BIOMASS PROGRAM

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340
john.ferrell@ee.doe.gov valerie.sarisky-reed@ee.doe.gov

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2
1

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories
1

4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

. the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No. As such. this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). Further.This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy. This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II. 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy.2 of the Bulletin.

Department of Energy Preface  i . engineers. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. and the stability of our global climate. industry representatives. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers. comments gathered during a public comment period. our economic wellbeing. development.Preface Welcome to the U.S. Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. DOE is investing in a variety of research. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. and other stakeholders. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. private companies. research managers. environmentally sound biofuels. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. other federal agencies. reliable energy. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. engineers.S. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. Achieving cost-competitive. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop. Meanwhile. and supporting scientific literature. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. Therefore. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. Biomass Program U. DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager.

marine. cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). These include: the goal. held December 9-10.S. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors. While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. The term algae can refer to microalgae. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). development. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). Under certain conditions. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. a scalable. by 2022.S. 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. was convened fuels. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U. meet the new RFS feedstock resources. provide environmental benefits. ii Executive Summary  . brackish. the end of the program. Of these candidates. These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates. Photo courtesy of the our national security. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world. To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus. announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. and advanced biofuels. and create economic and programs. fungible Workshop. produced. illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. engineers.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. 2009. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil. weight).S. saline. and Renewal Act. 2008. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists. In addition fuel sold in the U.

By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps. Executive Summary  iii . this document will serve to commercial scale. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. supporting scientific literature. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. industry representatives.research managers. policymakers. The Roadmap In summary. and comments received during a public comment period. federal agencies. and deployment efforts. research. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable. The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes. development. lawyers. and regulators from across the country to scale. guide researchers and engineers. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. and sustainable algal-based fuels.

and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater. scalability. to generate new biomass). Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. Understanding.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. marine. and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae. macroalgae (seaweed). and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products. Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. brackish waters. managing. Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications. Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . such as sugars.

Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions. animal/fish feeds). biodiesel and jet fuel). and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering. Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels.. and thermochemical processes. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction. and proteins. biochemical. optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products. fertilizers. and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . Affordable. animal feed. industrial enzymes.g. While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e. proteins can be used for co-products (e.g. issues. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites. bioplastics. though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges. CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids). The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. While many analytical techniques exist.. Abundant. Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass.g.. gasoline. carbohydrates.

vi Executive Summary  .

...........................................................................................3 1........................7 2....................................................................................................30 3.........................................................................3 Algal Biotechnology................................... 16 The Genetic Toolbox................5 Regulations and Standards.... Screening and Selection .......................................... Overview...................................................................... 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy.......................................................................29 3....................................................................................................................................................3 Research from 1996 to Present........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae .................................................................................................................................................................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications...................................................................................................................................................................1 Strain Isolation.........................................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges...........................................................................8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers....................................................................................7 Public-Private Partnerships.......................................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates.............................................................................. 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures ...................... 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics........................................................................................................................................................... 15 2.......... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria....................................................................................................11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23 3...1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges...... 12 Biohydrogen .............. 29 Macroalgae.............. 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation.................................................................... Algal Cultivation................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Scale-Up Challenges......... 22 References............................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today....................................2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry..........................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study.................................................... Algal Biology......................10 2..............................................................................................5 1........................................................................7 References..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1.....................................................1 About the Roadmap......................................................................................................................................................................1 Cultivation Pathways.............................3 Early Work to 1996.......................................................................................................................................... 31 Contents  vii ..........8 2.........................................................................................................................................................2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development....................... 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization........ ................... Contents 1...................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................. 32 Water Management............................................................................................. 39 4................................ Sustainability................ 51 Liquefaction............................ 49 Hydrogen................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................e..42 5............................................................................................. Extraction of Products from Algae ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 42 Mechanical Disruption (i........................................................................................................... 45 Heterotrophic Production..................... 38 4................50 Gasification.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Pyrolysis.............................. and Recycling.........................................................................................................50 6........................37 Drying....... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies ............. 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction............................................................. 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction...................................................................................................................................................48 6...........................3 Systems Engineering ............................................................................................40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance ............................................................................................................................ 53 Chemical Transesterification. 37 4............................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures...44 Subcritical Water Extraction.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 5..................................................................... and Management.................................... System Productivity................................................. Conservation.................. 39 References......................................................................................37 Harvesting...........................................................................1 Approaches for Microalgae........... 38 Preprocessing.... 53 6................................................................. 49 Alkanes...............................................................................46 References........... 45 5......................... 38 Harvesting...............................................................................................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction.........2 Processing of Whole Algae........................................................................44 Selective Extraction.....................................................................................46 6.............................................................................................................2 Approaches for Macroalgae .... 54 viii Contents  ....................................................................2 Challenges...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae.....................................................................48 Alcohols.............. 33 References.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Conversion of Algal Extracts......................................1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae................. 52 Supercritical Processing............................................................................................................................................................................. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering.......... 32 Nutrient Sources...................... ...................................................................................................................................... Cell Rupture)......................................... 35 4..................

.....................................................................1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches.......... 67 8......................4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities ......................................75 Climate .4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction...........................................................................................................80 Land............................................. 73 9.............................................................................................. 88 Directions for Research and Development....... 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products............... Resources and Siting ...............................................................................................69 8..................................................................................................................................... 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products............................................................75 Water................................................................................................................... 55 Catalytic Cracking.......... ........... 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel............................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria.................................................................................................... 88 References.............................................. 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater .................................................................................... 61 7..............................................................................................................................................................74 9........................................................2 Resources Overview................................................................................ 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach...................................... 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants................................................................................................................................................... 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources .......................................................................................................................................................... 86 9......77 Carbon Dioxide.....................3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products................................................................................................................................................................... Gasoline..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach...........................................................................................90 Contents  ix .....71 References....................................................2 Utilization........................................................................................................................................................................ 61 7........................................... 58 7......................................................................... Co-products ....................................................................57 References................... Distribution and Utilization........................... 81 9...............................1 Distribution............................... 69 8.................................................................... Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion......................................................................................................................................................2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae..................................................................................... and Jet Fuel ................................................................................................................................. 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources................................................................72 9....................................64 References................................................................64 7........................................74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach.........................................................................................5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries........................................................ 56 6................... ................. 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications.............................................................................................

..114 Appendices ........................................................................................................102 Life Cycle Analysis................. 97 10..... Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis..........3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships..............99 Overview.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships.....................................6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling ................................................................................................... 109 11...........................2 TEA Scope and Methods...................................................................................................................................................................... 93 10...............................................................122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap............................... 104 10...........................................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)...............................................................99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments......................................................110 11.. 111 References................... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants...... 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs................................................................................................................ 104 10........................................4 Systems Analysis............................................................................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships.............................10....................................................................................................... 105 11.....................................................................................................................5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties..................................7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort .......................93 10.................................................... 104 10...................124 x Contents  ..........................................................1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis .....................................................................115 Appendix 2: Contributors............................................................................... 109 11.................... Public-Private Partnerships ......................................................................94 10....................................................................... 111 11...........................................................................................................................................5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development.................110 11............4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry.......................................................

industry. commercial. Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels. provides environmental benefits. academia. Despite their potential. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol. intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry. The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific.S. with national laboratories. the national laboratories. 60% of 2008. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts.S.orau. of which only 15 economic. and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. academia. viewpoints. held December 9-10. the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. 1. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. energy efficiency. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. energy security. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. scalable. Furthermore. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities. reduces our dependence Roadmap. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum. A major objective of the reserves. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop. development. To accomplish its goals.gov/algae2008pro/. the Roadmap describes fuels. government and new energy technology research and development. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. In 2007. of a viable. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research.1).1. and non-governmental organizations. bioproducts and biopower. Overview  1 . The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. In doing so. and creates be found at http://www. 1. as well as made provisions that Workshop. and sustainable algal-based biofuels.S. agencies. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. the production of economically viable biofuels. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. at the University of Maryland-College Park. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision. and industry. Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. economic opportunities across the nation. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of 2007. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable.

35 13.25 2017 5. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels.25 a 7. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.5 1.0 a 5.2 2013 1.0 24. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates.0 30.0 2020 10. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0. Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al. but no less than 1.6 11.0 2021 13. and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1.5 20. 2009).0 2022 16.25 22.0 33.0 a 2. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass..0 26. while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study.5 a 13. As required by EISA.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.2). However.15 2015 3.5 0.1 0.75 18.0 2019 8.0 billion gallons.95 12..0 36. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement.5 a 18.5 a 15.1 2010 0. oleaginous Exhibit 1.0 a 11. Overview  .0 15. 2005).75 16.0 a 21. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking. the study did not explore the potential of algae.95 2012 0. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha.0 2.95 2011 0.5 2016 4.80 1.25 0. 2 1. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans.0 2018 7.5 a 9.75 a 3.65 0.55 2014 1. For example.0 28.

Overview  3 . a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density. The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. a scalable. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. In 1998. however. but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s. 1998).2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. such saline water. (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. northwestern. this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. to the 300 most promising strains. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types.000-6. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters. Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity. 1. Some of the highlights are described briefly below.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture.. commercially viable system has in salinity. and also for their ability not yet emerged. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon. The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. produced water. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy.S. 1. a comprehensive overview Algae 1. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering. could lead to this phenomenon. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. surges through the decade. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. • Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. freshwater supplies. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. During the early years. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. pH. with projected costs for fossil fuels. and temperature. process development. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. gained serious attention only during from stationary sources.000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al. dates back to the 1940s.

S. issues associated with such methods. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies. further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. In this species. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. 1985). Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production. productivity improvements.After promising microalgae were identified. Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . but lower oil producing. but Among various techniques. shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. A Test Facility in Roswell.. The systems were characterized (Roessler. suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U. growth was conducted in California.000 m2 outdoor. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald. However. Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. or engine testing was carried out. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. depth research. Different cost process step that is highly energy. which Microbial Products. Overview  . 1998). Inc. Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate. such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. 1998). estimated costs for unextracted 1998). scale-up. Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress. Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing.. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control.g. biomass was demonstrated. an oleaginous diatom. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields.. the Roswell area. The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase). costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements. 1996).. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation.. however. and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues. Sheehan et al. production. and CO2 resources (power plants). The 4 1. and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al. some process options (e. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term. petroleum consumption. Cyclotella cryptica. characterization. For example. strains from the wild. 50 g/m2/day. cryptica were characterized (Roessler. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid. and the efficiency of CO2 1995). but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale. 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. 2007). 1990).. In addition. This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. 1990).and capital-intensive. but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al. conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler. the commercially viable strains for oil production.or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition.. smaller ponds for inocula production. primarily in C. primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti. 1999. 1989). chrysolaminarin saline water. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology. Hawaii. 1988). The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley. ACCase activity was found to increase deep).. Under inducing conditions.. (Weissman et al. cost. Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. purification. New Mexico. distance from CO2 point sources. Studies focused on suitable land.

a number of U. funding levels are beginning to increase. affordable. needed to support commercialization activities. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. Office of Fossil Energy. policymakers. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges. federal agencies.gov/publications. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E). Additionally. Overview  5 . suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized. Recent initiatives. regulations and standards. Office of Science. Also from 1968-1990. the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes. and public-private partnerships. particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson.nrel. significantly outpacing government funding. A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation. 1998). feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels. macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1.S. Species Program. Courtesey of CCMP. Further. there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. However. cyanobacteria. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs.. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel gas. federal funding for algal research has come scale. that include investigating microalgae. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally.barrel (Sheehan et al. Cyclotella cells. 1. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. the Department of Defense. Overall. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative. In particular. 1987). the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www. a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. and the Department of Agriculture. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant.

and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency. supercritical fluid.. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land. centrifugation. such as operational temperature. biofuel. flocculation. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e. water & nutrient reuse. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass. industrial enzymes..g.g. biochemical conversion. and coastal/off-shore systems.g. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land. energy.e. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses. phototrophic.. subcritical water. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e. bioplastics. pressure. biogas. carrying capacity. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. stability. and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance. direct fuel production. 6 1.g.g. intermediates. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. and materials from algal remnants (e.. side reactions. water. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale. Overview  . energy. fertilizers.g.. sonication. dissolved air floatation. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i. solvent systems. climate. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination. filtration. selective extraction. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e. closed. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e.. water.. heterotrophic. energy balance. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates. open. hybrid. weather impacts. activity. microwave. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry. sedimentation. animal/fish feeds.

Chisti. and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. 1995. with shape-selective zeolites. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Perlack. J. T. with algal biofuels commercialization. Biotechnol Bioeng. R. R. 1988. Solar Energy Research.G. Pursoff. Journal of Phycology. 11. TN... 31(6).R. regulation.. 91. 25(3). However. & Nagle.G. L. Microbiol. Being a nascent industry. Meier. Also. 1990. 2009]. ORNL/TM-2006/66. N. Roessler. 1. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. & Oswald. 100–112. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System. NTIS# H CP/ T. & Roessler.. Biomass.. 21(3). P. et al.B.J. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. 1605(UC-61). consumption standards. Algal from multiple entities. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels.. Journal of Biological Chemistry.G. W. Available at: [Accessed November 3. Jarvis. Jarvis. 294–306. P. & Ohlrogge. J.G.L. et al. Overview  7 . 2008. E. it is recognized economic. J.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. W. 24. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. T. 1978.J.e.. Adv. However. Roessler. Rodolfi.. RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards.. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply... E. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica .. Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline. Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica. Dunahay. Phycol. C.G. 1004–1011. Y. & Roessler. Biological transformation of solar energy. Milne. R. & Golueke. 102(1).. there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production. and policy. Oswald. 223–242. 219-232. 1955.US Patent 5928932 Abstract. Microalgae for oil: strain selection.. References Benemann. 1993. 2007. Oak Ridge. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights. Final Report to the US Energy Department. 394–400.. 179–183.D. 1999.E.J. P. Evans. 1960.A. P. 2005. Biodiesel from microalgae. P.. supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i. Biotechnology Advances. Appl.

they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. Furthermore. oxygen levels. whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro. and strain robustness. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. salinity. brackish. Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology. the development and hyper-saline environments. The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. which includes fresh. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale. CO2 levels). large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts.1 Strain Isolation. Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. cultivation and strain development. lipids. maps. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. In all cases. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. 1984). The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats. For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. within an aqueous habitat. 2004).. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. (seaweeds). and generation. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. Traditionally.e. pH. lakes. Algal Biology  . and soil (Round. The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. questions medium. see Anderson.or eukaryotic. hypersaline. oceans. on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. streams. locations to maximize genetic diversity. ponds.2. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae). 2. Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. versatility possible. marine require significant experimental effort. products. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. rivers. this is not always the case. Due to their diverse characteristics.. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements. Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered. 2005). metabolite production. high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. 2005). 8 2. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. other gene markers. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats. algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life.

de la Jara et al. However. it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. Growth conditions (media. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. existing culture collections. Not only document data on strains. pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics. At present. The function of a culture collection often 6. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed. community stability. Transcriptomics. taxonomy. basic research resources. Strain administration (number in collection. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. pathogenicity. which data. Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency. Omics data (Genomics. biochemical. Previous robustness of particular existing strains. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology. 1991. et al. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. to determine a strain’s robustness. Environment and strain history (specific habitat.. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. molecular. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. other countries. 1959). 1998). The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. Strain name (species.. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. subspecies name. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research. Algal Biology  9 . metabolites. Therefore. toxicity) Currently. such as growth rate and metabolite properties. Proteomics. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described. Mutants biology. and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. valuable strains. They may also 7.500 strains. no central database exists that provides global 9. but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae. protect genetic material. Strain properties: Cytological. Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species. Biological interaction (symbiosis. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). ) (Bligh and Dyer. such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. and provide 3. and predators present in a given environment. for example. cultures (Sheehan et al. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2.For mass culture of a given algal strain. Solvent extraction. Maine). and phylogeny either by themselves 8. temperature. with more than 2.000 strains. is the most nutrient requirements. native al. 2003). They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5.. algal strains. Information could include: 1. or in connection with outside collaborators.. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor. Texas). 2007. germination conditions cryopreservation. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth. some may have lost original phenotypes. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10.

. intermediate. 2006). lipids. Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. food low. the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high. in a practical sense. if the desired product is volatile. Algal Biology  . Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. However. Finally. and high cell densities can be achieved. However. and species be necessary to isolate it. The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system. such as.. If the carbon source is utilized by the cell. transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al. Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. Also to be considered is whether growth. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors. this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. 2006). it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be.volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites). so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily.. However.g. to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors. or co-product to be produced. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. In some species. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. systems could be studied. or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii). or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. a large number of model and possible strain development for production. In such a strain. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. supplements. For example. For example. carbohydrates. source. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. 1998). there are two types of algal model harvesting step. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. However. 2002). Even that other strains will be chosen for production. an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan.Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. production of biofuels. of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism. Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains.

2007). In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. plants (Hu et al. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i. accumulate mostly carbohydrates. 1999). Foyer et al. accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). 2004. Theoretical productivity is an important concept. as 2008). because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009. It is. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. Libourel and Shachar-Hill. however. In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures. therefore. Nelson and Yocum. therefore. Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2. 2002). pathway analysis. starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established. It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. 2002).1). carbohydrates. A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted.. in their productivity. nutrient starvation.. 1994... 1994. 2007 and 2008) Further.. and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. 2006.2.. Though theoretical However. More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production. 1991). Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically. Schwender et al. biomass 2007. preventing it from et al. 2002). 2008). 2005. and shares the Eberhard et al. indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi. and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti. 1994. 2003). 2008. that is the desired fuel precursor. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al. 2009.2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy.. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids. for biofuel production. under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes. a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization.. possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3). It is. proteins. Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis. 2003. Mcdermid and Stuercke.. understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al. Sweetlove production. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al. the percent of biomass and Fernie.. Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al. are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. 2003). exposed to high light. there remains be inter-convertible.. Algal Biology  11 .” Even with this photoprotection. the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. and potentially. which can lead to oxidative damage. affecting growth rate. 2005). Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds. Allen et al. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. storage compound in plants and algae.. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke.. Yang et al. and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou. knowledge of metabolic pathways. cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne. Lipids and carbohydrates.e. and Niyogi. some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier. 1994. 2007). along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. studies in higher plants showed that when 2. 2008). algal photosystems have built-in More recently. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects... algae.

plants and yeast based. feedstock potential. It could. for specific acyl CoA molecules. Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels... it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. TAG is formed by food reserves. some red algae and dinoflagellates. including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2. mannitol.1). for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. Some algae. There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. 2000). Some red In microalgae. featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. greatly. (Roessler. However. and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae. 1992). and thus may play an for example. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis. as example many brown algae and diatoms. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. Yoo et al. the nature of the interaction is unknown. but like those from plants... Algal Biology  . 1987). or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors. which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. are 3-phosphate. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. an enzyme wall. recently been demonstrated in bacteria. Vigeolas et al. and extraction processes. these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG).. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes. degradation. the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). 1988). cell walls entirely. resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse. while some algae lack synthesis. must typically 2006. 2008. 12 2. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel. 2006). plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. naturally or under stress conditions. An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls. Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. 2008). Other algae. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae. or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. carbohydrates. though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al. growing cultures.. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like. 2004). These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. As mentioned above. 2002).. The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited. Athenstaedt and Daum. Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan. Other abundant polysaccharides. In the final step of TAG synthesis. therefore. Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. 1971.

pathways. 2005).. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 .. enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. and other 2. If the or culture conditions. Such pathways property of individual species or strains.1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate. PA and be true. Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. 2000. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase. it will be difficult galactolipids.. laboratory (Hu et al. As an example. Stahl et al. the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. Thus. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP. ACP: acyl carrier protein. Similarly. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. if any. as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al. If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae. 1998). the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Algal Biology  13 . 2004).. 2008. DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes. Sheehan et al. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG. it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. Moreover..C18 CoA Figure 2. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase.

It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy.. Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. their apparently widespread envelopes. Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. Nevertheless. As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier. sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. excess membrane lipids. 1998). This and lipid fate (Benning. some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. Some acids.. metabolism in algae. Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products. The study the plastid where they are assimilated. including vitamins. and other macromolecules.. and other components into form of TAG. as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. In oil-producing microorganisms. and et al. Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. and spatial.. the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies. or with other organelles such as may be. with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species. Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. lutein. phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs. cell division. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al. 1993. In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids.lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel. in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. the exact relationship between oxidative stress. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). 1998. 2002). 2008). the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. therefore.. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. the structure and function of lipid However. the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). starvation). Under high light stress.and glyco. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear. with acyl earlier). Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. as rapid lipid energy storage compound. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009). β-carotene. Huang. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy. Zhekisheva et al. which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes. 1992). Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. proteins. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes. 2008). thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. 2001). stress conditions on lipid production in algae.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho.g. Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds. Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. 14 2. The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae. Algal Biology  . This relationship may be both metabolic. a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. It has as acyl donors. with exceptions. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions.

2) (Melis et al. (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. In all pathways. As a substrate. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis. would enzymes).0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0.. Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor.4 PC Chl fixation P700 0.. and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al. There are two major types of hydrogenases.8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2.. those and carbohydrates. Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs. 1984). for example..2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. hydrogenases. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2. 2008). ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme. and a third. and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I).2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. Three et al. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al.. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1. or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis. driven H2-photoproduction pathways. Based on such information. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product.Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007).8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0. One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive.→ O2 + 2H2. and proteomic studies. in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e. and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP. (Drawing courtesy of Prof. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production. 2003).2 P700* A0 A1 -0. fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang. Algal Biology  15 . the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production). studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving).4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0. Colorado School of Mines ) 2. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin. 2000. light. compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant. Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. Posewitz. 2009). M. 2005).

to delete or disrupt genes. fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. However.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). Prince and Kheshgi. modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2. Similarly economic viability. human health... (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. fungi and higher plants. 16 2. questions to consider in the context of mass production. In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches. and CO2 (van der Oost et al.. 2005). From here. Algal Biology  . hexose) (Turner et al. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night. for commonly used bacteria. 1989). A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. In all cases. and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals. hydrogen evolution pathways. al. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein.3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. and to acetate.. the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms. While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms. Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. Using hydrogenase as the catalyst. 2009). 1998). Thus. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis. Collectively. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. For all of these with ethanol. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. In cyanobacteria.. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4. 1987). they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date. formate. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. 2008). the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. 2002. biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate. This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day. examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. more knowledge cannot be overlooked. and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells.

Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al.. large-scale algal production. Dunahay et al.g. Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. Debuchy et al. 1995). Typically. dinoflagellates (Amphidinium.g. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al.. changes in fluorescence properties.. Arthrospira)..As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use. first concern is the cost of the antibiotic. or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. in the presence of an antibiotic).. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. However. 2002). Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype. important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis. An algal strains. or markers. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus. including resistance to neomycin. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. 1985. Chlorella. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. 1989. For example. however.. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira). there marker (Hasnain et al. large-scale production has two major drawbacks. kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. The green algae (Chlamydomonas. Navicula. element called a plasmid. 1985. diatoms (Cyclotella. zeocin (Apt et al. generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e.. other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale. or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach. The second Volvox). use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. This the DNA is present. 1989). Dunaliella. 1999). Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes. which could exacerbate current problems developed. to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al.... spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes. a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome.. and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al. Nostoc. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. 1994). This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. 2006). simplified identification of the mutated gene. 1987) can be screening criteria. Anabaena. occurring mutations. this resistance is a powerful tool for research. ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented. 2006). Phaeodactylum. However. which necessitates a large amount of screening.. 1995). Dunahay et al. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes.. also been successful (Del Pozo et al. 2. 1993. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells. Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al. Targeted 1996. 1999). reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al. 1995). but markers based on resistance assayed. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest.. Algal Biology  17 . 1994). 2005). antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae.. the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches.. For the latter. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically. Hallmann and Rappel. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell... are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al.

In a practical but less so in microalgae. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama. transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. (Deng and Capecchi. RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. 2009). vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i. For most of these approaches. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al. 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson.e. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi.. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense. Algal Biology  ..... 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. 1995). 1996). If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al. and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. inducible and repressible promoters that 1993).. or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al.. Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. Dunahay. small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements. ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. 1992).. used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al. a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. 18 2. because it is induced could be applied. In addition.. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Porphyra). electroporation. 1990). 2004). 1998). high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications. Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium. Algal strains often contain expression. crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome. be desirable. and can be used to knockout genes. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. 1993).Symbiodinium). Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct. intermediate. reinhardtii. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae. use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. (Kindle et al.. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. 2005). challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall. RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al. Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important. including conjugation. 2006). need for balance in cellular metabolism.. but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. traits. Frequently. microarrays). Gracilaria. 2005). 1995). The selection process was based on a gene is present. then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae. 1988. 1987). 2001). which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al.. With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas.

reinhardtii. several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. Algal Biology  19 . Except for cyanobacteria. including allosteric activation and metabolic though. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor production. Osteococcus tauris.. obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. pussilla. that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. such as genomics. 2002). all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags. This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes.1 These species include computer sciences. with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C.. approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the data. It must be noted level. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology. Although time families). visit http://genome. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens).. Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible.html 2. Bathycoccus sp. Undoubtedly. at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date. 2008). Volvox carteri). useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production. 2006). cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain. If not properly done. Quality standards and appropriate data. a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi). Gaietta et al. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable.. demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Indeed.jgi-psf.). 2006). so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming. Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes. especially at the basic level of gene annotation.. Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable. distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al. 2005. for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available. and proteomics.org/euk_cur1. applied research and technology development. the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla. even in closely related species (Connolly et al. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production. 2004). the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al.S. Together. Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. Fragilariopsis cylindrus).Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time. have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context. This could 1 For a listing. Genome size in algae can vary substantially. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. transcriptomics. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors.Centre National de Séquençage (France). a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae). forming the foundation for at Genoscope .

different metabolomic analysis tools are applied. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al. 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria. Castellana et al. gas chromatography mass spectrometry. transformation. or can determine fuels and intermediates. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers. which survey. which is the quantitative Therefore. Applications of Biotechnology New. double-homologous recombination. sp. 2005. and Pseudochlorococcum sp. are underway.. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. Moreover. and function. in response to particular environmental conditions. Tanner et al. 2006.. identifying final fuel produced.. 1999). Dettmer et al. quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. 2008). Chlorococcum sp. Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest. including liquid chromatography mass Currently. In the absence of genomic information.include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling.. was sequenced over a decade ago. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al.. 2006). at least10 other algal genomes.. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems. Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. Nannochloropsis sp. high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. identification.. Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth. and metabonomics. and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment. These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. and some strains can fix peptides. small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel. 2009). especially with regard to translational regulation. Aebersold. making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. 1998). The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example.. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al. Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). Algal Biology  . 2005). but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. approaches (Han and Gross. Many 20 2. there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. 2004. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate. approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. 1996). Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. For example. Mass-spectrometry lipids. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms.. however.. 2007). as well as spectrometry. 2007. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell. and proteins.. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas. another dozen or so EST projects..

It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al. Ferrante et al.. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae.org/ChlNC64A_1/ChlNC64A_1. RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al. filamentous strain that can form heterocysts. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed.. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production.. physiological conditions. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. 2 http://genome. 2007 ). which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production. and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al. reported (Neupert et al. In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. et al. accumulation. fatty acid synthesis... 1997). and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al. protothecoides.jgi-psf. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress. For example. sucrose (Nobles and Brown. is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products.2 Several production. 2002). but nevertheless. C. anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen). Fulda et al. it will be necessary to further being developed. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. 2000). whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers. 2008).. 2008. Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation. 2006). 2007). 2006. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable. These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb).. and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. 2006. 2009) in Synechococcus.. including glycogen.home. In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al. 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose. 2008). glucosylglycerol. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al.. it can be sexually crossed. 2008). Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms.. 2007. and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0. 2006). 2004). However.. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported. sucrose. Relatedly. and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer. which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions. The genome sequence of D. resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. and metabolome (Singh et al. and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae.1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. capabilities. 2009. proteome. reinhardtii can serve et al. with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. productivity under various environmental conditions.. Lipid production. like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. and chloroplast (PHB). pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. C. 2007).. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution.. Eisenhut et al.. It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. Koksharova et al.. 1998). A possible drawback of C. 2004). but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production... The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed.. 1999). the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al. 2003). strategies to address these issues are production pathway.. For example. reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria. Synechocystis. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al. the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez. 2007).html 2.. Algal Biology  21 . 2008). and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome. which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast.

or seaweeds.. the status of macroalgal systematics production.. Meneses and Santelices. For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report.. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al.. 2003. of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report.. 2000). 2001. and Rhodophyta safeguards. and alternation of generations. and expression profiling (Collen et al. general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete. 3 http://www. anoxic zone formation. 2005).. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. Dutcher and Kapraun. even with these (brown algae). represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms.. Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms. 1994.. Moulin et al. 2005). Use of gene-specific probes al. 1995. As such. Currently. which includes diatoms. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination. Fischer et al. because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients. Algal Biology  . Roeder et al.3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products. Niwa et al. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta. 1996. 1999. For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example. 2003)..gov 22 2. tools is still imperative from a research standpoint. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains.. et al.. Niwa et al. 2004. and metabolic and coastal waters. as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal. brown. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer. 2008). Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina. and four more 1999. 1995..and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. However. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. and regulatory gene expression control 2005). Genome sequencing Macroalgae. are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008).doe. with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains.. GE algae are defined as strains life histories.. affinity with corresponding microalgal forms.jgi. 1997. Bouza et al. such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. Ho are underway. 2005). (Armbrust et al. and choice of cultivation methods In general. They are and proteomic profiling. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. Unlike microalgae. species. potential for toxin markers. Bowler et al. 1999. Baldauf. Apt et al.. Chlorophyta (green algae). and green seaweeds. The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse. the stipe. 2006. Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms. are very important. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments.. also have microalgal counterparts. For example. induction response. and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels.. combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies. each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment.

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it is important to 3. industry.. photobioreactors). it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. Algal Cultivation  29 .1 compares the readily introduced. reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi. are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e. capital costs maximizing light exposure. open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation. However.g. Though photobioreactors (e.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass. Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2).3. important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways. algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. therefore. It is. photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria.g. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally. both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity. (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds.1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. however.. but long-term culture Broadly speaking. Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches). For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007).

and predation. As a result.. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu.et al. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain. 2007). in hybrid systems. considerable scale-up from current activities. Reddy et al. 2008. wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. 2004. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale. Dai et al.. 2002). 2005. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae.. 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra. near-shore. have been algal growth. Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. efforts. important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe. Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz.. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp. such as sugars. Japan. providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. appears especially open raceways. Sargassum. Hanisak. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp.engineering designs. biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. In sugars. 1995) or a series of al. and there is the the structures. Algal Cultivation  . Heterotrophic as a nutrient source. 1993). Turbinaria. seeds grown spp. environmental regulations from other sources. which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones. been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. Typically. Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander. Dipakkore et al. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander... located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development. improvement in strain selection. both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation strategies... Laminaria hyperborean. to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. already widely used to Southern California. Dai et al. over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. 2009).. 2004. 2007). (Chynoweth. However. 2006) and field Additionally. 2005).. Kumar et al. in particular.et al. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. Macroalgae 1987). Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. 2004. 2005). Hypnea. 2006). In the latter. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. 2008). 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures. it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation.. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks.. and Chile. Buck. 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). 2004. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods. or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities. Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. and major technological 1991). A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation. 1993. then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. photobioreactors could (Dai et al. et al. linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al.. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather.. and presented (see Chapter 10). This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology.

management.. Honda et algal physiological adaptation. and pathogens. 2006 ). Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens. Wilson et al. 2006.. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research.. The methods must be sensitive. Boutte et al. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined.. chemical compounds. Others will compete for shared resources. predators. Additionally. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass. 2004). Brussaard.. predators. Viprey et al. it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale.. and management of competitors. limited. 2005). 2009). Methods for rapid. and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies.. 2008. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. 1994. and inexpensive. e. • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al. Rittmann et al. The cost-benefit analysis al.g. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems. to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. TSA- • Nutrient source scaling.. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability. 1999. 2008). pervasiveness of issues related to scale. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. 2009). and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common. 3. viable.. This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. and recycling. Algal Cultivation  31 .. although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding.2 Scale-Up Challenges species. sustainability and FISH (Marie et al. One of the more into a variety of useful products. automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays... 2004. competitors. commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective. Wilson et al. It should be noted that. 2008. 2005..Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology. 2008. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. Cheng et al. In certain cultivation systems. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. and simple and complex carbohydrates.. (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms.000 and several million phytoplankton 3. it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. 2008) productivity analysis. Continuous monitoring will management. Nutrients. proteins. for real-time monitoring.

2008. automated. competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains. This information will productivity of potential strains. predator-prey relationships.. 1938. light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen. molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae. 1987. and silicon (in the case of diatoms). cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity. 1994). Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). and significant operating cost.. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. vitamins. 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. Benemann and Oswald.Furthermore. biochemists. From a productivity standpoint. but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen. and normalization. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. and genetic. sustainable fuels. New approaches are split Oswald. sustainability. (Ketchum and Redfield. diverging dynamics will be important. and Management 1981. invasive species. dollars (Benemann and renewable. out (Abelson. 1999. For example. The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. Douskova et al. For example.S. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress. Gao et al. metabolites.. productivity lost during down time. and because of the 2005. rates. research in multi-trophic. Algal Cultivation  . must also be R&D in both areas. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources.. predators. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical. The development of studied. a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). 2002). More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost. need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. 2008. Requirements for additional nutrients. phosphorous. 32 3. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. and production siting.. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring. Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues. 1996). Eltgroth et al. iron. physiologists. permeable. The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. Spalding 2008). Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. phosphorous. as siting requirements for efficient considered. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae. 2008)... Sheehan et al. fit-for-purpose fuels. Thus. Along with standards. There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. and adapted for rapid.. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account.. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. Reed et al. densities. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary. and products. etc. 1999). Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists. Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production. 1996. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. These tools. accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate. trace metals.

In the future. disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. biogas. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e. which is a loss of 13. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond. From a to fossil fuel prices. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels. availability. evaporative losses can exceed 0. If not addressed adequately. 1996).000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted. phosphorous. On the other hand. or urea. 2005. Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon.. and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive. phosphorous. 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. it may NOx and SOx (Doucha. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. If the biomass residues are. too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. agricultural. means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. e. Also. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood. Algal Cultivation  33 . The final fuel product from algal oil biology. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable.000 gallons to fill. or industrial unsuitable for land crops. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet.5 cm per over long distances. or silicon) as a economics. by preventing eutrophication.. 2009). aquifers and seawater.g... Currently. and sustainability implications of various discharge. 1989). Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important. for example. For example. cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically. and potential nitrogen and phosphorous. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha). tend to be near enormous. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective. With large cultivation systems. Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. for example. Douskova et al. Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. and sustainability issues. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities. Therefore. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. produced 3. A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. 1998). however. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth).g. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. or iron. At the same time. utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper. nitrogen. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls. brackish. However. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. nitrate. these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). productivity.” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. buildup.Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia. This may be nitrogen. Water Management.

including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water. from flue gas). or other remediation before use. etc. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting. materials in the culture. and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts. and residual live algal cells. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers. or may require decontamination. Incoming water (surface water. groundwater. moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost. flocculants. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer. and treatment (e. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment. activated charcoal filtration. The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. which could contain salts. or other low. the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. while effectively Water recycling is essential. Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process. Furthermore.g. but live cells could adversely is fresh water. and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms. • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown). The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. accumulated toxics. municipal wastewater. This is an enormous amount of water (260. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. desalination. process. However. could pose a serious problem. This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. or seawater) may be suitable as is. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. chemical flocculants used in harvesting. makeup water/recycle. To contain costs. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. Disposal of the spent water.. flocculants.. • GIS analysis of water resources.1999). by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals). accumulated salts. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture. but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. Algal Cultivation  .000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above). toxins. and water double their biomass on a daily basis. A critical water consumption. disinfection.water from oil wells. however. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. water. wastewater.g. toxins (including heavy cooling. heavy metals (e.

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Addressing these issues requires careful mind.4.. 2003. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered. 1984). some into further downstream dewatering techniques. electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. salts. at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases. electroflocculation. water quality. This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. may analysis of engineering designs. the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. Knuckey et al. 1997)..g. 2004. 1977. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. 1988. Phochinda and White. A determinations in particular processes. type. lime. Poleman and Pauw. therefore. Culture manipulation techniques. Likewise. Bare et al.02 . Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. 1998. 1971). 1969. 1975.1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled.. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue.. impact the required energy input. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied. As the desired percentage concentrations.0. make harvesting more difficult. consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering. Botes and Vanvuuren. Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed. 1991. and Shelaf. surfactants. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering. and recycling issues.. only now being recognized as critically important. is required to promote sedimentation at harvest. Cultures Finally. therefore. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . 2001). 1993. The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. In managed cultures. 2004. energy costs climb steeply. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. Alum. Pan et al. algae harvesting (Sim et al. and small size (~1 to 30 µm). and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln. lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates). 1983). Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent. 1987).. Kwak et al. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds. 2005.. Koopman and chitosan. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. Their small sizes. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. 1988). Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures. and then air is bubbled 4. Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. and on empirical of transportation. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. bioreactors. McGarry and Tongkasa. mixtures.. additives. 2006. however. circulation. Edzwald. polyacrylamide polymers. being considered. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. the presence of flocculant in 4. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. cellulose.

2008). but are not limited to. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. 1991). Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out. about 90% is (Oswald. and mechanized harvesting methods.. Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. The flocculant efficiency. suction. Culture purity However. and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al. however. These include. In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. 2002. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields. Filtration designs Invariably. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e.6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide. Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. so leads to re-dilution of the product. separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. of the roughly 1. 1996).. floc optimization. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. but doing or dredging with cutters. Washing the filter is one practice. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm. For instance. Moving filters Currently. the growth substrate can be easily removed. or ships for operation. Application of mechanical 38 4. the filter. methane drum size. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades. pores decreasing filter efficiency. • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations.2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues. and reduction of filtering rates.. filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied.. have also been developed.g. in low-humidity climates. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size). The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. pores. where fuel precursors very expensive. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate. Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency. microalgae. acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. Durability and 4. 2003)..through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. and bioharvesting.g. Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates. 2009). Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements. 2001). and have the ability to remove the algae later. 1995. design.. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . Saidam and Butler. leads to blinding. operating costs. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible.

The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured. given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 . Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded. about 20 . shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions. the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined. will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas. although breakthroughs are still needed in each. 2009). anaerobic digestion and fermentation. opportunities for products apart from fuels. 2001).3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. 1989). laws have approaches 90% may be necessary. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water. Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz.85% water content (Peterson et al. sand. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”. maintenance. In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al. • Removal of foreign objects and debris. litter. culture and end-use. for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. and the amount of debris method. adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately.20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore. Smaller particles. and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils. a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. 2009). new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration. This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al. Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng. strict regulations 80 . could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. Further..30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp. stones.. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. attached forms that tend to stand upright. Anaerobic digestion. The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly.harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed. surface area to volume ratios. example. cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al.g. with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments. The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols.. such fermentation. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. mechanized harvesting techniques. 2009). For part of the pretreatment process. 2004).. influence. 2008). final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. 2009). In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture. operations. scale of harvesting and dewatering. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 . and depreciation. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. To manage seaweed harvests. with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al... e. may be amenable to mowing. and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis..

9(3). Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media. Dodd. & Wen.J. Brown. H. (1969). Sedimentation and Flotation. (1983). Kwon.J. Ferguson. flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal. Knuckey. (1977). Lyons. 30 (7). G..S. Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process.B.B. Jones.F. Ferguson. Downing. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. B. 525-534. (1993). Robert.. Ireland Buck. 27(10). C. (1975). Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale.K. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge. 40 4. (2010). Logsdon. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. T. Green. J. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0.. However. Cambridge University Press. W. Bracco. J. (1987). E.. Lerat. R. 113. 2000). of each in algae are considered (Illman et al. B. Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents. D. (2004). Koopman. Lundquist. N. 31(3-4). likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates.J. 133.from algae. Bruton. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt. 9(1). B.J. Borowitzka. and M.B. 612.A. Rasmussen. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away. and C. bubbles. Butterfi. 300. 45(1). Anderson. Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses. (2002). 11. (2006). Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting. (2005). Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . T. M. A. Edzwald.. C. D. A.. 153. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. Water Science and Technology. Shales. 117. Separation and Purification Technology. Sustainable Energy Ireland. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. (38). Aquaculture. 95. D.B.R.R. Z.F Frampton. Water Science and Technology. Botes. Scragg. Illman.. J. Curley.R. (1995). Johnson. Agricultural Wastes. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. L. Stanley. E. coagulants.. 47(1). B. Chen. Jones.. and dissolved air flotation.C.54 watt-hours/gram. J.M. E.P. 50(11). (2005). Large-scale algae culture systems. H. F. 5(4). A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland.H. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal. C.J. 6(1). Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. I.J. G. Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. based on the latent heat References Bare. 713. Progress in Water Technology. algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids. Zubieta. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters.. (1991).M. 85(3). Kwak. S. 35(3). Aquacultural Engineering. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. S. 357-394. M. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies. (2009).. J. Algae. 231. Lincoln. Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. Won. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. M.Y. 67. Dublin. Ku.. 250. (2000). J.L. Lavoie. et al. Filtration. 631-635.H.X. R. along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass. Vanvuuren. H. M. W. 852-859. Middlebrooks. Borowitzka. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Micro-Algal Biotechnology. Oswald. Jung. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae. 674-691. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. de-watering. V. Delanoue. (27). Kim. (1988). Water Science and Technology. Y. Buchholz.

1. N. Pringle. Huang. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration. Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism.Y. A. Conservation. D. Vogel. (1989). Yoon. Phoochinda. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii. (2004). M. M. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. Biol. C. M. Huesemann. (1). Kwon. M. 83-89. Energy & Environmental Science. Lachance. 16(1). 150(1-3). (1997). C.G. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 .. and Recycling. Journal of Biotechnology Advances. S. M. S.G. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . The Journal of Applied Phycology. Acién Fernández. Sharp. T. White. P.C. G. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. Poelman. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal . E. and J. (26). Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub. McGarry. E-H Belarbi. 87. W. A. Pan. (1998). 51. (19).C.. Letters in Applied Microbiology. (20). Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products. D. 4. (1984). 43(5). (1971). (2008). Oswald. Copping.. Chisti. Water. 491–515.. Tongkasa. C. Pauw.A.. Shelaf. 185. Benemann. C. Mar 42.D. B. (2001). A. R. G. E. Froling.. (2003).J. A. J. J. 1. F. A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum.M... Tseng. A.. F. J. Wu. A. D. Biomass. Biotechnology and Bioengineering.. Resources. Ugarte. M. (2003). Y. Oh. 14. (2008). Robles Medina. Cah. 32-65. 63-70. Mollah. Removal of algae using froth flotation. and J. Y. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 142. R. Sukenik. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge. Chuang.and supercritical water technologies.Qingdao.. Goh. 1987. K. W. (27). 824. et al. R.W. Sim.S. W..P. Journal of Hazardous Materials.J. E. G. 1-7. Science and Technology.R. Saidam. 327. (1988). (1996). H. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. Fundamentals. (2001).. China. Butler. 199. Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters. Becker. Antal. Kim. H. Comparison of centrifugation. B114.Lee. (1991).B. Molina Grima E.P. Forster. Roesijadi. Environmental Technology. G. Tester.S. 24(1). J. 24(5). Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems.. Peterson.

This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. 2005) et al. application of organic solvents. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. For this reason. For waste treatment. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process... pretreatment of (Zhang et al. or for the sonication for cell disruption. 2010). Lipid Extraction sonication. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. different logistical challenges arise from access. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. Cell Rupture) component for extraction. 2008). algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations. extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective. autoclaving. 2010) and osmotic shock. While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks. Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion.. using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. To operations could affect extraction processes.5. base. as well as the be successful. and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. Extraction of Products from Algae   . little is known about the scale. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development. which is dependant on the algal species and growth status. Additionally. and acid. 2003).. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). 2008). though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear. The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out.. ultrasounds. 2010).. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5.. that secrete products directly into the growth medium. Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al. Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid. As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. some systems 42 5. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly.e. 2010). pulverized biomass. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals. but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. Dibenedetto. extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing.and laboratory-scale procedures. extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production. sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material.. and (3) solvate the >40%. osmotic shock.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating.. prior to the application of the extraction solvents. and Barberio. 2008. and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta.

In general.e. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system.. the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent. these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary. (i. 1959). give relatively high hexane mixtures. 1996). but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system). making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke. In general.e.. chloroform.g.Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al.. 2007). 2007). at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly. and methanol.g. dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. In these applications. and hexane/isopropanol for lipids. water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al. has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first).. and then water) (Lewis..g. After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i. In general. acetyl chloride).. 1990). Consequently. their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins.. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al. Similarly. 1998). thereby improving downstream separations. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al. the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy). biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency. the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments. They explained lipids (i.. hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. and Dyer co-solvent method. solubilize. Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. biomass. 1990). disruption of the cell Malcata. Extraction of Products from Algae   43 . and extract the lipids. despite the added added.. The hexane system as chloroform to contact.. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e.. 2000). 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke. 2007)..g. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin. 1994).e. 5. other combinations lipids and cell structure. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids. More. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol. prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted. ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol. chloroform. 2005). (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path. Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids. methanol) and acid catalyst (e. 2000). These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978).. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap. In other cases. (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer.

to all pores within the biomass matrix and. and optimize the energy cost.e. screening viability (500 . It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al. Accordingly. 2006). What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass.3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 . 1996.95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 . and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times.. a step that also requires energy input. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples.55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle.. on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al. extraction temperature. the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes.. (Denery et al. free fatty acids. some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 . however. The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE .200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water.. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure). separate out desirable by analogy. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i.. viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents. example. it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well.10 min). If this process can be 44 5. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al. 2004). using the process. and production of triglycerides for biofuels production. The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. must use dried Consequently. depending on the solvent. noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore. ASE of higher hydrophobicity. Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. 2009). reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent. being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure. break down the cell membrane. Conceptually. and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol. the polarity) to values that match the lipids. In general. sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point.. For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref). Extraction of Products from Algae   . Denery et al. Hejazi et al. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. 1996).. 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer. By using solvents technique on 1 . and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina.30 g samples of dried biomass. ASE can also be applied to remove co. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel.. extracted 85 .the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i.e.

9 bar). However. liquid feeds (Reverchon et al.g. easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al. 73. 1994). In this 2006). low toxicity.. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro. 2005). water extraction.. al. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s). pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions. 2007).50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above. e. but other fluids used have included ethane. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll). and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al.. ethane. More recently. The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water. 2005). In addition. via transesterification. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. 1999). this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process.. Some degradation.. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et. as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al.. It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al. sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride.. one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail).. 2001) . higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts. 1992). Some pressures of 241 . 1994. originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner.. The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified. is that water. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel... becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature. as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction. for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. ease of scale-up. the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 . a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans. been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however. 2006). The technique. the ability to 5. phototrophically or heterotrophically. In this system up to subcritical temperatures. under these conditions. it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid.e. however. attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. just below the critical temperature. higher productivity Castro et al. methanol. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage. 1999). There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al. nitrous oxide. however. and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case. non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step. A major constraint. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 .379 bar (Chueng. Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature. whether grown has the effect of converting lipids.. 2006). water. products miscible Largeau. CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i. by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids. 2006). triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner. The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. lower costs of the extracting agent.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005). creating additional energy use challenges.. The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid. 2007). 1999). Large-scale design scenario.g. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae. is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates. the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. 2006). of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times.applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%..

X. F. 46 5. J.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components. J. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores. Grima. Food Chem. 1025–1031. G. et al. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales. However.. Analytica Chimica Acta. 71(9).. 2008. Cravotto. W. versa.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute.R. 120–126. A. & Rowshanzamir. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. A. G. 73(8). reduce the pressure and temperature requirements. & Abril. Fajardo. Güçlü-Üstündag. This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier. & Mazza. 898-902. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. & Malcata. the following in side reactions. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. Carvalho. 1994. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures.R. et al.. Golmohammad. Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5. Meager. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies. Cartens. M. Brunner. Agric... 53(13). as Btu. 80(2). et al. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions. G. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2007.. 2005.P.. Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Journal of Food Engineering. 735–740. Denery. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Journal of Food Engineering..3. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. 15(5). 1996.H. 5049–5059. S. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. et al. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations. In this context. 955–959. 175–181. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms.M. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4. F. 109(2). J. produced per day. Eikani. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. 123-129. E. 6(2).. 21-33. thereby improving the References Barclay. 2007. M. Extraction of Products from Algae   . 1994. Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass. 67(1-2). Increased of sugar-based feedstocks.. 619–630. Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. 501(2).. 2007.transesterifiable lipids. Lipid-Fett. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2005. K. 80(2). et al. J.. the issue of solvent energy load. Balsevich.). When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. Journal of Food Engineering. At the cellular level. 2004.

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
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natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
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from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
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from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
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for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
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5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

photo-fermentation. Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. typical biomass throughout the country. Polysaccharides. can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). and significant dehydration crops. The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and. laminarin.2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with. This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. social acceptance. place in their presence. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006). requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. 2004). Miao and Wu. including direct biophotolysis. gradient. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . in that it is extremely fast. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. 2007). The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis. feedstocks must be ground into fine particles.. improvement in hydrocracking. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion. anaerobic digestion. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. 2003. These current time (Bridgwater. gasification. 2003). but algae. degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. although the scientific literature. Also. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh. depending on the reaction parameters. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil. There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas. with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 .e. It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen.. 2004). is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. McDermid & Stuercke. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003).. produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. efficiently. products. competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2. though from algae.e. the algae. at least some level of dewatering is still required. 50 6. Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. For flash pyrolysis.500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds. i. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae. 2006. too low for conversion to biodiesel. 2008). the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing. or other biomass. and the added benefit of being fuels. biohydrogen) substance by heating. 2003). to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock. Brazil. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology.. algae: pyrolysis. where finely on economic considerations. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step. and the United States..1). such as mannitol. Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times.

address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process. and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. the process more flexible.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels . Yung et al. alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas. Exhibit 6. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O. Balat. 2007. 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 . The methods. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally. 1994).. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. H2. Unfortunately. CO2. Another advantage is the Additionally. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils. liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents. 2009.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources. 2007. the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. Additionally. Srinivas et al. it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels.. etc. First and foremost. FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO. since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology. research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed.. there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. 2004). and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for.. 2006). 2009). Another research paper comparatively straightforward. so the bio-oil may be more investment required.

2005). In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al. usually requires pretreatment. It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale.. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles.. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process. considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char. and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso.. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency. with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger. Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. However. it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size.330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained. A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option.4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further. 36 kJ g−1. 2006). Neste Oil. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993). of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH.. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D.. France in 2006. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. comparable to those of fuel oil. 2005). The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date. with oxygen at high temperature. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input. The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al. as high as 75%. Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. the most significant problem al. Also. 1995). Additionally. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al.. These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals. First. A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. algae may have a unique advantage balance. Typically. FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall. The first reactor was a low. The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. 2008). Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic.for dedicated biomass plants. The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. Germany. (Raffelt et al... Even though FTS is a mature technology. 1995).

Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment. In for example. therefore. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. transesterification. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. gal vs.. fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. further study will also 6. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al. 2008). Vieitez et al. ensuring maximum particular. Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . conversion of vegetable oils. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008). $0. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al. and as such. Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. is to demonstrate are selective. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas. triacylglycerides. in place. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas.. Similar results have been Fernández et al. a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study. 2007). at less than 50˚C. and efficiency. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. 2009). In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering. 1987). 2009). however. theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts. raw. Additionally. 2008. the typical mode of biofuel production from algae. The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based. Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae. Additionally. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process.. In this process variant. It is. oil extract. with a conversion cost-effective methodology. level that can be scaled to commercial production. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites.g.. lower reaction temperatures. with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. effect of milder process conditions. While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180. could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels... it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production. in terms of yield. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach. 2009). 2006). with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures. There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts.51/gal). cost.e. 2008).. including drying. and fuel conversion. e. is an interesting mode of gaseous oils. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. and one that receives scant attention of algae. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production... which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i.4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. in particular. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. $0.

This section discusses water and free acids. there are other solution and mixing well. they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. (Exhibit 6.. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4. Boocock. 2008. enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts. heteropolyacids (HPA). (Ataya et al. 2008).2). Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves.. mitigate saponification chemical. catalyzed methanol approach.can be converted into biodiesel.2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. 2008). Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts. and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al. a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al. Cao et al. Transesterification (Alsalme et al. Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are. 2008). In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. biochemical. In addition to the classic base. Though acid catalysts have these advantages. 2009). acid methyl esters). Kerosene. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. therefore. 2006). 2008). 2008). As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   .. 2007). HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. generally required as a result. Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. and therefore.. Diesel.. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum. Recently. heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy.. it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts.

It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. Again.. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al. and energy input (Kalva et al. 2007). Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process.. both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al.. inexpensive (McNeff et al. these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream. 2003). increasingly attractive. they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol. optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater. Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base.. converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. at a commercial scale and at competitive prices. 2007). 1998).. Lewis acid catalysts. The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly.. 2006). but (Lopez-Hernandez et al. converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters.. One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing. In particular. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained.. There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost. 2008).. much R&D is needed in the discovery. This work more mature conversion processes currently available. to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive. 2008. engineering. and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse. 2008). such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or ZnCl2. process must be able to function in the presence of these However. Liao et al. it has been noted 6. difficulty in removing the glycerol. and 2008). Use of biocatalysts cell walls. In the ultrasonic reactor method. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. 2008). catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin). 2008). Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 . as with other approaches. 2005). and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al. Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. 2008). reaction temperatures. These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases. have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al.et al. production. in many cases. sugars.. Although very effective and relatively economical.. catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. (a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely. Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al.

for whale oil.240°C). Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). On the other hand. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. The catalysts are active feedstock. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements. initial and final boiling point. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. gasoline. such as oil shale and tar sands. and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water.. flash point. and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline. such as biomass or plant oil. Many of the catalysts cracking. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. 2009). be completed before these catalysts are fully understood. the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. and x is an and process steps. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom. 56 6. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO. separation In another example. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content. obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. in an assortment of end products. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. the process pressure is high perspective. As noted in chapter 8.The presence of a co-solvent. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. In this way. Other based analog. CaO. the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. and insoluble. were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification. temperatures of about 170˚C). and cloud point. demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks.. such as tehtrahydrofuran.60 bar). and Al2O3. This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil. oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights. From a refinery’s At these temperatures. jet fuel. One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. active catalysts during transesterification. maximizing the final energy content. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO. heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels. jet fuel. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Moreover. Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. Although are stable. hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full.

as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 . There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. In particular. Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson. and for recycle to the culture.. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons. Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. a chemical reductive process). 6. carbon dioxide. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner. 1979). this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. nitrogen from extracted proteins. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. Referred to as hydrotreating. metals. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel.g. It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process. In addition. as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development.4 Processing of Algal (basically.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e. once H2 used.

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and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. $0. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. Co-products   61 . The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. corresponding markets in the long term. and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7.. Indeed. hormones. dyes. As summarized economics of the system. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. cosmetics. reductant. Vorlop. the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. Exhibit 7. Inorganics Proteins enzymes. 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process. generation will inevitably compete for carbon.1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products. and energy from photosynthesis. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers.1). enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). The topic of polysaccharides. For the purposes of the Roadmap. fertilizers and soil conditioners. anti-oxidants. without invoking competing co.500 x106 lbs/yr. Heat.30 . a reasonably benefits to the technology. these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb. 2007 7. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 . aromatic essences. flavors. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. etc. and stable isotopes for research purposes. Moreover. fats (oils). pharmaceuticals. glycerol. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products.7. the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6). The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined.2. novel technologies with increased coloring substances.$1. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7. wastewater. valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Using appropriate technologies. the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7. 2004).00/lb. is predicted to be generated by the process.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process. primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal.

.. Chlorella.10% (wt. not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products. and Thalassiosira. Chlorella and Scenesdesmus. Chlorella. 2004. Nannochloropsis. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. GLA by Arthrospira. horses. 1990. Anti-Oxidants The market. significant amounts of lead. is expected to grow in the future.000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira).g.000 t/yr Spirulina. appearance. yet in the short term. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium. arsenic. Spolaore et (e.e. animal feed are Spirulina. 2. et al. 600 t/yr Nostoc. 280 million US$. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). Nitzschia. Co-products   .5 billion A number of anti-oxidants. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. US$. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. 3. 2006). better immune to the consumer.. and ca. 62 7. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae.) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 . the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. 2006). • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. these existing markets (and associated Spirulina. market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova. The market for microalgal animal feeds. γ-linolenic acid (GLA). particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. 1990. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption. increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price. 1986. poultry. ca. 1994 and 1996). sold for the health food market. it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina. Skeletonema. ca. al.000 t/yr Chlorella. This situation. GLA from evening primrose oil). etc. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann. is quickly growing. Dunalliella. having presently a retail value of 1. weight gain. 1996. Scenedesmus. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i. The main species used in products. The Dunaliella. Tetraselmis. The most very large potential markets are developed. fertility.) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. However. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements. the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term.g. 1996). In poultry rations. from 300 to 3. However. e. 1999). Radmer. 2006).) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows. Radmer. the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. With the possible exception of the existing response. 1990. 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon. Phaeodactylum. is expected to expand significantly. gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal. The market size.. Isochrysis.5 billion US$. etc. 1. Malcolm et al. currently at about 2. which is sold either fish (Benemann... Although small. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high. ca. Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species.. microalgal (of biomass. All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. and soil fertilizer. Pulz and Gross. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. pigs.By definition.200 t/yr Dunaliella. crustaceans (shrimp). 2006). cadmium and derived biofuels. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka. docohexaenoic acid (DHA). product. The production includes ca.

(Olaizola. 2004. and research.. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross... (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al.000 2. 2006). Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5... the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin. 1990).. Benemann. Spolarore et al. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al.e. or as pigments i. growth promoters.. 2003. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1.000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7.. a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. 2006). (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product. 2006). cosmetics. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. dyes for food..000 700 Spolaore et al.Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin. (2006) EPA Potential product.500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1. pigments in pluvialis. 1986. Phycobiliproteins. and Exhibit 7.2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics.200 >280 Spolaore et al. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1. Astaxanthin. Spolaore et al. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers. Co-products   63 . are used as food dyes. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka.500 Spolaore et al.

. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing.. 1. pet food. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable. mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al.. Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae. Singh et al. 1990. Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. 1986). fuel or other product. plant growth regulators could be 7. 1994. 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori. 2. macroalgae (i. 2006). medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. 1990. 2001. the only issue is price.2 Commercial Products factor. Alginate. 1987). but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. fuel. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004).. food additive.. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al. kombu. wakame.5-6 BILLION 64 7. Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. Wu et al. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al. 2007. cosmetics (Spolaore et al. pharmaceutical. be very small due to their specialized applications. toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5. 2001). the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium. This sets a high bar research (Benemann. it 2004). pharmaceutical. 2004). cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. Here price is a major 7. pharmaceuticals and In this instance. etc. Exhibit 7. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7. Identical to an existing chemical.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds. Olaizola.. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro. aonori.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. Co-products   .) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh. Furthermore. Radmer. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics). Borowitzka. These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka.3). 1986). Pulz and Gross. or other product. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose. Metting and Pyne. must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986. Pulz and Gross. 1990). Pulz and Gross. The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products.e. polysaccharides (Benemann. 2003.. 2005.

4). and combustion. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www.unh. such as pyrolysis. gasification. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. 2009).4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels. with reported methane yields of about 0. However. Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). conversion technologies. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass. non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. Co-products   65 . The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production.3. and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure). both (Exhibit 7. lipids only. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. the issues enough markets for potential co-products. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann. as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion. New material with unique and useful functional production systems.e. Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7.3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid. and Benemann. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy.. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage. with potential whole (i. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. In this case. it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. which could then be either sold on the new product. The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass. Nevertheless. Therefore. 2009).pdf).

butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed. Furthermore. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes. 2007). due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. 2006). and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide. Option 2. propionic..e. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes. 2009. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. a food and feed supplement. the projected market for cellulases is 2007. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid. (Hu et al. 2001). etc. Similarly. and Option 4. The Glycerol. solvents (acetone. Kamm and Kamm. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 . 2008). polycarbonates and polyurethanes. and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass. However. and (c) at products such as polymers. However. bioplastics.usda. epoxies. ethanol. 1 billion kg. including and interactions with animal digestion. the residual microalgal (http://www. Finally. produced by 2020. fish. human nutrition may organic acids (formic. jet fuel. Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez. current levels.. 2007). thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced.g. however. adhesives. least 10. is potentially very large. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants.5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be solvents. a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol.ams. feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry. butyric.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. Furthermore. this option (Datta et al. Co-products   . green solvents and a result. ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24. aliphatic polyesters. Furthermore. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm.. might ethanol could be used as biofuel. and could be advantageous. Choi.20 per gallon ethanol.gov/mnreports/sj_gr225. generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. detergents. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming.. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants. glycerol could be used to potentially very large. i.txt). relative derived ethylene and propylene. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed. As of industrial surfactants. is the starting material for the production of polyester. acetic. which contains proteins. the market for animal feed (cattle. biomass for liquid biofuel production.. than $0. succinic. For example. and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and Good. Furthermore.. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed. Kawaguchi et al. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. As was pointed out above. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products. the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced. 2007.3-propanediol. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. 1995). 2007). and butanol). it is also used in the In addition. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. antifreeze. 2008). pigs. poultry.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. Since the generation of gasoline.

these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann. Suppl. Finally. including www. and biotechnology. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only.. L. 277-282. the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products. Journal of Industrial Microbiology..R. The Plant Journal.. Borowitzka. J. (2007). organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. B. including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. 7. E. the recovery and use of energy.L.M.W. New Hampshire. Biorefineries – multi product processes. polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids. Once again. (8). processes.e.C. (2006). Microbial degradation of marine biomass. (2).R. Q. proteins. W. Crouch. with special focus on Dunaliella sp. 589-627. Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. carbohydrates. Choi. J. carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. Developments in industrial microbiology. Moon.com/article. with saturated.J. it applications (Mooibroek et al. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. i. Benemann. Metting. E. Microalgae products and production: An overview. McHugh. A guide to the seaweed industry. (2001). Posewitz.A. and carbohydrates is not cost-effective. van Staden. A. (2001). Forro. The Hague. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. (1986). (16). A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. S. Kawaguchi H. Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering. Pyne. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5). Zimmerman. Kamm. (54). P.. 247-256. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. 5.jsp?article_id=377). M. Burgess. M. specifically.175-204. Frank. Huesemann. Food and Agriculture Organization.G. (91). (105). (57).. 9347-9377. Science Publishers. Jarvis.biodieselmagazine. (1986). Netherlands. B. (31). B. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources.S. (2008). Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products. Wright. University of Illinois. M. Tetrahedon. K. Hu. W. physiology. Hirata. (1990). Ghirardi. if desired. Seibert. Co-products   67 . Algal Biology. Datta. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. J. J. Tsai.P.R.Kadirgan. and potential. Recent Patents on Biotechnology. As was mentioned above. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. Biologically active compounds from microalgae. M. 173-180.. this option will also require and potentially growing. B. microalgal metabolites. D. J. SPB Academic Publishing. R. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2.H. FEMS Microbiological Review. Darzins. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. 221-231. Berger. J. M. Bonsignore. (2007). Introduction to Applied Phycology. 386-394. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). No. I. Sommerfeld. Hashimoto. J. The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. K. A. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses.. J. K. (1990). the issue of scale enters in.. D. genomics. M.J. Kamm. 1994). Good. 621-63. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. 372-375. 2007).. Metting. and P. Miyamoto. (2008). L. Champaign-Urbana. (1987). (2009). Microbiological Sciences.000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products. M. Burja. 3(12). As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5. S.H. Banaigs. (2003). Abou-Mansour. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus. Enzyme Microbial Technology.

R. Biomolecular Engineering. Keshavarz. Joannis-Cassan.S. (76).Y.D.C. Algal diversity and commercial algal products. S. Parker. Wu. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. Kate. PCC6803. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. Berezina. (2007). Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 723-730. (82). Yildiz.. Yazdani. (2004). BioScience.H. Current Opinion Biotechnology. (77). M. 87-96. 85-90.C. (66). (1996).. Wu.N..J. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. R. Scott. T. (25). Gross. (2006). Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. Journal of Applied Phycology.Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. O. (2006). (18). Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Commercial applications of microalgae. Duran. Zerlov. N. Franssen. Olaizola. Steinbüchel. (1994). Co-products   .. Isambert. E. K. Roy. 131-142. W. (2007). Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. (1994). Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. G.. G. G. Oosterhuis..H. U. I. (2005). H. (6). 213-219. Gonzalez. W. B.Mooibroek.V. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. J. M. S. Q. 635-648. (2004). Z. Toonen.. Kadirgan. Giuseppin. 93-98.. 459-466. Shen. Bioresource Technology. 46(4). Spolaore. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. (2003). Banerjee. 101(2). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.. Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. H. 263-270. Philip.Y. O. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace. 257-267. Radmer. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol.A. (141). 587-597. Radmer. Vorlop.F. P. Velikodvorskaya. Pulz. R.J. V. Schwarz. (2007). (65). Singh. 68 7. C. (2001).. (71). A. M.. F. 73-95. E. 233-247. A. S. B. Journal of Electrochemical Society. Willke. Sanders. (20). T.

and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery. the specific distribution and dewatering levels.. depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above. It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. 8. biodiesel. conforming to existing standards (e. production. rails. and bioproducts.. biogas. These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. storage. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity. Ethanol.1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass. products – ethanol. • Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). The optimal Technologies). similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. combusting. and different fuels from algae are being considered. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. and • Third. Thus. biofuels.. it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. In all cases. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas. 2009) and infrastructure. materials and temperature considerations (e. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al. fuels intermediates. In turn. Distribution and Utilization  69 . such as cultivation and harvesting. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. However. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. poorly characterized. transport. including algae.8. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points. within the context of from algal biomass. 2009. and the quality of the final fuel product. infrastructure concerns. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts. other distribution aspects pipelining. 1986). it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. diesel. container dimensions. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery. and final fuels from the systems. as corrosivity) for trucks. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. Efstathiou and Credeur. with some evidence suggesting scalability. fuel intermediates. Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. pyrolysis oil. dispensing equipment. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. 2009). higher alcohols. and end-use vehicles). and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. and final fuels biomass. for ideal lipid compositions. high capacity. biodiesel. be transported to the refinery. 1990). blending. pH and from algal biomass resources. delivery vehicles. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. fuel intermediates.. have been shown biofuels as well. • Second. 2008). As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. Specifically.g. storage tanks. Some of these fuels are to be sited. transporting. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs.g.

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
concerns.
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

References
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72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

concepts are also being proposed. Similarly. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs. other nutrients.. This scenario Exhibit 9. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described.1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate. The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale. Maxwell et al. concentrated CO2. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance.. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9. capital. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials. water. and land. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass.9. and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. supplemental CO2 supply. Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. Lansford et al. as with any biomass-based technology and industry. and costs. energy. focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. CO2. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. 1998). facilities design.. 1990).g. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. Sufficient land. 1990. CO2. the siting and resource factors (e. Resources and Siting   73 . both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency..1). nutrients. characteristics.. 1985. the major resource and environmental parameters that Further. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production.S. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate.2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources. energy. needs to be analyzed from a site location. a for algal biofuel production. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U. water.1 Resource Requirements for production. labor. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined. For each parameter. availability. water.

The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated. selected to meet production needs. and land-based ponds.. availability.. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. Use of sugars from cane. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can. Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. beets. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production.2 to off-shore macroalgae production. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass. The latter throughout the country. in terms of cultivation and harvesting. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials. 2006a).and second-generation biofuels. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets. cost and availability of space 74 9. e. an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. Perlack et al.2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al.g.3). A supply issues with first. near-shore coastal farms. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand. 2005). 2005. biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. DOE. that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al.. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. other sugar crops.2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams.. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9. Resources and Siting   . whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production. thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures. supply logistics.

the heterotrophic approach can 9. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al. are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can provide.ag CAFO Low-Density Algal . Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market. and day/night light and temperature cycles. both seasonally and annually. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation. and severe weather. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture density.4 million dry sunlight. and competition production.power plants .closed PBRs . research. rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9.open ponds CO2 . P. would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels. Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. particularly in the case of land-based with other uses.4. As illustrated in Exhibit 9.2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation. Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae. The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production.lake. and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems.. From a resource use perspective. weather conditions. Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. environmental impacts. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9. evaporation. technology development. K.3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients.hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich Water. the level of production affect productivity.muni WWT & Seperation .other industrial . Resources and Siting   75 . Ligno-Cellulosic N. whereas precipitation. will most directly metric tonnes for food products). precipitation. temperature. Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures. 2004) factors include solar radiation. other Water Treatment Deconstruction .

Arizona. In Exhibit 9.e. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months. and Florida being most promising). the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2. For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. currents. New Mexico. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. lower elevation sites. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however.high-cost systems. and the New England states. Resources and Siting   . the availability of non. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. with the higher growth regions northern latitude states. from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii.. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas. resource conditions for algae production. whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F. This could fresh water. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity.4 and the Michigan. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves. Wisconsin. including Minnesota. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data. California. having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9.4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. controls. Within that context. identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions.4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production. but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. The more to total biomass growth. i. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation.

killing frost in the fall. Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation. Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. and the Southeast. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. Evaporation is a Therefore. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. for closed reactors. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. Georgia. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. represented by specific regions of Hawaii. and California. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. the Northwest. and parts of Louisiana. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. and overall economics. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. of Hawaii. however. For outdoor ponds. Resources and Siting   77 . Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. available for productive cultivation. a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors. Arizona. requirements for an open algae growth system. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. Evaporative however. Southeast. Evaporation. require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states. New Mexico. integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. precipitation (more than 40 inches). waves. tornadoes. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region. but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. is a wide range of temperatures. The southwestern states (California. Florida. discussed later in this section. both high and low. 1985). quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. respectively. This would. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas.. such as heavy rain and flooding. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. dust storms. algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind.industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. Arizona. Areas with higher annual average and. hail storms. and coastal areas. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. throughout the seasons. For closed photobioreactors. locations for open pond production. cooling in the summer. with more than 60 inches annually. events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems.

about 95%.000 heterotrophic). Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total. wind. Resources and Siting   . Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. solar insolation. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up.. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up. 2009). one-half of the total U. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location. modeling. elevation. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U. Hightower et al. periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater. Oroud. and coal-bed the past 25 years. 1999. USGS. In 2005. such as saline and brackish ground water. energy. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d). can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater.. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. nearly and the site-specific details of climate. along with associated salt build-up and 2008.. However. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude. depending on the chemistry. 2004. Kenny et al. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. 2009). and field assessment. natural gas. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. 2009). are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. 1995). from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement. Kenny et al. is used by microalgae (open vs. Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value. for future research. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE. 1978.. 61% of all surface water.. were for thermoelectric-power generation. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss. This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al. the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress. Hightower et al. or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions. This will require periodic blow. representing etc. humidity. 2002. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater. reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems.. closed vs. withdrawals. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues.).000 ambient temperature variations.S. withdrawals (201. solar insolation.S. for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128. hybrid combination). Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. climate conditions. 2009). 2008. to cool electricity-generating equipment. A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9. 2002). or from desalination operations. Kokya et al. The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil. humidity. various locations throughout the eastern half of the country. or 460. Almost all saline water. water demand over the 30 years prior to that.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. 2003.. or “co.. salt content effluent or solid byproducts. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build.. 2009). Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. Hutchison et use. water-sparse locations. management.000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover. Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980. with the majority (85%) resources. At the national scale. 2006b. Mao. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest. from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. ). 2008. and operational costs.uses. 2006b. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation.

31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. southwestern United States. Dennehy. reclaimed. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels.. The maps of saline groundwater 9. and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. the estimated capacity. 2007. Additional analysis. and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. saline. 2006b. as noted earlier. 1982a and 1982b. define the spatial distribution. and evaluated under a depth. physical and chemical characteristics. which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. 1993. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. Gerbens-Leenes et al. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. The location. 2004). and recycling nutrients. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent. monitored. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al. and of greater investment. Saline groundwater resources.S. If less water quality and chemistry. resource development. The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9.. and may well also be saved. Hightower et al. Shuttleworth. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels. with open systems. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. by state engineers and water authorities. Along with geological data. There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish. systems are implemented.. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed. limited fresh water supplies. held in December 2008. as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources.7). warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. 2008). reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site. Resources and Siting   79 . discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas. analysis for algal biofuels. 1985). Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. quantity.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed. 2009). 2007. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. depth.. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. 2009). Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. are also of Along the way. putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. NAS. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that. where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized. Unfortunately. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. depending on systems and process specifics. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced. depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary. and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop..

Therefore. represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced. and distribution could require more production. separating CO2 in large industrial plants. The sources shown (NATCARB. spatial extent. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products. longer distance transport and distribution. Data on small.5. transport. would be a good source of CO2. 2005. and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. is not a simple issue. including algae production. and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. and analyze this information. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. 2004. or more than 1965. However. aquifers. 2004). 2009. NATCARB.200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al.g. it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA. scale of algae production. Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. natural gas. Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. biomass growth rate. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. 2008 and 2009). Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate. As a result. including Exhibit 9. 2002). The geographical location.. In addition.. parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment. Flue gas.. The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. However. but a significant effort will still be needed to et al. at some large growth system and incident light conditions. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. such as from fossil. 2006). collect.. Applications fuel-fired power plants. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e. USGS. 2009). Dennehy. if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas. identify. Resources and Siting   . a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. using coal) represents over 40% of the total. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. depth. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum. for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources.resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA. typically output a steady 1. detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking. including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003. recharge rate. 2008b). Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al. and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. 2008 and 2009). 2009). potential As an example. sustainability of supply. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. addition. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours.000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. 2008). The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. content. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species.

0 13 Industrial 141.276. grassland. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure. One outcome economic. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation.production.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB.. several characteristics need to be considered.5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land. algae production siting and CO2 sourcing. Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling. as will be discussed further in chapter 10.. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain. including pasture. R&D program (e. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock. Soils.3 140 Cement Plants 86.1 4. such as topography and soil. much of the land in the West is government owned. and purchase requirements. social.796 9. and political factors. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196. 2006 and 2009). Physical characteristics. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical.3 163 Fertilizer 7..6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90.g. legal. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis). lease.6. oil feedstock.3 112 Electricity Generation 2. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity. lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e. affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development. Resources and Siting   81 .9 173 Total 3.002 Ethanol Plants 41.e.g. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9. and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region. For example. Exhibit (USDA. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities).5 3. This of land for algae production (i.702.9 665 Other 3. 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6. 9.

. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 . Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity. but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . as with any form of biomass. systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However. system structures. Resources and Siting   . Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions. the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability. 1985).6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions. the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al. reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production. lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. 1985 ) 82 9.20 g/m2 per day. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source.60 g/m2 per day. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used. Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost. than real. the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further.. can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al. algae productivity crops. (chapter 10). such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference. It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses. given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist. 2009). Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. for algae productivity.or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process..

nutrient recycling. nitrogen. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. algae-based parks. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. archaeological sites.not be seen as suitable for algae production. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities.g. in suitable climates. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production. The roles of nutrients. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming. Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production.. phosphorus. this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel. or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production. synthetic organic compounds. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. excess nutrients (e. organic matter. Resources and Siting   83 .. nutrients from treatment. The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. as noted earlier. On the other hand. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al. wildlife areas.. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. phosphorus. The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration. biomass production facilities 1985). monuments.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use. and wastewater treatment facilities. 9. offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. for additional rounds of algae production. Examples of this type of constraint include technologies. and potassium). metals. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection. 1985). Beyond economics.

Woertz et al.g. organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae. harvesting is a 2002)... which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e.. This nutrients (e. to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9. 2009). The cost biomass production. natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants. 2003. Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment. followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned. lakes. cost savings. 2002). The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass). Aksu. productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production). practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. of chemical addition ($0. including wastewater treatment ponds.. As with other algae production systems. 2002. Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours.. The ability agricultural drainage. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production..7. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters. and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al.. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present. Borde et al. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al.$0. Even with internal recycling.. 2009. These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e. recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment. 2008) is high for biofuel production. 2007). which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products.. The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity. food processing).7). Resources and Siting   . at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers.g. For example. endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only).g.. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains.10 . As noted above. but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). Finally.17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. 1998. Muñoz et al. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight. The (e. to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al. including nutrient removal. Thus.. the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9. and lakes).. rivers. 2005). Kohn et al. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). harming higher organisms. might be prevented to a 84 9. 1988.g. the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities. Non- production. Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. and rivers). the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation. whereas pond (~1 cm). agricultural drainage. These highly productive systems use shallow reactors. dissolved oxygen. organic nutrients. 2008) and throughout the world..g.and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald. coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. municipal and industrial sources) sludge. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems. which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al. autoflocculation) are far less costly.g. high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e. confined animal facilities).. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells.

7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation. Resources and Siting   85 .Exhibit 9. High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.

. micro-screening. potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs. al. The topics wastewaters. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting. Resources and Siting   . Lundquist et al. However. 1996. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9.. any heavy metals autoflocculation.g. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development. hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. calls. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. etc. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system. very different business models and goals for algae selenium.. market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers.. but further investigation is techniques. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants. such as bioflocculation. Salton Sea.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 2008. Furthermore. needed to confirm this. Calif. For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient.g. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical. integration opportunities and challenges. constraints significant. technical and market challenges. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes.. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water. Thus. CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. co-products. of several issues. The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. their ability to treat high. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing. and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government. 9. 2004). Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products. mine drainage. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e. etc. Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. an overriding or other wastewater. 2002). low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. dispose of agricultural drainage. Mulbry et al..

The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities.The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2. The growth. beneficially used in algae production. This will industries (e. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. The regulatory implications transport. policy on carbon extraction/refining. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. However.S. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. but. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere. Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants. construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production..15%) than natural gas plants (5 . carbon sequestration. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil. etc. Also. fossil fuel require establishing a U. 9. conditioning. The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown.). 2005). fermentation-based industries. cement manufacturing. Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. depending on the type of plant and fuel used. While algae biofuels can be produced. fired power plants. concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere. Resources and Siting   87 . introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture. the algae through photosynthesis. as sources.6%). beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater. plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. Thus.g. During those times.5. which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%. and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site.

Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act. Also. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon. ethanol plants. P. not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. Therefore nutrients must be production arena. This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations.. algal facility. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 . required. Thus. the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology. CO2 emitting industry facilities. mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae.30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners. and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations. algal technology companies. distributors. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. Although often referred to as a “free” resource. will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae. solar resource. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. and other participants coordinated plants. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9. Several areas for research. Resources and Siting   . etc. stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities.). • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009). etc. CO2 is only at the national level. ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”.10 acres). universities. K) supply.

▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. Resources and Siting   89 . and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development. and refiners/distributors. crop fertilization. and other sites. salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management. flocculation harvesting. etc. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx. SOx. etc. costs. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling. Develop university training programs. proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. storage.

M. Buck. Adey. Munoz.eia.K. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Ocean Coastal Management.pdf. and Oswald.. Mean monthly. R.. International energy outlook 2009 (chap.. J. Available online at: http://genomicsgtl. Department of Energy (DOE). DC. Department of Energy. seasonal. Foust. E. R. (2009). and Oswald. 86(3). Water rush: Deep aquifers sought for metro growth. (2003).. W. Carbon capture & storage: Assessing the Economics.htm Craggs.L. DC. (2007). (2008). Easterly. In Water Desalination and Reuse Strategies for New Mexico. D. Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: The prospect of offshore co-management and legal constraints. (DOE/ EIA-0573). Hatti-Kaul. Geological Survey. Denver. Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis. D. Water Science and Technology. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2007. Cushman.. J. (2004.R. Van Olst... Available online at: www. 47. I. J. Washington. Available online at: http://www. Washington. H. CO: U.L. (1982). Ecological Engineering. Thompson. Krause.J. and annual pan evaporation for the United States. Erbach. (1996)...energy. DC. Synergistic relationships in algal- bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants.sandia. A.E.. Delgado.gov/biofuels/2005workshop/b2blowres63006. J..E. (DOE/SC-0095).B.. Resources and Siting   . Evaporation rate as a function of water salinity. Tam (Eds.. 135(11). D. Albuquerque Journal. T. H.C. US Department of energy Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Enery. S. GHGT-6. 2002. A. Weissman. Dennehy. Washington..gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/ Energy Information Administration (EIA). Washington. Campbell. Energy Information Administration (EIA).. B. Tagore.com/clientservice/ccsi Clark..F. (2004).pdf Department of Energy (DOE). (2002).F. Lundquist. Desalination of groundwater: Earth Science Perspective. R. W.J. H. Hettenhaus.. (2009). 6. April 15). E.doe. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Sokhansanj. A. Naucler. D.eia. DC. 189-203.R. DC.. Washginton.C.doe. Microalgal biomass for greenhouse gas reductions: Potential for replacement of fossil-fuels and animal feeds.. 293-300. US Department of Energy. G. September). Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States.S.. Washington.L.J.com/news/state/aph2orush02-11-09. (2002). (February 11. Springer-Verlag. J. and Benemann.gov/energy-water/docs/121- RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL. 150.gov/climatechange/emissions/CO2_human.abqjournal. 117–125. DC.).epa. Brune. X.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).. Energy demands on water resources: Report to congress on the interdependency of energy and water. Desalination.K. (2008). Bracco. The controlled eutrophication process: Using microalgae for CO2 utilization and agricultural fertilizer recycling. National perspective on saline aquifers. Jessup.gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions. S. Environmental Protection Agency.J.N. D. J. Environmental Protection Agency. H. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 34). A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage. U.. Department of Energy. Department of Energy.... J. J. Massingill. and Wright. B. and Brune. T. Sheehan. Bioresource Technology. Patin.S. (1998). 90 9. Inventory of U. R. Human-related sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Available online at: http://www.R.C. 149-169.R. and Ruijs. and Mattiasson.B. Wastewater Treatment with Algae (37-54). J. Environmental Protection Agency.. Borde. O.pdf Downing.. Zubieta. Emissions of greenhouse gases report. In Y-S Won & N. Available online at at: www. 1136-1144. (2009.S.gov/algae2008/breakouts/dennehy2004. W.H.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). J. (2002).. 45(1).References Aksu... Al-Shammiri. B.C. Turhollow. F. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Farnsworth.X. 8). K.Y. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress.. (DOE/EIA-0484). McKinesey Climate Change Initiative. Japan.R. and Thompson. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. (2008).. Kyoto. Lundquist. Available online at: http://www.. Ku. Green. Breaking the biological barriers to cellulosic ethanol: A joint research agenda. Alley. M.. H. Available online at: http://www. Washington. Berlin. (2002). Benemann. B. (USGS Fact Sheet 075-03). Hoskinson.J. J.J.mckinsey.. (2006b). W. Washington.S.J. 2009).. W. Available online at: http://www. L. and Rosenthal.Y.. T. (2003). October.. R. 95-122. J. Hess.orau. (2006a). DC. Guieysse.

and Maupin.. Produced water and associated issues. J. Department of Agriculture. Hutson. K. (2004). R. Shannon. and Kebede-Westhead. and Hogg. Lynn L. Oroud.K. (2008).S. 52. (1982). CO. E. Robin L. DC. (SAND 2007-1349C). (2004). CO.. Folger.L. Turhollow. Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States. S. Pate. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). (SERI/TP. Kondrad.. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. potential. Reynolds.. Wright. (Atlas HA-199). Davidson. The energy challenge: Commentary. S. and Donald C. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project. Lundquist. Lovelace.. Mulbry... Denver. W. R.L. A.. Oklahoma Geological Survey. Kenny. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations. J. (2005). Ahmadzadeh B. D. R. (SERI/SP-231-2550). Rubin. Erbach (2005). Borglin. C.K. Muñoz. United States Geological Survey. Washington. U. Golden.. R. Hightower.. and de Coninck.C. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington. (2008). Linsey. 231-240. OK. CO2 Source Map of US . Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Los Alamos. F. E.A. (1978). W. M. (2005). 12). 99. and Peck.W. T. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources..J.F. Nature. M. Feinberg. Loos. 9.. (2007). Robert D. and Midgley. Linsey.S.. S. I. Cameron. E. (1990). Solar Energy Research Institute. (1965).. L. University of Illinois.L. and research requirements. Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. Anthony F. 4.A. S.E.. NATCARB (2008a).G. Hutchison.. 8137-8142. Hightower...F. Available online at: http://pubs.S. Maxwell. Quinn. Huang.L.. (2008). Solar Energy Research Institute.. D. Norman. ORNL/TM-2005/66). National Academy of Sciences.org/Atlas/data_files.. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status. (2007). W. The National Academies Press. (2006). C. Lumia. CO.html NATCARB (2008b). Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005.. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. Water Science Technology. Rolvering. M.). Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. and Mattiasson. (1986). (USGS Circular 1334). 41(13). (Eds). Oswald. Guieysse. Kenny.232-3820). and Karpuk. M.Farnsworth.T. Technical summary. N. A. Cambridge University Press. energy.usgs. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. M. Kokya. M and Pierce.. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1. D. California Department of Water Resources. 452. Grandbois.A. B. K. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy. Hutson. 2005-2012. UK. Hsieh.S. E.H. McNeill.. R. CO. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). (1988). W. C. Resources and Siting   91 . 51(12). D. Perlack. Meyer. I. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States.Y..natcarb. D.CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www. K. 211-235.. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources.. and Meyer. and Maupin M. Stokes.K. (2009). Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Sandia National Laboratories. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. 261-265. (2007)..R.. N. T.. Green. (USGS Circular 1268). and Oswald.E. Bryce J. (DOE/GO-102005-2135. R.. (1995).C. U. Washington. and Nelson. and the environment.natcarb.000 parts per million dissolved solids. E. S. Hill.. N.html Neehan. K. Pizarro. Department of Energy. Environmental Science & Technology. In Metz. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds. Cambridge University Press.J.org/Atlas/data_files.. S. H. D. O. 4626-4632. B. Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake. Thompson. B.. and Kokya.. Barber. M. Feth. Feinberg. (1985).M. J. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. 22.. Hydrological Processes. and Terry.. L.gov/circ/1344/ Kohn.P. Microalgal Biotechnology (chap. Fresno. Graham. de Connick. California. H. CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production.S. Solar Energy Research Institute. C. NM... Theoretical and Applied Climatology. Golden.B.. Ecological Modelling.. Barber. Saline aquifer data http://www. Golden.S.G. B.L. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003).J. 285-286. J. (2003). and Einfeld. T.. McIntosh..C.S. K. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen. Bioresource Technology.

246-250. 1–10. Shuttleworth. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Lundquist.R. Wu. value. Lynch. (2009). (1998). Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective.. (2002). Journal of Environmental Engineering. Darzins. & Willson. Wang. (ANL/ ESD/09-1). I. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. (USGS Circular 1331)..usgs.H.S. 4).B. P. Evaporation.R. R. (U.gov/prov/prodwat/dictionary.S. M.gov/Briefing/LandUse/majorlandusechapter. Golden.. 1115-1122. Benemann. D. Resources and Siting   .. US Geological Survey. S. and Davies-Colley.htm U.htm U. 135(11).J.. Woertz. A. D.. D. Mintz. Dunahay. and Roessler. (2006).S. 68(3). Department of Agriculture (USDA).. and Wallace. Pierce. Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy.S. T. Y. USDA Economic Research Service.usgs.usda..1122-1131. Solley.. M. (2009). BioEnergy Research. and Perlman.A.. A look back at the U... (2009). J. (2002).J. W.). Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. Argonne National Laboratory. K. and Arora.M. 92 9. P. Hall. and Nelson.. U. Land use..S. Sinton. (2009. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae.ers. R. J.Sheehan.A. H.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200).E. M.cr..C. Woolhiser. A. T. W. CO. 110(2). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Geological Survey. D. Applied Environmental Microbiology.. (1993). Weyer. C.W.S. and management: Major uses of land. R. (2009). (1998). B.gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/ U. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters. Available online at: http://water. (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). M. (1984).A. Handbook of Hydrology (chap.J. Feffer. Major uses of land in the United States. Department of Agriculture (USDA). L. (Ed). Bush. D.G.. In Maidment. 1993. Mapping average daily pan evaporation. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline. McGraw-Hill. 2002. Geological Survey. USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www.

Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic . Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment. Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical.1).g.2.Dewatering . It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical. as illustrated in Exhibit 10..Harvesting Systems . to an overall regional and marketing. e. Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. systems. ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise. Toward this end.10. objective successful commercialization.1 Objectives of investments. and market conditions and constraints. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways. coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity. and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry. e. environmental. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10. systems. tradeoffs among different technologies. can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain. processes. comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap. political. economic.1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid . infrastructural.. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 . and processes. and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches.Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short. significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10.g.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
decisions
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Perfomance
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk
Reductions
Perfomance
Improvements

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences
Capture

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION & INTERDEPENDENCIES

Conversion
Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Operations,
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
Infrastructure
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Policy & Regulation. individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes. Operations.CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation. tilt. their alternatives. different levels within the broad systems scope presented. Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary.Labor . Exhibit 10. that should tend to focus on a technology or process. similar to the modeling approaches. Maintenance. and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt. etc. Incentives & Barriers Siting .Water Water Capture .Autotrophic .Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient . unit operation. Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development. be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant.Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion .Materials Energy Feedbacks . Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy. Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels. Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives. and utilize a range of and industry development effort. One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10.Land (cost.Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use .Solar Insolation Environment .Heterotrophic . soil) Broader .Open systems . It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling.3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain. location.Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation . or enterprise level rather than broader efforts.Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation . geology.7.Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids .6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on. and therefore.5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10.Characteristics . identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled. Demand & Price for Co-Products vs.Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction. Monitoring.Capital Co-Gen . It is also expected available and emerging information and data.GMOs Biology .Species .Equipment . develop. as exemplified by Exhibit 10.Performance . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 . scales.

development. transport. economic. Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging. with time delays. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis).Technical... enviromental. with learning curves & improvement projections .Integration with existing infrastructure . GIS Analysis.Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment . processes and integrated systems for commercialization. • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters. Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards.6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling. and national level. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . production availability. various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e. platform). • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations . and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond. and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state. closed photobioreactors. etc.. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential. Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. The size of the “matrix” engineering design. 98 10. or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination. across an emerging approach.. and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable.ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics.g. regional.. and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired. economic. The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing.Required build-up of new infrastructure.) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. specific technologies.Engineering & construction estimates from industry . and processes and performance parameters is another definitions.. and interface approaches.. constraints & impacts .. Beyond this. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies.. how better inform technical. Etc. resource use..

5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D.0 Extraction Conservation 6. Lipids H. Hydrogen K. Proteins P.2 Land Cultivation 3. universities. processes. Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1.0 Harvesting L.1 Microalgae Conservation F.3 Chemical G.1.2 Electromagnetic 5. Fertilizer Inputs 1.2 Filtering 8. assessment.2 Open system 2.1 Flocculation 2. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5. Exhibit 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 .3 Water 3. Materials 2. Feed 1.0 J.1. Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3. EPA.1. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies.) and non-technical issues.2 Co-products 1. Exhibit 10. Chemicals 2. Other Q.3 Macroalgae R.7 is a revised adaptation systems. and other technical Defense.Transport fish excrement.) 4.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment. USDA.3 Centrifuging biomass 3.5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp. moving in this direction (Getman.1. Biodiesel 5.End Use Exhibit 10. 2009). Ethanol 1. etc. etc.1 Fuel 5.Storage 4. Triglycerides N. cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets.1 Closed system 1.5 Biological Assist 2. Dried Algal 1. and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e. 10. Gasoline-like 6.1 Solar .1. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems. Fatty Acids M.2 Cyanobacteria R. 4.0 Drying . and national labs. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development.1 Chemical C.g.2 Thermochemical & Separation D.1.Distribution .3 Biochemical E..4 BY PASS 6.0 1.3 CO2 2. biofuel production.2 Fuel . Aviation 6.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1.4 BY PASS A. Biogas / Methane Metabolites I. 5. Green diesel 6.5 Light or Alt.7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry.4 Off-shore systems 3.Field . processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10. Carbohydrates O.1 Algae species 3.

A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. and comparing trade.) interdependencies and feedbacks. This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production. etc. and environmental impacts.) uncertainties. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown.8.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. temperature. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. risk. Sub-level accurate analyses.8. especially where Both Exhibit 10. evaluate costs. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . among others. nuclear energy. These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. • CO2 resources (point source emitters. K) supplies. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed. • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. and organic molecule reforming. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10.5 and Exhibit 10. solar insolation. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. storage infrastructure technical performance. (N. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. etc.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen. Exhibit 10. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions. regional. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. etc. availability of suitable land. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. Inputs to each will likely emerge. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use. hydrodynamic. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. The impact that availability and cost biological. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. The many process permutations. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. wind electrolysis. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). assumptions in individual processes to the overall system. • Fuel processing. P. unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use. transport. availability.of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis. and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. thus Fuel Initiative.

. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible. and transport of water. followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. with the appropriate models.) forcing functions and boundary transport.. Structures. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research. can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10.g. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport. the economics can be expected to improve. Currently. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10. Biomass e. nutrients.. Land. sourcing. same would apply to co-products and their potential markets. and energy). and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun. This information. the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. and biorefining into fuels and (e. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e.g. etc. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 .. is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. including example calculations presented later in this chapter. e.by the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production..9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo.g. business deployment. and policy decisions. Equipment. with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain. storage. this will include the logistics different site conditions. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. etc. nutrient other co-products.g. solar insolation. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials. The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. in press).. K. e.g. Some examples are: development. supply chain.. • POLYSYS At the downstream end. • Equipment. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure.g. Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport. Utilities. Exhibit 10. P. storage. ambient temperature. e. storage. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2.g. tools. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth. Hexane microfiltration e. resource management.

cost. the productivity and reliability of production.) will also affect both conditions. based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. availability. and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. temperature. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. water. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. productivity. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10.350 .000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured. vary over the U. Exhibit 10. photosynthetic efficiency. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. evaporative loss. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies. on the other hand. and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular. the variations. and basis. 50% oil content. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply. climate. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis. seasonal. 2009). as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover. and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water.) (Weyer et al.9. Si. and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. O2…) to model growth rates. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. etc. and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun. coastal. etc. availability. aspects of large scale agriculture. and fertilizer.S. and affordable accessibility of such water sources.5. precipitation. and offshore sites. • Availability.700 gal/ac-yr. can potentially help fill this need. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product. heterotrophic. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation. Under large power. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions. The daily. and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation. wind. though important for overall TE analysis. P. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. Certain elements..

derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution. The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. Conversely.. availability. transporting. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al. In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. such as are present in some forms of flue gas.. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. carbohydrates. carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. This As with cellulosic ethanol. K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. It is reasonably (i. if not more. and forest industries. water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources. risks. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10.. Malcolm et al. and petroleum). 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al. dependent on the geographical location. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins.e. and co-products like animal feed. N. P.. Mehta and Gaur. If it is agriculture (Huang. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2. the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. 2009). it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. 1998. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites. 2005). temperature control. other) production. but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). 2008). coastal. 2009. the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. though it is not yet energy crops. and inland • The supply. lipids. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. it may not much. (Huang. The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture.g. 9. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up.. 2009). but this the cost of operations.. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. on the industrial build-up. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. Finally. and operating expense. scale. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu. adding to the cost. and perhaps also for offshore sites. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. infrastructure facilities for offshore. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent. term. the right of access and use. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae. availability.

eliciting discussion. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). Benemann and and processes. 1997. white papers / industry analyses. Bernard. it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). potential. • Input resources. UNEP.. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). resource use. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. EPA. environmental. waste stream 2002 and 2004). and numerous others (EPA. and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10.. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e. a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks. ISO. constraints and impacts 2009). use. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. While most algal biofuels production. LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water.g. that a and including algae (Kadam. These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. and co-product credits. energy. Delucchi. energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts.11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. data base resources. The process employs a and scenario studies. 2004) up systems. 2006. to final disposal. 2001 and 2002). There are indications. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions. Department of Energy (e.g. EPA. operating costs. process. 1996). A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping. modeling.S. peer-reviewed literature (e. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. nutrients. delays. costs. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel. and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology. and maintenance. To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs.6 Preliminary System (EPA. 2009). 1987). the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. and other resources. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10. 1997. 1996. Exhibit 10. output flows.In summary. however. or service. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. EPA. While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties.g. In resource capture and reuse. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical.. would be subject to narrow operating margins. from manufacture. 1997). 2009. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009.12 (ISO. These 1993. 1993). Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . economic. and water.

The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation. expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10.g. and has • Employing modular modeling.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output.can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 . The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. Interactive graphical user interfaces. • Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10. The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress. e. and resource constraints. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment.

have been identified along various steps in the value chain. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. monitoring. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation. units. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. can facilitate Roadmap.12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. operation. and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. etc. the development. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization.

(EPA/600/R-92/245). Berlin. 113-152. http://www. S505-S510. pp.gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/ AspenTech (2010). Curran (ed).27.. (Grant No. Posten. 491-515. NREL Report No. Fertilizer Prices. A look back at the U. (1998).. Marcel Aillery. Office of Research and Development. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=493389 Curran (1996). G. C. S. ERS Report AR-33. (2001).hydrogen. AspenTech software product portfolio. Bioenergy Research. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. “Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis”.transportation. Kruse. November 2009.R. T. http://www..References Aksu.hydrogen. Argonne National Laboratory (2009). (2006). Y-S Won and N. Medina. 1(1).38. D. Cincinnati: Ohio. (1998). Mark (2004). B. Environmental management . (2009). 20–43. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. pp.L. DOE Hydrogen Program. 905-922.gov/h2a_analysis.pdf Rittmann. J. Marx. (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: Progress and prospects. Delucchi. pp.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).L. Suppl. E. Geographic Information Science and Technology Group. “Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U.html Getman. and Oswald.localenergy.nrel. Kadam.R.biblio.. Malcolm. J. ISBN 0-07-015063-X. Report prepared for the Pittsburg Energy Technology Center. Cincinnati: Ohio. E.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190. (in press).Y.osti. DOE (2009)..gov/bridge/product. and Marca Weinberg (2009). eds. Available online at: http://www. M. Dunahay. v. Office of Research and Development.. Huang. Energy v.energy. Wen-yuan (2009).F. and Roessler.E.Principles and Framework. B.H. S. 20.gov/ and specifically the DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project: http://www. Bioenergy knowledge discovery framework. (2009). O. Second generation biofuels: High-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. (1997). “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Lifecycle Analyses of Transportation Fuels“. USDA ERS Report Number 86.. Mussgnug. Y.K..energy.S. Kadam.. Schenk.P. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  107 . including AspenPlus® and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®). (1996). and Varun. K. J. Tam. International Standards Organization. and Gaur. Mgmt. Available online at: http://www. (EPA/600/R-06/060).” In: Wastewater Treatment with Algae. B. Acien Fernandez.pdf 10.C. (1993). “Power Plant Flue Gas as a Source of CO2 for Microalgae Cultivation: Economic Impact of Different Process Options”. (2008). US-EPA LCA Resources Web Site (latest update July 2009): Available on line at: http://www. UCD-ITS-RR-04-45. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.H.. Molina.G. (2008). Journal of Computational Biology. J. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. International Standards Organization. P. A. March 2009. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). E. (2002). 25(3). and Hankamer. “Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape”. Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice.. 1997. DOE’s aquatic species program – Biodiesel from algae.. Kadam. (1997). Biotechnology Advances. 37-54. Stephens. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: Process options and economics. McGraw-Hill. P. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. regulated emissions.. Thomas-Hall. Benemann. C. Mehta. J. and energy use in transportation (GREET) model. 203-212. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Belarbi. ISO 14040. F. 2004. S. (2003). DE-FG22- 93PC93204). Optimizing algae growth in open-channel raceways.anl. U. W.. http://www. Springer-Verlag. James. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles. 2002. and Chisti. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. (NREL/TP-580-24190). 2002-08”. 100(2). A. TP-510-29417. Available online at: http://www. “Environmental implications of power generation via coal-microalgae cofiring”.Life cycle assessment .epa.L.S. Sheehan.A. USDA.org/pdfs/Document%20Library/Bioenergy%20conversion%20factors.. The greenhouse gas. (2003).gov/ord/NRMRL/lcaccess/resources.aspentech. February 2009. Scott A.com/core/ Benneman. K. Energy Convers. K. Bioenergy conversion factors. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass..

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g. in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge. Partnerships based participants. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. investment. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al. The the algal biofuels value chain.. 2002.. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. in turn. infrastructure projects. algal biofuels industry. Indeed.. pre-revenue. 2002). Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). 11. the U.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels. More specifically. and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation.. but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten. as well as reduces the risk of private 2001. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. including specific studies on the impacts firms. and industry. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies. realizing benefits in both categories. given the current state of of a sustainable. universities. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11.11.S.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. however. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. thereby facilitating growth and development infancy. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology. Link could. industry) and public entities (e. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development.. many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories. Brown et al. national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. including characteristics Exhibit 11.A 11. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s. The type of this industry. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale. 2006).1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation. academia. Gallagher et al. academia can be either public or private. collaboration between private entities (e.g. Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. 2001.. given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. Public-Private Partnerships   109 .

However. because some awards are based on having solved the problem. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. These events are often 11. including the development of biofuels. as well as a platform to share research. Through their structure.players (e. environment. conferences. Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. and may compete poorly in this type of award. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level. new partnership.3 Forums for Public. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before. Through these events. as common interest. scientists and engineers can learn of new research.g. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development.. which could allow In recent years. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical.B. and private investors) into a single competition. industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria. Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships. However. • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. 2008). be proportional to the value of the contribution. or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. labor). national. By maintaining an active directory. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. Public-Private Partnerships   .C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. However. 110 11. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). of solicitations are system-oriented. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership. consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau. global problems. into a working system to solve a problem. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors.4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. they are often formed to serve no other purpose. technology scale-up and demonstration. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge. non-profit foundations.

2. Also. particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. several in algal biofuels. technology development. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon. Therefore. conversion process. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards. this characteristics. By reducing scaling risks. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field. dewatering pathway. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. construction personnel. facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11. distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures. 2009). or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry. and academia. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization.g. economic. algal growth and harvesting. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations. aviation. consortia. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. 11. overcoming the lab-field and information technology. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products.). it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors.org/future-x-prizes/energy-and-environment C http://www. biofuels.) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems.org/ 11. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition.. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel. public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable. and fuel conversion.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www. Public-Private Partnerships   111 . Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. • Technology development in algal biology.. to road-test their technologies. Collaborative partnerships. government solicitations. lawyers. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership.g. effective way to address technological. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document.mitcep. requirements. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. real estate developers. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal operations. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. events. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. technologies developed in the • Industry Growth. etc.xprize. etc.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. algal oil extraction. and the most difficult to implement. nanotechnology. Academia will competitions. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations specialists.

then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. However.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners. it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes. Public-Private Partnerships   . • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully. discuss and debate the merits of each.models presented. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game. high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11. Exhibit 11.

TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. companies 11. standardization operational. • Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. royalty. facilities business. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive. Public-Private Partnerships   113 .

and Sagar. W. 31. S. and Koomey J.S..S. The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry.D. (2002). 31.. 31(1). 114 11. Energy Policy. The MIT Press. (2000).A. 29(14). Levine.A. K. A. Brown. Stiglitz. (2001)..E. Gallagher. Energy Policy. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. P.References Audretsch. (2001).V. J..A. Willem. A. D. Science. Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. Link. Short. Public-Private Partnerships   .P.T. (2006). D. Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass. Public-private policy partnerships. Link. (ed).. (2009).N. limited resources. J. and Scott. D.G.S. Paton. M. J. and Siegel.D. P. 1179-1196. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Energy-technology innovation. Endless frontiers. Holdren. 145-158. 707-708. (2002). 29(14). Washington: U. 1197-1207. M. 1459-1466. 193-237. 325(5941). M. Brown.. In Rosenau. Research Policy..B.N. Research Policy.J. (1996). Council on Competitiveness. Scenarios for a clean energy future.. and Wallsten. A.. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. R&D Policy for Competitiveness.

Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya.S.S. Lauder School of Government. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS. Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   . Inc. Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U.S.

C. Department of Energy. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 .S.William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS.S. Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U. Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska .S.S.Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K. Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U. Inc.

Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If. Department of Energy.S.S.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   .S. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U.S.S.S. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U.S. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U. Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U.

Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 .C.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp.Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic. Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U. Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation. Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J. LLC J.

Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain .S. N.John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink. Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P.V. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   . Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U.S.Shell Global Solutions Inc.

LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 .S. Department of Energy.S. Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U. Department of Energy. Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate. LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical.Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U.

Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska . Department of Energy.V. Inc. Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink. Inc.S. N.Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   .Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U.S. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources. Department of Energy. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company.

Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. LLC. Inc. Molly Hames U.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U. Appendices   122 . Inc.S.S. Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF. Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS.

S. Inc. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U. Department of Energy. Biomass Program 123 Appendices   . Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U. Department of Energy. Department of Energy.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS. Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U.S.S. LLC.

Inc. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Whitton. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . Bruce E. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R. Gale PetroAlgae. Dr. Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. Biodesign Institute. Biotechnology Institute David L. Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Inc. Dr.Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor). Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae. Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 . Rittmann Arizona State University G. Algal Farms Inc. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M.

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