The Book of Five Rings

Miyamoto, Musashi
Published: 1644
Categorie(s): Non-Fiction, Philosophy
Source: http://ninjamarket.com/a-book-of-five-rings
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About Miyamoto:
Miyamoto Musashi (c.1584–June 13 (Japanese calendar: May 19), 1645),
also known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke, or by his
Buddhist name Niten Dōraku was a famous Japanese samurai, and is
considered by many to have been one of the most skilled swordsmen in
history. Musashi, as he is often simply known, became legendary
through his outstanding swordsmanship in numerous duels, even from a
very young age. He is the founder of the Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū or Niten-
ryū style of swordsmanship and the author of The Book of Five Rings, a
book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy that is still studied today.
Source: Wikipedia
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Introduction
I have been many years training in the Way of Strategy, called Ni Ten
Ichi Ryu, and now I think I will explain it in writing for the first time.
It is now during the first ten days of the tenth month in the twentieth
year of Kanei (1645). I have climbed mountain Iwato of Higo in Kyushu
to pay homage to heaven, pray to Kwannon, and kneel before Buddha. I
am a warrior of Harima province, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara
No Genshin, age sixty years. From youth my heart has been inclined to-
ward the Way of Strategy.
My first duel was when I was thirteen, I struck down a strategist of the
Shinto school, one Arima Kihei. When I was sixteen I struck down an
able strategist Tadashima Akiyama. When I was twenty-one I went up to
the capital and met all manner of strategists, never once failing to win in
many contests.
After that I went from province to province dueling with strategist of
various schools, and not once failed to win even though I had as many as
sixty encounters. This was between the ages of thirteen and twenty-eight
or twenty-nine. When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. The pre-
vious victories were not due to my having mastered strategy. Perhaps it
was natural ability, or the order of heaven, or that other schools' strategy
was inferior.
After that I studied morning and evening searching for the principle,
and came to realize the Way of Strategy when I was fifty. Since then I
have lived without following any particular Way. Thus with the virtue of
strategy I practice many arts and abilities - all things with no teacher. To
write this book I did not use the law of Buddha or the teachings of Con-
fucius, neither old war chronicles nor books on martial tactics. I take up
my brush to explain the true spirit of this Ichi school as it is mirrored in
the Way of heaven and Kwannon. The time is the night of the tenth day
of the tenth month, at the hour of the tiger (3-5 a.m.)
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Chapter 1
THE GROUND BOOK
Strategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must enact the craft,
and troopers should know this Way. There is no warrior in the world
today who really understands the Way of Strategy.
There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by the law of
Buddha, the Way of Confucius governing the Way of learning, the Way
of healing as a doctor, as a poet teaching the Way of Waka, tea, archery,
and many arts and skills. Each man practices as he feels inclined. It is
said the warrior's is the twofold Way of pen and sword, and he should
have a taste for both Ways.
Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking as-
siduously to both divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of
the warrior is resolute acceptance of death. Although not only warriors
but priests, women, peasants and lowlier folk have been known to die
readily in the cause of duty or out of shame, this is a different thing. The
warrior is different in that studying the Way of Strategy is based on
overcoming men. By victory gained in crossing swords with individuals,
or enjoining battle with large numbers, we can attain power and fame for
ourselves or our lord. This is the virtue of strategy.
The Way of Strategy
In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as
"masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way.
Recently there have been people getting on in the world as strategists,
but they are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants of the Kashima
Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction from the
gods, and made schools based on this teaching, traveling from country to
country instructing men. This is the recent meaning of strategy.
In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven
Arts as a beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as a beneficial
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practice it was not limited to sword-fencing. The true value of sword-
fencing cannot be seen within the confines of sword-fencing technique.
If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell
their own selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has become
less than th flower. In this kind of Way of Strategy, both those teaching
and those learning the way are concerned with colouring and showing
off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. They speak
of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo". They are looking for profit. Someone
once said "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true
saying.
There are four Ways in which men pass through life: as gentlemen,
farmers, artisans and merchants.
The Way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments, he sees springs
through to autumns with an eye on the changes of season.
Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his in-
gredients and puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the mer-
chant is always to live by taking profit. This is the Way of the merchant.
Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of his Way.
The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gen-
tleman dislikes strategy he will not appreciate the benefit of weaponry,
so must he not have a little taste for this? Fourthly the Way of the artisan.
The Way of the carpenter is to become proficient in the use of his tools,
first to lay his plans with a true measure and then perform his work ac-
cording to plan. Thus he passes through life. These are the four Ways of
the gentleman, the farmer, the artisan and the merchant.
Comparing the Way of the Carpenter to Strategy
The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses.
Houses of the nobility, houses of warriors, the Four houses, ruin of
houses, thriving of houses, the style of the house, the tradition of the
house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses a master plan of
the building, and the Way of Strategy is similar in that there is a plan of
campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder over this book.
The teacher is as a needle, the disciple is as thread. You must practice
constantly.
Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural rules,
and the rules of the country, and the rules of houses. This is the Way of
the foreman.
The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers
and temples, and the plans of palaces, and must employ men to raise up
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houses. The Way of the foreman carpenter is the same as the Way of the
commander of a warrior house. In the construction of houses, choice of
woods is made.
Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed
pillars, straight timber with small defects is used for the inner pillars.
Timbers of the finest appearance, even if a little weak, is used for the
thresholds, lintels, doors, and sliding doors, and so on. Good strong tim-
ber, though it be gnarled and knotted, can always be used discreetly in
construction. Timber which is weak or knotted throughout should be
used as scaffolding, and later for firewood.
The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability.
Floor layers, makers of sliding doors, thresholds and lintels, ceilings and
so on. Those of poor ability lay the floor joists, and those of lesser ability
carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. If the foreman knows
and deploys his men well the finished work will be good. The foreman
should take into account the abilities and limitations of his men, circulat-
ing among them and asking nothing unreasonable. He should know
their morale and spirit, and encourage them when necessary. This is the
same as the principle of strategy.
The Way of Strategy
Like a trooper, the carpenter sharpens his own tools. He carries his
equipment in his tool box, and works under the direction of his foreman.
He makes columns and girders with an axe, shapes floorboards and
shelves with a plane, cuts fine openwork and carvings accurately, giving
as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. This is the craft of the car-
penters. When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands measures
he can become a foreman.
The carpenter's attainment is, having tools which will cut well, to
make small shrines, writing shelves, tables, paper lanterns, chopping
boards and pot-lids. These are the specialties of the carpenter. Things are
similar for the trooper. You ought to think deeply about this.
The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not warped, that the
joints are not misaligned, and that the work is truly planed so that it
meets well and is not merely finished in sections. This is essential. If you
want to learn this Way, deeply consider the things written in this book
one at a time. You must do sufficient research.
Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy
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The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects. These
are Ground, Water, Fire, Wind (tradition), and Void (the illusionary
nature of worldly things)
The body of the Way of Strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school
is explained in the Ground book. It is difficult to realize the true Way just
through sword-fencing. Know the smallest things and the biggest things,
the shallowest things and the deepest things. As if it were a straight road
mapped out on the ground, the first book is called the Ground book.
Second is the Water book. With water as the basis, the spirit becomes
like water. Water adopts the shape of its receptacle, it is sometimes a
trickle and sometimes a wild sea. Water has a clear blue colour. By the
clarity, things of Ichi school are shown in this book. If you master the
principles of sword-fencing, when you freely beat one man, you beat any
man in the world. The spirit of defeating a man is the same for ten mil-
lion men. The strategist makes small things into big things, like building
a great Buddha from a one foot model. I cannot write in detail how this
is done. The principle of strategy is having one thing, to know ten thou-
sand things. Things of Ichi school are written in this the Water book.
Third is the Fire book. This book is about fighting. The spirit of fire is
fierce, whether the fire be small or big; and so it is with battles. The Way
of battles is the same for man to man fights and for ten thousand a side
battles. You must appreciate that spirit can become big or small. What is
big is easy to perceive: what is small is difficult to perceive. In short, it is
difficult for large numbers of men to change position, so their move-
ments can be easily predicted. An individual can easily change his mind,
so his movements are difficult to predict. You must appreciate this. The
essence of this book is that you must train day and night in order to
make quick decisions. In strategy it is necessary to treat training as part
of normal life with your spirit unchanging. Thus combat in battle is de-
scribed in the Fire book.
Fourthly the Wind book. This book is not concerned with my Ichi
school but with other schools of strategy. By Wind I mean old traditions,
present-day traditions, and family traditions of strategy. Thus I clearly
explain the strategies of the world. This is tradition. It is difficult to know
yourself if you do not know others. To all Ways there are side-tracks. If
you study a Way daily, and your spirit diverges, you may think you are
obeying a good Way but objectively it is not the true Way. If you are fol-
lowing the true way and diverge a little, this will later become a large di-
vergence. You must realize this. Other strategies have come to be
thought of as mere sword-fencing, and it is not unreasonable that this
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should be so. The benefit of my strategy, although it includes sword-fen-
cing, lies in a separate principle. I have explained what is commonly
meant by strategy in other schools in the Tradition (Wind) book.
Fifthly, the book of the Void. By void I mean that which has no begin-
ning and no end. Attaining this principle means not attaining the prin-
ciple. The Way of strategy is the Way of nature. When you appreciate the
power of nature, knowing rhythm of any situation, you will be able to hit
the enemy naturally and strike naturally. All this is the Way of the Void.
I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the
book of the Void.
The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school - two swords)
Warriors, both commanders and troopers, carry two swords at their
belt. In olden times these were called the long sword and the sword;
nowadays they are known as the sword and the companion sword. Let it
suffice to say that in our land, whatever the reason, a warrior carries two
swords at his belt. It is the Way of the warrior.
"Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantages of using both swords.
The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried out of doors.
Students of the Ichi school Way of Strategy should train from the start
with the sword and the long sword in either hand. This is a truth: when
you sacrifice your life, you must make fullest use of your weaponry. It is
false not to do so, and to die with a weapon yet undrawn.
If you hold a sword with both hands, it is difficult to wield it freely to
left and right, so my method is to carry the sword in one hand. This does
not apply to large weapons such as the spear or halberd, but swords and
companion swords can be carried in one hand. It is encumbering to hold
a sword in both hands when you are on horseback, when running on un-
even roads, on swampy ground, muddy rice fields, stony ground, or in a
crowd of people. To hold the long sword in both hands is not the true
Way, for if you carry a bow or spear or other arms in your left hand you
have only one hand free for the long sword. However, when it is difficult
to cut an enemy down with one hand, you must use both hands. It is not
difficult to wield a sword in one hand; the Way to learn this is to train
with two long swords, one in each hand. It will seem difficult at first, but
everything is difficult at first. Bows are difficult to draw, halberds are
difficult to wield; as you become accustomed to the bow so your pull
will become stronger. When you become used to wielding the long
sword, you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well.
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As I will explain in the second book, the Water Book, there is no fast
way of wielding the long sword. The long sword should be wielded
broadly and the companion sword closely. This is the first thing to
realize.
According to this Ichi school, you can win with a long weapon, and
yet you can also win with a short weapon. In short, the Way of the Ichi
school is the spirit of winning, whatever the weapon and whatever its
size.
It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a
crowd, and especially if you want to take a prisoner.
These things cannot be explained in detail. From one thing, know ten
thousand things. When you attain the Way of Strategy there will not be
one thing you cannot see. You must study hard.
The Benefit of the Two Characters Reading "Strategy"
Masters of the long sword are called strategists. As for the other milit-
ary arts, those who master the bow are called archers, those who master
the spear are called spearmen, those who master the gun are called
marksmen, those who master the halberd are called halberdiers. But we
do not call masters of the Way of the long sword "longswordsmen", nor
do we speak of "companion swordsmen". Because bows, guns, spears
and halberds are all warriors' equipment they are certainly part of
strategy. To master the virtue of the long sword is to govern the world
and oneself, thus the long sword is the basis of strategy. The principle is
"strategy by means of the long sword". If he attains the virtue of the long
sword, one man can beat ten men. Just as one man can beat ten, so a hun-
dred men can beat a thousand, and a thousand can beat ten thousand. In
my strategy, one man is the same as ten thousand, so this strategy is the
complete warrior's craft.
The Way of the warrior does not include other Ways, such as Con-
fucianism, Buddhism, certain traditions, artistic accomplishments and
dancing. But even though these are not part of the Way, if you know the
Way broadly you will see it in everything. Men must polish their partic-
ular Way.
The Benefit of Weapons in Strategy
There is a time and place for use of weapons.
The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space, or when
you are engaged closely with an opponent. The long sword can be used
effectively in all situations.
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The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. With the spear
you can take the initiative; the halberd is defensive. In the hands of one
of two men of equal ability, the spear gives a little extra strength. Spear
and halberd both have their uses, but neither is very beneficial in con-
fined spaces. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner. They are essen-
tially weapons for the field.
Anyway, if you learn "indoor" techniques, you will think narrowly
and forget the true Way. Thus you will have difficulty in actual
encounters.
The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle, especially
battles on a moor, as it is possible to shoot quickly from among the
spearmen. However, it is unsatisfactory in sieges, or when the enemy is
more than forty yards away. For this reason there are nowadays few tra-
ditional schools of archery. There is little use nowadays for this kind of
skill.
From inside fortifications, the gun has no equal among weapons. It is
the supreme weapon on the field before the ranks clash, but once swords
are crossed the gun becomes useless. One of the virtues of the bow is that
you can see the arrows in flight and correct your aim accordingly,
whereas gunshot cannot be seen. You must appreciate the importance of
this.
Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects, so it is with
weapons. Horses should walk strongly, and swords and companion
swords should cut strongly. Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy
use, bows and guns must be sturdy. Weapons should be hardy rather
than decorative.
You should not have a favourite weapon. To become over-familiar
with one weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well.
You should not copy others, but use weapons which you can handle
properly. It is bad for commanders and troopers to have likes and dis-
likes. These are things you must learn thoroughly.
Timing in Strategy
There is timing in everything. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered
without a great deal of practice.
Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music, for they are
in rhythm only if timing is good. Timing and rhythm are also involved in
the military arts, shooting bows and guns, and riding horses. In all skills
and abilities there is timing. There is also timing in the Void.
There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his thriving and de-
clining, in his harmony and discord. Similarly, there is timing in the Way
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of the merchant, in the rise and fall of capital. All things entail rising and
falling timing. You must be able to discern this. In strategy there are vari-
ous timing considerations. From the outset you must know the applic-
able timing and the inapplicable timing, and from among the large and
small things and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing, first
seeing the distance timing and the background timing. This is the main
thing in strategy. It is especially important to know the background tim-
ing, otherwise your strategy will become uncertain.
You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cun-
ning by knowing the enemies' timing, and thus using a timing which the
enemy does not expect.
All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. You must train
sufficiently to appreciate this.
If you practice day and night in the above Ichi school strategy, your
spirit will naturally broaden. Thus is large scale strategy and the strategy
of hand to hand combat propagated in the world. This is recorded for the
first time in the five books of Ground, Water, Fire, Tradition (Wind), and
Void. This is the way for men who want to learn my strategy:
1. Do not think dishonestly.
2. The Way is in training.
3. Become acquainted with every art.
4. Know the Ways of all professions.
5. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters.
6. Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything.
7. Perceive those things which cannot be seen.
8. Pay attention even to trifles.
9. Do nothing which is of no use.
It is important to start by setting these broad principles in your heart,
and train in the Way of Strategy. If you do not look at things on a large
scale it will be difficult for you to master strategy. If you learn and attain
this strategy you will never lose even to twenty or thirty enemies. More
than anything to start with you must set your heart on strategy and earn-
estly stick to the Way. You will come to be able to actually beat men in
fights, and to be able to win with your eye. Also by training you will be
able to freely control your own body, conquer men with your body, and
with sufficient training you will be able to beat ten men with your spirit.
When you have reached this point, will it not mean that you are
invincible?
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Moreover, in large scale strategy the superior man will manage many
subordinates dextrously, bear himself correctly, govern the country and
foster the people, thus preserving the ruler's discipline. If there is a Way
involving the spirit of not being defeated, to help oneself and gain hon-
our, it is the Way of strategy.
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Chapter 2
THE WATER BOOK
The spirit of the Ni Ten Ichi school of strategy is based on water, and this
Water Book explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the
Ichi school. Language does not extend to explaining the Way in detail,
but it can be grasped intuitively. Study this book; read a word then pon-
der on it. If you interpret the meaning loosely you will mistake the Way.
The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single
combat, but you must think broadly so that you attain an understanding
for ten-thousand-a-side battles.
Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way
even a little you will become bewildered and fall into bad ways.
If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of Strategy.
Absorb the things written in this book.Do not just read, memorise or im-
itate, but so that you realize the principle from within your own heart
study hard to absorb these things into your body.
Spiritual Bearing in Strategy
In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from nor-
mal. Both in fighting and in everyday life you should be determined
though calm. Meet the situation without tenseness yet not recklessly,
your spirit settled yet unbiased. Even when your spirit is calm do not let
your body relax, and when your body is relaxed do not let your spirit
slacken. Do not let your spirit be influenced by your body, or your body
be influenced by your spirit. Be neither insufficiently spirited nor over
spirited. An elevated spirit is weak and a low spirit is weak. Do not let
the enemy see your spirit.
Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large
people, and large people must be familiar with the spirit of small people.
Whatever your size, do not be misled by the reactions of your own body.
With your spirit open and unconstricted, look at things from a high point
of view. You must cultivate your wisdom and spirit. Polish your
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wisdom: learn public justice, distinguish between good and evil, study
the Ways of different arts one by one. When you cannot be deceived by
men you will have realized the wisdom of strategy.
The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. On the battle-
field, even when you are hard-pressed, you should ceaselessly research
the principles of strategy so that you can develop a steady spirit.
Stance in Strategy
Adopt a stance with the head erect, neither hanging down, nor looking
up, nor twisted. Your forehead and the space between your eyes should
not be wrinkled. Do not roll your eyes nor allow them to blink, but
slightly narrow them. With your features composed, keep the line of
your nose straight with a feeling of slightly flaring your nostrils. Hold
the line of the rear of the neck straight: instill vigour into your hairline,
and in the same way from the shoulders down through your entire body.
Lower both shoulders and, without the buttocks jutting out, put strength
into your legs from the knees to the tips of your toes. Brace your abdo-
men so that you do not bend at the hips. Wedge your companion sword
in your belt against your abdomen, so that your belt is not slack - this is
called "wedging in".
In all forms of strategy, it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in
everyday life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance.
You must research this well.
The Gaze in Strategy
The gaze should be large and broad. This is the twofold gaze
"Perception and Sight". Perception is strong and sight week.
In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and
to take a distanced view of close things. It is important in strategy to
know the enemy's sword and not to be distracted by insignificant move-
ments of his sword. You must study this. The gaze is the same for single
combat and for large-scale strategy.
It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without mov-
ing the eyeballs. You cannot master this ability quickly. Learn what is
written here; use this gaze in everyday life and do not vary it whatever
happens.
Holding the Long Sword
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Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and
forefinger, with the middle finger neither tight nor slack, and with the
last two fingers tight. It is bad to have play in your hands.
When you take up a sword, you must feel intent on cutting the enemy.
As you cut an enemy you must not change your grip, and your hands
must not "cower". When you dash the enemy's sword aside, or ward it
off, or force it down, you must slightly change the feeling in your thumb
and forefinger. Above all, you must be intent on cutting the enemy in the
way you grip the sword.
The grip for combat and for sword-testing is the same. There is no
such thing as a "man-cutting grip".
Generally, I dislike fixedness in both long swords and hands. Fixed-
ness means a dead hand. Pliability is a living hand. You must bear this in
mind.
Footwork
With the tips of your toes somewhat floating, tread firmly with your
heels. Whether you move fast or slow, with large or small steps, your
feet must always move as in normal walking. I dislike the three walking
methods know as "jumping-foot", "floating-foot" and "fixed-steps".
So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important in the Way. Yin-Yang foot
means not moving only one foot. It means moving your feet left-right
and right-left when cutting, withdrawing, or warding off a cut. You
should not move on one foot preferentially.
The Five Attitudes
The five attitudes are: Upper, Middle, Lower, Right Side, and Left
Side. These are the give. Although attitude has these five divisions, the
one purpose of all of them is to cut the enemy. There are none but these
five attitudes.
Whatever attitude you are in, do not be conscious of making the atti-
tude; think only of cutting. Your attitude should be large or small ac-
cording to the situation. Upper, Lower and Middle attitudes are decisive.
Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Left and Right attitudes
should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. The de-
cision to use Left or Right depends on the place.
The essence of the Way is this. To understand attitude you must thor-
oughly understand the middle attitude. The middle attitude is the heart
of attitudes. If we look at strategy on a broad scale, the Middle attitude is
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the seat of the commander, with the other four attitudes following the
commander. You must appreciate this.
The Way of the Long Sword
Knowing the Way of the long sword means we can wield with two fin-
gers the sword we usually carry. If we know the path of the sword well,
we can wield it easily. If you try to wield the long sword quickly you
will mistake the Way. To wield the long sword well you must wield it
calmly.
If you try to wield it quickly, like a folding fan or a short sword, you
will err by using "short sword chopping". You cannot cut down a man
with a long sword using this method.
When you have cut downwards with the longsword, lift it straight up-
wards; when you cut sideways, return the sword along a sideways path.
Return the sword in a reasonable way, always stretching the elbows
broadly. Wield the sword strongly. This is the Way of the longsword.
If you learn to use the five approaches of my strategy, you will be able
to wield a sword well. You must train constantly.
The Five Approaches
1. The first approach is the Middle attitude. Confront the enemy with
the point of your sword against his face. When he attacks, dash his
sword to the right and "ride" it. Or, when the enemy attacks, deflect the
point of his sword by hitting downwards, keep your long sword where it
is, and as the enemy renews his attack cut his arms from below. This is
the first method.
The five approaches are this kind of thing. You must train repeatedly
using a long sword in order to learn them. When you master my Way of
the long sword, you will be able to control any attack the enemy makes. I
assure you, there are no attitudes other than the five attitudes of the long
sword of Ni To.
2. In the second approach with the long sword, from the Upper atti-
tude cut the enemy just as he attacks. If the enemy evades the cut, keep
your sword where it is and, scooping up from below, cut him as he re-
news the attack. It is possible to repeat the cut from here.
In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. You will
be able to understand this by training in the Ichi school. You will always
win with the five long sword methods. You must train repetitively.
3. In the third approach, adopt the Lower attitude, anticipating scoop-
ing up. When the enemy attacks, hit his hands from below. As you do so
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he may try to hit your sword down. If this is the case, cut his upper
arm(s) horizontally with a feeling of "crossing". This means that from the
lower attitudes you hit the enemy at the instant that he attacks.
You will encounter this method often, both as a beginner and in later
strategy. You must train holding a long sword.
4. In this fourth approach, adopt the Left Side attitude. As the enemy
attacks hit his hands from below. If as you hit his hands he attempts to
dash down your sword, with the feeling of hitting his hands, parry the
path of his long sword and cut across from above your shoulder.
This is the Way of the long sword. Through this method you win by
parrying the line of the enemy's attack. You must research this.
5. In the fifth approach, the sword is in the Right Side attitude. In ac-
cordance with the enemy's attack, cross your long sword from below at
the side to the Upper attitude. Then cut straight from above.
This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well.
If you can use this method, you can freely wield a heavy long sword.
I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches. You must
become well acquainted with my "in harmony with the long sword"
Way, learn large-scale timing, understand the enemy's long sword, and
become used to the five approaches from the outset. You will always win
by using these five methods, with various timing considerations discern-
ing the enemy's spirit. You must consider all this carefully.
The "Attitude No-Attitude" Teaching
"Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are know
as long sword attitudes.
Even so, attitudes exist as the five ways of holding the long sword.
However you hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to
cut the enemy well, in accordance with the situation, the place, and your
relation to the enemy. From the Upper attitude as your spirit lessens you
can adopt the Middle attitude, and from the Middle attitude you can
raise the sword a little in your technique and adopt the Upper attitude.
From the lower attitude you can raise the sword and adopt the Middle
attitudes as the occasion demands. According to the situation, if you turn
your sword from either the Left Side or Right Side attitude towards the
centre, the Middle or the Lower attitude results.
The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude - Nonexisting
Attitude".
The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your inten-
tion to cut the enemy, whatever the means. Whenever you parry, hit,
17
spring, strike or touch the enemy's cutting sword, you must cut the en-
emy in the same movement. It is essential to attain this. If you think only
of hitting, springing, striking or touching the enemy, you will not be able
actually to cut him. More than anything, you must be thinking of carry-
ing your movement through to cutting him. You must thoroughly re-
search this.
Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". Such atti-
tudes are all for winning battles. Fixed formation is bad. Study this well.
To Hit the Enemy "In One Timing"
"In One Timing" means, when you have closed with the enemy, to hit
him as quickly and directly as possible, without moving your body or
settling your spirit, while you see that he is still undecided. The timing of
hitting before the enemy decides to withdraw, break or hit, is this "In
One Timing".
You must train to achieve this timing, to be able to hit in the timing of
an instant.
The "Abdomen Timing of Two"
When you attack and the enemy quickly retreats, as you see him tense
you must feint a cut. Then, as he relaxes, follow up and hit him. This is
the "Abdomen Timing of Two".
It is very difficult to attain this by merely reading this book, but you
will soon understand with a little instruction.
No Design, No Conception
In this method, when the enemy attacks and you also decide to attack,
hit with your body, and hit with your spirit, and hit from the Void with
your hands, accelerating strongly. This is the "No Design, No Concep-
tion" cut.
This is the most important method of hitting. It is often used. You
must train hard to understand it.
The Flowing Water Cut
The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to
blade with the enemy. When he breaks and quickly withdraws trying to
spring with his long sword, expand your body and spirit and cut him as
slowly as possible with your long sword, following your body like stag-
nant water. You can cut with certainty if you learn this. You must dis-
cern the enemy's grade.
18
Continuous Cut
When you attack and the enemy also attacks, and your swords spring
together, in one action cut his head, hands and legs. When you cut sever-
al places with one sweep of the long sword, it is the "Continuous Cut".
You must practice this cut; it is often used. With detailed practice you
should be able to understand it.
The Fire and Stones
Cut The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long
sword and your long sword clash together you cut as strongly as pos-
sible without raising the sword even a little. This means cutting quickly
with the hands, body and legs - all three cutting strongly. If you train
well enough you will be able to strike strongly.
The Red Leaves Cut
The Red Leaves Cut [allusion to falling, dying leaves] means knocking
down the enemy's long sword. The spirit should be getting control of his
sword. When the enemy is in a long sword attitude in front of you and
intent on cutting, hitting and parrying, you strongly hit the enemy's long
sword with the Fire and Stones Cut, perhaps in the spirit of the "No
Design, No Conception" Cut. If you then beat down the point of his
sword with a sticky feeling, he will necessarily drop the sword. If you
practice this cut it becomes easy to make the enemy drop his sword. You
must train repetitively.
The Body in Place of the Long Sword
Also "the long sword in place of the body". Usually we move the body
and the sword at the same time to cut the enemy. However, according to
the enemy's cutting method, you can dash against him with your body
first, and afterwards cut with the sword. If his body is immoveable, you
can cut first with the long sword, but generally you hit first with the
body and then cut with the long sword. You must research this well and
practice hitting.
Cut and Slash
To cut and to slash are two different things. Cutting, whatever form of
cutting it is, is decisive, with a resolute spirit. Slashing is nothing more
than touching the enemy. Even if you slash strongly, and even if the en-
emy dies instantly, it is slashing. When you cut, your spirit is resolved.
19
You must appreciate this. If you first slash the enemy's hands or legs,
you must then cut strongly. Slashing is in spirit the same as touching.
When you realize this, they become indistinguishable. Learn this well.
Chinese Monkey's Body
The Chinese Monkey's Body is the spirit of not stretching out your
arms. The spirit is to get in quickly, without in the least extending your
arms, before the enemy cuts. If you are intent upon not stretching out
your arms you are effectively far away, the spirit is to go in with your
whole body. When you come to within arm's reach it becomes easy to
move your body in. You must research this well.
Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body
The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the en-
emy and not separate from him. When you approach the enemy, stick
firmly with your head, body and legs. People tend to advance their head
and legs quickly, but their body lags behind. You should stick firmly so
that there is not the slightest gap between the enemy's body and your
body. You must consider this carefully.
To Strive for Height
By "to strive for height" is meant, when you close with the enemy, to
strive with him for superior height without cringing. Stretch your legs,
stretch your hips, and stretch your neck face to face with him. When you
think you have won, and you are the higher, thrust in strongly. You
must learn this.
To Apply Stickiness
When the enemy attacks and you also attack with the long sword, you
should go in with a sticky feeling and fix your long sword against the
enemy's as you receive his cut. The spirit of stickiness is not hitting very
strongly, but hitting so that the long swords do not separate easily. It is
best to approach as calmly as possible when hitting the enemy's long
sword with stickiness. The difference between "Stickiness" and
"Entanglement" is that stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. You
must appreciate this.
The Body Strike
The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his
guard. The spirit is to strike him with your body. Turn your face a little
20
aside and strike the enemy's breast with your left shoulder thrust out.
Approach with the spirit of bouncing the enemy away, striking as
strongly as possible in time with yout breathing. If you achieve this
method of closing with the enemy, you will be able to knock him ten or
twenty feet away. It is possible to strike the enemy until he is dead. Train
well.
Three Ways to Parry His Attack
There are three methods to parry a cut:
First, by dashing the enemy's long sword to your right, as if thrusting
at his eyes, when he makes an attack.
Or, to parry by thrusting the enemy's long sword towards his right eye
with the feeling of snipping his neck.
Or, when you have a short "long sword", without worrying about par-
rying the enemy's long sword, to close with him quickly, thrusting at his
face with your left hand.
These are the three methods of parrying. You must bear in mind that
you can always clench your left hand and thrust at the enemy's face with
your fist. For this it is necessary to train well.
To Stab at the Face
To stab at the face means, when you are in confrontation with the en-
emy, that your spirit is intent of stabbing at his face, following the line of
the blades with the point of your long sword. If you are intent on
stabbing at his face, his face and body will become rideable. When the
enemy becomes as if rideable, there are various opportunities for win-
ning. You must concentrate on this. When fighting and the enemy's body
becomes as if rideable, you can win quickly, so you ought not to forget to
stab at the face. You must pursue the value of this technique through
training.
To Stab at the Heart
To stab at the heart means, when fighting and there are obstructions
above, or to the sides, and whenever it is difficult to cut, to thrust at the
enemy. You must stab the enemy's breast without letting the point of
your long sword waver, showing the enemy the ridge of the blade
square-on, and with the spirit of deflecting his long sword. The spirit of
this principle is often useful when we become tired or for some reason
our long sword will not cut. You must understand the application of this
method.
21
To Scold "Tut-TUT!"
"Scold" means that, when the enemy tries to counter-cut as you attack,
you counter-cut again from below as if thrusting at him, trying to hold
him down. With very quick timing you cut, scolding the enemy. Thrust
up, "Tut!", and cut "TUT!" This timing is encountered time and time
again in exchange of blows. The way to scold Tut-TUT is to time the cut
simultaneously with raising your long sword as if to thrust the enemy.
You must learn this through repetitive practice.
The Smacking Parry
By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the en-
emy, you meet his attacking cut on your long sword with a tee-dum, tee-
dum rhythm, smacking his sword and cutting him. The spirit of the
smacking parry is not parrying, or smacking strongly, but smacking the
enemy's long sword in accordance with his attacking cut, primarily in-
tent on quickly cutting him. If you understand the timing of smacking,
however hard your long swords clash together, your swordpoint will not
be knocked back even a little. You must research sufficiently to realize
this.
There are Many Enemies
"There are many enemies" applies when you are fighting one against
many. Draw both sword and companion sword and assume a wide-
stretched left and right attitude. The spirit is to chase the enemies around
from side to side, even though they come from all four directions. Ob-
serve their attacking order, and go to meet first those who attack first.
Sweep your eyes around broadly, carefully examining the attacking or-
der, and cut left and right alternately with your swords. Waiting is bad.
Always quickly re-assume your attitudes to both sides, cut the enemies
down as they advance, crushing them in the direction from which they
attack. Whatever you do, you must drive the enemy together, as if tying
a line of fishes, and when they are seen to be piled up, cut them down
strongly without giving them room to move.
The Advantage when Coming to Blows
You can know how to win through strategy with the long sword, but it
cannot be clearly explained in writing. You must practice diligently in
order to understand how to win.
22
Oral tradition: "The true Way of Strategy is revealed in the long
sword."
One Cut
You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut". It is difficult to
attain this if you do not learn strategy well. If you train well in this Way,
strategy will come from your heart and you will be able to win at will.
You must train diligently.
Direct Communication
The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the Ni To
Ichi school is received and handed down.
Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy."
Recorded in the above book is an outline of Ichi school sword-fighting.
To learn how to win with the long sword in strategy, first learn the
five approaches and the five attitudes, and absorb the Way of the long
sword naturally in your body. You must understand spirit and timing,
handle the long sword naturally, and move body and legs in harmony
with your spirit. Whether beating one man or two, you will then know
values in strategy.
Study the contents of this book, taking one item at a time, and through
fighting with enemies you will gradually come to know the principle of
the Way.
Deliberately, with a patient spirit, absorb the virtue of all this, from
time to time raising your hand in combat. Maintain this spirit whenever
you cross swords with and enemy.
Step by step walk the thousand-mile road.
Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior.
Today is victory over yourself of yesterday; tomorrow is your victory
over lesser men. Next, in order to beat more skillful men, train according
to this book, not allowing your heart to be swayed along a side-track.
Even if you kill an enemy, if it is not based on what you have learned it
is not the true Way.
If you attain this Way of victory, then you will be able to beat several
tens of men. What remains is sword-fighting ability, which you can at-
tain in battles and duels.
23
Chapter 3
THE FIRE BOOK
In this the Fire Book of the Ni To Ichi school of strategy I describe fight-
ing as fire.
In the first place, people think narrowly about the benefit of strategy.
By using only their fingertips, they only know the benefit of three of the
five inches of the wrist. They let a contest be decided, as with the folding
fan, merely by the span of their forearms. They specialise in the small
matter of dexterity, learning such trifles as hand and leg movements
with the bamboo practice sword.
In my strategy, the training for killing enemies is by way of many con-
tests, fighting for survival, discovering the meaning of life and death,
learning the Way of the sword, judging the strength of attacks and un-
derstanding the Way of the "edge and ridge" of the sword.
You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armour
is worn. My Way of Strategy is the sure method to win when fighting for
your life one man against five or ten. There is nothing wrong with the
principle "one man can beat ten, so a thousand men can beat ten thou-
sand". You must research this. Of course you cannot assemble a thou-
sand or ten thousand men for everyday training. But you can become a
master of strategy by training alone with a sword, so that you can under-
stand the enemy's strategy, his strength and resources, and come to ap-
preciate how to apply strategy to beat ten thousand enemies.
Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must re-
search diligently, training morning and evening. Thus can he polish his
skill, become free from self, and realize extraordinary ability. He will
come to possess miraculous power.
This is the practical result of strategy.
Depending on the Place
Examine your environment.
24
Stand in the sun; that is, take up an attitude with the sun behind you.
If the situation does not allow this, you must try to keep the sun on your
right side. In buildings, you must stand with the entrance behind you or
to your right. Make sure that your rear is unobstructed, and that there is
free space on your left, your right side being occupied with your side at-
titude. At night, if the enemy can be seen, keep the fire behind you and
the entrance to your right, and otherwise take up your attitude as above.
You must look down on the enemy, and take up your attitude on slightly
higher places. For example, the Kamiza in a house is thought of as a high
place.
When the fight comes, always endeavour to chase the enemy around
to your left side. Chase him towards awkward places, and try to keep
him with his back to awkward places. When the enemy gets into an in-
convenient position, do not let him look around, but conscientiously
chase him around and pin him down. In houses, chase the enemy into
the thresholds, lintels, doors, verandas, pillars, and so on, again not let-
ting him see his situation.
Always chase the enemy into bad footholds, obstacles at the side, and
so on, using the virtues of the place to establish predominant positions
from which to fight. You must research and train diligently in this.
The Three Methods to Forestall the Enemy
The first is to forestall him by attacking. This is called Ken No Sen (to
set him up).
Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. This is called Tai No
Sen (to wait for the initiative).
The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. This is
called Tai Tai No Sen (to accompany him and forestall him).
There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. Be-
cause you can win quickly by taking the lead, it is one of the most im-
portant things in strategy. There are several things involved in taking the
lead. You must make the best of the situation, see through the enemy's
spirit so that you grasp his strategy and defeat him. It is impossible to
write about this in detail.
The First - Ken No Sen
When you decide to attack, keep calm and dash in quickly, forestalling
the enemy. Or you can advance seemingly strongly but with a reserved
spirit, forestalling him with the reserve.
25
Alternatively, advance with as strong a spirit as possible, and when
you reach the enemy move with your feet a little quicker than normal,
unsettling him and overwhelming him sharply.
Or, with your spirit calm, attack with a feeling of constantly crushing
the enemy, from first to last. The spirit is to win in the depths of the en-
emy. These are all Ken No Sen.
The Second - Tai No Sen
When the enemy attacks, remain undisturbed but feign weakness. As
the enemy reaches you, suddenly move away indicating that you intend
to jump aside, then dash in attacking strongly as soon as you see the en-
emy relax. This is one way.
Or, as the enemy attacks, attack still more strongly, taking advantage
of the resulting disorder in his timing to win.
This is the Tai No Sen principle.
The Third - Tai Tai No Sen
When the enemy makes a quick attack, you must attack strongly and
calmly, aim for his weak point as he draws near, and strongly defeat
him.
Or, if the enemy attacks calmly, you must observe his movements and,
with your body rather floating, join in with his movements as he draws
near. Move quickly and cut him strongly.
This is Tai Tai No Sen.
These things cannot be clearly explained in words. You must research
what is written here. In these three ways of forestalling, you must judge
the situation. This does not mean that you always attack first; but if the
enemy attacks first you can lead him around. In strategy, you have ef-
fectively won when you forestall the enemy, so you must train well to at-
tain this.
To Hold Down a Pillow
"To Hold Down a Pillow" means not allowing the enemy's head to rise.
In contests of strategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. You must
always be able to lead the enemy about. Obviously the enemy will also
be thinking of doing this, but he cannot forestall you if you do not allow
him to come out. In strategy, you must stop the enemy as he attempts to
cut; you must push down his thrust, and throw off his hold when he
tries to grapple. This is the meaning of "to hold down a pillow". When
you have grasped this principle, whatever the enemy tries to bring about
in the fight you will see in advance and suppress it. The spirit is too
26
check his attack at the syllable "at… ", when he jumps check his jump at
the syllable "ju… ", and check his cut at "cu… ".
The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful ac-
tions but allow his useless actions. However, doing this alone is defens-
ive. First, you must act according to the Way, suppressing the enemy's
techniques, foiling his plans and thence command him directly. When
you can do this you will be a master of strategy. You must train well and
research "holding down a pillow".
Crossing at a Ford
"Crossing at a ford" means, for example, crossing the sea at a strait, or
crossing over a hundred miles of broad sea at a crossing place. I believe
this "crossing at a ford" occurs often in man's lifetime. It means setting
sail even though your friends stay in harbour, knowing the route, know-
ing the soundness of your ship and the favour of the day. When all the
conditions are meet, and there is perhaps a favourable wind, or a tail-
wind, then set sail. If the wind changes within a few miles of your des-
tination, you must row across the remaining distance without sail.
If you attain this spirit, it applies to everyday life. You must always
think of crossing at a ford.
In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford". Discern the enemy's
capability and, knowing your own strong points, "cross the ford" at the
advantageous place, as a good captain crosses a sea route. If you succeed
in crossing at the best place, you may take your ease. To cross at a ford
means to attack the enemy's weak point, and to put yourself in an ad-
vantageous position. This is how to win large-scale strategy. The spirit of
crossing at a ford is necessary in both large- and small-scale strategy.
You must research this well.
To Know the Times
"To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle.
Is it flourishing or waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men
and getting the best position, you can work out the enemy's disposition
and move your men accordingly. You can win through this principle of
strategy, fighting from a position of advantage.
When in a duel, you must forestall the enemy and attack when you
have first recognised his school of strategy, perceived his quality and his
strong and weak points. Attack in an unsuspecting manner, knowing his
metre and modulation and the appropriate timing.
27
Knowing the times means, if your ability is high, seeing right into
things. If you are thoroughly conversant with strategy, you will recog-
nise the enemy's intentions and thus have many opportunities to win.
You must sufficiently study this.
To Tread Down the Sword
"To tread down the sword" is a principle often used in strategy. First,
in large scale strategy, when the enemy first discharges bows and guns
and then attacks it is difficult for us to attack if we are busy loading
powder into our guns or notching our arrows. The spirit is to attack
quickly while the enemy is still shooting with bows or guns. The spirit is
to win by "treading down" as we receive the enemy's attack.
In single combat, we cannot get a decisive victory by cutting, with a
"tee-dum tee-dum" feeling, in the wake of the enemy's attacking long
sword. We must defeat him at the start of his attack, in the spirit of tread-
ing him down with the feet, so that he cannot rise again to the attack.
"Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. Tread with
the body, tread with the spirit, and, of course, tread and cut with the
long sword. You must achieve the spirit of not allowing the enemy to at-
tack a second time. This is the spirit of forestalling in every sense. Once
at the enemy, you should not aspire just to strike him, but to cling after
the attack. You must study this deeply.
To Know "Collapse"
Everything can collapse. Houses, bodies, and enemies collapse when
their rhythm becomes deranged.
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy starts to collapse, you must
pursue him without letting the chance go. If you fail to take advantage of
your enemies' collapse, they may recover.
In single combat, the enemy sometimes loses timing and collapses. If
you let this opportunity pass, he may recover and not be so negligent
thereafter. Fix your eye on the enemy's collapse, and chase him, attack-
ing so that you do not let him recover. You must do this. The chasing at-
tack is with a strong spirit. You must utterly cut the enemy down so that
he does not recover his position. You must understand how to utterly cut
down the enemy.
To Become the Enemy
"To become the enemy" means to think yourself in the enemy's posi-
tion. In the world people tend to think of a robber trapped in a house as
28
a fortified enemy. However, if we think of "becoming the enemy", we
feel that the whole world is against us and that there is no escape. He
who is shut inside is a pheasant. He who enters to arrest is a hawk. You
must appreciate this.
In large-scale strategy, people are always under the impression that
the enemy is strong, and so tend to become cautious. But if you have
good soldiers, and if you understand the principles of strategy, and if
you know how to beat the enemy, there is nothing to worry about.
In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. If
you think, "Here is a a master of the Way, who knows the principles of
strategy", then you will surely lose. You must consider this deeply.
To Release Four Hands
"To release four hands" is used when you and the enemy are contend-
ing with the same spirit, and the issue cannot be decided. Abandon this
spirit and win through an alternative resource.
In large-scale strategy, when there is a "four hands" spirit, do not give
up - it is man's existence. Immediately throw away this spirit and win
with a technique the enemy does not expect.
In single combat also, when we think we have fallen into the "four
hands" situation, we must defeat the enemy by changing our mind and
applying a suitable technique according to his condition. You must be
able to judge this.
To Move the Shade
"To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit.
In large-scale strategy, when you cannot see the enemy's position, in-
dicate that you are about to attack strongly, to discover his resources. It
is easy then to defeat him with a different method once you see his
resources.
In single combat, if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the
long sword so that you cannot see his intention, make a feint attack, and
the enemy will show his long sword, thinking he sees your spirit. Bene-
fiting from what you are shown, you can win with certainty. If you are
negligent you will miss the timing. Research this well.
To Hold Down a Shadow
"Holding down a shadow" is use when you can see the enemy's attack-
ing spirit.
29
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy embarks on an attack, if you
make a show of strongly suppressing his technique, he will change his
mind. Then, altering your spirit, defeat him by forestalling him with a
Void spirit.
Or, in single combat, hold down the enemy's strong intention with a
suitable timing, and defeat him by forestalling him with this timing. You
must study this well.
To Pass On
Many things are said to be passed on. Sleepiness can be passed on, and
yawning can be passed on. Time can be passed on also.
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy is agitated and shows an in-
clination to rush, do not mind in the least. Make a show of complete
calmness, and the enemy will be taken by this and will become relaxed.
When you see that this spirit has been passed on, you can bring about
the enemy's defeat by attacking strongly with a Void spirit.
In single combat, you can win by relaxing your body and spirit and
then, catching on to the moment the enemy relaxes, attack strongly and
quickly, forestalling him. What is know as "getting someone drunk" is
similar to this. You can also infect the enemy with a bored, careless, or
weak spirit. You must study this well.
To Cause Loss of Balance
Many things can cause a loss of balance. One cause is danger, another
is hardship, and another is surprise. You must research this.
In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. Attack
without warning where the enemy is not expecting it, and while his spir-
it is undecided follow up your advantage and, having the lead, defeat
him.
Or, in single combat, start by making a show of being slow, then sud-
denly attack strongly. Without allowing him space for breath to recover
form the fluctuation of spirit, you must grasp the opportunity to win.
Get the feel of this.
To Frighten
Fright often occurs, caused by the unexpected.
In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not just by what
you present to their eyes, but by shouting, making a small force seem
large, or by threatening them from the flank without warning. These
30
things all frighten. You can win by making best use of the enemy's
frightened rhythm.
In single combat, also, you must use the advantage of taking the en-
emy unawares by frightening him with your body, long sword, or voice,
to defeat him. You should research this well.
To Soak In
When you have come to grips and are striving together with the en-
emy, and you realize that you cannot advance, you "soak in" and become
one with the enemy. You can win by applying a suitable technique while
you are mutually entangled.
In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small num-
bers, you can often win decisively with the advantage of knowing how
to "soak" into the enemy, whereas, were you to draw apart, you would
lose the chance to win. Research this well.
To Injure the Corners
It is difficult to move strong things by pushing directly, so you should
"injure the corners".
In large-scale strategy, it is beneficial to strike at the corners of the
enemy's force. If the corners are overthrown, the spirit of the whole body
will be overthrown. To defeat the enemy you must follow up the attack
when the corners have fallen.
In single combat, it is easy to win once the enemy collapses. This hap-
pens when you injure the "corners" of his body, and thus weaken him. It
is important to know how to do this, so you must research deeply.
To Throw into Confusion
This means making the enemy lose resolve.
In large-scale strategy we can use our troops to confuse the enemy on
the field. Observing the enemy's spirit, we can make him think, "Here?
There? Like that? Like this? Slow? Fast?". Victory is certain when the en-
emy is caught up in a rhythm which confuses his spirit.
In single combat, we can confuse the enemy by attacking with varied
techniques when the chance arises. Feint a thrust or cut, or make the en-
emy think ou are going to close with him, and when he is confused you
can easily win. This is the essence of fighting, and you must research it
deeply.
The Three Shouts
31
The three shouts are divided thus: before, during and after. Shout ac-
cording to the situation. The voice is a thing of life. We shout against
fires and so on, against the wind and the waves. The voice shows energy.
In large-scale strategy, at the start of battle we shout as loudly as pos-
sible. During the fight, the voice is low-pitched, shouting out as we at-
tack. After the contest, we shout in the wake of our victory. These are the
three shouts.
In single combat, we make as if to cut and shout "Ei!" at the same time
to disturb the enemy, then in the wake of our shout we cut with the long
sword. We shout after we have cut down the enemy - this is to announce
victory. This is called "sen go no koe" (before and after voice). We do not
shout simultaneously with flourishing the long sword. We shout during
the fight to get into rhythm. Research this deeply.
To Mingle
In battles, when the armies are in confrontation, attack the enemy's
strong points and, when you see that they are beaten back, quickly sep-
arate and attack yet another strong point on the periphery of his force.
The spirit of this is like a winding mountain path.
This is an important fighting method for one man against many. Strike
down the enemies in one quarter, or drive them back, then grasp the tim-
ing and attack further strong points to right and left, as if on a winding
mountain path, weighing up the enemies' disposition. When you know
the enemies' level attack strongly with no trace of retreating spirit.
What is meant by "mingling" is the spirit of advancing and becoming
engaged with the enemy, and not withdrawing even one step. You must
understand this.
To Crush
This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak.
In large-scale strategy, when we see that the enemy has few men, or if
he has many men but his spirit is weak and disordered, we knock the hat
over his eyes, crushing him utterly. If we crush lightly, he may recover.
You must learn the spirit of crushing as if with a hand-grip.
In single combat, if the enemy is less skilful than ourself, if his rhythm
is disorganised, or if he has fallen into evasive or retreating attitudes, we
must crush him straightaway, with no concern for his presence and
without allowing him space for breath. It is essential to crush him all at
once. The primary thing is not to let him recover his position even a little.
You must research this deeply.
32
The Mountain-Sea Change
The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing
several times when fighting the enemy. There may be no help but to do
something twice, but do not try it a third time. If you once make an at-
tack and fail, there is little chance of success if you use the same ap-
proach again. If you attempt a technique which you have previously
tried unsuccessfully and fail yet again, then you must change your at-
tacking method.
If the enemy thinks of the mountains, attack like the sea; and if he
thinks of the sea, attack like the mountains. You must research this
deeply.
To Penetrate the Depths
When we are fighting with the enemy, even when it can be seen that
we can win on the surface with the benefit of the Way, if his spirit is not
extinguished, he may be beaten superficially yet undefeated in spirit
deep inside. With this principle of "penetrating the depths" we can des-
troy the enemy's spirit in its depths, demoralising him by quickly chan-
ging our spirit. This often occurs.
Penetrating the depths means penetrating with the long sword, penet-
rating with the body, and penetrating with the spirit. This cannot be un-
derstood in a generalisation.
Once we have crushed the enemy in the depths, there is no need to re-
main spirited. But otherwise we must remain spirited. If the enemy re-
mains spirited it is difficult to crush him. You must train in penetrating
the depths for large-scale strategy and also single combat.
To Renew
"To renew" applies when we are fighting with the enemy, and an en-
tangled spirit arises where there is no possible resolution. We must aban-
don our efforts, think of the situation in a fresh spirit then win in the new
rhythm. To renew, when we are deadlocked with the enemy, means that
without changing our circumstance we change our spirit and win
through a different technique.
It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale
strategy. Research this diligently.
Rat's Head, Ox's Neck
33
"Rat's head and ox's neck" means that, when we are fighting with the
enemy and both he and we have become occupied with small points in
an entangled spirit, we must always think of the Way of Strategy as be-
ing both a rat's head and an ox's neck. Whenever we have become preoc-
cupied with small detail, we must suddenly change into a large spirit, in-
terchanging large with small.
This is one of the essences of strategy. It is necessary that the warrior
think in this spirit in everyday life. You must not depart from this spirit
in large-scale strategy nor in single combat.
The Commander Knows the Troops
"The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in
my Way of strategy. Using the wisdom of strategy, think of the enemy as
your own troops. When you think in this way you can move him at will
and be able to chase him around. You become the general and the enemy
becomes your troops. You must master this.
To Let Go the Hilt
There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. There is
the spirit of winning without a sword. There is also the spirit of holding
the long sword but not winning. The various methods cannot be ex-
pressed in writing. You must train well.
The Body of a Rock
When you have mastered the Way of Strategy you can suddenly make
your body like a rock, and ten thousand things cannot touch you. This is
the body of a rock.
You will not be moved. Oral tradition.
What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about
Ichi school sword fencing, written down as it came to me. This is the first
time I have written about my technique, and the order of things is a bit
confused. It is difficult to express it clearly.
This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the
Way.
My heart has been inclined to the Way of Strategy from my youth on-
wards. I have devoted myself to training my hand, tempering my body,
and attaining the many spiritual attitudes of sword fencing. If we watch
men of other schools discussing theory, and concentrating on techniques
with the hands, even though they seem skilful to watch, they have not
the slightest true spirit.
34
Of course, men who study in this way think they are training the body
and spirit, but it is an obstacle to the true Way, and its bad influence re-
mains for ever. Thus the true Way of Strategy is becoming decadent and
dying out.
The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a
fight, and nothing other than this. If you attain and adhere to the wis-
dom of my strategy, you need never doubt that you will win.
35
Chapter 4
THE WIND BOOK
In strategy you must know the Ways of other schools, so I have written
about various other traditions of strategys in this the Wind Book.
Without knowledge of the Ways of other schools, it is difficult to un-
derstand the essence of my Ichi school. Looking at other schools we find
some that specialise in techniques of strength using extra-long swords.
Some schools study the Way of the short sword, known as kodachi.
Some schools teach dexterity in large numbers of sword techniques,
teaching attitudes of the sword as the "surface" and the Way as the
"interior".
That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of
this book - all the vices and virtues and rights and wrongs. My Ichi
school is different. Other schools make accomplishments their means of
livelihood, growing flowers and decoratively colouring articles in order
to sell them. This is definitely not the Way of Strategy.
Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword-fencing,
and limit their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the
body. But is dexterity alone sufficient to win? This is not the essence of
the Way.
I have recorded the unsatisfactory point of other schools one by one in
this book. You must study these matters deeply to appreciate the benefit
of my Ni To Ichi school.
Other Schools Using Extra-Long Swords
Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. From the point
of view of my strategy these must been seen as weak schools. This is be-
cause they do not appreciate the principle of cutting the enemy by any
means. Their preference is for the extra-long sword and, relying on the
virtue of its length, they think to defeat the enemy from a distance.
In this world it is said, "One inch gives the hand advantage", but these
are the idle words of one who does not know strategy. It shows the
36
inferior strategy of a weak spirit that men should be dependent on the
length of their sword, fighting from a distance without the benefit of
strategy.
I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long
swords as part of its doctrine, but if we compare this to real life it is un-
reasonable. Surely we need not necessarily be defeated if we are using a
short sword, and have no long sword?
It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters
because of the length of the long sword. The blade path is large so the
long sword is an encumbrance, and they are at a disadvantage compared
to the man armed with a short companion sword.
From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together.". So
do not unconditionally dislike extra-long swords. What I dislike is the in-
clination towards the long sword. If we consider large-scale strategy, we
can think of large forces in terms of long swords, and small forces as
short swords. Cannot few me give battle against many? There are many
instances of few men overcoming many.
Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined
space your heart is inclined to the long sword, or if you are in a house
armed only with your companion sword.
Besides, some men have not the strength of others. In my doctrine, I
dislike preconceived, narrow spirit. You must study this well.
The Strong Long Sword Spirit in Other Schools
You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. If you just
wield the long sword in a strong spirit your cutting will be coarse, and if
you use the sword coarsely you will have difficulty in winning.
If you are concerned with the strength of your sword, you will try to
cut unreasonably strongly, and will not be able to cut at all. It is also bad
to try to cut strongly when testing the sword. Whenever you cross
swords with an enemy you must not think of cutting him either strongly
or weakly; just think of cutting and killing him. Be intent solely upon
killing the enemy. Do not try to cut strongly and, of course, do not think
of cutting weakly. You should only be concerned with killing the enemy.
If you rely on strength, when you hit the enemy's sword you will inev-
itably hit too hard. If you do this, your own sword will be carried along
as a result. Thus the saying, "The strongest hand wins", has no meaning.
In large-scale strategy, if you have a strong army and are relying on
strength to win, but the enemy also has a strong army, the battle will be
fierce. This is the same for both sides.
37
Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. The spirit of my
school is to win through the wisdom of strategy, paying no attention to
trifles. Study this well.
Use of the Shorter Long Sword in Other Schools
Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win.
In ancient times, tachi and katana meant long and short swords. Men
of superior strength in the world can wield even a long sword lightly, so
there is no case for their liking the short sword. They also make use of
the length of spears and halberds. Some men use a shorter long sword
with the intention of jumping in and stabbing the enemy at the un-
guarded moment when he flourishes his sword. This inclination is bad.
To aim for the enemy's unguarded moment is completely defensive,
and undesirable at close quarters with the enemy. Furthermore, you can-
not use the method of jumping inside his defence with a short sword if
there are many enemies. Some men think that if they go against many
enemies with a shorter long sword they can unrestrictedly frisk around
cutting in sweeps, but they have to parry cuts continuously, and eventu-
ally become entangled with the enemy. This is inconsistent with the true
Way of Strategy.
The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in confusing
manner, causing him to jump aside, with your body held strongly and
straight. The same principle applies to large-scale strategy. The essence
of strategy is to fall upon the enemy in large numbers and bring about
his speedy downfall. By their study of strategy, people of the world get
used to countering, evading and retreating as the normal thing. They be-
come set in this habit, so can easily be paraded around by the enemy.
The Way of Strategy is straight and true. You must chase the enemy
around and make him obey your spirit.
Other Schools with many Methods of using the Long Sword
Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is
a mistaken way of thinking. What is known in the world as "attitude" ap-
plies when there is no enemy. The reason is that this has been a preced-
ent since ancient times, and there should be no such thing as "This is the
modern way to do it" in dueling. You must force the enemy into incon-
venient situations.
Attitudes are for situations in which you are not to be moved. That is,
for garrisoning castles, battle array, and so on, showing the spirit of not
being moved even by a strong assault. In the Way of dueling, however,
38
you must always be intent upon taking the lead and attacking. Attitude
is the spirit of awaiting an attack. You must appreciate this.
In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. Attack
where his spirit is lax, throw him into confusion, irritate and terrify him.
Take advantage of the enemy's rhythm when he is unsettled and you can
win.
I dislike the defensive spirit know as "attitude". Therefore, in my Way,
there is something called "Attitude-No Attitude".
In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind
our strength, observing the enemy's numbers, and noting the details of
the battle field. This is at the start of the battle.
The spirit of attacking first is completely different from the spirit of be-
ing attacked. Bearing an attack well, with a strong attitude, and parrying
the enemy's attack well, is like making a wall of spears and halberds.
When you attack the enemy, your spirit must go to the extent of pulling
the stakes out of a wall and using them as spears and halberds. You must
examine this well.
Fixing the Eyes in Other Schools
Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's
long sword. Some schools fix the eyes on the hands. Some fix the eyes on
the face, and some fix the eyes on the feet, and so on. If you fix the eyes
on these places your spirit can become confused and your strategy
thwarted.
I will explain this in detail. Footballers do not fix their eyes on the ball,
but by good play on the field they can perform well. When you become
accustomed to something, you are not limited to the use of your eyes.
People such as master musicians have the music score in front of their
nose, or flourish swords in several ways when they have mastered the
Way, but this does not mean that they fix their eyes on these things spe-
cifically, or that they make pointless movements of the sword. It means
that they can see naturally.
In the Way of Strategy, when you have fought many times you will
easily be able to appraise the speed and position of the enemy's sword,
and having mastery of the Way you will see the weight of his spirit. In
strategy, fixing the eyes means gazing at the man's heart.
In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength.
"Perception" and "sight" are the two methods of seeing. Perception con-
sists of concentrating strongly on the enemy's spirit, observing the
39
condition of the battlefield, fixing the gaze strongly, seeing the progress
of the fight and the changes of advantages. This is the sure way to win.
In single combat you must not fix the eyes on the details. As I said be-
fore, if you fix your eyes on details and neglect important things, your
spirit will become bewildered, and victory will escape you. Research this
principle well and train diligently.
Use of the Feet in Other Schools
There are various methods of using the feet: floating foot, jumping
foot, springing foot, treading foot, crow's foot, and such nimble walking
methods. From the point of view of my strategy, these are all
unsatisfactory.
I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the
fight. The Way must be trod firmly.
Neither do I like jumping foot, because it encourages the habit of
jumping, and a jumpy spirit. However much you jump, there is no real
justification for it; so jumping is bad.
Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive.
Treading foot is a "waiting" method, and I especially dislike it.
Apart from these, there are various fast walking methods, such as
crow's foot, and so on.
Sometimes, however, you may encounter the enemy on marshland,
swampy ground, river valleys, stony ground, or narrow roads, in which
situations you cannot jump or move the feet quickly.
In my strategy, the footwork does not change. I always walk as I usu-
ally do in the street. You must never lose control of your feet. According
to the enemy's rhythm, move fast or slowly, adjusting you body not too
much and not too little.
Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. This is be-
cause, if you attack quickly and thoughtlessly without knowing the
enemy's spirit, your rhythm will become deranged and you will not be
able to win. Or, if you advance too slowly, you will not be able to take
advantage of the enemy's disorder, the opportunity to win will escape,
and you will not be able to finish the fight quickly. You must win by
seizing upon the enemy's disorder and derangement, and by not accord-
ing him even a little hope of recovery. Practice this well.
Speed in Other Schools
40
Speed is not part of the true Way of Strategy. Speed implies that things
seem fast or slow, according to whether or not they are in rhythm.
Whatever the Way, the master of strategy does not appear fast.
Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty
miles in a day, but this does not mean that they run continuously from
morning till night. Unpracticed runners may seem to have been running
all day, but their performance is poor.
In the Way of dance, accomplished performers can sing while dancing,
but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes
busy. The "old pine tree" melody beaten on a leather drum is tranquil,
but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes
busy. Very skilful people can manage a fast rhythm, but it is bad to beat
hurriedly. If you try to beat too quickly you will get out of time. Of
course, slowness is bad. Really skilful people never get out of time, and
are always deliberate, and never appear busy. From this example, the
principle can be seen.
What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of Strategy. The
reason for this is that depending on the place, marsh or swamp and so
on, it may not be possible to move the body and legs together quickly.
Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you have a long sword in this
situation. If you try to cut quickly, as if using a fan or short sword, you
will not actually cut even a little. You must appreciate this.
In large-scale strategy also, a fast busy spirit is undesirable. The spirit
must be that of holding down a pillow, then you will not be even a little
late.
When your opponent is hurrying recklessly, you must act contrarily
and keep calm. You must not be influenced by the opponent. Train dili-
gently to attain this spirit.
"Interior" and "Surface" in Other Schools
There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy.
The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret
tradition, and "interior" and "gate", but in combat there is no such thing
as fighting on the surface, or cutting with the interior. When I teach my
Way, I first teach by training in techniques which are easy for the pupil
to understand, a doctrine which is easy to understand. I gradually en-
deavour to explain the deep principle, points which it is hardly possible
to comprehend, according to the pupil's progress. In any event, because
the way to understanding is through experience, I do not speak of
"interior" and "gate".
41
In this world, if you go into the mountains, and decide to go deeper
and yet deeper, instead you will emerge at the gate. Whatever the Way,
it has an interior, and it is sometimes a good thing to point out the gate.
In strategy, we cannot say what is concealed and what is revealed.
Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and
regulations. Perceiving the ability of my pupils, I teach the direct Way,
remove the bad influence of other schools, and gradually introduce them
to the true Way of the warrior.
The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit.
You must train diligently. I have tried to record an outline of the
strategy of other schools in the above nine sections. I could now continue
by giving a specific account of these schools one by one, from the "gate"
to the "interior", but I have intentionally not named the schools or their
main points. The reason for this is that different branches of schools give
different interpretations of the doctrines. In as much as men's opinions
differ, so there must be differing ideas on the same matter. Thus no one
man's conception is valid for any school.
I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. If
we look at them from an honest viewpoint, we see that people always
tend to like long swords or short swords, and become concerned with
strength in both large and small matters. You can see why I do not deal
with the "gates" of other schools.
In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior.
There is no inner meaning in sword attitudes. You must simply keep
your spirit true to realize the virtue of strategy.
42
Chapter 5
THE BOOK OF THE VOID
The Ni To Ichi Way of Strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void.
What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. It is not
included in man's knowledge. Of course the void is nothingness. By
knowing things that exist, you can know that which does not exist. That
is the void.
People in this world look at things mistakenly, and think that what
they do not understand must be the void. This is not the true void. It is
bewilderment.
In the Way of Strategy, also, those who study as warriors think that
whatever they cannot understand in their craft is the void. This is not the
true void.
To attain the Way of Strategy as a warrior you must study fully other
martial arts and not deviate even a little from the Way of the warrior.
With your spirit settled, accumulate practice day by day, and hour by
hour. Polish the twofold spirit heart and mind, and sharpen the twofold
gaze perception and sight. When your spirit is not in the least clouded,
when the clouds of bewilderment clear away, there is the true void.
Until you realize the true Way, whether in Buddhism or in common
sense, you may think that things are correct and in order. However, if we
look at things objectively, from the viewpoint of laws of the world, we
see various doctrines departing from the true Way. Know well this spirit,
and with forthrightness as the foundation and the true spirit as the Way.
Enact strategy broadly, correctly and openly.
Then you will come to think of things in a wide sense and, taking the
void as the Way, you will see the Way as void.
In the void is virtue, and no evil. Wisdom has existence, principle has
existence, the Way has existence, spirit is nothingness.
Twelfth day of the fifth month, second year of Shoho (1645).
Teruro Magonojo
43
SHINMEN MUSASHI
44
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The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th
century. It was first published in 1906, and has since been repub-
lished many times.
In the book, Kakuzo introduces the term Teaism and how Tea has
affected nearly every aspect of Japanese culture, thought, and life.
The book is accessibile to Western audiences because Kakuzo was
taught at a young age to speak English; and spoke it all his life, be-
coming proficient at communicating his thoughts to the Western
48
Mind. In his book, he discusses such topics as Zen and Taoism,
but also the secular aspects of Tea and Japanese life. The book em-
phasises how Teaism taught the Japanese many things; most im-
portantly, simplicity. Kakuzo argues that this tea-induced simpli-
city affected art and architecture, and he was a long-time student
of the visual arts. He ends the book with a chapter on Tea Masters,
and spends some time talking about Sen no Rikyu and his contri-
bution to the Japanese Tea Ceremony.
According to Tomonobu Imamichi, Heidegger's concept of Dasein
in Sein und Zeit was inspired — although Heidegger remains si-
lent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das-in-dem-Welt-
sein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea
to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy, which Imamichi's teacher had
offerred to Heidegger in 1919, after having followed lessons with
him the year before.
49
www.feedbooks.com
Food for the mind
50

About Miyamoto: Miyamoto Musashi (c.1584–June 13 (Japanese calendar: May 19), 1645), also known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke, or by his Buddhist name Niten Dōraku was a famous Japanese samurai, and is considered by many to have been one of the most skilled swordsmen in history. Musashi, as he is often simply known, became legendary through his outstanding swordsmanship in numerous duels, even from a very young age. He is the founder of the Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū or Nitenryū style of swordsmanship and the author of The Book of Five Rings, a book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy that is still studied today. Source: Wikipedia Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks http://www.feedbooks.com Strictly for personal use, do not use this file for commercial purposes.

2

Introduction
I have been many years training in the Way of Strategy, called Ni Ten Ichi Ryu, and now I think I will explain it in writing for the first time. It is now during the first ten days of the tenth month in the twentieth year of Kanei (1645). I have climbed mountain Iwato of Higo in Kyushu to pay homage to heaven, pray to Kwannon, and kneel before Buddha. I am a warrior of Harima province, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara No Genshin, age sixty years. From youth my heart has been inclined toward the Way of Strategy. My first duel was when I was thirteen, I struck down a strategist of the Shinto school, one Arima Kihei. When I was sixteen I struck down an able strategist Tadashima Akiyama. When I was twenty-one I went up to the capital and met all manner of strategists, never once failing to win in many contests. After that I went from province to province dueling with strategist of various schools, and not once failed to win even though I had as many as sixty encounters. This was between the ages of thirteen and twenty-eight or twenty-nine. When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. The previous victories were not due to my having mastered strategy. Perhaps it was natural ability, or the order of heaven, or that other schools' strategy was inferior. After that I studied morning and evening searching for the principle, and came to realize the Way of Strategy when I was fifty. Since then I have lived without following any particular Way. Thus with the virtue of strategy I practice many arts and abilities - all things with no teacher. To write this book I did not use the law of Buddha or the teachings of Confucius, neither old war chronicles nor books on martial tactics. I take up my brush to explain the true spirit of this Ichi school as it is mirrored in the Way of heaven and Kwannon. The time is the night of the tenth day of the tenth month, at the hour of the tiger (3-5 a.m.)

3

Chapter

1

THE GROUND BOOK
Strategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must enact the craft, and troopers should know this Way. There is no warrior in the world today who really understands the Way of Strategy. There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by the law of Buddha, the Way of Confucius governing the Way of learning, the Way of healing as a doctor, as a poet teaching the Way of Waka, tea, archery, and many arts and skills. Each man practices as he feels inclined. It is said the warrior's is the twofold Way of pen and sword, and he should have a taste for both Ways. Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking assiduously to both divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of the warrior is resolute acceptance of death. Although not only warriors but priests, women, peasants and lowlier folk have been known to die readily in the cause of duty or out of shame, this is a different thing. The warrior is different in that studying the Way of Strategy is based on overcoming men. By victory gained in crossing swords with individuals, or enjoining battle with large numbers, we can attain power and fame for ourselves or our lord. This is the virtue of strategy. The Way of Strategy In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as "masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way. Recently there have been people getting on in the world as strategists, but they are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants of the Kashima Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction from the gods, and made schools based on this teaching, traveling from country to country instructing men. This is the recent meaning of strategy. In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven Arts as a beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as a beneficial

4

practice it was not limited to sword-fencing. The true value of swordfencing cannot be seen within the confines of sword-fencing technique. If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell their own selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has become less than th flower. In this kind of Way of Strategy, both those teaching and those learning the way are concerned with colouring and showing off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. They speak of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo". They are looking for profit. Someone once said "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true saying. There are four Ways in which men pass through life: as gentlemen, farmers, artisans and merchants. The Way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments, he sees springs through to autumns with an eye on the changes of season. Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his ingredients and puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the merchant is always to live by taking profit. This is the Way of the merchant. Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of his Way. The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gentleman dislikes strategy he will not appreciate the benefit of weaponry, so must he not have a little taste for this? Fourthly the Way of the artisan. The Way of the carpenter is to become proficient in the use of his tools, first to lay his plans with a true measure and then perform his work according to plan. Thus he passes through life. These are the four Ways of the gentleman, the farmer, the artisan and the merchant. Comparing the Way of the Carpenter to Strategy The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses. Houses of the nobility, houses of warriors, the Four houses, ruin of houses, thriving of houses, the style of the house, the tradition of the house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses a master plan of the building, and the Way of Strategy is similar in that there is a plan of campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder over this book. The teacher is as a needle, the disciple is as thread. You must practice constantly. Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural rules, and the rules of the country, and the rules of houses. This is the Way of the foreman. The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers and temples, and the plans of palaces, and must employ men to raise up

5

and so on. The Way of Strategy Like a trooper. tables. These are the specialties of the carpenter. Things are similar for the trooper. ceilings and so on. giving as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. He carries his equipment in his tool box. and those of lesser ability carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. deeply consider the things written in this book one at a time. can always be used discreetly in construction. Timber which is weak or knotted throughout should be used as scaffolding. Timbers of the finest appearance. If you want to learn this Way. You must do sufficient research. The Way of the foreman carpenter is the same as the Way of the commander of a warrior house. You ought to think deeply about this. The carpenter's attainment is. The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not warped. and encourage them when necessary. The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability. and later for firewood. and sliding doors. He should know their morale and spirit. In the construction of houses.houses. and that the work is truly planed so that it meets well and is not merely finished in sections. lintels. even if a little weak. Good strong timber. that the joints are not misaligned. circulating among them and asking nothing unreasonable. is used for the thresholds. cuts fine openwork and carvings accurately. paper lanterns. makers of sliding doors. though it be gnarled and knotted. If the foreman knows and deploys his men well the finished work will be good. the carpenter sharpens his own tools. Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed pillars. thresholds and lintels. This is the craft of the carpenters. doors. Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy 6 . chopping boards and pot-lids. He makes columns and girders with an axe. shapes floorboards and shelves with a plane. and works under the direction of his foreman. When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands measures he can become a foreman. having tools which will cut well. Floor layers. The foreman should take into account the abilities and limitations of his men. writing shelves. to make small shrines. choice of woods is made. This is the same as the principle of strategy. straight timber with small defects is used for the inner pillars. Those of poor ability lay the floor joists. This is essential.

If you master the principles of sword-fencing. Fire. it is sometimes a trickle and sometimes a wild sea. By Wind I mean old traditions. Know the smallest things and the biggest things. Thus I clearly explain the strategies of the world. Wind (tradition). you beat any man in the world. Second is the Water book. In short. like building a great Buddha from a one foot model. the spirit becomes like water. You must appreciate this. The spirit of defeating a man is the same for ten million men. when you freely beat one man. Other strategies have come to be thought of as mere sword-fencing. Third is the Fire book. and Void (the illusionary nature of worldly things) The body of the Way of Strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school is explained in the Ground book. In strategy it is necessary to treat training as part of normal life with your spirit unchanging. The principle of strategy is having one thing. This book is about fighting. What is big is easy to perceive: what is small is difficult to perceive. As if it were a straight road mapped out on the ground. and so it is with battles. and family traditions of strategy. things of Ichi school are shown in this book. it is difficult for large numbers of men to change position. so their movements can be easily predicted. this will later become a large divergence. This is tradition. the shallowest things and the deepest things. whether the fire be small or big. If you are following the true way and diverge a little. With water as the basis. present-day traditions. Water. the first book is called the Ground book. By the clarity. to know ten thousand things. Water has a clear blue colour. and your spirit diverges.The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects. It is difficult to know yourself if you do not know others. An individual can easily change his mind. If you study a Way daily. You must realize this. Things of Ichi school are written in this the Water book. Thus combat in battle is described in the Fire book. Water adopts the shape of its receptacle. I cannot write in detail how this is done. The strategist makes small things into big things. you may think you are obeying a good Way but objectively it is not the true Way. You must appreciate that spirit can become big or small. The essence of this book is that you must train day and night in order to make quick decisions. and it is not unreasonable that this 7 . Fourthly the Wind book. To all Ways there are side-tracks. The Way of battles is the same for man to man fights and for ten thousand a side battles. The spirit of fire is fierce. This book is not concerned with my Ichi school but with other schools of strategy. so his movements are difficult to predict. It is difficult to realize the true Way just through sword-fencing. These are Ground.

but swords and companion swords can be carried in one hand. for if you carry a bow or spear or other arms in your left hand you have only one hand free for the long sword. a warrior carries two swords at his belt. The benefit of my strategy. or in a crowd of people. but everything is difficult at first. This does not apply to large weapons such as the spear or halberd. It will seem difficult at first. both commanders and troopers. when running on uneven roads. By void I mean that which has no beginning and no end. It is the Way of the warrior. you will be able to hit the enemy naturally and strike naturally. as you become accustomed to the bow so your pull will become stronger. However. and to die with a weapon yet undrawn. When you appreciate the power of nature. It is false not to do so. although it includes sword-fencing. muddy rice fields. on swampy ground. carry two swords at their belt. If you hold a sword with both hands. All this is the Way of the Void. you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well. 8 . The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school . The Way of strategy is the Way of nature. To hold the long sword in both hands is not the true Way.two swords) Warriors. when it is difficult to cut an enemy down with one hand. Attaining this principle means not attaining the principle. In olden times these were called the long sword and the sword. nowadays they are known as the sword and the companion sword. the Way to learn this is to train with two long swords. stony ground. halberds are difficult to wield. Bows are difficult to draw. When you become used to wielding the long sword.should be so. you must make fullest use of your weaponry. I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the book of the Void. whatever the reason. so my method is to carry the sword in one hand. The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried out of doors. It is not difficult to wield a sword in one hand. It is encumbering to hold a sword in both hands when you are on horseback. the book of the Void. "Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantages of using both swords. I have explained what is commonly meant by strategy in other schools in the Tradition (Wind) book. it is difficult to wield it freely to left and right. knowing rhythm of any situation. Students of the Ichi school Way of Strategy should train from the start with the sword and the long sword in either hand. This is a truth: when you sacrifice your life. lies in a separate principle. Fifthly. one in each hand. Let it suffice to say that in our land. you must use both hands.

you can win with a long weapon. thus the long sword is the basis of strategy. The Way of the warrior does not include other Ways. the Way of the Ichi school is the spirit of winning. It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a crowd. Buddhism. 9 . These things cannot be explained in detail. so this strategy is the complete warrior's craft. and especially if you want to take a prisoner. Just as one man can beat ten. so a hundred men can beat a thousand. As for the other military arts. In my strategy. Men must polish their particular Way. guns. know ten thousand things. Because bows. nor do we speak of "companion swordsmen". If he attains the virtue of the long sword. those who master the halberd are called halberdiers.As I will explain in the second book. From one thing. spears and halberds are all warriors' equipment they are certainly part of strategy. The Benefit of the Two Characters Reading "Strategy" Masters of the long sword are called strategists. The Benefit of Weapons in Strategy There is a time and place for use of weapons. But we do not call masters of the Way of the long sword "longswordsmen". To master the virtue of the long sword is to govern the world and oneself. But even though these are not part of the Way. and yet you can also win with a short weapon. In short. When you attain the Way of Strategy there will not be one thing you cannot see. certain traditions. You must study hard. The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space. The long sword can be used effectively in all situations. whatever the weapon and whatever its size. one man is the same as ten thousand. those who master the spear are called spearmen. there is no fast way of wielding the long sword. This is the first thing to realize. and a thousand can beat ten thousand. if you know the Way broadly you will see it in everything. one man can beat ten men. the Water Book. or when you are engaged closely with an opponent. The long sword should be wielded broadly and the companion sword closely. those who master the bow are called archers. such as Confucianism. According to this Ichi school. The principle is "strategy by means of the long sword". those who master the gun are called marksmen. artistic accomplishments and dancing.

for they are in rhythm only if timing is good. It is bad for commanders and troopers to have likes and dislikes. These are things you must learn thoroughly. but once swords are crossed the gun becomes useless. as it is possible to shoot quickly from among the spearmen. There is timing in the whole life of the warrior. Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects. Similarly. so it is with weapons. However. It is the supreme weapon on the field before the ranks clash. but use weapons which you can handle properly. you will think narrowly and forget the true Way. In the hands of one of two men of equal ability. To become over-familiar with one weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well. Spear and halberd both have their uses. With the spear you can take the initiative. Anyway. but neither is very beneficial in confined spaces. There is also timing in the Void. shooting bows and guns. You should not copy others. especially battles on a moor. Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music. Timing in Strategy There is timing in everything. Weapons should be hardy rather than decorative. Timing and rhythm are also involved in the military arts. in his thriving and declining. Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy use. You must appreciate the importance of this. Thus you will have difficulty in actual encounters. it is unsatisfactory in sieges. if you learn "indoor" techniques. You should not have a favourite weapon. In all skills and abilities there is timing. the spear gives a little extra strength. or when the enemy is more than forty yards away.The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. and riding horses. the gun has no equal among weapons. in his harmony and discord. bows and guns must be sturdy. and swords and companion swords should cut strongly. There is little use nowadays for this kind of skill. there is timing in the Way 10 . the halberd is defensive. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered without a great deal of practice. They are essentially weapons for the field. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner. Horses should walk strongly. One of the virtues of the bow is that you can see the arrows in flight and correct your aim accordingly. whereas gunshot cannot be seen. For this reason there are nowadays few traditional schools of archery. From inside fortifications. The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle.

You must be able to discern this. 7. This is the main thing in strategy. Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything. Know the Ways of all professions. Thus is large scale strategy and the strategy of hand to hand combat propagated in the world. If you learn and attain this strategy you will never lose even to twenty or thirty enemies. Do nothing which is of no use. Perceive those things which cannot be seen. otherwise your strategy will become uncertain. and Void. In strategy there are various timing considerations. 3. Become acquainted with every art. and from among the large and small things and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing. and train in the Way of Strategy. Do not think dishonestly. This is the way for men who want to learn my strategy: 1. Fire. 4. in the rise and fall of capital. and to be able to win with your eye. Tradition (Wind). 6. first seeing the distance timing and the background timing. You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cunning by knowing the enemies' timing. will it not mean that you are invincible? 11 . The Way is in training. Pay attention even to trifles. All things entail rising and falling timing. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters. When you have reached this point. You will come to be able to actually beat men in fights. All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. 5. 9. If you do not look at things on a large scale it will be difficult for you to master strategy. It is important to start by setting these broad principles in your heart. From the outset you must know the applicable timing and the inapplicable timing. 2.of the merchant. your spirit will naturally broaden. and with sufficient training you will be able to beat ten men with your spirit. More than anything to start with you must set your heart on strategy and earnestly stick to the Way. Also by training you will be able to freely control your own body. and thus using a timing which the enemy does not expect. If you practice day and night in the above Ichi school strategy. This is recorded for the first time in the five books of Ground. 8. You must train sufficiently to appreciate this. Water. conquer men with your body. It is especially important to know the background timing.

Moreover. govern the country and foster the people. it is the Way of strategy. bear himself correctly. to help oneself and gain honour. thus preserving the ruler's discipline. 12 . in large scale strategy the superior man will manage many subordinates dextrously. If there is a Way involving the spirit of not being defeated.

With your spirit open and unconstricted. and large people must be familiar with the spirit of small people. Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way even a little you will become bewildered and fall into bad ways. An elevated spirit is weak and a low spirit is weak. but so that you realize the principle from within your own heart study hard to absorb these things into your body. memorise or imitate. and this Water Book explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the Ichi school.Do not just read.Chapter 2 THE WATER BOOK The spirit of the Ni Ten Ichi school of strategy is based on water. If you interpret the meaning loosely you will mistake the Way. You must cultivate your wisdom and spirit. The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single combat. Spiritual Bearing in Strategy In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from normal. Even when your spirit is calm do not let your body relax. read a word then ponder on it. look at things from a high point of view. and when your body is relaxed do not let your spirit slacken. Do not let your spirit be influenced by your body. Meet the situation without tenseness yet not recklessly. Both in fighting and in everyday life you should be determined though calm. do not be misled by the reactions of your own body. or your body be influenced by your spirit. Do not let the enemy see your spirit. Language does not extend to explaining the Way in detail. Study this book. Absorb the things written in this book. Whatever your size. but it can be grasped intuitively. Polish your 13 . but you must think broadly so that you attain an understanding for ten-thousand-a-side battles. Be neither insufficiently spirited nor over spirited. Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large people. your spirit settled yet unbiased. If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of Strategy.

The gaze is the same for single combat and for large-scale strategy. In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a distanced view of close things. With your features composed. and in the same way from the shoulders down through your entire body. This is the twofold gaze "Perception and Sight". study the Ways of different arts one by one. use this gaze in everyday life and do not vary it whatever happens. You cannot master this ability quickly. Wedge your companion sword in your belt against your abdomen. keep the line of your nose straight with a feeling of slightly flaring your nostrils. nor twisted. It is important in strategy to know the enemy's sword and not to be distracted by insignificant movements of his sword. it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in everyday life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance. When you cannot be deceived by men you will have realized the wisdom of strategy. distinguish between good and evil. so that your belt is not slack . The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. Holding the Long Sword 14 . but slightly narrow them. Hold the line of the rear of the neck straight: instill vigour into your hairline. Learn what is written here. Your forehead and the space between your eyes should not be wrinkled. The Gaze in Strategy The gaze should be large and broad. without the buttocks jutting out. Do not roll your eyes nor allow them to blink. Perception is strong and sight week. nor looking up. You must study this. Stance in Strategy Adopt a stance with the head erect.this is called "wedging in". neither hanging down. In all forms of strategy. Brace your abdomen so that you do not bend at the hips. It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without moving the eyeballs. even when you are hard-pressed. On the battlefield. put strength into your legs from the knees to the tips of your toes. Lower both shoulders and. you should ceaselessly research the principles of strategy so that you can develop a steady spirit. You must research this well.wisdom: learn public justice.

with large or small steps. Left and Right attitudes should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. with the middle finger neither tight nor slack. To understand attitude you must thoroughly understand the middle attitude. I dislike the three walking methods know as "jumping-foot". Whatever attitude you are in. Yin-Yang foot means not moving only one foot. Whether you move fast or slow. These are the give. the Middle attitude is 15 . The middle attitude is the heart of attitudes. When you dash the enemy's sword aside. you must be intent on cutting the enemy in the way you grip the sword. The Five Attitudes The five attitudes are: Upper. You must bear this in mind. Lower and Middle attitudes are decisive. So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important in the Way. Above all. do not be conscious of making the attitude. There are none but these five attitudes. The decision to use Left or Right depends on the place. Right Side. It means moving your feet left-right and right-left when cutting. Pliability is a living hand. As you cut an enemy you must not change your grip. It is bad to have play in your hands. your feet must always move as in normal walking. Fixedness means a dead hand. think only of cutting. There is no such thing as a "man-cutting grip". the one purpose of all of them is to cut the enemy. The essence of the Way is this. and Left Side. or warding off a cut. Generally. and with the last two fingers tight. Middle. you must feel intent on cutting the enemy. Although attitude has these five divisions. tread firmly with your heels. or force it down. Lower. Your attitude should be large or small according to the situation. If we look at strategy on a broad scale. or ward it off. You should not move on one foot preferentially. Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. and your hands must not "cower". Footwork With the tips of your toes somewhat floating. When you take up a sword. I dislike fixedness in both long swords and hands. Upper.Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and forefinger. The grip for combat and for sword-testing is the same. you must slightly change the feeling in your thumb and forefinger. withdrawing. "floating-foot" and "fixed-steps".

return the sword along a sideways path. You must train repetitively. The Way of the Long Sword Knowing the Way of the long sword means we can wield with two fingers the sword we usually carry. dash his sword to the right and "ride" it. with the other four attitudes following the commander. It is possible to repeat the cut from here. Return the sword in a reasonable way. If you try to wield the long sword quickly you will mistake the Way. 2. If you learn to use the five approaches of my strategy. You will always win with the five long sword methods. when you cut sideways. When you have cut downwards with the longsword. You must appreciate this. Wield the sword strongly. In the second approach with the long sword. If the enemy evades the cut. you will be able to control any attack the enemy makes. always stretching the elbows broadly. When the enemy attacks. The Five Approaches 1. To wield the long sword well you must wield it calmly. there are no attitudes other than the five attitudes of the long sword of Ni To. scooping up from below. from the Upper attitude cut the enemy just as he attacks. If we know the path of the sword well. Or. cut him as he renews the attack. As you do so 16 . deflect the point of his sword by hitting downwards. You must train repeatedly using a long sword in order to learn them. You must train constantly. If you try to wield it quickly. Confront the enemy with the point of your sword against his face. and as the enemy renews his attack cut his arms from below. keep your sword where it is and. I assure you. When he attacks. The five approaches are this kind of thing. like a folding fan or a short sword. 3. you will be able to wield a sword well. This is the first method. When you master my Way of the long sword. you will err by using "short sword chopping". lift it straight upwards. In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. keep your long sword where it is. hit his hands from below. The first approach is the Middle attitude. when the enemy attacks. In the third approach. You will be able to understand this by training in the Ichi school. anticipating scooping up. This is the Way of the longsword.the seat of the commander. You cannot cut down a man with a long sword using this method. we can wield it easily. adopt the Lower attitude.

both as a beginner and in later strategy. and from the Middle attitude you can raise the sword a little in your technique and adopt the Upper attitude. If as you hit his hands he attempts to dash down your sword. with various timing considerations discerning the enemy's spirit. This is the Way of the long sword. with the feeling of hitting his hands. The "Attitude No-Attitude" Teaching "Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are know as long sword attitudes. hit. This means that from the lower attitudes you hit the enemy at the instant that he attacks. Through this method you win by parrying the line of the enemy's attack. you can freely wield a heavy long sword. if you turn your sword from either the Left Side or Right Side attitude towards the centre. From the Upper attitude as your spirit lessens you can adopt the Middle attitude. Then cut straight from above. In accordance with the enemy's attack. learn large-scale timing. whatever the means. cross your long sword from below at the side to the Upper attitude. the place. The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude . You must become well acquainted with my "in harmony with the long sword" Way. As the enemy attacks hit his hands from below. parry the path of his long sword and cut across from above your shoulder. and your relation to the enemy. The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your intention to cut the enemy. You will always win by using these five methods. and become used to the five approaches from the outset. This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well. In the fifth approach. adopt the Left Side attitude.he may try to hit your sword down. cut his upper arm(s) horizontally with a feeling of "crossing". 17 . You must train holding a long sword. Even so. understand the enemy's long sword. In this fourth approach. I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches.Nonexisting Attitude". If you can use this method. You will encounter this method often. attitudes exist as the five ways of holding the long sword. 5. the Middle or the Lower attitude results. However you hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to cut the enemy well. You must consider all this carefully. the sword is in the Right Side attitude. Whenever you parry. 4. According to the situation. You must research this. From the lower attitude you can raise the sword and adopt the Middle attitudes as the occasion demands. If this is the case. in accordance with the situation.

This is the "Abdomen Timing of Two". This is the most important method of hitting. The timing of hitting before the enemy decides to withdraw. Then. It is very difficult to attain this by merely reading this book. and hit from the Void with your hands. break or hit. 18 . More than anything. You must train hard to understand it. follow up and hit him. as he relaxes. to hit him as quickly and directly as possible. and hit with your spirit. You can cut with certainty if you learn this. You must discern the enemy's grade. to be able to hit in the timing of an instant. It is often used. It is essential to attain this. accelerating strongly. you must be thinking of carrying your movement through to cutting him. If you think only of hitting. Fixed formation is bad. When he breaks and quickly withdraws trying to spring with his long sword. No Conception" cut. To Hit the Enemy "In One Timing" "In One Timing" means. but you will soon understand with a little instruction. You must train to achieve this timing. expand your body and spirit and cut him as slowly as possible with your long sword. This is the "No Design. strike or touch the enemy's cutting sword. when the enemy attacks and you also decide to attack. Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". Study this well. The "Abdomen Timing of Two" When you attack and the enemy quickly retreats. when you have closed with the enemy. as you see him tense you must feint a cut. springing. Such attitudes are all for winning battles. The Flowing Water Cut The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to blade with the enemy. you will not be able actually to cut him. without moving your body or settling your spirit. No Conception In this method. while you see that he is still undecided. you must cut the enemy in the same movement. is this "In One Timing". striking or touching the enemy. You must thoroughly research this. hit with your body. following your body like stagnant water. No Design.spring.

When the enemy is in a long sword attitude in front of you and intent on cutting. perhaps in the spirit of the "No Design. it is slashing. dying leaves] means knocking down the enemy's long sword. If you train well enough you will be able to strike strongly. When you cut several places with one sweep of the long sword. Usually we move the body and the sword at the same time to cut the enemy. but generally you hit first with the body and then cut with the long sword. You must practice this cut. it is the "Continuous Cut". you strongly hit the enemy's long sword with the Fire and Stones Cut. The Body in Place of the Long Sword Also "the long sword in place of the body". whatever form of cutting it is.all three cutting strongly. 19 . you can dash against him with your body first.Continuous Cut When you attack and the enemy also attacks. No Conception" Cut. he will necessarily drop the sword. If you practice this cut it becomes easy to make the enemy drop his sword. If you then beat down the point of his sword with a sticky feeling. However. and even if the enemy dies instantly. according to the enemy's cutting method. you can cut first with the long sword. and your swords spring together. is decisive. body and legs . The Fire and Stones Cut The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long sword and your long sword clash together you cut as strongly as possible without raising the sword even a little. hands and legs. Even if you slash strongly. The Red Leaves Cut The Red Leaves Cut [allusion to falling. Cutting. You must research this well and practice hitting. Cut and Slash To cut and to slash are two different things. it is often used. With detailed practice you should be able to understand it. This means cutting quickly with the hands. The spirit should be getting control of his sword. your spirit is resolved. in one action cut his head. with a resolute spirit. and afterwards cut with the sword. You must train repetitively. If his body is immoveable. hitting and parrying. When you cut. Slashing is nothing more than touching the enemy.

To Strive for Height By "to strive for height" is meant. the spirit is to go in with your whole body. People tend to advance their head and legs quickly. and stretch your neck face to face with him. thrust in strongly. to strive with him for superior height without cringing. stick firmly with your head. If you first slash the enemy's hands or legs. The spirit is to strike him with your body. You must appreciate this. It is best to approach as calmly as possible when hitting the enemy's long sword with stickiness. but hitting so that the long swords do not separate easily. Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the enemy and not separate from him. Learn this well. Turn your face a little 20 . You should stick firmly so that there is not the slightest gap between the enemy's body and your body. You must learn this. The difference between "Stickiness" and "Entanglement" is that stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. You must consider this carefully. The spirit is to get in quickly. You must research this well. Stretch your legs. When you come to within arm's reach it becomes easy to move your body in. and you are the higher. before the enemy cuts. When you realize this. but their body lags behind.You must appreciate this. you must then cut strongly. without in the least extending your arms. body and legs. Chinese Monkey's Body The Chinese Monkey's Body is the spirit of not stretching out your arms. When you think you have won. If you are intent upon not stretching out your arms you are effectively far away. The Body Strike The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his guard. When you approach the enemy. stretch your hips. The spirit of stickiness is not hitting very strongly. Slashing is in spirit the same as touching. when you close with the enemy. To Apply Stickiness When the enemy attacks and you also attack with the long sword. they become indistinguishable. you should go in with a sticky feeling and fix your long sword against the enemy's as you receive his cut.

his face and body will become rideable. You must concentrate on this. Or. to thrust at the enemy. as if thrusting at his eyes. without worrying about parrying the enemy's long sword. To Stab at the Heart To stab at the heart means. Three Ways to Parry His Attack There are three methods to parry a cut: First. When the enemy becomes as if rideable. so you ought not to forget to stab at the face. You must bear in mind that you can always clench your left hand and thrust at the enemy's face with your fist. when fighting and there are obstructions above. striking as strongly as possible in time with yout breathing. and whenever it is difficult to cut.aside and strike the enemy's breast with your left shoulder thrust out. When fighting and the enemy's body becomes as if rideable. Train well. You must understand the application of this method. You must pursue the value of this technique through training. Approach with the spirit of bouncing the enemy away. If you are intent on stabbing at his face. The spirit of this principle is often useful when we become tired or for some reason our long sword will not cut. thrusting at his face with your left hand. you can win quickly. that your spirit is intent of stabbing at his face. to close with him quickly. It is possible to strike the enemy until he is dead. when you have a short "long sword". To Stab at the Face To stab at the face means. Or. there are various opportunities for winning. when he makes an attack. For this it is necessary to train well. or to the sides. 21 . by dashing the enemy's long sword to your right. to parry by thrusting the enemy's long sword towards his right eye with the feeling of snipping his neck. following the line of the blades with the point of your long sword. You must stab the enemy's breast without letting the point of your long sword waver. when you are in confrontation with the enemy. showing the enemy the ridge of the blade square-on. and with the spirit of deflecting his long sword. you will be able to knock him ten or twenty feet away. These are the three methods of parrying. If you achieve this method of closing with the enemy.

The Advantage when Coming to Blows You can know how to win through strategy with the long sword. teedum rhythm. The spirit is to chase the enemies around from side to side. and cut "TUT!" This timing is encountered time and time again in exchange of blows. You must practice diligently in order to understand how to win.To Scold "Tut-TUT!" "Scold" means that. and cut left and right alternately with your swords. you counter-cut again from below as if thrusting at him. carefully examining the attacking order. scolding the enemy. or smacking strongly. as if tying a line of fishes. Always quickly re-assume your attitudes to both sides. The spirit of the smacking parry is not parrying. you must drive the enemy together. cut the enemies down as they advance. Waiting is bad. and go to meet first those who attack first. Sweep your eyes around broadly. The Smacking Parry By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the enemy. You must learn this through repetitive practice. There are Many Enemies "There are many enemies" applies when you are fighting one against many. You must research sufficiently to realize this. With very quick timing you cut. Observe their attacking order. primarily intent on quickly cutting him. however hard your long swords clash together. Whatever you do. you meet his attacking cut on your long sword with a tee-dum. but smacking the enemy's long sword in accordance with his attacking cut. If you understand the timing of smacking. when the enemy tries to counter-cut as you attack. but it cannot be clearly explained in writing. 22 . "Tut!". crushing them in the direction from which they attack. smacking his sword and cutting him. Draw both sword and companion sword and assume a widestretched left and right attitude. trying to hold him down. cut them down strongly without giving them room to move. even though they come from all four directions. your swordpoint will not be knocked back even a little. Thrust up. The way to scold Tut-TUT is to time the cut simultaneously with raising your long sword as if to thrust the enemy. and when they are seen to be piled up.

If you attain this Way of victory. you will then know values in strategy. and through fighting with enemies you will gradually come to know the principle of the Way.Oral tradition: "The true Way of Strategy is revealed in the long sword. if it is not based on what you have learned it is not the true Way. Direct Communication The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the Ni To Ichi school is received and handed down. 23 . Whether beating one man or two. strategy will come from your heart and you will be able to win at will. Even if you kill an enemy. You must train diligently. Next. and absorb the Way of the long sword naturally in your body. Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior. with a patient spirit. not allowing your heart to be swayed along a side-track. then you will be able to beat several tens of men." Recorded in the above book is an outline of Ichi school sword-fighting. train according to this book." One Cut You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut". Deliberately. and move body and legs in harmony with your spirit. Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy. Today is victory over yourself of yesterday. What remains is sword-fighting ability. in order to beat more skillful men. tomorrow is your victory over lesser men. You must understand spirit and timing. It is difficult to attain this if you do not learn strategy well. If you train well in this Way. taking one item at a time. Step by step walk the thousand-mile road. Study the contents of this book. from time to time raising your hand in combat. Maintain this spirit whenever you cross swords with and enemy. first learn the five approaches and the five attitudes. To learn how to win with the long sword in strategy. handle the long sword naturally. which you can attain in battles and duels. absorb the virtue of all this.

By using only their fingertips. so that you can understand the enemy's strategy. become free from self. 24 . They specialise in the small matter of dexterity. discovering the meaning of life and death. In my strategy. Depending on the Place Examine your environment. My Way of Strategy is the sure method to win when fighting for your life one man against five or ten. as with the folding fan. so a thousand men can beat ten thousand". training morning and evening. they only know the benefit of three of the five inches of the wrist. people think narrowly about the benefit of strategy. You must research this. He will come to possess miraculous power.Chapter 3 THE FIRE BOOK In this the Fire Book of the Ni To Ichi school of strategy I describe fighting as fire. They let a contest be decided. learning such trifles as hand and leg movements with the bamboo practice sword. But you can become a master of strategy by training alone with a sword. his strength and resources. Of course you cannot assemble a thousand or ten thousand men for everyday training. This is the practical result of strategy. Thus can he polish his skill. learning the Way of the sword. In the first place. merely by the span of their forearms. fighting for survival. judging the strength of attacks and understanding the Way of the "edge and ridge" of the sword. and realize extraordinary ability. the training for killing enemies is by way of many contests. Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must research diligently. and come to appreciate how to apply strategy to beat ten thousand enemies. You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armour is worn. There is nothing wrong with the principle "one man can beat ten.

Chase him towards awkward places. The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. In houses. If the situation does not allow this. the Kamiza in a house is thought of as a high place. do not let him look around. that is. You must look down on the enemy. Because you can win quickly by taking the lead. and that there is free space on your left. At night. your right side being occupied with your side attitude. using the virtues of the place to establish predominant positions from which to fight. Always chase the enemy into bad footholds. and so on. see through the enemy's spirit so that you grasp his strategy and defeat him. and so on. if the enemy can be seen. You must make the best of the situation. Or you can advance seemingly strongly but with a reserved spirit. keep calm and dash in quickly. forestalling the enemy. The First . The Three Methods to Forestall the Enemy The first is to forestall him by attacking. pillars. lintels. When the enemy gets into an inconvenient position. you must try to keep the sun on your right side. and take up your attitude on slightly higher places. forestalling him with the reserve. This is called Tai No Sen (to wait for the initiative). doors. obstacles at the side. There are several things involved in taking the lead. always endeavour to chase the enemy around to your left side. This is called Ken No Sen (to set him up). but conscientiously chase him around and pin him down. chase the enemy into the thresholds. This is called Tai Tai No Sen (to accompany him and forestall him). For example. You must research and train diligently in this. and try to keep him with his back to awkward places. In buildings. There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. It is impossible to write about this in detail.Stand in the sun. Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. When the fight comes. verandas. 25 . take up an attitude with the sun behind you. Make sure that your rear is unobstructed. and otherwise take up your attitude as above. you must stand with the entrance behind you or to your right. again not letting him see his situation. keep the fire behind you and the entrance to your right. it is one of the most important things in strategy.Ken No Sen When you decide to attack.

These things cannot be clearly explained in words. To Hold Down a Pillow "To Hold Down a Pillow" means not allowing the enemy's head to rise. and throw off his hold when he tries to grapple. with your spirit calm. you have effectively won when you forestall the enemy. and when you reach the enemy move with your feet a little quicker than normal. so you must train well to attain this. but he cannot forestall you if you do not allow him to come out. In strategy. This is Tai Tai No Sen. join in with his movements as he draws near. and strongly defeat him. with your body rather floating. The spirit is too 26 . Or.Alternatively.Tai No Sen When the enemy attacks. In contests of strategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. You must research what is written here. The Third . This is one way. In these three ways of forestalling. aim for his weak point as he draws near. This is the Tai No Sen principle. The Second . if the enemy attacks calmly. remain undisturbed but feign weakness. you must observe his movements and.Tai Tai No Sen When the enemy makes a quick attack. whatever the enemy tries to bring about in the fight you will see in advance and suppress it. advance with as strong a spirit as possible. In strategy. Obviously the enemy will also be thinking of doing this. When you have grasped this principle. This is the meaning of "to hold down a pillow". Move quickly and cut him strongly. attack still more strongly. suddenly move away indicating that you intend to jump aside. This does not mean that you always attack first. You must always be able to lead the enemy about. The spirit is to win in the depths of the enemy. as the enemy attacks. These are all Ken No Sen. you must attack strongly and calmly. Or. unsettling him and overwhelming him sharply. but if the enemy attacks first you can lead him around. Or. from first to last. you must stop the enemy as he attempts to cut. you must judge the situation. As the enemy reaches you. taking advantage of the resulting disorder in his timing to win. you must push down his thrust. then dash in attacking strongly as soon as you see the enemy relax. attack with a feeling of constantly crushing the enemy.

Attack in an unsuspecting manner. "cross the ford" at the advantageous place. You must research this well.check his attack at the syllable "at… ". The spirit of crossing at a ford is necessary in both large. when he jumps check his jump at the syllable "ju… ". knowing the route. You can win through this principle of strategy. and there is perhaps a favourable wind. and check his cut at "cu… ". This is how to win large-scale strategy. knowing your own strong points. or crossing over a hundred miles of broad sea at a crossing place. you must act according to the Way. Discern the enemy's capability and. or a tailwind. If the wind changes within a few miles of your destination. for example. then set sail. it applies to everyday life. you must forestall the enemy and attack when you have first recognised his school of strategy. doing this alone is defensive. However. You must train well and research "holding down a pillow". as a good captain crosses a sea route. knowing the soundness of your ship and the favour of the day. you can work out the enemy's disposition and move your men accordingly. fighting from a position of advantage. To cross at a ford means to attack the enemy's weak point. crossing the sea at a strait. To Know the Times "To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle. It means setting sail even though your friends stay in harbour. When all the conditions are meet. 27 . foiling his plans and thence command him directly. When you can do this you will be a master of strategy. suppressing the enemy's techniques. The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful actions but allow his useless actions.and small-scale strategy. you must row across the remaining distance without sail. If you succeed in crossing at the best place. First. In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford". perceived his quality and his strong and weak points. Crossing at a Ford "Crossing at a ford" means. You must always think of crossing at a ford. If you attain this spirit. you may take your ease. knowing his metre and modulation and the appropriate timing. I believe this "crossing at a ford" occurs often in man's lifetime. When in a duel. and to put yourself in an advantageous position. Is it flourishing or waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men and getting the best position.

In single combat. To Become the Enemy "To become the enemy" means to think yourself in the enemy's position. tread and cut with the long sword. You must do this. and. You must utterly cut the enemy down so that he does not recover his position. To Tread Down the Sword "To tread down the sword" is a principle often used in strategy. First. we cannot get a decisive victory by cutting. you should not aspire just to strike him. You must understand how to utterly cut down the enemy. To Know "Collapse" Everything can collapse. when the enemy first discharges bows and guns and then attacks it is difficult for us to attack if we are busy loading powder into our guns or notching our arrows. "Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. in large scale strategy. you must pursue him without letting the chance go. bodies. You must sufficiently study this. The spirit is to attack quickly while the enemy is still shooting with bows or guns. in the wake of the enemy's attacking long sword. Once at the enemy. they may recover. the enemy sometimes loses timing and collapses. You must achieve the spirit of not allowing the enemy to attack a second time. You must study this deeply. Houses. The spirit is to win by "treading down" as we receive the enemy's attack. and enemies collapse when their rhythm becomes deranged. you will recognise the enemy's intentions and thus have many opportunities to win. he may recover and not be so negligent thereafter. The chasing attack is with a strong spirit. of course. attacking so that you do not let him recover. This is the spirit of forestalling in every sense. If you fail to take advantage of your enemies' collapse. Tread with the body.Knowing the times means. if your ability is high. In the world people tend to think of a robber trapped in a house as 28 . in the spirit of treading him down with the feet. so that he cannot rise again to the attack. when the enemy starts to collapse. If you are thoroughly conversant with strategy. with a "tee-dum tee-dum" feeling. seeing right into things. but to cling after the attack. In single combat. Fix your eye on the enemy's collapse. If you let this opportunity pass. In large-scale strategy. We must defeat him at the start of his attack. and chase him. tread with the spirit.

people are always under the impression that the enemy is strong. To Hold Down a Shadow "Holding down a shadow" is use when you can see the enemy's attacking spirit. thinking he sees your spirit. who knows the principles of strategy". when you cannot see the enemy's position. Immediately throw away this spirit and win with a technique the enemy does not expect. In large-scale strategy. You must consider this deeply. and if you know how to beat the enemy. Benefiting from what you are shown. to discover his resources. then you will surely lose. do not give up . we feel that the whole world is against us and that there is no escape. He who enters to arrest is a hawk. In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. But if you have good soldiers. and so tend to become cautious. if we think of "becoming the enemy". He who is shut inside is a pheasant. In large-scale strategy. Abandon this spirit and win through an alternative resource.it is man's existence. To Move the Shade "To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit. You must be able to judge this. if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the long sword so that you cannot see his intention. there is nothing to worry about. indicate that you are about to attack strongly. If you are negligent you will miss the timing. "Here is a a master of the Way. when there is a "four hands" spirit. and the issue cannot be decided. However. 29 . you can win with certainty. It is easy then to defeat him with a different method once you see his resources. In single combat also. Research this well. make a feint attack. If you think.a fortified enemy. To Release Four Hands "To release four hands" is used when you and the enemy are contending with the same spirit. and if you understand the principles of strategy. You must appreciate this. and the enemy will show his long sword. In large-scale strategy. In single combat. when we think we have fallen into the "four hands" situation. we must defeat the enemy by changing our mind and applying a suitable technique according to his condition.

You must research this. and while his spirit is undecided follow up your advantage and. To Frighten Fright often occurs. making a small force seem large. In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not just by what you present to their eyes. Make a show of complete calmness. in single combat. but by shouting. Get the feel of this. when the enemy is agitated and shows an inclination to rush. and another is surprise. In large-scale strategy. Sleepiness can be passed on. In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. defeat him by forestalling him with a Void spirit. catching on to the moment the enemy relaxes. You can also infect the enemy with a bored. and the enemy will be taken by this and will become relaxed. You must study this well. Attack without warning where the enemy is not expecting it. careless. Time can be passed on also. In single combat. One cause is danger. having the lead. defeat him. What is know as "getting someone drunk" is similar to this. Without allowing him space for breath to recover form the fluctuation of spirit.In large-scale strategy. do not mind in the least. You must study this well. you can win by relaxing your body and spirit and then. Or. then suddenly attack strongly. When you see that this spirit has been passed on. and defeat him by forestalling him with this timing. forestalling him. These 30 . To Cause Loss of Balance Many things can cause a loss of balance. hold down the enemy's strong intention with a suitable timing. or by threatening them from the flank without warning. you can bring about the enemy's defeat by attacking strongly with a Void spirit. Then. you must grasp the opportunity to win. he will change his mind. or weak spirit. another is hardship. in single combat. Or. attack strongly and quickly. caused by the unexpected. To Pass On Many things are said to be passed on. and yawning can be passed on. if you make a show of strongly suppressing his technique. start by making a show of being slow. altering your spirit. when the enemy embarks on an attack.

You can win by applying a suitable technique while you are mutually entangled. and thus weaken him. you can often win decisively with the advantage of knowing how to "soak" into the enemy. and you must research it deeply. it is easy to win once the enemy collapses. In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small numbers. "Here? There? Like that? Like this? Slow? Fast?". you would lose the chance to win. you "soak in" and become one with the enemy. In large-scale strategy. To defeat the enemy you must follow up the attack when the corners have fallen. Victory is certain when the enemy is caught up in a rhythm which confuses his spirit. In single combat. so you must research deeply. Observing the enemy's spirit. and when he is confused you can easily win. Research this well. so you should "injure the corners". you must use the advantage of taking the enemy unawares by frightening him with your body. You can win by making best use of the enemy's frightened rhythm. In single combat. Feint a thrust or cut. it is beneficial to strike at the corners of the enemy's force. also. You should research this well. were you to draw apart. we can confuse the enemy by attacking with varied techniques when the chance arises. It is important to know how to do this. or make the enemy think ou are going to close with him. To Throw into Confusion This means making the enemy lose resolve. If the corners are overthrown. This is the essence of fighting. and you realize that you cannot advance. to defeat him. To Soak In When you have come to grips and are striving together with the enemy. we can make him think. To Injure the Corners It is difficult to move strong things by pushing directly. In large-scale strategy we can use our troops to confuse the enemy on the field. long sword. In single combat. or voice. The Three Shouts 31 . the spirit of the whole body will be overthrown.things all frighten. This happens when you injure the "corners" of his body. whereas.

we must crush him straightaway. Strike down the enemies in one quarter.this is to announce victory. if the enemy is less skilful than ourself. This is an important fighting method for one man against many. What is meant by "mingling" is the spirit of advancing and becoming engaged with the enemy. After the contest. when the armies are in confrontation. You must learn the spirit of crushing as if with a hand-grip. weighing up the enemies' disposition. quickly separate and attack yet another strong point on the periphery of his force. You must research this deeply. attack the enemy's strong points and. we make as if to cut and shout "Ei!" at the same time to disturb the enemy. and not withdrawing even one step. The primary thing is not to let him recover his position even a little. or if he has fallen into evasive or retreating attitudes. It is essential to crush him all at once. crushing him utterly.The three shouts are divided thus: before. when you see that they are beaten back. We do not shout simultaneously with flourishing the long sword. This is called "sen go no koe" (before and after voice). In large-scale strategy. If we crush lightly. These are the three shouts. then grasp the timing and attack further strong points to right and left. In single combat. In large-scale strategy. The voice shows energy. when we see that the enemy has few men. The voice is a thing of life. during and after. During the fight. then in the wake of our shout we cut with the long sword. Research this deeply. the voice is low-pitched. against the wind and the waves. You must understand this. as if on a winding mountain path. When you know the enemies' level attack strongly with no trace of retreating spirit. shouting out as we attack. at the start of battle we shout as loudly as possible. Shout according to the situation. To Mingle In battles. he may recover. if his rhythm is disorganised. We shout after we have cut down the enemy . we shout in the wake of our victory. or if he has many men but his spirit is weak and disordered. To Crush This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak. or drive them back. We shout during the fight to get into rhythm. with no concern for his presence and without allowing him space for breath. 32 . In single combat. We shout against fires and so on. we knock the hat over his eyes. The spirit of this is like a winding mountain path.

If the enemy thinks of the mountains. It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale strategy. attack like the mountains. To Penetrate the Depths When we are fighting with the enemy. and penetrating with the spirit. Research this diligently. This often occurs. There may be no help but to do something twice. he may be beaten superficially yet undefeated in spirit deep inside. then you must change your attacking method. attack like the sea. To Renew "To renew" applies when we are fighting with the enemy. if his spirit is not extinguished. We must abandon our efforts. But otherwise we must remain spirited. This cannot be understood in a generalisation. To renew. You must research this deeply. You must train in penetrating the depths for large-scale strategy and also single combat. there is no need to remain spirited. and if he thinks of the sea. when we are deadlocked with the enemy.The Mountain-Sea Change The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing several times when fighting the enemy. but do not try it a third time. and an entangled spirit arises where there is no possible resolution. there is little chance of success if you use the same approach again. even when it can be seen that we can win on the surface with the benefit of the Way. Penetrating the depths means penetrating with the long sword. Once we have crushed the enemy in the depths. With this principle of "penetrating the depths" we can destroy the enemy's spirit in its depths. means that without changing our circumstance we change our spirit and win through a different technique. If you once make an attack and fail. think of the situation in a fresh spirit then win in the new rhythm. If the enemy remains spirited it is difficult to crush him. Rat's Head. If you attempt a technique which you have previously tried unsuccessfully and fail yet again. penetrating with the body. Ox's Neck 33 . demoralising him by quickly changing our spirit.

When you think in this way you can move him at will and be able to chase him around. and concentrating on techniques with the hands. The various methods cannot be expressed in writing. You must master this. tempering my body. You become the general and the enemy becomes your troops. It is difficult to express it clearly. we must always think of the Way of Strategy as being both a rat's head and an ox's neck. when we are fighting with the enemy and both he and we have become occupied with small points in an entangled spirit. The Commander Knows the Troops "The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in my Way of strategy. Using the wisdom of strategy. I have devoted myself to training my hand. You must not depart from this spirit in large-scale strategy nor in single combat. This is the body of a rock. You will not be moved. written down as it came to me. There is also the spirit of holding the long sword but not winning. even though they seem skilful to watch. You must train well. This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the Way. we must suddenly change into a large spirit. Whenever we have become preoccupied with small detail. If we watch men of other schools discussing theory. 34 . My heart has been inclined to the Way of Strategy from my youth onwards. This is the first time I have written about my technique. think of the enemy as your own troops. Oral tradition. and attaining the many spiritual attitudes of sword fencing. To Let Go the Hilt There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. There is the spirit of winning without a sword. This is one of the essences of strategy. interchanging large with small. they have not the slightest true spirit. It is necessary that the warrior think in this spirit in everyday life. What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about Ichi school sword fencing. and ten thousand things cannot touch you. The Body of a Rock When you have mastered the Way of Strategy you can suddenly make your body like a rock."Rat's head and ox's neck" means that. and the order of things is a bit confused.

but it is an obstacle to the true Way. you need never doubt that you will win. If you attain and adhere to the wisdom of my strategy. men who study in this way think they are training the body and spirit. and nothing other than this.Of course. and its bad influence remains for ever. The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a fight. Thus the true Way of Strategy is becoming decadent and dying out. 35 .

You must study these matters deeply to appreciate the benefit of my Ni To Ichi school. relying on the virtue of its length. It shows the 36 . In this world it is said. This is because they do not appreciate the principle of cutting the enemy by any means. known as kodachi. Without knowledge of the Ways of other schools. they think to defeat the enemy from a distance. Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword-fencing.all the vices and virtues and rights and wrongs. Other Schools Using Extra-Long Swords Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. My Ichi school is different. This is definitely not the Way of Strategy. Some schools teach dexterity in large numbers of sword techniques. teaching attitudes of the sword as the "surface" and the Way as the "interior". Looking at other schools we find some that specialise in techniques of strength using extra-long swords. but these are the idle words of one who does not know strategy. From the point of view of my strategy these must been seen as weak schools. and limit their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the body. Other schools make accomplishments their means of livelihood.Chapter 4 THE WIND BOOK In strategy you must know the Ways of other schools. so I have written about various other traditions of strategys in this the Wind Book. I have recorded the unsatisfactory point of other schools one by one in this book. Some schools study the Way of the short sword. Their preference is for the extra-long sword and. "One inch gives the hand advantage". But is dexterity alone sufficient to win? This is not the essence of the Way. That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of this book . growing flowers and decoratively colouring articles in order to sell them. it is difficult to understand the essence of my Ichi school.

The Strong Long Sword Spirit in Other Schools You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. 37 . I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long swords as part of its doctrine. but the enemy also has a strong army. This is the same for both sides. or if you are in a house armed only with your companion sword. In large-scale strategy. some men have not the strength of others. "The strongest hand wins". of course. and small forces as short swords.inferior strategy of a weak spirit that men should be dependent on the length of their sword. your own sword will be carried along as a result. narrow spirit. Besides. Thus the saying. the battle will be fierce. has no meaning. do not think of cutting weakly. The blade path is large so the long sword is an encumbrance. It is also bad to try to cut strongly when testing the sword. Whenever you cross swords with an enemy you must not think of cutting him either strongly or weakly. Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined space your heart is inclined to the long sword. In my doctrine. If you are concerned with the strength of your sword. and have no long sword? It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters because of the length of the long sword. and they are at a disadvantage compared to the man armed with a short companion sword. If you just wield the long sword in a strong spirit your cutting will be coarse. Be intent solely upon killing the enemy. just think of cutting and killing him. Surely we need not necessarily be defeated if we are using a short sword. So do not unconditionally dislike extra-long swords. If you rely on strength. If we consider large-scale strategy. we can think of large forces in terms of long swords. if you have a strong army and are relying on strength to win. but if we compare this to real life it is unreasonable. From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together. Cannot few me give battle against many? There are many instances of few men overcoming many.". you will try to cut unreasonably strongly. Do not try to cut strongly and. You should only be concerned with killing the enemy. If you do this. What I dislike is the inclination towards the long sword. when you hit the enemy's sword you will inevitably hit too hard. fighting from a distance without the benefit of strategy. You must study this well. I dislike preconceived. and if you use the sword coarsely you will have difficulty in winning. and will not be able to cut at all.

This inclination is bad. and undesirable at close quarters with the enemy. Use of the Shorter Long Sword in Other Schools Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win. The spirit of my school is to win through the wisdom of strategy. Men of superior strength in the world can wield even a long sword lightly. Furthermore. with your body held strongly and straight. They become set in this habit. but they have to parry cuts continuously. Some men think that if they go against many enemies with a shorter long sword they can unrestrictedly frisk around cutting in sweeps. You must chase the enemy around and make him obey your spirit.Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. This is inconsistent with the true Way of Strategy. 38 . and so on. so can easily be paraded around by the enemy. What is known in the world as "attitude" applies when there is no enemy. The Way of Strategy is straight and true. tachi and katana meant long and short swords. Attitudes are for situations in which you are not to be moved. people of the world get used to countering. Other Schools with many Methods of using the Long Sword Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is a mistaken way of thinking. Study this well. You must force the enemy into inconvenient situations. showing the spirit of not being moved even by a strong assault. battle array. so there is no case for their liking the short sword. By their study of strategy. Some men use a shorter long sword with the intention of jumping in and stabbing the enemy at the unguarded moment when he flourishes his sword. however. evading and retreating as the normal thing. The reason is that this has been a precedent since ancient times. In ancient times. To aim for the enemy's unguarded moment is completely defensive. The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in confusing manner. That is. The essence of strategy is to fall upon the enemy in large numbers and bring about his speedy downfall. and eventually become entangled with the enemy. for garrisoning castles. you cannot use the method of jumping inside his defence with a short sword if there are many enemies. In the Way of dueling. paying no attention to trifles. The same principle applies to large-scale strategy. and there should be no such thing as "This is the modern way to do it" in dueling. causing him to jump aside. They also make use of the length of spears and halberds.

In strategy. Attitude is the spirit of awaiting an attack. Perception consists of concentrating strongly on the enemy's spirit. and some fix the eyes on the feet. It means that they can see naturally. irritate and terrify him. but this does not mean that they fix their eyes on these things specifically. and noting the details of the battle field. you are not limited to the use of your eyes. The spirit of attacking first is completely different from the spirit of being attacked. observing the enemy's numbers. In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. and parrying the enemy's attack well. Attack where his spirit is lax. and having mastery of the Way you will see the weight of his spirit. in my Way. In the Way of Strategy. People such as master musicians have the music score in front of their nose. This is at the start of the battle. In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength. is like making a wall of spears and halberds. there is something called "Attitude-No Attitude". fixing the eyes means gazing at the man's heart. You must appreciate this. Take advantage of the enemy's rhythm when he is unsettled and you can win. Therefore. Footballers do not fix their eyes on the ball. If you fix the eyes on these places your spirit can become confused and your strategy thwarted. with a strong attitude. or flourish swords in several ways when they have mastered the Way. throw him into confusion.you must always be intent upon taking the lead and attacking. but by good play on the field they can perform well. Some fix the eyes on the face. In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind our strength. and so on. When you become accustomed to something. I will explain this in detail. When you attack the enemy. observing the 39 . Bearing an attack well. "Perception" and "sight" are the two methods of seeing. your spirit must go to the extent of pulling the stakes out of a wall and using them as spears and halberds. I dislike the defensive spirit know as "attitude". Fixing the Eyes in Other Schools Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's long sword. when you have fought many times you will easily be able to appraise the speed and position of the enemy's sword. You must examine this well. Some schools fix the eyes on the hands. or that they make pointless movements of the sword.

because it encourages the habit of jumping. and such nimble walking methods. if you fix your eyes on details and neglect important things. and I especially dislike it. such as crow's foot. Practice this well. if you advance too slowly. Neither do I like jumping foot. and you will not be able to finish the fight quickly. Apart from these. fixing the gaze strongly. river valleys. Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. Speed in Other Schools 40 . you may encounter the enemy on marshland. Treading foot is a "waiting" method. your spirit will become bewildered. In my strategy. crow's foot. and by not according him even a little hope of recovery. the footwork does not change. adjusting you body not too much and not too little. and a jumpy spirit. This is because. However much you jump. and victory will escape you. in which situations you cannot jump or move the feet quickly. From the point of view of my strategy. the opportunity to win will escape. Use of the Feet in Other Schools There are various methods of using the feet: floating foot. According to the enemy's rhythm. You must never lose control of your feet. springing foot. jumping foot. You must win by seizing upon the enemy's disorder and derangement. or narrow roads. As I said before. In single combat you must not fix the eyes on the details. there are various fast walking methods. The Way must be trod firmly. so jumping is bad. swampy ground. Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive. however. stony ground. Research this principle well and train diligently. move fast or slowly. there is no real justification for it. I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the fight. This is the sure way to win. and so on. I always walk as I usually do in the street. these are all unsatisfactory. Sometimes. your rhythm will become deranged and you will not be able to win.condition of the battlefield. seeing the progress of the fight and the changes of advantages. treading foot. if you attack quickly and thoughtlessly without knowing the enemy's spirit. Or. you will not be able to take advantage of the enemy's disorder.

The spirit must be that of holding down a pillow. From this example. You must appreciate this. Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you have a long sword in this situation. because the way to understanding is through experience. a fast busy spirit is undesirable. but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes busy. If you try to cut quickly. it may not be possible to move the body and legs together quickly. You must not be influenced by the opponent. points which it is hardly possible to comprehend. Unpracticed runners may seem to have been running all day. according to the pupil's progress. Very skilful people can manage a fast rhythm. accomplished performers can sing while dancing. the principle can be seen. Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty miles in a day. but in combat there is no such thing as fighting on the surface. marsh or swamp and so on. but their performance is poor. slowness is bad. I gradually endeavour to explain the deep principle. Train diligently to attain this spirit. but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes busy. "Interior" and "Surface" in Other Schools There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy.Speed is not part of the true Way of Strategy. When I teach my Way. 41 . according to whether or not they are in rhythm. Speed implies that things seem fast or slow. Of course. you will not actually cut even a little. I first teach by training in techniques which are easy for the pupil to understand. What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of Strategy. you must act contrarily and keep calm. The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret tradition. I do not speak of "interior" and "gate". In any event. When your opponent is hurrying recklessly. Really skilful people never get out of time. The "old pine tree" melody beaten on a leather drum is tranquil. the master of strategy does not appear fast. then you will not be even a little late. a doctrine which is easy to understand. and "interior" and "gate". If you try to beat too quickly you will get out of time. In large-scale strategy also. or cutting with the interior. Whatever the Way. as if using a fan or short sword. The reason for this is that depending on the place. and are always deliberate. but it is bad to beat hurriedly. but this does not mean that they run continuously from morning till night. and never appear busy. In the Way of dance.

I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. I could now continue by giving a specific account of these schools one by one. In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior. The reason for this is that different branches of schools give different interpretations of the doctrines. it has an interior. The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit.In this world. In as much as men's opinions differ. we see that people always tend to like long swords or short swords. You must train diligently. if you go into the mountains. and it is sometimes a good thing to point out the gate. You can see why I do not deal with the "gates" of other schools. we cannot say what is concealed and what is revealed. Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and regulations. I have tried to record an outline of the strategy of other schools in the above nine sections. but I have intentionally not named the schools or their main points. There is no inner meaning in sword attitudes. and become concerned with strength in both large and small matters. 42 . so there must be differing ideas on the same matter. from the "gate" to the "interior". and decide to go deeper and yet deeper. I teach the direct Way. In strategy. If we look at them from an honest viewpoint. Perceiving the ability of my pupils. and gradually introduce them to the true Way of the warrior. instead you will emerge at the gate. remove the bad influence of other schools. Thus no one man's conception is valid for any school. Whatever the Way. You must simply keep your spirit true to realize the virtue of strategy.

In the void is virtue. you will see the Way as void. Polish the twofold spirit heart and mind. However. the Way has existence. and sharpen the twofold gaze perception and sight.Chapter 5 THE BOOK OF THE VOID The Ni To Ichi Way of Strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void. also. This is not the true void. and think that what they do not understand must be the void. By knowing things that exist. if we look at things objectively. when the clouds of bewilderment clear away. principle has existence. Twelfth day of the fifth month. In the Way of Strategy. from the viewpoint of laws of the world. you may think that things are correct and in order. What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. Until you realize the true Way. Wisdom has existence. you can know that which does not exist. Of course the void is nothingness. and hour by hour. It is bewilderment. second year of Shoho (1645). That is the void. we see various doctrines departing from the true Way. Enact strategy broadly. Teruro Magonojo 43 . It is not included in man's knowledge. This is not the true void. accumulate practice day by day. With your spirit settled. To attain the Way of Strategy as a warrior you must study fully other martial arts and not deviate even a little from the Way of the warrior. Then you will come to think of things in a wide sense and. there is the true void. those who study as warriors think that whatever they cannot understand in their craft is the void. whether in Buddhism or in common sense. and with forthrightness as the foundation and the true spirit as the Way. Know well this spirit. spirit is nothingness. taking the void as the Way. People in this world look at things mistakenly. and no evil. When your spirit is not in the least clouded. correctly and openly.

SHINMEN MUSASHI 44 .

It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political theory. first published in 1886. In Plato's fictional dialogues the characters of Socrates as well as various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether the just man is happier than the unjust man by imagining a society ruled by philosopher-kings and the guardians. Shiva's doorkeeper. and the immortality of the soul. the place of poetry.Loved this book ? Similar users also downloaded Plato The Republic The Republic is a Socratic dialogue by Plato. is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. and Plato's best known work. the word itself means thread in Sanskrit. Kāma means sensual or sexual pleasure. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sex. The dialogue also discusses the role of the philosopher. who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind. and sūtra are the guidlines of yoga. The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra). the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull. written in approximately 380 BC. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse). 45 . subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft). Traditionally. Vatsyayana The Kama Sutra The Kama Sutra. Plato's Theory of Forms. is an ancient Indian text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana.

a satire. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz The Einstein Theory of Relativity Whether it is true or not that not more than twelve persons in all the world are able to understand Einstein's Theory. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. and the work responsible for bringing "Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term. in fact. The treatise is not representative of the work published during his lifetime. In Beyond Good and Evil. Sun Tzu The Art of War 46 . The books published on the subject are so technical that only a person trained in pure physics and higher mathematics is able to fully understand them. it was written in 1513. it is nevertheless a fact that there is a constant demand for information about this much-debated topic of relativity. but not published until 1532. Originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities). the present book is published. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual.It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work. In order to make a popular explanation of this far-reaching theory available. Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. polemical direction. five years after Machiavelli's death. Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. but approached from a more critical. but it is the most remembered. It has also been suggested by some critics that the piece is.

It is the first and one of the most successful works on strategy and has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military thinking. The Buddha's name.The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. and beyond. The Art of War is one of the oldest books on military strategy in the world. He taught that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through a to-do list. was Prince Siddhartha Gautama. it has long been praised as the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time. was written in German. after Hesse had spent some time in India in the 1910s. siddha (gotten) + artha (meaning or wealth). It was published in the U. before his renunciation. each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. In this book. but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. later the Buddha.S. Hesse's ninth novel. Source: Wikipedia Laozi Tao Te Ching 47 . Sun Tzu was the first to recognize the importance of positioning in strategy and that position is affected both by objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective opinions of competitive actors in that environment. The book. style. but in a competitive environment. Hermann Hesse Siddhartha Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian boy called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. Composed of 13 chapters. The two words together mean "one who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in the Sanskrit language. in a simple. It was first published in 1922. Planning works in a controlled environment. yet powerful and lyrical. the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama". business tactics.

In the book. Kakuzo introduces the term Teaism and how Tea has affected nearly every aspect of Japanese culture. The narrator pieces together the whole truth and disturbing significance of the information he possesses. Many Chinese artists. P. Lovecraft's best-known short stories. illustrating the story's first line: "The most merciful thing in the world. It is written in a documentary style. and it was not meant that we should voyage far. is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents. and has since been republished many times. We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity. not only for Taoism but Chinese Buddhism. becoming proficient at communicating his thoughts to the Western 48 . thought. I think. painters. and life." Kakuzo Okakura The Book of Tea The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. including poets. It was first published in 1906. it was first published in Weird Tales. with three independent narratives linked together by the device of a narrator discovering notes left by a deceased relative. such as Legalism and Neo-Confucianism.The Tao Te Ching is fundamental to the Taoist school of Chinese philosophy and strongly influenced other schools. Howard Phillips Lovecraft The Call of Cthulhu "The Call of Cthulhu" is one of H. Written in the summer of 1926. It is the only story written by Lovecraft in which the extraterrestrial entity Cthulhu himself makes a major appearance. and spoke it all his life. calligraphers. February 1928. aided by hundreds of translations into Western languages. This ancient book is also central in Chinese religion. which when first introduced into China was largely interpreted through the use of Taoist words and concepts. The book is accessibile to Western audiences because Kakuzo was taught at a young age to speak English. Its influence has also spread widely outside East Asia. and even gardeners have used the Tao Te Ching as a source of inspiration.

Heidegger's concept of Dasein in Sein und Zeit was inspired — although Heidegger remains silent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das-in-dem-Weltsein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy. 49 . but also the secular aspects of Tea and Japanese life. most importantly. Kakuzo argues that this tea-induced simplicity affected art and architecture. In his book. The book emphasises how Teaism taught the Japanese many things. and spends some time talking about Sen no Rikyu and his contribution to the Japanese Tea Ceremony.Mind. According to Tomonobu Imamichi. he discusses such topics as Zen and Taoism. after having followed lessons with him the year before. He ends the book with a chapter on Tea Masters. which Imamichi's teacher had offerred to Heidegger in 1919. simplicity. and he was a long-time student of the visual arts.

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