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French Source: Anatolian Studies, Vol. 11 (1961), pp. 99-141 Published by: British Institute at Ankara Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3642458 . Accessed: 21/09/2011 13:31
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LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN NORTH-WEST TURKEY AND THE AEGEAN By D. H. FRENCH of this article is to publish material collected from in Western Anatolia, Thrace and Thessaly which were made with surveys the intention of discovering possible links between these three areas in the period which in South-West Anatolia is called Late Chalcolithic. Such suggestions as are put forward for the construction of a relative and absolute chronology in each area are only tentative; throughout the aim has been to emphasise the problems of equating pottery cultures of adjacent regions which are thought to be contemporary.
THE MAIN PURPOSE
The material in this article from North-West Turkey was collected in October 1959.1 Two important but previously almost unsurveyed areas, the plains of Bahkesir 2 and Akhisar-Manisa, were covered. The coast from Edremit to Izmir was not investigated as it was not considered to lie within the area and as it had already been surveyed, at least partially, by others.3 The lowland area from Bursa westwards, although it is now beginning to produce sites, was not included in this survey. The pottery being published here is entirely of the period which on typological grounds is called Late Chalcolithic. Sherds 4 of Early Chalcolithic wares and of the Bronze Age periods were found but are not relevant to this article. The material here illustrated is based entirely upon sherds, there being no complete pots available in Turkey for comparative study. The sites are without exception mounds discovered well out on, or just on the edge of flat plain. In no case were they on hills or on rocky eminences. Fresh water from springs, streams or perennial rivers was near at hand in all cases. The mountains, although by now somewhat deforested, carry trees to this day. There are also a fair number of oak trees scattered about the plain, especially north of Manisa. The two plains of Bahkesir and Akhisar-Manisa are as fertile and as well watered as any on the plateau, though the temperature near the coast is higher both in summer and winter. Both areas are easily accessible from the coast: via the Hermos or via the Caicos to Akhisar ; to Bahkesir either directly from the gulf of Edremit (the line of the modern road) or from the Marmora
As Institute Scholar for i959. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Seton Lloyd for his support and encouragement and to Mr. James Mellaart for the help and information which he has on all occasions generously given. Material in the German Archaeological Institute 2 Previously by J. Stewart in 1939at Istanbul. See also Mellaart, Ist. Mitt. 6 (955), 80 ff. 3 Among others Driehaus, Ist. Mitt. 7 (i957), 76 ff. 4 A selection of sherds representing all the periods found may be seen in the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara.
by the river Simav. They are also accessible from each other via the Gelenbe-Savagtepe route. The region of Beycesultan can be reached by the easy route via the Hermos valley, the Buldan pass, Denizli and (ardak.
In the western half of Greek Thrace we have the sites in the plain of the Angista especially Drama 5 and Dikili Tash but in the east we have essentially only one site, Paradimi, 6 kilometres south-west of Komotini. The collection of sherds from Paradimi and Dikili Tash was made in November I959. Both sites have been excavated but not published.6 The site of Paradimi is a mound on the edge of the rolling country overlooking the river Bokloutza. Dikili Tash is situated on the edge of what may once have been wet marshy ground at a slight distance from the mountains to the east and north-east. Polystylo 7 was also visited but surface material was not plentiful. Material from these sites has been classified in the past under the general heading of Neolithic. Turkish Thrace is still archaeologically unexplored; there is only one new site to add to the map, Kanalh K6prii, a small mound some
II kilometres west of Silivri.
One site was visited, that at Stivos (formerly Gioumenitza).8 Actually there are at least two separate mounds, A and B, about Ioo m. apart. They are situated on the edge of the escarpment overlooking the river Derveni, about 2 to 3 km. below Stivos village. Mound B, from which the more plentiful material came, is quite large, measuring c. 150 m.
by 50 m.
A resurvey of Thessalian sites 9 was begun in 1959. Only the area between Larisa and Volos was completed. Old sites were refound and in certain cases repositioned. About twenty new sites were added to the number of those already known. Only one site (not included in this article) was not a mound built up in the open plain. All categories of Thessalian pre-classical wares were found. Only the relevant classes are used here: Middle Greek, Arapi, Dhimini, Larisa, Grey on Grey, Rakhmani, Early Bronze red slipped and burnished ware.
Mentioned by Welch, BSA. XXIII (1918/19), 50. For references concerning Dikili Tash and Paradimi see Schachermeyr, Prdhistorische Kulturen Griechenlands RE. XXII, 2, I394 in f. iff.; 7 Mylonas, Praktika 1938, o9 AJA. 45 (i94I), 557 f. 8 Some sherds from Stivos A are illustrated in Heurtley, PrehistoricMacedonia, 155, nos. 128-130. There are said to be three sites here. 9 It is hoped to complete this resurvey and publish a map and full topographical information in one section and distribution and details of finds in a second. It may be possible to do this also for Thrace and Macedonia.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN
GroupI: BeycesultanType (Fig. 5: I-8b).-The fabric of the first group is slightly coarse, with a fair amount of grit and mica but no straw. The surface is black, frequently mottled with grey or olive. Occasional
a I I
FIG. I. Distribution map of westernmost sites with Beycesultan type Late Chalcolithic pottery.
pieces are buff. All pottery is smooth burnished and hand-made. Quite frequently vertical burnish occurs outside. White paint when it is used is matt, fairly thickly applied. The shapes represented are principally bowls, shallow with wide flaring concave sides: one example has a wide perfora-
tion near the rim. This shape is typical of the Beycesultan Late Chalcolithic phases, particularly 2 and early 3.10 I Group IIH: Kumtepe b Type(Fig. 5: 9-49, 58-62).-Selected examples only are illustrated. The fabric in this group, as in the first, is slightly coarse, gritty and micaceous, but with occasionally a little straw; handmade and smooth burnished, sometimes though not normally vertically. Paint, where it occurs, is again matt white. The surface is usually black, though this may shade into dark red, dark brown or dark grey. As in Group I, the shapes are principally bowls but of a different type. The characteristic feature is a rolled rim, with or without horizontal lug, which may or may not be perforated. There is considerable variation both in size and rim type. There is also a number of sherds which have a double ledge lug on the rim; this type of bowl (Fig. 5: 58-62) because of its shallowness, as also No. 20, may have had a large pedestal foot, though none was actually found. An important shape is that of Fig. 5: 9, a carinated bowl with a primitive horizontal tubular lug; this was the only example discovered on the survey. Straight-sided bowls with double knobs with small knobs or atrophied lugs below the rim (Fig. 5: uncommon in this period but later develop into an important class.
Group III: Varia (Fig. 5 : 50-7).-There on the rim were found (Fig. 5: 24, 25) but were not common. Bowls 29) are
is a series of hole-mouth
bowls orjars in a coarser brown fabric (Fig. 5 : 53-7), often quite smoothly burnished; occasionally knobs or small vertical handles are added near the rim. More important are the two sherds of pattern-burnished ware, one from a bowl (Fig. 5: 50), the other from a closed shape (Fig. 5: 52). The fabric of these is hard but slightly coarse, hand-made; the surface is smooth burnished, black. A third sherd (Fig. 5: 51) is finely patternburnished on the outside; in all other respects it is identical with other sherds of Group II. Of these three only Group II can be limited to the North-West and be claimed to belong to the North-West Anatolian sequence of pottery cultures. Group I belongs firmly to the Beycesultan sequence; Group II, however, with the exception of Fig. 5: 9, is to be equated with the I b level at Kumtepe, and it is now proposed to define this group as the " Kumtepe I b culture ", and to confirm its position in the North-West Anatolian sequence as the immediate predecessor out of which Troy I developed. Group III it is so far not possible to assign to any one period.
The pattern-burnishing, however, may be related to the Besikatepe material, though this is not certain. The distribution in the river valleys and coastal areas of sites with pottery of recognisable Beycesultan Late Chalcolithic type, i.e. our Group I,
10 In the Nos. phases. Phase I, levels XXV ; Phase
forthcoming publication the Beycesultan material has been assigned to 1-4 cover the Late Chalcolithic period and are divided as follows: Phase 2, levels XXXIV-XXIX; Phase 3, levels XXVIIIXL-XXXV; 4, levels XXIV-XX.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 103 is shown in Fig. I. It is clear that in the period under discussion, roughly Beycesultan 2 to early 3 (Levels XXXIV-XXVII), part at least of the Aegean coast, the Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir plains are to be brought within the area of South-West Anatolian Late Chalcolithic, either entirely or as areas of peripheral influence and contact. With the next group, the chronological successor (see below), there comes a change. Sites with pottery of Group II are widespread but only within the areas of AkhisarManisa, Balikesir and probably the coast." The boundaries of this group lie so far entirely within the North-West; the southern limit being the Hermos, the eastern the edge of the plateau. The northern limit is not yet clear. To the distribution map (Fig. 2) of this group have been added the relevant sites in the Aegean and on the mainland of Greece: the pottery from these is discussed below.
At Kanalli Koiprii (Fig. 6: 1-3) one sherd of cord-impressed ware was found (Fig. 6: I) ; what remained seemed to belong to Troy I. The excavations at Paradimi produced some 240 pots which have not yet been adequately published. The opportunity is therefore taken of illustrating fully a selection of sherds from the material collected in November 1959 and partially supplemented from the restored vases in the Salonika Museum.'2 Ware (Fig. 6: 4-9).-The fabric of this GroupI: Graphite-painted is rather coarse, gritty, hard fired, hand-made and smooth burnished. group The surface is generally brown though occasionally black. The paint applied after burnishing is fine silvery graphite. The more elaborate patterns are not restorable. The shapes are, so far, mostly bowls. GroupII: Painted Ware.-(a) Black on Red ware: a handful of sherds was found (one illustrated, Fig. 6: i i). The fabric is fairly fine, hard fired and hand-made; the surface is red, slipped (?), smooth burnished; the paint is black. No shapes were identified with certainty. (b) Chocolate on Cream: one sherd (Fig. 6: Io). The core is red, hard, fairly fine; the surface smooth burnished cream; the paint chocolate brown wet burnished. The pot was a hand-made, carinated bowl. Ware.-There is considerable variety among the III: Unpainted Group sherds of this group. The principal categories (which, until further work has been done on the complete body of pottery from this site, cannot be taken to represent chronological distinctions) are as follows: (a) Fine Black Burnished ware (Fig. 6: 12-15; Fig. 7 I8).-The fabric is fairly fine, hard and micaceous; the surface-finish is very fine; the colours vary but the red is normally confined to below the carination. Fine rippling or grooving occurs (Fig. 6: 12). The shape is a sharply
11 There are a few sherds of Kumtepe I b type from galtidere and possibly also from Bayrakli and HiiyUcek-Helvaci. See also, Driehaus, op. cit. 78, fig. I, nos. Io, 12-14 [Guamiiova I] and 82 fig. 3, nos. 8, 9 [Ayazk6y]. 12 I am most grateful to Professor Kyriakides for permission to use these sketches.
Fie. 2. Distribution map of sites with Kumtepe I b type pottery. Paros, Naxos, Amo
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND XEGEAN1o5 carinated bowl, with or without a vertical handle. An open straight-sided bowl is also found (Fig. 7: 18). (b) Black Burnished ware (Fig. 6: 16-34; Fig. 7: 1-17, 19-31, 37, 41, 42).-The fabric is slightly coarser than in the previous variety and the surface finish is on the whole less fine. The surface colour varies from black through brown and red. Black topped red (Fig. 6: 16, 22, 29, 30; Fig. 7: 2-4, 9) and brown topped black examples (Fig. 6: I7) are included in this ware. The shape is principally a bowl with inverted rim. Ridging and grooving are common on this shape together with stunted lugs or projections. Some sherds (Fig. 7: 12-17, 19) are also black burnished but with a more uneven surface finish. The shape is a convexsided bowl. Other sherds (Fig. 7: 2o-6) belong to a shape which must have been represented in great numbers at Paradimi, to judge from the number of fragments of feet which are found on the site. It is a four-footed shallow bowl as is shown in Fig. 7: 24. Grooving on the rim is common and the black topped technique both on rims and on feet is very prevalent. The ridged ware (Fig. 7: 27-31) is also plentiful. The shape here is a jar or jug. Other shapes in black burnished ware include a bowl with the tubular lug characteristic of Troy I (Fig. 7: 37, 41) and also a highhandled bowl (Fig. 7: 42). GroupIV: Incised Ware (Fig. 7: 32-6, 38-40, 43).--The fabric is mostly black, fairly well burnished. Of particular interest are the incised white-filled sherd (Fig. 7: 32), the wedge-impressed piece (Fig. 7: 33) and the incised rim (Fig. 7: 36). Group V: Coarse Ware (Fig. 7: 44, 45).-Sherd material of this category was very plentiful on the site. The fabric is a coarse brown, frequently only perfunctorily burnished. The rim is almost invariably decorated with an applied band which is then impressed in a wide variety of ways. The sketches (Fig. 7 46-8) represent only a fraction of the number of pots from the excavations and now in the Salonika Museum. The rim of No. 46 is rippled; the foot is red and the upper part black. The jar No. 47 is only one of a widely varied collection of jars with funnel necks and vertical (horn) handles. This shape is often found in black-topped ware.13 The bowl, No. 48, is in finely burnished black ware. The material from Dikili Tash is here divided on the basis of decoration into the following groups: Ware (Fig. 8; Fig. 9: 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, ? I5, GroupI: Graphite-painted is fairly coarse but hard fired; no straw was added. I8-25).-The fabric The surface is usually brown or reddish brown but the colour varies to black and various shades of brown and grey. The surface is always smooth burnished. The paint (applied after burnishing) is usually a fine silvery graphite but occasionally (when of poor quality or fired badly?) it is nearer to a matt white, and so on some examples it is difficult to distinguish
cf. Schachermeyr, Die Altesten Kulturen Griechenlands,132, Fig. 32 : 3.
between graphite and matt white. The shapes (so far) are mostly bowls but jars do occur (Fig. 9 : 18-19). The bowls are of the following types :
(I) An open bowl either straight-sided (Fig. 8:
(Fig. 8: 9). Small vertical handles or solid lugs may be applied. A carinated bowl with a rim which may be oval (Fig. 8: 14) or (2) be applied. (3) An inverted-rim bowl with convex side (Fig. 9: 8).
(4) An inverted-rim bowl with concave side (Fig. 9: (5) A simple convex-sided bowl (Fig. 9: 23). round (Fig. 9: I, 2, 4). Again vertical handles or lugs may
i) or concave-sided
GroupII: Painted Ware.-(a) Black on Red (Fig. 9: 26-8). The fabric and surface treatment are exactly those of the Paradimi sherds except for Fig. 9: 27 which is a paler red with browner paint (cf. similar sherds at Stivos below). Some examples are exceptionally finely burnished and painted. The basic shapes are bowls which to a certain extent repeat those of the graphite-painted ware. Complete vessels are necessary for a final judgement. (b) Brown on Cream (Fig. 9: 30). One sherd of brown on cream ware was found. slip III: Unpainted Ware.-The following varieties occur: Group similar to that of the same ware at Paradimi. Some sherds (Fig. 9: 32-3) are in a black-topped technique.14 Others (Fig. 9: 29, 34, 35) are finely grooved. It is noticeable that in this ware the inside surface is often of a pale grey colour and although finely burnished, does not have the jetblack surface of the outside. Is this due to the use of a slip on the outside only or to the firing ? The shapes represented are open straight-sided bowls (Fig. 9: 32, 33) and a vertical-sided carinated bowl with flat vertical handle (Fig. 9 : 29 ; cf. Drama, Fig. 12 : 21). As at Paradimi. The (b) Black Burnished ware (Fig. 9: 10-I3). shapes also are similar to those from Paradimi but not represented are the four-footed bowls of Fig. 7: 24. (c) Brown Burnished ware (Fig. 9: 3, 5, 7, 14, 16-17). The fabric is identical with that of the graphite-painted ware and its various surface colours. Characteristic is a pale streaky brown. Shapes are similar to those of graphite-painted ware. (d) Other plain ware. Included here are a sherd of a globular bowl (Fig. 9: 37) with high ridges in black burnished ware, and bowl sherds with grooved (Fig. 9: 38) or notched (Fig. 9: 39) rim. GroupIV" Incisedand Painted, and Incised Ware (Fig. 9: 3I, 36). Fine ware (Fig. 9: 31) was not common but large coarse sherds (Fig. 9: 36) were abundant. Shapes were very large straight-sided bowls with
14 In addition to Paradimi and Dikili Tash, this ware is found at Drama. Polystylo, Akropotamos, Olynthus, Hagios Mamas, and possibly Vardina.
(a) Fine Black Burnished ware (Fig. 9:
The fabric is
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 107 wide flat bases. Incision is often combined with graphite paint. The patterns are similar to those on the graphite-painted ware. This variety was also represented at Drama. There was a very little at Stivos and none (fortuitously ?) at Paradimi. Drama produced a fine selection of sherds, now in the British School at Athens; these are grouped as follows: I: Ware(Figs. IO, I I; and 12 I1,2).-Fabric, Group Graphite-painted surface-treatment, patterns and shapes are identical with those of Dikili Tash. To the five bowl types identified at Dikili Tash the following should be added. (I) Kumtepe I b rolled-rim bowl (Fig. I2 : I, 2). " Troy I " type rim (Fig. (2) II : 6). Wide globular bowl (Fig. II : 8). (3) (4) Bowl or (if inverted) base of pedestal for a fruitstand (?) (Fig. II : 10, I I,13). The surface inside is in a rough, unfinished state. i: (5) The shape in Fig. I 14 is not easily identifiable; it is smooth burnished inside. The shape of Fig. iI :I8 may be a square-sided or exaggeratedly (6) oval-rimmed dish. Fig. II : 19 is the base of a bowl and Fig. I : 12, 15, I6 are from jars. The bowl (Fig. II: 2o) is decorated with graphite paint, incised and white-filled horizontal lines and crescents and crusted red paint (hatched in the drawing) as also possibly was Fig. Ii : I 1. On this latter sherd the cross hatching within the squares has run together giving a chequer board effect (cf. Dikili Tash, Fig. 8: I). Characteristic features are grooves (Fig. Io: 12, Fig. II : 2) and lugs or projections (Fig. Io: i i6, cf. Dikili Tash, Fig. 9: 3 and Fig. i: 5) 15 on the carinations of certain bowls. One sherd (Fig. 12: 2) is both grooved and, inside, graphite painted. II: Painted Ware. There are the following varieties : Group (a) Black on Red (Fig. 12: 3, 7-_ro, 13, 14).-As at Paradimi and Dikili Tash. An addition to the repertoire of shapes is Fig. 12: Io which unfortunately is lacking the rim. The lower half of the body is rather worn. (b) Brown on Cream (Fig. 12 I i, I2).-The foot (No. Ii) belongs to some (unidentifiable) closed shape. III: Unpainted Ware. The following are found : Group (a) Fine Black Burnished ware (Fig. 12 : 15-25, Fig. I3 : 1-3).As at Paradimi and Dikili Tash; at Drama the black-topped technique (Fig. i2 : 15-20, 22-5) is well represented. Fine (but not black-topped) black burnished ware is illustrated in Fig. I2: 21, Fig. I3: I-3. Both
15 Similar sherds were found at Stivos.
categories are possibly slipped on the outside, which would account for their jet-black appearance, cf. Dikili Tash. (b) Black Burnished ware.-Not represented in the collection. (c) Brown Burnished ware (Fig. 13: 4-I I).-The pale brown burnished surface of these sherds is characteristic. One sherd (Fig. 13 : 7) is strongly ridged; another (Fig. 13 9) is deeply grooved. The handle (Fig. 13 : I i) is incised. (d) Other plain ware (Fig. I2: 4-6).-In this category are three rolled rims in a brownish black burnished ware. These are unpainted counterparts of one of the graphite painted shapes. IV: Incised Ware.-There are only two sherds in the collection Group and they are not illustrated here. GroupV: CoarseWare.-Not represented in the collection.
The sherds from Stivos B are divided into the same groups as at Dikili Tash and Drama. I Ware(Fig. I3: 12-14, 18, ? 19, 25, 26, ? 33, Group : Graphite-painted with Dikili Tash and Drama; the main features are 37).-Identical illustrated here. Unusual are the high-handled cup (Fig. 13: 33 which, however, is not certainly graphite painted) and the shallow globular bowl (Fig. 13: 37) which is both closely rippled and painted with graphite. Several sherds of this shape and decoration were found (see below). II: Painted Ware. The following occur : Group (a) Black on Red (Fig. 13 : 28, 30, 31, 34).-Not quite identical with Paradimi, Dikili Tash and Drama. On the whole it is finer and the shapes smaller and more delicate. The surface colour is paler and the paint slightly more brown (cf. Stivos, Fig. 13: 30, 31, with Dikili Tash, Fig. 9: 27). One sherd (Fig. 13: 34) seems nearer to the Galepsos group.16 We cannot tell whether the differences are due to locality or period. (b) Brown on Cream (Fig. 13: 29).--Only one or two sherds were found. III: Unpainted Ware. The following types occur: Group (a) Fine Black Burnished ware.-This category was not found. (b) Black Burnished ware.-A few sherds only were found (Fig. 13: 27). The four-footed bowls (Fig. 7 : 24) were not represented at Stivos. (c) Brown Burnished ware.-The typical pale brown variety was not well represented. rolled rims in a dark reddish-brown or black fabric were found. Two of
them (Nos. 23 and 24) have incised decoration on the rim.
(d) Other plain ware.-Some
sherds (Fig. 13 :
Schachermeyr, Die fAltestenKulturen Griechenlands,II o, Fig. 23.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN og9 There is also another variety of fine black burnished ware (Fig. 13 : 35-7). The fabric is not quite the same as that at Paradimi, Dikili Tash and Drama, and the shapes, wide globular bowls with a short neck, are different. Rippling is a common feature and some of it is close to the ripple-technique in Larisa ware (rIa3). The most interesting feature, however, is the combination on a few sherds of rippling and graphite paint. GroupIV : Incised Ware.-Only one sherd of incised ware (Fig. 13: was found and this was not typical of the incised wares of Dikili Tash 32) and Drama. GroupV: CoarseWare.-The coarse ware of Paradimi was not found.
The material from the Thessalian survey has been arranged according to the sequence recently published by Prof. Miloj'id.17 GroupI: Middle Greek(B38 and E) and Black Burnished Ware (Fig. 14:
Very little was found that could certainly be identified with the socalled Middle Greek matt-painted style. What shapes there were are been assigned to this group on the basis of published material.18 The fabric of the painted ware is fine and hard; all pottery is hand-made. The surface is a fine burnished buff or pale brown; the paint is matt brown or black. In the Black Burnished class the fabric is hard and quite fine; the surface is a streaky black to brown colour with occasionally a very smooth even burnish. The paint is a rather thick matt white. Only a few sherds of the painted ware resemble the small carinated bowls which are typical of the Black Burnished ware, but with so little material available it is difficult to make conclusive statements.
GroupII: Arapi (Fig. I4 : I1-22). shown in Fig. I4 : 1-2. The Black Burnished ware (Fig. 14: 3-Io) has
They form a homogeneous group in surface treatment, shape and pattern. All categories are hand-made, fairly fine and hard fired. The surface treatment of the Polychrome and the Chocolate on Cream is a smooth cream slip with black to chocolate-brown paint with or without added red, and finally an all-over burnish. The Black on Red has a red slip, black paint and an all-over burnish. The Black and Red Monochrome is a simple burnished ware but of good quality. Only one shape is
(Fig. 14?: I1-I5) ; Chocolate on Cream (B3a3) (Fig. 14: 16-18) ; Black on Red (B3a2 bis) (Fig. 14: 19, 21) ; and Black and Red Burnished.
There are four sub-categories of this period:
(1959), I ff. (also printed separately by Rudolf Habelt Verlag, Bonn). "1 In Theokhares, eEoaa7AlK& A' (1958) 6 ff.; B' (0959) 55 f. and n. 3, the Black F a. Burnished ware is designated as TTpco-r6yova
AA. 1959, 36 ff., and Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums,Mainz 6
included because it has the same profile as one of the painted pieces. The commonest shape in the painted ware is the carinated bowl which may occasionally be given a (horn) handle or lug. High pedestal bases are found as well as the bowls belonging to these bases. In the Black on Red technique, however, pedestals and jar necks 19 were not identified because of the close similarity to sherds of Black on Red Otzaki and Classic Dhimini ware.
GroupIII: Dhimini (B3aI and 2, B3p) (Fig. 14: 23; Fig.
identifiable in the Red Burnished ware, a carinated bowl (Fig. i4: 20). The Black Burnished ware sherd here illustrated (Fig. 14: 22) has been
Sherds of each sub-category are illustrated here for the purposes of comparison. When the complete material from Otzaki and Arapi is available it should be possible to describe each stage in the development of patterns and shapes from Arapi into the Otzaki and Classic Dhimini styles : there is evidence for some sort of continuity in technique.20
5 : I-3).
The basis of classification has again been the published material from Prof. Milojcid's excavations.21 This has narrowed the ware to pottery with a smooth burnished, slightly mottled black surface and very fine white paint, but only the full publication of the stratified material can give final and complete definition to this style. The fabric is fine and hard; all pottery is hand-made. The surface is very smoothly burnished with a slightly mottled appearance. The paint is a fine matt white. The shapes consist of bowls, mainly shallow but quite often deep; some are carinated. Others are globular with a short neck. The patterns are simple linear. Pattern-burnish and rippling also occur. A few sherds are included here because they are unique (so far) and important. Their true position in the Thessaly sequence will have to await the appearance of similar examples from a stratified context. The first (Fig. 15 : 12) is a rim of Troy I type; the second (Fig. 15 : 13) is a rolled rim of Kumtepe I b type; the third (Fig. 15: I4) is so far not paralleled in any stratified sequence (but cf. Paradimi, Fig. 7 : I and 5) ; West Anatolia, for it resembles Fig. 5: 47, 48; the fifth (Fig. 15: 8), a bowl with horizontal and vertical wedge impressions, has close parallels in the Late Neolithic of Western Macedonia. GroupV: Greyon Grey (rI ) . Very little is known about this pottery and its correct stratigraphic position is still somewhat uncertain. The sherds illustrated here (Fig. 15
19 For other shapes see Miloj'id, Jahrb. R-GZM 6 (1959), Figs. 14 ; A' : 3-9. Also Theokhares, eEraaraK& (1958) Pl. I. I7 20
Larisa (FIa I, 2, and 3) (Fig. 15: 4-7)-
the fourth (Fig. 15:
I5) may eventually have close parallels in North-
15 : 1-7, 9;
MilOjiid suggests four phases (?) of the one period, i.e. the Dhimini period, I, II, III, IV, of which the last is " Classic Dhimini ".
Miloj'id, Jahrb. R-GZM 6 (I959), Figs. I8, ig.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND EGEAN III 9-11) are typical, particularly the jar neck (No. Io). The rim diameter of the handle fragment (No. I I) unfortunately cannot be determined. The grey-on-grey category is grouped with Larisa ware on the Otzaki evidence. (Fig. 15: 16, 17). GroupVI: Rakhmani Very little new material was found on the survey which could add to what is already known. Recent excavations 22 have shown that this pottery is to be thought of as representing a distinct period. Ware. GroupVII: Early Bronze: Red Slippedand Burnished The sherds of this ware (Fig. 15: 18-20) are taken to represent the Thessalian EB I period; the closest parallels lie with EH I pottery.23 All pieces are hand-made ; the surface is commonly (but not always) given a thick red slip which is afterwards well burnished.24 The only shape is a simple bowl.
Athens A few sherds turned up in the excavations on the North Slope of the Acropolis 25 and in the Agora 26 and were assigned at the time to Late Neolithic. Only the one from the Agora can be illustrated here (Fig. 15 : 24). The fabric is coarsish but hard; the surface is smooth burnished brown; the pot was hand-made. The shape is a bowl with rolled rim and a projection on top. The sherds from the North Slope are again bowls with rolled rim. On these, however, there occurs the important feature of a tubular lug below the rim. Cyclades Naxos has produced a few sherds of bowls in black burnished ware (Fig. 15: 21, 22). The surface is smooth burnished; the pieces are hand-made. The important feature is again the rolled rim with long tubular lug below. No date has been assigned to them. From Paros Rubensohn 27 published a profile of a bowl with rolled rim and tubular lug below (Fig. 15: 23). The surface was a smooth burnished red. The lug was triangular in section painted with vertical white lines. Schachermeyr 28 has published also a sherd of patternburnished ware.
As recently suggested by Miloj&idand Theokhares. "~ Theokhares also comments on the mottling, OearoaatK* (1959) 59. cf. Blegen, B' Zygouries,77. 25 Hesperia VI (1937), 540 ff., Fig. I c and d, Fig. 2. 26 I wish to thank Prof. Homer Thompson for permission to use this sherd which will be included in the Mycenaean and earlier material to be published by Mrs. S. A. Immerwahr. 27 AM. 42 51, Fig. 55; also Aberg, Bronzezeitliche und Friiheisenzeitliche (1917), IV, Chronologie Io7, Fig. 204. 28 Kulturen Griechenlands, Fig. 35: 4140, Schachermeyer, Die Altesten
caaaA•tKB' (1959) 58.
Samos: Tigani Material from Samos, recently republished,29shows close connexions with Beycesultan.30 Pattern-burnish exists but it is not clear what are its relations to Besikatepe. Connexions with our Kumtepe I b culture, on the other hand, seem rare. If so, the supposition may be confirmed that the Kumtepe I b pottery is limited to the North-West and did not extend further south than the line Upper Hermos-Izmir-Chios. Chios":Emporio The material from this site 31 includes Kumtepe I b and Troy I wares as well as pattern-burnish. One might suggest, therefore, that Chios in the Late Chalcolithic period was linked to Western Anatolia.32 Lemnos: Poliochni This site 33 also seems to lie within the North-West Anatolian cultural province, though the exact relationship is not yet clear. DISCUSSION
A selection of shapes from all four Beycesultan Late Chalcolithic phases 34 is illustrated in Fig. 4. The sherds from Pagak6y and Kaylglar (Fig. 5 : I-8b) can be related to phases 2 and 3 and the sherd (Fig. 5 : 9) tentatively to phase 3. If it is accepted that these sherds are contemporary with Beycesultan and not later, then they may be used in constructing a sequence of inland North-West Anatolian pottery cultures. Earlier in this article it was suggested that part at least of the material collected should be considered to belong to the I b level in the Kumtepe sequence. Although the results of this excavation have not yet been published, sherds in the Istanbul and Ankara 35 museums allow one to reconstruct the important and characteristic features of the pottery of each level. It is therefore suggested that the pottery culture represented by this culture be confirmed as the immediate ancestor of Troy I. Publication of the Kumtepe material would prove or refute this view, though the excavations at Poliochni and Emporio seem to support it.
the sherds in Fig. 5:
58-62 be termed " Kumtepe I b " and that
A full discussion is made by J. Mellaart in the forthcoming publication of the Beycesultan excavations. 31 The final publication by M. S. F. Hood is in preparation. 32 As in the Early Chalcolithic period, when it was probably part of a " bridge " leading from Anatolia via Skiathos and Skyros to Thessaly. 33 Material on display in the National Museum, Athens. Also on display in the National Museum, Athens, is a complete Kumtepe I b type bowl (NM. 5352) from the settlement site of Amorgos. 34 I am grateful to Mr. Seton Lloyd and Mr. James Mellaart for permission to repeat these drawings from the preliminary publications. 35 Thanks to the kindnessof Dr. Nezih Firath, I was able to see a selection of Kumtepe sherds in the Istanbul Museum.
Furness, PPS 22 (1956), 174 ff.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND AEGEAN I13 In constructing our North-West Anatolian pottery sequence we must proceed as follows. South-West Anatolian EB I is equated chronologically with Troy I. If the sequence Kumtepe I a Kumtepe I b Kumtepe I c (or early Troy I) is accepted as the chronological framework for the Troad, then it follows logically that Kumtepe I a and b must be contemporary with some part of the Beycesultan (i.e. South-West Anatolian) Late Chalcolithic sequence. Kumtepe I b must, in fact, be contemporary with that part of the Beycesultan sequence which immediately precedes South-West Anatolian be EB I. As the sherds from Papak6y and Kayailar may confidently assigned to Beycesultan phases 2/early 3, then the Kumtepe I b material would follow these, filling the gap between them and Troy I/EB I. Our sequence for inland North-West Anatolia, i.e. Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir, would then read as follows: ? Beycesultan Late Chalcolithic phase I.36 Beycesultan Late Chalcolithic phase 2/early 3. ? Transition related to Beycesultan LC phase late 3. Kumtepe I b. Troy I. The coastal sequence and the inland sequence are differentiated in the chronological table (Fig. 3) for two reasons. First, Kumtepe I a was hardly represented in Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir. Second, Beycesultan 2-3 though found in the Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir areas has not yet been found on the coast or in the Troad. Therefore though Kumtepe forms the chronological framework for the Troad, it cannot be considered to be typical of the other areas. Thus close contact between Kumtepe (Troad) and Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir is only certain in Kumtepe I b and on present evidence it is only for that period that the term " North West Anatolian Late Chalcolithic " is valid. It is also worth recording here that both Balikesir and Akhisar-Manisa for the periods of Troy I and II develop along their own lines and produce pottery which is similar to but not identical with types found at Troy itself. The three areas again share a common pottery culture in Troy III, IV and V, the period which is called EB 3, i.e. Beycesultan levels xii-vi. The separation between South-West and North-West (Akhisar-Manisa and Balikesir) seems to begin during Beycesultan phase 3. The sherd from Kayl7lar (Fig. 5: 9) while related to a shape found in Beycesultan 3 is distinguished by its white paint, a feature which does not seem to occur on this shape at Beycesultan. White painting continues in the NorthWest; it is found in Kumtepe I a (on a tall-necked jar) and in the sherds which represent the Kumtepe I b pottery from Kayialar (Fig. 5: 10-12)
36 So far this phase has not been found on our sites. Early Chalcolithic has been found which represents Hacilar levels VI and I but it remains to be proved stratigraphically both in the south-west and in the north-west that Early Chalcolithic is followed by Late Chalcolithic of Beycesultan I type.
culture. In short in its various local areas the North-West develops along its own lines into Troy I. Our surveys have not increased our knowledge of Kumtepe I a.37 Its origin and distribution, and how it is to be related to the material from Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir, remain problematical. To judge from the few sherds available the differences between levels I a and I b at Kumtepe do not seem very great. The pottery culture of Besikatepe also was not well represented in our sherd material and though pattern-burnished sherds have been found now at eight sites,38 we know virtually nothing about the culture which these represent.
The material from Paradimi presents certain difficulties. It is clear that some of the material is identical with Karanovo II (cf. Fig. 7: 24 on red and brown on cream; graphite-painted ware is also present but in no great quantity; fine black burnished and black-topped ware is common; there are two bowls with " Troy I " type lugs and bowls of a general Troy I type. This suggests a fairly lengthy occupation on the site. However, in the graphite-painted ware the shapes common at Dikili Tash, Drama and Stivos are here lacking. This may be due to chance but, if proved to be correct, it may have chronological implications. Also missing from the Paradimi material is the unpainted pale brown ware which is common at Dikili Tash and Drama, particularly the shape jars, should be noted but it should not be related to Central Anatolia without further work on the area (which is large) in between, particularly Turkish Thrace. What happens in Turkish Thrace 39 is still not clear but connexions with Troy (Fig. 6: 3) and Paradimi are indicated: cf. Fig. 6: I from Kanalh Koprui and Fig. 7 : 32 from Paradimi. It is, however, difficult to judge isolated sherds outside their context. The variety of material from Dikili Tash and Drama also suggests a fairly lengthy occupation on these sites. It is unfortunate that the fine black burnished and black-topped ware cannot be placed in any sequence but it is interesting to note that one shape (Fig. 12 : 15) is shared by three different types of ware (black-topped, black on red and graphitepainted). It is also not clear whether the black on red and brown on cream styles wholly or partially precede the graphite-painted ware. The resemblance between patterns on graphite and black on red painted sherds, however, is striking. These are points which can only be settled by excavation.
This phase is " Neolithic " in the Greek sense, not in the Anatolian. Kumtepe I a, Ovak6y I, Kennez II, Tigani, Paros, ? Beycesultan, Emporio. near Edirne, promise to be interesting; AJA. 39 Recent discoveries at gardakalti, 65 (1961), 43.
and Archaeology 12 (1959), 93) ; there are a few sherds of painted black
represented by Fig. 13: 4 and 5. The use of a horn handle, mainly on
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND A~GEAN I15 The shapes of the graphite-painted ware strongly resemble those of Beycesultan 3-4 and Kumtepe I b. Whether these resemblances are accidental is not clear. It is necessary to view the graphite-painted pottery cultures as a whole and in their proper sequence before it can be established whether the shape (e.g. Fig. 9: I) is due to local development or outside influence. However, the occurrence of at least three shapes and possibly four in graphite-painted ware which are known to be Western Anatolian and which can with some accuracy be placed in sequence is probably more than coincidence. Only excavations can prove the point but it is here put forward that these shapes may find themselves in graphite-painted ware as the result of strong Western Anatolian influence or contact. This would imply contemporaneity between the cultures concerned. Metal prototypes are frequently assumed as the means of transference of a shape from one area to another. This may be so: but it can only be adequately demonstrated when it is absolutely clear how two pottery cultures are related. A hypothesis of this kind in the absence of the assumed metal vessels is apt to lead to circular argument. It should also be noted in this case that apart from the bowl shapes the graphite-painted ware does not seem to reflect the complete repertoire ofBeycesultan. The possible Western Anatolian elements can be listed as follows: (a) Beycesultan 2/3 type bowls (e.g. Fig. Io: 2). (b) Beycesultan 3/4 type bowls (e.g. Fig. Io: 12-14). (c) Kumtepe I brims (e.g. Fig. 12 : I). (d) Possibly Troy I type rims (Fig. II : 6). These shapes are common to Dikili Tash, Drama and Stivos but not to Paradimi. This distribution would form a pottery culture province in Western Thrace and Eastern Macedonia. An overlap between the West and Central Macedonian Late Neolithic and the graphite-painted ware seems to occur in Chalcidice, at and near Stivos. Sherds of typical West and Central Macedonian Late Neolithic (not illustrated here) were found on the surface together with the Dikili Tash and Drama type of graphitepainted ware. The fact that graphite paint occurs on black burnished and rippled ware at Stivos may prove to be of importance chronologically when more is known of Central Macedonia. It is also interesting to note that at Kritsana graphite-painted bowls of type d above (Fig. 9: 22 and Fig. 11 : 4-5) were found antedating the bowls with characteristic Troy I tubular lug.40 This also may be of use in deciding on the sequence of pottery types in Chalcidice and East Macedonia. The position of Polystylo is uncertain. The wares represented are black on brown painted ware, fine black burnished (including blacktopped) and graphite-painted (one sherd).41 It is not certain what the wider affinities of the black burnished ware are but it would be important
40 Heurtley, Prehistoric 166. I found identical sherds at the Galepsos site and Macedonia, in the plain of Drama. Near Drama also I found fragments of bowls with typical earlyTroy I tubular lugs (May, 1961).
Praktika 1938, II I.
if the proposed Vin'a A connexion could be substantiated. There is nothing in Western Anatolia which parallels the technique (particularly the rippling) of this pottery.
The Late Chalcolithic period in Western Anatolia is by definition everything between the Early Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. That the pottery of Sesklo, though its lower limits are not determinable, is at least roughly contemporary with that of Hacilar is now fairly widely though not universally accepted. A second hypothesis is here proposed: that the Red Slipped and Burnished pottery of Thessalian and Greek EB I is related to, if not derived from, the Red Slipped and Burnished ware of some South-West Anatolian EB I-2.42 If these hypotheses are accepted, there is a link between Anatolia and Thessaly at both ends of the Late Chalcolithic period. The sequence of Thessalian pottery cultures mentioned above would therefore run its course for the same time as the Late Chalcolithic of South-West and North-West Anatolia. Attempts to find contacts between the two areas have in this article been guided by this chronological assumption. For this reason also drawings of sherds of all the Thessalian cultures between Sesklo and EB I have been included here. The origin of the Middle Greekand Arapi wares has not yet been decided. It seems unlikely that they are contemporary wares of different regions though the surface survey when completed should decide this point. Further documentation is required in order to show clearly whether or not Arapi developed out of Middle Greek. There remains the question of parallels which can be found between these Thessalian wares and Beycesultan 3/4 (and also Paradimi). On our present scheme these parallels would be illusory and would have no chronological significance. To adjust the two sequences so that they could meet at the relevant points is here not considered possible. For the moment therefore it is thought sufficient to pose the problem and to leave the final answer to be solved by excavation. The amount of well published material is in any case at present too small. Neither Otzaki nor Classic Dhimini bear any relation to Western Anatolian wares. They are therefore omitted from this discussion. The same is true for the Rakhmani style (crusted ware). As Milojaid points out,43 the Late Neolithic of Macedonia is almost identical with Larisa ware, but neither can (so far) be paralleled either in shape or in technique (especially the rippling) in Western Anatolia. A few (unstratified) sherds of what are very probably Anatolian shapes
are shown in Fig. 15:
Though there is no other evidence for
linking these with the Larisa phase, if the suggested synchronisms are accepted they could belong to this or to the late Dhimini period. Otherwise we have no good parallels from Western Anatolia in the Late Chalcolithic period. The Thessalian shapes are different even from those at Besika
This material will appear in the Beycesultan publication. Jahrb. R-GZM 6 (1959), 25-
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND AEGEAN
Tepe (simple bowls and jars) and at Tigani. The sherd in Fig. 15: 13 is the one parallel, with Kumtepe, but as mentioned, is not datable in Thessalian terms.44 To the Black Burnished ware shapes from Beycesultan those of Larisa bear no close relation. Parallels from Central Anatolia and Cilicia are considered invalid on geographical grounds. In any case those from Central Anatolia are too late and those from Mersin too early. It would be interesting to examine a stratified deposit of this period. Two possible synchronisms might well be established if sherds similar to Fig. 15: 12-15 could be found and if more sherds of imported graphitepainted ware could be identified.45 If, as is now suggested,46 the Greyon Greyware is found in the Larisa period, this ware also should be taken into consideration. The conclusions would once more be negative : there is no technique in Anatolia which at all resembles it. Though the idea is not generally accepted, Thessaly seems to have ware which parallels material had a period of Red Slippedand Burnished found in the south and which seems to begin at the same time at EH I.47 The only shape recoverable was a bowl, which is also a noticeable feature This bowl shape, however, is of EH I ware 48 (Figs. 15 : 18-20). characteristic of certain areas of Western Anatolia at the end of EB I and during EB 2 and the suggestion is here put forward that the Thessalian and Helladic wares may be derived from an Anatolian source. From the recent excavations at Eutresis 49 we have now some profiles of red (slipped and) burnished pottery, dating from the beginning of EH I. These also are paralleled at Beycesultan in late EB I and in early EB 2. This repeats the situation suggested for Thessaly. Hence the source for EH I in Boeotia (and in the Peloponnese) is to be sought (as for Thessaly) in South-West Anatolia.
The table (Fig. 3) summarizes the discussion above of the relations between the suggested sequence of North-West Anatolia and the known Beycesultan stratigraphy. To this table have been added the conclusions drawn from the study of the surface material from Aegean sources. As mentioned above, two assumptions are made: the recent one that Sesklo and Hacilar are roughly contemporary and the writer's personal view that the beginning of EH I/Thessalian EB I is contemporaneous with SouthWest Anatolian late EB i/early EB 2. Whereas the first is more than
44 The sherd (Fig. 15: I3) was found on a mound which has so far produced only Classic Dhimini ware. sherds are on display in the National Museum, Athens, 45 Some graphite painted but the provenance is lost, although one sherd in the museum collection is said to be from Dhimini. 46Jahrb. R-GZM 6 (1959), 15. Nevertheless the possibility remains that Grey on Grey belongs to the end of the Sesklo period rather than to the Larisa. levels of Red Slipped and Burnished 47 See n. 22, 23 above. Theokhares distinguishes ware and of Rakhmani Crusted ware. XXIX (1960), 299. 48 Caskey, Hesperia XXIX (1960), 126 if. 49 Caskey, Hesperia
probable in the light of recent evidence, the second can be disputed on the Troy evidence alone. However, though one must concede the occurrence of Urfirnis of EH type in mid Troy I,50 the implications of this are not yet universally accepted.
50 Actually Urfirnisare frags. 448 (sauceboatrim), 572, 578, 595, 598 (sauceboat rim), 599, 600, 605, 681 ; possiblyalso 475.
C. W. Thrace E. Thrace Macedonia (Drama) (Paradimi)
EH 2 II EH i EB i Rakhmani Kritsana Kritsanatype
Late Neol. Classic ? Dhimini Otzaki
Kumtepe Ib Kumtepe la
BS 3 Beycesultan type
? Black Burnished
Arapi .i -
Servia Early Neol.
Froi 3. Chronological table of Anatolian and Aegean periods referred to in this article. (BS = Beycesultan.)
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN I19 The case can be stated as follows : Whereas the Troy sequence agrees with that of Beycesultan and the two can, without too much difficulty, be linked on typological grounds alone, giving a chronological system which makes good sense, we can only link the sequences of Thessaly and Southern Greece to those of Western Anatolia by raising the beginning of EH I (and Thessalian EB I) 51 to a point well before Mid Troy I.52 This would result, first, in the compression of the time allowed for Thessalian " Neolithic " (all of which, it must be remembered, antedates the beginning of EH I) ; secondly, in a difficult congestion of pottery cultures ; 53 thirdly, in a prolongation of the time to be given to EH I, II and III.51 Furthermore if we take the recent C 14 dates from Eutresis 55 as roughly correct we find that EH Urfirnis had not begun in Boeotia until several centuries after it had been imported into Troy (using a conservativedate for Troy I c. 3000 B.c.).56 The only alternativeis to lower the date of Troy I to meet this difficulty. To accept the position of the Urfirnis fragments at Troy as stratigraphically correct has its difficulties and the following anomalies should be noted. (I) Painted Aegean ware (presumably EH III ?) 51 is found in mid-late Troy I strata which antedate the strata with Urfirnis sherds. This is unlikely on the Lerna evidence alone, unless one wishes to argue for another, as yet unknown, source of painted ware of this type. Almost certainly one can rule out Western Anatolia, Greek Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly of the neighbouring areas. This would leave Turkish Thrace, Crete and the Cyclades as possible sources. The position of the painted EH sherd 447 58 should be noted. It was found in stratum 14 59 (of the relevant area) which immediately preceded the building of Tower R in mid Troy I and the levels which elsewhere contain Urfirnis sherds. The position of painted fragments 566 and 567 60 also antedates stratigraphically Urfirnis sherds 448, etc. At Lerna at least, painted ware can be considered to belong to a different period : it follows directly on EH II Urfirnis.61 The Troy sequence, if the painted sherds are thought of as EH, inverts this sequence. At least one sherd of Urfirnis
51 EH I/Thessalian EB I would then be once more without origin. The beginning of EH II (Urfirnis) would have to be at least as early as mid Troy I if not earlier. EH I would then be contemporary with Kumtepe I b. 53 The situation would be made worse if Hacilar and Sesklo were brought down into the 5th (or 4th) millennium. 54 For a definitive account of EH I, II and III in the Argolid see Caskey, Hesperia XXIX (I960), 285 if. 55 Caskey, HesperiaXXIX (1960), I64 and n. 28. 56 The views of Blegen and Mellaart here coincide: the beginning of Troy I may have been earlier, but certainly not later, than 3000 B.C. 57 Though it could be argued that these sherds represent the rare class of painted EH II ware discussed by Caskey, Hesperia XXIX (I960), 300. 58 Blegen, TroyVol. I, i54 and Fig. 251 : 14 (447)69 Blegen, TroyVol. I, Fig. 446. 60 Blegen, Troy Vol. I: for frag. 566 see p. I85 and Fig. 252 : 2 ; for frag. 567 see p. 184 and Fig. 252 : 1. For stratification see Fig. 437 : 566 in stratum 12, 567 in stratum 13, Urfirnis frags. 448, 572, 595, 598, 599, 6oo, 605 in stratum i8. 61 Caskey, HesperiaXXIX (1960), 293.
occurs in Troy IV (Vol. 2, Fig. 181 : 22) and there is also one painted sherd (Vol. 2, Fig. I85). (2) Among the sherds in the Istanbul Museum there was nothing that resembled at all closely EH II Yellow Mottled ware. The sherds with scored surface are of a coarse ware used for large jars or water jugs, unlikely to be imported. Similar sherds are now known from other sites in North-West Turkey 62 of third millennium date, and in the Konya Plain a scored ware with a fairly wide range of shapes is found. Almost all of the suggested Aegean imports from Troy II to V are to be considered as products of WesternAnatolian pottery cultures. A great deal of the washed wares of Troy III-V find exact parallels in surface treatment and shape at Beycesultan. EB 3 red washed ware can now be shown to have a very wide distribution in Western Anatolia.63 Though a thorough re-examination of all the Aegean imports is necessary with reference to recent discoveries in Western Anatolia, and particularly at Beycesultan, it is probable that actual EH pieces number no more than a handful. They are no longer to be thought of as a " steady trickle ". (3) There is an import of Troy IV (?) into Lerna EH III.64 This if combined with Urfirnis EH II imports in mid Troy I, would mean fact stretching EH II over a very long period of time on the present Troy chronology, some 6oo to 700 years. Otherwise all the Troy periods would have to be shortened considerably. It is therefore suggested here that the position of Urfirnis fragments (and also painted fragments) in the mid Troy I strata is perhaps fortuitous, that they be discounted for purposesof chronology, and that the later, Troy IV-EH III, synchronism be considered valid. Further excavations on other sites and in other areas may provide more positive evidence. It may ultimately be proved that the Troy I-EH II equation is the correct one but a greater variety and bulk of material evidence is necessary for a final judgement. For similar reasons, a system which would include the equation of Beycesultan 3/4 with middle Greek and Arapi is not considered here, for it would only increase the congestion of phases and periods. In the table (Fig. 3) the two basic assumptions are Sesklo Hacilar and the beginning EH I/Thessalian EB I - beginning South-West Anatolian EB 2. The resulting chronology for Thessaly is thus adjusted to agree relatively and absolutely with the sequences and suggested dates of Troy, North-West Anatolia and Beycesultan. The Eutresis C 14 date 65 would then be only 200 to 300 years out. The published C 14 dates from the Balkans have been criticised as too early but J. Mellaart in a recent article 66 shows that from an Anatolian point of view these high dates are acceptable. The material
62 63 64 Hesperia XXIII 286 and 297. 65 Hesperia XXIX
Sherds in the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. See the forthcoming Beycesultan publication.
(i954), P1. ii b. In Lerna period IV see Hesperia XXIX
being " somewhat earlier in the 3rd millennium ". 66
Antiquity XXXIV (i960), 270 ff.
Caskey would estimate the beginnings of EH I as
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN
from Dikili Tash and Drama would support this on the assumption that Thracian shapes parallel and are contemporary with Western Anatolian ones. The beginnings of the Gumelnitza and Salcuta cultures would then be at least as early as Beycesultan 3/4 if not earlier. This would imply direct rather than indirect Anatolian influence. It also argues for continuous rather than intermittent contact between the areas concerned. On this view, the Early Bronze Age pottery of Chalcidice, of which the bowls with Troy I tubular lugs are characteristic, need not be considered as a survival in a refugee culture but as a local counterpart to Troy I proper. In view of the importance and spread of the Troy I culture it is unlikely that contact with the North Aegean was made only at one time and we may suppose that before, during and after Troy I, shapes were continually adopted as they came into vogue in Western Anatolia. If the development of shapes at Dikili Tash at all reflects that of Western Anatolia then it may even be possible to push the beginnings of graphite painting still further back. Whether this is possible in Balkan terms remain to be seen : it is certainly possible for Anatolia. The black on red ware would, as a further result, be brought nearer to the second half of the fifth millennium and the floruitof Star'evo III painted pottery. This leads back to Thessalian chronology. It is possible to argue to Thessaly from either of two different directions, each deriving ultimately from Western Anatolia. Possible synchronismsmight well be found on such sites as Stivos which seems to fall between the two provinces of West and Central Macedonian Late Neolithic and the Eastern Macedonian and Thracian graphite painted culture. Sherds from Stivos represent both areas. If a safe chronology could be achieved for Dikili Tash and Drama it should be possible to find an indirect link between Western Anatolia and Thessaly by way of Thrace and Macedonia. Further light might also be thrown on the earlier periods since it is now more than possible that Starcevo painted pottery preceded, in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, graphite-painted ware; equally, Starcevo painted pottery might succeed Red on Cream Thessalian ware and precede Late Neolithic in West and Central Macedonia.67 There is one more chronological link which must be considered. Miloj'id has found Cucuteni A-Gumelnitza I ware in Late Dhimini/Larisa contexts at Otzaki.68 This fact provides a direct connexion not only between Thessaly and the Balkans but also between Macedonian Late Neolithic, to which Larisa is closely related, and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and so, ultimately, to Western Anatolia.
There is now material evidence for a North-West Anatolian Late Chalcolithic period for the inland areas of Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir.
61 Excavations scheduled for summer 1961 on a site in Macedonia under the direction of Professor J. G. D. Clark and Mr. R. Rodden may well throw some light on this particular sequence. The results are to be published in the PPS. 68
AA. I959, 49, Fig. 4.
This means a phase of Beycesultan type pottery followed by one of Kumtepe I b type leading in turn to an EB culture similar to but not identical with Troy I. What is lacking is clearer definition of Besikatepe Pattern-Burnished pottery and the phase known as Kumtepe I a. Completely lacking is a phase corresponding with Beycesultan I, to fill the gap between Early Chalcolithic of Hacilar I type and Beycesultan 2 material. From the combined evidence of the South-West and the North-West Anatolian sites it has become much easier to define what were the pottery cultures of Western Anatolia in the fifth and fourth millennia B.c. Thus it is now possible to draw up a repertoire of shapes for this area and compare it with that of a pottery culture of a neighbouring region. In this article I have attempted to do this and positive results have been obtained for the areas where there is sufficient material evidence. For Athens and the Cyclades there is too little evidence to allow more than a glimpse of possible connexions. For the eastern islands of the Aegean (Lemnos, Chios, Samos) there is plentiful evidence of strong influence ; as in other periods the islands off the coast are naturally drawn within the Anatolian orbit. Thessaly during the West Anatolian Late Chalcolithic period, however, is closest to Macedonia and though there are sherds from sites in Thessaly of graphite-painted wares and at least one Kumtepe I b rolled rim, the pottery as a whole shows no influence from Thrace or Western Anatolia. The area of greatest contact seems to be Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. Here the study of the sherd collections from Drama, Dikili Tash and Paradimi has revealed an intriguing situation. If the chronological sequence can be shown by excavation to reflect that of Beycesultan, then it may be possible to assert that at least some of the shapes of the pottery culture of this area are either directly or indirectly derived from Western Anatolia. Others may be found in the future.
CATALOGUE OF ILLUSTRATED POTTERY
wherenoted ScaleI : 4 except FIGURE Beycesultan 4. I.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
XXXIX XXXVIII XXXVI XL XL XXXVIII XXXVIII XXXI
Jet-black burnished, white paint. Jet-black burnished, white paint. Jet-black burnished, white paint. Black burnished, white paint. Black burnished. Jet-black burnished, white paint. Brown burnished, white paint. Dark-brown burnished, white paint. Light-grey burnished. Red-brown burnished. Fine pink, mottled yellow burnished; red interior. Black burnished, white paint. Light-grey burnished. Red-topped, greyish-black burnished. Bluish-black burnished. m. Black burnished; diam. o.3o
Buff-topped, black burnished.
Io. XXVIII II. XXVII 12. XXVI b 13. XXVI b I4. XXVI b I5. XXV I6. XX I7. XXIV
9. XXXI a
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND AEGEAN 123
FIGa. Beycesultan. Late Chalcolithic pottery. 4
-29 2 22
FIG. 5. Akhisar-Manisa and Bahkesir. Late Chalcolithic pottery.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 125
18. XXII 19. XXIII 20. XXIII
Red-brown burnished ; diam. 0 -32 m. Black burnished ; diam. ? Fine mottled, red-brown-black burnished; interior black; diam.
0o37 m. Fine black to greyish-black burnished ; diam. 0o30 m.
Grey-black burnished. Dark-brown burnished, white paint.
and Bahkesir 5. Akhisar-Manisa Mottled dark red-brown-black, paint matt-white;
3. Pagak6y-Bahkesir Fine black, vertically burnished ; diam. ? c. I6 m. Black burnished ; diam. ? c. o-20 m. o" ,, 4. Fine buff-brown burnished ; diam. i8 m. ,, 5. burnished Mottled diam. o. 6.
o 165 m. Mottled dark brown-black, paint matt-white ; diam. 0o 1775 m.
,, ,, ,, ,,
; grey-black 0o22 m. Dark grey-black, burnished horizontally; diam. c. 0-20 m. Fine black, burnished horizontally ; diam. 0 -30 m. Mottled brown-black, vertically burnished ; diam. 0o20 m.
,, ,, 13. ,, 14. 15. Pamukcu N. 16. Pamukcu S. ,, I7. 19. Pamukcu S. 20. Arpah II S. 2I. Arpall II N. 22. Kennez II 23. Hacirahmanh 24. Arpah II S. 25. Kayl?lar
Fine black burnished, paint matt-white ; diam. o'24 m. Brown-red burnished, paint matt-white; diam. ? c. o'35 m. Dark red-brown burnished, paint matt-white ; diam. ? Black burnished, paint matt-white; diam. 0o22 m.
Black burnished ; diam. c. m. 0o40 Black burnished ; diam. ? Dark-brown, inside black, burnished ; diam. c. o -19 m. Brown to dark-red burnished ; diam. c. o'30 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. ?
18. Arpali II S.
Brown-topped, fine black burnished ; diam. ?
Fine black burnished ; diam. 0o315 im. Grey-black horizontally burnished ; diam. c.
Reddish-brown burnished ; diam. 0o28 m. Brown-black burnished ; diam. ?
26. Pamukcu N.
27. Pamukcu S. 28. Kaylxlar
Grey-black burnished ; diam. o022 m. Black-brown, vertically burnished ; diam. 0o'23 m. Black burnished ; diam. c. 0o34 m.
Black burnished ; diam. 0-26 m.
31. Pamukcu S.
30. Arpall II S.
Arpal II N.
Grey-black burnished ; diam. c. 0'30 m. Grey-black burnished ; diam. 0-22 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. 0-30 m.
Fine black burnished ; diam. 0o-365m.
Buff-brown burnished ; diam. ?
Black burnished ; diam. 0-375 m. Buff-topped black burnished; diam. c. o040 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. c. m.
Reddish-buff burnished, inside black; diam. c. 0-38 m. 0"'40 Fine black burnished ; diam. c. o036 m.
Mottled red-grey-black burnished; diam. c. 0-28 m. Black burnished ; diam. c. o032 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. 0-38 m. Fine black burnished; diam. ? c. m. Grey-black burnished; diam. c. 0.28 m. 0.28 Buff burnished, inside black; diam. o '20 m. Buff burnished ; diam. 0 28 m. Black burnished ; diam. m. Black burnished; diam. 0.32 m. 0-30 Grey-black burnished ; diam. nm. 0-40 Grey-brown burnished ; diam. 0"32 m. Red-brown burnished ; diam. 0 48 m. Black burnished ; diam. m. 0-34 diam. c. Dark-brown, inside pattern-burnished; m.
,, 37. ,, 38. ,, 39. ,, 40. 41. Arpalh I ,, 42. ,, 43. 44. Arpahl II N.
,, 46. 47. Kayxilar ,, 48. ,, 49. 50. Ovakoy I
51. Pamukcu S.
Kennez II Rahmiye ,, Pamukcu S. Pamukcu N.
52. 53. 54. 5556.
Fine black burnished, outside pattern-burnished ; diam. ? Buff-brown, outside pattern-burnished ; closed shape. Coarse brown ware, slightly burnished ; diam. c. 0o40 m. Coarse blackish ware, slightly burnished ; diam. c. o -40 m. Coarse brown-red, unburnished; diam. c. m. Dark reddish-brown burnished ; diam. ? o.34
Red-brown coarsely burnished ; diam. o024 m.
58. Pamukcu S. ,, 59.
62. ,, ,, ,,
Fine black burnished ; diam. o 16 m. Dark grey-brown burnished; diam. c.
Fine black burnished;
04o0 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. c. o- 18 m.
diam. c. o- 40 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. c. 0o 4o-50 m. FIGURE6
Kanallh Kiprii I. Fine black burnished, cord impressed ; wide necked jar. 2. Black burnished ; wide necked jar. 3. Buff-grey burnished ; diam. o- 19 m. Paradimi black burnished, very fine graphite paint ; shape not identified. 4. Streaky
56. 7. 8. 9. io. I I. 12.
14. Fine black-topped, red below carination, burnished ; diam. ? I5. Outside black, inside red burnished ; diam. c. o *25 m. 16. Black-topped, red below carination, fine burnished; shallow grooving;
01 O m. I3. Brown-red burnished ; diam. o-20 m.
Brown burnished, graphite paint ; diam. c. m. o.35 Streaky black burnished, graphite paint ; closed shape ; diam. oo09 m. Dark brown burnished, matt-white or poor graphite paint ; diam. o m. .36 Black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. o -20 m. Dark brown on buff, wet-burnished ; diam. ? Black on red, vertically burnished; shape ? neck of jar. Black-topped, red below carination, burnished ; shallow grooving or rippling ; diam.
Streaky brown burnished, graphite paint;
diam. c. 0-37 m.
20. Blackish burnished, uneven shallow grooves ; diam. c. 0o25 m. 21. Fine black burnished, shallow ridges; diam. o022 m. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.
Fine and black burnished ; shallow ridging ; diam. 0o 30 m. I7. Fine brown-topped olive-grey burnished ; shallow grooves; diam. o *20 m. i8. 19. Black burnished ; shallow ridging ; diam. ? c. o 33 m.
22. Fine grey burnished, buff below carination ; diam. o .30 m. Black rather Reddish burnished ; diam. o- i6 m. diam. o *32 m. 28. Black-brown-red mottled, burnished; diam. 0o26 m. 29. Black-topped, red below carination, burnished ; diam. 0.3
Reddish brown burnished;
uneven; diam. c. 0o35 m. burnished, Black burnished ; diam. c. m. 0.22 Red-brown burnished; diam. 0-30 m.
diam. o037 m.
reddish-brown below carination, burnished;
32. Brown burnished ; diam. o 030
m. 14 m. 34. Brownish burnished; diam. o. o025 m. 33. Brownish burnished ; diam.
31. Brown burnished ; shallow scalloping on carination ; diam. 026 m. o
3. Fine black-topped, brown burnished; diam. o026 m. 4. ? Black-topped, red burnished ; diam. 15 m. o. m. 5. Black burnished ; diam.
FIGURE 7. Paradimi Fine black burnished ; diam. 0.32 m. i. 2. Fine black-topped, reddish burnished; diam. o024 m.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND MEGEAN 127
27 25 26
FIG. 6. Kanalhl Kprui.
Paradimi. Nos. 4-34.
FIG. 7. Paradimi. Pots (Nos. 46-48) in Salonika Museum. Not to scale.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 129
FIG. 8. Dikili Tash. Graphite-painted ware.
i ns . s.in
FIG. 9. Dikili Tash. Graphite-painted, other Painted and Plain wares.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 131
Fine black burnished; diam. m. o.32 Black burnished, inside red ; diam. o03o m. Black burnished; diam. o024 m. m. Black-topped, red burnished ; diam. o.2 Fine black burnished in and out ; diam. o -o6 m. Fine black burnished in and out ; diam. c. o-o9 m. 16 m. 12. Dark brown burnished ; diam. o" I3. Greyish-black burnished; diam. o-33 m. 6. 7. 8. 9. Io. I .
14. Greyish-brown burnished ; diam. o-21 m. m. 15. Grey-buff burnished ; diam. o'25 16. Olive-black burnished; diam. m. o'25 I7. Grey-black burnished ; diam. o-21 m.
18. Black-topped, red burnished ; diam. 185 m. o. i9. Dark brown burnished ; diam. o. I6 m. m. 20. Red slipped and burnished; diam. c.
m. 21. Black burnished ; diam. 0o35 diam. 0 22. Very coarse brown; o40 m. o.35 23. Red-brown burnished ; square incision on rim; diam. o*32 m. 24. Black burnished; diam. c. o-34 m. 25. Black burnished ; rippling in rim ; diam. o .34 m. m. 27. Fine black burnished ; shallow ridges ; diam. 0o27 .36 black burnished
26. Black burnished ; broad rippling on rim ; diam. o
Fine black burnished ; shallow ridges ; diam. o02o m. 30. Fine black burnished ; shallow ridges ; diam. oI 12 m.
; shallow ridges ; diam. o* Io m.
3'1. Fine black burnished ; shallow ridges. 32. Grey-black horizontally burnished ; incised and white filled. 33. Fine black burnished ; wedge impressions ; diam. o02o m. 34. Grey-brown burnished ; incised dots ; diam. ? 35. Black burnished ; white filled incision; diam. o026 m. 36. Coarse grey-brown ; top of rim incised ; diam. ? 38. 3940. 4I.
37. Dark brown burnished ; diam. c. o-30 m.
Box : buff ware, slightly coarse ; incised on both sides and top. Small bowl : blackish burnished, slightly coarse ; incised on top of handle. Dark reddish-brown burnished ; from a large closed shape. Red-brown burnished ; diam. ? o.34 m. at top.
13 m., diam.
42. Black unevenly burnished ; diam. c. 0 *30 m.
43. Fine grey-black burnished ; excised grooves or fluting ; diam. c.
44. Black-brown, rather coarse ; diam. c. 0o37 m. m. Not to scale.
45. Reddish-brown burnished, fairly coarse ; diam. c. 30 m. 46. Salonika Museum. Black-topped burnished ware, stem red ; height
o. 47. Salonika Museum. Black burnished ; height c. 0o30 m. Not to scale.
48. Salonika Museum.
Fine black burnished ; height oo05 m., diam. o* 135 m. Not to
8. Dikili Tash
I. Fine black burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 0 - 28 m.
2. Olive-brown and reddish burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. m. 0.30 3. Olive-brown and reddish burnished, fine graphite paint; inside also patterned;
diam. c. o 26 m.
4. 5. 6. 7.
.20 9. Brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 0-30 m. Io. Reddish burnished, fine graphite paint; outside also patterned; diam. 0"24 m. 1i. Black burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. o0 26 m. I2. Dark red burnished, fine graphite paint; inside also patterned; diam. o 32 m.
8. Dark brownish burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. c. o
Black burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. c. m. 0"25 Brown-black burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. o036 m. Streaky black burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. ? Brownish-black burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. o02o m.
STUDIES outside also patterned; diam. c.
Black and red burnished, fine graphite paint;
14. Olive-brown and reddish burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. ? 9. Dikili Tash I. Blackish burnished, graphite paint ; inside also patterned ; diam. 0o32 m. 2. Dark brown to black burnished, once graphite painted inside and outside; diam.
18. Dark reddish-brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. o -I8 m. 19. Dark brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 0-12 m. 20o. Dark-red and brown burnished, once graphite painted inside and outside; diam. 0o30 m. 21. Fine black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. 0-26 m. 22. Dark olive-brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 0 - 30 m. 23. Fine black burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. o 20 m. 25. 26. 27. 28. 31. 32. 33. 34.
24. Fine black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. o-30o m. m. Pale brown burnished, graphite paint ; diam. o.26 Red ? slipped and burnished, black paint ; shape, a bowl.
Black burnished ; diam. 0o32 m. Black burnished ; diam. ? o -20 m. Reddish-brown burnished; diam. o022 m. Reddish-brown burnished ; diam. o 25 m. Fine black burnished ; ? once graphite painted ; diam. o-25 m. I5. I6. Reddish-brown burnished ; diam. o '24 m. I7. Brown burnished; diam. o-20 m. II. 12. 13. 14.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Io.
Dark brown to black burnished ; diam. c. m. o.30 Olive and black burnished, once graphite painted inside and outside ; diam. 0o32 m. m. Reddish-brown burnished; diam. 0o24 Black-brown burnished ; diam. o-36 m. Brown and black burnished ; diam. o-3o m. Dark reddish burnished, graphite paint inside only ; diam. c. o-28 m. m. Dark reddish-brown burnished, once graphite painted ; diam. 0o24 Black burnished ; diam. 0-26 m.
30. Cream slipped and burnished, brown paint ; diam. o014 m.
29. Fine black burnished, shallow grooves ; diam. 0o23 m.
Pale red burnished, pale brown paint ; diam. i6 m. o. Red ? slipped and burnished, brown paint ; diam. ?
36. Black burnished outside, red inside ; incised and white filled ; diam. c. o*30 m. 37. Fine black burnished, ridges and deep grooves ; diam. o030 m. 38. Uneven brown to black burnished, deep grooves on rim ; diam. 0o295 m.
39. Black burnished, notches on rim ; diam. o'2075 m.
35. Fine black burnished, shallow grooves ; diam. o 12 m.
Fine black burnished, incised dots, and graphite paint ; diam. o0-22 m. Very fine black burnished inside, black-topped red burnished outside ; diam. o0-20 m. Fine black burnished inside, black-topped red burnished outside ; diam. o 28 m. Fine black burnished, fine shallow grooves ; diam. o0 15 m.
I. 2. 3. 4.
m. Olive-brown to black burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. o-26 m. Brown burnished, fine graphite paint; outside also patterned; diam. Dark red to brown burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. c. 0-20 m. 0.30 Dark reddish-brown burnished, poor graphite paint ; diam. 0-30 m.
6. Streaky reddish-brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. c. 0o50 m. m. 7. Brownish burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 8. Streaky black burnished, graphite paint; inside 0.34 worn, once patterned; diam. very 9. Reddish to black burnished, fine graphite paint; diam. c. o040 m. Io. Brownish burnished, fine graphite paint; inside very worn, once patterned ; diam.
c. 0"40 m.
5. Black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. o0 172 m.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND AIGEAN 133
FIG. Io. Drama. Graphite-painted ware.
FIG. I I.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND AEGEAN 135
/ 15 15 /
Drama. Graphite-painted, other Painted and Black Burnished wares.
_ ins. E129
272 36 29
ns.30 33 37
FIG. 13. Drama. Nos. I-iI.
Black Burnished and Plain ware. Stivos. Nos. 12-37. Graphite-painted, other Painted, Black Burnished and Plain wares.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND AEGEAN 137
I 1. Dark red burnished, fine graphite paint ; outside very worn, once patterned ; diam. o026 m. 12. Pale red burnished, poor graphite paint ; diam. c. o.22 m. 13. Brownish-red to black burnished, fine graphite paint ; inside worn, once patterned ; 14. Mottled brown-olive-red burnished ; very worn, once patterned inside and outside;
diam. c. 0o30 m. 15. Red-brown burnished; 04o0 m. c. 0o35 m.
FIGURE I I.
diam. c. 0o28 m.
very worn, once patterned inside and outside;
16. Brown to black burnished, graphite paint;
outside worn, once patterned; diam.
i. Black burnished, graphite paint; inside also patterned ; diam. 0o38 m. 2. Reddish-brown burnished, graphite paint ; inside also patterned; diagonal grooves on carination; diam. 0o46 m. 3. Streaky reddish-brown burnished, fine graphite paint ; ? oval or pointed dish. 4. Brownish burnished, graphite paint ; inside also patterned ; diam. 0o30 m. 5. Pale reddish-brown burnished, graphite paint ; diam. 0 28 m. 6. Black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. 0o26 m. 7. Reddish-black burnished, graphite paint; diam. 0o32 m. 8. Streaky brownish-black burnished, very worn graphite paint ; diam. 0 -34 m. 9. Blackish burnished, graphite paint; diam. 0.30 m. Io. Inside rough and untreated, outside brownish burnished ; graphite paint ; ? bowl or (inverted) pedestal base ; diam. 0o26 m. I1. Inside rough and untreated, outside brownish burnished ; graphite and ? crusted red (hatched) paint; pattern, lines in squares run together to form chequers (cf. 12. Fine black burnished, fine graphite paint ; shape ? jar neck ; diam. c. o-I m. and untreated, outside black burnished; fine graphite paint; ? bowl 13. Inside rough m. or (inverted) pedestal base ; diam. 0o"34 14. Brownish-black burnished inside and outside, graphite paint ; open shape. m. 15. Fine black burnished, graphite paint ; ? jar neck ; diam. m. 0.20 16. Black burnished, graphite paint ; ?jar neck ; diam. o.16 17. Outside fine black burnished, fine graphite paint ; shape ?jug or jar. Dark reddish-brown burnished, fine graphite paint; shape ? oval or pointed dish, 18. straight rim. 19. Red burnished inside and outside, poor graphite paint; inside also patterned; diam. ? 20. Outside fine black burnished, inside grey burnished; fine graphite and crusted red (hatched) paint ; horizontal lines and crescents incised and white filled ; diam. 0o48 m.
Fig. 8 :
) ; ? bowl or pedestal base ; diam. 0o22 m.
m. 3. Red slipped and burnished, dark brown to black paint ; diam. 0.28m. 0.28 4. Brown-black streaky burnished ; diam. c. 0o40om.
5. Buff and black burnished; 0o30 m.
2. Black burnished, graphite paint ; deep grooves and dots ; diam. diam. c. o 30 m.
i. Pale brown-black burnished, fine graphite paint ; diam. 0-32 m.
6. Uneven black burnished; diam. c. o0 30 m. 7. Red slipped and burnished inside and outside, brown " metallic " paint; 8. 9. Io. Ii.
I2. I3. 14. 15.
Red slipped and burnished outside only, black paint ; closed shape. m. Red slipped and burnished, brownish paint ; diam. ? c. o.50 Red slipped and burnished, black paint; diam. probably c. o o65 m. Cream slip and burnished outside only, pale greyish black paint; closed shape. Cream slip and burnished outside only, purplish brown paint; diam. ? Red ? slipped and burnished, black paint ; shape bowl. Red ? slipped and burnished, black paint ; inside unpainted ; diam. of base 0 - Io m. Inside fine black burnished, outside black-topped bright red fine burnished; diam.
16. Inside greyish-black (? not slipped) burnished, outside black-topped bright red fine burnished ; diam. o-26 m. Inside and outside black-topped bright red fine burnished ; diam. 0-24 m. 17. I8. Inside grey burnished (? not slipped), outside black-topped bright red fine burnished ; diam. o014 m. i9. Inside brownish-black burnished (? not slipped), outside black-topped, bright red (below carination) fine burnished ; diam. o014 m. 20o. Inside greyish-blackburnished (? not slipped), outside black-topped, bright red (below carination) fine burnished ; diam. c. o0 158 m. 21. Inside greyish-black burnished (? not slipped), outside fine black burnished; diam.
Inside grey burnished (? not slipped), outside black-topped, bright red (below carination) fine burnished ; fine grooves ; diam. c. o- I9 m. 23, 24, 25, as 22. 24, diam. o-i9 m.; 23, 25, diam. ?
FIoURiE13. Drama i. Inside grey burnished (? not slipped), outside fine black burnished ; vertical handle
from rim; diam. o-o8 m. Inside grey burnished (? not slipped), outside fine black burnished ; diam. 12 m. o. As 2 ; diam. o'14 m. Pale brown burnished, carination incised ; diam. og19 m. Pale brown burnished, carination grooved ; diam. O-25 m. Brown burnished; diam. 0o28 m. Brown burnished, sharp horizontal ridges ; diam. c. 0o15 m. Brown burnished ; handle or lug on carination ; diam. 0o25 m. Streaky brown burnished ; diam. x8 m. o. 1o. Red-brown burnished ; diam. 0 -25 m. Pale brown burnished, incised. Ii. Stivos 12. Dark streaky brown burnished ; once graphite painted inside and outside; grooves on carination ; diam. ? Black burnished, graphite paint; diam. c. o-28 m. 13. 14. Black burnished, graphite paint ; diam. ? 15. Red-black burnished; diam. c. 0- 40 m. x6. Red-black burnished ; diam. c. 0o28 m. I 7 Pale brown burnished ; ? lug below rim ; diam. m. o-24 18. Blackish burnished, once graphite painted inside and outside ; diam. 0 22 m. 19. Inside red, outside black burnished ; ? graphite paint ; diam. c. 38 m. 0o 2o. Greyish-black burnished ; diam. o022 m. 21. Dark red to black burnished; diam. c. o-30 m. 22. Olive-black burnished ; diam. c. m. o.36 23. Dark red burnished; rim impressed ; diam. c. 0.34 m. 24. Dark reddish-brown burnished, rim grooved ; diam. c. 0 -28 m. 25. Fine black burnished, graphite paint ; inside not painted ; diam. o-28 m. 26. Brownish-red burnished, graphite paint ; diam. c. I7 m. o. m. 27. Black burnished; diam. c. 28. Red slipped and burnished,o.30 paint; diam. o-26 m. black 29. Buff burnished, dark brown paint ; diam. c. o '20 m. 30. Pale brown-buff burnished, dark purplish-brown paint ; diam. c. o 20 m. 3'. Red burnished, once painted (? black) outside ; diam. c. m. 0.22 32. Coarse buff-brown, surface scored; diam. c. o030 m. 33. Dark brown burnished, ? graphite painted inside ; diam. o I2 m. 34. Pale red burnished, purplish-brown paint ; rim oval. 35. Fine black burnished, ridged or rippled; diam. o0-24 m. 36. Mottled grey-black burnished; diam. c. o 19 m. 37. Fine black burnished, rippled, graphite paint; diam. c. m. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
o.28 14. Thessaly FIGUREa
Matt black on orange-buff burnished ground; diam. o 18 m. I. W-T 22 2. Karatsoli W. Blackish on buff burnished ground ; diam. 14 m. o.
LATE CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY IN TURKEY AND zEGEAN 139
FIG.14. Thessaly. Middle Greek,Arapi and Otzaki Dhimini wares.
FIG. 15. Thessaly. Nos. 1-20. Dhimini, Larisa and other Black Burnished, Grey-on-Grey, Rakhmani, Early Bronze wares. Kumtepe I b type Rims from Naxos, Paros, Athens. Nos. 21-24.
LATE CHALCOLITHICPOTTERY IN TURKEY AND IEGEAN 141
3. GR 144 4. W-T 6 5. GR 147 6. W-T 6 7. W-T 6 8. W-T 22 9. W-T 6 Io. W-T 22 Ii. Karaikia II 12. W-T 21 13. GR I40 W-T 17 GR 141 GR 140 GR 140 GR 140 W-T 12 GR 130 21. GR 133 22. W-T 6 14. 15. I6. I7. 18. 19. 20. 23. W-T 33 Inside black, outside black-topped pale brown; pattern burnished; diam. 0o20 m. Inside black, outside black-topped reddish burnished; pattern burnished ; diam. 18 m. o. Black, pattern burnished; diam. c. o022 m. Inside black, pattern burnished; outside blotchy brown-black m. burnished ; thick matt-white paint ; diam. ? c. o.20 Inside black, outside brownish burnished ; matt-white paint ; diam. 0"22 m. Inside black, outside red-brown burnished; probably pattern burnished inside ; diam. 0 24 m. Inside black, outside brownish-red burnished; matt-white paint; diam. ? Fine black inside and outside, pattern burnished ; diam. c. o0 17 m. Black and orange-red on buff slip ; diam. o0-2 m. Pale brown and orange-red on cream slip; diam. 0o24 m. Pale chocolate-brown and orange-red on buff ground; diam. c. o-I8 m. Pale brown and red on buff ground ; diam. 0 - 15 m. Black and orange-red on cream slip ; diam. ? c. 0-30 m. Chocolate-brown on cream slip ; diam. o -215 m. Chocolate-brown on cream slip ; diam. 0-26 m. Pale brown on cream slip ; diam. I8 m. o. Black on red ; diam. 0o25 m. Red slipped and burnished ; diam. o-20 m. Black on red ; diam. 0 -28 m. Inside black, outside black-topped streaky red-brown burnished; diam. o -I8 m. Black on red; diam. o021 m.
x. W-T 17 W-T 8
Outside white on red, inside brown on cream; diam. 0o26 m. Chocolate-brown on buff ground; inside also patterned; diam.
Rizomylo-Platomaghoula. Red and black on buff; fruitstand. W-T 21 Very fine black burnished, thin white paint ; diam. o 18 m. Karatsoli N. Very fine black burnished, thin white paint ; diam. o- I2 m. As 5. W-T 22 Black burnished, outside rippled ; diam c. 0-20 m. 7. GR 138 c. Fine black burnished; wedge impressed, probably white filled; 8. GR 147 diamn. 0o26 m. Grey-on-grey ; diam. 0o26 m. 9. GR i44 Io. GR 138 Grey-on-grey ; diam. o-o8 m. . GR 147 Grey-on-grey; diam. ? I 12. Karatsoli W. Streaky black burnished ; diam. 0o28 m. Fine black burnished ; diam. 0 -36 m. 13. W-T 8 Fine black burnished ; diam. 0o36 m. 14. W-T 9 Fine black burnished ; vertical lug below rim ; diam. 0o36 m. I5. W-T 6 Crusted pink on buff ground; diam. 0o18 m. 16. Kypseli II Crusted pink on buff ground; diam. o024 m. 17. GR '44 Red slipped and burnished; diam. m. I8. GR 14I 0.26 Red slipped and burnished ; diam. o0'24 m. I9. W-T 14 3. 4. 5. 6.
Red burnished ; diam. 0o27 nm.
22. Naxos 23. Paros 24. Athens
Black burnished ; diam. 0-22 m. Red burnished; vertical white lines on lug; diam. o02o m. Agora P 13874; dark brown burnished; diam. c. o033 m.
Black burnished ; diam. c. o 2 m.
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