CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTRY
=
abundance
) abundance mass (isotopic
mass atomic Average
e % abundanc
mass) isotopic abundance (%
) 2 . 9 3 . 0 5 . 90 (
) u 22 2 . 9 ( ) u 21 3 . 0 ( ) u 20 5 . 90 (
+ +
+ +
e % abundanc
mass) isotopic abundance (%
) 91 . 30 09 . 69 (
) u 93 . 64 91 . 30 ( ) u 93 . 62 09 . 69 (
+
+
( )
abundance
mass isotopic abundance
) 8 5 (
) u 025 . 193 8 ( ) u 021 . 191 5 (
+
+
+
_ _
MATTER
1.2 Mole Concept
Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be
able to:
a) Define mole in terms of mass of
carbon12 and Avogadros constant, N
A
Avogadros Number, N
A
Atoms and molecules are so small impossible
to count
A unit called mole (abbreviated mol) is devised
to count chemical substances by weighing
them
A mole is the amount of matter that contains
as many objects as the number of atoms in
exactly 12.00 g of carbon12 isotope
The number of atoms in 12 g of
12
C is called
Avogadros number, N
A
= 6.02 x 10
23
Example:
1 mol of Cu contains Cu atoms
1 mol of O
2
contains O
2
molecules
O atoms
1 mol of NH
3
contains NH
3
molecules
N atoms
H atoms
6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
3 3 6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
2 2 6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
6.02 6.02 10 10
23 23
1 mol of CuCl
2
contains Cu
2+
ions
Cl

ions
6.02 10
23
2 6.02 10
23
Mole and Mass
Example:
Relative atomic mass for carbon, C = 12.01
Mass of 1 C atom = 12.01 amu
Mass of 1 mol C atoms = 12.01 g
Mass of 1 mol C atoms consists of 6.02 x 10
23
C atoms
= 12.01 g
Mass of 1 C atom =
= 1.995 x 10
23
g
23
10 x 6.02
g 01 . 12
12.01 amu = 1.995 x 10
23
g
1 amu =
= 1.66 x 10
23
g
amu 12.01
g 10 x .995 1
23
Example:
From the periodic table, A
r
of nitrogen, N is
The mass of 1 N atom =
The mass of 1 mol of N atoms =
The molar mass of N atom =
The molar mass of nitrogen gas =
The nucleon number of N =
14.01 14.01
14.01 amu 14.01 amu
14.01 g 14.01 g
14.01 g mol 14.01 g mol
1 1
28.02 g mol 28.02 g mol
1 1
14
14
M
r
of CH
4
is
The mass of 1 CH
4
molecule =
The mass of 1 mol of CH
4
molecules =
The molar mass of CH
4
molecule =
16.05 16.05
16.05 amu 16.05 amu
16.05 g 16.05 g
16.05 g 16.05 g
mol mol
1 1
Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be
able to:
(a) Interconvert between moles, mass,
number of particles, molar volume of gas
at STP and room temperature.
(b) Define the terms empirical & molecular
formulae
(c) Determine empirical and molecular
formulae from mass composition or from mass composition or
combustion data. combustion data.
Example 1:
Calculate the number of moles of molecules for
3.011 x 10
23
molecules of oxygen gas.
Solution:
6.02 x 10
23
molecules of O
2
3.011 x 10
23
molecules of O
2
= 0.5000 mol of O
2
molecules
1 mol of O 1 mol of O
2 2
molecules molecules
molecules 10 6.02
mol 1 molecules
23
23
10 011 . 3
Example 2:
Calculate the number of moles of atoms for
1.204 x 10
23
molecules of nitrogen gas.
Solution:
6.02 x 10
23
molecules of N
2
2 mol of N atoms
1.204 x 10
23
molecules of N
2
= 0.4000 mol of N atoms
1 mol of N 1 mol of N
2 2
molecules molecules
molecules
mol 2 molecules
23
23
10 02 . 6
10 204 . 1
Example 3:
Calculate the mass of 0.25 mol of chlorine gas.
Solution:
1 mol Cl
2
0.25 mol Cl
2
18 g
or
mass = mol x molar mass
= 0.25 mol x (2 x 35.45 g mol
1
)
= 18 g
2 2 35.45 g 35.45 g
mol 1
mol 0.25 g 35.45 2
Example 4:
Calculate the mass of 7.528 x 10
23
molecules of
methane, CH
4
Solution:
6.02 x 10
23
CH
4
molecules (12.01 + 4(1.01)) g
7.528 x 10
23
CH
4
molecules
= 20.06 g
23
23
10 02 . 6
10 7.528 g 05 . 16
Molar Volume of Gases
Avogadro (1811) stated that equal volumes of gases
at the same temperature and pressure contain
equal number of molecules
Molar volume is a volume occupied by 1 mol of gas
At standard temperature and pressure (STP), the
molar volume of an ideal gas is 22.4 L mol
1
Standard Temperature and Pressure
273.15 K 1 atm 760 mmHg
0 C 101325 N m
2
101325 Pa
Standard Molar Volume
At room conditions (1 atm, 25 C), the molar
volume of a gas = 24 L mol
1
Example 1:
Calculate the volume occupied by 1.60 mol of Calculate the volume occupied by 1.60 mol of
Cl Cl
2 2
gas at STP. gas at STP.
Solution:
At STP, At STP,
1 mol Cl 1 mol Cl
2 2
occupies occupies
1.60 mol Cl 1.60 mol Cl
2 2
occupies occupies
= 35.8 L = 35.8 L
22.4 L
mol 1
L 4 . 22 mol 60 . 1
Example 2:
Calculate the volume occupied by 19.61 g of Calculate the volume occupied by 19.61 g of
N N
2 2
at STP at STP
Solution:
1 mol of N 1 mol of N
2 2
occupies occupies 22.4 L 22.4 L
of N of N
2 2
occupies occupies
= 15.7 L = 15.7 L
mol 1
L 22.4 mol
) 01 . 14 ( 2
61 . 19

.

\

1
mol g 2(14.01)
g 61 . 19
Example 3:
0.50 mol methane, CH 0.50 mol methane, CH
4 4
gas is kept in a cylinder at gas is kept in a cylinder at
STP. Calculate: STP. Calculate:
(a) (a) The mass of the gas The mass of the gas
(b) (b) The volume of the cylinder The volume of the cylinder
(c) (c) The number of hydrogen atoms in the cylinder The number of hydrogen atoms in the cylinder
Solution:
(a) (a) Mass of 1 mol CH Mass of 1 mol CH
4 4
= =
Mass of 0.50 mol CH Mass of 0.50 mol CH
4 4
= =
= 8.0 g = 8.0 g
16.05 g
mol 1
mol 0.50 g 05 . 16
(b) (b) At STP; At STP; 1 mol CH 1 mol CH
4 4
gas gas occupies occupies
0.50 mol CH 0.50 mol CH
4 4
gas gas occupies occupies
= 11 L = 11 L
(c) (c) 1 mol of CH 1 mol of CH
4 4
molecules molecules 4 mol of H atoms 4 mol of H atoms
0.50 mol of CH 0.50 mol of CH
4 4
molecules molecules 2 mol of H atoms 2 mol of H atoms
1 mol of H atoms 1 mol of H atoms
2 mol of H atoms 2 mol of H atoms
1.2 x 10 1.2 x 10
24 24
atoms atoms
22.4 L
6.02 x 10
23
atoms
2 x 6.02 x 10
23
atoms
mol 1
mol 0.50 L 4 . 22
Exercise
A sample of CO
2
has a volume of 56 cm
3
at STP.
Calculate:
a) The number of moles of gas molecules
(0.0025 mol)
b) The number of CO
2
molecules
(1.506 x 10
21
molecules)
c) The number of oxygen atoms in the sample
(3.011x10
21
atoms)
Notes: 1 dm
3
= 1000 cm
3
1 dm
3
= 1 L
Empirical And Molecular Formulae
Empirical formula => => chemical formula
that shows the simplest ratio of all
elements in a molecule.
Molecular formula => => formula that show
the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule.
The relationship between empirical formula
and molecular formula is :
Molecular formula = n ( empirical formula )
Example:
A sample of hydrocarbon contains 85.7%
carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Its
molar mass is 56. Determine the empirical
formula and molecular formula of the
compound.
= = = = = = = =
Mass
Number
of moles
Simplest ratio
85.7
~ 2
1.984
14.1584
1
7.1357
14.3
01 . 12
7 . 85
01 . 1
3 . 14
C H
Empirical formula = Empirical formula = CH
2
14.03
56
n =
4
3.99
~
=
8 4
2
H C formula Molecular
) n(CH formula Molecular
=
=
Exercise:
A combustion of 0.202 g of an organic sample
that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
produce 0.361g carbon dioxide and 0.147 g water.
If the relative molecular mass of the sample is
148, what is the molecular formula of the sample?
Answer : C
6
H
12
O
4
At the end of this topic, students should be At the end of this topic, students should be
able to:
(a) (a) Define and perform calculation for each of for each of
the the following concentration measurements : following concentration measurements :
i) molarity (M)
ii) molality(m)
iii) mole fraction, X
iv) percentage by mass, % w/w
v) percentage by volume, %v/v
Learning Outcome
Concentration of Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of
two or more substances:
solvent + solute(s)
e.g: sugar + water
solution
sugar solute
water solvent
Concentration of a solution can be expressed
in various ways :
a) molarity
b) molality
c) mole fraction
d) percentage by mass
e) percentage by volume
a) Molarity
Molarity is the number of moles of
solute in 1 litre of solution
Units of molarity: mol L
1
mol dm
3
M
(L) solution of volume
(mol) solute of moles
M molarity, =
Example 1:
Determine the molarity of a solution
containing 29.22 g of sodium chloride, NaCl
in a 2.00 L solution.
Solution:
solution
NaCl
NaCl
V
n
M =
L 00 . 2
mol
) 45 . 35 99 . 22 (
22 . 29

.

\

+
=
= 0.250 mol L
1
Example 2:
How many grams of calcium chloride, CaCl
2
should be used to prepare 250.00 mL
solution with a concentration of 0.500 M
Solution:
solution CaCl CaCl
x V M n
2 2
=
= 0.500 mol L
1
250.00 10
3
L
mass molar x n CaCl of mass
2
CaCl 2
=
= (0.500 250.00 10
3
) mol
(40.08 + 2(35.45)) g mol
1
= 13.9 g
b) Molality
Molality is the number of moles of
solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent
Units of molality:mol kg
1
molal
m
(kg) solvent of mass
(mol) solute of moles
m molality, =
Example:
What is the molality of a solution
prepared by dissolving 32.0 g of CaCl
2
in
271 g of water?
Solution:
1 
CaCl
mol g 2(35.45) 08 . 40
g 0 . 32
n
2
+
=
kg 10 271
mol
98 . 110
0 . 32
CaCl of Molality
3
2

.

\

=
1
kg mol 1.06
=
Exercise:
Calculate the molality of a solution
prepared by dissolving 24.52 g of sulphuric
acid in 200.00 mL of distilled water.
(Density of water = 1 g mL
1
)
Ans = 1.250 mol kg
1
c) Mole Fraction (X)
Mole fraction is the ratio of number of
moles of one component to the total
number of moles of all component present.
For a solution containing A, B and C:
T
A
C B A
A
A
n
n
n n n
n
X of A, fraction Mol
=
+ +
=
Mol fraction is always smaller than 1
The total mol fraction in a mixture
(solution) is equal to one.
X
A
+ X
B
+ X
C
+ X.. = 1
Mole fraction has Mole fraction has no unit (dimensionless)
since it is a ratio of two similar quantities.
Example:
A sample of ethanol, C
2
H
5
OH contains
200.0 g of ethanol and 150.0 g of water.
Calculate the mole fraction of
(a) ethanol
(b) water
in the solution.
Solution:
n
ethanol =
1
mol g 16.00) 5(1.01) (2(12.01)
g 0 . 200
+ +
n
water =
1
mol g 16.00) (2(1.01)
g 0 . 150
+
X
ethanol =

.

\

+

.

\


.

\

mol
02 . 18
0 . 150
mol
07 . 45
0 . 200
mol
07 . 45
0 . 200
= 0.3477
X
water
= 1 0.3477
= 0.6523
d) Percentage by Mass (%w/w)
Percentage by mass is defined as the
percentage of the mass of solute per mass
of solution.
Note:
Mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent
100 x
solution of mass
solute of mass
w
w
% =
Example:
A sample of 0.892 g of potassium
chloride, KCl is dissolved in 54.362 g of
water. What is the percent by mass of
KCl in the solution?
Solution:
% 100
g 54.362 g 0.892
g 892 . 0
mass %
+
=
= 1.61%
Exercise:
A solution is made by dissolving 4.2 g of
sodium chloride, NaCl in 100.00 mL of
water. Calculate the mass percent of
sodium chloride in the solution.
Answer = 4.0%
e) Percentage by Volume (%V / V)
Percentage by volume is defined as the
percentage of volume of solute in milliliter per
volume of solution in milliliter.
Note:
solution of volume
solution of mass
solution of Density =
100 x
solution of volume
solute of volume
v
v
% = 100 x
solution of volume
solute of volume
v
v
% =
Example 1:
25 mL of benzene is mixed with 125 mL
of acetone. Calculate the volume percent
of benzene solution.
Solution:
100%
mL 125 mL 25
mL 25
volume %
+
=
= 17%
Example 2:
A sample of 250.00 mL ethanol is labeled
as 35.5% (v/v) ethanol. How many
milliliters of ethanol does the solution
contain?
Solution:
100%
mL 00 . 250 % 5 . 35
V
ethanol
=
% 100
V
V
ethanol of volume %
solution
ethanol
=
= 88.8 mL
Example 3:
A 6.25 m of sodium hydroxide, NaOH
solution has has a density of 1.33 g mL
1
at 20 C. Calculate the concentration
NaOH in:
(a) molarity
(b) mole fraction
(c) percent by mass
(a) M =
solution
NaOH
V
n
6.25 m of NaOH
there is 6.25 mol of NaOH in 1 kg of water
for a solution consists of 6.25 mol of NaOH and 1
kg of water;
V
solution
=
solution
solution
mass
mass
solution
= mass
NaOH
+ mass
water
mass
NaOH
= n
NaOH
molar mass of NaOH
= 6.25 mol (22.99 + 16.00 + 1.01) g mol
1
= 250 g
mass
solution
= 250 g + 1000 g
= 1250 g
V
solution
=
1
mL g 1.33
g 1250
M
NaOH
=

.

\

L 10
33 . 1
1250
mol 25 . 6
3
= 6.65 mol L
1
(b) X
NaOH
=
water NaOH
NaOH
n n
n
+
1 kg of water contains 6.25 mol of NaOH
n
water
=
water of mass molar
mass
water
=
1
mol g 16.00) (2(1.01)
g 1000
+
X
NaOH
=

.

\

+ mol
02 . 18
1000
mol 25 . 6
mol 25 . 6
= 0.101
(c) %(w/w) of NaOH =
water NaOH
NaOH
mass mass
mass
+
100%
=
g 1000 g 250
g 250
+
100%
= 20.0%
Exercise:
An 8.00%(w/w) aqueous solution of
ammonia has a density of 0.9651 g mL
1
.
Calculate the
(a) molality
(b) molarity
(c) mole fraction
of the NH solution
Answer: a) 5.10 mol kg
1
b) 4.53 mol L
1
c) 0.0842
MATTER
1.3 Stoichiometry
Learning Outcome
At the end of the lesson, students should be able
to:
a) Determine the oxidation number of an
element in a chemical formula.
b) Write and balance :
i) Chemical equation by inspection method
ii) redox equation by ionelectron method
Balancing Chemical Equation
A chemical equation shows a chemical
reaction using symbols for the reactants and
products.
The formulae of the reactants are written on
the left side of the equation while the
products are on the right.
Example:
x A + y B z C + w D
Reactants Products
A chemical equation must have an equal number
of atoms of each element on each side of the
arrow
The number x, y, z and w, showing the relative
number of molecules reacting, are called the
stoichiometric coefficients.
A balanced equation should contain the smallest
possible wholenumber coefficients
The methods to balance an equation:
a) Inspection method
b) Ionelectron method
Inspection Method
1. Write down the unbalanced equation. Write the
correct formulae for the reactants and products.
2. Balance the metallic atom, followed by non
metallic atoms.
3. Balance the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
4. Check to ensure that the total number of atoms of
each element is the same on both sides of equation.
Example:
Balance the chemical equation by applying the
inspection method.
NH
3
+ CuO Cu + N
2
+ H
2
O
Exercise
Balance the chemical equation below by applying
inspection method.
1. Fe(OH)
3
+ H
2
SO
4
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ H
2
O
2. C
6
H
6
+ O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O
3. N
2
H
4
+ H
2
O
2
HNO
3
+ H
2
O
4. ClO
2
+ H
2
O HClO
3
+ HCl
Redox Reaction
Mainly for redox (reductionoxidation)
reaction
Oxidation is defined as a process of electron loss.
The substance undergoes oxidation
loses one or more electrons.
increase in oxidation number
act as an reducing agent (electron donor)
Half equation representing oxidation:
Mg Mg
2+
2e
Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+ e
2Cl

Cl
2
+ 2e
Reduction is defined as a process of electron gain.
The substance undergoes reduction
gains one or more electrons.
decrease in oxidation number
act as an oxidizing agent (electron acceptor)
Half equation representing reduction:
Br
2
+ 2e Br

Sn
4+
+ 2e Sn
2+
Al
3+
+ 3e Al
Oxidation numbers of any atoms can be
determined by applying the following rules:
1. For monoatomic ions,
oxidation number = the charge on the ion
e.g: ion oxidation number
Na
+
+1
Cl

1
Al
3+
+3
S
2
2
2. For free elements, e.g: Na, Fe, O
2
, Br
2
, P
4
, S
8
oxidation number on each atom = 0
1. For most cases, oxidation number for
O = 2
H = +1
Halogens = 1
Exception:
1. H bonded to metal (e.g: NaH, MgH
2
) oxidation number
for H = 1
2. Halogen bonded to oxygen (e.g: Cl
2
O
7
) oxidation
number for halogen = +ve
3. In a neutral compound (e.g: H
2
O, KMnO
4
) the total of
oxidation number of every atoms that made up the
molecule = 0
4. In a polyatomic ion (e.g: MnO
4

, NO
3

) the
total oxidation number of every atoms that made up the
molecule = net charge on the ion
Exercise
1. Assign the oxidation number of Mn in the following
chemical compounds.
i. MnO
2
ii. MnO
4

1. Assign the oxidation number of Cl in the following
chemical compounds.
i. KClO
3
ii. Cl
2
O
7
2
1. Assign the oxidation number of following:
i. Cr in K
2
Cr
2
O
7
ii. U in UO
2
2+
iii. C in C
2
O
4
2
Balancing Redox Reaction
Redox reaction may occur in acidic and basic
solutions.
Follow the steps systematically so that
equations become easier to balance.
Balancing Redox Reaction In Acidic
Solution
Fe
2+
+ MnO
4

Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
1. Separate the equation into two half
reactions: reduction reaction and oxidation
reaction
i. Fe
2+
Fe
3+
ii. MnO
4

Mn
2+
1. Balance atoms other than O and H in each
halfreaction separately
i. Fe
2+
Fe
3+
ii. MnO
4

Mn
2+
3. Add H
2
O to balance the O atoms
Add H
+
to balance the H atoms
i. Fe
2+
Fe
3+
ii. MnO
4

+ Mn
2+
+
4. Add electrons to balance the charges
i. Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+
ii. MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
4H
2
O
8H
+
1 e
5 e
3.Multiply each halfreaction by an integer, so that
number of electron lost in one halfreaction equals
the number gained in the other.
i. 5 x (Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+ 1e)
5Fe
2+
5Fe
3+
+ 5e
ii. MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
1. Add the two halfreactions and simplify where
possible by canceling the species appearing on both
sides of the equation.
i. 5Fe
2+
5Fe
3+
+ 5e
ii. MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
___________________________________
5Fe
2+
+ MnO
4

+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
___________________________________
5. Check the equation to make sure that there
are the same number of atoms of each kind
and the same total charge on both sides.
5Fe
2+
+ MnO
4

+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
Total charge reactant
= 5(+2) + (  1) + 8(+1)
= + 10  1 + 8
= +17
Total charge product
= 5(+3) + (+2) + 4(0)
= + 15 + (+2)
= +17
5Fe
2+
+ MnO
4

+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
Total charge reactant
= 5(+2) + (  1) + 8(+1)
= + 10  1 + 8
= +17
Total charge product
= 5(+3) + (+2) + 4(0)
= + 15 + (+2)
= +17
Exercise: In Acidic Solution
C
2
O
4
2
+ MnO
4

+ H
+
CO
2
+ Mn
2+
+ H
2
O
Solution :
Balancing Redox Reaction In Basic Solution
1. Firstly balance the equation as in acidic
solution.
2. Then, add OH

to both sides of the equation so
that it can be combined with H
+
to form H
2
O.
3. The number of OH

added is equal to the
number of H
+
in the equation.
Example: In Basic Solution
Cr(OH)
3
+ IO
3

+ OH

CrO
3
2
+ I

+ H
2
O
Exercise:
1. H
2
O
2
+ MnO
4

+ H
+
O
2
+ Mn
2+
+ H
2
O
(acidic medium)
2. Zn + SO
4
2
+ H
2
O Zn
2+
+ SO
2
+ 4OH

(basic medium)
3. MnO
4

+ C
2
O
4
2
+ H
+
Mn
2+
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
(acidic medium)
4. Cl
2
ClO
3

+ Cl

(basic medium)
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry is the quantitative study of
reactants and products in a chemical
reaction.
A chemical equation can be interpreted in
terms of molecules, moles, mass or even
volume.
C
3
H
8
+ 5O
2
3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
1 molecule of C
3
H
8
reacts with 5 molecules of O
2
to produce 3 molecules of CO
2
and 4 molecules
of H
2
O
6.02 x 10
23
molecules of C
3
H
8
reacts with 5(6.02
x 10
23
) molecules of O
2
to produce 3(6.02 x
10
23
) molecules of CO
2
and 4(6.02 x 10
23
)
molecules of H
2
O
C
3
H
8
+ 5O
2
3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
1 mol of C
3
H
8
reacts with 5 moles of O
2
to
produce 3 moles of CO
2
and 4 moles of H
2
O
44.09 g of C
3
H
8
reacts with 160.00 g of O
2
to
produce 132.03 g of CO
2
and 72.06 g of H
2
O
5 moles of C
3
H
8
reacts with 25 moles of O
2
to
produce 15 moles of CO
2
and 20 moles of H
2
O
At room condition, 25 C and 1 atm pressure;
22.4 dm
3
of C
3
H
8
reacts with 5(22.4 dm
3
) of
O
2
to produce 3(22.4 dm
3
) of CO
2
Example 1:
How many grams of water are produced in the
oxidation of 0.125 mol of glucose?
C
6
H
12
O
6(s)
+ O
2(g)
CO
2(g)
+ H
2
O
(l)
Solution:
From the balanced equation;
1 mol C
6
H
12
O
6
produce 6 mol H
2
O
0.125 mol C
6
H
12
O
6
produce H
2
O
mass of H
2
O = (0.125 x 6) mol
x (2.02 + 16.00) g mol
1
= 13.5 g
mol 1
mol 6 mol 125 . 0
Example 2:
Ethene, C
2
H
4
burns in excess oxygen to form
carbon dioxide gas and water vapour.
(a) Write a balance equation of the
reaction
(b) If 20.0 dm
3
of carbon dioxide gas is
produced in the reaction at STP, how
many grams of ethene are used?
Solution:
(a) C
2
H
4
+ O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O
(b) 22.4 dm
3
is the volume of 1 mol CO
2
20.0 dm
3
is the volume of CO
2
2 mol CO
2
produced by 1 mol C
2
H
4
mol CO
2
produced by
C
2
H
4
3
3
dm 4 . 22
mol 1 dm 0 . 20
4 . 22
0 . 20
mol 2
mol 1 mol
4 . 22
0 . 20

.

\

mass
ethane
1 
mol g 4(1.01)] [2(12.01) x mol
2
4 . 22
0 . 20
+

.

\

=
= 12.5 g
Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be
able to:
a) Define the limiting reactant and
percentage yield
b) Perfome stoichiometric calculations
using mole concept including limiting
reactant and percentage yield.
Limiting Reactant/Reagent
Limiting reactant is the reactant that is
completely consumed in a reaction and limits
the amount of product formed
Excess reactant is the reactant present in
quantity greater than necessary to react with
the quantity of limiting reactant
Example:
3H
2
+ N
2
2NH
3
If 6 moles of hydrogen is mixed with 6 moles of nitrogen,
how many moles of ammonia will be produced?
Solution:
3 mol H
2
reacts with 1 mol N
2
6 mol H
2
reacts with
mol 3
mol 1 mol 6
= 2 mol N
2
N
2
is the excess reactant
H
2
is the limiting reactant
limits the amount of products formed
3 mol H
2
produce 2 mol NH
3
6 mol H
2
produce
mol 3
mol 2 mol 6
= 4 mol NH
3
or
1 mol N
2
react with 3 mol H
2
6 mol N
2
react with mol NH
3
mol 1
mol 3 mol 6
= 18 mol H
2
H
2
is not enough
H
2
limits the amount of products formed
limiting reactant
3 mol H
2
produce 2 mol NH
3
6 mol N
2
produce mol NH
3
= 4 mol NH
3
mol 3
mol 2 mol 6
Exercise:
Consider the reaction:
2 Al
(s)
+ 3Cl
2(g)
2 AlCl
3(s)
A mixture of 2.75 moles of Al and 5.00 moles of Cl
2
are
allowed to react.
(a) What is the limiting reactant?
(b) How many moles of AlCl
3
are formed?
(c) How many moles of the reactant remain at
the end of the reaction?
PERCENTAGE YIELD
The amount of product predicted by a balanced
equation is the theoretical yield
The theoretical yield is never obtain because:
1. The reaction may undergo side reaction
2. Many reaction are reversible
3. There may be impurities in the reactants
4. The product formed may react further to
form other product
5. It may be difficult to recover all of the
product from the reaction medium
The amount product actually obtained in a
reaction is the actual yield
Percentage yield is the percent of the actual
yield of a product to its theoretical yield
100 x
yield
yield
yield %
l theoretica
actual
=
Example 1:
Benzene, C
6
H
6
and bromine undergo reaction as follows:
C
6
H
6
+ Br
2
C
6
H
5
Br + HBr
In an experiment, 15.0 g of benzene are mixed with excess
bromine
(a) Calculate the mass of bromobenzene, C
6
H
5
Br
that would be produced in the reaction.
(b) What is the percent yield if only 28.5 g of
bromobenzene obtain from the experiment?