BIOMASS PROGRAM

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340
john.ferrell@ee.doe.gov valerie.sarisky-reed@ee.doe.gov

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2
1

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories
1

4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

2 of the Bulletin. As such. . 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy. Further. This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II.This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy. this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No.

Preface Welcome to the U. DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. Biomass Program U. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. Department of Energy Preface  i . and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. engineers.S. Therefore. engineers. reliable energy. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. and the stability of our global climate. private companies. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers. Meanwhile. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager. comments gathered during a public comment period. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. other federal agencies. and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. research managers. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. our economic wellbeing.S. DOE is investing in a variety of research. and other stakeholders. environmentally sound biofuels. industry representatives. and supporting scientific literature. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. development. Achieving cost-competitive. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come.

by 2022. The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). and Renewal Act. cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. 2008. 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus. and advanced biofuels. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. provide environmental benefits. meet the new RFS feedstock resources. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. In addition fuel sold in the U. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). ii Executive Summary  . marine. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates. Photo courtesy of the our national security. held December 9-10. and create economic and programs. 2009. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock.S. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. development. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals. saline. Of these candidates. Under certain conditions. The term algae can refer to microalgae. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. engineers. sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. produced. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world. weight). President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). a scalable. This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products. the end of the program. To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. brackish. These include: the goal. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years. fungible Workshop. These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. was convened fuels.S.S. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors.

Executive Summary  iii . and comments received during a public comment period. guide researchers and engineers. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. development. federal agencies. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. The Roadmap In summary. supporting scientific literature. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable.research managers. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. industry representatives. By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps. and regulators from across the country to scale. research. policymakers. The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes. This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. and deployment efforts. lawyers. and sustainable algal-based fuels. this document will serve to commercial scale.

macroalgae (seaweed). Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. marine. Understanding. Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications. scalability. such as sugars. Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. brackish waters. and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. to generate new biomass). Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae. managing.

and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products. and proteins. proteins can be used for co-products (e. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion.g. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions. Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass. fertilizers. While many analytical techniques exist. animal feed. Affordable. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction. biodiesel and jet fuel). CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids). Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels. biochemical.g. Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. bioplastics.. animal/fish feeds). issues. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges. These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. Abundant.g.. and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering. industrial enzymes. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. carbohydrates. The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized.. and thermochemical processes. While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e. gasoline.

vi Executive Summary  .

.........................................30 3..................3 Early Work to 1996............................ 31 Contents  vii ....8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers..................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges............................................................................................................8 2.......................................................................................................................................................................... Screening and Selection .......................................................................... Overview...............................................................................11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism........................................................................................................... 16 The Genetic Toolbox................................................................................... 12 Biohydrogen ....................5 1...........................................................................................................2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry..................................................................1 1........................1 Strain Isolation........................................................................................................29 3....................................................................................................................................................................1 About the Roadmap...................................... 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy.......... 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures ........................................................................................................5 Regulations and Standards..............................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study....2 Scale-Up Challenges....... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria.............................................1 Cultivation Pathways..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 References..............7 2.............................................................................................................................................................. Algal Biology....................................................... Contents 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today......................................................... 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization...........................................................................................................................3 1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Research from 1996 to Present....... 23 3................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications......................10 2...........................................................................................................2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development...............................................................................................................................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates.......................................................................................3 Algal Biotechnology.........................1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks................................ 15 2..........................................................................................................................................................7 Public-Private Partnerships.......... Algal Cultivation....................................................................................... 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics............................7 References...................................................................................................................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges............ 29 Macroalgae......................................................................................................

.................... and Recycling................................................................44 Subcritical Water Extraction......................................................50 Pyrolysis................................................................................................................. 37 4.............1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 References................................................................... 38 Preprocessing............................ 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures.............. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering...............................................................................................................................................................................................................48 6................................ 38 Harvesting............. ........... System Productivity........................................ 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae.................. 49 Hydrogen................................. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies ................................................................................................................................................3 Systems Engineering ............................................................................................................46 6...................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction..................................................................................................................................e...........................................................................................................................50 6..................................................................... Extraction of Products from Algae ................ 32 Water Management.................................................................................................................. 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction....................................................................................................................................... 39 4.............................37 Drying......................................................................3 Conversion of Algal Extracts.............................................................. 38 4......................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Challenges........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 5..................................................................................................... 54 viii Contents  ..................... Sustainability......................................................................................................................................................................................................48 Alcohols......... Cell Rupture)............... 45 Heterotrophic Production.................................................................... 35 4...............................................................................................2 Processing of Whole Algae................................2 Approaches for Macroalgae ...............................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction............................................................. 39 References.. 49 Alkanes..................................................................46 References..........................................50 Gasification................ and Management.............. ..1 Approaches for Microalgae.....................................................................................40 5........................................................................................................................... 32 Nutrient Sources..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance ........................ 53 Chemical Transesterification......................................................................................................................................... 42 Mechanical Disruption (i........................................... Conservation..................42 5.................................................................................................................... 52 Supercritical Processing........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 6....................................................................................................................................44 Selective Extraction...................................................................................................... 51 Liquefaction............................................................................................................................................................................................37 Harvesting.........................................................................................................................

1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches.................................................................................................................................................................... 88 References......................................................................................................... Distribution and Utilization...................................................................................................................................................75 Water........................................................................................ 88 Directions for Research and Development.............. 86 9.........80 Land.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 8.......................................................................................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria....................................................................2 Resources Overview.................................................................. 56 6............................................................................1 Distribution................................................................................................... 81 9............................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................ 73 9....................................................... Co-products .57 References.........77 Carbon Dioxide.............................................................................................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach....... 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater .................................................... 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products.....................................90 Contents  ix ..............................................................75 Climate ............................................................................................................................................................................. 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products....74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel...5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries.........................2 Utilization.....74 9........................ 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources .. 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 7.......................................................................................... ............................................... 67 8.................................... 58 7..........................................................................4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction................ Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion...............................................................................................................................71 References............................................................................................................ 61 7.......................... 55 Catalytic Cracking......................................................................................69 8.....................................................................................................................64 References............................................................................................................. Gasoline..3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products........... 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach........4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities ............................... and Jet Fuel ..........................72 9................................................. Resources and Siting ............................................2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae............................................................................. 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources........ 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants..............................................................................................................................................................................................64 7.......................

............................... 111 References......... 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs.......................................................................10.....1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis .............5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties...................................................................114 Appendices ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 109 11.................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships..............................................................................................................................................4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry.................... 105 11........................................................................................................ 111 11.......... 104 10.........5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development..........................99 Overview...........................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)...........................................................................................................................................................94 10................................................................4 Systems Analysis............................................................................................................................................................................... Public-Private Partnerships ....110 11.. 104 10....................124 x Contents  ....................................................................... Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis...............................2 TEA Scope and Methods...................................................................................................................... 97 10.................................99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments...........................................................102 Life Cycle Analysis............... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants.............................................................................................................................................................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships..............................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships.................................................................115 Appendix 2: Contributors. 104 10............................ 93 10............6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling ....................... 109 11.......122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap.................................................110 11..........................93 10....7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort ..............................................................................

the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap. government and new energy technology research and development. bioproducts and biopower. held December 9-10. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. and non-governmental organizations. with national laboratories. The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. viewpoints. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. the Roadmap describes fuels.1). Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. energy security. Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1. energy efficiency. academia.S. of a viable. as well as made provisions that Workshop. economic opportunities across the nation. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U. 1. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry. agencies. In doing so. Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision. the production of economically viable biofuels.1. at the University of Maryland-College Park. and sustainable algal-based biofuels. In 2007. Furthermore. the national laboratories. of which only 15 economic. development. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research. and creates be found at http://www. The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific. 60% of 2008. industry. scalable. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. commercial. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive.orau. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. and industry. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels.S. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop. intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues.gov/algae2008pro/. academia. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. To accomplish its goals. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of 2007. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. A major objective of the reserves. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. provides environmental benefits. Overview  1 . Despite their potential. 1. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts.S. reduces our dependence Roadmap.

0 36.5 2016 4.25 0.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.0 30. Overview  . while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study.0 a 11. but no less than 1.80 1. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0.2 2013 1.15 2015 3. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.0 2020 10.0 2019 8.0 33.55 2014 1. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels.0 a 2.0 billion gallons.65 0.1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement..95 2011 0.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA.35 13. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha.2). and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.0 15. 2 1. oleaginous Exhibit 1.0 28.25 22.75 18.0 26. However.6 11.0 a 5.5 0.75 16.25 a 7.75 a 3.0 a 21. Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al.5 20.95 12. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.5 a 15. 2005).5 a 9.95 2012 0.0 24.1 0.5 1.. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates. 2009).0 2021 13. For example.1 2010 0.0 2018 7.25 2017 5.5 a 13. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass.0 2. the study did not explore the potential of algae.5 a 18. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.0 2022 16. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1. As required by EISA.

Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. 1998). however. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon. surges through the decade. Overview  3 . this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. with projected costs for fossil fuels. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al. 1. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. In 1998. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. produced water. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. commercially viable system has in salinity. The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today.. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. northwestern. Some of the highlights are described briefly below. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U. to the 300 most promising strains. process development.S. such saline water. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering.2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s. a scalable.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density. could lead to this phenomenon. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity. pH. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. and temperature. and also for their ability not yet emerged. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types.000-6. freshwater supplies. Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. 1. gained serious attention only during from stationary sources. The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. a comprehensive overview Algae 1. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. dates back to the 1940s.000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. • Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. During the early years.

Sheehan et al. (Weissman et al. and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al. However. biomass was demonstrated. Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing. productivity improvements. 50 g/m2/day. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. but Among various techniques. biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate. and CO2 resources (power plants). This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. Overview  . ACCase activity was found to increase deep). but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al. cost. Under inducing conditions. petroleum consumption. an oleaginous diatom. Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production. cryptica were characterized (Roessler.. characterization. paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al. Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation. 1985). enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program.After promising microalgae were identified.g. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase).or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U. but lower oil producing. The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel. and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition. such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. the Roswell area. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis. issues associated with such methods. and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues. the commercially viable strains for oil production. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology. Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. primarily in C. depth research. production. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term. conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al. In addition.. 1996). The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid.. Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control. estimated costs for unextracted 1998). New Mexico. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. growth was conducted in California. Hawaii. shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies.and capital-intensive. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler. and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley. chrysolaminarin saline water. In this species. strains from the wild.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . 1989). A Test Facility in Roswell. Different cost process step that is highly energy. 1998). Inc. For example. analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. however. but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale.. or engine testing was carried out. which Microbial Products. some process options (e. purification. distance from CO2 point sources. costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements. smaller ponds for inocula production. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress..000 m2 outdoor. The 4 1. Studies focused on suitable land. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald.S. and the efficiency of CO2 1995).. Cyclotella cryptica. 1990). 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. scale-up. 1988). The systems were characterized (Roessler. further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. 1999. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields. 2007). 1998)... 1990). primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti..

suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs. that include investigating microalgae. Courtesey of CCMP. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals. funding levels are beginning to increase. policymakers. However. cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. a number of U. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. Overview  5 . there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. 1..gov/publications. Recent initiatives. the Department of Defense. 1987). Also from 1968-1990. significantly outpacing government funding. affordable. Further. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel gas. Office of Science. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes.nrel. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. and public-private partnerships. Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. Office of Fossil Energy. needed to support commercialization activities. cyanobacteria. the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. Additionally. federal funding for algal research has come scale. A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally.S. federal agencies. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. and the Department of Agriculture. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1. particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson. regulations and standards. the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E). Overall. the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. In particular. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. Cyclotella cells. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant.barrel (Sheehan et al. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. 1998). macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry. and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. Species Program. feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels.

g. such as operational temperature. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry. weather impacts. climate. microwave. fertilizers. biochemical conversion. and coastal/off-shore systems. and materials from algal remnants (e. Overview  . energy. water.e. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination. subcritical water. biofuel.. bioplastics. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e. centrifugation. animal/fish feeds. energy balance. water & nutrient reuse. energy. direct fuel production.. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. closed.g. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass.. carrying capacity. side reactions. sedimentation. activity. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency.. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i. dissolved air floatation. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges.. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses.g. stability. heterotrophic. filtration. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land.g. sonication. intermediates. flocculation. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale.g. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e.. 6 1. supercritical fluid. biogas. industrial enzymes. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land. hybrid. open. water. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e.g.. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance. pressure. solvent systems. selective extraction. phototrophic.

Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline. Biomass. Oswald. Biological transformation of solar energy. E.. 1004–1011. & Golueke.. & Nagle. Evans. Rodolfi.. Journal of Biological Chemistry. W. Jarvis. such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights. P.J.B. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica . 1988. 1605(UC-61). Appl.. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. Being a nascent industry. However. RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards. 1955. W. 2008. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply.D. J.G. Milne. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. and policy. 1990.. 31(6). L. Jarvis. J. C.e. with shape-selective zeolites. consumption standards.. Roessler. Biotechnol Bioeng. Overview  7 . 223–242. NTIS# H CP/ T. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System. regulation. 100–112. Adv.. 1995.G. T. J. 2009]. Meier. 1960.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. T. Microbiol. R.R. Biodiesel from microalgae.. References Benemann. Microalgae for oil: strain selection. 1.G. et al. P. & Oswald. 102(1). there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production.A. Journal of Phycology. TN. Roessler.E. Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica.. Biotechnology Advances. Also. 394–400. 1999.G.. 11. Algal from multiple entities.US Patent 5928932 Abstract. 294–306. R. 2007. P. R. 21(3). and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. However. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor.J. 24. with algal biofuels commercialization. Pursoff. 2005. E. Available at: [Accessed November 3. P... Final Report to the US Energy Department. 179–183. & Ohlrogge. Y. it is recognized economic. Solar Energy Research. & Roessler.L. et al.. & Roessler. Phycol. 91.. Chisti. N. Perlack. 25(3).J.. Dunahay. ORNL/TM-2006/66. 219-232. P.G. supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i.. Oak Ridge. 1978. 1993.

The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. other gene markers.. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. marine require significant experimental effort. Furthermore. Due to their diverse characteristics. 2005). versatility possible. hypersaline. and strain robustness. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. products. 2004). they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. within an aqueous habitat. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. streams. 8 2. the development and hyper-saline environments. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts. Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. 1984). Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. lipids. maps. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats.. this is not always the case. CO2 levels). The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). (seaweeds). Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered. brackish. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. rivers. of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. In all cases. actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats.e. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae). 2005). Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. ponds. whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. and soil (Round. cultivation and strain development. large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. pH.1 Strain Isolation. lakes. locations to maximize genetic diversity. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. oxygen levels. Algal Biology  . high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. which includes fresh. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats. metabolite production. Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology.2. see Anderson. on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. 2.or eukaryotic. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. oceans. salinity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life. questions medium. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. and generation. Traditionally. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature.

. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. some may have lost original phenotypes. Transcriptomics. Omics data (Genomics. subspecies name. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. Therefore. Proteomics. 2003). Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency. The function of a culture collection often 6. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor.000 strains. ) (Bligh and Dyer.. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research. However. Algal Biology  9 . taxonomy. Strain administration (number in collection. 1959). temperature. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. is the most nutrient requirements. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described.. such as growth rate and metabolite properties. toxicity) Currently. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. algal strains. it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. protect genetic material. de la Jara et al. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed. and provide 3. molecular. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. Information could include: 1. They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5.For mass culture of a given algal strain. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. to determine a strain’s robustness. valuable strains. Not only document data on strains. native al. but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. 2007. metabolites. only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. other countries. cultures (Sheehan et al. such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. Environment and strain history (specific habitat. Growth conditions (media. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. which data. and predators present in a given environment. Strain name (species. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth. they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. et al. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. existing culture collections. no central database exists that provides global 9. germination conditions cryopreservation. and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics.. or in connection with outside collaborators. community stability. pathogenicity. Previous robustness of particular existing strains. biochemical. The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. Biological interaction (symbiosis. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae. Mutants biology. Solvent extraction. 1998). Maine). 1991. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10. with more than 2. Strain properties: Cytological. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species.500 strains. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology. At present. They may also 7. Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. and phylogeny either by themselves 8. for example. Texas). basic research resources.

In such a strain.g. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. or co-product to be produced. in a practical sense. In some species. Finally. source. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. However. Algal Biology  . lipids.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol. Even that other strains will be chosen for production. 2006). cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. For example. Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion.volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites). food low. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. 1998). the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. systems could be studied. However. a large number of model and possible strain development for production. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. carbohydrates. transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al. it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. However. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system. 2002). Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains. or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be. contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. Also to be considered is whether growth. For example. of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism. supplements. production of biofuels. and species be necessary to isolate it. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors. there are two types of algal model harvesting step. Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). such as. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily. intermediate. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. if the desired product is volatile. so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii).Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan. 2006). However. A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter.... Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors. If the carbon source is utilized by the cell. and high cell densities can be achieved.

It is. understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. therefore. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. studies in higher plants showed that when 2. algal photosystems have built-in More recently. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al. with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production. storage compound in plants and algae. therefore.. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i. which can lead to oxidative damage. 2007). 2002). and Niyogi.. cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne. preventing it from et al. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects. carbohydrates. because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009.. indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi. 2008. although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. and potentially. algae. Theoretical productivity is an important concept. Though theoretical However.2. for biofuel production.. 2007 and 2008) Further. In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures. Yang et al. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. that is the desired fuel precursor.. Libourel and Shachar-Hill. and shares the Eberhard et al. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. 1994. 2009. 2002). 1994. starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al.2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy. 1991). accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). 1999). there remains be inter-convertible. 2003. Algal Biology  11 . Nelson and Yocum. plants (Hu et al. Foyer et al. and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou. some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier. pathway analysis. it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds.” Even with this photoprotection. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established.. 1994. 2006. 2002). Lipids and carbohydrates. 1994. knowledge of metabolic pathways. in their productivity. 2003).. are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols. however.. exposed to high light.. biomass 2007. 2007). accumulate mostly carbohydrates. affecting growth rate. nutrient starvation.e. Schwender et al. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al. 2005. proteins. a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization. 2008). Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2. 2008). Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis. and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids. 2005).... the percent of biomass and Fernie. In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. Mcdermid and Stuercke.. Sweetlove production.. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke. 2004.1). A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted.. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. Allen et al. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al. It is. 2003). as 2008). possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3). and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al. Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically. under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes.

TAG is formed by food reserves. It could. Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan. these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG). as example many brown algae and diatoms. feedstock potential. 2006).. Other abundant polysaccharides. it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al... Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). mannitol. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. naturally or under stress conditions. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited. Athenstaedt and Daum. Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel. carbohydrates. cell walls entirely. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like. (Roessler.. biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels. for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. the nature of the interaction is unknown. it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae. or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. 2004). While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. and extraction processes. Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. 2000). 2008. 1988). including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids. many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. are 3-phosphate. degradation. Vigeolas et al. therefore. must typically 2006.1). However. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. 2008). featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. In the final step of TAG synthesis. Some algae. which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. while some algae lack synthesis. recently been demonstrated in bacteria. but like those from plants. an enzyme wall. some red algae and dinoflagellates. and thus may play an for example. The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis. 1992).. As mentioned above. 1987).. the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). 2002). resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse.. Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. 12 2. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. greatly. Other algae. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. Some red In microalgae. for specific acyl CoA molecules. 1971. Algal Biology  . accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. Yoo et al. growing cultures. or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes. plants and yeast based. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2. An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls.

to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP. Such pathways property of individual species or strains. Sheehan et al.C18 CoA Figure 2. it will be difficult galactolipids. 2005). enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement. Stahl et al. 2008.. 2004). ACP: acyl carrier protein. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants.. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes. Algal Biology  13 . Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 . the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood. PA and be true. Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. 1998). laboratory (Hu et al. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. Moreover. Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG. If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae... As an example. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase. pathways. as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al. Thus. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase. Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. and other 2.1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate. the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier. 2000. If the or culture conditions. if any. These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. Similarly.. DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase.

sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. including vitamins. or with other organelles such as may be. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions. the structure and function of lipid However. a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. 14 2. In oil-producing microorganisms. and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. cell division. Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. 1992). the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. metabolism in algae. TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes. as rapid lipid energy storage compound.. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. the exact relationship between oxidative stress. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes. in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. proteins. Under high light stress. therefore. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking. It has as acyl donors. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear. It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy. Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. and other macromolecules. Nevertheless. with exceptions. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009).. 1998). Some acids.. 1998. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. stress conditions on lipid production in algae.. and et al. This relationship may be both metabolic. thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. starvation).and glyco. Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. The study the plastid where they are assimilated. phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). Huang. The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae. with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species.g. some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. This and lipid fate (Benning. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. their apparently widespread envelopes. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho. excess membrane lipids. lutein. as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids. 2008). Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. and spatial. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. 2001). As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier. β-carotene. the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. with acyl earlier). 2002). there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. and other components into form of TAG. Algal Biology  . an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy. Zhekisheva et al.. Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. 1993. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al.lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel. 2008).

and a third. compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al.2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product.8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0.4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0.8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2.2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. As a substrate. (Drawing courtesy of Prof. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2. those and carbohydrates. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae.2 P700* A0 A1 -0. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin.. M. or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis. Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs. Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor. ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme. 1984). studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving). and proteomic studies. Posewitz.2) (Melis et al. the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production). in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e. and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al.. driven H2-photoproduction pathways. 2008).Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007).0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0.→ O2 + 2H2. 2005). and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. Three et al.. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. Algal Biology  15 . (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP. One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production. 2009). and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I).. Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. would enzymes). Based on such information. for example. (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al.. 2000. hydrogenases. Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. Colorado School of Mines ) 2. There are two major types of hydrogenases. fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang.4 PC Chl fixation P700 0. light. In all pathways. 2003).

fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. formate. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day. biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. more knowledge cannot be overlooked. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. 2008). This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains. While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms. Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells. In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches. In cyanobacteria.3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. fungi and higher plants. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. 2002. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. hydrogen evolution pathways.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2. the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms.. Collectively. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. for commonly used bacteria. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. al. human health. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals. hexose) (Turner et al. engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. In all cases. this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate. For all of these with ethanol. Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using hydrogenase as the catalyst. From here. 1989). 2005).. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. However. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. Algal Biology  .. the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels. potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. Thus.. 2009). 1987). (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. questions to consider in the context of mass production. and to acetate. 16 2. they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4. modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night.. Prince and Kheshgi. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. to delete or disrupt genes. the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. and CO2 (van der Oost et al. the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. 1998). and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar. Similarly economic viability.

This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified.. Debuchy et al. Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. For example.. 2005). 2002). 2006). which necessitates a large amount of screening. large-scale production has two major drawbacks. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. 1989. 1994).. changes in fluorescence properties. a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome. Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes. simplified identification of the mutated gene.g. 1989). reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al. in the presence of an antibiotic). generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e.. 1995). ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis. occurring mutations. diatoms (Cyclotella.. Targeted 1996. 2. including resistance to neomycin. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira). kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. 1987) can be screening criteria. An algal strains. use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest. Arthrospira).. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). also been successful (Del Pozo et al. Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype. However. Navicula. to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. 1999). zeocin (Apt et al. 1995). the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches. antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae. dinoflagellates (Amphidinium. other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale. which could exacerbate current problems developed. presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. 1985. 1985.As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use. Algal Biology  17 . 1995). element called a plasmid. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al. For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes. Typically. The second Volvox). The green algae (Chlamydomonas... 1993. Nostoc. spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes.. Dunaliella. Dunahay et al.. Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al. Anabaena.. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically. or markers.. Hallmann and Rappel. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell. there marker (Hasnain et al.. Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al. and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al.. or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. Dunahay et al. Phaeodactylum. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. This the DNA is present. Chlorella....g. 2006).. large-scale algal production. but markers based on resistance assayed. are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al. However. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. For the latter. 1999). or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach. first concern is the cost of the antibiotic. this resistance is a powerful tool for research. however. 1994).

intermediate. especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome.e. RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al.. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. Gracilaria. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements.. For most of these approaches. 2005). brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria..Symbiodinium). a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al. In a practical but less so in microalgae. need for balance in cellular metabolism. inducible and repressible promoters that 1993). In addition. red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. 1987). RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. microarrays). reinhardtii. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al. 2001). crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al. 2005).. including conjugation. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense... but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important.. high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al.. Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium. 1990). small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. 1998). vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i. Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. electroporation. 1995). challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications. used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al.. Algal Biology  . The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. be desirable. The selection process was based on a gene is present. 2004). Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct.. 1995). (Kindle et al. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al. Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. Frequently. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae.. then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae. 1992). 1993). because it is induced could be applied.. 1996). and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. 2009). Porphyra). and can be used to knockout genes. 1988. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama. which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. 2006). selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. Algal strains often contain expression. 18 2. which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. (Deng and Capecchi. use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. Dunahay. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. traits. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction.

such as genomics. Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. Although time families). Algal Biology  19 . Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications. the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. even in closely related species (Connolly et al. a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi). a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae). demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl.S. applied research and technology development. 2006). Indeed. including allosteric activation and metabolic though. This could 1 For a listing. visit http://genome. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable. pussilla. at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C. especially at the basic level of gene annotation. 2004). that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. Fragilariopsis cylindrus).). Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla. Genome size in algae can vary substantially. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology. transcriptomics.1 These species include computer sciences. for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available. Undoubtedly. have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context. Bathycoccus sp. Except for cyanobacteria. but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible. so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming.. forming the foundation for at Genoscope . will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable.org/euk_cur1. 2005. approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the data.. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens).. reinhardtii. Volvox carteri). and proteomics. obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor production. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al. Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al. 2006). Quality standards and appropriate data.jgi-psf. 2008). this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. If not properly done... cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain. This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes.Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time.html 2. 2002). Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes. useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. Osteococcus tauris.Centre National de Séquençage (France). It must be noted level. Gaietta et al. Together. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production. all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags. These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date.

. are underway. different metabolomic analysis tools are applied. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation. was sequenced over a decade ago. another dozen or so EST projects. 1998). there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate. approaches (Han and Gross. Algal Biology  .. 2007). and some strains can fix peptides. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). Tanner et al.. gas chromatography mass spectrometry.. For example.. however. identification. including liquid chromatography mass Currently. notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. and proteins. and function. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest.. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al.include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling. at least10 other algal genomes. especially with regard to translational regulation. 2006). and metabonomics. Dettmer et al. 1996).. double-homologous recombination. and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas. 2008). high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems. Applications of Biotechnology New. 1999). transformation. Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth. in response to particular environmental conditions. and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment.. The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential. Castellana et al. 2005). Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. Nannochloropsis sp. or can determine fuels and intermediates.. Moreover. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research.. 2009). which is the quantitative Therefore. Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. Chlorococcum sp. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al.. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. as well as spectrometry. the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. Aebersold. which survey. Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria. In the absence of genomic information. 2005. Many 20 2. 2004. sp. and Pseudochlorococcum sp.. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example. 2007. Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms. approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. identifying final fuel produced. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites. 2006. but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. Mass-spectrometry lipids. small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel.

productivity under various environmental conditions.1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. and metabolome (Singh et al. with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. Synechocystis. These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb). Koksharova et al. In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. reinhardtii can serve et al. and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer. Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms. 2008). 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose. it will be necessary to further being developed. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress... However. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed. physiological conditions. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. strategies to address these issues are production pathway. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution. and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome.. 2006). Algal Biology  21 .2 Several production. The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. sucrose. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al.. Eisenhut et al. it can be sexually crossed... 2004). 2009) in Synechococcus. is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products. 2000). resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. fatty acid synthesis. 2008). and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. reported (Neupert et al. C. and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0. 2003). 2006. Lipid production.. 1998). Fulda et al. For example. and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C.. 2006. accumulation.. et al. capabilities. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al. 2008.. A possible drawback of C.org/ChlNC64A_1/ChlNC64A_1. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al. 2007. including glycogen.. pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al. the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al.home. It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls. reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production.html 2. 1997). which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast. 2002). which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions. 2004). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae. and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al.. sucrose (Nobles and Brown. In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. Ferrante et al. and chloroplast (PHB).. Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. C. filamentous strain that can form heterocysts. glucosylglycerol.. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al.. 2007 ). For example. Relatedly. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae. proteome. protothecoides.. 2008). 2007).. 2 http://genome. It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers.jgi-psf. 1999). 2006). In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al. and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. but nevertheless. The genome sequence of D. 2009. 2008). anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen). the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez.. 2007).. 2007)... Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation. which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production. The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed. but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production.

Unlike microalgae. As such. Niwa et al. Chlorophyta (green algae). with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. 1999. Roeder et al. 2008). 1996. For example. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer. 3 http://www. Bowler et al. and expression profiling (Collen et al. Bouza et al. which includes diatoms... such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. 1995.. and green seaweeds. For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report. represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms. Apt et al. anoxic zone formation. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination.and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. and alternation of generations. and choice of cultivation methods In general. 2004. Currently. tools is still imperative from a research standpoint. also have microalgal counterparts. For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example. Genome sequencing Macroalgae. and regulatory gene expression control 2005). and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels. the status of macroalgal systematics production. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008). of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report. 2005). Dutcher and Kapraun. The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse.. Fischer et al. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function. (Armbrust et al. Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms.jgi.. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata. potential for toxin markers. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al. are very important. 2005). combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies.. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red..gov 22 2. and Rhodophyta safeguards.. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al. are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999.. the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete. Meneses and Santelices. 1994. 1997. Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms. 2005).. 1995. Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. They are and proteomic profiling. even with these (brown algae). Baldauf. 1999. et al.. affinity with corresponding microalgal forms. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta. or seaweeds. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products.. Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina. 2003. and four more 1999. and metabolic and coastal waters. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. Algal Biology  . general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. 2001.. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. Moulin et al.. Ho are underway. species. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. induction response..doe. brown. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments. as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal.. However. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al.3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients.. GE algae are defined as strains life histories. the stipe. 2003). each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment. Niwa et al. Use of gene-specific probes al. 2000). 2006.

(2002).C. (2006). (2005). Kawachi. Moroney. (2008).M. et al. Apt. (1987). D. biogenesis. 911–917. H. Nature Biotechnology. 116(2). (2004). 51(3). Alvarez. 1703-1706. E. T.V. G. R. Tural. Liao. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. J Morgan. 737-749. The life cycle of neutral lipids: Synthesis. Marine ecology. (2001).. G. 50(2). Casas-Mollano.. Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Science. 925-945. R. Armaleo..isiknowledge. (2008). Critical reviews in biotechnology.. Science. Banerjee.. A.G. et al. and metabolism. J. Castellana.E. Assessing patterns of geographic dispersal of gelidium sesquipedale (rhodophyta) through RAPD differentiation of populations.74(9)... A. Epigenetic silencing of a foreign gene in nuclear transformants of chlamydomonas. (2009). 121(3). L. 367-376. Amsterdam. Ahlgren. E. Johnston. N. 381–389. et al. Discovery and revision of arabidopsis genes by proteogenomics.E. I.A.com/full_record. Sanford. Daum. H. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology. Grossman. Steinbuchel. Functional Plant Biology. 1991.L. Ye. Triacylglycerols in prokaryotic microorganisms.T. Elsevier. storage and degradation. 97–103. 245–279. 1534-1538. M. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 42(2). 32(9). 281–297.Gramajo. Progress in Lipid Research. Cerutti. Ben Ali. Benning. C. Andersen. Altabe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Atsumi.A. 22(3). 83–102.G. On the origin and functions of RNA-mediated silencing: from protists to man. 55–66. Retrived January 5. The Genome of the diatom thalassiosira pseudonana: Ecology. K. 17(2). 239-244. G. Cerutti. Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. K. Alvarez. S. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS. Santos. Ceron Garcia. Shachar-Hill. S. 1355-1369. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. R. A. K.. Algal Culturing Techniques. Plant. 63(12). Armbrust. The deep roots of eukaryotes. Cell & Environment. Cell. Allen. Genetic structure of natural populations in the red algae gelidium canaariense (gelidaiales. Bird. P. (2004). Colombo. D. et al. The Plant Cell Online. 27(12). 689–694. 101–108.K. Progress series(Halstenbek) (191). Algal Biology  23 . Nature. (2009). et al. Current genetics. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. J.C. 304-311. S. Benson. Bartel. D.. J. Mixotrophic production of marine microalga phaeodactylum tricornutum on various carbon sources. Journal of Phycology.. 16(5). A. Bligh. Metabolic flux analysis in plants: coping with complexity. (32).. A mutant of chlamydomonas reinhardtii that cannot acclimate to low CO2 conditions has an insertion in the Hdh1 gene. et al. & Merino. S.. Libourel. et al.E. (2006). BMC Systems Biology. Phylogenetic relationships among algae based on complete large-subunit rRNA sequences. Alberto.G. Kroth-Pancic. 572–579. (1988).C. (1997). K. 105(52). Shark. Current genetics. 2573-2582. Boynton. Ynalvez.. Baldauf. C. F. J. 79-86. The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes.References Adams. (2009). Dyer. (1959). and function. mechanism. (1999)..M. http://apps.. W.B. W. Higashide. Rodriguez.. Multiple pathways for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. E. 47(5). (2006). 60(4). (2005). Elsevier Science Ltd. J. Arabolaza. evolution.E. Direct photosynthetic recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde. et al. (2008). 37(8). Bouza. 1241-1257. Bowler.B. Leitao.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=51&SID=2EJn46bcIj4fjd CDlNp&page=1&doc=3. (2006). (1990).R.L. 21034-21038. 306(5693). 252(5).J.L. N. 81–99. 295–306. Chloroplast transformation in chlamydomonas with high velocity microprojectiles. N. MicroRNAs genomics. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Traditional microalgae isolation techniques. 456(7219). A role for lipid trafficking in chloroplast biogenesis. J. M.. Mason. Athenstaedt. Boyle. A.A. 2010. Science. C. Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. 300(5626). Y. S. J. 2. 9(6). H. Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. et al. Klein. Botryococcus braunii: A renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. H. (1996). 240(4858). 1177-1180. (2008). (2002). PH. (2003).. 3. B. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. rhodophyta) investigated by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers.V. Stable nuclear transformation of the diatomphaeodactylum tricornutum. H. Lipid analysis of freshwater microalgae: a method study.P.

J. (2008). 15(5). J. Structure. (2001). Flow cytometric determination of lipid content in a marine dinoflagellate. e3200. Cooksey. Bailey. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) identification of genetic variation in three species of porphyra (bangiales. Norazmi Mohamed. Fischer.E. Finding gas diffusion pathways in proteins: Application to O2 and H2 transport in CpI [FeFe]-hydrogenase and the role of packing defects. Metabolome phenotyping of inorganic carbon limitation in cells of the wild type and photorespiratory mutants of the cyanobacterium synechocystis sp strain PCC 6803.. 44(1). 25(3).. 333–345. Measuring the metabolome: Current analytical technologies. 354-360. Ferrante. Dettmer. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Fluorescent measurement of microalgal neutral lipids. 26(1). 452. K. Finazzi. 6487-6492. Aronov. Dunn. nostoc muscorum.R. Coleman. (1987). Science. T. (2007).J. Journal of Phycology. 113–120. Reexamination of gene targeting frequency as a function of the extent of homology between the targeting vector and the target locus. A. 6(3). 114(Pt 21).. et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 212-217. Mass spectrometry reviews. S. The Analyst. Fluorometric determination of the neutral lipid content of microalgal cells using nile red. et al. (2003). C. M. Prometrics. Foyer. Biodiesel from microalgae. The EMBO Journal. P. S. Chisti. D. M. 2109-2120. et al. Journal of Applied Phycology. (1999). 148(4). (1992). M.D. Photooxidative stress in plants. J. (1989). Two different genes from schwanniomyces occidentalis determine ribosomal resistance to cycloheximide. 42. 2733-2745. Genetic transformation of the diatoms cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. 22(2). Kunert. L. Biotechnology Advances. European Journal of Biochemistry. J.G. 124–131.G.G. A. (2003). (1993). The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton. The argininosuccinate lyase gene of chlamydomonas reinhardtii: An important tool for nuclear transformation and for correlating the genetic and molecular maps of the ARG7 locus. Falkowski.. Lelandais. Eisenhut. 1004–1011. 2803-2809. 213(2). 6(6). Journal of Cell Science. B. Physiologia Plantarum. K. Rochaix. 305(5682). Molecular and Cellular Biology. Journal of Phycology. (2006).. (1995). et al. strain PCC 6803. Y. 92(4).D. Annual Review of Genetics. 267-273. L. An optimized.A. chemically regulated gene expression system for Chlamydomonas. (2008). The dynamics of photosynthesis.. 312(5771). S. Del Pozo. 696-717. (2007). Journal of Bacteriology. (2005). C. 13(9).E. Algal Biology  . 523528. 294–306. (2005). Journal of Microbiological Methods.J. Fulda. Domon. M. 3365-3371. N.H. et al. 171.R. crypthecodinium cohnii. rhodophyta). 31(6).. 12(8). 21-27. Johnson. D.G. Purification and properties of glycogen isolated from a blue-Green Alga. Journal of Phycology. Purton.A. De la Jara. G. et al.. B. Ethanol synthesis by genetic engineering in cyanobacteria. 15(3). Capecchi. Collen. Roessler. 65(2). (2008). 3(9). Journal of Microbiological Methods. Dunahay. Chu. Kapraun. Deng. Journal of Experimental Botany. P.. S. Proteome analysis of salt stress response in the cyanobacteriumsynechocystis sp. et al. H. 97(12). (1999). 6(9). et al. J.C. 35(1). Aebersold. T. Connolly.E.A. Fuhrmann. E.D. (2008). 849–857. W. The abundant retinal protein of the chlamydomonas eye is not the photoreceptor for phototaxis and photophobic responses. F. (1994). & Phang. 1321–1329. Malaysian Journal of Science. (2004). H. (2000). 24 2. Fatty Acid Composition of Some Malaysian Seaweeds. Dahlqvist. Wollman. et al. (2007). (1971). 331-338. Hammock. Jarvis. Deng. J. Bowen. Transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardtii with silicon carbide whiskers. 606–625.. et al. Eberhard. Dutcher. (2006). R. Science Signaling. 3857-3863. 433–438. Dunahay. 130(5). Mass spectrometry and protein analysis. P.Chao. Correlated evolution of genome size and cell volume in diatoms (bacillariophyceae). 8(10). Phospholipid: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase: an enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in yeast and plants. R. Journal of Applied Phycology. (2006). et al. Targeting and covalent modification of cell wall and membrane proteins heterologously expressed in the diatom cylindrotheca fusiformis (Bacillariophyceae).B. K. Biotechniques. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 463–515. M. et al. 639-642. Expression profiling of chondrus crispus (rhodophyta) after exposure to methyl jasmonate. Cohen. P. Elsey. Plant Physiology. 68(3). (1994). Debuchy. 51-78. W. (1993). C. PloS One. et al. et al.105(1).

http://dx. (1991). et al. 42(1). Horn. (2007).H. W. Aasen. 1721-1725. Genetic engineering of the multicellular green alga volvox: A modified and multiplied bacterial antibiotic resistance gene as a dominant selectable marker. Science. 9(6). Starch and fatty acid synthesis in plastids from developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. 54(4). Differential lineage-specific amplification of transposable elements is responsible for genome size variation in gossypium. Stable nuclear transformation of chlamydomonas using the chlamydomonas gene for nitrate reductase. (2007). Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. Genome Research. Kindle. E. (2008). (2006). 24(1). 6-53. S. Manavathu. 1191- 1199. 75(1). et al. 253–264. S. II. (2005). (2000). Gene.. Li.. (1992)..). strain PCC6803. K. Krause. J. 88(5). J.. Sequence determination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions. H. J. F. 25(5). (2007). Algal transgenics and biotechnology.J. N. Rawsthorne. Fermentative metabolism of chlamydomonas reinhardtii: I.. X. T. Koksharova. 58. Richards. (1985). R. 2009. Ethanol production from seaweed extract.doi. (1999). Hoiczyk. Pang.A. (2006). G. Lipids in photosynthesis: Structure. C. The first protein map of synechococcus sp. S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.K.. et al.L. 503-507. Østgaard. Hu. 489-493. Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Molecular and Cellular Biology. (1996). K. Shotgun lipidomics: Multidimensional MS analysis of cellular lipidomes. In transgenic microalgae as green cell factories. (1997). Hawkins.. Gibbs. Oil bodies and oleosins in seeds. strain PCC 7942. K. (1998). Q. 53–64. Transgenic Plant Journal. U. (1994). Engineering the chloroplast genome: Techniques and capabilities for chloroplast transformation in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Hasnain. 81-98. R. O. T. (2003). E. Ho. 51-57. 249-254. Weis. Influence of codon bias on the expression of foreign genes in microalgae. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the maring macroalga kappaphycus alvarezii (rhodophyta). 2.org/10. (1995). Algal Biology  25 . Lüning. (1989). DNA Research.B.. Rappel. I. Klint. Horn. 177-200. Jin. et al. siliquosum (Phaeophyta) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. 39(5). M. 17. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Gross. 664-672. 1252-1261. 33-41. Gfeller. 212-218. Plant Physiol. Kindle. 7(1). et al.S. 109-136. A. 2589-2601. G. Plant Journal. DNA-mediated transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardi cells: Use of aminoglycoside 3’-phosphotransferase as a selectable marker..W. et al. The Journal of Bacteriology. A. 5(12). Østgaard. Ghirardi. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 403(1- 2). Kaneko.. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. M. 75(6). Journal of Applied Phycology. S. K. et al. A. Cyanobacterial cell walls: News from an unusual prokaryotic envelope. 132-142. F. PA and Murata. 6(6).L. S. function and genetics (Siegenthaler. (1991). Phang. 182(5). 313-349. 109(6). (2000). et al. I. Journal of Phycology. (2007). 2(2). D. 43(1). J. (2002). 16(10). Hydrogenases and hydrogen photoproduction in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms*. Gelling agents for tissue culture of the seaweed hizikia fusiformis.L. 1-11. Membrane lipids in algae. 1(1). Expert Review of Proteomics. Journal of Cell Biology. achievements and problems. Nuclear transformation of eukaryotic microalgae: historical overview. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. E. Production of ethanol from mannitol by zymobacter palmae. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (2000). 3647-3650. Retrieved December 30. 888-896.C. 71-91. R. Rasmussen. Journal of Applied Phycology. Plant journal. The Plant Journal. E.M. eds). (1984). Molecular characterisation of sargassum polycystum and S. Huang. Annual Review Plant Biology. & Fernández.H. (2007).J. Hallmann. M. Harwood.Gaietta. 616.E. et al.L.C. León. Stern. Aasen. The nitrate reductase gene-switch: A system for regulated expression in transformed cells of dunaliella salina. S. Heitzer. Dordrecht. Leung. Microbiology. Han.1007/978-0-387-75532-8_5. A. Hansel. Jacobsen. Multicolor and electron microscopic imaging of connexin trafficking.. A.. Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: The basics.P. Kang. 99–110. Hallmann. 795–805.. 621–639. analysis of fermentative products from starch in dark and light. K. K. Goulard. 3(3).L. 296(5567).M.

Murphy. Lipids. (1994). 218(1). Ohlrogge. 7(1). (2003). 1237-1245. (1999). Holmes. A. Metabolic pathway engineering for enhanced biohydrogen production. Sucrose accumulation in salt-stressed cells of agp gene deletion-mutant in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. 7(7).L Kirk. (2001). et al.M. Meneses. K. Savereide. Photoprotection revisited: Genetic and molecular approaches.. (1993). Long.. ‘Metabonomics’: Understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data.. The CRY1 gene in chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Structure and use as a dominant selectable marker for nuclear transformation. D. Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions. D. 241-246. P. Journal of Applied Phycology. D.. (2000). The biogenesis and functions of lipid bodies in animals. (2008). I. J. 325–438. 50(1). P. (1995). 318(5848). & Stuercke. U. J.. Murphy. Journal of Applied Phycology. 245- 250. Transgenic expression of gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53582 cellulose synthase genes in the cyanobacterium synechococcus leopoliensis strain UTCC 100. (2007). 227–235.R.K. J. Isolation and characterization of six cDNAs involved in carbon matabloism in laminaria digitata (phaeophyceae). Karcher. 218(1). Annual Review of Plant Biology..M.. J. Journal of Phycology. Sonnewald. R. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 1073-1088. J. Lefebvre.A. Current opinion in plant biology. 957-970. Kobiyama. S. et al. S. Cellulose. S. Strain selection and genetic variation in gracilaria chilensis (gracilariales. Genetic engineering in marine cyanobacteria. Browse. (2008). glsA. Sucrose accumulation in salt-stressed cells of agp gene deletion-mutant in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp PCC 6803. 649-658. Nelson. 122(1). 521-565. encodes a chaperone-like protein. et al. G. (2009). 14(6). Wu. Brown. Lytovchenko. X. 57(6). P. Journal of Applied Phycology. Molecular and Cellular Biology. (2006).. R.K. Y.G. 41(2).L. Nobles. (1994). B. et al. Matsunaga.P.J. rhodophyta). A. H. D. Y.C. T. Falkowski. Merchant. 513-524. I. The Plant Journal: For Cell and Molecular Biology. N. Aruga.. Bock.R. The complex network of non-cellulosic carbohydrate metabolism.. 294-304. P. 126(4). Aruga.A. 296-302. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 15(5). Niyogi. Melis. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase: A key mediator of plant triacylglycerol synthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology. Progress in lipid research. Shachar-Hill. S. Y. 34(17). K. (1995). 32(3).. 333-359. (1999). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from carbon dioxide by cyanobacteria. Niwa. 35. The Plant Cell. 1181–1189. B. 10(3). (2005). N. J. 71-77. Structure and function of photosystems I and II. M.. A. K.. Lung. (1999). & Zhao. 247- 280. Plant Physiology. McDermid. 59. Phycological Research. Mathews. E. Xenobiotica. Confirmation of cultivated porphyra tenera (bangiales. 991-1002. Neupert. FEMS Microbiology Letters. J. 41(12). Wu. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 53(4). G.Libourel. (2003). rhodophyta) by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the plastid and nuclear DNA. Fernie. Metabolic flux analysis in plants: From intelligent design to rational engineering. Kikuchi. (2009). Santelices.J. a volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification. (2003).. 15(6). plants and microorganisms.. Science. R. 77-84. J. Miao. K. rhodophyta). Nicholson. Algal Biology  . C. Journal of Phycology. S. 633-662. 7404-7416. Weselake. Takeyama. 71-77. Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds. (2000). Miao. A. 40(5). Development. 45(1).. function and biogenesis of storage lipid bodies and oleosins in plants.. N. Yocum. et al. 4011-4019. Miller. Generation of chlamydomonas strains that efficiently express nuclear transgenes. 57. 84- 86(1). 1140-1150. 127-135. X. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Humphries. 29(11).B.G. Lindon. Q. 625-650. (2007). Wang. 26 2. (1999).. Nelson. Morphological and molecular analysis of the endangered species porphyra tenera (bangiales. 691–701. Niwa. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in nature. Structure.J.11(3).. Lipid biosynthesis. Moulin. (1999). D. Progress in Lipid Research.S. Miyake. (2005). (2006).

. Algal Biology  27 . 179–211. Stahl. Schwender. W. Benning. Molecular genetic manipulation of the diatom thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae). S. 1227-1235. The Plant Cell Online. 89–94.R. 611–621. Annual Review of Biochemistry. Journal of Phycology.E. Plant Physiology. J. Washington. 242-52.R. Sears. (1987).A... 49–59. S. 809. (1984). Identification of stress gene transcripts in laminaria digitata (phaeophyceae) protoplast cultures by expressed sequence tag analysis. An abundance of RNA regulators*. Stal. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 76–80. 149(1). A. M. (2008). Kanakagiri. RecA protein stimulates homologous recombination in plants. L. 309–317. Kheshgi. 107-112. T. (1998).. (74). Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom cyclotella cryptica. Chesley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Regoes.Ohnuma. Round. 1821-1828.H. M. Riekhof. Prince. Poulsen. Biology of Plants 5th ed.. L. 122(4). 3094-3098. Evert. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. (1992). (1998). H. Bioenergy.E. S. Photosynthetic water-splitting for hydrogen production. 39(6). Moezelaar. N. (2000). et al. (1988). V. A. (2005). ASM Press.S. 1257–1264.. P. 1193-1199. M. The photobiological production of hydrogen: Potential efficiency and effectiveness as a renewable fuel.. Shimogawara. Annotation of genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Discovery of the betaine lipid synthase BTA1Cr.J. Transient gene suppression in a red alga. 166(1). J.E. Roessler. et al. 14(6).. Eukaryotic Cell. a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. 4(2). Reiss. S. Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. N. J. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Ruuska. (2005). Worth Publishers.. Wassarman. et al. Poulton. K. 3413–3423. Polle.. 41(6). Ohlrogge. A new molecular tool for transgenic diatoms. Sieracki. A. Fujiwara. Singh. Journal of Phycology. 19-31. B. A. R. C. 1239-1248.. Polle. 217(1). et al. Sheehan. Y. 24. 1324-1335.T. 40(4). New York. U. (1998).C. A Look Back at the U. O. G. Melis. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. Sheremetieva. 93(7). et al. (2004). Cambridge University Press. et al. A reversible enzyme reaction with an important role in metabolic control. Plant Physiology. (2004). Poulsen.. 21(2). The FEBS Journal. SNAP-tag™ mediated live cell labeling as an alternative to GFP in anaerobic organisms. Tandem inverted repeat system for selection of effective transgenic RNAi strains in Chlamydomonas.. 394–400. Tsygankov. Temporal separation of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis in the filamentous. 116(4). Academic Press. Y.S.D. Raven.E. Crosbie. F.J. (2009). et al.. Reversible hydrogenase activity of gloeocapsa alpicola in continuous culture.J. Stal. (2002)... Archives of Microbiology. Genetics. Biotechniques. 236(1)..B. Periappuram. Induced beta-carotene synthesis driven by triacylglycerol deposition in the unicellular alga dunaliella bardawil. Plant Physiology. Rabbani. Kroger. (2004). J. Storz. T. 42(5). Integration of carbon and nitrogen metabolism with energy production is crucial to light acclimation in the cyanobacterium synechocystis. N. non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. C. Truncated chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems—a practical method to improve microalgal productivity and hydrogen production in mass culture. Protoplasma. & Kuroiwa. M. Rohr.E.F. (2005). H. tla1. Eichhorn. L. Shachar-Hill. 273-291. N. 1059–1065.B. Serebryakova. (2005). et al. S. The plastidic phosphoglucomutase from Arabidopsis.M. 199-217. 272. Cloning and functional characterization of a phospholipid: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase from arabidopsis. et al. S. 2. K. Algal culture techniques. Krumbein. A. Tanaka.. 135(3). (2005). 148(4). Misumi. B. Journal of Phycology. Watanabe. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae. (1998). 1191-1206. Automated isolation techniques for microalgae. N. Current opinion in plant biology. Fermentation in cyanobacteria.G. Kröger. P. P. 467-478. (2006). Altuvia.. 103-116. R. 148(1). (2004). 27(11-12). The Plant Journal. 7(3). Contrapuntal networks of gene expression during arabidopsis seed filling. (2005). (7). Roeder. 31(1). Hehl. N.M. et al. (1996). (2003). The Ecology of Algae.A.E. Understanding flux in plant metabolic networks. Seibert. J. W. Plant Physiology. High-efficiency transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardtii by electroporation. (2008). (1997). et al. DC. J. et al. K. Planta. (2002).

International Journal of Energy Research. W. et al. Eukaryotic Cell. T. et al.S.A.A.N. Metabolic engineering in the -omics era: Elucidating and modulating regulatory networks. J. (2006). Van der Oost. 38(2). Tamagnini. 1-20. et al. 4(7). C. 152(5). Yoo. 91–124. (2002). et al. (2002). I. (2008). et al. 297. deSturler. Plant Physiology. 19(2). 2676-2686. Zhu. Zehmer.A. et al.H. 21(10). Metabolic Engineering. (2009). Zhu. G. S. L. J. S. A. 69(2). Tanner. 28 2. J. New Phytologist.. 3904-3913. 379–386. Journal of Phycology. 2195-2203.. M. 914-921. Lipid production by dunaliella salina in batch culture effects of nitrogen limitation and light intensity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Zhao. Weldy. X. Spalding. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. (2000).S. A numerical simulation using an evolutionary algorithm. 415-419. Aristidou. 202-216.R. T. (126). X. Yu. 157(2). Vemuri... 36(2). Zaslavskaia. X. Fermentation metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece PCC 7822. Zendejas. Vigeolas.J. Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs. J. Long. 231-239. W. (2007). C. Sizova. D. Metabolic flux analysis in synechocystis using isotope distribution from C-13-labeled glucose. Jane. Gaucher. 499-507. PCC6803. C. 168(1). Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. Algal Biology  . T.P.P. Huesemann. Hydrogenases and hydrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria. F. 197-216. 21(6).. (2008). What is the maximum efficiency with which photosynthesis can convert solar energy into biomass? Current Opinion in Biotechnology. S. 66(1). 1190-1203. Renewable hydrogen production. Q. 515-524. (2002). J. Nuclear-gene targeting by using single-stranded DNA avoids illegitimate DNA integration in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Prometrics. (1989). B. Journal of Applied Phycology. (2008).G. (2005). Wu. 498-504. Journal of Bacteriology. Ort.. E. Fernie. Methods in enzymology. J. The regulation of carbon and nutrient assimilation in diatoms is significantly different from green algae. Accumulation of oleic acid in haematococcus pluvialis (chlorophyceae) under nitrogen starvation or high light is correlated with that of astaxanthin esters. Archives of Microbiology. Vermaas. (2007). 9-24. (2006). Differential transcriptional analysis of the cyanobacterium cyanothece sp. Toepel. 513-526. H. strain ATCC 51142 during light-dark and continuous-light growth. (2004). P. 669-681. S. Yang. M.. 136(1). 1264-1277. Embryo-specific reduction of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase leads to an inhibition of starch synthesis and a delay in oil accumulation in developing seeds of oilseed rape. Yoo. 293-310. E.F. Genes and development. (2007).. (2005). (2007). 115-122. et al.. 17(2). 9(4). Zorin. H. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. 190(11). K. Lane.. (2006). et al. A role for lipid droplets in inter-membrane lipid traffic. (2005). (2009). Xu. A.. (1998). A complex system of small RNAs in the unicellular green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Gene modifications and mutation mapping to study the function of photosystem II.. B. Effects of growth condition on the structure of glycogen produced in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. Journal of Biotechnology. et al. et al.. P. Hegemann. Genome Research. M. et al. A. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research. et al. Hua. Valencia-Sanchez. 20(5). (2002). U. et al. 337(21-23). (2007). Characterization of cyanobacterial glycogen isolated from the wild type and from a mutant lacking of branching enzyme.Sweetlove. 379–407. Regulation of metabolic networks: Understanding metabolic complexity in the systems biology era. P. Shimizu. Optimizing the distribution of resources between enzymes of carbon metabolism can dramatically increase photosynthetic rate. Plant Physiology. Zhekisheva. 325–331.G. Protist. L. Simmons. Triacylglycerol accumulation and profiling in the model diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Baccilariophyceae) during starvation. Transformation of the diatom phaeodactylum tricornutum (bacillariophyceae) with a variety of selectable marker and reporter genes. Genes & development. Q. S. 32(5). & Lane. Long. S.R. M. Turner. 145. Wilhelm. Journal of Phycology. 40(5). D. Carbohydrate Research. Miao. Improving gene annotation using peptide mass spectrometry. 153–159. 4(3).

however. both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3.1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways. open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation. It is.3. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities. especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e. For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007). Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches). but long-term culture Broadly speaking. reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi. capital costs maximizing light exposure. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally.. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass.g.. industry. photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria. Though photobioreactors (e. it is important to 3. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. However. (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds. therefore. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity. photobioreactors). important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. Algal Cultivation  29 .1 compares the readily introduced. open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2). are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation.g.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3.

2009). environmental regulations from other sources. biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004.et al. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. 2008. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp. Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda. and predation. Kumar et al. This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology. As a result. 2002). Japan. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. In sugars. 1995) or a series of al. been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. efforts. both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation strategies. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al.. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae. 2005). linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al. photobioreactors could (Dai et al. Dipakkore et al. 1993. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries. located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development.. Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz. appears especially open raceways.. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander.. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather. However.. Buck. such as sugars. then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp.. considerable scale-up from current activities. Laminaria hyperborean. over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. 2004. In the latter. 2004. wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. already widely used to Southern California.. in hybrid systems. Macroalgae 1987). Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China. they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies.. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. 2004. and there is the the structures. 2008)... 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures.. 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu. Turbinaria. in particular. A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation. 2004. providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. 2005. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al. Hanisak. or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain. Dai et al.. to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. Typically. and Chile. 2005). 2006). it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation. Sargassum. 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. and presented (see Chapter 10). Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander. near-shore.et al. Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. have been algal growth. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. Dai et al. Heterotrophic as a nutrient source. which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones. and major technological 1991). Reddy et al. seeds grown spp. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods.engineering designs. 1993). Hypnea. (Chynoweth. improvement in strain selection. 2006) and field Additionally. Algal Cultivation  . 2007). Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3.. et al. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. 2007). Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra..

and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. sustainability and FISH (Marie et al. although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding. 2008. chemical compounds.000 and several million phytoplankton 3. 1999. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems.... automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens. viable. 1994. 2008. 2008). The cost-benefit analysis al... predators. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays.Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms. competitors. Nutrients. e. Additionally. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation. predators. pervasiveness of issues related to scale. for real-time monitoring. Honda et algal physiological adaptation. Cheng et al.. It should be noted that. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. 2009).2 Scale-Up Challenges species.. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research.. and management of competitors... and recycling. The methods must be sensitive. it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present. management. Methods for rapid. Brussaard. 2008. Algal Cultivation  31 . • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al. and inexpensive. and pathogens. Continuous monitoring will management. (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. In certain cultivation systems. 2004.. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability.g. 2009). and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al.. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes. Viprey et al. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined. 3. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms. Rittmann et al. 2005. 2005). it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al. to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. Boutte et al. 2006 ). TSA- • Nutrient source scaling. This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. One of the more into a variety of useful products. Wilson et al. 2004). 2008) productivity analysis. Wilson et al. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass... commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective. limited. Others will compete for shared resources. proteins. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common. 2006. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption. and simple and complex carbohydrates.

must also be R&D in both areas. but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. This information will productivity of potential strains.. cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity. permeable. and genetic. iron. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources. need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. 1996). Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues. and because of the 2005. Requirements for additional nutrients. and silicon (in the case of diatoms). Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. Algal Cultivation  . From a productivity standpoint.. a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. 32 3. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical.. predator-prey relationships. phosphorous. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. diverging dynamics will be important. rates. etc. sustainable fuels. Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. and significant operating cost. Reed et al. and adapted for rapid. The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). The development of studied. densities. Eltgroth et al. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. 2008. competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production. and products. biochemists. invasive species. trace metals. and production siting.. Sheehan et al. physiologists. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account. Benemann and Oswald. metabolites. research in multi-trophic. These tools. accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U.Furthermore. Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. 1987. For example.. The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. predators. More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost.. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae. Thus. 1996. phosphorous.. out (Abelson. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress.. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring. vitamins. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. 1999. (Ketchum and Redfield. Gao et al. productivity lost during down time. dollars (Benemann and renewable. 1999). molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae. automated. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields. For example. 2008). New approaches are split Oswald. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. 1994). and Management 1981. developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. Douskova et al. light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen. as siting requirements for efficient considered.S. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary. fit-for-purpose fuels. Along with standards. There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. and normalization. Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. Spalding 2008). 2008. 1938. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. sustainability. 2002)..

and potential nitrogen and phosphorous. agricultural. disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. productivity.. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood. cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. and sustainability issues. On the other hand. For example. or silicon) as a economics. This may be nitrogen. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. 2005.” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up.g. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities.. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. biogas. and sustainability implications of various discharge. From a to fossil fuel prices. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper. and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive. 1996). Therefore. or industrial unsuitable for land crops. In the future. produced 3. by preventing eutrophication. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet. means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. for example. Douskova et al. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls. e. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth). tend to be near enormous. If not addressed adequately. for example. these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. Also. The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels.000 gallons to fill. Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative. nitrate.Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia. The final fuel product from algal oil biology. With large cultivation systems.g.. phosphorous. 2009). At the same time. however. Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon.000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted. Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable. nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective. it may NOx and SOx (Doucha. too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e. buildup. brackish.. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. However. If the biomass residues are. phosphorous. Water Management. availability. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. or urea. Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. 1998). Algal Cultivation  33 . the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy.5 cm per over long distances. evaporative losses can exceed 0. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass. or iron. which is a loss of 13. nitrogen. Currently. 1989). Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. aquifers and seawater. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha).

activated charcoal filtration. This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. but live cells could adversely is fresh water. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. flocculants. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer. moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost. The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers. or may require decontamination. However.g. flocculants.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water. disinfection. by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting. Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals). Incoming water (surface water. from flue gas). Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. process. toxins. could pose a serious problem. including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. etc. This is an enormous amount of water (260.000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above). municipal wastewater. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location.. or seawater) may be suitable as is. and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts. heavy metals (e. A critical water consumption. but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. Algal Cultivation  . • GIS analysis of water resources. and treatment (e. which could contain salts. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown). accumulated toxics. however. and water double their biomass on a daily basis. the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry.g. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. toxins (including heavy cooling. groundwater. Furthermore. makeup water/recycle. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. Disposal of the spent water. or other low. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. wastewater. water. To contain costs. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. accumulated salts. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water.1999). The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. desalination. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment. materials in the culture.. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers. or other remediation before use. and residual live algal cells. while effectively Water recycling is essential. and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture.water from oil wells. chemical flocculants used in harvesting.

Benemann. A. (1995). R. B. Y. Shen. Y. Seedling production using enzymatically isolated thallus cells and its application in porphyra cultivation. Y. 2002. R. M. Testing of primers for the study of cyanobacterial molecular diversity by DGGE. S.. and A. K. Journal of Microbiological Methods. G. and W. A. H. Williams and P. 1000-1009. Cheng. Hydrobiologia. potential and speculative applications of seaweed cellular biotechnology-some specific comments on gelidium. 151-158. Freeman. Watwood and G. L. C. 1-207.. E. Dai. Doucha. R. S. 82(1). D. Benson. 333-345. B. 2005. 241(1-4). 331-343. Hydrobiologia. Friedlander. James and S. G.References Azachi. Livansky. 198-211.. Journal of Microbiological Methods. W. Collantes. M. Oswald. Production and cellular localization of neutral long-chain lipids in the haptophyte algae Isochrysis galbana and Emiliania huxleyi. C. T. Q. Novak. Drew SW. P. (2008). 250. Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology: Fermentation. X. The development of a mechanistic model to investigate the impacts of the light dynamics on algal productivity in a hydraulically integrated serial turbidostat algal reactor. Dai. University of Florida. (2004). B. Q. Buchholz. H. Actual. Buchholz. Factors underlying the variability of lipid droplet fluorescence in MA-10 lydig tumor cells. Han. Gutman. Y. P. I. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. Vitova (2009). Aquaculture Engineering. Garcia-Reina. 16.. 129(3). 25. Gocze. J. Hino (2004). Fluorometric-determination of the neutral lipid- content of microalgal cells using nile red. Genetic breeding and seedling raising experiments with porphyra protoplasts. 191-218. 125-138. Guckert. 294-306. Gutierrez-Wing and K. Sosa. K. Jha. 127-131.. 3.. Cytometry. Machat. Sadka. Cooksey. (1993). Wilmotte.. Biodiesel from microalgae. Hoffman. P. 331-337. and D.. S. 16. A. 7. Q. Zhang. Elsevier. Robledo. (1996). Review of Biomethane from Marine Biomass. (2007). J. Bird. E. C. Competition between the rotifer brachionus rotundiformis and the ciliate euplotes vannus fed on two different algae. (1991). Microalgae: Biotechnology and Microbiology. Chynoweth. Biotechnology Advances. Gokhman and A. (1994). (1994). M. M. 111. Rhodophyta) in laboratory culture. Umysova. Fisher. 51. Yuan and Q. Candia. Zamir. Israeli R & D activities in seaweed cultivation. T. Journal of Applied Phycology. and B. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs. Y. Aquaculture. T. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences.. (2008). M. A. Balthasart and A. parasitic on the green alga Haermatococcus. Salt induction of fatty acid elongase and membrane lipid modifications in the extreme halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina. and C. (1987). Algal Cultivation  35 . M. D. The Journal of Applied Phycology. P. Rapid quantitation of lipid in microalgae by time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance.. M. 221:181-194. and L. 6(6). Micropropagation by explants of Gracilaria. Q. M. 512. J. (2007). Buck. S. Viral control of phytoplankton populations: A review.. M. Goldshlag. Yang. M. M. A. 437-440. X. Wiley. Journal of Microbiological Method. Zhou. Bao. Cambridge. 17. S.. Grubisic. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Chilensis Bird. Z. Zachleder and M. Aquaculture Engineering. W. 179-185. Cultivation of gracilaria and other marcoalgage in Florida for energy consumption. C. R.. Flickinger MC. (2004). ed. Zhang. L. Becker. (2006). 70-81. Gao. R.. Cambridge University Press. F. (2004). Melo. H. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. Callis. The Journal of Applied Phycology. Amsterdam. 112. McLachlan and Oliveira. D. J. Aquaculture.. and Z. and C. Wu. D. A. 1320-1329. Isolation and characterization of a novel chytrid species (phylum Blastocladiomycota). W. P. Boutte. Journal of Applied Physiology. Wolfe. (2004). Ben-Amotz. 36(2). Mycological Research. J. M. D. biocatalysis and bioseparation. 56. S. H. Eltgroth. 203-213. B. The Journal of Applied Phycology. Bao. 395–419. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. (1999). (2008). (2002). L. C. V. C. P. Hanisak. K. J. V. C. 15-28. K. 674-691. 41(5). Z.. Chisti. Rusch. 65(3). Liu. Aflalo. and P. J. W. L. 17. Aoki. Maeda and A. New mode of Dunaliella biotechnology: Two phase growth for beta- carotene production. R. in Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. J. (1987). Production and seeding of protoplasts of porphyra okhaensis (Bangiales. 355-368 Buck. Reddy. S. 65-68. D. Brussaard. Final Report to US DOE NETL. J. Dipakkore. 139-145. (2005). Benson. 75(3). Plant Physiology. and P. {Bibliography}Douskova. Gomezpinchetti. The offshore-ring: A new system design for the open ocean aquaculture of macroalgae. 542-550. Xiong. B. Boussiba. (2005). I. Zarka.

R. 374-384. Graham and R. W. Guillou. Dipakkore. J. T. S. Pre-genomic. 52(1). Dunahay.nrel. S. Martin H. CA.pdf. Marie. 6.. A. Marine Biology. J. N. (1993). An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Massana. Y. 103. G. Mapping of picoeucaryotes in marine ecosystems with quantitative PCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program-Biodiesel from algae. genomic. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Chisholm. silicate and light-Dark cycles. H. MacKenzie and D. E. and D. Journal of Biotechnology.S. Hydrobiologia. Plant Physiology. Kumar. K. Lesser Known Large dsDNA Viruses. Ketchum. Reddy. Y. Miao. (2005). Betenbaugh. A. R. D. L. 10110-10115. J. C. Wilson. 1804-1822. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 19(5). and Wu. (2004). K. 36 3. Phytoplankton lipids-Interspecific differences snd effects of nitrate. C. R. T. Lapointe. Halden. 19. Berlin. Academic Press. Vaulot.: Viprey. Nakahara. 253-268.gov/docs/fy04osti/34796. Morse. Brzezinski. A green light for engineered algae: Redirecting metabolism to fuel a biotechnology revolution. 1427-1436. (2006). K. D. 43. Kawashima. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 737-744. 10(7). L. Regeneration from callus of undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (laminariales.. A. G. T. J. B. and H. J. Nakagiri. 499-507. Jha. (2008). S. Journal of Phycology. N. F. (1999). High quality biodiesel production from a microalga chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. Yokochi. W.. D. Environmental Microbiology. Sheehan. L. and S. Shifrin. S. Weissman. Higashihara.. J. B. 75(1). H. Callus induction and thallus regeneration from callus of phycocolloid yielding seaweeds from the Indian coast. Jha. M. Rittman. S. Wide genetic diversity of picoplanktonic green algae (chloroplastida) in the Mediterranean sea uncovered by a phylum-biased PCR approach. 165-169. 596-602. R. H. Retrieved June 29. 328: 1-42. R. Algal Culturing Techniques. P. Molecular phylogeny of labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids based on the sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene. M.. phaeophyta). Eswaran. Ferreol and D. Rosenberg. The Journal of Applied Phycology.. The Phycodnaviridae: The story of how tiny giants rule the world. and A. Vaulot. Raghukumar. Springer-Verlag Berlin. Phytoplankton cell counting by flow cytometry. Design and operation of an outdoor microalgae test facility. 604-612. (2008). and post-genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy. and H. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2006). (1999).. M. M. Krajmalnik-Brown and R. D.Honda. (2005). Redfield. Spalding. 126. A. (2007). Anderson . W. Phycologia. Spalding.. 79-92. Van Etten and M.. Benemann and P. C. Bot. C. San Diego. C. and M. A look back at the U. (1981). Wang. Not.. 430-436.. from www. (1998).. 46(6). Neutral lipids in macroalgal spores and their role in swimming. Exp. Oyler. Thiruppathi. 15-25. Biological Bulletin. (1938). Tissue culture and regeneration of thallus from callus of gelidiella acerosa (gelidiales. (1989). L. (2008). Microalgal carbon-dioxide-concentrating mechanisms: Chlamydomonas inorganic carbon transporters. Rao. N. (2009). Wilkinson and M. 261. D... Tillet. rhodophyta).. Reddy. H. 17(4). Allen. X. 133(4). Kumar. M. Reed. G. Zhu. An external delta-carbonic anhydrase in a free-living marine dinoflagellate may circumvent diffusion-limited carbon acquisition. (2008). Marie and D. F. D. 385-389. Algal Cultivation  . Petty. J. Xu. Tokuda. Schaumann and T. R. and B. Roessler. 637-647. J. 2007. M. R. Coury. Ganesan. M. U. 147(3). Simon and D. B. K. Nature Reviews Microbiology. A. T. A method for maintaining a continuous supply of marine diatoms by culture. Vaulot. Q. (2007).

1984).4. electroflocculation. 2004. Their small sizes. the presence of flocculant in 4. circulation. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al. 2001). 2005. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds. is required to promote sedimentation at harvest. Edzwald.. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. and recycling issues. energy costs climb steeply. may analysis of engineering designs. mixtures. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. therefore. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. 1977. being considered. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. Kwak et al.. 2003. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. however...g. algae harvesting (Sim et al. lime. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. 1988. surfactants. Knuckey et al. Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies. Poleman and Pauw. 1975. 1998.. Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. 1993. lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates). Likewise. make harvesting more difficult. 1971). Pan et al. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. some into further downstream dewatering techniques. water quality. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering. and on empirical of transportation. Cultures Finally. Addressing these issues requires careful mind. only now being recognized as critically important. This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. and small size (~1 to 30 µm). 1997). electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered. 2006. 1983). In managed cultures. 2004. A determinations in particular processes. Koopman and chitosan.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae.. at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. 1987). the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. impact the required energy input. Phochinda and White. Culture manipulation techniques. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases. Bare et al. and then air is bubbled 4. McGarry and Tongkasa. These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue. therefore.02 . 1988). cellulose. bioreactors. salts. 1991. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied. Alum. consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering.. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled. and Shelaf.. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent.1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled. Botes and Vanvuuren. 1969. polyacrylamide polymers.0. and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln. additives. As the desired percentage concentrations. type. Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures.

filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed. operating costs. Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. about 90% is (Oswald. • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations. Durability and 4. the growth substrate can be easily removed. pores. For instance.6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide.. 2001). methane drum size. however. and have the ability to remove the algae later. acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. 1995. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out.. such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements.through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. suction. Saidam and Butler. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. These include. Culture purity However. and bioharvesting. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e. or ships for operation. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al. but doing or dredging with cutters. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. Moving filters Currently. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate.. but are not limited to. 2002. microalgae. but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. floc optimization. Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . leads to blinding. Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied. 1991). separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. Washing the filter is one practice. Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. 1996). The flocculant efficiency. in low-humidity climates. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm.. the filter. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades. Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat.g. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. Application of mechanical 38 4. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. so leads to re-dilution of the product. 2009).g. and mechanized harvesting methods. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size). design. and reduction of filtering rates. 2008). of the roughly 1. have also been developed.2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues. and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e. The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields.. In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity. Filtration designs Invariably. Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency. pores decreasing filter efficiency.. where fuel precursors very expensive. 2003).

Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz.30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. about 20 . will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas. surface area to volume ratios. 2001). example. could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. scale of harvesting and dewatering. 2004). a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture. culture and end-use.85% water content (Peterson et al. 2009). and depreciation. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. For part of the pretreatment process. maintenance. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. 1989).20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore. The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”. by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded. Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water. attached forms that tend to stand upright.3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols.. • Removal of foreign objects and debris. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 . litter. and the amount of debris method. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 . influence. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp. 2009). 2009). adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately. and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis. Anaerobic digestion. stones.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation. mechanized harvesting techniques. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. Smaller particles. laws have approaches 90% may be necessary. This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al. given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated.. e. Further. 2008). new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration... Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng.. 2009). sand. such fermentation. opportunities for products apart from fuels. operations. the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined. The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al.. strict regulations 80 . with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments. for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al. may be amenable to mowing. and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils. To manage seaweed harvests. final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. although breakthroughs are still needed in each.. shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions.harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed.

Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. Ireland Buck. 357-394. Progress in Water Technology. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters. Micro-Algal Biotechnology. 113. A. Illman. Water Science and Technology.B.. 11.from algae. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. B.X. I. Dodd.A. B. G. B.J.J. (1993).. 45(1). et al. (2005).. R. H. N. S. (1975). Knuckey. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.S.L. Lundquist. (2006). Lerat. D. (2010). 35(3).F Frampton.Y. However.J. Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting. and C. Ku. Water Science and Technology. likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates. 67. 250. E. Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale. T. 525-534. L. (2009).. Anderson. Buchholz. 27(10). J. along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass..B. J. Won. Kim. coagulants. and M. Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process. (1977). Enzyme and Microbial Technology. of each in algae are considered (Illman et al.H. 674-691. 2000). Lincoln. Bracco. Ferguson. E. Filtration. D. H. 9(3). algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids. 50(11). Delanoue. C. Water Science and Technology. Rasmussen.. Dublin. Y. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. de-watering. 40 4. Vanvuuren. Separation and Purification Technology. V. (1991). Large-scale algae culture systems. Agricultural Wastes. R. (2000). 852-859. (38). 85(3).M. (2005). A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. Koopman.J. Sedimentation and Flotation. Scragg. Jones. 47(1). D. 30 (7).F. Johnson.R. W. Stanley.. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt. Sustainable Energy Ireland. Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. Lavoie. and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge. (2004). Butterfi.. S. Zubieta. & Wen.H. E. B. Downing. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. (27). (2002). F.B. Jones. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. Brown. H. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. (1988). 117. bubbles. Ferguson.. T. 713. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0. Oswald.. Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents. J. Algae. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. Kwon. (1995). 95. C. 9(1).. M. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away.R. G. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  .J. Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. 5(4). J. J. 612. C. (1969). J. (1983). Jung.B. Middlebrooks. Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media. 631-635. Lyons. M. based on the latent heat References Bare. (1987). M. Edzwald. 153. Aquacultural Engineering.54 watt-hours/gram. Z. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment.M. Botes. 300. A.P. 6(1). 31(3-4).R. Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. and dissolved air flotation.. Logsdon. Robert. Green. Shales. Bruton. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae.C.J. Curley.K. flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal. Chen. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses. Kwak. 231. Cambridge University Press. M. Borowitzka. Aquaculture. Borowitzka. 133. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. W. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies.

E. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii. Sim.. Mar 42. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. Y. 1987.. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal . (2004). Antal.W.. and J. E-H Belarbi. (1971).Qingdao. Chuang. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. 43(5). Oh. 327.. Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters. Resources. (2003). M. (2008). M. A. Copping. (19). Y. Pringle. G. Benemann. Biotechnology and Bioengineering.. R. Water. W. The Journal of Applied Phycology.J. D. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 . M. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Oswald. Energy & Environmental Science. Phoochinda. 83-89. (1). Ugarte. (1998).D. F. M. Wu. 1. W. Tongkasa. C.S. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge. 16(1). (2008). A. Robles Medina. C.G. J. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration. and Recycling. C. C. G. A. S. Journal of Biotechnology Advances.. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. 24(5). F... E. Kwon. Butler. (27). Lachance. Saidam. Mollah. Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub. 4. G. A. Cah. 24(1). McGarry. Vogel. A. et al. J.B. Comparison of centrifugation. Huang. Becker. G. W. R.R. K. 150(1-3). Poelman. H. (26). 142. 491–515. (2003). Chisti.. (1988). and J. 32-65. Fundamentals. N. (1989). Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. M. Journal of Hazardous Materials. M. 1-7. 1.P. 824. 51. Kim. J. Pauw. 185.P. White. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. Sharp.and supercritical water technologies. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products. (2001). Peterson..G. Forster. Molina Grima E. D. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. Biol. Environmental Technology. Huesemann. Froling. R. (20). 199. Goh. 14. Tester. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. Biomass. Removal of algae using froth flotation.C. B. B114. T. Science and Technology..J. E. A. P. D.C. (1984).. A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum. (2001).M. 87. (1997)..Lee. Tseng. Shelaf. Sukenik. J. Acién Fernández. Conservation. China. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. S. Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism. Roesijadi. (1991). Yoon.. 63-70. Pan. H.A. (1996).Y.S.

2010). application of organic solvents. Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. 2008).. Cell Rupture) component for extraction. pretreatment of (Zhang et al. Additionally. which is dependant on the algal species and growth status. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals.. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly. as well as the be successful. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. base. For this reason. different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion. Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. and acid. prior to the application of the extraction solvents. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process. little is known about the scale. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development.5. thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. 2008. 2003). but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out.. using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products. To operations could affect extraction processes. osmotic shock. and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta. To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective. ultrasounds. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. or for the sonication for cell disruption. and (3) solvate the >40%. Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al.. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5.e. While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks. Lipid Extraction sonication. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production. 2008). algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations. 2010) and osmotic shock.. though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating.. 2005) et al. that secrete products directly into the growth medium.. Extraction of Products from Algae   . autoclaving. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. different logistical challenges arise from access. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid. sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids.. and Barberio.and laboratory-scale procedures. pulverized biomass. 2010). Dibenedetto. 2010). Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted. and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al.. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. some systems 42 5. For waste treatment. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material.

. After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer. 2005). They explained lipids (i. if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system). 1998).. More. These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978). (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path. solubilize.. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i. single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. In general. 1994). 2000). chloroform. In general.. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin. methanol) and acid catalyst (e.... chloroform. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. (i. In other cases. Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly.g. hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. other combinations lipids and cell structure. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted. acetyl chloride). biomass. 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke. and extract the lipids. ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol. and methanol. and Dyer co-solvent method. thereby improving downstream separations. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al.g. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol. 1990). biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. 2000). these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary.g. disruption of the cell Malcata. In these applications. The hexane system as chloroform to contact.e.Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al. Extraction of Products from Algae   43 . making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke.. the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent.e. despite the added added. Consequently. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. give relatively high hexane mixtures. the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy).. 1990). and hexane/isopropanol for lipids.. their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins.e. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al. dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. 2007). pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids. 1996). In general. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers. 2007). water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids.. prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids.. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system. has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first).. 1959). 5. Similarly. the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments. 2007). and then water) (Lewis.g.

Hejazi et al. it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). free fatty acids.95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 . however. For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref). 2004). a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well. the polarity) to values that match the lipids. some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. to all pores within the biomass matrix and. must use dried Consequently. extraction temperature. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure). sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio. 1996). the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i. 1996. and production of triglycerides for biofuels production. The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE . (Denery et al.. break down the cell membrane. By using solvents technique on 1 . is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 .e.. on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al. In general. Accordingly. example. the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer. 2009). a step that also requires energy input. using the process. Extraction of Products from Algae   . extracted 85 . It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel.3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 . separate out desirable by analogy.30 g samples of dried biomass. noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes. and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells. ASE can also be applied to remove co. and optimize the energy cost. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. ASE of higher hydrophobicity.. viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents. What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass. reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent.200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water.10 min). Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. If this process can be 44 5. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina. and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times.. depending on the solvent. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al. Conceptually.. 2006)..e. Denery et al..the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i.55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle.. This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure. screening viability (500 . and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol.

originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner. higher productivity Castro et al. it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid... the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. the ability to 5. In this 2006)..379 bar (Chueng. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro. Some pressures of 241 . this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates. nitrous oxide... one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail). at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. via transesterification. just below the critical temperature. and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case. however. higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts. Some degradation. 2006). Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 . 1992). 1999).g. In addition. sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride. this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process. attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. creating additional energy use challenges. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 . whether grown has the effect of converting lipids. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et.9 bar).. of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times. liquid feeds (Reverchon et al. non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. low toxicity. The technique. In this system up to subcritical temperatures. 2006). by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al.. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. 1994. The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified. The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. 2007). Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature. as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al. 1999). a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans. and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al. 2006). 2005). pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions... thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step.. phototrophically or heterotrophically. however. However. becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature. ease of scale-up. 73. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage. as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction.applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%. More recently. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s). is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. under these conditions. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above. 2006). the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. ethane. is that water. products miscible Largeau. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll).. as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al. 2001) . The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water. Large-scale design scenario. 2007). water. lower costs of the extracting agent. triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner.. for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. water extraction. but other fluids used have included ethane. e. CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids. 1994). A major constraint. There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae...50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid. 1999).g. easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005). 2005). It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. methanol.e. been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however. al.

This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier. 80(2). the issue of solvent energy load. reduce the pressure and temperature requirements.. Food Chem..H. versa. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry. At the cellular level. 46 5. 2007.. Journal of Food Engineering. 2008. 109(2). produced per day. Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. thereby improving the References Barclay. W. Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. 120–126.R. the following in side reactions. 21-33. 2005. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. 2007. Eikani. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4. et al. 73(8). In this context. & Rowshanzamir. 1994. Journal of Applied Phycology. to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. et al. & Malcata.P. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Cartens. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. Meager. Extraction of Products from Algae   . M. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures. 6(2). Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. et al. Balsevich. J. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. 71(9)..3. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. Brunner. J. K. Increased of sugar-based feedstocks. Lipid-Fett. When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. 67(1-2). Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. & Mazza. M. Journal of Food Engineering.).R.. 1996. 1994.. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. However. Journal of Food Engineering. 501(2). Grima.. Carvalho.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales. Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5. J.. G. G. Cravotto. Agric. et al. as Btu. 2005. 80(2).M.. E. 175–181.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute. A. Fajardo. Golmohammad. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. Denery. 5049–5059. G. 2007. 1025–1031.X. & Abril. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. J.. S. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Güçlü-Üstündag. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass. 123-129. Analytica Chimica Acta. 955–959. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores. 619–630. F. 898-902.. 53(13). 15(5)..transesterifiable lipids. 735–740. et al. 2004. F. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. A.

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
with retention of viability. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 79(1), 29-36.
Herrero, M., Cifuentes, A. & Ibanez, E., 2006. Sub-and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different
natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36(11), 1283–1287.
Lee, J. et al., 2010. Comparison of several methods for effective lipid extraction
from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
Lepage, G. & Roy, C.C., 1984. Improved recovery of fatty acid through direct transesterification without
prior extraction or purification. The Journal of Lipid Research, 25(12), 1391-1396.
Lewis, T., Nichols, P.D. & McMeekin, T.A., 2000. Evaluation of extraction methods for recovery of fatty acids
from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
Luque de Castro, M.D., Jimenez-Carmona, M.M. & Fernandez-Perez, V., 1999. Towards more rational techniques
for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
Mata, T.M., Martins, A.A. & Caetano, N.S., 2010. Microalgae for biodiesel production and other
applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1), 217-232.
Mendes, R. et al., 1994. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of hydrocarbons from the
microalgaBotryococcus braunii. Journal of Applied Phycology, 6(3), 289-293.
Metzger, P. & Largeau, C., 2005. Botryococcus braunii: a rich source for hydrocarbons and related
ether lipids. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 66(5), 486-496.
Mulbry, W. et al., 2009. Optimization of an Oil Extraction Process for Algae from the Treatment of
Manure Effluent. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(9), 909–915.
Nagle, N. & Lemke, P., 1990. Production of methyl ester fuel from microalgae. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 24(1), 355–361.
Park, P.K., Kim, E.Y. & Chu, K.H., 2007. Chemical disruption of yeast cells for the isolation of
carotenoid pigments. Separation and Purification Technology, 53(2), 148–152.
Reverchon, E., Iol & Marco, A.D., 2006. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of
natural matter. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 38(2), 146-166.
Richter, B.E. et al., 1996. Accelerated solvent extraction: a technique for sample preparation. Anal. Chem, 68(6), 1033–1039.
Rittmann, B.E., Krajmalnik-Brown, R. & Halden, R.U., 2008. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-
genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy.
Rodriıguez-Ruiz, J. et al., 1998. Rapid simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification
for fatty acid analyses. Biotechnology techniques, 12(9), 689–691.
Schäfer, K., 1998. Accelerated solvent extraction of lipids for determining the fatty acid
composition of biological material. Analytica Chimica Acta, 358(1), 69–77.
Soto Ayala, R. & Luque de Castro, M.D., 2001. Continuous subcritical water extraction as a useful
tool for isolation of edible essential oils. Food chemistry, 75(1), 109–113.
Virot, M. et al., 2008. Microwave-integrated extraction of total fats and oils. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1196-1197, 57-64.

5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

efficiently.2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with... These current time (Bridgwater. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh. Also. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003). and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 . There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas. gradient. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. 2008). Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. gasification. Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. biohydrogen) substance by heating. 50 6. with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. or other biomass. 2003. Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. For flash pyrolysis. and the added benefit of being fuels. including direct biophotolysis. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step. to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock. competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. where finely on economic considerations.. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen. typical biomass throughout the country. 2003). Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Brazil.. Miao and Wu. in that it is extremely fast. products. Polysaccharides. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006).e. depending on the reaction parameters. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. algae: pyrolysis. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil. McDermid & Stuercke.e. the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing.500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds. 2004). place in their presence. 2003). the algae. anaerobic digestion. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. improvement in hydrocracking. photo-fermentation. This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al. 2004). can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). at least some level of dewatering is still required. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors. social acceptance. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology. though from algae.. such as mannitol. too low for conversion to biodiesel. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and. especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. and significant dehydration crops. laminarin. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae. Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis.1). and the United States. but algae. although the scientific literature. feedstocks must be ground into fine particles. 2006. i. 2007).

the process more flexible. since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources. Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. Balat. 2007. 1994)... FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally. First and foremost. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents. 2009). The methods. address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. Another research paper comparatively straightforward. and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al. CO2. so the bio-oil may be more investment required. 2009. Unfortunately. Srinivas et al.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels . it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. 2007. etc. Another advantage is the Additionally. 6. Additionally.. research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. 2004). and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed. primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. 2006). alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas. Exhibit 6.. there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. Yung et al. H2. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 . it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O.

Germany. ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic. A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process.. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. with oxygen at high temperature. 2005).for dedicated biomass plants. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . 36 kJ g−1. However. 2006). Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale. there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D..4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals. The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al. Even though FTS is a mature technology. 2008). The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. comparable to those of fuel oil. Also. usually requires pretreatment.. 1995). Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. 1995). In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al. This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. France in 2006. A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993). There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al.330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . Typically. and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso. These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process. algae may have a unique advantage balance. The first reactor was a low.. Additionally. 2005). of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH.. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles.. it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes. FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. Neste Oil. The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date. Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further.. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option. considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char. as high as 75%.. (Raffelt et al. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. the most significant problem al. First.

lower reaction temperatures. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites.4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al.51/gal). in place. the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach. supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production. which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6. While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180.g.. with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures. 2008. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i. cost. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment. In for example. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. 2007). 2008). It is. key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae. and one that receives scant attention of algae.. in particular. at less than 50˚C. is an interesting mode of gaseous oils. raw. effect of milder process conditions. 2009). and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas.. In this process variant. 2008). with a conversion cost-effective methodology. ensuring maximum particular. oil extract.. There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts. transesterification. and as such. Additionally. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior. however. $0. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas. e.. level that can be scaled to commercial production. and fuel conversion. Similar results have been Fernández et al. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality.e. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . in terms of yield. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al. fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. 2009).. the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. further study will also 6.. it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production. and efficiency. therefore. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. 2009). 2006). theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. $0. triacylglycerides. Vieitez et al. including drying. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008). Additionally. a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process. 1987). the typical mode of biofuel production from algae. Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority. This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts. In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. conversion of vegetable oils. supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. gal vs.Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. is to demonstrate are selective. The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based.

catalyzed methanol approach. (Ataya et al. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4. Kerosene. Diesel. In addition to the classic base. The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al. generally required as a result. 2008. The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts.. a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas. Boocock.2). Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. Recently. Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. 2008). 2008). mitigate saponification chemical. Though acid catalysts have these advantages. and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. there are other solution and mixing well. they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. biochemical. acid methyl esters). and therefore. As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum. therefore. heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy... heteropolyacids (HPA).can be converted into biodiesel.. Transesterification (Alsalme et al. When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al. HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. 2008). This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. This section discusses water and free acids.. 2008). it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts. The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves. 2006). Cao et al. enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts.2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. 2009). 2007). 2008). (Exhibit 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   ..

process must be able to function in the presence of these However. (a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production... have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. In the ultrasonic reactor method. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base. There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost. it has been noted 6. Use of biocatalysts cell walls. at a commercial scale and at competitive prices.. production.. Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time. One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing.. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater. 2007). Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al. Lewis acid catalysts. 1998). 2005). 2008). much R&D is needed in the discovery. The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained. 2007).. Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al. This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse. and energy input (Kalva et al. 2003). but (Lopez-Hernandez et al. 2006). converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters. reaction temperatures. Again. and 2008). Although very effective and relatively economical. such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or ZnCl2. sugars. Liao et al. In particular. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. 2008). the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al. these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream.. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 . engineering. Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. 2008. It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. increasingly attractive.. inexpensive (McNeff et al... to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive. 2008).et al. These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases. 2008). and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al. in many cases. converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process. and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin). as with other approaches. Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end.. 2008). both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al. they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. This work more mature conversion processes currently available. catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. difficulty in removing the glycerol.

demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks. and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full. separation In another example. in an assortment of end products. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. Many of the catalysts cracking. Moreover. The catalysts are active feedstock. initial and final boiling point. On the other hand. be completed before these catalysts are fully understood. Other based analog. such as biomass or plant oil. presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification. Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water. the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels.. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. such as oil shale and tar sands. jet fuel. for whale oil. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. and insoluble. The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content. From a refinery’s At these temperatures. A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. the process pressure is high perspective. they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline. and cloud point.. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. and Al2O3. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. maximizing the final energy content. 2009). begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . CaO. flash point. the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. In this way. 56 6.240°C). It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure.The presence of a co-solvent. temperatures of about 170˚C). obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights. Although are stable. jet fuel. catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements.60 bar). straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . such as tehtrahydrofuran. active catalysts during transesterification. and x is an and process steps. gasoline. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. As noted in chapter 8. in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids.

It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6. a chemical reductive process). Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. In addition. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas. In particular. Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons. as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner.4 Processing of Algal (basically. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel. once H2 used.g. Referred to as hydrotreating. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 . It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. 6. this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. nitrogen from extracted proteins. as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion.. metals. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. and for recycle to the culture. 1979). The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e. carbon dioxide.

S. Wang. In Gaigneaux E. Hanssen. In (Ed) Bridgwater. P. J. and Kambourova. (2009).M. E. Thermal Science. Fatty Acid Composition of Some Malaysian Seaweeds. Boerefijn. and Tavlarides.M. Energy and Fuels. (2009). 31(2). 22(2-3). 53(6). Baevre. Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts Proc. M. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society..J. S. and Bjerle. Biomass fast pyrolysis. D.. Liu...A. and Environmental Effects. F. S. (2009). M. X. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid. 9th Int. Tyrol. O. Energy Fuels.. 50(4).M. 2006. and Xu. (2006).E. 162. G. Tesser. Austria. W. Utilization of macro-algae for enhanced CO2 fixation and biofuels production: Development of a computing software for an LCA study.. 129-132. Zhai. (2008). Balat. Andersson.. M.. (1997).. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. & Phang. Kenawi. Lv. I. Adv.L. Int.. Oxford. W. E. Vinatoru. Li. Norazmi Mohamed. M. Symposium. M... Aresta. A..References Alsalme. 22(1). Analysis of digester design concepts.(2006).V. High temperature gasification of biomass in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor. (1993).) Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis. Fang. Hallgren. Energy. Demirbas. J. S. 17-22. (2007).. 22(2).. (2004). Ueda. 933-940. Demirbas. Biomass Convers. 17(1-2). A. R. 21–50. (2008). (pp. 3rd (1994).. Z.. Armenta. Energy Sources.R. and Zhu. M. Louvain-la-Neuve. Part A: Recovery. I. Dube. Gaigneaux. 338-49. R. E. Oily products from mosses and algae via pyrolysis. and Barberio. and Ogushi. Deshpande. A. Dibenedetto. Cozzolino. (1987). De Vos. 84(11). 85(2).. Energy-Oxford.... (2006). Transesterification of fish oil to produce fatty acid ethyl esters using ultrasonic energy. 1045-1052. M. F. Y. Energy Conversion and Management. J. L. Hermans. (2008). Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society.. 22(2). Acidolysis of tripalmitin with oleic acid catalyzed by a newly isolated thermostable lipase. J. Goudriaan.. Chu.. G.. A. (2008). Kamal. (2008). 21-27. N. Van der Wal.E. (2005). (2000). 349(1-2). N. Thermochem. G. Science and Technology. Thermal efficiency of the HTU® process for biomass liquefaction. 163-168. Wang. S. A. Z. Conf. S. J... F... Ataya. (1979).. P. 579-582. Ashare. E. Naber. Lu. V. B.M. Eloy. P. 170-176. F. Production of biodiesel from algae oils. Zhiryakova.. 14(1).. Y. 697-704. Part A: Recovery... Applied Catalysis A: General. C.. A. Hirayama. and Zeevalkink. COO-2991-42.. Anaerobic digestion of Laminaria spp. 510-515. Wang. W.A. Burja. 1312-1325). 679-685. E.. 93-100. R.E. Bie. Jacobs. Meeting Date 1993. and Jensen. Ding.. Sustainable transportation fuels from biomass materials. J. Kozhevnikova. Y.. and Ruiz.. Indergaard. M.. (2006). Kralovec. Rev.... Dynatech R/D Co.. Bridgewater Anthony. and Ternan. F. Chen. Fuel. Demirbas. Cao. & Wilson.. 2000... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . F.A. and Santacesaria. T. Hawash.. Malaysian Journal of Science. Guncheva.F. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification. 58 6. Energy Sources. K. Utilization. Supported vanadium oxide nanoparticles: Effect of preparation method. Belgium. Pap. and Barrow. Oestgaard. 1391-1399. Van de Beld.E. Martens. and El Diwani. J. Biodiesel fuel from Jatropha oil via non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification. Integrated technology for supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration. A. O.. and Kozhevnikov. A. Bos. 1-13. September 10-14. Current Microbiology. Education. Zaher. and Environmental Effects.. CO2 fixation and ethanol production with microalgal photosynthesis and intracellular anaerobic fermentation. A. Biomass. [Ed. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant staphylococcus saprophyticus M36 produced organic solvent-stable lipase. G. M. 923-927.. A. 88(3). MA (USA). 1679-1693. 28(10). Proceedings of the Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion.. Anitescu.A. (2003). and Ascophyllum nodosum and application of end products.].. Devillers. Variables affecting the induction period during acid-catalyzed transesterification of canola oil to FAME. Radchenkova.. F. Di Serio. Heteropoly acids as catalysts for liquid- phase esterification and transesterification. S. support and type of precursor on the catalytic performances in the ODH of methanol to formaldehyde. Sep.. M. Pedersen.V.. A. H. M.. 83-103. UK: Blackwell Science. Fuel Processing Technology. D. F... Cambridge. A.. 101(1). Hirano. Utilization. L. 86(14-15). X.. 8(2). 137-142.. A. A.. (Eds.

Garcia. S. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.. R. Taylor and Francis.. and Sanjay M. 657-660. 131(1-3). Hon-Nami. S. K. A. K. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of medium-chain triacylglycerols and a fully hydrogenated soybean oil. Lopez-Hernandez.C. 89(12). H.. C. High yield bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis by metabolic controlling of Chlorella protothecoides. A: General. T. C.. T. Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds. Lertsathapornsuk. R. Applied Catalysis. and Hoye. Kishimoto. E. M. Synthesis using bio-syngas and CO2. J. Mahajani. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Steinhardt. T. H. 48(1).. Yan. 36. and Moholkar. Henrich. (2008). A. (2007). Minowa. CO2 fixation and oil production Through microalga.... Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. (2009).. A. 111(1-2). Koegel. Ethanol production from CO2 by fermentative microalgae. S. Catalysis Letters. Nurunnabi.. An overview of aqueous-phase catalytic processes for production of hydrogen and alkanes in a biorefinery. F.. A..F. D.C. S..Jr. Yokoyama. Raffelt. 88(3).V.. B. M. Srinivas. 129(1-3).. and Shieh. 8887-8897. and Kunito. H. 46(26).. Patil. M. Refaat... 14(4). S. R. Chlamydomonas perigranulata. 128(1-2). Supercritical fluid extraction of active compounds from algae. J. Catalysis Today.U. W. and Hill. (2003).N. 74.. K. 1330-1336. 70(6). Okabe. (1995).. 25(21).. McDermid. The BTL2 process of biomass utilization entrained-flow gasification of pyrolyzed biomass slurries. 66-71. Boyce. S. Pairintra. Hon-Nami.T. V. J. R. (2009).T.. Dote. 189-213).J. and Argyropoulos. R. In Martinez. Inoue. Gyberg. Hirano. Nakanishi. V. A. 4(4).G. 729-731. Aryusuk. 1188-1195. and Naqiuddin.R.S.T..Y. 15(6). A guide to the seaweed industry.W. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Maeda. and Bandow. F. K. C..Hirayama. Stavarache. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru catalysts by using syngas derived from woody biomass. Journal of Biotechnology. S. D.. S.. (2003). Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds (pp. B. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 114(Advances in Chemical Conversions for Mitigating CO2). K. S..3-diglyacylcerols by mixture response surface methodology.. Liao. C365-C372.. Phillips. Rasmussen. Miao. (2003). K. Journal of Food Science. Stahl. S.L. and Yokoyama.K. 1857-1861. T. 171-176. Technoeconomic analysis of a lignocellulosic biomass indirect gasification process to make ethanol via mixed alcohols synthesis. 808-828. Biotechnology Letters. & Stuercke. A unique feature of hydrogen recovery in endogenous starch-to-alcohol fermentation of the marine microalga. B.. Fedie. (2007). Sivasankar. J... Journal of Applied Phycology.. B. and El Sheltawy. M. Chang. D.L.. and Giselroed.. Y. Towards sustainable production of biofuels from microalgae. Murata. Kalva. (2008). Fuel. 560-565. Malik. (1995). 413-417. P. W.. Y.). 6. Biodiesel fuel production from algae as renewable energy.. J. Hossain.. M. (1998).. (2006). Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   59 . Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.R. A continuous catalytic system for biodiesel production. Ueda. S. (Ed. Application of solvent engineering to optimize lipase-catalyzed 1. 534-544. Venditti. Energy Conversion and Management. N..Q. Energy for Sustainable Development. Fuel Processing Technology. J. Soriano. L. and Weirich. A. X. R. & Dumesic. Y. (2004). K. Huber... R. Biodiesel synthesis via homogeneous Lewis acid-catalyzed transesterification. Ogushi. 39-48. H. A. 279-288. Tsai. M. Mendes. 250-254...E. McNeff.. Tran. (2007). T. 4(3).. A. (2007). Ultrasonically driven continuous process for vegetable oil transesterification.. and Okakura. M. 9(7). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research.S. McNeff. (2008). D. Nowlan. C. A. Physical mechanism of ultrasound-assisted synthesis of biodiesel.. 153-164. and Krisnangkura. 110(1). Food and Agriculture Organization. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. K. and Liu. Y. Inc... 11(4)..L. K.S. (2008). G.. (2005). 343(1-2). 513-524 McHugh. Fuel. Time factor in microwave-enhanced biodiesel production. Samejima.. (2006). Q. (2008).. 1735-1738. A. (2006). A. 119–132. and Wu.-Y. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development. Vinatoru. Ogi. Microwave assisted in continuous biodiesel production from waste frying palm oil and its performance in a 100 kW diesel generator. Oil production from algal cells of dunaliella tertiolecta by direct thermochemical liquefaction. Jr.. (2008). Salleh. Sawayama. Chowdhury. 85-93. Y.. Krohn. V.

(2004). Chinese Science Bulletin.. B.. Wang. Energy and Fuels. Effect of temperature on the continuous synthesis of soybean esters under supercritical ethanol. Vargas.. Multiple intensified performance of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction in organic medium. J. 2805-2809. J. C. Improvement in lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production using a solvent engineering method. Oliveira. 2018-2022. (1994).C... G.V. 170-175. (2008).. B. 126. and Magrini-Bair. Wahlen. Roxana R. Zhou. I. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Jablonski.. and Jachmanian. J. 1047-1052.. Energy and Fuels. Shimidzu N.. Vieitez. D.. I. (2008).. M.R. 10(7). A.. Energy and Fuels. G. Da Silva. F. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel in supercritical ethanol-water mixtures. 22(6). Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. Borges. and Fu. 793-801..M. and Saka.. Synthesis of biodiesel from mixed feedstocks and longer chain alcohols using an acid-catalyzed method. G.Svensson.. M. and Clark. M. 548-552. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . 23(4). Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. N. Da Silva.C..D. (2008). 110(11).. H. Vieitez. and Zhu... Wu. Miao. Su. 55(3-4). Green Chemistry. Q.. 39(23). 118-125. R. B. Yang.. (2006). (2009)... G. Borges.V. & Wu. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. A highly active and stable Fe-Mn catalyst for slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. and Doisaki. N. Phase distributions of alcohol.. Biomass and Bioenergy. Zhang.A. Corazza.. J. X. (2008). X. Yang. A.A.. L. (2006). D. Y.M. Q. Xiang. 171-179.Y. 1874-1887. 22(4). and Li. 4223-4228. Journal of Biotechnology.. H. Guo. Vergara-Fernandez. G.... C. (2008).S. and Seefeldt. Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols. 60 6. Y. and Wei. K.C. 746-755. D. B. W.. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters.R. glycerol. Iwasaki Y. E. W. 32(4).. I. L. Grompone. G.. Y. (2008). Zhong. I. and catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil. S. Oliveira. Yamane T..M.. Review of catalytic conditioning of biomass-derived syngas.. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system. 499-507. (2008).. Kusdiana.. Alckmin. Grompone... 1007-1013. Energy and Fuels. Catalysis Today. Sheng. and Adlercreutz. and Boocock. H. Barney. 864(Enzyme Engineering XIV).Y. Yu. Xu. Y. 23(1). Y.. Warabi. Xu. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. Yuan. Corazza.H. Yang. Zhang. and Jachmanian. 106(1-4). Synthesis of biodiesel using microwave absorption catalysts. B. Identification of triacylglycerols in the enzymatic transesterification of rapeseed and butter oil. Preparation of mesoporous polyoxometalate-tantalum pentoxide composite catalyst and its application for biodiesel production by esterification and transesterification. Alarcon. (1998). L. 23(1). 558-563. (2005).. F. Yung. L. 115(1-3). 338-344. I. (2009). 83(12). Energy and Fuels. B. X. Influences of bacterial degradation on gases generated by pyrolysis of heterotrophically yellowing algae. J.A. P. and Velasco.

Heat. the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. novel technologies with increased coloring substances. and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 . As summarized economics of the system.1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products.500 x106 lbs/yr. Co-products   61 . valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products.7.2. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products. wastewater. glycerol. For the purposes of the Roadmap. aromatic essences. these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition. Moreover. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. 2004). the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7. pharmaceuticals. primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria. proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process. anti-oxidants. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6). 2007 7. enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). poly-unsaturated fatty acids. and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. and stable isotopes for research purposes. etc. flavors. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass. The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process.30 .. Inorganics Proteins enzymes. fats (oils). and energy from photosynthesis. CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7. is predicted to be generated by the process. a reasonably benefits to the technology.00/lb. The topic of polysaccharides. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. Vorlop. generation will inevitably compete for carbon.1). corresponding markets in the long term.$1. Using appropriate technologies. without invoking competing co. $0. reductant. dyes. The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined. Indeed. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. Exhibit 7. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers. hormones. fertilizers and soil conditioners. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb. cosmetics.

gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal.. not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products. The market size. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium. better immune to the consumer. 1990. With the possible exception of the existing response.e. The main species used in products. • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. γ-linolenic acid (GLA). from 300 to 3. Scenedesmus. currently at about 2. Chlorella and Scenesdesmus. US$. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. ca. 2006).. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. 2006). 1990. Anti-Oxidants The market. fertility. docohexaenoic acid (DHA). these existing markets (and associated Spirulina. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i... Although small. All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. This situation. poultry. Radmer. yet in the short term. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis.000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al. 1999). microalgal (of biomass. Tetraselmis. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. sold for the health food market.000 t/yr Spirulina. appearance. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). Dunalliella. The most very large potential markets are developed. the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term. 2006). The production includes ca. al. it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. Chlorella. Co-products   . 2. et al. 2004. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina. 3. significant amounts of lead. Pulz and Gross.. ca. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann.) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. However. GLA by Arthrospira.g. arsenic.. and ca. having presently a retail value of 1. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption.10% (wt. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. etc. 1986. weight gain.5 billion US$. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs. pigs.200 t/yr Dunaliella.) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$. The market for microalgal animal feeds. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements.By definition. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds. Nannochloropsis. e. particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. GLA from evening primrose oil). is expected to expand significantly. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae. 1990.000 t/yr Chlorella. However. 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon. market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova.. crustaceans (shrimp). product. have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka. The Dunaliella. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. Radmer.. Isochrysis. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price.) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 . 1996). 1996. 2006). the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. etc. and Thalassiosira. the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. 280 million US$. and soil fertilizer. 1. animal feed are Spirulina. Nitzschia. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium. In poultry rations. horses. is expected to grow in the future.g. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira). ca. 1994 and 1996). Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species. Malcolm et al.5 billion A number of anti-oxidants. 600 t/yr Nostoc. which is sold either fish (Benemann. is quickly growing. cadmium and derived biofuels. 62 7. Skeletonema. Phaeodactylum. Chlorella. Spolaore et (e.

no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Benemann. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers. 1990). (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al. cosmetics. 1986.e. 2006). Astaxanthin.000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7.Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin.500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1. and Exhibit 7. 2006). 2004.. or as pigments i.. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.200 >280 Spolaore et al.000 700 Spolaore et al. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka. (Olaizola. (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product.500 Spolaore et al. Spolaore et al. and research.. (2006) EPA Potential product.. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al. Co-products   63 . a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. dyes for food. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics.. are used as food dyes. growth promoters.2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7.. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1. 2003.. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Spolarore et al. Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5..000 2. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1. pigments in pluvialis.. the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin.. Phycobiliproteins. 2006).

.3).. Exhibit 7.. or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics).e. 2.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds. Singh et al. pet food.. These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka.5-6 BILLION 64 7. kombu. 1990). mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al. Metting and Pyne. Co-products   . cosmetics (Spolaore et al. Pulz and Gross. 1994. 2004). the only issue is price. pharmaceuticals and In this instance. 1. Alginate. be very small due to their specialized applications.2 Commercial Products factor. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. Pulz and Gross.. plant growth regulators could be 7. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004). or other product. fuel. it 2004). Radmer. macroalgae (i.) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient. must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986. Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. 2003. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose. etc. 1990. 2001).. 2001. wakame. but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. Wu et al. Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. 1986). Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae. cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. Borowitzka. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al. Olaizola. They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. Furthermore. aonori. 2007. Pulz and Gross. medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. polysaccharides (Benemann. Here price is a major 7.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. pharmaceutical. pharmaceutical. 2005.. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing. fuel or other product. The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al. This sets a high bar research (Benemann. 1987). toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5. the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium. 1986). 1990. Identical to an existing chemical.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh. 2006). food additive.

. In this case. 2009).4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. gasification. non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass. conversion technologies. The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass. However.4). Nevertheless. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. 2009).3. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy. The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass. both (Exhibit 7. Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). Therefore. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. New material with unique and useful functional production systems. and combustion. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage. such as pyrolysis. it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. with reported methane yields of about 0. and Benemann. which could then be either sold on the new product. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels.3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid.unh. Co-products   65 .pdf). with potential whole (i. lipids only.e. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production. the issues enough markets for potential co-products. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology. and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure). Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7. the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann.

it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. butyric. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. the market for animal feed (cattle.txt). Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced. feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry. The Glycerol. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes. thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced. current levels. antifreeze.. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. 2006). a food and feed supplement. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. etc. (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid.gov/mnreports/sj_gr225.5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be solvents. acetic. propionic. a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed.e. and could be advantageous. the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. fish. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. and Option 4. However. and (c) at products such as polymers. and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and Good. generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. the residual microalgal (http://www. and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al. aliphatic polyesters.ams. bioplastics. However. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. succinic. glycerol could be used to potentially very large.. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes.20 per gallon ethanol. As of industrial surfactants. Similarly. Choi. polycarbonates and polyurethanes. is potentially very large. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming. 2008). is the starting material for the production of polyester. the projected market for cellulases is 2007. including and interactions with animal digestion. and butanol). least 10. than $0. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products. 2001). For example.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 . jet fuel. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide. 2007). Kamm and Kamm. solvents (acetone.g. Finally. Furthermore. from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants. might ethanol could be used as biofuel. 2007). while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. detergents.. biomass for liquid biofuel production. Kawaguchi et al.. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers. poultry. Furthermore. As was pointed out above.. 2008). Since the generation of gasoline.. epoxies. pigs. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass. ethanol. however. human nutrition may organic acids (formic. (Hu et al. relative derived ethylene and propylene. to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants. green solvents and a result.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids. Co-products   . it is also used in the In addition. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. adhesives. 1 billion kg.usda.3-propanediol. due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. Furthermore. this option (Datta et al. i. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. 2007). Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez. 2007. which contains proteins. 2009. 1995). and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. produced by 2020. Furthermore. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. Option 2.

Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). 621-63. Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. University of Illinois. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus. I. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. Wright. The Plant Journal. 277-282. 221-231. Enzyme Microbial Technology. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2.jsp?article_id=377). J. 7. J. and carbohydrates is not cost-effective.H. Crouch. Biologically active compounds from microalgae.M. B. J. (91). Biorefineries – multi product processes. M. W. (2001).R. Miyamoto. with special focus on Dunaliella sp. Netherlands. No. the recovery and use of energy.J. (31). Food and Agriculture Organization. Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products. 5. physiology.e. E. Champaign-Urbana. Burgess. Science Publishers. Good. Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering. Forro. the issue of scale enters in. M. K. J. A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. S. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources. S. Metting.H. M. Berger. (1990). (16). FEMS Microbiological Review. The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. 2007). Hu. SPB Academic Publishing. Kawaguchi H. The Hague. Developments in industrial microbiology. (2007).. (2009). (1987). Recent Patents on Biotechnology. Microbial degradation of marine biomass. M. L. this option will also require and potentially growing. A. Kamm. Choi. (57). As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5. 3(12). (1990). i. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5). Ghirardi. and P. 173-180. (8). it applications (Mooibroek et al. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. P.. Metting. Borowitzka. B. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. Banaigs.000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products. carbohydrates. 9347-9377. Bonsignore. Microbiological Sciences. Burja. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products. proteins. the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3. (2001). Microalgae products and production: An overview. 589-627. K. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. (2008). Benemann. if desired. with saturated. Moon. J. van Staden. J. polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids. genomics. Frank. Suppl. K. Datta. McHugh. (105). and biotechnology. carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. processes. (2006). Pyne. (2008). Tetrahedon.biodieselmagazine. M.. A guide to the seaweed industry.P. these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann. Algal Biology. M. J. Hashimoto.Kadirgan. Darzins. J. As was mentioned above. W. Tsai. 372-375. Sommerfeld. E. M. Finally. Introduction to Applied Phycology. 247-256. Zimmerman. (2007)..175-204. B.. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses. New Hampshire. (1986). Abou-Mansour. (1986).A.S. A. 1994). including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. Hirata. B.L. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. D. Kamm. microalgal metabolites. D.C. L. Q. Seibert. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only. Huesemann.. specifically.. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives.R. 386-394. R. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. (54).R. (2). Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. including www. Co-products   67 . Jarvis. Once again.. Posewitz.com/article.. and potential.J.W. (2003).G.

N. Roy.J. Wu.. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. Gonzalez. Velikodvorskaya. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology.N. M. Z.V. Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. (65). (2004). (141).. U. Vorlop. 68 7. J. 257-267. C. S.Y. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. (1996). G. Gross.A. (2004). Q.. 73-95. (2006). Algal diversity and commercial algal products. W. Philip.J. Singh.. Giuseppin. (2003). Biomolecular Engineering. S. Oosterhuis. Zerlov. Journal of Electrochemical Society.. (77). Duran. 85-90. Keshavarz. (2007). Franssen. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace. H. R. E. Co-products   . T. F. Steinbüchel. (2001). Joannis-Cassan.. 87-96. Toonen. V. 101(2). Isambert. Spolaore.C. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. G.H. Radmer. 459-466. 263-270.Y. Willke. Yazdani. (1994). Yildiz. Wu. E. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (76). O. 46(4).. W.Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Olaizola. I. (2007). Bioresource Technology. Berezina. Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. G. A.. Kate. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. (1994). 213-219. 723-730. Radmer. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Commercial applications of microalgae. Current Opinion Biotechnology.S.Mooibroek.C. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Banerjee. 131-142. M. T. (6). Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. Pulz. Kadirgan. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology...D. 635-648. (20). P. Parker. PCC6803. R.H. (2006). Scott. (25). Sanders. A. H. (2005). Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. Journal of Applied Phycology. 93-98. (82). B. BioScience. (18). 587-597. M. 233-247. (66). O. Schwarz. K. R.F. (2007). B. Shen. S. (71)..

2009) and infrastructure. have been shown biofuels as well. biodiesel. fuels intermediates.g.. 2009). it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. fuel intermediates. including algae.. and different fuels from algae are being considered. and bioproducts. biofuels. Ethanol. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. higher alcohols. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery. It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. products – ethanol. and end-use vehicles). combusting. transporting. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. 2008). Distribution and Utilization  69 .1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established. transport. • Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). fuel intermediates. similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. biogas. storage. it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. materials and temperature considerations (e. biodiesel. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. Efstathiou and Credeur. other distribution aspects pipelining. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs. be transported to the refinery. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. infrastructure concerns. storage tanks. delivery vehicles. 1986). Some of these fuels are to be sited. within the context of from algal biomass.8. 8.g. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks.. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity. pyrolysis oil. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. blending. Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. diesel. poorly characterized. and the quality of the final fuel product. container dimensions. as corrosivity) for trucks. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. such as cultivation and harvesting. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. Specifically. However. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. and • Third. depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above. pH and from algal biomass resources. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points. conforming to existing standards (e. production. dispensing equipment. and final fuels from the systems. These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. for ideal lipid compositions. and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. In turn. The optimal Technologies). rails. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass.. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. with some evidence suggesting scalability. few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. the specific distribution and dewatering levels. high capacity. 2009. In all cases. Thus. and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. and final fuels biomass. • Second. 1990).

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
concerns.
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

References
Aatola, H., Larmi, M., Sarjovaara, T., and Mikkonen, S. (2009). Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as a renewable diesel fuel: Trade-off
between NOx particulate emission and fuel consumption of a heavy duty engine. SAE International Journal of Engines. 1(1), 1251-
1262.
ASTM International. (2009a). Standard specification for diesel fuel oils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available online
at http://www.astm.org/Standards/D975.htm
ASTM International. (2009b). Standard specification for biodiesel fuel blend stock (B100) for middle distillate fuels. West Conshohocken,
PA: ASTM International. Available online at http://astm.org/Standards/D6751.htm
ASTM International. (2009c). Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available
online at http://astm.org/Standards/D1655.htm
ASTM International. (2009d). Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at http://www.astm.org./Standards/D4814.htm
ASTM International. (2009e). Standard specification for diesel fuel oil, biodiesel blend (B6 to B20). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at http://astm.org/Standards/D7467.htm
Bondioli, P., Gasparoli, A., Lanzani, A., Fedeli, E., Veronese, S., and Sala, M. (1995). Storage stability of biodiesel. Journal of the
American Oil Chemists’ Society.72(6), 699-702.
Buckman, R. (2009). Boeing backs biofuels. Retrieved October 26, 2009, from Forbes.com at
http://www.forbes.com/2009/06/17/biofuels-biodiesel-boeing-intelligent-technology-biofuels.html
Efstathiou, J. and Credeur, M.J. (2009). Algae-powered jet proves biofuel in continental test (update 2). Retrieved October, 23, 2009 from
Bloomberg.com at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601081&sid=ayiWn9Z4EwIM
Frega, N., Mozzon, M. and Lercker, G. (1999). Effects of free fatty acids on oxidative stability of vegetable oil. Journal of the American
Oil Chemists’ Society. 76(3), 325-329.
Graboski, M.S. and McCormick, R.L. (1998). Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived Fuels in diesel engines. Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science. 24(2), 125-164.
Hess, J., Kenney, K., Wright, C., Perlack, R., and Turhollow, A. (2009). Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: Situation analysis.
Cellulose. 16(4), 599-619.
Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Jarvis, E., Ghirardi, M., Posewitz, M., Seibert, M., and Darzins, A. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for
biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. The Plant Journal. 54(4), 621-639.
Knothe, G. (2007). Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability. Fuel Processing Technology. 88(7), 669-677.
McCarthy, J.E. and Tiemann, M. (2000). MTBE in gasoline: Clean air and drinking water issues. Washington, D.C.: Congressional
Research Service, The Library of Congress. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/mtbe/crsrtc.pdf
Miyashita, K. and Takagi, T. (1986). Study on the oxidative rate and prooxidant activity of free fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil
Chemists’ Society. 63(10), 1380-1384.
Morrow, W.R., Griffin, W.M., and Matthews, H.S. (2006). Modeling switchgrass derived cellulosic ethanol distribution in the United
States. Environmental Science & Technology. 40(9), 2877-2886.
Reyold, R. (2000). The current fuel ethanol industry transportation, marketing, distribution and technical considerations. Bremen, IN:
Downstream Alternatives, Inc. Available online at http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/documents/111/4788.pdf
Rieper-Kirchner, M. (1990). Macroalgal decomposition: Laboratory studies with particular regard to microorganisms and meiofauna.
Helgoland Marine Research. 44(3), 397-410.
Wakeley, H.L., Griffin, W.M., Hendrickson, C., and Matthews, H.S. (2008). Alternative transportation fuels: Distribution infrastructure for
hydrogen and ethanol in Iowa. Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 14(3), 262-271.

72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

. Sufficient land. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. and land. concepts are also being proposed. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials.. the major resource and environmental parameters that Further.1). Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. as with any biomass-based technology and industry.. capital. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. This scenario Exhibit 9. Similarly. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U.9.. Resources and Siting   73 .S. 1985. needs to be analyzed from a site location. energy. water. a for algal biofuel production. The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale. as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective. CO2. nutrients. focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. supplemental CO2 supply.2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9. concentrated CO2. For each parameter. water. 1990. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9. other nutrients. availability.g. and costs.1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs.. facilities design. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate. labor. CO2. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. energy. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate. characteristics. and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described. the siting and resource factors (e. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. Maxwell et al. 1990).1 Resource Requirements for production. Lansford et al. Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale. water. both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability. 1998).

and land-based ponds. supply logistics. The latter throughout the country. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9.g.and second-generation biofuels. near-shore coastal farms. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials. that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al. Perlack et al. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass... and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can.. an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA. biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. other sugar crops. Resources and Siting   . The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated. A supply issues with first. cost and availability of space 74 9. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. 2005..2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams.3). selected to meet production needs. availability.2 to off-shore macroalgae production. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis.2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9. Use of sugars from cane. whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production. in terms of cultivation and harvesting. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9. DOE. beets. 2005). 2006a). e. thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures.

power plants . whereas precipitation. K. other Water Treatment Deconstruction .4.lake.other industrial . will most directly metric tonnes for food products). 2004) factors include solar radiation. the level of production affect productivity. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae. Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market.muni WWT & Seperation . Ligno-Cellulosic N. technology development. Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels. and competition production.2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation. Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures. weather conditions.. both seasonally and annually. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. environmental impacts.open ponds CO2 . The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production. temperature. and severe weather. and day/night light and temperature cycles. particularly in the case of land-based with other uses. Resources and Siting   75 .3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients. precipitation. the heterotrophic approach can 9. P. and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems. From a resource use perspective. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9.ag CAFO Low-Density Algal . Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate.hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich Water. As illustrated in Exhibit 9.closed PBRs . rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9. evaporation. key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al. research. are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can provide. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture density.4 million dry sunlight.

but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available.. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. lower elevation sites. The more to total biomass growth. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2. For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800.4 and the Michigan.high-cost systems. including Minnesota. and the New England states. the availability of non. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas. i. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. with the higher growth regions northern latitude states.4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. currents. resource conditions for algae production. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation. controls.4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). Resources and Siting   . from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii. Within that context. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. Wisconsin. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. In Exhibit 9. This could fresh water.e. but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude. annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production. Arizona. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. and Florida being most promising). whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. California. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. New Mexico. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data. identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight. having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used.

Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. is a wide range of temperatures. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. Evaporation is a Therefore. throughout the seasons. Arizona. the Northwest. both high and low. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. locations for open pond production. algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. requirements for an open algae growth system. tornadoes. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. precipitation (more than 40 inches). a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors.industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. Arizona. Florida. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region. such as heavy rain and flooding. quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. and parts of Louisiana. hail storms. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation.. and the Southeast. and California. Areas with higher annual average and. killing frost in the fall. for closed reactors. discussed later in this section. This would. Evaporative however. The southwestern states (California. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. For outdoor ponds. with more than 60 inches annually. but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. Evaporation. waves. For closed photobioreactors. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. cooling in the summer. Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. dust storms. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind. integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. 1985). represented by specific regions of Hawaii. however. Southeast. Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. of Hawaii. Georgia. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas. available for productive cultivation. New Mexico. and coastal areas. and overall economics. Resources and Siting   77 . events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems. respectively. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states.

solar insolation. withdrawals. humidity. USGS. Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest.000 heterotrophic). Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location. representing etc. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil. solar insolation. 2008. Hutchison et use. depending on the chemistry. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. about 95%.. 2004. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. Almost all saline water. 2009). or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions. and operational costs. are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. However. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al. Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. such as saline and brackish ground water..). 2009).. modeling. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude.S. Oroud. water demand over the 30 years prior to that.. to cool electricity-generating equipment. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build.. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up. periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater. or 460. humidity. all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE. is used by microalgae (open vs. 2008. Hightower et al. Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. and field assessment. closed vs. 2002). 2009). following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. 2009). for future research. withdrawals (201. and coal-bed the past 25 years. the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress. A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9. Hightower et al. with the majority (85%) resources. water-sparse locations. various locations throughout the eastern half of the country. 2006b. This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al.. ). reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. 1978. were for thermoelectric-power generation. from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. Kenny et al. 1995). 2006b. Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total.. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U. 61% of all surface water. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. energy. along with associated salt build-up and 2008. climate conditions. elevation.S. 2003. Kenny et al. In 2005. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up. Resources and Siting   . hybrid combination).uses. or from desalination operations. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. management. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980. salt content effluent or solid byproducts. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater. the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up. natural gas. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation. 2002. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues.000 ambient temperature variations. one-half of the total U. 2009).000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover. nearly and the site-specific details of climate. from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. or “co. Kokya et al. Mao. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d).. 1999. wind.. At the national scale. This will require periodic blow. for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128.

and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. Saline groundwater resources. warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. and evaluated under a depth. 2009). the estimated capacity. Along with geological data. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed. If less water quality and chemistry. There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas. limited fresh water supplies. and of greater investment. Additional analysis. held in December 2008.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. and recycling nutrients. The location. are also of Along the way. reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. Gerbens-Leenes et al. and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. and may well also be saved. 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. depending on systems and process specifics. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels.S. physical and chemical characteristics. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced. Unfortunately.. 1985). The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced. saline. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. with open systems. 1982a and 1982b. Resources and Siting   79 . resource development. Hightower et al. analysis for algal biofuels. 2007. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled. The maps of saline groundwater 9.. reclaimed. Dennehy. 31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. Shuttleworth. depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. 2004). and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop. 1993.7). and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed. systems are implemented. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. depth. as noted earlier. 2008). putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. by state engineers and water authorities. southwestern United States. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels. monitored.. as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. 2006b. quantity. 2007. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site. 2009). which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9.. where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized. NAS. experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation.. define the spatial distribution.

for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources. it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae. Resources and Siting   . including Exhibit 9. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum.. 2009). and analyze this information. and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. recharge rate. 2009). 2004). using coal) represents over 40% of the total. and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003.g. at some large growth system and incident light conditions. Flue gas. sustainability of supply. As a result. scale of algae production. a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield. aquifers. Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country. potential As an example. 2006). NATCARB.000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. but a significant effort will still be needed to et al. addition. However. The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e.resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA.. 2005. 2008b). and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced. Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. Dennehy. such as from fossil. The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. Data on small. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. 2008 and 2009). including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. content. However... Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. The sources shown (NATCARB. USGS. parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment.5. separating CO2 in large industrial plants. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. identify. Therefore. 2004. would be a good source of CO2. collect. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours. typically output a steady 1. transport. Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate. biomass growth rate. including algae production. longer distance transport and distribution. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products. The geographical location. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas. spatial extent. depth. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. or more than 1965. In addition. 2008 and 2009). and distribution could require more production. 2002). is not a simple issue. 2009.200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al. Applications fuel-fired power plants. detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking. 2008). natural gas. Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al.

5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land.3 163 Fertilizer 7. Exhibit (USDA. legal. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9. as will be discussed further in chapter 10.796 9. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation. Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling. R&D program (e.9 173 Total 3. including pasture... such as topography and soil. social. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. and political factors.3 112 Electricity Generation 2.g.0 13 Industrial 141.6. much of the land in the West is government owned. Physical characteristics. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use.9 665 Other 3. and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics. several characteristics need to be considered.3 140 Cement Plants 86. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities). For example. lease.702.5 3.g. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity. One outcome economic. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis). affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9. Soils. Resources and Siting   81 . oil feedstock.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196.1 4. 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6. 2006 and 2009). 9.276. algae production siting and CO2 sourcing. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB. This of land for algae production (i.e.production..6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical. and purchase requirements. grassland. lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e.002 Ethanol Plants 41.

systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However. given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source. 2009). 1985 ) 82 9.. Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. Resources and Siting   . but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . system structures. for algae productivity. Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity.. lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference. the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions. the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability.20 g/m2 per day. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used. such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production. (chapter 10). 1985).60 g/m2 per day. the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 . as with any form of biomass. the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions. than real. can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al.or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process. algae productivity crops..6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses. Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost.

organic matter.. archaeological sites. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. and potassium). The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities. dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. phosphorus. The roles of nutrients. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. metals. nutrient recycling. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites.g. in suitable climates. and wastewater treatment facilities. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al.. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use.. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment. nitrogen. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al.not be seen as suitable for algae production. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production. algae-based parks. Examples of this type of constraint include technologies. biomass production facilities 1985). synthetic organic compounds. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming. excess nutrients (e. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. monuments. nutrients from treatment. wildlife areas. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection. or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production. On the other hand. offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production. Beyond economics. 9.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. for additional rounds of algae production. Resources and Siting   83 . this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. phosphorus. The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. 1985). Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service. Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. as noted earlier.

Aksu. natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants... 2008) is high for biofuel production. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems. cost savings. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. of chemical addition ($0. As noted above. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present. whereas pond (~1 cm).. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study. These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e.and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald. 2008) and throughout the world. including wastewater treatment ponds. followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned.$0. practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment. rivers. Kohn et al. the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation. and rivers). Resources and Siting   .g. which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e. autoflocculation) are far less costly.g. This nutrients (e.g. organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae.7. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al.17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells. might be prevented to a 84 9. 2003.g. 2002. 2007). Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours.. harvesting is a 2002).. Non- production. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). 1988. lakes. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds. Woertz et al. municipal and industrial sources) sludge. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains.. 2009). recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment. which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. The cost biomass production. 2009.. and lakes)..7). These highly productive systems use shallow reactors. agricultural drainage. including nutrient removal.. The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity.10 . but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). For example. Thus. the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities.. high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e.g. The (e. dissolved oxygen. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters. the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9. 2005). The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass). Even with internal recycling. to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al.. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water. and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al. Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e. The ability agricultural drainage. Finally. confined animal facilities). coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production.. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment. to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9. 1998. at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers.g. food processing). endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only). productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production).. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. As with other algae production systems. 2002). organic nutrients. Muñoz et al. harming higher organisms. Borde et al..

Resources and Siting   85 .Exhibit 9.7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation. High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.

CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. very different business models and goals for algae selenium.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting.. al. However. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9. dispose of agricultural drainage.. Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section. Furthermore. needed to confirm this. The topics wastewaters. technical and market challenges. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes. etc. their ability to treat high. Lundquist et al.. of several issues. Resources and Siting   . such as bioflocculation. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. 1996. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Mulbry et al. Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient. calls. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. but further investigation is techniques. constraints significant.. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks. and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities.g. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. 9. co-products. potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions. hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. integration opportunities and challenges. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water.g. 2002).. market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized. any heavy metals autoflocculation. It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. micro-screening. low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. Calif. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants.. 2008. etc. Thus. 2004). The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. an overriding or other wastewater. mine drainage. Salton Sea. and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government.

15%) than natural gas plants (5 . carbon sequestration. However.). While algae biofuels can be produced. and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. conditioning. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. This will industries (e. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. Also. The growth. but. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective. introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9. The regulatory implications transport. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere. as sources. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. policy on carbon extraction/refining. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. fired power plants. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report. Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. etc.5.S. Thus. construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. Resources and Siting   87 . the algae through photosynthesis. fossil fuel require establishing a U. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities. beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater.6%). beneficially used in algae production. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted. plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%.The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2. while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil.. 2005).g. 9. cement manufacturing. During those times. fermentation-based industries. depending on the type of plant and fuel used.

Resources and Siting   . the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology. Therefore nutrients must be production arena. mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 . This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations. Thus. distributors. will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon.. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. CO2 is only at the national level. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities. not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. required. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts. and other participants coordinated plants. Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009). advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae. and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners. algal technology companies. Several areas for research. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9.). Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake.10 acres). etc. etc. CO2 emitting industry facilities. K) supply. universities.30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. Also. and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations. Although often referred to as a “free” resource. solar resource. credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. P. algal facility. or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth. ethanol plants. Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae.

SOx. etc. salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management.▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. crop fertilization. and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. Develop university training programs. flocculation harvesting. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx. costs. Resources and Siting   89 . and refiners/distributors. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling. etc. storage. proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. and other sites. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development.

Y. (February 11. Ku. J. Campbell. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2009).J. Desalination of groundwater: Earth Science Perspective. H.H.R. September). T. DC.orau.epa..J.References Aksu.C. T. E.S. (2007). H. Inventory of U. Hatti-Kaul. Sokhansanj. W.). D. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. Department of Energy. 47.. Thompson.. I.K. R. (2008). Foust. Microalgal biomass for greenhouse gas reductions: Potential for replacement of fossil-fuels and animal feeds. Washginton. Washington. Lundquist. J. Washington. Buck. (DOE/SC-0095). R. T..com/clientservice/ccsi Clark. (2002). Available online at: http://www. (DOE/ EIA-0573).. US Department of Energy. A. Farnsworth.R..K. and Thompson. Naucler. Synergistic relationships in algal- bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. H. 149-169.B. Cushman...energy. Bracco. Alley. (2004. Bioresource Technology. A.com/news/state/aph2orush02-11-09.. Krause. (2003).. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Available online at: http://www. Energy demands on water resources: Report to congress on the interdependency of energy and water. and Ruijs. and Oswald. Human-related sources and sinks of carbon dioxide.S. F. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 34). Turhollow. 117–125.X. (1982). and Benemann.. Washington. 189-203. J.S. Available online at: http://www. J. Tagore.. Weissman. Journal of Environmental Engineering. H. (2008). J. (2002). Tam (Eds. Dennehy. and Mattiasson.J. Lundquist. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems.gov/energy-water/docs/121- RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.doe... 150. Easterly. 86(3). J. J. (2004).L. Hess. International energy outlook 2009 (chap. DC.F. Zubieta.. M. Desalination.S..gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions.L. R.J. E. (2006a). Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States. W..C. A. DC. Ocean Coastal Management. Water Science and Technology.. Department of Energy..pdf Department of Energy (DOE). R. Green. (2009). (2008). Al-Shammiri.. S. Guieysse. Springer-Verlag. Denver. Berlin.. The controlled eutrophication process: Using microalgae for CO2 utilization and agricultural fertilizer recycling. and annual pan evaporation for the United States.mckinsey. Mean monthly. Resources and Siting   .gov/algae2008/breakouts/dennehy2004.. 8). Water rush: Deep aquifers sought for metro growth. Available online at at: www. Hoskinson. DC. Environmental Protection Agency. 95-122. W. Munoz. U. DC. and Wright..J. Department of Energy. Environmental Protection Agency. Carbon capture & storage: Assessing the Economics.. April 15). Delgado. Environmental Protection Agency.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).. 6. DC. Massingill. J. H. J. K..R. Washington. O.. Available online at: http://www.abqjournal. Hettenhaus.C. (2002).. 90 9.Y.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/ Energy Information Administration (EIA).html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).gov/climatechange/emissions/CO2_human. (2009). (2009. McKinesey Climate Change Initiative.J. Jessup. Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: The prospect of offshore co-management and legal constraints. D. W.. Washington.C.eia. Japan. Kyoto. J. Department of Energy (DOE).doe. (1996). DC. D. L. Breaking the biological barriers to cellulosic ethanol: A joint research agenda. B. seasonal.L. Available online at: www. Erbach.gov/biofuels/2005workshop/b2blowres63006. W. D. In Water Desalination and Reuse Strategies for New Mexico.N. 45(1). Geological Survey.J.sandia.. (2002).E. D. (DOE/EIA-0484)..F..pdf Downing. G. and Rosenthal. A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage.pdf. Patin. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2007. (2003).B. R. 2002. (USGS Fact Sheet 075-03). October. Ecological Engineering. National perspective on saline aquifers. GHGT-6. 293-300. 1136-1144. CO: U.. B. X. Sheehan. J.. Available online at: http://genomicsgtl. Borde.. Benemann. Washington.. In Y-S Won & N. and Oswald.eia. Van Olst. Wastewater Treatment with Algae (37-54). and Brune. (1998). Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis. B. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress. B. Washington. J.R. S. Available online at: http://www.E. Emissions of greenhouse gases report. 135(11). Albuquerque Journal. Brune.. (2006b).R.htm Craggs. M. Adey.. US Department of energy Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Enery. Evaporation rate as a function of water salinity.

12). (2006). and Nelson. Washington.. D. Davidson. Department of Energy. Available online at: http://pubs. 231-240.E. K. D. Guieysse.. W. Lumia. (Atlas HA-199).K. S.F. B. Hsieh. Pizarro. E. (1978). H... (2005). E. Feinberg. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status. Wright. Cambridge University Press. (1985). In Metz. and Mattiasson. Linsey. J. 4626-4632. M. U. (SERI/SP-231-2550). CO. 9.S. and research requirements..J.L. D. R... 2005-2012. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. (2008).L. University of Illinois. Feinberg..CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www..natcarb... Water implications of biofuels production in the United States.. (2007).A.. McIntosh. McNeill. Loos. Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. Graham. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds. Cambridge University Press. Oklahoma Geological Survey. Thompson.B. California. Reynolds. de Connick. (1995). Kondrad. B. Bioresource Technology.H. Bryce J.C. E. and Kokya. Hightower. and Kebede-Westhead. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). Oswald. Golden. C. and Donald C.. and Karpuk. United States Geological Survey. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake.T. (2008).C.. Robin L. S. A. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. and Maupin M.232-3820). 261-265. Pate.. R. Quinn. Anthony F. R. Los Alamos. M. Solar Energy Research Institute. Resources and Siting   91 . 51(12). B. Muñoz.C. (2008). (DOE/GO-102005-2135. California Department of Water Resources. NM. U. Shannon. Mulbry. I. C. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy. W. (2007). Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Kenny.. Barber.S. Turhollow. Cameron. (USGS Circular 1268). T. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. K. Grandbois.. (USGS Circular 1334). (2004).S. Fresno.Y. Nature. (1990). D.F. CO. Technical summary.E. Feth. S. 8137-8142.. (Eds). S.. N. R.R. Green.. Hutson. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.W. National Academy of Sciences (NAS).. and Hogg.. Golden. (1986). Sandia National Laboratories. Borglin.. (2007). E. (2004). F. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources. Washington..natcarb. energy. Hightower. Linsey. Denver. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources.A. and Peck.. Perlack. (2009). Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. and the environment. and Terry....). CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production. M. National Academy of Sciences. Ecological Modelling. Hutson. E. Hutchison. (SAND 2007-1349C). M.L. L. J. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations. Department of Agriculture. Lovelace. and Meyer. UK. OK.usgs. ORNL/TM-2005/66). D. S. A. CO2 Source Map of US . CO... Robert D. (2005).org/Atlas/data_files. L. K. 22. Ahmadzadeh B. (1965)..org/Atlas/data_files. and de Coninck. Norman. M. M. and Oswald. Folger. N.P. Oroud. Kenny. Environmental Science & Technology. Golden. M and Pierce.A. Erbach (2005). 452. Kokya..S. H. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1. Hydrological Processes. J. Lundquist. 285-286... Solar Energy Research Institute. I.L.html Neehan.Farnsworth. The National Academies Press. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003). 41(13). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. R.S. (SERI/TP. 211-235.. Barber. Meyer. Hill. The energy challenge: Commentary.J.. CO. W.L. Maxwell. Saline aquifer data http://www. Rubin.S. 99.. Produced water and associated issues. Solar Energy Research Institute.G. S. T. R. Lynn L. C. potential.. Water Science Technology. Rolvering.G. J.gov/circ/1344/ Kohn.. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen. 52.K.000 parts per million dissolved solids. Huang. and Midgley.K. K. Microalgal Biotechnology (chap. C..html NATCARB (2008b)..S. (2003). Stokes. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. D.M. (1982). and Maupin. W. O. (1988). N. T.. and Einfeld. 4.J. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington. NATCARB (2008a). Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States. DC. B. K.

. K. J. Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy.. J. Wang.J. A look back at the U. (2009).G. Geological Survey. M. CO. BioEnergy Research. McGraw-Hill.. Available online at: http://water. R. (U. R. 110(2). Major uses of land in the United States. 1–10. Hall. W. 246-250.M. Woertz. P. T. and management: Major uses of land.. (Ed).S. R. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. Argonne National Laboratory. Applied Environmental Microbiology. (ANL/ ESD/09-1). (1998). and Davies-Colley. Lundquist. B. Golden. Mapping average daily pan evaporation. 1993. Sinton. Benemann... value. Land use. Wu. H. C. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.gov/Briefing/LandUse/majorlandusechapter.S. A. L. (2009). Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective. and Nelson. S. M. Department of Agriculture (USDA).. Woolhiser.usda.R.cr.. 135(11). & Willson.W.gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/ U.. D.gov/prov/prodwat/dictionary. Pierce. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. M. 92 9. (2006). Geological Survey Circular 1200). Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae. Handbook of Hydrology (chap. Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters.J. D.. M. D.S. US Geological Survey.usgs.S. A.C. W. 2002. Weyer.B.htm U. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Feffer. and Wallace.). (1998). (USGS Circular 1331). and Perlman...A. USDA Economic Research Service.J.A. (2002). In Maidment. (2009). (2009.. Shuttleworth. and Arora.A.S. (NREL/TP-580-24190).H..ers. Lynch. U.. I. Y.S. Dunahay. USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www. 1115-1122. (2009).usgs. D. (1993). (1984).S. Darzins.R. 68(3). (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). D. Evaporation. Mintz.htm U. Geological Survey.1122-1131. T. Solley. (2002)...E. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. 4). and Roessler.Sheehan. P. Resources and Siting   . Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Bush.

significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10. infrastructural. Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical. Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches. and market conditions and constraints. to an overall regional and marketing. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10. and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry.. e. processes. coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity.1).1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid . political. tradeoffs among different technologies. systems. Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment.Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic . e. ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap.g.10.Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. systems. It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical.Dewatering . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways. environmental. comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10. and processes. objective successful commercialization. as illustrated in Exhibit 10..Harvesting Systems .1 Objectives of investments. can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies.2. economic. Toward this end.g.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
decisions
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Perfomance
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk
Reductions
Perfomance
Improvements

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences
Capture

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION & INTERDEPENDENCIES

Conversion
Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Operations,
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
Infrastructure
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Policy & Regulation.3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain. etc.Materials Energy Feedbacks . individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes. identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled.Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids . Demand & Price for Co-Products vs. their alternatives.Heterotrophic . Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy.Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction. Exhibit 10. as exemplified by Exhibit 10. and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant. Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt. Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary. One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10.GMOs Biology . geology. location. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 .Land (cost. Incentives & Barriers Siting . It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling.Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion .CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . scales. Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Monitoring. and utilize a range of and industry development effort. Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development.Capital Co-Gen . develop.Performance .Autotrophic .7. or enterprise level rather than broader efforts.Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use . It is also expected available and emerging information and data. different levels within the broad systems scope presented. tilt.Open systems . soil) Broader .6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on.Equipment . Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives. and therefore.Labor .Water Water Capture .Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation .5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10. Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels. unit operation. unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation.Solar Insolation Environment . Operations. that should tend to focus on a technology or process.Characteristics .Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient . Maintenance.Species .Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation . similar to the modeling approaches.

Etc. regional.. Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing.Required build-up of new infrastructure. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential. and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond... etc... specific technologies. • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10.ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics. constraints & impacts . across an emerging approach. 98 10. platform). processes and integrated systems for commercialization. The size of the “matrix” engineering design. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies. resource use. and interface approaches. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state. Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging. development. with time delays. transport. and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired.Integration with existing infrastructure . various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e. Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards..Technical.) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. Beyond this. economic. enviromental.Engineering & construction estimates from industry . GIS Analysis. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis).Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment . economic. with learning curves & improvement projections . The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility.. or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations . • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters. production availability. and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable. and national level. how better inform technical. closed photobioreactors.6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry. and processes and performance parameters is another definitions...g..

Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1.7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry. Proteins P.2 Open system 2. Aviation 6. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development.5 Biological Assist 2.2 Electromagnetic 5. Ethanol 1. 5.4 BY PASS A.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment. Gasoline-like 6.1.1 Solar .Transport fish excrement. Green diesel 6. Fertilizer Inputs 1.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5.End Use Exhibit 10.) 4.) and non-technical issues.1 Microalgae Conservation F.0 Drying .Field . Triglycerides N.3 Biochemical E. universities.2 Land Cultivation 3.3 Centrifuging biomass 3. Materials 2.Storage 4.g.1 Algae species 3. etc. and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e.3 CO2 2. Hydrogen K.1.0 J.2 Filtering 8. cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets. assessment. Biodiesel 5. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 . Biogas / Methane Metabolites I.5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp.1 Chemical C. Fatty Acids M. Exhibit 10.2 Fuel . moving in this direction (Getman.1.3 Macroalgae R.5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop.0 Harvesting L. 2009). Dried Algal 1. EPA. processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10.0 Extraction Conservation 6. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies.2 Thermochemical & Separation D.4 Off-shore systems 3. Chemicals 2.1. and national labs.5 Light or Alt. Other Q.Distribution .3 Chemical G. 4. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1. Feed 1. biofuel production. Exhibit 10. etc.1 Closed system 1.3 Water 3. and other technical Defense.2 Co-products 1.. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems.2 Cyanobacteria R. 10.1 Flocculation 2.7 is a revised adaptation systems. Lipids H.1 Fuel 5. Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3.0 1.4 BY PASS 6. Carbohydrates O. USDA. processes.1.1.

Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. regional.of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. etc. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed.) uncertainties. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. wind electrolysis. Inputs to each will likely emerge. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM. and organic molecule reforming. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. • CO2 resources (point source emitters. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions. solar insolation. transport. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. Sub-level accurate analyses. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. Exhibit 10.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. storage infrastructure technical performance. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic.) interdependencies and feedbacks. availability of suitable land. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. K) supplies.5 and Exhibit 10. etc. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use. • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. nuclear energy. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step. availability.8. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown. and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. especially where Both Exhibit 10. unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. The impact that availability and cost biological. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . hydrodynamic. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. among others.8. This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. risk. thus Fuel Initiative. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. and environmental impacts. evaluate costs. The many process permutations. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10. (N. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). • Fuel processing. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales. etc. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water. and comparing trade. assumptions in individual processes to the overall system. P. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. temperature.

and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun.g.. Some examples are: development. is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment. Hexane microfiltration e. Biomass e. This information. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N. storage. Structures.. including example calculations presented later in this chapter. P. nutrients. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e.g. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 . Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport. same would apply to co-products and their potential markets.g. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing. with the appropriate models. nutrient other co-products. e..) forcing functions and boundary transport. solar insolation.g. followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. and policy decisions. supply chain. • Equipment.. and biorefining into fuels and (e. ambient temperature. e. and energy). • POLYSYS At the downstream end. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain. Equipment. resource management.. etc. storage. etc. K. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling. can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance. sourcing. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. and transport of water. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research.. e. The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. Currently. the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth.by the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. business deployment. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible. this will include the logistics different site conditions. Land.9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting. tools. the economics can be expected to improve.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example. with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. Exhibit 10.g.. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry. in press).g. storage. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10.g. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain. Utilities.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed.000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured. and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular. coastal.350 . and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product. P. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions. O2…) to model growth rates. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies.) will also affect both conditions. temperature. availability. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10. vary over the U. on the other hand.700 gal/ac-yr. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are. 2009). and basis. photosynthetic efficiency. heterotrophic. the productivity and reliability of production. but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. and fertilizer. as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover. Certain elements. evaporative loss. productivity. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis. based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. seasonal.9. climate. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38. availability. Under large power. Exhibit 10. The daily. and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun.S.. cost. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation. etc. wind.5. 50% oil content. and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4. and affordable accessibility of such water sources. and offshore sites.) (Weyer et al. and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. Si. the variations. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. • Availability. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water. aspects of large scale agriculture. though important for overall TE analysis. etc. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. precipitation. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. water. and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. can potentially help fill this need.

Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. term. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources.. and petroleum). some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10. the right of access and use. 2009. 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. scale. availability. adding to the cost. coastal. transporting. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution.. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites.g.. it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. This As with cellulosic ethanol. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. availability. but this the cost of operations. carbohydrates. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. 2008). If it is agriculture (Huang. if not more. Finally. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. Malcolm et al. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up.. such as are present in some forms of flue gas. algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. P. 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility. dependent on the geographical location. 2009). The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu. risks. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. and inland • The supply. 1998. it may not much. N.. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. temperature control. It is reasonably (i. on the industrial build-up. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins. infrastructure facilities for offshore. other) production. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae.. lipids. and forest industries. (Huang. Conversely. but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. and perhaps also for offshore sites. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2. 2005). K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. 9. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. though it is not yet energy crops. and co-products like animal feed. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent. 2009). and operating expense. derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass. nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al.e. The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. Mehta and Gaur. In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics.

6 Preliminary System (EPA. Delucchi. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated. nutrients. These 1993. combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. process. 1997).11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping. peer-reviewed literature (e..g. constraints and impacts 2009). environmental. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. There are indications. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e.. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. output flows. Benemann and and processes. would be subject to narrow operating margins. UNEP. 1997. from manufacture. and co-product credits. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). and maintenance. 1987). LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. data base resources. delays. a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions. 1996. however. LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water. 2006. eliciting discussion. and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL. To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs. operating costs. energy. Exhibit 10. Bernard. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties. 1997. Department of Energy (e. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009. ISO. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). resource use. EPA.g. and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10. 1996). economic. and numerous others (EPA. they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks. In resource capture and reuse. the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10. EPA.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. While most algal biofuels production. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical. 2004) up systems. white papers / industry analyses. and other resources. or service. waste stream 2002 and 2004). potential. The process employs a and scenario studies. EPA.g. it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. 2001 and 2002). and water. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10.12 (ISO. algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology. that a and including algae (Kadam. to final disposal. modeling. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. 2009.S. costs. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI).. These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. 2009). energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts.In summary. use. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. 1993). • Input resources.

The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 . and has • Employing modular modeling.g. • Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation. e. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. and resource constraints. Interactive graphical user interfaces.can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios.The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially.

and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process. have been identified along various steps in the value chain. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10. the development. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis.12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization. monitoring. significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. can facilitate Roadmap. units. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . etc. operation.

W. (Grant No. (1997).jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=493389 Curran (1996). S505-S510. 905-922. K. Office of Research and Development. pp. Y.anl.osti. Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice. 113-152. ISO 14040.biblio.Y. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). “Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis”. Belarbi. 2004.R. Bioenergy knowledge discovery framework. (EPA/600/R-92/245). and Roessler. J. “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Lifecycle Analyses of Transportation Fuels“. Malcolm. Posten. (1998).epa.R. G. (2006). (in press). (2003).energy.transportation. Berlin. (2008). S. C. Mussgnug. Bioenergy Research. Acien Fernandez. DOE’s aquatic species program – Biodiesel from algae. (2001).E. The greenhouse gas.. Available online at: http://www. Geographic Information Science and Technology Group.L. Kadam. and Chisti. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Springer-Verlag. P. Medina.Life cycle assessment . J.. E. DE-FG22- 93PC93204). “Environmental implications of power generation via coal-microalgae cofiring”.energy. USDA ERS Report Number 86. and Oswald.C. Tam. 37-54. November 2009. and Varun. Thomas-Hall. Biotechnology and Bioengineering.gov/ord/NRMRL/lcaccess/resources. 491-515. Scott A. (1996). Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: Process options and economics. International Standards Organization. B. http://www. Optimizing algae growth in open-channel raceways. NREL Report No.hydrogen. pp. (2009).gov/bridge/product. Kadam. Fertilizer Prices. (EPA/600/R-06/060). 20. A. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. 203-212.A. Molina.hydrogen.pdf 10. February 2009. “Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U. Journal of Computational Biology. 20–43. Biotechnology Advances. International Standards Organization. Curran (ed). O. regulated emissions. McGraw-Hill. Huang. Wen-yuan (2009). 1(1). A look back at the U.L.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).G.. K.html Getman. D. ISBN 0-07-015063-X. (2003). Suppl. 2002.27. Kadam.. T.pdf Rittmann. pp. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles. Second generation biofuels: High-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. A. Argonne National Laboratory (2009).gov/ and specifically the DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project: http://www. Available online at: http://www. S.. S. Office of Research and Development. Marcel Aillery. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). and energy use in transportation (GREET) model. U. Schenk. Energy Convers. ERS Report AR-33. v. M.Principles and Framework. Report prepared for the Pittsburg Energy Technology Center. E.. J. and Gaur.” In: Wastewater Treatment with Algae.S. US-EPA LCA Resources Web Site (latest update July 2009): Available on line at: http://www. Mark (2004). 1997.localenergy. AspenTech software product portfolio. 2002-08”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Benemann. J. Environmental management . E. James. Sheehan. Mehta. DOE (2009). (2002).References Aksu.K. Energy v.. March 2009.. (1997). including AspenPlus® and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®).H. Stephens.. Cincinnati: Ohio.F. Y-S Won and N.aspentech. Cincinnati: Ohio.S. Marx. http://www. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass.. “Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape”.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190. DOE Hydrogen Program. B. Dunahay.gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/ AspenTech (2010).L. and Marca Weinberg (2009). Kruse.com/core/ Benneman... USDA. (1993). B... P. K. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  107 . Available online at: http://www..nrel. (2008). http://www.gov/h2a_analysis. “Power Plant Flue Gas as a Source of CO2 for Microalgae Cultivation: Economic Impact of Different Process Options”. eds. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms. TP-510-29417. J. 25(3).38. 100(2). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment..P. (2009).H. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.org/pdfs/Document%20Library/Bioenergy%20conversion%20factors. Delucchi. and Hankamer. Mgmt. Bioenergy conversion factors. (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: Progress and prospects. UCD-ITS-RR-04-45. F. C. (1998).

Available online at: http://jp1. Lundquist. A.. M. (1987). Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. v135. Bush. “Algae Grown on Dairy and Municipal Wastewater for Simultaneous Nutrient Removal and Lipid Production for Biofuel Feedstock”. D. net/sites/lcinit/default.Tapie. UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. 873-885.. Nelson (2009). Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Microalgae production: Technical and economic evaluations. n11. A. 32. Journal of Environmental Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . 1 -10. D. Darzins. Feffer. 108 10. K. P and Bernard. I. R. & Willson. United Nations Environmental Program. Life cycle approaches: The road from analysis to practice. (2005). Woertz. and Y. BioEnergy Research. A. (2009). B. pp. T. 1115-1122.. United Nations Enivironment Programme (UNEP).estis.asp?site=lcinit&page_id=138F5949-6997-4BE6-A553-585E92C22EE4#lcirap Weyer..

2001. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology.. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market. 2006). Indeed. industry) and public entities (e.A 11. collaboration between private entities (e. Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). and industry. pre-revenue. the U. academia. Brown et al. infrastructure projects.g. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies.. The the algal biofuels value chain. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. however. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11. 11. Link could. including specific studies on the impacts firms. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. 2002).1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation. 2002.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. academia can be either public or private. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development. thereby facilitating growth and development infancy.. universities. realizing benefits in both categories. Public-Private Partnerships   109 . but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten. Gallagher et al. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D.g.S. as well as reduces the risk of private 2001. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s. Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories.11.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. in turn. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al. The type of this industry. and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation. investment.. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels. given the current state of of a sustainable. algal biofuels industry.. Partnerships based participants. including characteristics Exhibit 11. national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. More specifically..

environment. new partnership. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical. Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues. of solicitations are system-oriented. By maintaining an active directory. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually. industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project. scientists and engineers can learn of new research.C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. including the development of biofuels.g. Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. and private investors) into a single competition. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops. Public-Private Partnerships   . non-profit foundations. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). 2008). as well as a platform to share research. be proportional to the value of the contribution. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge. and may compete poorly in this type of award. • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration. technology scale-up and demonstration. However. 110 11. Through their structure. However. or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau. These events are often 11. national. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria.3 Forums for Public. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development. they are often formed to serve no other purpose. Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. conferences. because some awards are based on having solved the problem. labor). organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships.B. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level. global problems. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership.players (e. However.4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. Through these events. which could allow In recent years. as common interest.. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before. into a working system to solve a problem.

distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain. events. algal oil extraction.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships.g.xprize.. technology development. construction personnel. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry. and fuel conversion. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal operations. aviation. effective way to address technological. Public-Private Partnerships   111 . to road-test their technologies.org/ 11. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products. dewatering pathway.) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field. Also. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization. Therefore. or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. government solicitations. economic. it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. algal growth and harvesting.mitcep. overcoming the lab-field and information technology. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document. 2009). 11. By reducing scaling risks. Academia will competitions. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations specialists. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems. particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards. • Technology development in algal biology. etc. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures. lawyers.. public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable. Collaborative partnerships.org/future-x-prizes/energy-and-environment C http://www. several in algal biofuels. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www. and academia. This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors.). Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon. real estate developers. nanotechnology. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. and the most difficult to implement.g. facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11.2. consortia. etc. technologies developed in the • Industry Growth. this characteristics. conversion process. biofuels. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership. requirements.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations.

models presented. • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully. Public-Private Partnerships   . this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs. However. discuss and debate the merits of each.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners. it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. Exhibit 11. high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game.

Public-Private Partnerships   113 . academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive. including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. standardization operational. facilities business. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. royalty. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. companies 11. • Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical.

Brown. Annual Review of Environment and Resources.D.. The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. 31. Paton. Research Policy.S. M. The MIT Press. 707-708. Willem. limited resources.A. and Koomey J. 193-237...N. Holdren. Levine. M.P.A. Energy Policy. (2000). and Wallsten. Gallagher. Brown. 29(14). Public-private policy partnerships.References Audretsch. Short.D. D.T. 145-158. D. Link. (2006). P. 1179-1196. (2001)... M. A.. and Sagar. Energy Policy. 1459-1466. 325(5941). R&D Policy for Competitiveness. Link.V. (2002). Stiglitz. Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. (2009). Washington: U..S. S.. 31(1). Research Policy.G. J. In Rosenau. Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass. (1996). 114 11.B. Council on Competitiveness. (ed). J. P. Science. D. 29(14). and Siegel.J. Scenarios for a clean energy future. A. (2002). 1197-1207. Endless frontiers. 31..A. and Scott. (2001). K. A. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. J.N. W.S. Public-Private Partnerships   . Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Energy-technology innovation.E.

Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   . Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U.Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS.S. Inc.S. Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U.S. Lauder School of Government.

Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS.S. Inc.William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska .C.S. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 .S.Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K.S. Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U.

S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If.S.S.S. Department of Energy.S. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   . Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U.S.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U.S.

Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic.S. LLC J. Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp.C. Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation. Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U. Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J. Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 .

Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink.John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. N.V.Shell Global Solutions Inc. Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P. Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   .S.S. Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain .

LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical. Department of Energy.S. Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate.Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U.S. Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U. Department of Energy. LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 .

Inc.Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce.S. Inc.V. Department of Energy. Department of Energy.S. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U.Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   . N. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company. Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska .

Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. Molly Hames U.S. LLC. Inc. Inc.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U. Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF. Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS. Appendices   122 .S.

Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate.S. Department of Energy. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U. Department of Energy. LLC. Inc. Department of Energy.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS. Biomass Program 123 Appendices   . Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U.S.S.

Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M. LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Inc. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Dr. Inc. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor). Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . Biotechnology Institute David L.Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. Whitton. Gale PetroAlgae. Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr. Rittmann Arizona State University G. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. Bruce E. Algal Farms Inc. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 . Dr. Biodesign Institute. Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae.

.

gov .eere. DOE/EE-0332 www.energy.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful