

C P
.2570 -2647 .2800 .2947 .3080 .3190

cr,

k

C P
0.2529 0.2584 0.2643 0.2705 0.2767

P
0.0517 0.0612 0.0702 0.0789 0.0870

k
0.0182 0.0218 0.0253 0.0287 0.0321

200 400
600

.0221 .0287 -0350 .0412 .0473

.0492 -0587 -0763 .0922 .I063 .1188

.0174 .0211 ,0286

800 lo00 1200 1600 2000
'%
b%

.0809
.0968 .1109 .1232

.0358 .0429 .0499

VO~ C02

= 212, H20 = 12, N2 = 70, 0 2 = 6. VOI COZ = 3, HZO = 7, N2 = 75, 0 2 = 15.

Ganapathy

Table A7 Enthalpy of Gases'
Temp. ("F)
~~ ~~

A

B

C

D

4.98 86.19 138.70 192.49 247.56

200 400 600 800 1000 1400 1800

.#

5 v01 %

Gas Type

CO2

H20

N Z
75 79
81

0 2

s2 o
9

A Gas turbine exhaust combustion B Sulfur C Flue gas 70 12 D Dry air
"Enthalpy in Btdlb at 60°F. Source: Computed with data from

-

3

-

12

-

7

1 5 10
21

-

6

Appendix Tables

Table A8 CorrelationsforSuperheatedSteamProperties
C] = c = , = c 3 c = 4 c = , c = 6 c = , c = , c 9 = Cl0 = c1 = 1

80,870/T2 (-2641.62lT) X lo'' 1.89 + C2 C3(P2/T2) 2 (372420/T2)

+

1.89 + c 6 0.21878T - 126,97O/T 2C6C7 - (C3/T)(126,970) 82.546 - 162,4601T 2c10C7- (C3/T)( 162,460) v = ([.('C,C4C, + C,,)(C,/P) + l]C3 4.55504 (T/P)}0.016018 H = 775.596 + 0.63296T + 0.000162467T2 47.3635 log T + O.O43557{C$' + 0.5C4[cll + C3(C,, + C9C4)]} S = I/T{[(C&S - 2C9)C,C4/2 - Cll]Cd/2 + (C3 - C7)P) X ("0.0241983) - 0.355579 - 11.4276/T + 0.00018052T - 0.253801logP 0.809691logT where P = pressure, atm T = temperature, K v = specific volume, ft3/lb H = enthalpy, Btu/lb S = entropy, Btu/lb "F

+

+

+

Ganapathy

Tdbk A9 Coefficients to EstimateProperties of Dry, SaturatedSteamwithEquation”

Y = AX
property Temperature, “F Liquid volume, specific ft’/Ib Vapor specific volume, ft3/lb 1-200 psia 200-1,500 psia Liquidenthalpy,Btu/lb Vaporizationenthalpy,Btu/lb Vaporenthalpy,Btullb Liquidentropy, Btdlb “R Vaporizationentropy, Btdlb “R Vapor entropy, Btu/lb “R Liquidinternalenergy,Btu/lb Vaporinternalenergy,Btu/lb
’y = property. x =

+ B/X + CP + D I n x +‘e F? + G +
A
B
3.83986 2.99461 X IO-’ 304.717614 457.5802 3.671404 1.3649844 2.258225 4.272688 X

C I I .48345
1.521874
X

-0. I7724
-5.280126 X IO” 2.662 X 10” -0.15115567 0.008676153 -0.14129 1.67772 X

-0.48799

-0.176959
I I .622558 -8.2137368 3.4014802 0.01048048
-7.33044 X 3.44201 X 1 1.632628 2.428354

9.8299035

-

-

3.454439 X IO-’ -1.476933 X IOb4 -0. I549439 0.0993951

-

-2.75287 X lo-’ 1.2617946 X IO-’ 3.662121 I .9396 I

pressure,psia.

Appendix Tables

Table A9
D
31.1311 6.62512 X IO-'
E
F
X

.
X

G

8.762969 8.408856

IO-'

X

-2.78794 1.86401 -1.363366 6.3181 -2.62306 9.763 -1.569916 -2.7592 7.433711 -2.4941 -2.646533 - 1.057475

IO-'

86.594
0.015%

X X X
X

- 16.455274
0.826862 30.832667 - 16.37649 14.438078 0.0580I509 -0.14263733 -0.06494128 30.82137 10.9818864

9.474745 X -4.601876 X IO-' 8.74117 X IO-' -4.3043 X 1 0 - 5 4.222624 X IO-' 9.101291 x lo-' -3.49366 6.89138 8.76248 2.737201
X X X X

IO-' IO-"
IO-'

19.53953 -2.3928 54.55
1,045.81 1,100.5
0.11801

X IO-9 X IO-'
X

IO-"

IO-'
IO-' IO-'

X
X

IO-'* IO-"
IO"'

X
X

1.85565 1.97364 54.56 1,040.03

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Bibliography

BOOKS Fuels and Combustion
Babcock 8z Wilcox, Steam, Its Generation and Use, 38th ed., New York,1978.
Combustion Engineering, Combustion-Fossil Power Systems, 3rd ed., Windsor, 198 1.

North American, Combustion Handbook, 2nd ed., Cleveland, Ohio, 1978. Spiers, H. M., Technical data onfuel, World Energy Conference, 6th ed., London,1970.

Fluid Flow, Valves, Pumps
ASME, Flow Meter Computation Handbook, New York, 1971. Crane Co., Flow of fluids, Technical Paper 410, New York, 1981. FisherControls Co., ControlValveHandbook, town, Iowa,1977. 2nd ed., Marshall44x3

410

Ganapathy

Fisher & Porter, Handbook o Flow f Meter 10B9000, Warminster, Penna.

Orifice Sizing, No.

Ingersoll Rand, Cameron Hydraulic Data, 16th ed., Woodcliff Lake, N.J., 1981. Karassik, I. J., Centrifugal Pump Clinic, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981. Marks, Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967. Masoneilan, Handbook for Control Valve Sizing, 3rd ed., Norwood, Mass.,1971. Miller, R. W. ,Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, McGrawHill, NewYork,1983. Perry, R. H., and C. H. Chilton, Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974.

Heat Transfer, Boilers, Heat Exchangers
ASME, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Secs. 1 and 8, New York, 1983. ASME/ANSI, Power Test Code, steam generating units, PTC 4.1, NewYork, 1974. Ganapathy, V., Applied Heat Transfer, PennWell Books, Okla.,1982. Tulsa,

Kern, D. Q.,Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. Roshenow, W. M., and J. P. Hartnett, Handbook o Heat Transfer, f McGraw-Hill,NewYork,1972. Taborek, Hewitt, and Afgan, Heat Exchangers, Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill,NewYork, 1981.
f TEMA, Standards o Tubular Exchangers ManufacturersAssociation, 6th ed., 1978.

Turner, W. C., and J. F. Malloy, Thermal Insulation Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York,1981. Ganapathy, V., Waste Heat Boiler Deskbook, Fairtnont Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1991.

Bibliograpy

411

Journals
Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York. Heating Piping and Air-conditioning, PentodIPC, Chicago. Heat Transfer Engineering, Hemisphere Publishing, New York.

Hydrocarbon Processing, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Tex.
Oil and Gas Journal, PennWell, Tulsa, Okla. Plant Engineering, TechnicalPublishing,Barrington, 11 1. Power, McGraw-Hill, New York. Power Engineering, Technical Publishing Co., Barrington, Ill. Process Engineering, MorganGrampian,London.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Glossary

Actual acfh cubic acfm Actual

feet per hour. cubic feet per term minute,used a to indicate the flow rate of gases, atanycondition of temperature and pressure. A scale adopted by American Petroleum Institute to indicate the specific gravity of a liquid. Water has a No. 2 fuel oil, about APIgravityof10"APIand 35 "API. American Boiler Manufacturers Association. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Actual steam rate, a term used indicate the actual to steamconsumption of steamturbinesinIb/kWh.
413

OAP1

ABMA ASME ASR

414

Ganapathy

BHP

Brakehorsepower, a termusedforpowerconsumption or rating of turbomachinery. This does not include the efficiency of the drive. British thermal unit, a term for measuring heat. Centipoise, a unit for measurementof absolute viscosity. Circulation ratio, a term used to indicate the ratio by weight of a mixture of steam and water to that of steam in the mixture. A CR of 4 means that 1 lb of steam-water mixture has 1/4 Ib of steam and the remainder water. Decibel, a unit for measuring noise or sound pressure levels. Decibel, scale A; a unit for measuring sound pressure levels corrected for frequency characteristics of the human ear. Feet per second, minute, and hour; units for measuring the velocity of fluids. Volumetric flow ratein gallons per minute or hour. Higherheatingvalueorgrossheatingvalueof fuels.

Btu C P CR

dB dBA

HRSG

Heat recovery steam generator. Inner diameter of tube or pipe.

ID
in. WC
kW

A unit to measure pressure gas streams,in inches of of water column.
Kilowatt, a unit of measurement of power.

Glossary

415

LHV

Lower heating value or net heating value of a fuel. Log-mean temperature difference. Logarithm to base e; natural logarithm. Logarithm to base Thousand Ib/hr Million Btu Molecular weight Oxides of nitrogen. Net positive suction head, a term used to indicate the effective head in feet of liquid column to avoid cavitation. Subscriptsr and a stand for required and available. Number of transfer units; a term used in heat changer design. Outer diameter of tube or pipe. Ounce. Ounces per square inch, a term for measuring fluid pressure. Parts per million by weight of volume. Pounds per square inch absolute, a term for indicating pressure. Pounds per square inch gauge, a termfor measuring pressure.
ex-

LMTD
In

1%
M lblhr MM Btu MW

10.

NO,
NPSH

NTU
OD
oz

ozi

PPm psia

416

Ganapathy

PWL RH

Sound power level, a term for indicating the noise generated by a source such as a fan or turbine. humidity. Relative Steam by volume by and weight in a steam-water mixture, terms used by boiler designers.

SBV, SBW

scfm, scfh Standard cubic per feet minute hour, or a unit for flow of gases at standard conditions temperature of and pressure, namely at 70°F and 29.92 in. Hg, or 14.696 psia. Sometimes 60°F and 14.696 psiais also used. The ratio scfm at 70°F to scfm 60°F of at is 1.019.

SPL

Soundpressure level, a unit of measurement of noise in decibels. Seconds, SayboltUniversal, a unit of kinematic viscosity of fluids. Saturated vapor pressure, pressurewater vapor in of a mixture of gases. Theoretical steam rate, a term indicating the theoretical consumption of steam to generate kilowatt a of electricity in a turbine in Ib/hr.

ssu
SVP TSR

Conversion Rctors

Metric to American, American Metric American to Metric
1 mm’ = 0.00155 in.’ = O.ooOo1076 ft2 I cm’ = 0.155 in.’ = 0.001076 ft2 1 m’ = 1550 in.’ = 10.76 ft2

to Metric, to American

AREA I in.’ = 645.2 mm’ = 6.452 cm’ = 0.0006452 m ’ 1 ft’ = 92,903mm’ = 929.03 cm’ = 0.0929 m2 l. acre = 43,560 ft’ I circular mil = 0.7854 square mil = 5.067 X 10”0m2 = 7.854 X 1OW6in.*

DENSITY and SPECIFIC GRAVITY I gkm’ = 0.03613 Iblin.’ = 62.43 Iblft’ 1 Ib/in.’ = 27.68 @cm3 = 27.680 kg/m’ = lo00 kg/m’ = I kglliter 1 Iblft’ = 0.0160 glcm’ = 16.02 kglm’ = 62.43 Ib/ft’ = 8.345 1blU.S.gal = 0.0160 kg/liter Specific gravity relative to water I pglrn’ = 136 graindft’ SGW of I .00 = 62.43Iblft’ at4”Cor 39.2 “F (for pollution) particulate I kg/m’ = 0.06243 Iblft’ Specific gravity relative to dry air SGAof 1 . 0 0 = 0.0765 Ib/ft’t = 1.225 kg/m3 l 1WU.S. gal = 7.481 Ib/ft’ = 0.1198 kg/liter 1 g/ft’ = 35.3 X IO6 pg/m3 I lb/Io00 ft’ = 1 X IOh pglm’ 6

‘62.35 Ib/Wat m, 15.6”C; 8.335 1blU.S.gal. t0.0763 Iblft’ for moist air.
417

418

Ganapathy
American to Metric, American to American
~~

Metric to American, Metric to Metric

ENERGY, HEAT, and WORK 3413 Btu = I k w h 1 cal = 0.003%8 Btu 1 kcal = 3.968 Btu = 1000cal = 4186 J 1 Btu = 0.2929 Whr = 252.0cal = 0.252kcal = 0.004186 MJ = 778 ft Ib I J = 0.000948Btu = 0.239 cal - l W sec = 1055 J = 0.001055 MJ = I N m = IO7 erg = IO7 dyncm 1 ft Ib = 0.1383 kg m = 1.356 J 1 W h = 660.6cal 1 hphr = 1.98 X IO6 ft Ib 1 them = 1.00 X I Btu d 1 BHP(boilerhorsepower) = 33,475Btu/hr .= 8439 kcalhr = 9.81 kW
1 callg = 1.80 Btu/lb = 4187Jlkg 1 cal/cm' = 112.4 Btu/ft3 1 kcal/m3 = 0.1124Btulft = 4187Jlm' 1 cal/g "C = 1 Btullb "F = 4187 J/kg K

'

HEAT CONTENT and SPECIFIC HEAT I Btu/lb = 0.5556 callg = 2326Jlkg I Btu/ft3 = 0.00890callcm' = 8.899kcallm3 = 0.0373 MJlm' l Btu/U.S. gal = 0.666 kcallliter 1 Btu/lb "F = l callg "C = 4187 Jlkg K

1 N.m/s = I W = I

HEAT FLOW, POWER 1 hp = 33 000 ft Ib/min = 550 ft Iblsec = 745.7 W = 745.7Jls = 0.001341hp = 0.7376 ft Ib/sec = 641.4kcallh 1 kcallh = 1.162 Jls = 1.162 W I Btuhr = 0.2522kcallh = 3.966 BNhr = 0.0003931 hp I kW = 1000Jls = 3413Btulhr hp= 1.341 = 0.2931 W = 0.2931 J/s

J/s

HEAT FLUX and HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT I cal/cm2*s= 3.687 Btu/ft2 sec I Btu/ft2 sec = 0.2713 callcm's = 41.87 kW/m2 I Btu/ft2 hr = 0.003 153 k w h 2 = 2.7 l3 kcal/m2 h I callcmah = I .082 Wlft2 = 1 I .65 W/m2 1 kW/ft2 ,= 924.2 callcm2 h I kW/m2 = 317.2 Btu/ft2 hr I Btulft*hr"F = 4.89 kcallm' h "C I kW/m2"C = 176.2Btulft2hr"F

I mm = 0.10 cm = 0.03937 in.
= = = 1 km =

I m

LENGTH I in. = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm = 0.0254 m I ft = 304.8 mm = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m 0.003281ft 1 0 0 cm = 1000 mm = 39.37 in. I mile = 5280ft 1 km = m 3.281 ft I Angstrom unit = I A = m 0.6214mile
= 0.2488 kPa = 25.40

PRESSURE I in. H 2 0 1 N.m2 = 0.001 kPa = 1.00 Pa 1 mm H'O = 0.0098 kPa 1 mm Hg = 0.1333 kPa = 13.60 mm H20 = I torr = 0.01933 psi I in. Hg I kglcm2 = 98.07 kPa = 10,000 kg/m2

mm H20

= 1.866 mm Hg = 0.00254kg/cm2 = 2.54g/cm2 = 3.386 kPa = 25.40 mm Hg = 345.3 mm H 2 0 = 13.61 in. H20

Conversion Factors
Metric to American, Metric to Metric
= 1 , O mm H20 = 394. I in. H20 0O O

419

American to Metric, American to American
= = = = = = = =

mm Hg = 28.96 in. Hg = 227.6 o h . ' = 14.22 psi = 0.9807 bar 1 bar = 100.0 kPa = 1.020 kg/cm2 = 10,200 mm H20 = 401.9 in. H 2 0 = 750.1 mm Hg = 29.53 in. Hg = 232.1 oz/in.' = 14.50 psi = 100,OOO N/m2 1 g/cm2 = 0.014 22 psi = 0.2276 oz/in.2 = 0.3937 in. H20 (For rough calculations, 1 bar = 1 atm = 1 kg/cm2 = 1 0 m H 2 0 = 100kPa)
= 735.6

1 psi

1 oz./in.*

1 atmt = = = = = =

7.858 oz/im2 = 0.491psi 25.4 torr 6.895 kPa = 6895 N/m2 703.1 mm H20 = 27.71in. H20 51.72 mm Hg = 2.036 in. Hg 16.00 0.0703kg/cm2 = 70.31g/cm2 0.068 97 bar = 0.4309 kPa = 43.94 mm H20 = 1.732 in. H20 = 3.232 mm Hg = 0.00439kg/cm2 = 4.394g/cm2 101.3 kPa = 101,325 N/m2 10,330 mm HZO = 407.3 in. H 2 0 760.0 mm Hg = 29.92 in. Hg 235.1ozlin.' = 14.70psi 1.033kg/cm2 1.013bar

"C = 5/9 ("F - 32) 'F = (9/5"C) 32 K = "C 273.15 'R = "F 459.67

TEMPERATURE

+

+

+

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY I Btu ft/ft2 hr OF = 1.730 W/m K l W/m K = 0.5778 BtufVft2 hr "F = 6.934 Btu in./ft2 hr "F =kcallm 1.488 h K 1 cal cmlcm2-soC= 241.9 Btu ft/ft2 hr "F I Btu in./ft2 hr "F = 0.1442 W/m K = 2903 Btu in./ft2 hr "F 1 Btu ft/ft2 hr "F = 0.004139calcm/cm2 S "C = 418.7 W/m K 1 Btu in./ft2 hr "F = 0.0003445 cal cm/cm2 S
"C

I m2/s = 38 760 ft2/hr 1 m2/h = 10.77 ft2/hr

THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY l ft2/hr = O.oooO258 m2/s = 0.0929 m2/h

I cmls = 0.3937 in./sec = 0.032 81 fVsec = 10.00 mmls = 1.969 ft/min

VELOCITY I in./sec = 25.4 mmls = 0.0254 m/s = 0.0568 mph

'Normal atmosphere = 760 torr (mm H at OC-o g " )nt a "technical atmosphere," which is 736 torr or 1 kg/cm2. Subtract about 0.5 psi for each lo00 ft above sea level.

420
~~~

Ganapathy
to Metric,

Metric to American, American Metric

VELOCITY (continued) 1 ft/sec = 304.8 mmls = 0.3048 mls I m/s = 39.37 in./sec = 3.281 ft/sec = 0.6818 mph = 196.9 ft/min = 2.237 mph 1 ft/min = 5.08 mmls = 0.00508 mls = 3.600 kmlh = 1.944 knot = 0.0183 km/h I mph = 0.4470 mls = 1.609 kmlh = 1.467 ft/sec 1 knot = 0.5144 m l s I rpm = 0.1047 radianlsec
0.1 Pa. s = 1 dyne skm2 = 360 kg/h m = I poise = 1 0 0 centipoise(cP) = 242.1 Ib,,,/hr ft = 0.002089 lb/f sec/ft2 l kg/hm = 0.672 Ib/hr/ft = 0.00278 g/s

VISCOSITY, absolute, p I IbJhr ft = 0.000008634 Ibr seclft2 = 0.413 CP = 0.000413 Pa 1 Ibf sec/ft2 = 115,800 IbJhrft = 47,880 CP = 47.88 Pa S I reyn = I Ibrseclin.’ cm = 6.890 X l@ CP = 0.00000581 Ib, sec/ft2 p of air’ = 0.0180CP ) of watert = 1.124 CP I = 0.0436 l b h ft = 2.72 I b h r ft = 3.763 X Ib seclft = 2.349 x IO-’ Ib seclft2 VISCOSITY, kinematic, v 1 cm% = 0.0001 m2/s I ft2/sec = 3600 ft2/hr = 92,900 CS = 0.0929 m21s = I stokes = 1 0 0 centistokes(CS) I ft2/h = 0.000278 ft2/sec = 25.8 CS = 0.001076 ft2/sec = O.ooOo258 m2/s = 3.874 ft2/hr 1 m2/s = 3600 m2/h = 38,736 ft*/hr = 10.76ft2/sec v of water’ = I . I30 centistokes vair’ of = 14.69 CS = 32 SSU = 1.581 X ft2/%c = 1.216 X lo-’ ft2/sW
I cm3 (cc) = o.oO0 0 0 1 00 m3 = 0.0610 in.3 = 0.0338 U.S. fluid oz. 1 liter (dm’) = 0.0010 m3 - 1000 cm3 = 61.02in.’ = 0.03531 ft’ = 0.2642 U.S. gal

S

VOLUME I in.’ = 1 . 9 cm3 = 0.0001639 m 63 ’ = 0.01639 liter I ft’ = 1728 in.3 = 7.481 U.S. gal = 6.229 Br gal = 28,320 cm3 = 0.02832 m3 = 28.32 liters = 62.427 Ib of 39.4“F (4°C) water = 62.344 Ib of 60°F (15.6”C) water

Viscosity at STP.

Conversion Factors
Metric to American, Metric to Metric
1 m’ = 1000 liter = 1 X lo6 cm3 = 61,020 in.’ = 35.31 ft3 = 220.0 Br gal = 6.290 bbl = 264.2 U.S.gal = 1.308 yd’

42 I American to Metric, American to American

I U.S. gal

= 3785 cm’ = 0.003785 m3 = 3.785 liters = 231.0 in.’

= 0.8327 Brgal = 0.1337 ft3 = spgr x 8.335 Ib = 8.335 Ib of water = 1/42barrel(oil) I Brgal = 277.4 in.’ = 0.004 546 m3 = 4.546 liters = 1 2 1 U.S. gal .0 I bbl. oil = 9702 in.’ = 5.615 ft3 = 0.1590 m’ = 159.0 liters = 42.00 U.S.gal = 34.97 Br gal

1 cm’ls = 1 X ml ’8 I liter/s = I X IO” m3/s I m3/h = 4.403 U.S.gpm(gallmin) = 0.5887 ft3/min

VOLUME FLOW RATE 1 gpm ( g a h i n ) = 60.0 gph(gallhr) = 0.01667 gps (gal/sec) = 0.00223 cfs (ft’lsec) = 0.1337 cfm (ft’/min) = 0.8326 Br gpm = 0.227 m’lh = 1.429 bbllhr = 34.29 bbllday 1 gph(gal/hr) = 0.00105 liteds = O.ooOo37 I cfs (ft’lsec) I cfm(ft’/min) = 6.18 Brgpm = 0.000471 m’ls I cfs (ft’lsec) = 448.8 gpm = 22.250 Br gph WEIGHT,FORCE,MASS 1 oz avdpmass = 28.35 g = 0.02835 kg 1 Ib avdpmass = 453.6 g = 0.4536 kg = 4.536 X 10hp,g 1 Ib avdp force = 0.4536 kg force
= 4.448 N

1 g = 0.03527 oz avdp mass I kg mass = I O 0 0 g mass = 35.27 oz. avdp mass = 2.205 Ibavdpmass I kgforce = 1000 gforce = 9.807 N = 2.205 Ib avdp force 1 metricton = I O 0 0 kg = 2205 Ib

I Ib = 7000 grains I short ton = 2000 Ib = 907.2 kg 1 longton = 2240 Ib = 1015.9 kg

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Index

ABMA boiler and feed water guidelines, 23 Acoustic vibration, 336 Air for combustion, 65-70 densityof, 5 Air heater performance, 269 sizing, 265-268 tube wall temperature, 269 Allowable stress values, 38 Approach point, 282 Ash concentration, 78, 79 melting point, 80 ASME boiler and feed water guidelines, 24

power test code, 290 tube thickness calculations,
37-40

Auxiliary firing efficiency, 290 oxygen required, 100 Beam length, 202 Blowdown calculations, 22 Blowdown line sizing, 167 Blowoff steam, 165 Boiler circulation, 141-145 fire tube, 210 horsepower, 1 1 off-design calculations, water tube, 219
423

223-225

424

Index

Boilerhorsepower, 11 Boiler water, 23-24 Boiling heat transfer coefficient, 303 Brayton cycle, 384 regenerative, 386 Circulation, 141-145 Cogeneration, 357 Combustion calculations gases, 65 liquid fuels, 70 M M Btu method, 69 oxygen consumption in turbine exhaust boilers, solid fuels, 70 Combustion temperature, 77 Controlvalve sizing, 119 Convective heat transfer (see heat transfer) Corrosion acid dew points, 93-95 effect of feed water temperature, 95-96 Damper leakage, 31 Deaeration steam calculations,
27,360
100

Dew points of acid gases,
93-95

Drum hold up time,

97

Economizer off-design performance, 272 sizing, 183-1 87 steaming, 294 Effectiveness of fin, 240-242 Efficiency boiler, 82, 290 fin, 240-242 HRSG system, 290 relation between HHV and Emissions
LHV, 82
CO, 96 NO,, 97

Emissivityof gases, 195,202 Excess air effect on efficiency, 86 from flue gas analysis, 73, Expansion of steam, 355 Fan effect of density, 363 elevation effect on capacity, horsepower, 361 performance from motor readings, 381 sizing for fired HRSGs, 292 Feedwater, 23,24 Finned tubes comparison with bare tubes,
251 363 74

Decibels addition, 45 Density computation of, 5 effect of elevation, 7 Departure from nucleate boiling, 145

Index

425

effectiveness,efficiency, fin conductivity, 259 fin thickness, 259 fin tip temperature, 239 fouling factors, 255-257 gas pressure drop, 238-241 heat flux, 2 5 5 heat transfer, 238-24 1 inline arrangement, 252 serrated fins, 253 solid fins, 253 staggered arrangement, 2 8 5 surface area, 250-253,236 Fire tube boiler, designof, 210 effect of gas velocity, 214 effect of scale, 216 effect of tube size, 214 heat flux, 215 Flash steam, 28 Fouling factors, 255 effect in finned tubes, 255 inside tubes, 255 outside tubes, 257 relation to scale, 216 Gas analysis converting % volume to % weight, 346 effect on heat transfer, 345 Gas mass velocity, 9 Gas pressure drop inside tubes, 125 outside bare tubes, 139 outside finned tubes,
235-238 240-242

Heat flux in bare tube boilers,
222

215,

in finned tubes, 255 fire tube boilers, 215 Heat loss, effect of load, 91 through insulation, 324 Heat transfer analysis for DNB, 145, inbaretubes, 191 distribution of radiant energy, 209 effect of gas analysis, 345 effect of gas pressure, 347 effect of tube size, 214 in finned tubes, 235 fire tube boilers, 210 furnaces, 201-205 radiant surface, 201 water tube boilers, 219 HRSGs design, 281-283 off-design performance,
223-226 steaming, 294 280-282 153

temperature profiles, Heat rate, 102 Higher heating value, 56 effect on air, flue gas quantity, 56 efficiency, 85 Holdup time in drums, 47 Hydrochloric acid dew point,
93-95

426

Index

Insulation effect ofwind velocity and emissivity, 324 heat loss, 324 hot casing, 331 sizing of, 327 temperature profile, 324-325 Leakage in dampers, 31 through openings in, 30 Life-cycle costing, 34, 314 Lower heating value, 57, 84 Natural convection, 276 Natural frequency of vibration, Noise decibels, 41 effect of distance, 46 engine exhaust, 47 vibration, 336 Nonluminous heat transfer, 194 boilers, 97 conversion from volumetric to mass units, 98 gas turbine exhaust, 97 NPSH available, 379 required, 378 NTU method, 271-273 Nusseltnumber, 185,189 Orifice, 108-1 10 Oxygen for combustion,
338

Pinch point design mode, 281 selection of, 285-288 Prandtlnumber, 185,189 Pressure drop, airlgas, 133 outside bare tubes, 139 in ducts, 134 outside finned tubes, insidetubes, 125, 213 steam, 127 Pumps effect of density, 368 NPSH available, 379 NPSH required, 378 performance from motor readings, 380 power, '367 recirculation flow, 375 series, parallel, 388 temperature rise, 374 Radiation distribution to tubes, 209 in furnaces, 201 nonluminous, 194 Regenerative Brayton cycle, Reynoldsnumber, 185,192,
135 384-386 235-238

NO.,

100

Safety valve relieving capacity, 1 16 sizing, 1 3 11 1- 5

Index

427

Scale conductivity, 216 effect on boiler performance, 216-218 Sound power level, 45 Sound pressure level, 45 Specific gravity, 368 Specific heat of gases, 344 Stack, 171 draft loss, 171 wall temperature, 332-334 Staggered arrangement bare tubes, 193 finned tubes, 252-254 Steam heat transfer coefficient, 188 purity, 20 quality, 18 Steaming in economizer, 294 Strouhl number, 339 Sulfuric acid dewpoint, 93 Superheater flow distribution in, 136 tube wall temperature, 227 Supplementary firing (see auxiliary firing) Surface area, 182 finned tubes, 235 fire tube boiler, 210

Temperature profiles, approach point, 282 design mode, 282 off-design mode, 283-285 optimizing, 288 pinch point, 282 Temperature rise in pumps, 374 Thermal conductivity of gases, 344 scale, 216 Throttlingcalorimeter, 18 'hbe wall temperature air heater, 269 finned tubes, 239-243 superheater, 227 'hbe thickness external pressure, 40 internal pressure, 37,39 Velocity effect on boiler size, 214 mass and linear, 9,10 Vibration acoustic, 338 of tubes, 338 Viscosity, 344 Vortex shedding frequency,
339

Windvelocity, 335

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