The following text was originally published in Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International

Bureau of Education), vol. XXIII, no. 1/2, 1993, p. 353-372. ©UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, 2000 This document may be reproduced free of charge as long as acknowledgement is made of the source.

(259-339 AH/872-950 AD)
’Ammar al-Talbi

Throughout the ages thinkers have raised the question of what the human being ought to learn in order to be in tune with his own epoch, to live intelligently in society, and to be a citizen bringing benefit both to himself and to the community; hence the importance of education. It is the aim of education which take precedence, only then come the means to realize these aims. For the most part, it is philosophy which is concerned with defining these aims, and here it may come into direct conflict with religion; the Islamic civilization has experienced numerous controversies between religious lawyers (fuqaha) and philosophers in this respect, each with his own opinion about gnoseology. The aim of this paper is to present the attitudes to education of Abu Nasr al-Farabi within the framework of his philosophical system, an aspect of his work about which little was known, since researchers have been more interested in the logical, metaphysical and political aspects, to the neglect of his educational concepts. However, scholars do know that al-Farabi studied Plato’s Republic and this work, by which he was most certainly influenced, deals 2 mainly with education, as is now accepted by historians of philosophy. It is even more unlikely that al-Farabi could have been unaware of this dimension of Plato’s philosophy since he made a summary of Plato’s Laws, a work which we know expresses his final thoughts on education. So who is al-Farabi, and what is his contribution to education? Al-Farabi was born in Wasij, in the province of Farab in Turkestan, in 872 AD (259 AH) of a noble family. His father, of Persian origin, was an army commander at the Turkish court. Al-Farabi moved to Baghdad, where he studied grammar, logic, philosophy, music, mathematics and sciences; he was a pupil of the great translator and interpreter of Greek philosophy, Abu Bishr Matta b. Yunus (d. 942/329) in Baghdad; he then studied under Yuhanna b. Haylan, the Nestorian (d. 941/328), in Harran. Thereby he is affiliated to the Alexandrian school of philosophy which had been located at Harran, Antakya and Merv, before definitively settling in Baghdad. As a result of these years of study, he accumulated such knowledge of philosophy that he earned the name of the ‘Second Teacher’, by reference to Aristotle, the ‘First Teacher’. He moved to Aleppo in the year 943 (330) and became part of the literary circle in the court of Sayf al-Dawla Hamdani (d. 968/356). Al-Farabi was given to wandering on his own in the countryside to reflect and to write, and it was probably his despair at reforming his society that inclined him towards Sufism. His travels brought him to Egypt and it was in 3 Damascus in 950 (339) that he died at the age of 80. Al-Farabi had a great desire to understand the universe and humankind, and to know the latter’s place within the former, so as to reach a comprehensive intellectual picture of the world and of society. He undertook the meticulous study of ancient philosophy, particularly of Plato and Aristotle, absorbing the components of Platonic and neo-Platonic philosophy, which he integrated into his own Islamic-Arabic civilization, whose chief source is, as we all know, the Qur’an and the various sciences derived from it. 1

Then. which incline to integrate separate concepts and thoughts into a ‘unified world view’. which is the highest perfection—the absolute good. for. The goal of education is to lead the individual to perfection since the human being was created for this purpose. in fact. Indeed. as already mentioned. making political science the core of his philosophy. thus 2 . He established logic within Islamic culture. anyone who follows his writings with care will come upon various texts scattered here and there containing clear educational elements corresponding to his overall philosophical views. there is a general unity of thought between Plato and Aristotle. in his opinion. he lived in a historical period of great turmoil. Therefore we find him also bringing together the philosophy of Plato and of Aristotle to explain the unity of intellect. can be summed up as the acquisition of values. which al-Farabi held to be the highest level of 5 intellectual attainment permitted to human beings in this life. knowledge and practical skills by the individual. is the one who has obtained theoretical virtue—thus completing his intellectual knowledge—and has acquired practical moral virtues—thus becoming perfect in his moral behavior. it is neither in conflict nor in contradiction with it. The aims of education In fact. The perfect human being (al insan al kamil). the whole activity of education. and the goal of humanity’s existence in 6 this world is to attain happiness. the disparities being mere details. crowning these theoretical and moral virtues with effective power. wisdom and religion. al-Farabi often compares the order and unity of the city to that of the universe. which should be the same as the unity and order found in the universe. and sects and schools of thought (madhahib) sprang up undermining the nation’s intellectual and political unity (oumma). within a particular period and a particular culture. since he was the true first founder of epistemology which relies upon ‘universal reason’ and the demonstrations he gave. the variance between them being only in the form of expression: philosophy explains religion and provides proof of it. the logical category called ‘demonstration’ whose social and educational function he illustrated in the formation of the mind and of political awareness. It is especially important to note here that al-Farabi described something that was taboo in the Hellenistic era: namely. political and social circumstances prevailing in his day no doubt explain his approach since. Philosophy and religion were for him simply two expressions of a single truth.Al-Farabi represents a turning-point in the history of Islamic philosophical thought. Thus the core of his philosophy came to be the unity of society and of the State to be achieved by unity of thought. Thus al-Farabi’s concern was to restore unity to Islamic thought by confirming the gnoseology based on demonstration. in al-Farabi’s view. However. He believed the first aim of knowledge was knowledge of God and his attributes. while it is true that there are no writings specifically devoted to education in al-Farabi’s books. It is concerned with the human soul and makes sure that the individual is prepared from an early age to become a member of society. education is one of the most important social phenomena in al-Farabi’s philosophical system. while indirectly arousing the intellect so that it should achieve wisdom. He was also engaged in restoring unity in politics. basing himself on the system of rules which governs nature and on the Qur’an which emphasized the relationship between gnoseology and values (axiology). The intellectual. during which the central Islamic caliphate was torn apart into independent states and principalities in both the east and west. to achieve his own level of perfection. Indeed. each of these being the foundations of the community’s government. they are anchored in the souls of individual 7 members of the community when they assume the responsibility of political leadership. a knowledge which has a profound effect on the human being’s moral conduct and helps him to find the way to the ultimate aim of his existence. and thus to reach the goal for which he was created. and this is why he is known as the ‘Second 4 Teacher’. thought al-Farabi.

otherwise they are void and useless. [. When moral behavior declines and there is doubt over behavior and opinions. courage. in his view. for the wise are ‘those who are very proficient in the arts. has the function of a doctor who treats souls and his political skill is to the wellbeing of the city what the physician’s skill is to bodily health. Thus.. the absence of these common values governing people’s conduct disturbs the city. the family and the city in social life: ‘What we say about all cities is 12 also true of the single household. just as the body needs food and the ship must have a captain. he must use his political skills to protect the virtues and praiseworthy activities that he has been encouraging in 13 the citizens so that they are free of failings. in al-Farabi’s view. then.] so that he pursues always those ends which are truly good and 17 makes them his goal’. and of each person’. Al-Farabi defines virtues as ‘states of mind in which the human being carries out good and kind deeds. and achieving this balance is one of the most important aims of education. The political leader.. if the speculative sciences are learned without having the opportunity to apply them. in other words ‘an intellectual capacity by which he can 14 draw out what is most beneficial and most fair in the search for the good among others’ . perfection in theoretical and practical arts is one of the expressions of wisdom. among others. If he were to live outside 9 society. Moreover. 16 generosity and justice’. The real practical 20 sciences ‘are those which are linked to readiness for action’ and absolute perfection is ‘what 21 the human being achieves through knowledge and action applied together’ . for it is society that nurtures the individual and prepares him to be free.becoming role models for other people. for the purpose of knowledge is that it should be applied. such as wisdom. one of the goals of education is to combine learning with practical action. There is integration between the individual.] They can be either ethical or rational. and reach perfection in 18 them’. 19 its perfection lies in it actually being practiced’. and perfection lies in its being transformed into action: ‘Whatever by its nature should be known and practiced. al-Farabi considers. 3 . moral conduct must proceed from the soul and the citizens have a real need for a leader who conducts an acceptable policy. The sciences have no meaning unless they can be applied in practical reality.. Al-Farabi unites moral and aesthetic values: good is 8 beautiful. this wisdom is 22 marred. So this perfection which he expects from education combines knowledge and virtuous behavior. Among the other characteristics of the political leader is the ‘consultative faculty’. directing their affairs in a praiseworthy manner and improving their situation. The ethical virtues are. because. inventiveness and cleverness. The work of the politician should not be restricted to the organization and management of cities. one of the goals of education is the creation of the ideal community. Morality. al-Farabi includes ‘proficiency in the arts’. One of the aims of education is the formation of political leaders. common sense. he might only learn to be a wild animal. is a fundamental objective of education. because ‘ignorance is 11 more harmful in monarchs than it is in the common people’ So.. Theoretical and practical perfection can only be obtained within society. temperance. in al-Farabi’s view. rather than being harmed by them. ‘the one whose cities all work together in order to attain 10 happiness’. it is happiness and goodness at one and the same time. finds them attractive [. These virtues in the individual must be internalized in the soul so that a person is ready to act upon them ‘to earnestly desire them and. Among the other aims assigned to education. Then. the latter are virtues of the rational element in the intelligent human being. The soundness of the city is a reflection of ‘the good balance of morals among its 15 people’. inasmuch as he encourages people to help one another in achieving good things and overcoming evil. the beautiful is that which is valued by the intelligentsia. and beauty is good.

This kind of instruction is directed at the elite ‘who do not restrict themselves in their theoretical knowledge to what is expected by generally accepted opinions. if they did not see him observing his own laws. Therefore al-Farabi considers that the one who prescribes the laws must be bound by them himself before expecting others to conform to them: ‘The one who sets the laws must first follow them. The latter forms ethical conduct. Issuing laws for society does not simply mean ‘that citizens should be obedient and diligent. and on another occasion he defined 40 instruction as including discipline. al-Farabi agrees with Plato and the ‘Twelver Shica’ that it is the what is demanded by generally accepted opinions’. training (tahdhib). including the Prophet. there is an elite and the general public. It is the 43 elite of the elite which exercises leadership. exercise or learning (irtiyad). and is mainly verbal.Concerning the realization of these aims and the supervision of education and teaching. but also that they should have 25 praiseworthy morals and acceptable behavior’. guidance (tasdid). But al-Farabi did not insist on this division. whom al-Farabi defines as: ‘He who lays down the practices and the 28 holy laws. ‘in other words the power which the human 4 30 . It is for this reason that the method of instruction is different: ‘Persuasive and descriptive methods are used in the instruction of common people and the masses in nations and cities. one who is well-regarded’. instruction 34 35 36 (ta’lim). as among citizens. and leads to technical or practical skills. while demonstration methods [. al-Farabi concludes that the law has an educational function: ‘The meaning of imam. as well as other State resources for this purpose: ‘Taxes and duties are of two kinds: one is taken to support mutual assistance and 29 the other for the education of the young’. and the imam’s or caliph’s aim in legislation must be to please God. nor would they respect him. For this purpose.] are used for instructing 44 those who are destined to form part of the elite’. Al-Farabi believes that education is founded upon the basis of the human being having certain inborn aptitudes. taking a portion from the alms tax (zakat) and land tax (kharaj). The function of the caliph is to pursue the educational role previously undertaken by the Prophet. And since the lawgiver is also the ruler. 31 32 33 correction/assessment (taqwim). and the practical arts in the nations’. The general public designates those who are restricted in their theoretical knowledge 42 whether by obligation or not . and upbringing or education (tarbiya). The special is ‘that which 41 is achieved exclusively by demonstration’. the law has an educational function since it leads to the inculcation of virtues when the leaders conform to it themselves and are seen as role models for the general public. Al-Farabi considers it a duty of the State to put aside a budget for education. in their true educational meaning are 37 the ‘combination of all the good qualities’. Good manners or culture (adab). those who have been tested and found to have superior intelligence. because among nations. in his opinion.. and admonishes the people by incitement and intimidation’. In short. which he calls ‘nature’. while discipline is the ‘way of creating the moral 38 virtues. For he would not be acceptable to those under his command. What is education? Al-Farabi used a large number of technical terms to describe this concept: discipline (ta’dib). ruler or philosopher 23 who should be responsible. and only then make them 26 compulsory’. in Arabic. The former is the way of acquiring a theoretical culture. They are therefore quite different. indicates one whose 24 example is followed.. Instruction (ta’lim) is ‘creating the speculative 39 virtues in nations and cities’. Al-Farabi divides instruction between ‘special’ and ‘general’. the lawgiver 27 must be trained from childhood in the affairs of State. Al-Farabi distinguishes between instruction (ta’lim) and discipline (ta’dib). Only those whom God has prepared may make laws.

The demonstrative path is achieved through speech.. just as the whole is greater than the part. as opposed to the demonstrative discourse ‘whereby it is sought to instruct the truth. in his opinion. the method of instruction may also vary according to the instructional material. as he sees it. based on persuasion. dealing with what today we would call general psychology and educational psychology should be the 52 subject of an interesting study. based on demonstration. Education. become intellectual possessions. in the end. There are two fundamental methods: the path of the common people.. without reaching certainty’. He emphasized the importance of discussion and dialogue in instruction. since whatever the soul understands contains an 49 element of imagination. Knowledge originates with the senses. Thus. and to explain it in such a way as to bring about 5 . When speaking to the common people. according to al55 Farabi’s words. Some of his views. if education must be available to all. both of these ‘can be used 58 orally or in writing’. is therefore ‘that in which the teacher uses speech’ for matters which can be taught in this way. Al-Farabi defines the discourse of persuasion as: ‘persuading the listener with what will 59 satisfy his mind. we are aware of this equality. for it is the mind which has the potential of understanding. We find this too in al-Biruni (d. is necessary for every individual in the nation. The persuasive method is conducted through speech and activity together. although he does not consider it as the only method to escape from the world of sensory perception to arrive at the world of intelligentsia—beginning with contradictory ideas to arrive at unity. and learning is remembering what the soul knew before it 54 came into the body’.] forgetting is the passing away of knowledge. It leads to the acquisition of theoretical virtues. he considers that the senses are only instruments of the mind. Aural instruction. and which he could not have acquired’. Furthermore. and is suitable for teaching the applied arts 56 and moral virtues. Al-Farabi also speaks about 47 ‘primary science’ and ‘primary principals’. the path of the elite. in other words the concept of ‘equality’ is presented to the memory which compares it with the concept already in the mind. Although he deals with sensory knowledge. Knowledge thus begins with the senses. He differs from Plato in that he gives a fundamental place to sensory perception. He describes the senses as ‘the paths whence the 48 human soul gains knowledge’. while teaching practical arts and crafts is by way of persuasion. the methods used must be those closest to their powers of comprehension. Al-Farabi drew attention to Aristotle’s opinion in The Book of Demonstrations when he said: ‘Whosoever loses a sensory 50 perception loses knowledge’.being possesses at the moment of birth. 57 Following Plato’s model. He pointed to Plato’s opinion that the nature of learning is based on ‘memory’ and gives a metaphor of the concept of ‘equality’ which. and indicated two methods: the method of argument and the method of discourse. depending on whether people belong to the common people or the elite. is fixed in the mind: confronted with a piece of wood which is equal to another piece of wood. 1048/444): ‘Our learning is no more than remembering what we have learned in the past [. the method of teaching should however be adapted according to the group it is intended for. since without it nobody would be able to reach perfection and happiness. ‘Any learner proceeds in the same way by 53 comparing it with what is already in his mind’. 45 Teaching methods As we have seen. So. teaching theoretical intellectual virtues is carried out by demonstration. al-Farabi considers that the method of instruction must be appropriate to the level of the learners. No normal 46 human being lacks it. then becomes an intellectual conception by way of imagination. One function of the imagination is to preserve the sensory 51 images which. al-Farabi used the method of dialogue or debate. enabling them to grasp what they are capable of understanding.

such as writing: ‘Skill in writing is acquired only when the person copies the action of a skilful scribe. such as music. Habituation is not only a technique for teaching moral virtues. As for the debating method. To sum up. To sum up. There is another kind of discourse used by al-Farabi which he calls ‘scientific 63 discourse’. or from the replies obtained or. Ethical virtues are acquired by habituation and repetition. Averroës agreed with him when he stated that ‘there are two sorts of learning: by speech and by 65 imitation’. Understanding something implies that the essence of the thing has been comprehended by the intellect and that the thing can be represented by something that resembles it. Al-Farabi sums up all the foregoing in his book Al-Alfaz. or persuasion. by this I mean the frequent 70 repetition of a particular action. the objective of the discourse method is simply to persuade without reaching certainty. at short intervals. Persuasion achieves its purpose when it leads to ‘the hearer doing things 61 that he is convinced are true’. and by creating acceptance of what has been understood. and the way of imitation which is based on observing other people’s actions in order to imitate or apply them. over a long period of time’. The power to represent things by their metaphors is useful in two fields: for instruction and guidance. it being understood that the latter meant adopting a model and applying it. the repetitive method is appropriate for teaching ethics and practical arts. which is the religious 69 method. that ‘by which the knowledge of something is obtained’ either through asking questions about the thing. saying that instruction has two aspects: the way of audition or learning based on speech. which is the philosophical approach. In short. the educator resorts to metaphors or appropriate 66 illustrations. and for confronting someone who stubbornly denies the 68 way of truth. So. but can also be employed in teaching other things. once again. with neither excess 72 nor neglect. until they form a deep-rooted pattern in the mind. Similarly. is an Aristotelian view of the true nature of virtue and the way to acquire it. One of the techniques that al-Farabi was concerned with is the one he called habituation. This method is used against stubborn people. finally. This habituation takes place by persuasion and affective speech. or to flee from it. and so it is with 74 all the arts’. by resolving a scientific 64 problem. so that: ‘the soul of the hearer will rise up to 62 seek the thing imagined. so that even the opponent believes that it is true. 71 whence issue excellent moral behaviours. An admirable character is attained by habituation.precise knowledge’. and the character is admirable when its actions are marked by moderation. to take an opinion to its furthest point. it can be said that for al-Farabi the elements of instruction can be summarized as: making something understood by establishing its meaning in the mind. it is used to prevail over an adversary. it is natural for the common people to be restricted in their theoretical knowledge to what is required by generally accepted opinion. Indeed. Al-Farabi gives imagination a clear educational function. to make a particular idea triumph. This. but al-Farabi demonstrates this theory by stating: ‘The fact that ethical morality is only attained by habit is shown by what we see in cities: the political leaders make the citizens 73 good by making them used to good actions’. while the objective of the demonstrative method is to gain precise knowledge based on reliable proof. which establishes them in the 6 60 . The teacher uses the methods of 67 persuasion and suggestion. the ability to produce an imaginative impression has an effect on poetry and other arts. which would require precise proof. and makes ‘producing an imaginative impression’ one way of instructing the common people in many of the concepts that are hard for them to grasp. Acceptance is also internalized in two ways: demonstration leading to certainty. without it necessarily being so. which he defined as: ‘a situation whereby the human being acquires a natural disposition or moves away from some haphazard disposition. to be drawn to it or be repelled by it’.

and when some new matter is presented to him. Al-Farabi calls these three points ‘the modes of teaching’ and considers that a person who brings together all these 84 modes is indeed a teacher. Likewise. So it is clear that 79 understanding is better than memorization. [.] But the action of understanding concerns meanings. The second goes further than simple rote 78 learning and is designed to ‘inscribe the meanings of these expressions in the listener’s soul’. The ruler employs two types of virtuous people with technical competence to educate those. neither for individuals nor for classes. the Qur’an and songs. Al-Farabi was asked which was better. particularly if he wants to study philosophy. al-Farabi does not make learning the Qur’an and the sciences of the Holy Law a precondition. organization. so that the learners resolve to carry them out voluntarily themselves.mind. none shall be employed but ‘people of virtue. such as learning a language. whenever asked to do so. If the human being learns only the details. which could go on forever and are hardly useful. nor take any notice of what they are told. and in contrast to al-Ghazali (d. Concerning the student. the ability to demonstrate everything that it is possible to demonstrate. understanding or memorization and replied: ‘Understanding is better than memorization. be able to describe what he has grasped and accepted. free from cravings and seek only the truth.. and by way of coercion. in other words with details [. the ability to make others comprehend what he himself knows. he may refer to his understanding of the principles to compare one thing with another. he is not secure from going astray.. who need to be disciplined under duress. universals and laws .] When he relies on principles and general concepts.defined matters. because the action of memorization deals mainly with words and expressions. Al-Farabi mentions another method—‘learning by heart’—and divides it into two sections: learning words and expressions which the listener repeats until they are memorized. The total responsibility for this ‘education’ lies with the ruler for ‘the 77 monarch is the one who disciplines and teaches the nation’. He must be 80 of good character. which is used with ‘disobedient citizens who are not inclined to do what is right of their own accord. 76 Obedience is freedom. and which are valid for all.]. trained in the logical arts’. finite. The other scientific and educational prerequisites which the teacher should meet are: mastery of the fundamentals of his art (his specialization) and its rules. second. and others with harshness. Galen also considers that if the learner wishes to surpass all others in knowledge. this method is used with any one of them who disobeys and continues until they grasp the theoretical sciences which are taught 75 to them’. such as analogy. or those. 83 language. for he places the learning of religion (fiqh) and theology (kalam) at the end of the curriculum.’ The teacher and the learner Al-Farabi lays down the conditions of both morality and learning for the teacher. accept the existence of what he has grasped or understood.. without obligation. and the sciences of the Holy Law’. 1111/505) who wanted him in the first place to have ‘studied the Qur’an. first. the student should possess three further qualities: he should be able to grasp concepts and understand their meaning.. Al-Farabi speaks of the way of freedom and the way of slavery and subjection. This also applies to the actions peculiar to acquiring them. who accept to be disciplined voluntarily. The same is true in families. for there are children who can be disciplined by gentleness and persuasion. For educating and teaching the 81 people. [. In addition. while coercion is slavery and subjection. the ability to guard against any distortions 82 which might enter his art. policies and consideration of the consequences.. The art of teaching should be undertaken voluntarily. he must have the highest intelligence and should begin with 7 . except in cases of absolute necessity. To exert oneself in these matters is beneficial..

). can wear away the stone. like perspectives (optics)’. and train the student’s intellect in that path. the science of perspectives. then the natural sciences whose subject is matter (animal.logic. al-Farabi advises that he begin by identifying the book’s objective. in his opinion. then to what needs some matter. from the immaterial and the immeasurable. Learning requires a great deal of time. and quotes the example of the little drops of water which. then to the other things to which numbers and 90 magnitudes essentially belong. for it depends on demonstrations ‘giving us certain 92 knowledge and banishing all uncertainty’. dynamics and last of all 93 mechanics. Geometry comes after arithmetic. Al-Farabi was keenly aware of the value of language since he spoke several languages himself 88 that allowed him to compare cultures and tongues. The student should not let anything distract him from learning. After languages comes logic. and so on. without this ability. since it is an important stage in the hierarchy of the theoretical sciences: ‘Whosoever desires to learn the theoretical art begins with numbers. If the student wishes to learn by himself from a book. language comes before rules about forming the mind. is therefore indispensable. and should study by night and day so as to understand the viewpoint of the Ancients. on the one hand. music. 8 . over time. The study of optics. Geometry has two methods: that of analysis and that of structure. but also with an educational objective. In the same way. not just for the sake of enumerating them. which the Muslim philosophers call ‘the teachings’ (ta’alim). so that the student can express himself as do the people who speak that language. to reach its objectives. The curriculum In every age. He is not to be content with that: he should pursue his studies for a long time so as to select those opinions that agree with the meaning and reject 85 those that contradict it. al-Farabi considers that the student must always be most eager to learn and study. and perfect order reigns. then ascends to magnitudes (measures). especially in medicine. Furthermore. in his judgement and actions. Mathematics includes algebra. music. mineral. Al-Farabi divides mathematics into seven parts: ‘numbers (arithmetic). its purpose and its structure. Then there is perspectives. and he will not develop properly. the foundation for all other kinds of knowledge. They are an example of precision and clarity. astronomy. since he who pays attention to too many things at once ends up 86 with confused and disorganized ideas. then its relationship to the 87 sciences and its relative position on that branch of science. and leads to sound reflection. astronomy and the natural sciences in general requires mathematics. Al-Farabi considers that arithmetic comes first. its grammar. vegetable. he will not be able to understand others nor they him. Al-Farabi is considered to be the first Muslim philosopher to classify the sciences and learning. the sequence of learning must begin with the language and its structure. Then come mathematics.e. etc. and this is why. The student must proceed in stages to different levels of mathematics. education has to follow a program listing the matters which will enable the individual to learn about the cultural heritage of his nation. i. and also to learn the knowledge which will lead him to maturity in his feelings. the Arabic word for ‘logic’ (mantiq) includes both verbal expression and intellectual procedures. Al-Farabi’s explanation for beginning instruction with mathematics is that numbers and magnitudes do not allow for any confusion. dynamics and 91 the science of machines’. it is also closely connected with language. geometry. and 89 prepares the way for it. For al-Farabi. Mastery of the common language. have a passionate desire to know the truth. scientific astronomy (contrasted with astrology). and arithmetic is one of the basic tools. the instrument of the sciences and their methodology. and in developing a critical approach.

calling it sometimes a science. but he does mention it in Talkhis nawamis Aflatun (Abridgement of the Laws). and it is the way to happiness. then jurisprudence (fiqh). and the law which governs trade. before beginning the study of philosophy. in his opinion. for his was a world of ideas. which he considers to be among the natural sciences. law (qanun) and academic theology (kalam). al-Farabi comments that it is possible to combine some of them. according to which education begins with reforming the morals. so as to desire nothing but virtue. because its subject matter is closer to us and better known. and the other intellectual or spiritual—until we reach the 100 First Principle of existence. It enables us to learn 99 about the best of things in the best possible way. the active cause of all things and the governor of this world by His wisdom and justice. even though it has a metaphysical aspect. sometimes an art. By comparison. then arithmetic. One can then move on to the study of the ‘First Principle’ of all existing beings. the human soul. which is geometry giving 97 access to logic. geometry. and ending with the science which defends the beliefs on which society is founded. the Most High. the queen of disciplines But it was philosophy that al-Farabi places as the highest form of learning for mankind. he must then strengthen the rational mind by training in scientific demonstration. Plato considered the starting point to be physical exercise. He did not pay any special importance to observation and experiment. since it is a standard whereby we can always distinguish between truth and falsehood. the ‘teachings’ (mathematics). It can be said that al-Farabi designed a mathematical curriculum in education resembling that of Plato. theology. then return to human science. graded as follows: science of language. and can be grasped by the senses. 9 . not objects. logic. It should be noted that al-Farabi did not place medicine among the sciences. On these various theories. in his Republic. the student must reform his own ethical values. Al-Farabi stated that ‘the demonstrations 95 used in geometry are the soundest of all demonstrations’. The link between the natural sciences and theology is.Following the exact sciences comes theology or metaphysics. in Laws he considered the starting point was ethics. he thought that. while al-Farabi is quite concerned with practical aspects of each one of the mathematical sciences. that of Boethius of Sidon. The practical and ethical part for the human being consists of imitating the Creator. even though his pupil al-Saydawi disagreed with him and chose to begin with logic. the one taken by the followers of Theophrastus. so is the mind’. The ultimate objective of studying philosophy is twofold: theoretical and practical. jurisprudence and academic theology. Nor did he mention in Kitab al-ihsa’ (The Book of Lists) any physical exercise. However. because it inculcates love of good and hatred of evil. In fact. Through it. As a reminder of the famous words written over the door of the Academy (‘Let none enter who is not a geometer’). beginning with those governing society among other things. The theoretical part is knowledge of the Creator. Al-Farabi mentions another theory. natural and biological. natural science. which begins with natural science. as well as a third theory. In short. civics (political science). Philosophy. then the human sciences (political science in particular). the soul of the learner is raised to the level of the rational human being in whom two elements meet: one. for it is 98 the knowledge of distant causes by which all beings are governed. ‘for he who cannot reform his 96 own morals cannot learn any science correctly’. by carrying out admirable actions. music and philosophy (dialectics). to which he devoted an entire treatise and mentions in many other of his works. as far as he is able. al-Farabi’s curriculum is confined to a group of sciences. astronomy. noting that it is beneficial to the body 94 as well as the mind: ‘When the body is sound.

at other times the ethical method. the first step in teaching something is to use the correct name which signifies it. in the final analysis in the teaching of philosophy. understanding and making people aware of meanings. He seems to consider them complementary. and the various philosophical schools. Unlike Plato who believed that only the Greeks were capable of understanding. Then define it. he starts with Plato. Ways and means of elucidation in teaching Al-Farabi was concerned with the means of clarifying. alFarabi has a wider vision not considering philosophy to be a special attribute of any one nation to the exception of all others. and describe its special features and its unusual features. and at others the natural. one should 102 first attempt to modify the morals of the soul to direct them towards excellence. without particularly favoring any one. so that it may be imagined all the easier. 105 the Syrians and finally to the Arabs. then the mathematical sciences. one imagines the thing itself and thus can more easily call it to mind. which are the beginning of knowledge The student of philosophy must also know its history. which is what he applied in his book ‘On the Views of the People of the Ideal City’. and likewise explain its particular and general characteristics. To arrive at the high point of learning. and (b) the ascending method. One may use illustrations of the object. and the object itself is defined by its constituent elements. so as to know the latter’s aims in his various books. He also mentions what is called the rule of ‘substitution’: if some object has a popular name. In his opinion. He recommended the use of visual observation for whatever could actually 106 be seen. one must first reform one’s self. which he applied in his book ‘Politics’. Al-Farabi considers that all of these methods will 107 facilitate both comprehension and retention. then 103 Aristotle. so that the former part of the latter. the purpose of which is action. He believed that philosophy already existed among the Chaldeans in Mesopotamia. and was then passed to the Egyptians. This can be only be achieved in one way: mastery of the science of demonstration which is acquired through that of geometrical (mathematical) demonstration and the path of logical demonstration. which begins with the effect and proceeds to the Cause. so true is it that a person only reaches the goal of his deeds through complete knowledge. inasmuch as by imagining its characteristics. analogy and metaphor. moral and religious 104 qualities which the student of philosophy must possess. and al-Farabi points out the intellectual. In his own personal philosophy.The route which must be taken by anyone wishing to learn philosophy is that of action. before reforming those who share one’s house and finally one’s 101 fellow citizens. al-Farabi applied two different methods: (a) the descending method which begins from the Cause (the One) and ends with the effect (the world of the senses). As for learning about the scientific subjects that must precede the study of philosophy. When it is 10 . an operation which al-Farabi calls ‘division and analysis’. from them to the Greeks. then the rational soul. or which can be compared with it. so that the student can understand the path of truth. Al-Farabi chose to begin with the former. al-Farabi sometimes indicates the mathematical method. This understanding of something is also supported by knowledge of the characteristics of an object. but believes that. his technical terms. It is also possible to make it understood by resorting to something that resembles it. and explain the various parts of this definition. induction. but saw nothing wrong by starting with the natural sciences since they are more related than mathematics to the senses. and to use the method of subdivision. but to achieve excellence in one’s deeds. it is vital to be aware of the natural sciences. this term is used instead of a more complicated one. ‘placing the object before the eye’.

Similarly. Al-Farabi recalls that Aristotle used to employ substitutes for expressions to 108 make them more intelligible—a method that gives encouragement to the learner. and will therefore not 109 obstruct the process’ This makes the mind completely occupied with the demonstrations.. and play is not then an aim in itself’.] guidance for making an instrument [. And we have also given [. will enable you to hear the same notes. These instructions for making a training instrument are an important feature in al-Farabi’s educational philosophy. In the same way. In his view. He considered that music is the most typical of the sciences whose principles are mostly obtained through the senses. but also analyzed in detail the way of converting theory into practice: ‘[In our two books] we have dealt at length with the principles of this science and shown how to make them tally with what is perceived. who declared that his books aimed to harmonize theory with practice: ‘Most of what we have summarized in this book we have made directly perceptible through well-known instruments. and is 112 learned principally from sensory experience acquired through anatomy’. in its turn. so as to improve them. since many of the essentials can only be learned by observations provided by such instruments. Use of sensory perception in the theoretical art of music is a matter to which al-Farabi returned many times in his Kitab al-musiqa al-kabir [Great Book on Music]. or flowers into bouquets of different sizes. like the Baghdad drum (tanbur) and the rabab. the rules given verbally will conform to what is 113 heard’. a start is made with the term used to describe it.. For this purpose he himself fashioned an instrument and modified some others. 11 . Hence. and like salt in food. and if it still cannot be imagined. Plato had noted that the ancient Egyptians used an excellent method to teach children arithmetic: they were required to divide a number of apples into different groups. it should be used in moderation for the aim of play is recreation which. involves the use of instruments. or to distinguish containers of different metals. Al-Farabi was particularly interested in 111 instruments which make the theoretical side of music easier to understand. with the imagination stimulated by the drawing on the board. among other things. play overcomes fatigue and ‘restores the 118 strength required for action’. al-Farabi recommends during learning and demonstration the use of ‘geometric shapes drawn upon a board so as to stimulate the imagination. On an entirely different subject. after they had been deliberately 121 mixed up. optics and medicine: ‘for the art of medicine takes many of its principles from natural science. and in them we have given guidance for making an instrument in which can be applied all the sensory 114 aspects that these principles require’. Learning about astronomy. In this way al-Farabi not only dealt with the theory of music. As with all distractions. for him. ‘is designed to restore a 119 person’s strength to undertake more serious activity’. As with other techniques. listening to instruments is vital in the study of music.] which. with the result that what was 115 explained by words and analogy was in agreement with what is heard’.. an illustration is used representing its characteristics. if tuned in the way I have indicated to produce the notes in a scale. like astronomy. and he called for the making of instruments for this purpose: ‘the fundamentals of the science of music are learned through perception and practice.. and the imagination may be busy with something similar to the thing which it is intended to demonstrate.difficult to grasp a concept because of its abstraction. musical skill is 110 acquired ‘by long application to listening’. He recommends games that stimulate a child’s creativity: ‘Like the child who uses doors and houses in his play acquires talents and 120 abilities useful to him if he desires to take crafts seriously’. al-Farabi turned his attention to the purpose of educational games and the function of play in human activity: ‘Different types of play have 116 serious purposes. The value of play must be considered in relation to its aim: ‘The intention behind various types of play can only be truly ascertained 117 when they have been evaluated’. and so that the demonstration itself will not confuse the intellect.

the integration of knowledge. understanding the relationship between isolated pieces of information and grasping the links between them.Is there a place for punishment in al-Farabi’s educational theory? ‘The teacher. intellect. ethics. In the same way that knowledge is tested. who was his direct disciple. The influence of Al-Farabi Another entire study would be required to analyze the influence that al-Farabi had over contemporary philosophers and those who came after him: Yahya b. One could even add that Arabic culture has declined in relation to his educational philosophy. nor excessively lenient.’must not be too severe. If this is not sufficient. which al-Farabi classifies among ‘the rules which are few in number yet applicable to many things’. He emphasized that the aim of an examination is to find out a learner’s level in the field being studied. then one should add some inconvenience which 123 follows immediately on the misbehavior. 1406/808). It is also possible to substitute the bad behavior with a good one giving similar pleasure. ‘Adi (d. then they can be won over by offering them some pleasure when they refrain from it or if they behave in the opposite way. in other words when a learner is thought to have completed that discipline. astronomic 125 summary tables. the ruler. In Latin he was known as Alfarabius and Avennasar. we also learn the many 126 matters incorporated in them. 1130/421). One of the most important 127 ways of recognizing intelligence is through mathematical ability. In the first case. confining himself to the general idea and leaving it to the educator to decide on the form of correction. Evaluation Al-Farabi was well aware of the concept of evaluating the outcomes of teaching. the importance of values and aesthetic taste. the capacity for deductive and critical reasoning. Elements of al-Farabi’s philosophy still remain valid today. When the time comes. depending on the pupil. so is intelligence: the ability to discriminate. but if he is too lenient. Maimonides (d. If we learn and remember these rules. al-Mas’udi (d. Al-Farabi does not explain what kind of punishment he has in mind. instruments are made available to help us check the compass. Ibn Miskawayh (d. such as fear. He considers that the questions asked could have either an educational or an experimental character. 1198/595). This is how children should be disciplined. 956/346). the Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Safa). But a person can also test himself to ascertain if he has made a quantitative or methodological mistake. aesthetics and technology. If he is too severe. the scales. as long as the misbehavior itself is followed by a suitable punishment to make the child abandon it. Abu’l-Hasan Al-’Amiri (d. and the experimental method. the pupils will not take him seriously and will be inclined to laziness and will pay 122 no attention to his lessons’. and Ibn Khaldun (d. it is directed at the pupil who is supposed to know something so as to demonstrate that knowledge. 12 . an aim which no contemporary education system would neglect.. Some of his books were translated into Latin and Hebrew. Ibn Rushd (Averroës) (d. he is tested in it ‘so as to determine his level in the discipline he is supposed to 124 have mastered’. But he did point out that physical punishment is more effective than psychological punishment. such as his emphasis on the importance of mathematics and the sciences. etc. 991/381). his pupils will hate him. 974/374). which was designed to form an integrated personality. in body. and makes it as unpleasant as possible’. For this purpose. the abacus. 1204/601). This moderate position leads him to regulate the degree of punishment in accordance with the children’s attitude: ‘If they are inclined to be mischievious because of some short-term pleasure.

p. 85. p. ‘Ta’dhab al-ahdath’. p. p. Henri Corbin. 10. translated by Mohammed ‘ Abd al-Hadi Abu Rida.. p. cit. Hyderabad. 89. cit. Imprimerie catholique. 16. Takwin al-’aql al-’arabi. Ta’rikh al-falsafa alislamiya [The History of Islamic Philosophy]. edited by Muhsin Mahdi. Ibid. 81. Ibrahim Madkour. p. Ammar al-Talbi (Algeria) Head of the Department of Philosophy in the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences. 1.. 13 . 87. Beirut. 2. 30. in: Kitab al-milla. Beirut. Zaynun al-kabir. p. 28. 1980. 17. cit. p. Kitab al-milla. op. p. p. 32. NY. India. Ara alKhawarij al-kalamiya [The Theological Opinions of the Kharijites]. op. Al-Farabi. 1983. 18. The Ottoman Encyclopedia. 1346 H. p.. 174. Al-Farabi. 14. 54. Mahdi of the Almohads. University of Qatar. Al-Farabi. La place d’ al-Farabi dans l’ école philosophique musulmane [Al-Farabi’s Place in the Muslim School of Philosophy]. p. p. Al-Farabi. Maisonneuve. India. both at the University of Algiers.. Edward Zeller. translated by Nasir Marwa and Hasan Qubaisi.. p. in: Aflatan fa l-islam.. 64. p. edited by Yuhanna Qamir. 1989. Talkhis. edited by Ja’afar al-Yasin. Al-Burhan.. op. 10.. p. Beirut. Ibid. edited by Fawzi al-Najjar. Al-Siyasa al-akhlaqiya. Ibid. Ibid. 71. Dar al-nahda al-’arabiya. Beirut.. Al-Farabi. 7. 5. op. 10. Mohammed ‘abid al-Jabiri. 6. 9. 61. Dover Publications Inc. Dar al-Andalus. Frederick Copleston. and Director of the University Amir Abd al-Qadir at Constantine (Algeria).. 12. 17 : tasdad al-anfus [the guidance of souls]. 50. De Boer.. 1968. 27. such as: Ibn Badis: hayatuh wa-ara uh [Ibn Badis: His Life and Opinions]. 4. Tj. manusc. 21. Ta’ rikh al-falsafa fi l-Islam [The History of Philosophy in Islam]. Talkhis. cit. Ibid. 1954. Beirut. p. Ibid. 24. 11. 40. p. p. Al-Farabi. and Talkhis. p. Al-Farabi. 1964. 93. 73. cit. cit. Al-Farabi. 17. 1959. op.Notes The English translations of Arabic titles of al-Farabi’s writings given in these ‘Notes’ can be found in the ‘Works by al-Farabi’ which follows. Ibid. 42. 34. Tahsil. op. 47. p.. 3. Dar al-Andalus. edited by Albert Nusri Nadir. 241. cit. Talkhis. p. Al-Farabi. 29. in: Talkhas nawamas Aflatan. cit. Al-Farabi. 15. cit. Author of numerous publications. Al-Tanbih ‘ala sabil al-sa’ada. Al-Farabi.. Ara Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi alkalamiyya wa-naqduh lil-falsafa al-yunaniya [The Theological Opinions of AbuBakr Ibn Arabi and His Appraisal of Greek Philosophy]. 65. p. 1987. Tahsil. Outlines of the History of Greek Philosophy. 1981. 1346 H. Al-Farabi. op. Al-Farabi. op. Dar al-manahil. Talkhis nawamis Aflatun. Al-Farabi. Talkhis. cit. 97. p. 54. New York. Formerly head of the Department of Philosophy in the Faculty of Human Sciences. 62. Imprimerie catholique. 19. ‘Talkhis nawamis Aflatan’. Tahsil. 45.. Ibid. Al-Farabi. 241. 8. 57. p. Tehran University. Maktabat Michkat. 89. 57. p. 13. The Ottoman Encyclopedia. Tahsil. Beirut. London. 1966. pp. p. 140. op. 26. 31.. p. Beirut. cit. 1934. 140/10. 24. 25. No. 11. 1980. p. Ibid. pp. 8. in: Aflatan fi l-islam. 43. Mabadi’ ahl al-madina al-fadila. Philosophies and Cultures. 84. Al-Farabi. p.. Manshu-rat ‘Awaidat. Tahsil al-sa’ada. 20. Al-Farabi. Beirut. ‘Fusil mabadi’ ahl al-madina al-fadila’. 55. 33. op. p. Paris. Hyderabad.. p. Al-siyasa al-madaniya. 30.. edited by Ja’afar al-Yasin. dean of the Faculty of Islamic Sciences.. Al-Da’awa al-qalbiya. op. Markay dirasat al-wahda al-’arabiya. op. 23. edited by ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawi. cit. 1982. in: Al-Farabi. Imprimerie catholique. p. 191. Editor of the publication A azz ma yutlab [The Most Valuable Research] of Ibn Tumart. Oxford University Press. Beirut. Imprimerie catholique. 22.. Beirut..

Dar al-manahil. cit. cit. op. 70. 25-26.. Vol. op. op. 21. 1968.. 151. p. 7. 1971. p. p. cit. 178. 64. 240/10. 65. 5. p. Dar majallat al-chi’r. 57. 61. private collection. Maktabat Michkat. Al-Farabi states: ‘the debate between the one asking the questions and the one replying’. Ibid. 1961. 87. Al-Farabi is using Plato’s Phaidon as a source. 45. cit. 52.. p. manuscript. op. 97. op. Erwin I. 1890. Al-Farabi. p. 90. cit. op. 37. the first to appear is the nutritional capacity. p. 41. 39. ‘Qawanin al-chi’r’. p. Al-Farabi. op. Ibid. 60. op. Dar al-Machriq.. Leyden. 44. p. Ibid. Rosenthal. cit. Beirut. op. as are most dialectic discourses and about half of rhetorical discourses. Ibid. 14 . Ibid. p. 48. 28. Falsafat Aristutalis. Al-Farabi. 39. p. sophist discourses are based on truth to a lesser degree and poetic discourses are entirely false since they are drawn purely from the imagination (Al-Farabi. op. No. 50. here again Al-Farabi refers to Plato. Ara’ ahl al-madana al-fadila. pp.. in: Kitib Aristitalas fa l-chi’r. Ibid. edited by Ghattas ‘Abd-al-Malik Khashba and Mahmud Ahmad al-Hafni. Institut de lettres orientales. (Collection ‘Recherches’) Ibid. Imprimerie catholique. Beirut. cit. Beirut. Al-Thamra. 69. 45. 53. 49. Al-Farabi. Al-Farabi. Fusul tachtamil ala jamir ma yudhtarr ila ma’rifatihi man arada al-churu’fi sina’at almantiq.. cit. op. 52.. in: Kitab al-milla. p. 1184. op. 63. p.. p. 79. 101).. On the whole. Maktabat Michkat. edited by F. p. 51. Islamic Themes. 49. p.34. Al-Farabi. and finally the reasoning capacity or speech. edited by ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawa.. Dieterici. London. Al-Farabi. p. 42. 86. 1887. and Talkhis. Ibid. cit. 58.. p. p.. Al-Farabi. 8. then the sensorial capacity. 70. Ihsa’al-’ulim. op.J. Talkhis. Al-Thamra al-murdiyya fal-rasi’il al-faribiya. London. p. edited by Edward Sachau. p. 40. Al-Farabi. p. p.. p. op. Dieterici. Al-Farabi. Charh al-’ibara. Charh urjuzat Ibn Sina.. 164. cit. pp. Al-Farabi. Beirut. cit. p. Kitab al-huraf. cit. ‘Al-As’ila al-lami’a wa-l-ajwiba al-jami’a’. 46. 40-41. 19. 47. then the imagination. 85. Ibid. 63.. 121. p. Fusul. Tanbih. Tehran University. Cairo. 78. Al-Biruni. 67. 71. Ibid. Al-Farabi. No. 57. Al-Farabi. p. Ed. op. cit. 39. Ibid. Dar al-thaqala. Averroës. 43. p. op. edited by F.. 1988. 71. p. cit. p. pp. Studia Semitica. Tahsil. 62. Neudruck der Ausgabe. 72. 54. p. 121. 82. p. pp. Tahsil. op. Al-Farabi. cit. 63. 38. Tahsil. pp. 97. Ajwibat masa’il su’ila ‘anha.. edited by Muhsin Mahda. Al-Burhan. p. in the Preface to his book on Logic. p. Dar al-kitab lil-tibi’a wa-l-nachr.. 1970. 6. Ja’afar al-Yasan. 67... in the psychological development of the child. 63. manusc. Tahsil. 66. 1967. Talkhis nawamis Aflutan. op. manusc. Beirut. 86. 19. Al-Farabi considers that demonstrative discourses are entirely justified. Ibid. cit. 1973. According to Al-Farabi.. cit. Tehran University. Al-Farabi. p.. 56. 59. edited by ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawi. p. 240/10.. 1971. cit. Beirut. 11. p. Al-Farabi. Al-Farabi. op. 175. Al-Ta’liqat. Al-Alfaz al-musta’mala fil-mantiq... 55. edited by Muhsin Mahdi. 96. Al-Burhan. the purpose being to study and examine in order to ascertain the validity (of good things) and to make a choice.. Cambridge University Press. Kitab al-musiqa al-kabir.. 43. 31. 64. Al-Farabi. Ibid. Al-Farabi. Fusul. p. Falsafat Aristutalis.. cit. p. 78. 36. ‘Qawanin al-chi’r’ in: Kitab Aristutalis fa l-chi’r. 88. Al-Farabi. 86. p. Al-Farabi. 85.. Leyden. Al-Tanbih ila sabal al-sa’ida. 68. Tahsil. Am lil-Hind min maqula maqbula fil-’aql aw mardhula. Al-Tanbih ila sabal al-sa’aia. 73. 35. edited by Muhsin Mahda. 1890.

Kitab al-misuqa al-kabir. Ibid. Al-Farabi. p. p.. 96. ‘Talkhis al-quwa l-tabi’iyya’. 80. edited by F. Dar al-Andalus. p. p. cit. Dieterici. Al-Farabi. p. as well as Arabic which he considered as his mother tongue. p. Fusul. Al-Alfaz. undated manuscript. Cairo. 82. He spoke Turkish. Ibid.. 483. 83. Plato was already an adult when he learned mathematics. 123. 63. Ta’rakh al-falsafa fi l-islam. Ibid. cit. Al-Farabi. p. p. 117. p.. 96. cit. 94. 88.. op. 93. Al-Farabi. 52. p. op. p. p. 53. 101. p. 87. Al-Burhan. 106. Al-Farabi. Tahsil. Ma yanbaghi. 72 15 .. 1890. op. p. Talkhis nawamas Aflatun. cit. Ihsa’ al-’ulum. 1987. Al-Burhan. 81. 113. op. 114. Al-Jadal. 105. Al-Farabi. 202.. 482. Ibid. 1890.74. Librairie anglo-egyptienne. p.. No. Ibid. Al-Farabi. 79. in: Rasa’il Ibn Ruchd al-tibbiyya. op. 53. 111. Leyden. Al-Farabi. al-Hay’a al-misriyya al-’amma lil-kitab. Fusil. De Boer. 91. p. p. op. op. Ma yanbaghi an yuqaddam qabla ta’allum al-falsafa. Talkhis. 91. Dieterici. 52. 1980. op. edited by F.. 82. 107. op. op. 82.. Al-Farabi. 90. 116.. 240-1. Ibid.. p. Al-Farabi. op. Laws. p. Al-Alfaz. 52. Al-Tanbah. He puts forward this idea concerning the acceptance of laws by citizens in Talkhis nawamis Aflatun: it is good if they are accepted voluntarily but obviously very bad if they are tolerated under duress. He mentions a total of sixteen characteristics (Tahsil. Al-Farabi. 122... cit. cit. 80. p. p. Ibid.. 52. Tahsil. 76. 100. 95. 85. 104. 93. 77. Tanbih. 86.. Tahsil. cit. Ibid.. 178. Ibid. cit. cit. cit. edited by Georges C. 1968. op. p. Persian and obviously Greek.. p. Ibid. 100. 89. p. 94-95). 121. 97. p. 98. 99. 49. Al-Farabi. 807. 81. op. Al-Farabi. edited by Uthman Amin. cit. 103. 275. op.. Al-Alfaz. Al-Farabi. p. cit. Nuzhat al-arwah wa-raudat al-afrah. Cairo University Library. 110. op.. 1185. 672. cit... Ibid. p.. p. cit. Al-Farabi. note 1. Al-Farabi. 112. Ibid. 97. 87.. Al-Shahrazuri. p. VII. 818-22.. Leyden.. p.. Al-Farabi. op. Falsafat Aristutalis. Ja’afar al-Yasin. Ibid. Maktabat Michkat. Al-Farabi. p. Ajwibat masa’il su’ila ‘anha. 115. 94. cit. Ma yanbaghi. Tehran University. manusc. Ibid. op. cit. 52. p. 119. 120. Al-Farabi.. Tahsil.. 75. Cairo. Al-Farabi. 84. Ibid. 96.. Ibid. 10. 79.. Beirut. cit. 86. Ibid. p. cit. cit. p. 94-95. p. which led him to say that he was ashamed not only for himself but for the Greeks in general because of their backwardness in geometry compared to the Egyptians. op. Faylasufan ra’idan. p.. 80... op. 180.. p. p. Ibid. Al-Farabi devoted a special treatise to philosophy: Ma yanbaghi. 83. p. cit. 175. p. cit. p. Ibid. Al-Farabi. p. 78. 91. Al-Farabi. p. 118. 87.. cit. op. 109. Ma yanbaghi an yuqaddam qabla ta’allum al-falsafa. Anawati and Sa’id Ziyid. op. pp. op.. 102. op. 108. cit. 92. Averroës. 53. 76. 192. 97.

Tehran University. No. Ed. Leyden. 1890. Ed. Al-Alfaz al-musta’mala fil-mantiq [Terms Used in Logic]. F. ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawi. Idées des habitants de la cité vertueuse. Beirut. Falsafat Aflatun [Plato’s Philosophy]. Al-Jadal [Dialectics]. 1983. 1346 H. Ed. translatus a Magistro Gerardo Cremonesi. Dieterici. p. No. ‘Kitab al-tanbuh ila sabil al-sa’ada’. F. Albert Nasri Nadir. Madrid. 1970. Muhsin Mahdi. cit. Hyderabad. Ja’afar al Yasin.. Al-Siyasa al-madaniya [The Policies of the City]. Beirut.P. Dar al-Andalus. op. 127. p. Tehran University. 1968. Published with a Spanish translation by González Palencia. Ed. India. Leyden.. Beirut. ‘Al-As’ila al-lami’a’ [Brilliant Questions]. 1971. 1964. 1971. p. Dar al-Kitab al-’Arabi. Manuscript Maktabat Michkat. 1939. Cairo. Ed. Y. Cairo. Ibid. Al-Farabi. Tehran University. Maktabat Michkat. Ghattas ‘Abd al-Malik Khachaba and Mahmud Ahmed alHafni. 1346 H. Ed. Cairo. In: Kitab Aflatun fi l-Islam. Ed. Jaussen. Dar al-Andalus. Al-Tanbih. India. Ed. cit. Dieterici. Dar al-Andalus. Beirut. Ihsa al-’ulum [A List of the Sciences]. In: Kitab Aflutan fi lislam. 126. Beirut. Fawzi al-Najjar. Dar almanahil. Imprimerie catholique. Imprimerie catholique. Kitab al-milla [On Religion]. Tehran University. 1949. Muhsin Mahdi. op. Al-Ta’ liqat [Commentaries]. Beirut. Latin translation by H. Karam et J. Manuscript Maktabat Michkät. In: Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale. 16 . Beirut. 181. India. Muhsin Mahdi. 1982. Manuscr. Ed. Muhsin Mahdi. 240/10. Dar al-Machriq. 1968. Works by Al-Farabi Note: These works are classified in Arabic alphabetical order [Editor]. Beirut. 1987. 6. Albert Nasri Nadir. ‘Talkhis nawamis Aflatun’ [Summary of Plato’s Laws]. ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawi. Fusil tachtamil ‘alajami’i ma yudhtarr ila ma’arifatih man arada al-churu’ bi-sina’t al-mantiq [What You Should Know Before Tackling Logic]. Ed. Dieterici. Ed. Hyderabad. 1346 H. Beirut. 1932. 1968. vol. Beirut. 240/10. 1940. Librairie anglo-égyptienne. 1890. Translated by R. Fusil muntaza’a [Some Proverbs]. Al-Farabi. Fawzi al-Najjar. University of Madrid. Al-Burhan [The Demonstration]. Dar al-Machriq. Chlala. cit. Ja’afar al Yasin. The Ottoman Encyclopaedia. Maqala [Introduction to his work on logic: Al-Mantiq]. Beirut. Zaynun al-kabir [Zenon the Great]. Beirut. Imprimerie catholique. Leyden. Publications de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale. Al-Tanbih ila sabil al-sa’ada [Guidance on the Path to Happiness]. ‘Fusil mabadi’ ara’ ahl al-madina al-fadila’ [Bases of the Inhabitants’ Views in the Ideal City]. 240/10. 240/10. Hyderabad. XII. op. Ed. Muhsin Mahdi. 1890. Imprimerie catholique. Ihsa’ al-’ulum. Manuscr.. Salman. Ed. Al-Misuqa al-kabir [The Great Book of Music]. 1959. Tahsil al-sa’ada [Reaching Happiness]. ‘Uthman Amin. 53-54. Ed. No. 1968. Dar al-Machriq. Ed.124. 1968. Falsafat Aristutalis [Aristotle’s Philosophy]. Al-Thamra al-murdiyya [The Pleasant Fruit]. Al-Burhan. In: Kitab al-milla. Ed. 1982. Ma yanbaghi an yuqaddam qabla ta’allum al-falsafa [On What One Should Know Before Learning Philosophy]. Al-Jam’ bayna ra’yay l-hakimayn [Harmony in the Doctrines of the Two Philosophers]. F. Al-Da’awa al-qalbiya [Sincere Requests]. Muhsin Mahdi. Dar majallar al-chi’r. Ajwibat masa il su ‘ila anha [Replies to Questions]. 1967. Mabadi’ ari’ ahl al-madina al-fadila [A Treatise on the Inhabitants’ Views in the Ideal City]. Maktabat Michkat. Al-Huruf [The Letters]. Ed. In: Kitab almilla. Ed. 58. 125. Beirut. No. Beirut. Liber Alpharabii de Scientiis. Ed. Dar al-Machriq. 4.

F. 1989. Vol. Works and Thought. Charh urjuzat Ibn Sana [An Interpretation of Avicenna’s Mysteries]. Beirut. Farmer. University of Pittsburgh. on the Writers on Music in Western Europe. [Manuscript in the Library of Cairo University. Takwin al-’aql al-’arabi [Formation of the Arab Intellect].’ In: New Scholasticism. His Life. tome I: Des origines jusqu’à la mort d’Averroès (1198) [History of Islamic Philosophy. ‘alam al-kutub. [Collective Work] ——. Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesellschaft. 245-61.L. Glasgow. The Civic Press.’ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London). 2) ——. ——. Paris. Studies in the History of Arabic Logic. p. Salmon. Beirut. De Boer. 1977. 1964. I: From the Beginnings to the Death of Averroës]. Ahmad. 1925. Rescher. Al-Shahrazuri.’ In: Middle East Affairs. Markaz dirasat al-wahda al-’arabiya. Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh. Al-Farabi’s Arabic-Latin Writings on Music. part. 1934. N. 1951. Muhammad b. Faylasufan ra’idan: Al-Kindi wa-l-Farabi [Two Early Philosophers: al-Kindi and Al-Farabi]. al-Yasin. D. Baghdad. vol. Mu’allafit Al-Farabi [The Works of Al-Farabi]. 1981. H. Al-Farabi fi hududih wa-rusumih [Al-Farabi Through His Definitions and His Projects]. Pittsburgh. 561-92. Ma lil-Hind min maqula maqbula fil-’aql aw mardhula [Description of India]. on the Occasion of the Millenary Anniversary of his Death. Al-Farabi: an Annoted Bibliography. Ministry of Information. Corbin. 1962. ‘The Medieval Latin Translations of Al-Farabi’s Works. ‘Al-Farabi. 1983.G. Muhammad ‘Abid. 54-59. 2. Histoire de la philosophie islamique. Leipzig. 17 . Beirut. Al-Jabiri. (Collection of Oriental Writers on Music. Nuzhat al-arwah wa-raudat al-afrah [The Promenade of the Mind and the Garden of Joy]. ‘The Influence of Al-Farabi’s Ihsa’ al-’ul_m [De scientiis].J. H. PA. 1975. p. iii. Manuscript: private collection. 1985.Works about Al-Farabi Al-Biruni. Dar al-nahda al-’arabiya. Ja’afar. ——. 1964. Gallimard. 1939. PA. 1943. Beirut. p. Ta’rikh al-falsafa fi l-Islam [History of Islamic Philosophy]. Falkenheim. T.] Averroës. Dar al-Andalus. Translated by Mohammed ‘Abd alHadi Abu Rida.

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