National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

Further. As such. this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II. 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy. the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No.This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy.2 of the Bulletin. .

and the stability of our global climate. industry representatives. and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. Achieving cost-competitive. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. private companies. and supporting scientific literature. research managers. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. engineers. our economic wellbeing. Therefore. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come. development. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop.S. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. comments gathered during a public comment period. other federal agencies. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. and other stakeholders. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. environmentally sound biofuels. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. Biomass Program U. engineers.Preface Welcome to the U. and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. DOE is investing in a variety of research. Department of Energy Preface  i . DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable.S. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. Meanwhile. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager. reliable energy. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers.

produced. 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. Photo courtesy of the our national security. and create economic and programs. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. Under certain conditions. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. and advanced biofuels. fungible Workshop. was convened fuels. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world. meet the new RFS feedstock resources. The term algae can refer to microalgae.S. and Renewal Act. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. held December 9-10. illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals. dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. provide environmental benefits. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. saline. brackish. marine. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. 2009. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. by 2022. cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. weight). a scalable. Of these candidates. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors.S. ii Executive Summary  . These include: the goal. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U. the end of the program. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock. In addition fuel sold in the U. 2008.S. development. This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. engineers. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years.

this document will serve to commercial scale. The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes. By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps. research. and sustainable algal-based fuels. lawyers. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. industry representatives. Executive Summary  iii . This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. and deployment efforts. guide researchers and engineers. and regulators from across the country to scale. development. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. and comments received during a public comment period. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable. supporting scientific literature. The Roadmap In summary. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. federal agencies.research managers. policymakers.

to generate new biomass). Understanding. Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae. and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater. brackish waters. managing. and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. scalability. Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. macroalgae (seaweed). and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. marine. such as sugars.

gasoline. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction. and proteins. and thermochemical processes. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions. fertilizers. proteins can be used for co-products (e.g. bioplastics. While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e. While many analytical techniques exist. Abundant... These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels. though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges. Affordable. and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering.g.. biochemical. CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids). biodiesel and jet fuel). Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion. The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized. Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. carbohydrates. and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . animal feed. issues. industrial enzymes.g. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites. animal/fish feeds).

vi Executive Summary  .

..................................................................7 References.........1 About the Roadmap..................................................................................................2 Scale-Up Challenges............................................................................................................................................3 1.........................................................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications...................................................................................................................................................................3 Early Work to 1996....................................................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today.......................................................................................................................................................... 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures ......................................................................................................................... Algal Cultivation..................................................................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study................................................................................. 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization.......1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks.........................................8 2.................1 1................................................................................................. Algal Biology.................10 2.............................................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges........... Screening and Selection ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates............................................................ Contents 1.......................................................11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism...............................................................................................................................................................................29 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation........................................................................................5 1................ 15 2......2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry................................................................................................................8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers..................................................................................................................................7 Public-Private Partnerships..........8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae ..................... 16 The Genetic Toolbox....... 23 3.......................................1 Strain Isolation.........................2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development...................30 3........................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Biohydrogen ...............................................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges.......................... Overview........................................3 Research from 1996 to Present............................. 29 Macroalgae............................................................................................................................ 22 References...................................................... 31 Contents  vii ..............................7 2...................................................5 Regulations and Standards..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria.............3 Algal Biotechnology............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy.......................................................................................................1 Cultivation Pathways.................................. 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics..........................................................................................

........................... 38 Harvesting...........................................................50 6...................44 Selective Extraction.............................................37 Harvesting.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................e............................................................... 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae............................ 32 Water Management.........................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Pyrolysis..........................................................................................................2 Processing of Whole Algae................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conservation........................................................................................................................................... ......... Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering.............................................................................................................................. 37 4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Management................................................................................................................................................ 45 Heterotrophic Production................................................................................................. .2 Challenges.....................................................44 Subcritical Water Extraction................................................................................................................................................................................................................ System Productivity............................................................... Cell Rupture).....................3 Conversion of Algal Extracts..........................................................................................................................3 Systems Engineering ....................................................................................... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies ............................. 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction....... 53 Chemical Transesterification...............1 Approaches for Microalgae............................... 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction..............................................................48 6...1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae..................................................................................................... 49 Hydrogen.......................................................................................................................................................... 49 Alkanes.................................................... 42 Mechanical Disruption (i..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 4............................................................................................................................46 References......................... Extraction of Products from Algae ............................................................................................... 45 5.... 51 Liquefaction...40 5..................................................... 39 References............................50 Gasification.........................................42 5........................................................48 Alcohols.............................................................................................................. 38 4............................................... Sustainability....................................................................................................................................................................................2 Approaches for Macroalgae .40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance .................................... 33 References.....................................................................46 6................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 4................ 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures.................... 52 Supercritical Processing............................................................................... 53 6........................37 Drying.................... 38 Preprocessing.............................................................. 54 viii Contents  ................. and Recycling.................................. 32 Nutrient Sources.....................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria................................................................................................................4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction...................................................1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches................ 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products.................... Co-products ................................... 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications.2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae.................................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach............................................. 86 9...........................................................................2 Resources Overview..................................................................................64 References................................................................................5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries................................................................... 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater .........................................75 Climate .......................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Resources and Siting ............................................... Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................72 9.........................3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products.................................................................................77 Carbon Dioxide................................. 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants......................... 69 8........................................................................................ 61 7.......................................... 81 9.............1 Distribution........................90 Contents  ix .............................. 56 6............................................................................................................................................................................74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach. and Jet Fuel .....................80 Land...................................................................................................................2 Utilization............................................ 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach............ 88 Directions for Research and Development. 61 7..................................................................................................................................................................................................57 References.................... 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources............. 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products........................................ 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel..................................................................................................................................................................................74 9........................................................................................................69 8............................. 55 Catalytic Cracking...................................................................................................................... 88 References.......................71 References.....................................................................................................................................................64 7.......................................................................................... 58 7........................ Distribution and Utilization..4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities ................................................................................. 73 9.............................................................................75 Water........................................................................................................... .................................... Gasoline......... 67 8........... 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources ..............................

........................................................ 111 References.............................................................. 109 11... Public-Private Partnerships ........................... 104 10...................................................................................................5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties......................................................................................................... 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs.............................................................................................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)..................................................114 Appendices ............................................................................................................................................................................10................................................................................4 Systems Analysis...................................................................................................................99 Overview.........................................................102 Life Cycle Analysis............................. 109 11.......................................................................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships............................................................................................................................. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis.......99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments...........................................................................................1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis .2 TEA Scope and Methods.................................................. 104 10...................................................................... 105 11.............................................................................................................................................................................................................122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap............................................................................................................................................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships.................................................7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort .................... 104 10.................5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development........................... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants.................................93 10.........124 x Contents  ...... 97 10....... 93 10..................................................................................................94 10....110 11...............................................110 11...................................... 111 11................................6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling .............115 Appendix 2: Contributors.............................................................................4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry..............3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships...................

Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum.orau. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop. academia. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. development. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable. the production of economically viable biofuels. of which only 15 economic. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive. industry. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities.S.1). The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific. In 2007. energy efficiency. and industry. and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry. and sustainable algal-based biofuels. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. commercial. government and new energy technology research and development. of a viable. energy security. 60% of 2008. economic opportunities across the nation. viewpoints. bioproducts and biopower. agencies. academia. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision. Despite their potential. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry. Furthermore. provides environmental benefits.S. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. with national laboratories. A major objective of the reserves. 1. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues. the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D. and non-governmental organizations. Overview  1 . and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document. scalable. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels. as well as made provisions that Workshop. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts. reduces our dependence Roadmap.S.1. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol. at the University of Maryland-College Park. and creates be found at http://www. the national laboratories. held December 9-10. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U. To accomplish its goals. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. the Roadmap describes fuels. 1. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. In doing so. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of

6 11. 2009).0 24..5 a 15.0 a 2.75 a 3.2).25 22. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass. For example.0 2020 10. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.0 a 5.75 18. However.0 billion gallons.25 a 7. Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al. 2 1.95 2012 0.0 2.0 2018 7.0 a 11.0 2021 13.1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement.0 15. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.5 20. but no less than 1.0 33.95 12.0 a 21.55 2014 1. oleaginous Exhibit 1.5 0.1 0.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA.0 2022 16.65 0.0 26. and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.0 2019 8. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates.95 2011 0.5 1.25 0. Overview  .0 28.5 2016 4.80 1.0 30.15 2015 3.25 2017 5. while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans.5 a 18. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.0 36.2 2013 1.1 2010 0. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha.. 2005). the study did not explore the potential of algae. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.75 16.5 a 9. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels.5 a 13.35 13. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1. As required by EISA.

• Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters. The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering. The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today. and also for their ability not yet emerged.. and temperature. (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. Some of the highlights are described briefly below. however. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program. inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al. pH.2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al. 1. surges through the decade.000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. gained serious attention only during from stationary sources. a scalable. produced water. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. Overview  3 . northwestern. commercially viable system has in salinity. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon. 1. During the early years. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. dates back to the 1940s. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. could lead to this phenomenon.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U. 1998).000-6. but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s. In 1998.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density.S. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. freshwater supplies. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. such saline water. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). with projected costs for fossil fuels. a comprehensive overview Algae 1. to the 300 most promising strains. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. process development.

Cyclotella cryptica. estimated costs for unextracted 1998). shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis. biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate. Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . but Among various techniques. and the efficiency of CO2 1995).and capital-intensive.After promising microalgae were identified. In this species. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term. In addition. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase).. smaller ponds for inocula production.. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields. an oleaginous diatom.. 1998). and CO2 resources (power plants). (Weissman et al. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis.S. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies. strains from the wild. Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production.. 1990). Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. 50 g/m2/day. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid. 1998). production. and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al. 1996). Sheehan et al. but lower oil producing. cryptica were characterized (Roessler. The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues. scale-up. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. Overview  . A Test Facility in Roswell. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation.g. biomass was demonstrated. The 4 1. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald. but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al. petroleum consumption. the commercially viable strains for oil production. 1988). further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems. Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley.. primarily in C. distance from CO2 point sources. conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al. depth research. 1990). and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al. New Mexico. The systems were characterized (Roessler. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler. ACCase activity was found to increase deep). Studies focused on suitable land. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. which Microbial Products. primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti. or engine testing was carried out. Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. However.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. Different cost process step that is highly energy. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing. issues associated with such methods.. however. the Roswell area. but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale. Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. some process options (e. characterization. suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U. 1985).. costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements. Inc. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control. Hawaii. cost... enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program.000 m2 outdoor. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress. purification. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. productivity improvements.or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). 2007). The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel. Under inducing conditions. 1989). For example. growth was conducted in California. 1999. chrysolaminarin saline water.

particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson. that include investigating microalgae. Office of Fossil Energy. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation. and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. a number of U. there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. Overview  5 . the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. Recent initiatives. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E). cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges. federal agencies. Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry. Office of Science. a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. Additionally. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel Overall. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1. Cyclotella cells. needed to support commercialization activities. Species Program.barrel (Sheehan et al. suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes. funding levels are beginning to increase. Also from 1968-1990. In particular. the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. significantly outpacing government funding. However. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www.. and the Department of Agriculture. federal funding for algal research has come scale. 1998). the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. cyanobacteria. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. Further. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. policymakers. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program. 1. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. affordable. regulations and standards.S. the Department of Defense. feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. 1987).nrel. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. and public-private partnerships. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs. Courtesey of CCMP.

closed. stability. sedimentation. flocculation. microwave. selective extraction. water. and materials from algal remnants (e. energy. weather impacts. climate.g. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination.g. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e..g. side reactions. solvent systems. such as operational temperature. phototrophic. and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency. open. filtration. Overview  . and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance. heterotrophic. supercritical fluid.. energy. hybrid.g. water & nutrient reuse. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. subcritical water. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale. intermediates. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land. centrifugation. bioplastics. water..g.e. 6 1. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land. activity. industrial enzymes.. energy balance. fertilizers. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e.. animal/fish feeds. dissolved air floatation. direct fuel production. biochemical conversion.. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates. and coastal/off-shore systems. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges. pressure. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry.. biofuel. carrying capacity.g. sonication. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. biogas. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i.

Microalgae for oil: strain selection. E. R. 223–242. and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. Biodiesel from microalgae. Roessler. J. Rodolfi.. 1004–1011. References Benemann. ORNL/TM-2006/66. Y.G..G.B. 179–183. N. & Ohlrogge. W. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Adv. Evans.A.. 294–306. NTIS# H CP/ T. Final Report to the US Energy Department. 1960. Roessler. & Roessler. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. & Oswald. E. Biotechnology Advances. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila..L. Perlack. Available at: [Accessed November 3.G. with algal biofuels commercialization. and policy. Journal of Phycology.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological. Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline. Also. with shape-selective zeolites. Phycol. Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica. Oak Ridge. 11. R. 1990. Being a nascent industry.. 21(3). TN. However.E. Jarvis. T. such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights. J. 2008. Microbiol. Solar Energy Research. 1605(UC-61). RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards. P. Biological transformation of solar energy.... 1993.J. J. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica .G. C. it is recognized economic. Appl. 2009]. Overview  7 . Pursoff. P.. 2007. P. & Golueke.D. R. 25(3)...US Patent 5928932 Abstract. 24. Algal from multiple entities. However. Chisti.. 91. Dunahay. Milne. there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. 1955.J.R. & Nagle. 1988. supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i. 102(1).e.. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 100–112. Biomass. 1995. 1. Meier. 31(6). P.J. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999. et al.. W. 394–400. et al.. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System. P. regulation. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Oswald. 219-232. consumption standards. & Roessler. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels.. 1978.G. T. 2005. L. Jarvis.

see Anderson. and generation. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. which includes fresh. 2004). CO2 levels). acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. oceans. other gene markers. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology. (seaweeds). hypersaline. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. Traditionally. oxygen levels. and strain robustness. 2005). and soil (Round. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. questions medium.2.. lipids. this is not always the case.1 Strain Isolation. The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. locations to maximize genetic diversity. Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats. lakes. For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. products. 2. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae). of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale. In all cases. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. the development and hyper-saline environments. within an aqueous habitat. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. salinity. Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered. rivers.. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature. The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. Algal Biology  . 1984). actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison.or eukaryotic. 8 2. Due to their diverse characteristics. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro. ponds. algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts. Furthermore. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. cultivation and strain development. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. maps. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. brackish. metabolite production. versatility possible.e. pH. streams. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. 2005). marine require significant experimental effort.

They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5. 1991. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species. which data. et al. and provide 3.. protect genetic material. germination conditions cryopreservation. cultures (Sheehan et al. Proteomics. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. However. Therefore. only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. At present.000 strains. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics. Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency. metabolites. basic research resources. ) (Bligh and Dyer. 2007. pathogenicity. Strain administration (number in collection.. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. other countries. Strain properties: Cytological. 2003). valuable strains. Previous robustness of particular existing strains. They may also 7. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research.500 strains. some may have lost original phenotypes. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. Information could include: 1. native al. with more than 2. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10. Environment and strain history (specific habitat. Mutants biology. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described. but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. for example. Solvent extraction. Strain name (species. Not only document data on strains. biochemical. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. and phylogeny either by themselves 8. 1959). no central database exists that provides global 9. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. Biological interaction (symbiosis. Maine). taxonomy. 1998). Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. molecular. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2. is the most nutrient requirements. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth.. de la Jara et al. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. Algal Biology  9 . such as growth rate and metabolite properties. Growth conditions (media. algal strains.. community stability. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. Transcriptomics. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology. but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. subspecies name. toxicity) Currently.For mass culture of a given algal strain. and predators present in a given environment. The function of a culture collection often 6. The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. or in connection with outside collaborators. Texas). they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. to determine a strain’s robustness. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed. existing culture collections. Omics data (Genomics. temperature.

g. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. and high cell densities can be achieved. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. 2006). Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains. an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. such as. For example. In some species. production of biofuels. Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion. and species be necessary to isolate it. However. the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. food low. systems could be studied. secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter. However.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol... Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii).Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. 2002).volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites). source. 1998). lipids. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. or co-product to be produced. contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al. However. Algal Biology  . Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. a large number of model and possible strain development for production. supplements. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). in a practical sense. and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily. or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). carbohydrates. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. For example. However. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. Finally. intermediate. to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors. of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism. so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be. Even that other strains will be chosen for production. Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. In such a strain. or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. If the carbon source is utilized by the cell. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors. there are two types of algal model harvesting step. Also to be considered is whether growth.. 2006). if the desired product is volatile. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system.

it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds. that is the desired fuel precursor. More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures. there remains be inter-convertible. Schwender et al.. in their productivity. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al. 1999). with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production.2. 2007). Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i.. It is. 2003. 2008). although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis..” Even with this photoprotection. for biofuel production. 2009.. and potentially.. 2002). are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. 1994.. nutrient starvation.. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al. 2005). cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne. exposed to high light. Foyer et al. and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. the percent of biomass and Fernie.. accumulate mostly carbohydrates. storage compound in plants and algae. under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes. 2008). some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier. Yang et al. because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009. as 2008). plants (Hu et al.2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy. Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. studies in higher plants showed that when 2. 2007). accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). Theoretical productivity is an important concept. A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted. Lipids and carbohydrates. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. knowledge of metabolic pathways. biomass 2007. starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2. Allen et al. 2004. Sweetlove production. the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou. Libourel and Shachar-Hill. affecting growth rate. In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. carbohydrates. 1994. 2007 and 2008) Further. It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. 2003). 1994. and Niyogi.e. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established. and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al. 2002). 1994. algae. 2008. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids. proteins... 2005. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects. a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization. and shares the Eberhard et al. 2006.. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al.. possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3). therefore. 2003). indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi. therefore. along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols.. 2002). Mcdermid and Stuercke. It is. 1991). Nelson and Yocum. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al. Though theoretical However. preventing it from et al. pathway analysis.1).. which can lead to oxidative damage. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti. algal photosystems have built-in More recently.. however. Algal Biology  11 .

2004). Algal Biology  . an enzyme wall. for specific acyl CoA molecules. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel. are 3-phosphate. TAG is formed by food reserves. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. 2006). (Roessler. many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. 2002). these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG). plants and yeast based. or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation. growing cultures. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. Yoo et al. degradation. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. It could. be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis. However. as example many brown algae and diatoms. Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. 1992). Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). Other algae. envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids. the nature of the interaction is unknown. naturally or under stress conditions. some red algae and dinoflagellates. therefore.. 2008.. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae. As mentioned above. 2000). plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. Some red In microalgae. greatly. featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). must typically 2006. In the final step of TAG synthesis. and extraction processes.. 1971. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan.. Other abundant polysaccharides. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. Vigeolas et al. Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. 1987). mannitol. or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes.. These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. 2008). Some algae. and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited. while some algae lack synthesis.. biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse. feedstock potential. recently been demonstrated in bacteria.. for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. cell walls entirely. Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2. but like those from plants. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. 1988). Athenstaedt and Daum. Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like.1). An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls. the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. 12 2. and thus may play an for example. carbohydrates. though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al.

Such pathways property of individual species or strains. the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. pathways. Thus. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al. 1998). CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 . 2005). it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP.. Sheehan et al.1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate. As an example.. DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase..C18 CoA Figure 2. Similarly. PA and be true. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes. 2008. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase.. Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase. 2000. These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. Stahl et al. If the or culture conditions. enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement.. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. if any. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. it will be difficult galactolipids. Algal Biology  13 . Moreover. Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. laboratory (Hu et al. If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae. 2004). ACP: acyl carrier protein. the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier. and other 2. to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants. Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG.

Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds.. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. 1993. Some acids. Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products. as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies. excess membrane lipids. the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. the exact relationship between oxidative stress. Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. 1998). and other components into form of TAG. stress conditions on lipid production in algae. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. 1998.lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel. This relationship may be both metabolic. 2008). 1992). and et al. It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. as rapid lipid energy storage compound. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions. The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae.. or with other organelles such as may be. Under high light stress. the structure and function of lipid However. starvation). 14 2. In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids. Algal Biology  . Huang. and spatial. there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho. with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies. As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. cell division... and other macromolecules. Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. with exceptions. TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. Zhekisheva et al. It has as acyl donors. an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear. 2008). including vitamins.and glyco. proteins. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009). β-carotene. metabolism in algae. some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. Nevertheless. 2001). Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. The study the plastid where they are assimilated. lutein.g. Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. 2002). with acyl earlier). which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes. their apparently widespread envelopes. Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. This and lipid fate (Benning. thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes.. the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). In oil-producing microorganisms. sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. therefore.

those and carbohydrates. Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs.2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis.8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2.. 1984).. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae. 2000. studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving). Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. (Drawing courtesy of Prof. Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor. In all pathways. and proteomic studies. and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al.. 2003). 2009).4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production. ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme. or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis.8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0.2) (Melis et al. for example.. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al. As a substrate. M.0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0. Algal Biology  15 . (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP. light. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product. the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production).Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007).. and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I). in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e. and a third. compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant.2 P700* A0 A1 -0. There are two major types of hydrogenases. Colorado School of Mines ) 2. driven H2-photoproduction pathways.4 PC Chl fixation P700 0. would enzymes). and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al.2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. 2005). hydrogenases. Posewitz. fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang. (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. Based on such information. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive. Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin. 2008).→ O2 + 2H2. Three et al.

fungi and higher plants. 2009). biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms. more knowledge cannot be overlooked.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2. From here. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. Similarly economic viability. (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. For all of these with ethanol. and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). Algal Biology  . A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day. the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. and CO2 (van der Oost et al. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date. 2005). Collectively. 1987). formate. This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains. and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. However. the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. Using hydrogenase as the catalyst. questions to consider in the context of mass production. fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. to delete or disrupt genes. 16 2. modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. al. 1989). potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. hexose) (Turner et al..3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. In all cases. Prince and Kheshgi. they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. In cyanobacteria. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. 2002. 2008). hydrogen evolution pathways. In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches. the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms.. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate.. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. 1998). engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2. and to acetate. Thus.. human health. for commonly used bacteria.. Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis. Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels.

1987) can be screening criteria. Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al. 1989). Chlorella. An algal strains. 2005).. Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. 1989. in the presence of an antibiotic). 2002). or markers.. or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus. there marker (Hasnain et al. 1985. For the latter. Phaeodactylum. This the DNA is present. which necessitates a large amount of screening. Nostoc. the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches. kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. large-scale production has two major drawbacks.. Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes.As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use.. which could exacerbate current problems developed. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. Hallmann and Rappel.. Algal Biology  17 .g. including resistance to neomycin.. 2006).. 1995). Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes. 2.g. A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al. but markers based on resistance assayed. presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells. first concern is the cost of the antibiotic. Dunahay et al. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell. this resistance is a powerful tool for research. also been successful (Del Pozo et al... 2006). element called a plasmid. dinoflagellates (Amphidinium. Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype. 1995). Arthrospira).. reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al. The second Volvox).. a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome. and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al. 1999). 1994). For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al. Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified. However. diatoms (Cyclotella. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. 1994). Dunaliella. ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented. Navicula. Anabaena... important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis. spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes. 1985. to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale. Dunahay et al. zeocin (Apt et al. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). For example.. large-scale algal production. 1993. however. generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e. changes in fluorescence properties. use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. However.. This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. 1995). The green algae (Chlamydomonas. antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae. 1999). Targeted 1996.. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al. occurring mutations. simplified identification of the mutated gene.. Typically. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach. Debuchy et al.. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira).

red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable.. Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. 2006). need for balance in cellular metabolism.. challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall... transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. 1995). 2004). which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. Algal strains often contain expression. brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria. 18 2. crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important. including conjugation. 1998). 1992). used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al.. reinhardtii. classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al. inducible and repressible promoters that 1993). Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria. RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al. In a practical but less so in microalgae. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al.. Gracilaria. especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome. Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction. (Deng and Capecchi. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae. The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. (Kindle et al. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama. Dunahay. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense. small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. Algal Biology  . use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. and can be used to knockout genes. 1987). 2005). 2005). ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. be desirable.. which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. 2001). microarrays).e.. RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. Frequently. traits. intermediate. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications. vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i. In addition. selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae.. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. 1995). 1996).. high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al. but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. 1990). or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al.. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. For most of these approaches. 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson.. Porphyra).Symbiodinium). 1993). 2009). The selection process was based on a gene is present. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements. Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas. electroporation. because it is induced could be applied. and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. 1988.

Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible. Bathycoccus sp. Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. Undoubtedly. and proteomics. a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi). pussilla.Centre National de Séquençage (France). useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production.1 These species include computer sciences. It must be noted level. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al... the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming. at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. Algal Biology  19 . even in closely related species (Connolly et al. Volvox carteri). for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available. Gaietta et al. that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. forming the foundation for at Genoscope . Together. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors. Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications. several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. reinhardtii. Although time families). such as genomics. This could 1 For a listing.. Osteococcus tauris. including allosteric activation and metabolic though. This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes. with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al. demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl. approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology.Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time. 2006).. Except for cyanobacteria. Fragilariopsis cylindrus). all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags. Quality standards and appropriate data.). Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C. will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. 2002). the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae).. Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. 2005. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens). visit http://genome.S.jgi-psf. 2006). transcriptomics. These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date. cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain. Indeed. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production. If not properly done. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor production. applied research and technology development. 2004). Genome size in algae can vary substantially. especially at the basic level of gene annotation.html 2. 2008). have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context.

2007. Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth.. double-homologous recombination.. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al. and Pseudochlorococcum sp. Aebersold. approaches (Han and Gross... Nannochloropsis sp. Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). Applications of Biotechnology New. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems. Dettmer et al. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell. Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest. and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment. The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential. 2006. at least10 other algal genomes. sp. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. and some strains can fix peptides. Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. another dozen or so EST projects. which survey. 1996). response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. Tanner et al. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al. 2007). Many 20 2. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers. there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. however.. and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas. are underway. 2004. 2005). especially with regard to translational regulation. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. 2006). proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate. gas chromatography mass spectrometry. as well as spectrometry. and function. in response to particular environmental conditions. transformation. but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. was sequenced over a decade ago. approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. Chlorococcum sp. 2008).. 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria. different metabolomic analysis tools are applied. Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. 2009). notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. and proteins. Moreover. and metabonomics.. Castellana et al. which is the quantitative Therefore. These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example.. 2005.. including liquid chromatography mass Currently.. Algal Biology  . Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. Mass-spectrometry lipids. For example.. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation.include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling. 1999).. small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel. identification. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites. or can determine fuels and intermediates. identifying final fuel produced. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research. high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. In the absence of genomic information. 1998).

2003). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae. The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae. C. 2008. but nevertheless.1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen). Algal Biology  21 .org/ChlNC64A_1/ChlNC64A_1.2 Several production.. C. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al. 2006. Lipid production. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al. 1997). and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. sucrose (Nobles and Brown. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable.. 2006).. Koksharova et al. Relatedly. and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C. resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. For example. The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. 1998). it can be sexually crossed. 2007). 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose. Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed. 1999). reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al. 2008). which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions. 2006).. Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported.. is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products. Ferrante et al. the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al. it will be necessary to further being developed. sucrose. A possible drawback of C. but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production. 2004). RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. Eisenhut et al. and chloroplast (PHB).. It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. strategies to address these issues are production pathway. In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al. protothecoides. fatty acid synthesis. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al.home. which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast. and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0.. 2007). glucosylglycerol. 2 http://genome. et al. 2000). and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al. accumulation. and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome. reinhardtii can serve et al. proteome. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production.. Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms. pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution. which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production.. Fulda et al.jgi-psf. 2009.. 2006. However. 2008)... the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez. 2007 ). like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. Synechocystis... including glycogen.. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress.. and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers. 2008). 2004). For example. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls. capabilities. The genome sequence of D.. and metabolome (Singh et al.. 2002)..html 2. 2008).. 2009) in Synechococcus. In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer. productivity under various environmental conditions. These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb). physiological conditions.. In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al. 2007. filamentous strain that can form heterocysts. reported (Neupert et al. 2007).

. brown. Genome sequencing Macroalgae. Use of gene-specific probes al. They are and proteomic profiling.. tools is still imperative from a research 22 2. such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. 1999. represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata. Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms. as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal. of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments. 3 http://www. anoxic zone formation. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al. Algal Biology  . 2008). affinity with corresponding microalgal forms. 2003).. each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment. Niwa et al.and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. Baldauf.. For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report.. combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies. 1995. The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse. Fischer et al. the status of macroalgal systematics production. are very important. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. 2004. are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999. even with these (brown algae). Dutcher and Kapraun. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients. For example. also have microalgal counterparts.. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta.. and four more 1999. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008).. GE algae are defined as strains life histories. As such. However. and metabolic and coastal waters. and Rhodophyta safeguards. the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete.. 1995. general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. Bouza et al. which includes diatoms. 1994. and regulatory gene expression control 2005). For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example. the stipe. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination.. 2005). 2005). 2000). (Armbrust et al. Unlike microalgae. 2001. and expression profiling (Collen et al. Meneses and Santelices. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red.. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae. potential for toxin markers. 2006. 1996. and choice of cultivation methods In general. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. and green seaweeds. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. Moulin et al. with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains.. Currently. species. induction response. et al. Bowler et al.doe..3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels. 1997. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains.jgi. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function.. Apt et al. Chlorophyta (green algae).. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al. Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms. Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina.. and alternation of generations. 2003. Niwa et al. Roeder et al. Ho are underway. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer.. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. or seaweeds. 1999. 2005).

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important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. therefore. industry.. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3. however. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass. For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007). open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2). Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches). are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation. It is. it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. photobioreactors). photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria. However. Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally.1 compares the readily introduced.. open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation. it is important to 3. reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi. especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e. Algal Cultivation  29 . Though photobioreactors (e.g.g.3. algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds. capital costs maximizing light exposure. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity. but long-term culture Broadly speaking. both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3.1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways.

photobioreactors could (Dai et al. 2005).. 2005. improvement in strain selection. and predation.. 2004. 2005). 1993). wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. already widely used to Southern California. efforts. both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation al. 2006) and field Additionally. considerable scale-up from current activities.. environmental regulations from other sources. 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures. it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation.. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. seeds grown spp. and there is the the structures. Dipakkore et al.. such as sugars. appears especially open raceways. and Chile. Macroalgae 1987). they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks. in hybrid systems. important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3.. As a result. biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004. to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. In the latter. Buck. Kumar et al. 2007). Hanisak. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander. Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae... or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities.. Algal Cultivation  . A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods. Dai et al. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe. However. Japan. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries. Heterotrophic as a nutrient al.. 2004. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale.. Reddy et al. Dai et al. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al. et designs. and presented (see Chapter 10). 2004. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain. 2006). Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp. over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. near-shore. 1995) or a series of al. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al.. 1993. Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander. Sargassum. Turbinaria. 2002). Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz. in particular. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu. 2004. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather. providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. Typically. 2007). This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology. 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. (Chynoweth. 2008. Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp. 2008). In sugars. located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development. been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. Laminaria hyperborean. 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. have been algal growth.. Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda.. 2009). then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. Hypnea. and major technological 1991).

to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. and pathogens.. 2005).g. and recycling. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common. 2008). it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present. The cost-benefit analysis al. 2008. The methods must be sensitive. Honda et algal physiological adaptation. sustainability and FISH (Marie et al.. automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures.. Continuous monitoring will management. e..2 Scale-Up Challenges species. predators. predators. 2009). TSA- • Nutrient source scaling. 3. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms. Algal Cultivation  31 . chemical compounds. In certain cultivation systems. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation. limited.. and management of competitors. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al.000 and several million phytoplankton 3. 2006 ). Boutte et al. competitors. Brussaard... management. Nutrients. 2005..Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms.. It should be noted that. One of the more into a variety of useful products. Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens. it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale. Additionally. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. 2006. • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding. and simple and complex carbohydrates. proteins. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes. 2004). viable. and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success. Cheng et al.. 2004. pervasiveness of issues related to scale.. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined. 2009). for real-time monitoring. and inexpensive.. 1994. Wilson et al. This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability. 2008. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology.. Methods for rapid. Others will compete for shared resources. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption.. Wilson et al. 2008. Viprey et al. 2008) productivity analysis. 1999. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research. Rittmann et al.

and Management 1981. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. metabolites. Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. permeable. Algal Cultivation  . Requirements for additional nutrients. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring.. diverging dynamics will be important. and silicon (in the case of diatoms). a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. Benemann and Oswald. Gao et al. invasive species. More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. For example. 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. etc. Along with standards. Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen.. iron. research in multi-trophic. Spalding 2008). The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). as siting requirements for efficient considered. densities. The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. and because of the 2005. predator-prey relationships. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. Sheehan et al. Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues.. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. Douskova et al. These tools. molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae.. trace metals. 2008. and adapted for rapid.. and products. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical. The development of studied. cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity.. Eltgroth et al. 2008). Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary. 1994). The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists. and normalization.Furthermore. sustainability. vitamins. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. physiologists. There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. 1987. must also be R&D in both areas. light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen. and genetic. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources. rates. This information will productivity of potential strains. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields. 2008. Thus. Reed et al. dollars (Benemann and renewable. sustainable fuels. phosphorous. (Ketchum and Redfield.. 32 3. 1999. 1996. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae. and production siting. and significant operating cost. biochemists. productivity lost during down time.. For example. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production. competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains. accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U. Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. automated. phosphorous.S. out (Abelson. From a productivity standpoint. 1938. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate.. predators. New approaches are split Oswald. 1996). developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. fit-for-purpose fuels. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. 1999). 2002).

Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. for example. phosphorous. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. or urea. or silicon) as a economics. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha). Therefore. nitrate. 2009). too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls.g. e. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important.g. 2005. However. by preventing eutrophication. The final fuel product from algal oil biology. In the future. On the other hand. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e.. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. produced 3. nitrogen. which is a loss of 13. With large cultivation systems. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper. 1998). and potential nitrogen and phosphorous. however. means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. and sustainability implications of various discharge. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative. the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy.. agricultural. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond. At the same time. From a to fossil fuel prices. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet. tend to be near enormous. Douskova et al. evaporative losses can exceed 0. For example. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. If not addressed adequately.000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted.5 cm per over long distances. brackish. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels. and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities.Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia.. Currently. Algal Cultivation  33 . it may NOx and SOx (Doucha. 1996). Also. for example. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood. nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. biogas. utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. phosphorous.000 gallons to fill. 1989). 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective. Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth). or industrial unsuitable for land crops. and sustainability issues. disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. If the biomass residues are. aquifers and seawater. productivity. availability. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. buildup. these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. Water Management.” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up.. Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. or iron. This may be nitrogen.

Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals).. could pose a serious problem. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location. However. or seawater) may be suitable as is. moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost. toxins. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. materials in the culture. while effectively Water recycling is essential. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture. Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process. or other remediation before use. flocculants. and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms. etc. and treatment (e. or other low. disinfection. This is an enormous amount of water (260. This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water. To contain costs. but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. • GIS analysis of water resources. makeup water/recycle.1999). Furthermore. process. however. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. Disposal of the spent water.g. water. activated charcoal filtration. accumulated salts. wastewater. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. municipal wastewater. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer. including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry. from flue gas). and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts. accumulated toxics. which could contain salts. groundwater. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers. chemical flocculants used in harvesting. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting. and water double their biomass on a daily basis. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. A critical water consumption. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. but live cells could adversely is fresh water.. heavy metals (e. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. flocculants. toxins (including heavy cooling. The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment.000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above).g. Incoming water (surface water. Algal Cultivation  . • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown). or may require decontamination. and residual live algal cells.water from oil wells. desalination. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture.

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circulation. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity.g. Alum.. The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. 1977. 1993. and on empirical of transportation. 2003. Bare et al. cellulose. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . A determinations in particular processes.. 2004. algae harvesting (Sim et al. water quality. and recycling issues. bioreactors. Edzwald. at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. Kwak et al. lime. type. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue. therefore. 1988. McGarry and Tongkasa. 1998. Pan et al. 1991.. however. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied. Likewise. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. 1997). lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates). being considered. energy costs climb steeply. 1969.. Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds. make harvesting more difficult. Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures. consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering. surfactants. Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed. therefore. Knuckey et al. electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. Culture manipulation techniques. Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. Their small sizes.02 .0. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled. polyacrylamide polymers. As the desired percentage concentrations. and small size (~1 to 30 µm).1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering.. and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln... Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies. Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. Koopman and chitosan. 1984). is required to promote sedimentation at harvest. 2005.. only now being recognized as critically important. 1983). Poleman and Pauw. 2004. Cultures Finally. electroflocculation. the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. impact the required energy input.4. 1975. mixtures. Addressing these issues requires careful mind. salts. 1987). 1988). additives. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. the presence of flocculant in 4. 1971). Botes and Vanvuuren. and Shelaf. and then air is bubbled 4. Phochinda and White. 2001). some into further downstream dewatering techniques. 2006.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. In managed cultures. may analysis of engineering designs.

. Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat. 2001). 2008). such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. suction. Filtration designs Invariably. and have the ability to remove the algae later. and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e.. the growth substrate can be easily removed. Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. 2002. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. where fuel precursors very expensive. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. Washing the filter is one practice. water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity. and mechanized harvesting methods... Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  .6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide. The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing. leads to blinding. 1996). • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations. 2003). Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates.. Application of mechanical 38 4. pores decreasing filter efficiency. Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency. but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. design. and reduction of filtering rates. 1991).. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate. For instance. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size).2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out. The flocculant efficiency. however. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields. separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al. but doing or dredging with cutters. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e. In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. in low-humidity climates. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades. about 90% is (Oswald. Saidam and Butler. These include. 1995. operating costs. pores. Culture purity However. or ships for operation. floc optimization. filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed.through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. so leads to re-dilution of the product. Durability and 4. 2009). Moving filters Currently. methane drum size. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. but are not limited to. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible.g. and bioharvesting. Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. the filter. Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied. of the roughly 1.g. microalgae. have also been developed.

2009). and the amount of debris method. with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments.harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed. 2009). by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded.g. strict regulations 80 .. 2004). could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. Smaller particles. and depreciation.. final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. mechanized harvesting techniques. The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured. stones. 2009). Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 .3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas. anaerobic digestion and fermentation. Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. surface area to volume ratios. the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined. given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated. for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions. example. 2008). and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water. operations. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. may be amenable to mowing.. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”. Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz. litter. laws have approaches 90% may be necessary. sand. biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. 1989). a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. attached forms that tend to stand upright. cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al. The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. To manage seaweed harvests. Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly..85% water content (Peterson et al. although breakthroughs are still needed in each. e. 2001). In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture.. adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately. The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols.. This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp.30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. Anaerobic digestion. such fermentation. about 20 .20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore. new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 . opportunities for products apart from fuels. In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al. 2009). with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. For part of the pretreatment process. culture and end-use.. scale of harvesting and dewatering. and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis. maintenance. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. influence. • Removal of foreign objects and debris. Further.

E. B. (2004). Middlebrooks. Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting. D. E. Z.J. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0. 113. (1975). Butterfi. (1988). Micro-Algal Biotechnology. Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. S. Sedimentation and Flotation. 40 4. Won. (1983).54 watt-hours/gram. Edzwald. 153. J. D. Buchholz. Vanvuuren.J.. Brown. 50(11). C. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. G. Jung.M. B. flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal.R. W. Knuckey. H. Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment.B. I. 2000). Green.. 9(1). Downing. of each in algae are considered (Illman et al. Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. 250. Ferguson. Illman. coagulants. 5(4). (2009). 27(10). Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents. Curley.. B. A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. (1969). R.L. C. 95. bubbles.J. Kwak. Agricultural Wastes. Dublin. E.J.. R. Ireland Buck. Bracco. Zubieta. C.A. S. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt. Ferguson.X. Johnson.. H. Sustainable Energy Ireland. Large-scale algae culture systems.H. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away. & Wen. V. Jones. H.F Frampton. Chen. 35(3). 117. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal. Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process. Oswald. and M. Scragg. G. 11. (1995). Borowitzka. D.Y. Ku. T. Robert. 674-691. 133. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale. based on the latent heat References Bare.C.from algae. 612. (2005). along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Bruton. 357-394. J. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies. A. Logsdon. and dissolved air flotation.J. Dodd.. 231. T. 713.. (2010). Lincoln. M. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media.S. Water Science and Technology. 852-859. and C. Jones.J. Water Science and Technology.B. Water Science and Technology. Aquacultural Engineering. 9(3). Kwon. Delanoue. Koopman. Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. B. J. (2002).M. 631-635.R. 67. However. Lavoie.. (1991).P. Lyons. (2000). (38). Filtration. (1987).K. N. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply.. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. 85(3).R. (2006). 47(1). 30 (7). Cambridge University Press. Lerat.. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. (1977). W.B. 525-534. likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates. (27). Y.F. 31(3-4). J. algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids. Botes. J. L. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Anderson. Shales. J. Aquaculture. M. Borowitzka. Lundquist.. Kim. et al. 45(1). Progress in Water Technology.. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae. A. Stanley. 300. Separation and Purification Technology. Rasmussen. de-watering. M. Algae. 6(1).B. and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge. (2005). Enzyme and Microbial Technology. (1993). M. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. F.H.

Y. Removal of algae using froth flotation. Fundamentals. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. C.. M.. Mar 42. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. E. D.G. Conservation. Antal. Benemann. 491–515. 150(1-3). 327.. Pauw. C. T. H. et al. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. Y. Oh. M. and J. Journal of Hazardous Materials. W.. (1989). G. A. R. Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. 24(1). E-H Belarbi. (20). J. Phoochinda. Goh. (27). Comparison of centrifugation.J.B. (2008). (2003). (1971). R.W. 43(5). 185. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration. (2004). (1997). Resources. Forster. G. W. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. 24(5). Froling. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Lachance. 14. Biomass.C.. E. Biol. Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters.Y. J.C. S. Oswald. Copping. E. Chisti. H. 1. Molina Grima E.. (1988). Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism. 16(1). Sharp.Lee.. P.S. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge.A. D. B114. 199. Water.J. Shelaf. (26). A. (2001). Mollah. Pringle.P.. (2001). The Journal of Applied Phycology. (1996). Journal of Biotechnology Advances. Butler. and J. Wu. Kim. (1991). 142. A. Environmental Technology. J. R. Cah. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal . Chuang. 83-89. and Recycling. M. Pan. Yoon. A. 4. 1. Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub.. B. F. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum. Acién Fernández. McGarry. N.and supercritical water technologies. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. (2003). G. Energy & Environmental Science. 1-7. 87. M.. F. 1987. Tester. 51. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. S. G. Sim.G. C. White. Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. M. Huang. Robles Medina. Tseng. 32-65. (19).M. M. Ugarte. Sukenik.Qingdao.P. Poelman. Tongkasa. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products. (2008). C. Becker. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii. Kwon.. 824. K. (1). (1984).R. Science and Technology. Saidam.. D. China.D.. 63-70. A. A.. (1998).S. W. Huesemann. Vogel. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 . J. Roesijadi. Peterson.

Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al. 2010). though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear. as well as the be successful. ultrasounds.. and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta. extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al. As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. osmotic shock. For this reason. algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations... and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production. 2003). different logistical challenges arise from access.. and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. or for the sonication for cell disruption. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly.. Lipid Extraction sonication.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating. 2010). Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. Additionally. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing. but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion. While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks. Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted.. prior to the application of the extraction solvents.5. To operations could affect extraction processes. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals. little is known about the scale. Extraction of Products from Algae   . This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. that secrete products directly into the growth medium. which is dependant on the algal species and growth status. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products.and laboratory-scale procedures. For waste treatment. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective. 2008). some systems 42 5. 2010) and osmotic shock. and Barberio. 2008). thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. 2010). Dibenedetto.. extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid.. pretreatment of (Zhang et al. pulverized biomass. 2005) et al. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development. autoclaving. and (3) solvate the >40%. and acid. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). application of organic solvents. base. 2008. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process. sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids. Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5. To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. Cell Rupture) component for extraction.e..

water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids.e. prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. 1959).. and extract the lipids. Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids. After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978). 2000). chloroform. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i. 2007). hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. and methanol. has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first).. at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al. these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary. methanol) and acid catalyst (e. 2005). Consequently. In these applications. the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent. biomass. pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al. 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke. Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. Extraction of Products from Algae   43 . disruption of the cell Malcata.. their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins. The hexane system as chloroform to contact. biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin.g. In general. dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. 1990).e. 5. despite the added added. chloroform.. 1990). Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol. solubilize. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted.. More. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e. (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer. 1994).. 2007). single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. 1996). ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol... (i. other combinations lipids and cell structure.g. 2007). the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments.. In other cases. if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system).g.g. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers. and then water) (Lewis. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. In general. 1998). but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al. making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke.e.. acetyl chloride). In general. and hexane/isopropanol for lipids.Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap.. and Dyer co-solvent method. They explained lipids (i. Similarly. the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy).. 2000). (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path. give relatively high hexane mixtures.. thereby improving downstream separations.

it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). 2004). noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples. In general. 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer. the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina. screening viability (500 . a step that also requires energy input. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). ASE of higher hydrophobicity.e. and production of triglycerides for biofuels production. sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio. The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE . This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure.. using the process. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure). 1996).. 1996.55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle. extracted 85 .e. By using solvents technique on 1 . Conceptually.30 g samples of dried biomass. separate out desirable by analogy. reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent. 2006). the polarity) to values that match the lipids. For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref). and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times. The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al. It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al. Denery et al.95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 . a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well. is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 . to all pores within the biomass matrix and. and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells..200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water. extraction temperature. and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol. the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents.. some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. and optimize the energy cost. free fatty acids. being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. If this process can be 44 5. Accordingly. on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al.3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 . What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass.. depending on the solvent.10 min). break down the cell membrane.. Extraction of Products from Algae   .. ASE can also be applied to remove co.. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i. Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. (Denery et al. Hejazi et al.the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel. must use dried Consequently. however. the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes. example. 2009).

the ability to 5. 2006). 2007). 1999). 2006).. Some degradation. More recently. and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al. under these conditions.. liquid feeds (Reverchon et al. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s).. by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al... 1999). The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified. nitrous oxide. however. 1994. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above. Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll)..applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%. the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel. 2006). via transesterification. Large-scale design scenario. one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail).. is that water.. thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step. however. as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage. It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. ethane. been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however.g. triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner. 2006). a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans.50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. Some pressures of 241 . e. products miscible Largeau. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae.9 bar). In addition. at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water. originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 . 2007). this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates. low toxicity. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro. However. In this system up to subcritical temperatures. pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. phototrophically or heterotrophically... 73. attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. A major constraint. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et. higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts. al. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. 1999). CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i. for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. methanol. water.g. The technique. but other fluids used have included ethane. creating additional energy use challenges. sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride. the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. In this 2006). Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 . as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al. just below the critical temperature. easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al. whether grown has the effect of converting lipids. ease of scale-up.. 2005). The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005).e. as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction.. The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid.. 1994). this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process. and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case. 1992). higher productivity Castro et al.. 2001) . it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid. becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature. water extraction. is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times. lower costs of the extracting agent. non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. 2005).379 bar (Chueng.

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 21-33. Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. 1994.R.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components..3. At the cellular level. 2007.H. K. E. When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. Güçlü-Üstündag. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. 2007. Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5. 955–959. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. 80(2). the following in side reactions.. 109(2). 2004.. 71(9). Journal of Food Engineering. Denery. Fajardo. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. Cravotto. However. 735–740. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions. & Malcata. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. M. Lipid-Fett. Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. A. F.. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry. 80(2). to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems. Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. J. 123-129.. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. W. 120–126. 501(2). as Btu. G.). Meager.X. 619–630.. Extraction of Products from Algae   . et al. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. J. Balsevich. Golmohammad. Agric. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies..R. 73(8). 6(2). 15(5). 1025–1031. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores. 46 5. 2008. 1994.M.. In this context. M. This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier. & Abril. 53(13). F. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures. G. thereby improving the References Barclay. Analytica Chimica Acta. 898-902. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4. Increased of sugar-based feedstocks. produced per day. the issue of solvent energy load. reduce the pressure and temperature requirements. 175–181. et al.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute. Food Chem. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. 2007. Journal of Food Engineering. 2005. A.. & Rowshanzamir. et al. Cartens. G. Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry.P. J. versa. S. 2005. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. 67(1-2). et al. 5049–5059. Brunner. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. et al. J. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass. Journal of Food Engineering. Journal of Applied Phycology.. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Carvalho. Grima. Eikani. 1996.transesterifiable lipids.. & Mazza.

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
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natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36(11), 1283–1287.
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from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
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from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
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for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
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5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

feedstocks must be ground into fine particles. too low for conversion to biodiesel. represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh. 2007). or other biomass. This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. and significant dehydration crops. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion. 2006. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. place in their presence. algae: pyrolysis. There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas. Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003). 2004). anaerobic digestion. McDermid & Stuercke. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. For flash pyrolysis.2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with. It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen. including direct biophotolysis. These current time (Bridgwater. and the added benefit of being fuels. Also. the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing. i. gasification. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al.. where finely on economic considerations. 2003). at least some level of dewatering is still required. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. social acceptance.. laminarin. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. biohydrogen) substance by heating. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Miao and Wu.. in that it is extremely fast. efficiently. produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. Polysaccharides.. typical biomass throughout the country. degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. though from algae. products. 50 6. and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 . 2008). photo-fermentation.1).e.. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil. and the United States. Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times. Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. although the scientific literature. but algae. depending on the reaction parameters. competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae.e. with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. Brazil. 2004). Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology. gradient.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae. improvement in hydrocracking. such as mannitol. Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006).500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds. The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and. 2003). 2003. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. the algae. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock.

Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. 2007. Srinivas et al. Unfortunately. it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. H2. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils. Another research paper comparatively straightforward. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources. primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely. 2006). so the bio-oil may be more investment required.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed. 2007. the process more flexible. First and foremost.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels . Yung et al. since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally. address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 . 1994). 6.. CO2.. it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels. 2009. Exhibit 6.. there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for. and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas. 2009).. the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. 2004). FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO. liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents. Additionally. Balat. Another advantage is the Additionally. The methods.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. etc.

with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst. The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. Even though FTS is a mature technology. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic. The first reactor was a low. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . 2005). There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al. algae may have a unique advantage balance.. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option. FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall.4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char.. and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso. 2006)... A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al. usually requires pretreatment. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size. 2008).. 36 kJ g−1. of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH. The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes. Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger.330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993). Typically. It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale..for dedicated biomass plants. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. However. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles. First. A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. 1995). comparable to those of fuel oil. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al. The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. 2005). Additionally. with oxygen at high temperature. (Raffelt et al. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency.. This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input. Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al.. The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further. Also. These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. Germany. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. 1995). Neste Oil. The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process. Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. France in 2006. the most significant problem al. as high as 75%. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D.

could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. in terms of yield. raw. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites. The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based.. Additionally. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. triacylglycerides..e. with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. in particular. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. Vieitez et al. 2008). a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach.. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality.. which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6.g. lower reaction temperatures. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . level that can be scaled to commercial production. gal vs. While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180.. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008). and efficiency. 2009). If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. at less than 50˚C. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior. the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. In for example. 2009). There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al.Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. and fuel conversion. 1987). with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures. supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas.51/gal). further study will also 6. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i. 2007). with a conversion cost-effective methodology. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process. and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process.. including drying. and as such. in place. 2008. 2006). This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts. In this process variant. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas. In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. ensuring maximum particular. Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment. transesterification. It is.. supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels. Similar results have been Fernández et al. the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. effect of milder process conditions. it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production.4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. $0. cost. conversion of vegetable oils. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). and one that receives scant attention of algae. theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. Additionally. $0. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment.. e. 2008). is an interesting mode of gaseous oils. oil extract. therefore. is to demonstrate are selective. Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority. 2009). the typical mode of biofuel production from algae. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae. however..

Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. (Exhibit 6. This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. Boocock. When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al. there are other solution and mixing well. a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. catalyzed methanol approach. therefore. The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves. 2006). (Ataya et al. 2008). Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. 2008). Kerosene. 2008).2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. This section discusses water and free acids. 2008). In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. Cao et al. Transesterification (Alsalme et al. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum. biochemical. 2007). mitigate saponification chemical. and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4.. which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. Diesel. In addition to the classic base. enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts. generally required as a result. it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. Recently. acid methyl esters).2). Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are. heteropolyacids (HPA).. 2008. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas.. it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts. 2008). The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts. heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy..can be converted into biodiesel. Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al. 2009). they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. and therefore. Though acid catalysts have these advantages...

have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. much R&D is needed in the discovery. 2008). process must be able to function in the presence of these However. ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. Again. In particular. increasingly attractive. 2008). sugars... and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. Liao et al. Lewis acid catalysts. Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al. optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end. Use of biocatalysts cell walls. as with other approaches. 2008).. both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al. This work more mature conversion processes currently available. inexpensive (McNeff et al. 2006)... catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol. but (Lopez-Hernandez et al. (a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely. 2007).. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al.. in many cases. production. and energy input (Kalva et al. Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process. It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. engineering. In the ultrasonic reactor method. at a commercial scale and at competitive prices. 2008. 2007). defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin). Although very effective and relatively economical. 1998). converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters.. There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost. These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases.. these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream. the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly. 2008). it has been noted 6. converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time... This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse. such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or al. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 . Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. 2008). The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater. difficulty in removing the glycerol. reaction temperatures. catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. 2003). and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al. and 2008). 2005). One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing.

demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks. fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content. Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. On the other hand. Many of the catalysts cracking. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. maximizing the final energy content. such as oil shale and tar sands. flash point. such as tehtrahydrofuran.The presence of a co-solvent. Although are stable. 56 6. and cloud point. As noted in chapter 8. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full. the process pressure is high perspective. catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. jet fuel. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). jet fuel. be completed before these catalysts are fully understood. the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights. obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. for whale oil. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. Other based analog. The catalysts are active feedstock. This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline. temperatures of about 170˚C). From a refinery’s At these temperatures. and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids. and Al2O3. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. such as biomass or plant oil. presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. and insoluble. gasoline. in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water. separation In another example. heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels. and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. CaO. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements. active catalysts during transesterification.. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO. can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification. begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. In this way. in an assortment of end products. Moreover. 2009). A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. initial and final boiling point..240°C). M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom.60 bar). and x is an and process steps. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil.

Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. a chemical reductive process). It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson. There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. In addition. metals. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas. In particular. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. nitrogen from extracted proteins. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel. 6. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume. Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6. as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion. It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development. and for recycle to the culture. Referred to as hydrotreating. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 . this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. 1979).. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons.g. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process. once H2 used.4 Processing of Algal (basically. Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost. The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e. carbon dioxide.

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Using appropriate technologies. the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. is predicted to be generated by the process.$1.500 x106 lbs/yr. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. poly-unsaturated fatty acids. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. corresponding markets in the long term. Inorganics Proteins enzymes. without invoking competing co. the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6). the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7. these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition.1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products. valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products. For the purposes of the Roadmap. a reasonably benefits to the technology. CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. anti-oxidants.1). The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined. reductant. Indeed. pharmaceuticals. 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process. As summarized economics of the system. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal. primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb. and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. Exhibit 7. dyes. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. generation will inevitably compete for carbon.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass.. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. 2004). and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7. glycerol. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7. and energy from photosynthesis. Vorlop. hormones. The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. Heat. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. Co-products   61 .2. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers.00/lb. fertilizers and soil conditioners. 2007 7. flavors. The topic of polysaccharides.7. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products. wastewater. $0. novel technologies with increased coloring substances. aromatic essences. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process. and stable isotopes for research purposes. enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). Moreover. cosmetics. and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 . fats (oils). etc.30 .

appearance. GLA from evening primrose oil). 2. This situation. etc. pigs. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium.5 billion US$. In poultry rations. Nitzschia. The Dunaliella. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). Pulz and Gross.g. et al. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis. the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. microalgal (of biomass. arsenic. However. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$. With the possible exception of the existing response. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. 280 million US$. US$. The market size. and Thalassiosira. ca. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. 1996). these existing markets (and associated Spirulina. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae. better immune to the consumer. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs. having presently a retail value of 1. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium. e. particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. 1990. Malcolm et al. ca. yet in the short term. which is sold either fish (Benemann. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). currently at about 2. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i. increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price. 3. Tetraselmis. 2004..000 t/yr Chlorella. market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova. 600 t/yr Nostoc. γ-linolenic acid (GLA). Co-products   . 2006). 2006). is expected to expand significantly. Isochrysis. sold for the health food market. fertility. and soil fertilizer.000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al.. and ca. the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term. Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species. the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. The production includes ca.) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. Nannochloropsis. Although small. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements. Scenedesmus. significant amounts of lead. • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. Chlorella and Scenesdesmus. it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. Radmer. 1994 and 1996). 1. The most very large potential markets are developed. Dunalliella. product. Phaeodactylum. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. ca.. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. is expected to grow in the future. 2006).. is quickly growing.000 t/yr Spirulina. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high.g. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. Radmer. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann. 1996.10% (wt. poultry. horses. Chlorella. The market for microalgal animal feeds. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds. However. Anti-Oxidants The market.200 t/yr Dunaliella. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption. weight gain. GLA by Arthrospira. 1990. Chlorella. al. cadmium and derived biofuels. Skeletonema. 1999). 1990.. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina.) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 . 1986.) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows. The main species used in products. 62 7. crustaceans (shrimp). etc.. from 300 to 3.5 billion A number of anti-oxidants..e. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. Spolaore et (e. gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal. animal feed are Spirulina. 2006).. docohexaenoic acid (DHA). 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon.By definition. not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira). have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka.

.. a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. Spolaore et al. and Exhibit 7.... 2003.. or as pigments i. 1990).2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7. are used as food dyes. 2006). no current commercial market Spolaore et al. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1. Spolarore et al.500 Spolaore et al. 2006). Astaxanthin.Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin.. pigments in pluvialis. (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka. and research. Co-products   63 .000 2. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Phycobiliproteins. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross. Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5.. (Olaizola. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers.000 700 Spolaore et al... (2006) EPA Potential product. 1986.e.000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7. 2004. cosmetics. the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin. (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product. Benemann. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al.200 >280 Spolaore et al. dyes for food. 2006). growth promoters.500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1.

Pulz and Gross. but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. food additive. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al.. Radmer. 2001).. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro. 1990.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. 2. Pulz and Gross. 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori. etc. 1986). Singh et al.. 2007. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics). kombu. aonori.. 1990.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh.. 2005. macroalgae (i. polysaccharides (Benemann. pet food. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. plant growth regulators could be 7. Co-products   . Pulz and Gross. 1986).3). cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. or other product. Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. cosmetics (Spolaore et al. fuel. 2006). These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. it 2004). 2004). medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. 1994... This sets a high bar research (Benemann. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing. fuel or other product. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose. Borowitzka. Wu et al. toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5. Identical to an existing chemical. 1990). Exhibit 7. Metting and Pyne. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004). Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae. They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. 2001. Olaizola. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al. mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al. Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. Here price is a major 7.5-6 BILLION 64 7. Furthermore. The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products. pharmaceutical. 2003.) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient. the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium.2 Commercial Products factor. 1. pharmaceutical. be very small due to their specialized applications.e. wakame. Alginate. pharmaceuticals and In this instance. the only issue is price. 1987). or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7. must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds.

Therefore. and Benemann. Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7. 2009). and combustion. 2009). Co-products   65 . lipids only. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. Nevertheless. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure).e. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production. such as pyrolysis. as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion.4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels.. the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. both (Exhibit 7. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www. However. the issues enough markets for potential co-products.pdf). non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. gasification. The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass. New material with unique and useful functional production systems. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass.unh. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology.3. with reported methane yields of about 0. which could then be either sold on the new product. The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass.3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann. with potential whole (i. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy.4). it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. conversion technologies. In this case.

5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. i.g. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. butyric. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes. least 10. Furthermore. might ethanol could be used as biofuel. green solvents and a result. is the starting material for the production of polyester. and butanol). (Hu et al. Similarly.usda. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. polycarbonates and polyurethanes. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers. Option 2. is potentially very large. Finally. aliphatic polyesters. the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. current levels. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 .. epoxies. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. 1995). pigs. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. and could be advantageous. butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced. solvents (acetone. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide. biomass for liquid biofuel production. poultry. Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez. jet fuel.3-propanediol. acetic. (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol. Since the generation of gasoline. and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al. Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass. ethanol. However. and (c) at products such as polymers.. 2006). glycerol could be used to potentially very large.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids. For example. the residual microalgal (http://www. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. Co-products   . feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry. generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. it is also used in the In addition. etc. and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and Good. however. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. 2009. Kamm and Kamm.20 per gallon ethanol.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. 2007). human nutrition may organic acids (formic. detergents. a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. As of industrial surfactants. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. including and interactions with animal digestion. bioplastics. As was pointed out above. 2008). ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24. 2007. produced by 2020. adhesives. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. this option (Datta et al. due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. The Glycerol. and Option 4.ams. Furthermore. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid. Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e. propionic. the market for animal feed (cattle. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. a food and feed supplement. Kawaguchi et al.txt). which contains proteins. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming. relative derived ethylene and propylene.e. than $0. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. 2007). Furthermore. fish. However.. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm.. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed.. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced.. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products. antifreeze. 1 billion kg. 2008). 2001). from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants. succinic. 2007). the projected market for cellulases is 2007. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. Furthermore. Choi. to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants. while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed.

Good. J. 386-394.H. M. (2009). the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3. B. Miyamoto. SPB Academic Publishing..biodieselmagazine.H. and biotechnology. A. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. and potential. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus.Kadirgan. 221-231.R. (91). Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. Berger. 173-180. M. Netherlands. (2001). Kamm. Suppl. K.. Sommerfeld. Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. Microalgae products and production: An overview.L. Kawaguchi Journal of Industrial Microbiology. Metting.e. K. P. Hashimoto.P. Moon. I. (1990).. Posewitz. specifically. including www. 372-375. Champaign-Urbana. Burgess. Developments in industrial microbiology. Microbiological Sciences. Enzyme Microbial Technology. Kamm. As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5. M. Crouch.. Ghirardi. Abou-Mansour. processes. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products.C. (2008).. Forro.S. Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products. E. M. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. The Hague. R. Zimmerman.J. and carbohydrates is not cost-effective. Recent Patents on Biotechnology. W. these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann.175-204. A guide to the seaweed industry. (1987). As was mentioned above. New Hampshire. (1990). with special focus on Dunaliella sp. (2008). Finally. Darzins. Algal Biology. Datta..M. Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. Tsai. Choi. Microbial degradation of marine biomass. E. 3(12). Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering.jsp?article_id=377). (105). Metting. W. (2). (1986).R. Seibert. FEMS Microbiological Review. Pyne. J. Once again. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. J. this option will also require and potentially growing. Banaigs. A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. Food and Agriculture Organization. microalgal metabolites. Introduction to Applied Phycology. carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. genomics.000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products. J. (8). 621-63. Q. B. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources. Jarvis. University of Illinois. organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. carbohydrates. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. (2001). proteins. (57). Biorefineries – multi product processes. Benemann. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. M. Wright. B. J. 589-627. (16). including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. van Staden. 277-282. A. Frank. if desired. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2. 9347-9377.W. with saturated.. it applications (Mooibroek et al. polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids. 247-256. J. McHugh. Hu. D. the issue of scale enters in. Co-products   67 . the recovery and use of energy. (31).. (2007).. physiology.G. No.R. 2007). D.A. Hirata. M. M. B. (54). 5. (2006). J. S. K. and P. Burja. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only. The Plant Journal. S. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. J.J. L. Bonsignore. (2007). Science Publishers. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses. Tetrahedon. 7. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5). Biologically active compounds from microalgae. i. Huesemann. Borowitzka. L. (1986). (2003). 1994).

Roy. (2007). Giuseppin. Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. Isambert. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace. (82). U. H. Scott. 459-466. Franssen. BioScience.. Sanders. Willke.. Pulz. (2004).Y. Current Opinion Biotechnology. 46(4).. Singh. Steinbüchel. (1996). (2003). Wu..Y. 635-648. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. R. M. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. G. B. Journal of Applied Phycology.J. J..Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. Q. Keshavarz. (6). (25). Banerjee. Gonzalez. E. Oosterhuis. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol. Velikodvorskaya. 723-730. (1994). W. Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. (2001). 131-142.H. Algal diversity and commercial algal products.F. Berezina. Yildiz. (2004). Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. B. (18). Joannis-Cassan.S. 257-267.. (20).. PCC6803. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Biomolecular Engineering.Mooibroek. (2006). G. Duran. Philip. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (1994). A. Radmer. S. 587-597. (66). Journal of Electrochemical Society. Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. (77). Parker. (2007). Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. 85-90. N. O. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications.H.. E. 68 7. Schwarz. 101(2).V. (2006). G. (2005). F. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.A. R. (71). O. 87-96. Kate. (76). Bioresource Technology. Toonen.N. S.C. M. R. W. 93-98. Wu. S. Commercial applications of microalgae. Zerlov. Spolaore. M. (2007). T. C. Radmer. Vorlop. V. 263-270. 233-247. K. Olaizola. Kadirgan. (141). Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. Shen. I.. H.. Z. Yazdani. T.D. (65).. Co-products   . 73-95. Gross. 213-219. A.J. P.C.

and final fuels biomass. and end-use vehicles). high capacity. 1990). it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. rails.8. and the quality of the final fuel product. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas. similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. products – ethanol. conforming to existing standards (e. few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. biogas. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs. transporting. and • Third. as corrosivity) for trucks. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery. other distribution aspects pipelining. container dimensions. with some evidence suggesting scalability. fuels intermediates. Efstathiou and Credeur. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts. delivery vehicles. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. biodiesel. • Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). within the context of from algal biomass. Specifically. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. poorly characterized. dispensing equipment. fuel intermediates. The optimal Technologies). Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. • Second. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity.. biofuels. infrastructure concerns. These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. Thus. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks. and bioproducts. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. for ideal lipid compositions. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. production. storage tanks. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. In turn.. pH and from algal biomass resources. be transported to the refinery. it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. storage. 2009. Some of these fuels are to be sited. such as cultivation and harvesting.1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established.. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. fuel intermediates. have been shown biofuels as well. the specific distribution and dewatering levels. transport. 2009). diesel.g. and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. and final fuels from the systems. 1986). and different fuels from algae are being considered. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass. 2008). depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points. Distribution and Utilization  69 . It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. In all cases. pyrolysis oil. 2009) and infrastructure.. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. Ethanol. materials and temperature considerations (e. including algae.g. However. higher alcohols. and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery. combusting. 8. blending. As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. biodiesel.

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

Aatola, H., Larmi, M., Sarjovaara, T., and Mikkonen, S. (2009). Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as a renewable diesel fuel: Trade-off
between NOx particulate emission and fuel consumption of a heavy duty engine. SAE International Journal of Engines. 1(1), 1251-
ASTM International. (2009a). Standard specification for diesel fuel oils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available online
ASTM International. (2009b). Standard specification for biodiesel fuel blend stock (B100) for middle distillate fuels. West Conshohocken,
PA: ASTM International. Available online at
ASTM International. (2009c). Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available
online at
ASTM International. (2009d). Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at
ASTM International. (2009e). Standard specification for diesel fuel oil, biodiesel blend (B6 to B20). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
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72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described. 1985.. For each parameter. 1998). and land. characteristics. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U. This scenario Exhibit 9.. other nutrients.. The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale. as with any biomass-based technology and industry. Similarly. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. the siting and resource factors (e. supplemental CO2 supply. a for algal biofuel production. facilities design. and costs..1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs. 1990. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate.2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9.g. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. CO2. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10.1). and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. water. both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency. energy. Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. energy. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production. concentrated CO2. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. 1990). Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale.9. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9. water. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass.S. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability. labor. concepts are also being proposed. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate. Maxwell et al. capital. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. Lansford et al. nutrients. as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective. water. Sufficient land. needs to be analyzed from a site location. Resources and Siting   73 . the major resource and environmental parameters that Further. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance..1 Resource Requirements for production. availability. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials. CO2.

selected to meet production needs.2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production.2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams. Perlack et al. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. 2005. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production. supply logistics. an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can. availability.. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets.3). The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass. and land-based ponds. Use of sugars from cane. The latter throughout the country. beets. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9. DOE. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand.. in terms of cultivation and harvesting. near-shore coastal farms. 2005). that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. 2006a).g. Resources and Siting   . Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA. cost and availability of space 74 9.and second-generation biofuels.. e. thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures. other sugar crops.2 to off-shore macroalgae production. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials.. A supply issues with first.

and competition production. As illustrated in Exhibit 9. and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems. From a resource use perspective.3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients. Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market. The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production. key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al.power plants .. weather conditions. temperature. precipitation. the level of production affect productivity. and severe weather. K. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture ponds CO2 . Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures. both seasonally and annually. Ligno-Cellulosic N. rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9. technology development. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. 2004) factors include solar radiation. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation. whereas precipitation. research. and day/night light and temperature cycles. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate. Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae. particularly in the case of land-based with other uses.other industrial . other Water Treatment Deconstruction .4. evaporation. are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can CAFO Low-Density Algal . environmental impacts.closed PBRs . the heterotrophic approach can 9.4 million dry sunlight.2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation.lake.muni WWT & Seperation .hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich Water. will most directly metric tonnes for food products). P. would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels. Resources and Siting   75 .

with the higher growth regions northern latitude states. Arizona.4 and the Michigan. and the New England states. annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production.high-cost systems.4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude.4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. In Exhibit 9. having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9. resource conditions for algae production. California. This could fresh water.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. Resources and Siting   . For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800. currents. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves. Wisconsin. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9.. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. i. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data. New Mexico. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii. controls. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available. The more to total biomass growth. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas.e. including Minnesota. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F. the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight. lower elevation sites. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however. and Florida being most promising). identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions. Within that context. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity. the availability of non.

integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. both high and low. Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. Arizona. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. and California. available for productive cultivation. discussed later in this section. such as heavy rain and flooding. Resources and Siting   77 . require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region. represented by specific regions of Hawaii. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. and coastal areas. Georgia. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind. for closed reactors. This would. For outdoor ponds. of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. throughout the seasons. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. Evaporative however. precipitation (more than 40 inches). Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. requirements for an open algae growth system. and parts of Louisiana. locations for open pond production. dust storms. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. respectively. of Hawaii. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. tornadoes. For closed photobioreactors. the Northwest. Florida. waves. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. cooling in the summer. is a wide range of temperatures. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. however. Evaporation is a Therefore. killing frost in the fall. 1985). and overall economics. Southeast. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. Areas with higher annual average and. Arizona. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. hail storms. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors. New Mexico.industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. The southwestern states (California. with more than 60 inches annually.. algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. Evaporation. Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. and the Southeast. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas.

A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9.. from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. 2009). 2002). Oroud. Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. water-sparse locations. 2003. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U.. 1995). various locations throughout the eastern half of the country. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total. solar insolation.. such as saline and brackish ground water. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build. energy. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. along with associated salt build-up and 2008. 2009). Kenny et al. 2006b. 2002..000 heterotrophic). climate conditions.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. salt content effluent or solid byproducts. management. reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. wind. representing etc.uses. humidity. following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. hybrid combination). nearly and the site-specific details of climate. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al. to cool electricity-generating equipment.). This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al. all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE. In 2005.S. Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater. Hightower et al. for future research. 2009). 61% of all surface water. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value.. water demand over the 30 years prior to that. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up. 1978. humidity. the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems. for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128. natural gas. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d). or “co. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss. depending on the chemistry. Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. is used by microalgae (open vs.. This will require periodic blow. and field assessment. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues. 2004. USGS. Mao. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. However.. and coal-bed the past 25 years. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. with the majority (85%) resources. solar insolation. 2009). 2009). The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil. Hutchison et use. Kokya et al. or from desalination operations. periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater. withdrawals (201. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation. 2008. Kenny et al. ). At the national scale. one-half of the total U. about 95%. from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement. and operational costs. the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress. 2008. or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions.000 ambient temperature variations. or 460. 1999. Hightower et al. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location. Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980.S. 2006b. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up.. elevation. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up. modeling. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Almost all saline water. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude.. Resources and Siting   . closed vs. were for thermoelectric-power generation. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest.000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover. withdrawals.

Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop. physical and chemical characteristics. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas. NAS. are also of Along the way. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. 2008).7). 1985). which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed. analysis for algal biofuels. Dennehy. 31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. reclaimed. the estimated capacity. The maps of saline groundwater 9. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced. and evaluated under a depth. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. If less water quality and chemistry. limited fresh water supplies. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. 1982a and 1982b. systems are implemented. and of greater investment. resource development. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed. where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized.. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary. and recycling nutrients. Gerbens-Leenes et al.S.. with open systems. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al. and may well also be saved. 2007. define the spatial distribution. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. saline. southwestern United States. Shuttleworth. 2009). by state engineers and water authorities. The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced. depth. 2007. monitored.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources. 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. quantity. 2009). Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. 2004). experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent. as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. held in December 2008. as noted earlier. Unfortunately. reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. 1993. warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site.. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. depending on systems and process specifics. The location. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. Hightower et al. Along with geological data.. Resources and Siting   79 . Saline groundwater resources.. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels. 2006b. Additional analysis. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels. There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled.

is not a simple issue. 2002). The geographical location. sustainability of supply. recharge rate. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e. 2005.g. Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. at some large growth system and incident light conditions.. However. using coal) represents over 40% of the total.. but a significant effort will still be needed to et al. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. 2009. biomass growth rate. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources.000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. 2009).. it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae. addition. separating CO2 in large industrial plants. a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield. 2009). transport. Resources and Siting   . including algae production. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours. would be a good source of CO2. 2008b). and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. depth. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA. including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. Dennehy. 2008). and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003. including Exhibit 9. 2008 and 2009). typically output a steady 1. 2006). or more than 1965. content. Flue gas. In addition. Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country.200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al. and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking. spatial extent. However. parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment. natural gas. potential As an example. Applications fuel-fired power plants. collect. The sources shown (NATCARB. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum. aquifers. longer distance transport and distribution. NATCARB. identify.. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. such as from fossil. 2008 and 2009).5. USGS. and distribution could require more production. represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced. Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. 2004. Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. As a result.resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA. and analyze this information. 2004). Data on small. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas. Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al. Therefore. The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. scale of algae production. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products.

.1 4. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock. R&D program (e. This of land for algae production (i. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity.3 163 Fertilizer 7. including pasture. lease. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis). and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain. such as topography and soil.796 9. Resources and Siting   81 . legal. social. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities). Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling.5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land. lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e.9 173 Total 3.g.. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical.6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90. For example.3 140 Cement Plants 86. affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing.5 3. Soils. and political factors. much of the land in the West is government owned.g.production. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure. One outcome economic. 9. oil feedstock.. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region.702.9 665 Other 3. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9. Exhibit (USDA. and purchase requirements.e.0 13 Industrial 141. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation. 2006 and 2009). 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development.6.276.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196.002 Ethanol Plants 41. Physical characteristics. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9. as will be discussed further in chapter 10.3 112 Electricity Generation 2.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB. algae production siting and CO2 sourcing. several characteristics need to be considered. grassland.

algae productivity crops... Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference. Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 . the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions. Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further. systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However. lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. 1985). It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses.60 g/m2 per day. such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. 2009). Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source. for algae productivity.6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. 1985 ) 82 9. than real. system structures. given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist. Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity. but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . (chapter 10).or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process. Resources and Siting   .20 g/m2 per day. reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions. the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used. as with any form of biomass.. can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al.

or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production. as noted earlier. synthetic organic compounds. this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel. wildlife areas. organic matter.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. and wastewater treatment facilities. On the other hand.g. Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. phosphorus. archaeological sites. Examples of this type of constraint include technologies.. nitrogen.. The roles of nutrients. biomass production facilities 1985). excess nutrients (e. The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production. 1985). offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. Beyond economics. and potassium). nutrients from treatment. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming.not be seen as suitable for algae production. in suitable climates. Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service. The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use. 9. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. nutrient recycling. for additional rounds of algae production. metals. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al. dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. phosphorus.. Resources and Siting   83 . monuments. treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. algae-based parks.

. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. Borde et al. The cost biomass production. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters.. cost savings.. food processing). to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9. Non- production. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e. 2008) and throughout the world. municipal and industrial sources) sludge. Resources and Siting   . 2009). rivers. of chemical addition ($0. Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells. and lakes). including nutrient removal. 2003. natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants...and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald....g. coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9. which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products.g. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al. 2002). harvesting is a 2002). high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e.. The (e. but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). 2009. As with other algae production systems. 2002. endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only). 2005). The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity. including wastewater treatment ponds. which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al.. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. lakes.7. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds. Finally. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study. As noted above. These highly productive systems use shallow reactors. and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al. Even with internal recycling. Kohn et al.g. The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass). 2007). and rivers).g. harming higher organisms. 2008) is high for biofuel production.17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion. Woertz et al. Thus. The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e. practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production)... organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present. recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems. at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers.. dissolved oxygen. The ability agricultural drainage. These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e. Aksu.7). Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours. Muñoz et al. confined animal facilities). followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight. Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment.g. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production. to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al. organic nutrients. autoflocculation) are far less costly. For example. 1998. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains. whereas pond (~1 cm).$0. the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation.g. the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water. which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. 1988.10 . might be prevented to a 84 9.. agricultural drainage. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). This nutrients (e.

Resources and Siting   85 . High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation.Exhibit 9.

It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9. calls. Lundquist et al. etc. any heavy metals autoflocculation. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government. needed to confirm this.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. Calif. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. dispose of agricultural drainage. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. mine drainage. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e.. 1996. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system.. very different business models and goals for algae selenium. Furthermore. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized.g. Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section. potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs. of several issues. 2002). market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing. 2004). technical and market challenges. The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development... Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products. co-products. However. integration opportunities and challenges.. Thus. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks.. micro-screening.g. Mulbry et al. and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities. but further investigation is techniques. al. Resources and Siting   . hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. constraints significant. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants. 2008. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes. CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions. etc. their ability to treat high. such as bioflocculation. 9. low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. Salton Sea. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). an overriding or other wastewater. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting. The topics wastewaters. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical.

concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants.15%) than natural gas plants (5 . Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site. etc. The regulatory implications transport. 2005). carbon sequestration. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective. beneficially used in algae production. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. fermentation-based industries. fired power plants. conditioning. it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities. Thus.. construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. 9. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources. cement manufacturing. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. During those times. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. fossil fuel require establishing a U.g.5. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%. consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. policy on carbon extraction/refining. while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture.). Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. depending on the type of plant and fuel used. the algae through photosynthesis. but. Resources and Siting   87 . Also. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. The growth.6%). Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production. beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater. This will industries (e. While algae biofuels can be produced. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active.S. introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9.The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. However. as sources. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted. The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown.

algal technology companies. ethanol plants. or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. Several areas for research. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. Also. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake. advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae. This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations. and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. CO2 is only at the national level.). distributors. The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. Resources and Siting   . credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities.30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9. Thus. etc. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities. • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009). universities. and other participants coordinated plants. Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology.. algal facility. K) supply. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae. solar resource. etc. CO2 emitting industry facilities.10 acres). P. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 . Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon. ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”. and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations. Although often referred to as a “free” resource. Therefore nutrients must be production arena. • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act. required.

flocculation harvesting. and other sites. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling. and refiners/distributors. SOx. etc. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx. and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction.▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development. Resources and Siting   89 . salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management. Develop university training programs. costs. storage. etc. proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. crop fertilization.

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T.S. CO. Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. 99. (2007). D. Cambridge University Press. Shannon. Cameron. C.. K.. 41(13).. and the environment.. and Maupin.. D. Linsey. Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States. CO2 Source Map of US . (2005). Feinberg. E. K. C. Technical summary.. Solar Energy Research Institute. CO. 22. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources. Bioresource Technology.CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www.. R. Hsieh.. and Oswald. D. C. Hightower.L. Turhollow.natcarb. Nature. I. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States.A. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds. McIntosh..S. J. 8137-8142. Folger. Barber. and Karpuk. Hutson. S. N. B.A.. L.. Rubin. (1965).. Solar Energy Research Institute. A. Cambridge University Press. O. S. H. Ahmadzadeh B. Lynn L. H. N... Sandia National Laboratories. W.. Pate. U.. Denver. Rolvering. S. D.R. Kenny. 4. (Atlas HA-199). (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington. 51(12). R.. and Einfeld.. and Maupin M.M. Meyer. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations. Department of Agriculture. (2008). B... and Meyer. Washington. United States Geological Survey..S. B. and research requirements. (USGS Circular 1268). Hill. Reynolds. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003). (2004). F.. and Kokya. 12). 52..W. McNeill. UK.G. (2005).usgs. Guieysse. Lundquist. M. (1986).. Lumia.L. Pizarro. DC. 231-240. Fresno. OK. and Hogg. 2005-2012.L. S. 452. Golden.L... W. Golden. Quinn. (1985).K.S. potential.E. In Metz. Robert D. W.L. R. and Midgley. Stokes. Wright. Kondrad. Loos. Graham... 4626-4632.. Oswald. Erbach (2005). R. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). E.... Kenny.K.F.000 parts per million dissolved solids. Thompson.232-3820). Golden. Linsey. J.E. M. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. California Department of Water Resources. (SAND 2007-1349C). Resources and Siting   91 . I. Oklahoma Geological Survey. M. Mulbry. CO. Maxwell. E. (1990). 261-265. Robin L. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005.J. J.T.. ORNL/TM-2005/66). Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. D. Norman.Farnsworth. Los Alamos. and Terry. Barber.. (2003). M. T. Microalgae and wastewater Available online at: http://pubs. (1995). (2009)...B. and de Coninck.S. (2004).. and Nelson. Produced water and associated Kohn. K. (SERI/SP-231-2550). Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. R. 211-235. K. and Peck. Water Science Technology. and Mattiasson. Lovelace.. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. The energy challenge: Commentary. Perlack. M.. W. Ecological Modelling. University of Kokya.. Borglin. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Microalgal Biotechnology (chap. de Connick. B. E. (DOE/GO-102005-2135. S. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. (Eds).. A. L. T. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy.J. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1. Anthony F. U. E. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status. Hutchison. NM. Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.. Grandbois. S. NATCARB (2008a).html Neehan.P. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. 9. CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production. Solar Energy Research Institute. R. Davidson. and Donald C. Hutson. (1988). Green. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project.G. CO. N. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources. Bryce J. Saline aquifer data http://www.S. D. (1982). K.natcarb. M.S. (2008).F. Hightower. Environmental Science & Technology. National Academy of Sciences. Department of Energy.J. Feth. Oroud.). and Kebede-Westhead. C.C.C. Huang. Feinberg. (2007). (USGS Circular 1334). Washington.H. J. (2008). (2006).A. (2007).Y. Muñoz. 285-286.. energy. M and Pierce.html NATCARB (2008b).C. (SERI/TP. California. The National Academies Press.K. (1978). Hydrological Processes.

92 9.htm U. 4).B. Journal of Environmental Engineering.E. C. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae. (2009). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2009). Weyer.H.Sheehan. D.S. M. (USGS Circular 1331). Available online at: http://water. McGraw-Hill. (2002). 1993. 246-250. Major uses of land in the United States. and Roessler.usgs. (2009). Land use. D.S. A. Solley... Geological Survey Circular 1200).. M. D. W. B. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Bush. R. and Arora. D. Woolhiser.W. and Perlman..ers. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (U.G. Argonne National Laboratory.. Hall.. (1998).M. Geological Survey.C. USDA Economic Research Service. Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective. 2002..J. and management: Major uses of land.R. Geological Survey. 68(3). R.htm U. Benemann. H. BioEnergy Research. (2006).S. Woertz. Mapping average daily pan evaporation.S. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.. Golden..S. Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters.J. (1998). (2009). (2002).gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/ U. 110(2). Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy. M. M. (Ed)..S. Lynch. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline. and Davies-Colley.. S. P. T. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. Dunahay. 1–10. and Wallace.. value. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. J. Applied Environmental Microbiology. & Willson. (2009. US Geological Survey. U.usda.. K. Resources and Siting   .1122-1131. A look back at the U.J. (1984). P. Darzins. Department of Agriculture (USDA).usgs. (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). and Nelson. R. (ANL/ ESD/09-1).A. 1115-1122.. Wu. Mintz. In Maidment. Sinton. W. Handbook of Hydrology (chap. A.). I..S..R. (1993).A.. 135(11). Feffer. Shuttleworth. USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www. Wang. T. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Pierce. CO. Lundquist. L. Y.

1). can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies. It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways.Harvesting Systems . and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches. Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. political. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10. tradeoffs among different technologies. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short. objective successful commercialization. and processes. and market conditions and constraints. Toward this end. environmental. significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10. coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity. ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise.. e. systems. infrastructural. economic. Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment.Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry.Dewatering .g.1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid .g. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap.10. e. processes.1 Objectives of investments. as illustrated in Exhibit 10.. to an overall regional and marketing. Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical.Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 .2. systems. comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain


Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy.Species . similar to the modeling approaches.Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation .Solar Insolation Environment . develop.Characteristics . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 .3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain. Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives.7. Maintenance. and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. geology. be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant. It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling. unit operation.Equipment . Operations. identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled. Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development. Exhibit 10. Monitoring.Performance .Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use .Water Water Capture .Capital Co-Gen . that should tend to focus on a technology or process. etc. or enterprise level rather than broader efforts. tilt.Autotrophic . It is also expected available and emerging information and data.Materials Energy Feedbacks .Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction.6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on. individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes. Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels.Land (cost.GMOs Biology . One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10.5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10. as exemplified by Exhibit 10. Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt. location. different levels within the broad systems scope presented.Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient .CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation. their alternatives.Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion .Labor . Demand & Price for Co-Products vs. Incentives & Barriers Siting .Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids .Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation . and utilize a range of and industry development effort. and therefore.Heterotrophic . Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary. Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Policy & Regulation. soil) Broader .Open systems . scales.

... and interface approaches.ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics. platform).. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies. GIS Analysis. and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state. and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired. and processes and performance parameters is another definitions.Technical. specific technologies. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential. • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10.. Etc.Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  ..Integration with existing infrastructure . The size of the “matrix” engineering design. or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination. various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e. across an emerging approach. resource use. transport. constraints & impacts . with time delays. etc.g. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry.Engineering & construction estimates from industry .. Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging. 98 10. processes and integrated systems for commercialization. development. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis).. production availability. how better inform technical. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing. Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards. The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility. and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond. and national level. economic.) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. Beyond this. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations .Required build-up of new infrastructure.6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling.. economic. regional. Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. enviromental. with learning curves & improvement projections . closed photobioreactors. and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable.. • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters.

2 Land Cultivation 3. Exhibit 10.1. Fatty Acids M.0 Extraction Conservation 6.1 Microalgae Conservation F. and national labs.7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry.1. etc. Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3. EPA. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 . Carbohydrates O.4 BY PASS A. Ethanol 1. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop.3 Chemical G. Feed 1.2 Cyanobacteria R.1 Chemical C.4 Off-shore systems 3.1 Fuel 5. Materials 2. Dried Algal 1. Exhibit 10. universities.Distribution . moving in this direction (Getman. Biodiesel 5. Lipids H. 10.End Use Exhibit 10. biofuel production. Gasoline-like 6.) and non-technical issues. Aviation 6.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality. Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1. 5.1.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment.2 Fuel .3 Centrifuging biomass 3. 2009).2 Open system 2.3 Biochemical E. 4.0 Harvesting L.1 Flocculation 2. assessment. and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1.1 Closed system 1.1.2 Thermochemical & Separation D. Proteins P.2 Co-products 1.4 BY PASS 6.Transport fish excrement.5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D.0 Drying .3 Macroalgae R. and other technical Defense.5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp. Fertilizer Inputs 1.0 J.3 CO2 2.2 Filtering 8.g. Hydrogen K.1 Solar . etc.0 1.Field . Chemicals 2. Triglycerides N.Storage 4.1. processes. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development. USDA.1. Other Q. Biogas / Methane Metabolites I.1 Algae species 3. processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10.3 Water 3.) 4.5 Biological Assist 2.5 Light or Alt. Green diesel 6.7 is a revised adaptation systems.. cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets.2 Electromagnetic 5.

These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. Sub-level accurate analyses.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. and environmental impacts. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. wind electrolysis. The many process permutations. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis. availability of suitable land. hydrodynamic. assumptions in individual processes to the overall system. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. • Fuel processing. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production. especially where Both Exhibit 10. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. and comparing trade.5 and Exhibit 10. thus Fuel Initiative.8. regional. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed. etc. Inputs to each will likely emerge. availability. K) supplies. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step.) uncertainties. etc. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. and organic molecule reforming. transport. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales. P. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. solar insolation.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. (N. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. nuclear energy. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. etc. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown. among others. unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use.) interdependencies and feedbacks. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. evaluate costs. risk. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development.8. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. The impact that availability and cost biological. Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions. • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. storage infrastructure technical performance. Exhibit 10. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM. temperature. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE.of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. • CO2 resources (point source emitters.

followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. supply chain. This information. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research.g. the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. and transport of water. is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment. K. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport.. can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example.. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data. Exhibit 10. same would apply to co-products and their potential markets. etc. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. storage. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance. • POLYSYS At the downstream end. including example calculations presented later in this chapter.g. storage.g. sourcing. etc. with the appropriate models. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets. Some examples are: development. Utilities..) forcing functions and boundary transport. resource management. Land.g. e. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain. storage.. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling.. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth. this will include the logistics different site conditions.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. Equipment. Structures. and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun. e.9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. e. the economics can be expected to improve. solar insolation.. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing. Biomass e. The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. • Equipment. tools. business deployment. P. in press). ambient temperature.g. with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e. nutrient other co-products. Currently. and biorefining into fuels and (e. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2. Hexane microfiltration e. and energy).g. and policy the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production. nutrients. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N.. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure. Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo.g. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 .

Under large power. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. Exhibit 10.S. heterotrophic.) will also affect both conditions. • Availability. Certain elements. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. and fertilizer. cost. on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. can potentially help fill this need. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis. and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. availability.. Si. but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply. and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies. climate. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed. coastal. and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation. aspects of large scale agriculture. and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular. seasonal. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun. in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions. but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. availability. O2…) to model growth rates. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . etc. and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. 2009). though important for overall TE analysis. precipitation. and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4.9. vary over the U.350 . the productivity and reliability of production. 50% oil content. the variations. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation.000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured. water. as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover.5. on the other hand. and basis. P. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are.) (Weyer et al. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38. temperature. etc. evaporative loss. photosynthetic efficiency. and affordable accessibility of such water sources. wind.700 gal/ac-yr. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. and offshore sites. The daily. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water. based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. productivity.

temperature control. and petroleum).. 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility. Malcolm et al. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . risks. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. term. other) production. (Huang. 2009). algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. carbohydrates. and operating expense. In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al. it may not much. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins. some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10. The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources. If it is agriculture (Huang.g. K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. infrastructure facilities for offshore. but this the cost of operations.. P.. carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu. 2009). nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al. adding to the cost. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. transporting. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. lipids. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. the right of access and use. N. such as are present in some forms of flue gas. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. though it is not yet energy crops. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics.. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. availability. This As with cellulosic ethanol.e. and perhaps also for offshore sites. if not more. derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass. on the industrial build-up. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. and forest industries. and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). availability. The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture. 2008). Conversely. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. scale. The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. 2005). 9. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up. materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites.. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2.. and inland • The supply. 2009. Finally. 1998. the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. coastal. and co-products like animal feed. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution. Mehta and Gaur. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent. the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. It is reasonably (i. dependent on the geographical location.

. 2001 and 2002). and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10.12 (ISO. In resource capture and reuse. Department of Energy (e. Delucchi. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . • Input resources.g. These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. EPA. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009. There are indications. would be subject to narrow operating margins.11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL.In summary. 1997. peer-reviewed literature (e.S. from manufacture. combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. white papers / industry analyses. 2006. 1996). Exhibit 10. output flows. it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. Bernard.g. process. 1997). While most algal biofuels production. potential. modeling.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). 2009. nutrients. energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts. data base resources. economic. environmental. or service. 1996. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel. to final disposal. they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks. 2009). that a and including algae (Kadam. 1987). waste stream 2002 and 2004). EPA. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. and numerous others (EPA. 1993). constraints and impacts 2009). EPA. ISO. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated. use. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10. LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. operating costs.6 Preliminary System (EPA. Benemann and and processes. however. the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). and maintenance. UNEP. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e. resource use. and water. LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water.g. eliciting discussion. and other resources. 2004) up systems. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. costs. While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties. algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions. delays. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. The process employs a and scenario studies. These 1993. 1997.. To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. energy. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. and co-product credits.. A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping.

• Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10. expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 .can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially.g. and resource constraints. data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. and has • Employing modular modeling. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10.The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress. The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis. The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. Interactive graphical user interfaces. e.

operation. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. can facilitate Roadmap. monitoring. units. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10.12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization. significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. etc. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process. have been identified along various steps in the value chain. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . the development. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis.

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. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies. pre-revenue. Partnerships based participants. thereby facilitating growth and development infancy. however. 2002). and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation. infrastructure projects. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale.. algal biofuels industry.. and industry.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. Link could. academia.. in turn. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology. many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories.. The type of this industry. The the algal biofuels value chain.A 11. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11. including characteristics Exhibit 11. 2001. including specific studies on the impacts firms. investment.. 11.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. Public-Private Partnerships   109 . as well as reduces the risk of private 2001. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development.11. national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. Indeed. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels. Brown et al. given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. collaboration between private entities (e. given the current state of of a sustainable. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market.g. 2006). academia can be either public or private. in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge.g. universities.S. 2002. Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al. More specifically. Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). industry) and public entities (e. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. the U.1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation. Gallagher et al. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s. realizing benefits in both categories. but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten.

or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. Through these events.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. and private investors) into a single competition.4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. national. and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors. they are often formed to serve no other purpose. However. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. 2008).3 Forums for Public. new partnership. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. be proportional to the value of the contribution. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before.C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops. labor). Through their structure. technology scale-up and demonstration. into a working system to solve a problem. • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration.. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project. which could allow In recent years. By maintaining an active directory. because some awards are based on having solved the problem.B. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. as common interest.players (e. industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical. consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau. of solicitations are system-oriented. These events are often 11. conferences. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). and may compete poorly in this type of award. Public-Private Partnerships   . However. organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. global problems. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level. including the development of biofuels. scientists and engineers can learn of new research. 110 11. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues. as well as a platform to share research.g. However. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. non-profit foundations. Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge. Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. environment.

) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures. C http://www. government solicitations. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry. overcoming the lab-field and information technology. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon.mitcep. it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. economic. and the most difficult to implement. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership. consortia. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations specialists. conversion process.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. Also. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. Collaborative partnerships. algal growth and harvesting. etc. aviation. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. real estate developers. particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations. effective way to address technological. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition. several in algal biofuels. events. distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain. By reducing scaling risks. facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. and academia. dewatering pathway. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal operations. Therefore. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www. etc. 11.xprize.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. 2009). or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry.). public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel. technologies developed in the • Industry 11. construction personnel. algal oil extraction. requirements. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems.g. • Technology development in algal biology. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness. lawyers.. Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. to road-test their technologies. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. and fuel conversion. this characteristics. nanotechnology.. Academia will competitions. technology development.2. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products.g. Public-Private Partnerships   111 . This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors.

it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. discuss and debate the merits of each. Exhibit 11. • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully. high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11. this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners.models presented. Public-Private Partnerships   . However. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes.

non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. facilities business. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. Public-Private Partnerships   113 . and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical. standardization operational. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. companies 11. including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. royalty. TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. • Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners.

Endless frontiers. J. and Scott.. Holdren. (2001)..S. P. K. and Koomey J. Paton.. Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass. Stiglitz.A. A. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 193-237. (2006). Willem. A.. limited resources. Gallagher. Research Policy. Link.B.A.P. (2002). Council on Competitiveness. P.A. The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research.S. and Wallsten.N. (2001). 31. 325(5941).T. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. Scenarios for a clean energy future. and Siegel. Research Policy. 114 11. (2002). 31. M. 31(1). 1179-1196.S. (2009). (ed). Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Levine. Public-Private Partnerships   . Brown.D. Brown. (1996). D.E. Short.References Audretsch. (2000). 29(14). In Rosenau. Link. 1459-1466....V.G. Public-private policy partnerships. 29(14).. J. S. D.N. Energy Policy. 707-708. Energy Policy. R&D Policy for Competitiveness. M.D.. D. W. Energy-technology innovation. and Sagar. M. Washington: U.J. 145-158. A. The MIT Press. 1197-1207. J. Science.

S. Inc.S. Lauder School of Government. Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   . Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U.S. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS. Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U.Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U.

Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U.C.S.Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K. Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U.S. Inc.S. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS.S. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska .William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 . Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U.

Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U.S. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U.S.S.S. Department of Energy.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   .S. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U.S.

Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U.Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic. Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp.S. Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J. Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 . Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation. LLC J.C.

S. N. Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain . Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P.V. Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U.Shell Global Solutions Inc. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   .John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink.S.

Department of Energy. Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate. Department of Energy.Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U. LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 .S. LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical.S. Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U.

V. Inc.Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   .Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce. Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources.S. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U. Inc. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. Department of Energy. Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska . Department of Energy. N.S. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company.

Appendices   122 . Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. Inc. Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS. Molly Hames U. Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF. Inc.S. LLC.S.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U.

Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U.S. LLC. Department of Energy.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U. Inc. Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate.S. Department of Energy.S. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U. Biomass Program 123 Appendices   . Department of Energy.

Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Inc.Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. Dr. Rittmann Arizona State University G. Whitton. Biotechnology Institute David L. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor). Bruce E. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Gale PetroAlgae. Biodesign Institute. Inc. Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 . Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Dr. Algal Farms Inc. LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr.


DOE/EE-0332 .

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