BIOMASS PROGRAM

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340
john.ferrell@ee.doe.gov valerie.sarisky-reed@ee.doe.gov

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2
1

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories
1

4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy. Further.This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy.2 of the Bulletin. . this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II. As such. the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No.

It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. comments gathered during a public comment period. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop. and other stakeholders. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. development. and supporting scientific literature. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. DOE is investing in a variety of research. and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. research managers. Biomass Program U. DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. other federal agencies. Meanwhile.S.S. our economic wellbeing. industry representatives. and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. engineers. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. Achieving cost-competitive. environmentally sound biofuels. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. reliable energy. engineers. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today.Preface Welcome to the U. and the stability of our global climate. Therefore. private companies. Department of Energy Preface  i .

was convened fuels. and advanced biofuels. fungible Workshop. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). The term algae can refer to microalgae. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. These include: the goal. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors. cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates. 2008.S. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals. by 2022. saline. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. In addition fuel sold in the U. This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. meet the new RFS feedstock resources. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus. held December 9-10. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. Photo courtesy of the our national security. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil.S. 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). the end of the program. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program. These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. a scalable. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. brackish. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock. produced. weight). To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. development. and Renewal Act. and create economic and programs. marine. announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years. 2009. provide environmental benefits.S. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. engineers. President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). ii Executive Summary  . Under certain conditions. Of these candidates.

The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. research. and regulators from across the country to scale. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable. development.research managers. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. and sustainable algal-based fuels. This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. The Roadmap In summary. guide researchers and engineers. By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps. lawyers. Executive Summary  iii . supporting scientific literature. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. industry representatives. and comments received during a public comment period. this document will serve to commercial scale. federal agencies. and deployment efforts. policymakers.

managing. Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications. Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . Understanding. and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. marine.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. such as sugars. and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. macroalgae (seaweed). brackish waters. and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae. to generate new biomass). Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater. and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. scalability.

. and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction. and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . animal/fish feeds). bioplastics. and proteins. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions. While many analytical techniques exist. biochemical. and thermochemical processes. The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized. Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. carbohydrates. These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion. fertilizers..g. While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e. CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids).g.g. animal feed. optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products. Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass. biodiesel and jet fuel). gasoline. Affordable. Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels.. issues. though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges. proteins can be used for co-products (e. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. Abundant. industrial enzymes. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites.

vi Executive Summary  .

..................................................................................... 15 2......................................................................................................................................................................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications.......................................8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers..........................................................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study............................................................. 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics............................2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry................................................................................... 12 Biohydrogen ......8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae ........................................................................................................................................................... 23 3..........................10 2................... 16 The Genetic Toolbox........................................7 2....... 29 Macroalgae..........................................................................8 2.....................................................................................................................................................2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development.................................30 3..1 Strain Isolation.........................................................................................3 Research from 1996 to Present......................... Screening and Selection ...................3 Early Work to 1996........................................................................................1 Cultivation Pathways..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges.................................................................................7 Public-Private Partnerships........................................3 Algal Biotechnology.........................................................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges..........1 1.................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks...............................29 3.....................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Regulations and Standards.............................................................................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates...................................................................................2 Scale-Up Challenges...................................................................................... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria............... Algal Cultivation....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Contents  vii .....................................3 1..................................................... ............................................................... 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization...............................................................................................7 References............................................................ 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy.................................................................................................................................................. 22 References................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures .............................................................................................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today........................................................................... 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 About the Roadmap.........................................11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism......................................................................................... Overview................................................ Algal Biology..........................................................................5 1............................................. Contents 1.....................

...............................................................................2 Approaches for Macroalgae ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 Supercritical Processing.......................... 51 Liquefaction.......................... and Recycling........3 Systems Engineering ..................................................42 5...................................................................................................50 Gasification.................................................................................... 39 4.................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................e................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 6............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................... 54 viii Contents  ................3 Conversion of Algal Extracts........................................... Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering..........................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Selective Extraction...................... 32 Nutrient Sources... 35 4..............................................................................................................................................................................2 Processing of Whole Algae......................................................................................................................48 6............. System Productivity..................... 45 5......................................................................... 49 Hydrogen............................................................................ 49 Alkanes.................................................................................................................. 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures..........................50 Pyrolysis...................................37 Drying........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Mechanical Disruption (i......................................50 6........44 Subcritical Water Extraction...............................................................1 Approaches for Microalgae............................. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies ............................................................................................................................................... 39 References.46 6...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 4..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction.................... 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Extraction of Products from Algae ......................................... 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction.............................................. and Management......................................... Sustainability.............................2 Challenges...40 5........................................................................................................................ 38 Harvesting................ 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae............................... 38 4....................................................46 References.... 33 References.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conservation............ 45 Heterotrophic Production....... 53 Chemical Transesterification......................37 Harvesting.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Preprocessing.................... Cell Rupture)...........................48 Alcohols.................................................. 32 Water Management..............1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance ......................................................................................................

.........................................2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae........................................................................................................75 Water.................................................................................... Resources and Siting .................... 88 References................................................................................................ 81 9.......................................................77 Carbon Dioxide........................................................................................................................................................... 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater ...................... Distribution and Utilization................................................ Gasoline...................................................................................................................................... Co-products ............................................................................. 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel...................75 Climate ....................................................................................................................74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 References.................2 Resources Overview......80 Land.......................................................................1 Distribution..........................72 9.................................................................................................................................................................5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries............................... 56 6................3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products...................................................................1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches...................................................................................................... ....................................................................................... 69 8................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products............................................................74 9................................................................ 67 8............................................................ 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products..............................................................2 Utilization..................................................... ....................... and Jet Fuel ............................90 Contents  ix ............... 73 9........................................................................................69 8............4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities ............................... 61 7....................... 55 Catalytic Cracking...............................4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction............................................................................. 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants.................................................................................................... 86 9.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria.............. 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources ................. 88 Directions for Research and Development........................................................................ 58 7........................................................................................... 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications................................................................. Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion.......................... 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach.71 References...................................64 7.......................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach..........................................................................................................................57 References........................................... 61 7........................................... 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources.........................................................................................................................

................................................................... 104 10....................................................................................................................... 105 11.. Public-Private Partnerships ...........................................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)....10................114 Appendices .................................7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort .................................................................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships. 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs..........................................5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties.............. 97 10....... 109 11.....................................................................................................................................................................4 Systems Analysis....................................................102 Life Cycle Analysis...................................................124 x Contents  ...........................................5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development....................................................................1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis .............................. 104 10.............................. 104 10....................................6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling ........................... 93 10....94 10.......................122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap.................................................. 109 11............................................... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 111 11....................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships.................................... Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis......................................................2 TEA Scope and Methods.....................................................................................................................................93 10.......................110 11..........4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry.................................................................................................................................99 Overview................................................99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Appendix 2: Contributors................................110 11.........................................................................................................................................................................................3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships..................... 111 References.......

and non-governmental organizations. with national laboratories. Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of 2007.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. the national laboratories.1. bioproducts and biopower. the Roadmap describes fuels. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. government and new energy technology research and development. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol. the production of economically viable biofuels. A major objective of the reserves. reduces our dependence Roadmap. intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry.gov/algae2008pro/. development. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. academia. The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. economic opportunities across the nation. held December 9-10. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap. commercial. as well as made provisions that Workshop. at the University of Maryland-College Park. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable.orau. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. and sustainable algal-based biofuels. Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision.S. energy security. viewpoints. 1. In doing so. 60% of 2008. Overview  1 . the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D. industry. agencies. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels. of which only 15 economic. Furthermore. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. academia. Despite their potential.1). and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research. In 2007. The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific. and creates be found at http://www. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. scalable. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts. and industry. and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. energy efficiency. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum. Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues. To accomplish its goals. provides environmental benefits. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive. 1. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. of a viable.S. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U.S. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop.

Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al.75 18..0 24. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.1 0. while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study. For example.0 33. 2 1.2).0 2019 8.35 13. Overview  .0 2020 10.25 2017 5.0 26.0 15.75 a 3.5 1. oleaginous Exhibit 1.0 2021 13.2 2013 1. 2005).0 28.25 0.5 2016 4.55 2014 1.5 a 18.0 a 2.5 20.0 2.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass.0 36. As required by EISA.0 a 21. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates.65 0.0 2018 7.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA. the study did not explore the potential of algae. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1.95 12.0 a 11.5 a 15. and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement..0 a 5.5 a 9.5 0.25 a 7. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0.25 22. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.5 a 13. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels. However.6 11. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans. but no less than 1.1 2010 0.0 30.0 billion gallons.95 2011 0. 2009).0 2022 16.95 2012 0.75 16.80 1.15 2015 3.

but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s.000-6. with projected costs for fossil fuels. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3. (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. pH. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U. surges through the decade.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). could lead to this phenomenon. a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields. In 1998. Some of the highlights are described briefly below. however. commercially viable system has in salinity. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. and temperature. a scalable. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al. • Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). 1998).S. and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program. and also for their ability not yet emerged. gained serious attention only during from stationary sources.2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. freshwater supplies. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon. inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity. Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. 1. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. to the 300 most promising strains.000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. a comprehensive overview Algae 1. dates back to the 1940s. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture. Overview  3 . northwestern. such saline water. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy. During the early years. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. produced water. 1. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering.. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today. There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types. process development.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al.

but Among various techniques. enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program. estimated costs for unextracted 1998). 2007). and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition. Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al. some process options (e. biomass was demonstrated. but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale. 1985). suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U.. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term. However. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues. Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid. For example. Under inducing conditions. Different cost process step that is highly energy. Overview  . Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. growth was conducted in California. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. purification. paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . 1990). The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis.. distance from CO2 point sources. 1990).. depth research. primarily in C.. biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate. smaller ponds for inocula production.and capital-intensive. conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al.S. In addition. The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. which Microbial Products. The 4 1. primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti. characterization. 1999.. (Weissman et al. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. In this species.. and the efficiency of CO2 1995). The systems were characterized (Roessler. Sheehan et al. 50 g/m2/day. the Roswell area. and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley. Studies focused on suitable land. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress. scale-up. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al. petroleum consumption. Hawaii. Inc. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. 1988).or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. A Test Facility in Roswell. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald. however. Cyclotella cryptica. shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies. the commercially viable strains for oil production. This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al. 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields. costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements.g. cryptica were characterized (Roessler.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. chrysolaminarin saline water. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control. cost. 1989). Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production. issues associated with such methods. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing. ACCase activity was found to increase deep). but lower oil producing.After promising microalgae were identified. or engine testing was carried out. an oleaginous diatom. 1996). 1998).. productivity improvements. New Mexico. production. Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. strains from the wild. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase). and CO2 resources (power plants). 1998). further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology...000 m2 outdoor.

1. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant. the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1. cyanobacteria. Also from 1968-1990. a number of U. and public-private partnerships. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E). affordable. Further. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program.nrel. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. Courtesey of CCMP. Overall. federal funding for algal research has come scale. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. Species Program. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes. a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. Office of Science. needed to support commercialization activities. funding levels are beginning to increase. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs. the Department of Defense. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative.gov/publications. Cyclotella cells. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. Office of Fossil Energy. policymakers. feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels.. Additionally.S. the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. However. federal agencies. Overview  5 . A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE. that include investigating microalgae. macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel gas. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges. Recent initiatives. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally. 1998). 1987). significantly outpacing government funding.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. In particular. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals. suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized.barrel (Sheehan et al. Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. and the Department of Agriculture. regulations and standards.

centrifugation. selective extraction. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry. biofuel. hybrid. such as operational temperature.. water. dissolved air floatation. subcritical water. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale. pressure. industrial enzymes. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i.g.. energy. sedimentation.g. Overview  . climate.. animal/fish feeds. fertilizers. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses. and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency. direct fuel production. phototrophic. water. flocculation. intermediates. activity. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. bioplastics. sonication. 6 1. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e. heterotrophic.g. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land.g. and coastal/off-shore systems. energy. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land. and materials from algal remnants (e. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e. closed. open. water & nutrient reuse. biochemical conversion. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination.g. side reactions. carrying capacity. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e. supercritical fluid. and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance. filtration. solvent systems. microwave.....e. stability. energy balance. weather impacts.g. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. biogas.

. Being a nascent industry.US Patent 5928932 Abstract. 2008. 21(3). et al. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica . 11.. N. with algal biofuels commercialization. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System.G. R. E. 91. supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i.G.R. & Golueke. Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica..G. However. Oak Ridge. W. TN. it is recognized economic. 1988. J. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. 223–242. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng.. T. 1960. Meier. Algal from multiple entities.B. 394–400. Y. Overview  7 . Biological transformation of solar energy. References Benemann. Biodiesel from microalgae. 1605(UC-61). 25(3).A. Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline.. NTIS# H CP/ T. 24.. Rodolfi. Phycol. 294–306. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Available at: [Accessed November 3.. 2009]. 1995. P. P. & Nagle.J. 102(1). RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards. R.e. P. Chisti.G. & Oswald. 1. T. & Roessler. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.. J. Final Report to the US Energy Department. Biotechnology Advances. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. P. Microbiol. Adv. 100–112. Perlack.. 1999.D. consumption standards. Jarvis. Pursoff. 1978. Oswald. 219-232. with shape-selective zeolites. such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights. P. 179–183. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Biomass.. and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. However.. Milne.J. L.. 31(6). Evans. et al. Jarvis. regulation. and policy. E.E. 2005. 1993. there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production. & Ohlrogge.G. Appl. Roessler.L. Microalgae for oil: strain selection.. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Roessler. & Roessler. 1004–1011. R. Journal of Phycology. C. Dunahay. Solar Energy Research. Also.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological... J. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. 1955.J. 2007.. W. 1990. ORNL/TM-2006/66.

1984). Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements.. 8 2. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. this is not always the case.or eukaryotic.1 Strain Isolation. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae).2. streams. ponds. oceans. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology. 2. salinity. high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. CO2 levels).. In all cases. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). oxygen levels. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats. 2004). brackish. questions medium. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. 2005). Traditionally. and generation. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature. locations to maximize genetic diversity. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale.e. they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison. see Anderson. cultivation and strain development. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. rivers. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts. within an aqueous habitat. Due to their diverse characteristics. lipids. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. lakes. The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. marine require significant experimental effort. Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. and strain robustness. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. metabolite production. The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. other gene markers. hypersaline. of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. 2005). products. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. which includes fresh. Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered. Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. and soil (Round. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. Algal Biology  . the development and hyper-saline environments. Furthermore. algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life. versatility possible. pH. The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. maps. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. (seaweeds). whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro.

Algal Biology  9 . only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. no central database exists that provides global 9. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. 1959). but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology.. Strain name (species. community stability. but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. or in connection with outside collaborators.For mass culture of a given algal strain. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species. de la Jara et al. to determine a strain’s robustness. Mutants biology. The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. Proteomics. such as growth rate and metabolite properties. and provide 3. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. some may have lost original phenotypes. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10.000 strains. and predators present in a given environment. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. Omics data (Genomics. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics. temperature. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research. cultures (Sheehan et al. valuable strains. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. Transcriptomics. algal strains.. Information could include: 1. biochemical. Not only document data on strains. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor. native al. with more than 2. Therefore. However. pathogenicity. Previous robustness of particular existing strains.. The function of a culture collection often 6. Growth conditions (media. 1991. basic research resources. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. taxonomy. At present.500 strains. Strain administration (number in collection. protect genetic material. They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). Biological interaction (symbiosis. molecular. toxicity) Currently. they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. 1998). germination conditions cryopreservation. for example. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. They may also 7. existing culture collections. subspecies name. ) (Bligh and Dyer. Texas). such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed. and phylogeny either by themselves 8. Strain properties: Cytological.. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described. 2007. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae. and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. Solvent extraction. which data. metabolites. 2003). it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. is the most nutrient requirements. Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency. Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth. other countries. et al. Maine). Environment and strain history (specific habitat.

and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan. However. or co-product to be produced. supplements. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). If the carbon source is utilized by the cell.. Even that other strains will be chosen for production. or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors. Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. there are two types of algal model harvesting step. 2002). an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. lipids. Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii). of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains. Also to be considered is whether growth. production of biofuels. a large number of model and possible strain development for production. intermediate. secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter. However. which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. carbohydrates. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. For example.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol. However. 2006). In such a strain. 1998).. transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al.volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites).g. However. this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. In some species. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. in a practical sense. Finally. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors. such as. Algal Biology  . or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. and species be necessary to isolate it. Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be. Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. source. it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. and high cell densities can be achieved. Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. systems could be studied. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high.. 2006).Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. For example. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily. The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. food low. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system. A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. if the desired product is volatile.

. proteins. Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis. therefore.. 2008). More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. the percent of biomass and Fernie.. 2003). 2008.” Even with this photoprotection. 2003. 2007 and 2008) Further. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. 2007). and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i. however. and shares the Eberhard et al. are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. pathway analysis. Algal Biology  11 . 2003). Theoretical productivity is an important concept. Nelson and Yocum.. in their productivity. accumulate mostly carbohydrates. and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al. that is the desired fuel precursor. indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi.e. Though theoretical However. knowledge of metabolic pathways. 2009. Lipids and carbohydrates. along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols. Libourel and Shachar-Hill. plants (Hu et al. 1994. 2007). some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier. and Niyogi. carbohydrates. Foyer et al. Sweetlove production. In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. nutrient starvation. therefore. Allen et al. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al. 1999). studies in higher plants showed that when 2. starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. 1994. although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. storage compound in plants and algae. It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3).. 2005. a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization. Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. Mcdermid and Stuercke. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids.2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy.1).... which can lead to oxidative damage. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al.. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al.. and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou.. 2008). affecting growth rate. Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically. 2006.. Yang et al. because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009. the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. for biofuel production.. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted. 2002). 2004. biomass 2007. with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production. 1994. It is. Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2. 1991). Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. algal photosystems have built-in More recently. algae. as 2008). under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al. accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). 2005).2. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke. 2002). and potentially. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. exposed to high light. 2002).. preventing it from et al. Schwender et al. 1994.. It is. there remains be inter-convertible. cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne. understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures.

recently been demonstrated in bacteria. or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors.1). growing cultures.. Some algae. it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse. As mentioned above. though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al. 1971. greatly. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2. In the final step of TAG synthesis. these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG). degradation. These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel.. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes. and extraction processes. 12 2. naturally or under stress conditions. and thus may play an for example. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. 2008). The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound. it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited. must typically 2006. feedstock potential. mannitol. 2008. Algal Biology  . Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. as example many brown algae and diatoms. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. Yoo et al. Vigeolas et al.. Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. the nature of the interaction is unknown. An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls. plants and yeast based. featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. 1992). Other algae. 2002). or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. some red algae and dinoflagellates. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation. are 3-phosphate. 2000). which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. 1988). (Roessler. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. for specific acyl CoA molecules. 1987). be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis.. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. However. the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. Athenstaedt and Daum. Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan. an enzyme wall. TAG is formed by food reserves. Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. cell walls entirely. 2006).. envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria... but like those from plants. for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. It could. Other abundant polysaccharides. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae. plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae. Some red In microalgae. Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). carbohydrates. 2004). Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels. therefore. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. while some algae lack synthesis.

. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. if any.1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate. the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase. CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 . DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase. If the or culture conditions. These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG. As an example.. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. Thus. Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. Sheehan et al. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. Algal Biology  13 . Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. pathways. laboratory (Hu et al. it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. and other 2. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. it will be difficult galactolipids.. Stahl et al. ACP: acyl carrier protein.C18 CoA Figure 2. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes.. the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood. Such pathways property of individual species or strains. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Similarly.. 1998). 2005). If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae. 2004). Moreover. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase. 2000. This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants. enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement. PA and be true. 2008.

cell division. Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. metabolism in algae. starvation). Under high light stress. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking.g. 1998). as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). including vitamins. as rapid lipid energy storage compound. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. The study the plastid where they are assimilated. Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies. Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. 2001). the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies. In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids. a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. 2002). The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae.. Huang. the structure and function of lipid However. Nevertheless. the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs. It has as acyl donors. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes. As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier. Algal Biology  . and other macromolecules. with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species. excess membrane lipids. Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. This relationship may be both metabolic. some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. and et al. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. and spatial. with exceptions.. in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. stress conditions on lipid production in algae. 1993. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. their apparently widespread envelopes.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. This and lipid fate (Benning. It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy. the exact relationship between oxidative stress. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds. there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. 1992). TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. with acyl earlier). 14 2. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. 2008). Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. proteins. β-carotene. or with other organelles such as may be.. In oil-producing microorganisms. Zhekisheva et al. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. Some acids. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). therefore. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009). which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes.and glyco. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products. the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. 1998. lutein. an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy.. and other components into form of TAG. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions. 2008).lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel.. phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs.

driven H2-photoproduction pathways. (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP. would enzymes). Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I). 2003). (Drawing courtesy of Prof. and a third. (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis. M.8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2. fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang.→ O2 + 2H2. In all pathways. There are two major types of hydrogenases..4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0. the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production). Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al.2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al. compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant. 2008).4 PC Chl fixation P700 0. Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs. ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme.. light. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin. Based on such information.0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0. As a substrate. 2009). Algal Biology  15 . Posewitz.2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. and proteomic studies. Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. 2000.8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0.. hydrogenases. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2. in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e.2) (Melis et al. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis. for example. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1. Colorado School of Mines ) 2. those and carbohydrates. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. 2005). and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al.Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007). Three et al. 1984). One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production..2 P700* A0 A1 -0. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product. and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae.. studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving).

Algal Biology  . and to acetate. While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms. 16 2. Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells.. to delete or disrupt genes. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. hexose) (Turner et al. questions to consider in the context of mass production. human health. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. fungi and higher plants. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. 1989). From here. biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. Collectively. examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2. formate. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. In cyanobacteria. A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. more knowledge cannot be overlooked. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. Similarly economic viability.. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. and CO2 (van der Oost et al. Prince and Kheshgi. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. hydrogen evolution pathways. While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night. the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels. the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms. 2008). Thus. al. 2009). Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. 1987). In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches.3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. 2002. This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains. for commonly used bacteria.. 1998). However.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2. (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. In all cases. and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. Using hydrogenase as the catalyst.. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day. modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date.. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. For all of these with ethanol. 2005). and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals.

there marker (Hasnain et al.. 2006). 1989). 2005). other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale.. 2. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes.. 1994). to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. 1999). or markers... Chlorella. However. However.. this resistance is a powerful tool for research. Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al. element called a plasmid. or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach.. which necessitates a large amount of screening. Dunahay et al. presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells. diatoms (Cyclotella. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus. and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al. Hallmann and Rappel.g. Nostoc. 1987) can be screening criteria. Arthrospira). 2006). kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. The green algae (Chlamydomonas. 1989. reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al. Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. first concern is the cost of the antibiotic. 1999). 1995). Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype.. also been successful (Del Pozo et al. large-scale algal production. Algal Biology  17 . This the DNA is present. For the latter. Phaeodactylum. are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al. The second Volvox). For example. 2002). A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al. 1985.. Typically. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell. use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. Navicula... including resistance to neomycin. a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome. in the presence of an antibiotic).As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use. changes in fluorescence properties. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches. which could exacerbate current problems developed. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. Targeted 1996.. antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae. Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al.. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically. Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified. important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. zeocin (Apt et al. spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes. simplified identification of the mutated gene. Dunaliella. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. but markers based on resistance assayed. 1995).. Debuchy et al.. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira). An algal strains. however. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al. or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. large-scale production has two major drawbacks.g. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al.. Anabaena. Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes. generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e. occurring mutations. 1993.. 1995).. 1994). For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. dinoflagellates (Amphidinium. 1985. Dunahay et al. ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented.

Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). Algal strains often contain expression. then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae.. 1988. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct. 1996). If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. reinhardtii. In a practical but less so in microalgae. brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria. use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. need for balance in cellular metabolism. 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. 2005). vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i..e.. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. 2004).. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements. ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. Dunahay. red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson. but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. traits. 18 2.. Gracilaria. 2009).Symbiodinium). crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. and can be used to knockout genes. transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. In addition. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications. which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. 1995).. The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi. a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense. inducible and repressible promoters that 1993). intermediate. electroporation. For most of these approaches. 1992). With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas. Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction. 2005). Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria. including conjugation. 1990). (Kindle et al.. high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al.. used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al. Porphyra). Frequently. and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. 2001).. selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. because it is induced could be applied. small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. 2006). 1998). microarrays). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important. RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama.. (Deng and Capecchi. classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al. The selection process was based on a gene is present. Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium.. Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. be desirable. 1995). 1987). which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. Algal Biology  . RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al.. 1993). challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall. especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae.

with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. If not properly done. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. visit http://genome. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor production. Genome size in algae can vary substantially. Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla.. Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications. 2005. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology. Indeed. forming the foundation for at Genoscope . demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. Fragilariopsis cylindrus).jgi-psf. Gaietta et al. including allosteric activation and metabolic though. reinhardtii.org/euk_cur1. Bathycoccus sp. several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C. Volvox carteri). especially at the basic level of gene annotation. It must be noted level.). at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. applied research and technology development. 2008).Centre National de Séquençage (France). in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. Algal Biology  19 . pussilla. 2006). Except for cyanobacteria. Undoubtedly. for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available. that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context. such as genomics. Although time families). This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes.Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time. the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming. Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. and proteomics. a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae). Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes. 2006). Osteococcus tauris. approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the data. obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. This could 1 For a listing. all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production.. the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi).1 These species include computer sciences. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al. even in closely related species (Connolly et al. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens).. These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date.. 2004). distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al. Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable. Together. cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain.S. Quality standards and appropriate data. will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible. transcriptomics.. this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. 2002). useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production.html 2.

In the absence of genomic information.. 2006). Nannochloropsis sp. identification. Mass-spectrometry lipids. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). at least10 other algal genomes. the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al. Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. identifying final fuel produced.. Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. was sequenced over a decade ago. and function. 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al. which is the quantitative Therefore. especially with regard to translational regulation. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites. 2006. 2008). proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate... and proteins. double-homologous recombination. 2004. but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. different metabolomic analysis tools are applied. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. or can determine fuels and intermediates. Tanner et al..include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling. including liquid chromatography mass Currently. transformation. These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. 1998). approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. Many 20 2. small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel. The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential.. and some strains can fix peptides. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers. 2005. Castellana et al. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell. Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation. 2007). For example. Aebersold. and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas... Applications of Biotechnology New.. 2007. sp. notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. approaches (Han and Gross... 1996). quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. 1999). and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example. however. and Pseudochlorococcum sp. Moreover. Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). in response to particular environmental conditions.. which survey. and metabonomics. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al. gas chromatography mass spectrometry. high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. 2005). Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest. Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth. Algal Biology  . another dozen or so EST projects. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research. 2009). are underway. Chlorococcum sp. there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. Dettmer et al. as well as spectrometry.

and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. 2007 ).. whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers. glucosylglycerol.. 2000). and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer. but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al.2 Several production.. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al. anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen). and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0. 2 http://genome.. Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation. 2006).home. Fulda et al. It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. strategies to address these issues are production pathway. resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution. 2004). 2009. Synechocystis. pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. 2009) in Synechococcus. 2006. 2008).. and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al. sucrose.. reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria.. et al. proteome.. 1997). and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C. Koksharova et al. The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production. accumulation. The genome sequence of D. 2008.. and chloroplast (PHB). C. filamentous strain that can form heterocysts. 1999). the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez. and metabolome (Singh et al..jgi-psf. Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms. reinhardtii can serve et al. However. 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose.. 2002). Relatedly. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed. which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions. 2008). productivity under various environmental conditions. 2007).... The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al.. is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products. In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al.. 2008). In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. For example.org/ChlNC64A_1/ChlNC64A_1. reported (Neupert et al. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable. Lipid production. 2007). which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast. C. which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production....html 2. A possible drawback of C. 1998).1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al. 2007. Ferrante et al. Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. fatty acid synthesis. 2006). In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al. 2004). 2003). and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. Eisenhut et al. sucrose (Nobles and Brown. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae. like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. including glycogen. physiological conditions. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae. These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb). it can be sexually crossed.. it will be necessary to further being developed. For example. with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. Algal Biology  21 . 2007). protothecoides. 2006. capabilities. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress. but nevertheless.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome. 2008). It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported.. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al.

and metabolic and coastal waters. are very important. Niwa et al. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae. Baldauf. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red..gov 22 2. Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms. such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. They are and proteomic profiling. Moulin et al. with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata. 1995. each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment. the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete. tools is still imperative from a research standpoint. the stipe.. general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. 2004. 1996. 3 http://www.jgi.3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products. and four more 1999. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al. 2003..doe. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production. 2001. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al.. For example. 1999. the status of macroalgal systematics production.. which includes diatoms. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina. Chlorophyta (green algae)... and green seaweeds.. induction response. Roeder et al. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination. Meneses and Santelices. Use of gene-specific probes al. and expression profiling (Collen et al. For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example.. and choice of cultivation methods In general. et al.. Niwa et al. represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms.. 2006. 2005). Dutcher and Kapraun. combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies. Algal Biology  . or seaweeds. 1995. For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report. also have microalgal counterparts. 1994. 2008). As such. 2000). Unlike microalgae.... brown. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. 2005). Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms. (Armbrust et al. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function. and Rhodophyta safeguards. Fischer et al. species. 1997. 2005). because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients. as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal. GE algae are defined as strains life histories. Ho are underway. Bouza et al.. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. 1999. Bowler et al. and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer. and regulatory gene expression control 2005). Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. Genome sequencing Macroalgae. However. potential for toxin markers. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. and alternation of generations. The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse. anoxic zone formation. affinity with corresponding microalgal forms. Currently. Apt et al. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008).. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al. 2003).and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. even with these (brown algae). are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments.. of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report.

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Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally. algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. It is. industry. Algal Cultivation  29 . Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3. both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3. however.3. important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation. especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e. it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2). (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds.g. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. but long-term culture Broadly speaking. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity... For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007).g.1 compares the readily introduced. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities. it is important to 3. capital costs maximizing light exposure. photobioreactors). open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation.1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria. Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches). therefore. Though photobioreactors (e. However. reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi.

. 2004.. to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. 2005). 2009). Laminaria hyperborean. Hypnea. over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. 1993).. Dai et al. seeds grown spp. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks. Reddy et al. appears especially open raceways. Heterotrophic as a nutrient source. Buck. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al. located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development. in particular. it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation.. or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale.. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. have been algal growth. such as sugars. and predation. Macroalgae 1987). Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra. efforts. 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures. 2006) and field Additionally. 2006). providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain.. 2004. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp. Dai et al. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. As a result. Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China. 2005. 2007). in hybrid systems. In the latter. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. already widely used to Southern California.et al. et al. 1993. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae. and major technological 1991). (Chynoweth. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather. they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies. important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3. Turbinaria. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones... Japan. 1995) or a series of al.et al. both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation strategies. 2005). 2004. 2007). Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. and presented (see Chapter 10). environmental regulations from other sources. Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz. 2002). biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries.. This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology. and Chile. Dipakkore et al. Typically. Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander. 2008.. 2004. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al. Sargassum. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. considerable scale-up from current activities... been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al. 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). However. Algal Cultivation  . improvement in strain selection. 2008). wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe.. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu. photobioreactors could (Dai et al. In sugars. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp. Kumar et al. Hanisak.engineering designs. A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation. then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods. and there is the the structures. near-shore..

It should be noted that. and recycling. and management of competitors. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. 2008). In certain cultivation systems. One of the more into a variety of useful products. Viprey et al. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology. 2006 ). Honda et algal physiological adaptation.2 Scale-Up Challenges species. commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective.. management. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success.. 2008. e. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research.000 and several million phytoplankton 3. 2009). Wilson et al. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms. Methods for rapid. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation.. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. Continuous monitoring will management. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes.. • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al. Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens.. 2008. Cheng et al. 2004. for real-time monitoring. 2008) productivity analysis. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al. predators. and inexpensive. and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al.. Boutte et al. Wilson et al.g. (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. 2009).. and pathogens. it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present. The methods must be sensitive. The cost-benefit analysis al.. viable. Brussaard. 2008. automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined. Additionally. 2005).. 2006. proteins. and simple and complex carbohydrates. chemical compounds. and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies.. This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. Algal Cultivation  31 . predators.. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding. it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption.. to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability. limited. 2004).Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms.. 3. pervasiveness of issues related to scale.. 1994. TSA- • Nutrient source scaling. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. 2005. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. Nutrients. sustainability and FISH (Marie et al. Rittmann et al. 1999. Others will compete for shared resources. competitors.

1996).. developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. and silicon (in the case of diatoms). 1938. but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen. Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. Douskova et al. The development of studied. 2002). biochemists. 32 3. etc. (Ketchum and Redfield. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae. and normalization. physiologists. and production siting. More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost. 2008. Spalding 2008). phosphorous. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical. 2008.. molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae. densities. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists. cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity. Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues. For example. Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U. Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress. 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. as siting requirements for efficient considered. must also be R&D in both areas. 1999..Furthermore. Eltgroth et al. 1987. a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. predator-prey relationships.. and products. need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. New approaches are split Oswald. phosphorous. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources. 1996. and Management 1981.. The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production.. Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. Along with standards. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. This information will productivity of potential strains. diverging dynamics will be important. trace metals. The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. Algal Cultivation  . automated. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. 2008). From a productivity standpoint. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary. metabolites. predators. out (Abelson. and significant operating cost.. and because of the 2005. dollars (Benemann and renewable. Benemann and Oswald. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate. iron. Reed et al. permeable.. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. Sheehan et al. Thus. The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). 1994). There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. and genetic. sustainable fuels.. For example. research in multi-trophic. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring. vitamins. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. rates.S. 1999). sustainability. productivity lost during down time. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. invasive species. light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen. fit-for-purpose fuels. These tools. and adapted for rapid. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account. Gao et al. Requirements for additional nutrients. competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains.

cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically. 1998). Water Management. Also.5 cm per over long distances. and potential nitrogen and phosphorous.. At the same time. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable. too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. agricultural. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. brackish. availability. Douskova et al. 2005. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. On the other hand. From a to fossil fuel prices. means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. by preventing eutrophication. or silicon) as a economics. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls. 1989). phosphorous.. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. phosphorous. Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important. and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive. 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative.Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia. If the biomass residues are. With large cultivation systems. The final fuel product from algal oil biology. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities. This may be nitrogen. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass. buildup. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. and sustainability implications of various discharge. However.g. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. evaporative losses can exceed 0. A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth). for example. or industrial unsuitable for land crops. Algal Cultivation  33 . nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. e. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels. aquifers and seawater. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet. utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. for example. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. If not addressed adequately. productivity. produced 3. it may NOx and SOx (Doucha. 2009).000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. 1996)..” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up. nitrogen. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. nitrate.. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. and sustainability issues. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective. Currently. The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper.000 gallons to fill. biogas. these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy. For example. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha). Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon. which is a loss of 13. however. or urea. Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. or iron. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. In the future. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e. Therefore. tend to be near enormous.g.

the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry. but live cells could adversely is fresh water. Incoming water (surface water. toxins (including heavy cooling. Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture. municipal wastewater. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture. However.1999). which could contain salts. and residual live algal cells. This is an enormous amount of water (260.. The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. toxins. however. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water. heavy metals (e. accumulated salts. To contain costs. while effectively Water recycling is essential. A critical water consumption. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. disinfection. Furthermore. and treatment (e. The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water. chemical flocculants used in harvesting. This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. or seawater) may be suitable as is. etc. from flue gas).. • GIS analysis of water resources. by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer. or other remediation before use.g. materials in the culture. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. or other low. Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals).water from oil wells. activated charcoal filtration. accumulated toxics. flocculants. desalination. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers. makeup water/recycle. groundwater.000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above). water.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost. could pose a serious problem. flocculants. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. Algal Cultivation  . but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. process. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. and water double their biomass on a daily basis. or may require decontamination. wastewater. Disposal of the spent water. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location. and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts. • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown). and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms.g.

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This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. lime. only now being recognized as critically important. Knuckey et al. Alum. Bare et al.g. 1969.4. Culture manipulation techniques. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. Koopman and chitosan. Cultures Finally. 1993. A determinations in particular processes. electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. make harvesting more difficult. Botes and Vanvuuren. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. 2003. Likewise. In managed cultures. polyacrylamide polymers. 1977. The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. bioreactors. Addressing these issues requires careful mind. surfactants. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. 2001). As the desired percentage concentrations. 1997). 1988. mixtures. and Shelaf. 1998. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. electroflocculation.. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . type.. therefore. 1971). 2004.0. McGarry and Tongkasa. Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures. energy costs climb steeply. 1984).. 1975. may analysis of engineering designs.. 2005. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity. and recycling issues. water quality. consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds. Pan et al. Phochinda and White. 1988). 1987). is required to promote sedimentation at harvest.. circulation. 1991. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered. Their small sizes. the presence of flocculant in 4. and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln. 2006. being considered.02 . Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. and on empirical of transportation. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue. therefore. lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates).1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled. some into further downstream dewatering techniques. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering.. Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al. additives. Poleman and Pauw. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. cellulose. Kwak et al. Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae. impact the required energy input. the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. 1983)... at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. 2004. salts. and then air is bubbled 4. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. algae harvesting (Sim et al. Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed. and small size (~1 to 30 µm). Edzwald. however. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases.

Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al. methane drum size. • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations. For instance. Filtration designs Invariably.. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out. microalgae. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. 1991). Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat. pores decreasing filter efficiency. Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate. and have the ability to remove the algae later. Moving filters Currently. design. the filter. Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. operating costs. have also been developed. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e. The flocculant efficiency. where fuel precursors very expensive.. leads to blinding. and bioharvesting. 2008). The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing. the growth substrate can be easily removed. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. Saidam and Butler. Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. and reduction of filtering rates. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size). Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied. of the roughly 1. so leads to re-dilution of the product. In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency.g.6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide. but are not limited to. in low-humidity climates... but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. Application of mechanical 38 4. filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed.g. 2003). water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity.through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. floc optimization. 2002. and mechanized harvesting methods. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades.. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm. however. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible. These include. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements. 1995. acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. 1996). suction. pores. Culture purity However. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. Durability and 4. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries.2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues. 2001). Washing the filter is one practice. or ships for operation. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen.. but doing or dredging with cutters. about 90% is (Oswald. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields. 2009).

for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 .. final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. stones. Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz. culture and end-use. 2009). • Removal of foreign objects and debris. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. Anaerobic digestion. Smaller particles. by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded. and the amount of debris method. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis.g. given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated. Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. laws have approaches 90% may be necessary. anaerobic digestion and fermentation. example. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. influence. and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils..harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed. may be amenable to mowing. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 . with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments. 2008).. Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng. although breakthroughs are still needed in each. could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions. In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al. attached forms that tend to stand upright.. strict regulations 80 . 2001). maintenance. and depreciation. a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas.. biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al. The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols. mechanized harvesting techniques.20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore. The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. scale of harvesting and dewatering. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”.30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. surface area to volume ratios. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water.. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp.. with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly. 1989). opportunities for products apart from fuels. litter. adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately. To manage seaweed harvests. the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined. In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture. e.85% water content (Peterson et al. 2009). This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al. 2009). For part of the pretreatment process. such fermentation. operations. 2004). 2009). cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al. Further. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. about 20 . The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured. new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration.3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. sand.

H.R. Koopman. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply.H. M. C.. (38).Y. E. 300. W. However. R. H. 67. Jung. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae.R. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Delanoue. A. Illman. Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting. A. S. Kim. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away. J. Ireland Buck. Lyons. 6(1). and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge. Won. H. Progress in Water Technology.J. Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media. Jones. Shales. de-watering. (2009). and M. (2002). (2006). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process. Robert.F Frampton. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal. 713. Kwak. E. 631-635. D. (1991). (27). algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids.. and dissolved air flotation. Stanley.M. 30 (7). likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. and C. Jones. Water Science and Technology. Agricultural Wastes.J. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. Sedimentation and Flotation. 133. (1969). Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 9(1). Z. A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. C. M. Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. 357-394.F. 27(10).S. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt.B. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. 40 4. 45(1). Borowitzka. Aquacultural Engineering. Green. Bracco. B. Large-scale algae culture systems. M.R. Chen.C. (1988).K.P. Rasmussen. T. D. Sustainable Energy Ireland. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. Ferguson. (2005).J. (1983). (2005). Bruton. F. Edzwald. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . Filtration. Water Science and Technology.J. 11. 47(1). Ferguson. (2004). 153. (1993). Vanvuuren. Zubieta. along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass. 95. 5(4).from algae. L. H. Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. 35(3). (1987).B. Kwon.. Downing. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0.M. (1975). Scragg.54 watt-hours/gram. G.. 231.L. Anderson.. coagulants. B. Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds.. 31(3-4). Johnson. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. R. Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. E. Dublin. Lundquist. et al. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. Dodd. Lincoln. (2000). flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal. J. M. Botes. Water Science and Technology. Logsdon. 852-859. Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents. Lerat. (1977).. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies.A. Y. Oswald. B. I.. Separation and Purification Technology. based on the latent heat References Bare.. 9(3). & Wen. 117.J. Lavoie. C. B. 113.X. bubbles. 612. 50(11). Butterfi. Borowitzka. T... G. Cambridge University Press. 2000). 85(3). Brown. N. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses. 250. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters.B.. W. Buchholz. 525-534. Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale. Algae. D. 674-691. S. J. of each in algae are considered (Illman et al. (1995). Aquaculture. Curley. Ku.J. V. Middlebrooks. Knuckey. (2010). Micro-Algal Biotechnology. J.B. J. J.

Molina Grima E. A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum. A. Poelman. J. K. 43(5). 1. E. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal . Oh.A. 327. A. (2001). Froling. Kim. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii.S. McGarry. Science and Technology. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Tester. F. (1997). (1984). Water reclamation and algae harvesting. Biol. H. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. (2004). 83-89. Huesemann. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. Y.R.Qingdao. (1998). 51.W. H. and Recycling. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 . W. Shelaf. 4. 24(5).. Cah. B. D. Oswald. Chuang. J. 63-70.J. G. F. Environmental Technology. Journal of Biotechnology Advances. Phoochinda. 199. M. Antal.C. Comparison of centrifugation. C.. Tongkasa. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism. Biomass. Mar 42. M. Vogel. 824.G.. R. (19). 150(1-3).J. (1988). et al. (2008). S. 87. Acién Fernández. (1989). Yoon. (1991).. R.D.B. G. Butler. Conservation.. Tseng. E. A. (1996). T. D. Sim. P. Robles Medina. and J. Water. A. Sukenik. M.. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products..P. Roesijadi.G. Y.Lee. A. 185.. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . (1). G. 1987. The Journal of Applied Phycology. C. Peterson. Wu. (27). D. W.M..C. Becker. Forster.S. Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. Sharp. W. (2003). N. Removal of algae using froth flotation.and supercritical water technologies.Y. China. Resources. Fundamentals. 1. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation.. A. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge. Benemann. Saidam. 14. R. Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. G. 32-65. C. Huang. E. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Chisti. Kwon. Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters. Pauw. White. J... Copping.. B114. M. E-H Belarbi. C. Pringle. M. J. Energy & Environmental Science. (1971).P. S. M. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration. (26). 1-7. 142. Pan. (20). Goh.. (2003). Lachance. and J. 24(1). Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub. (2001). 16(1). Ugarte. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 491–515. (2008). Mollah.

e. 2010). 2010) and osmotic shock. and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta. extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al.5. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material. and (3) solvate the >40%. To operations could affect extraction processes. Dibenedetto. ultrasounds.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating. Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. and Barberio. algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations. Extraction of Products from Algae   . and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. For waste treatment. Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al. This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. little is known about the scale. base. For this reason. sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids.. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production. or for the sonication for cell disruption. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development. 2008). pretreatment of (Zhang et al. To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. as well as the be successful. and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al. Additionally. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. 2005) et al. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid. prior to the application of the extraction solvents. 2008). While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. Lipid Extraction sonication. The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out. 2010).. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5.. Cell Rupture) component for extraction. extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process.and laboratory-scale procedures. that secrete products directly into the growth medium. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. osmotic shock. autoclaving. some systems 42 5. application of organic solvents. using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products. 2003). thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear.. different logistical challenges arise from access. 2008. extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective.. As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly. pulverized biomass. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted. but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. 2010). and acid... different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion. which is dependant on the algal species and growth status. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals...

and extract the lipids. their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins. 2005). In these applications. (i. making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke. After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. In general. other combinations lipids and cell structure. 1959). hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments. and Dyer co-solvent method. these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin. 5.. (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer. if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system). Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids. 1994)..g. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e.. chloroform. 2000). despite the added added.. at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly. ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol. the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent. methanol) and acid catalyst (e.. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. They explained lipids (i.e. (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path. Consequently. chloroform.e. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. In general. dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. and then water) (Lewis. These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978). Extraction of Products from Algae   43 .. 2000). water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids. thereby improving downstream separations.e. 1990). solubilize. 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke. 2007). biomass.. Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. 1998).g. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted.. In other cases. has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first). pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids. Similarly. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al. give relatively high hexane mixtures. In general... 1996). and methanol. 2007). and hexane/isopropanol for lipids. acetyl chloride). the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy).g. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. 1990). single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency.. Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol...g. More. disruption of the cell Malcata. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al. 2007).Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers. The hexane system as chloroform to contact. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i.

What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass. Denery et al. If this process can be 44 5. the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. a step that also requires energy input. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. to all pores within the biomass matrix and. Hejazi et al. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina. must use dried Consequently. Extraction of Products from Algae   .... the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes. the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point.. Accordingly. depending on the solvent. it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. 2006). 1996. noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore.. extraction temperature. ASE can also be applied to remove co.10 min). separate out desirable by analogy. Conceptually. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al.95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 . The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE . This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel. break down the cell membrane. and production of triglycerides for biofuels production. however. ASE of higher hydrophobicity. is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 .200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i. In general.3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 .55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle. example.e. 1996). on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al. viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents. screening viability (500 .. Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. 2004). and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times. extracted 85 . some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. (Denery et al. reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent. The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. the polarity) to values that match the lipids.. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). 2009). free fatty acids. and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells. 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer.the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i.. and optimize the energy cost. using the process. sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio. It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al.30 g samples of dried biomass.e. By using solvents technique on 1 . For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref). a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples. and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure).

one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail). In this system up to subcritical temperatures.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids.. There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al. products miscible Largeau.applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%. Large-scale design scenario. al... 2001) . as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al. CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i. lower costs of the extracting agent. however. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel.. 1994. and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al. originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner. this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005). The technique. via transesterification.g.. but other fluids used have included ethane. the ability to 5. the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. In addition. a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans.. the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water. nitrous oxide. whether grown has the effect of converting lipids. e. triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s). creating additional energy use challenges.. The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro. methanol.g. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. phototrophically or heterotrophically. The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid.50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. just below the critical temperature. 2005).9 bar). liquid feeds (Reverchon et al. 2005). 1994). however. 2007)... this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process. non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. 2006). In this 2006). attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 . and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case. is that water. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll). by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al. Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature. 1999).. 2007). higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts.. easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. 2006).379 bar (Chueng. for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. ease of scale-up.. More recently. of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times. 1999). higher productivity Castro et al. It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature. water.. Some pressures of 241 . is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 . at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid.e. 1992). as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al. water extraction. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage. thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae. been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however. ethane. low toxicity. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above. 73. However. as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction. A major constraint. sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride. pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions. 2006). 1999). under these conditions. 2006).. Some degradation.

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. 80(2). M. A. Carvalho. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. 1025–1031. Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute.. Golmohammad. G.. Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Güçlü-Üstündag. Grima. Balsevich. to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores. Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. versa. reduce the pressure and temperature requirements. 501(2). Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. J. thereby improving the References Barclay. 120–126. et al. Agric. 15(5). F. E... S.. 2007. the issue of solvent energy load. Eikani. 6(2). Meager. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions.R. M. 5049–5059. 46 5. et al. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass... This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier. the following in side reactions. 175–181. 898-902. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry.H. Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4.). Cartens. K. Journal of Food Engineering. 21-33.X. & Abril. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales. 735–740. et al. 1996. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies. 2007.. 955–959.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components.. 619–630. At the cellular level. J. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. & Rowshanzamir. G. Food Chem. 71(9)..R. 123-129. 2005. Brunner. 73(8). J. as Btu. 2004.. J. & Malcata. Journal of Food Engineering. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. 2008. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms.3.transesterifiable lipids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. Journal of Food Engineering. W.M. Lipid-Fett. In this context. Increased of sugar-based feedstocks.P. 67(1-2). 1994. Fajardo. et al. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2007.. Cravotto. However. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. 53(13). Analytica Chimica Acta. Extraction of Products from Algae   . F. produced per day. & Mazza. 1994. 109(2). 80(2). G. et al. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. 2005. Denery. A.

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
with retention of viability. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 79(1), 29-36.
Herrero, M., Cifuentes, A. & Ibanez, E., 2006. Sub-and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different
natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
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Lee, J. et al., 2010. Comparison of several methods for effective lipid extraction
from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
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from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
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for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
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5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen.500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds. and the United States. algae: pyrolysis. 2008). improvement in hydrocracking. can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing. gasification. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. products. laminarin. 2007). and the added benefit of being fuels. There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas.2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with. gradient. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. These current time (Bridgwater. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. social acceptance.e. 2003. and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 .. too low for conversion to biodiesel. The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and.. For flash pyrolysis.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step. depending on the reaction parameters. although the scientific literature. degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. 2004). such as mannitol. with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors. or other biomass. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh.. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003). Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. anaerobic digestion. and significant dehydration crops. place in their presence. Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. photo-fermentation.1). efficiently. though from algae. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al. Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times. 50 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . i. 2004). but algae. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology. to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil. Also. competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2.e. including direct biophotolysis. feedstocks must be ground into fine particles.. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. typical biomass throughout the country. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. at least some level of dewatering is still required. Polysaccharides. Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006). 2006. Miao and Wu. Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. Brazil. the algae. 2003). is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. biohydrogen) substance by heating. in that it is extremely fast.. McDermid & Stuercke. The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis. where finely on economic considerations. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. 2003).

Exhibit 6. it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels. 6. since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology. address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process. CO2. Additionally.. 2007. Srinivas et al. 2004). Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. First and foremost.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels . there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely. FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. 2006). Yung et al. Another advantage is the Additionally. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally. 2007. Unfortunately. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 . and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. 2009). liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O.. 2009. so the bio-oil may be more investment required. Another research paper comparatively straightforward.. it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. Balat.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed.. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas. H2. and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for. the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al. the process more flexible. 1994). etc. The methods. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents.

The first reactor was a low. 1995).330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained.. algae may have a unique advantage balance.. FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall. as high as 75%. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. usually requires pretreatment. A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. Germany. with oxygen at high temperature. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process. 2008). The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals.. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . 2005).. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. 2005). it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles. It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale. 1995). Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . comparable to those of fuel oil. considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al. However. Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. Neste Oil. This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. First. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993).for dedicated biomass plants. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input. These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency. The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes.4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date.. the most significant problem al. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. Also. The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic. of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al.. Additionally. there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D. A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process. (Raffelt et al. France in 2006. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size.. Even though FTS is a mature technology. There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al. Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al. The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. 36 kJ g−1.. 2006). Typically. with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst.

It is. Similar results have been Fernández et al. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production. could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process. further study will also 6. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study. $0. If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts... which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6. In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority. 1987). supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering.e. and as such. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al. and efficiency. fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. triacylglycerides. Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae. and fuel conversion. lower reaction temperatures. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas.... in terms of yield. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . Additionally. e. and one that receives scant attention of algae. the typical mode of biofuel production from algae. In this process variant. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. level that can be scaled to commercial production.. In for example. and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process. gal vs. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. 2007). ensuring maximum particular. There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts. it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production.g.. therefore. raw. supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas.Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. cost. 2008.4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. however. in place. 2009).3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. $0..51/gal). While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180. is an interesting mode of gaseous oils. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. 2009). oil extract. including drying. theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). is to demonstrate are selective. 2008). conversion of vegetable oils. 2006). the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. Additionally. in particular. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior. with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures.. effect of milder process conditions. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels. Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. with a conversion cost-effective methodology. 2009). the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. at less than 50˚C. transesterification. 2008). The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based. Vieitez et al. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008).

. a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. there are other solution and mixing well. they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. 2008). and therefore.2). The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al. Cao et al. Diesel. catalyzed methanol approach. biochemical. Recently.2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. Transesterification (Alsalme et al.. The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves. it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts. This section discusses water and free acids. (Exhibit 6. acid methyl esters).. Kerosene. In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. mitigate saponification chemical. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas. generally required as a result. Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are. 2006). Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum.. Though acid catalysts have these advantages. 2008. 2008). Boocock.. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . In addition to the classic base. When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al. therefore. 2008). which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts. and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4.can be converted into biodiesel. (Ataya et al. This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. 2007). heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy. 2008). it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. 2009).. enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts. heteropolyacids (HPA). 2008).

This work more mature conversion processes currently available. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process... There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost.. and 2008). Liao et al. 2008). 2003).... Lewis acid catalysts. These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases. as with other approaches. sugars. The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. 2007).. but (Lopez-Hernandez et al.et al. Although very effective and relatively economical. and energy input (Kalva et al. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 . catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. reaction temperatures. One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing. 2007). increasingly attractive. defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin). 1998). (a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al. engineering. optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al. In the ultrasonic reactor method. Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts.. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base. Again. This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse. production. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. difficulty in removing the glycerol. converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters.. 2008. to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive. they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol. inexpensive (McNeff et al. 2008). the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly. 2008). and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. 2008). Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time. ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained. at a commercial scale and at competitive prices. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al. and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al.. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater.. process must be able to function in the presence of these However. much R&D is needed in the discovery. It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al. in many cases. catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. 2006). Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end. these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream. such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or ZnCl2. Use of biocatalysts cell walls. it has been noted 6. have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. 2008). 2005). In particular.

presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. the process pressure is high perspective. and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids. heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels. in an assortment of end products. separation In another example. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . for whale oil. and Al2O3. begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full. It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil. As noted in chapter 8. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. In this way. gasoline. obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. jet fuel. such as tehtrahydrofuran.. M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom.60 bar). temperatures of about 170˚C). and x is an and process steps. 56 6. CaO. Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. On the other hand. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. 2009). the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification. and insoluble. This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. active catalysts during transesterification. oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). be completed before these catalysts are fully understood.. fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . such as oil shale and tar sands. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure. Although are stable.The presence of a co-solvent. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. Many of the catalysts cracking. From a refinery’s At these temperatures. A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO. This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights. Other based analog.240°C). the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. maximizing the final energy content. straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO. Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. Moreover. and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water. flash point. One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements. such as biomass or plant oil. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. The catalysts are active feedstock. jet fuel. initial and final boiling point. they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline. and cloud point.

Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 .. 1979). metals.4 Processing of Algal (basically. carbon dioxide. as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion. 6. It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6. and for recycle to the culture. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. nitrogen from extracted proteins. It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume. Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. a chemical reductive process).g. Referred to as hydrotreating. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner. Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. In particular. Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e. once H2 used. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. In addition. this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas. There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development.

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2007 7. Using appropriate technologies. proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers. without invoking competing co. The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined. dyes. a reasonably benefits to the technology.2. these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb.. and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 . CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. Co-products   61 . Inorganics Proteins enzymes. The topic of polysaccharides. enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products. the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process.1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. reductant. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria. and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process. flavors.1). Vorlop. glycerol. The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. hormones. fertilizers and soil conditioners. fats (oils). poly-unsaturated fatty acids. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. cosmetics. etc. Moreover. corresponding markets in the long term. generation will inevitably compete for carbon. aromatic essences. the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7. novel technologies with increased coloring substances. anti-oxidants. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal. and stable isotopes for research purposes. wastewater. 2004). and energy from photosynthesis.00/lb. is predicted to be generated by the process. Indeed.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass. As summarized economics of the system. pharmaceuticals.500 x106 lbs/yr. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products.$1. the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6).30 . and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7. For the purposes of the Roadmap. Heat. Exhibit 7. $0.7.

1.e. product. 1990. 1996. GLA by Arthrospira. appearance. better immune to the consumer. Nannochloropsis. which is sold either fish (Benemann. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium.5 billion US$. 1994 and 1996). from 300 to 3. the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements. 280 million US$. ca.10% (wt. poultry. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon. However. etc. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption. sold for the health food market. 600 t/yr Nostoc. Radmer. 1990.000 t/yr Spirulina.. Co-products   . pigs. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium. All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis. Nitzschia. Chlorella... have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka. Although small.g. Tetraselmis. al. is expected to expand significantly. 2006). arsenic. gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal. docohexaenoic acid (DHA). not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products.. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds.. 2006). With the possible exception of the existing response.By definition. is expected to grow in the future. yet in the short term. The most very large potential markets are developed. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. cadmium and derived biofuels. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. having presently a retail value of 1. Anti-Oxidants The market. 2006).000 t/yr Chlorella. The production includes ca. The market size.) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. US$.5 billion A number of anti-oxidants. weight gain. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high. microalgal (of biomass. horses. 62 7. crustaceans (shrimp). ca.g. increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price. the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. Pulz and Gross. Spolaore et (e. Phaeodactylum. 2. GLA from evening primrose oil). Malcolm et al. Isochrysis. ca. is quickly growing. and ca. γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The market for microalgal animal feeds. Radmer. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$. However. The Dunaliella. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i. etc. • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. and Thalassiosira. Dunalliella. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term. Skeletonema. Chlorella and Scenesdesmus. Chlorella. significant amounts of lead. currently at about 2..) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 . fertility. Scenedesmus. The main species used in products. In poultry rations. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira). 1990.200 t/yr Dunaliella. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. e.) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina. and soil fertilizer. 2006). particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann. This situation. Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species. 1986.. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. 2004. 1996).000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al. 3.. market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova. animal feed are Spirulina. et al. these existing markets (and associated Spirulina. 1999).

1990). 2006).e. or as pigments i. (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product..000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7. growth promoters. Astaxanthin. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. (2006) EPA Potential product. Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5. and research.Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers. Co-products   63 .200 >280 Spolaore et al. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1. pigments in pluvialis.. 2003.. and Exhibit 7. 2006).. are used as food dyes. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics.000 700 Spolaore et al. the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin. Spolarore et al. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Benemann.. 1986.. (Olaizola. (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al.500 Spolaore et al. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka. Phycobiliproteins. dyes for food.. Spolaore et al... a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. cosmetics.000 2. no current commercial market Spolaore et al..500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1.2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7. 2006). 2004.

. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable.. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004). 1987). These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka. but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. Pulz and Gross. 2001. or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7. 1. Borowitzka. 2.5-6 BILLION 64 7. Furthermore.. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al.2 Commercial Products factor.. aonori. plant growth regulators could be 7. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro.3). Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh. 1990). 1994. 2007. 2005. Singh et al. Pulz and Gross. Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. Olaizola. The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products. Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics). be very small due to their specialized applications. Wu et al. the only issue is price.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. Identical to an existing chemical.. 1990. the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium. Alginate. Pulz and Gross. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. fuel.. 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al.. Radmer. it 2004). 2004). 1986). Exhibit 7.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds. medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. kombu.e. etc. pharmaceutical. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. food additive. 1986). 2001). must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986. Metting and Pyne. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing. cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5. 1990. pharmaceutical. Here price is a major 7. 2006). 2003. cosmetics (Spolaore et al. fuel or other product. pet food. polysaccharides (Benemann. mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al. or other product. macroalgae (i.) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient. This sets a high bar research (Benemann. wakame. Co-products   . They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. pharmaceuticals and In this instance.

it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann. gasification. such as pyrolysis. However.pdf). the issues enough markets for potential co-products. The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass.e. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production. lipids only. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass.unh. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology. and combustion. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy. 2009). Therefore.4). as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass.3. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels. Nevertheless. and Benemann..3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid.4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. with reported methane yields of about 0. Co-products   65 . 2009). conversion technologies. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. New material with unique and useful functional production systems. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass. non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage. both (Exhibit 7. which could then be either sold on the new product. In this case. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www. Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). with potential whole (i. The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass. and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure). Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7.

poultry. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. Option 2.20 per gallon ethanol. Furthermore. Furthermore. For example. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm. green solvents and a result.txt). However. antifreeze.3-propanediol. and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. Since the generation of gasoline. and butanol). Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass.gov/mnreports/sj_gr225. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. including and interactions with animal digestion.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids. 2008). a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. i. 2009. thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced. is the starting material for the production of polyester. generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide.. etc. is potentially very large. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. however. (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol. the projected market for cellulases is 2007. Furthermore. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed. which contains proteins. while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed. biomass for liquid biofuel production. ethanol. 2007). and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and Good. and Option 4. jet fuel. Kawaguchi et al.. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. As of industrial surfactants. Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez. a food and feed supplement. fish. this option (Datta et al.. ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. aliphatic polyesters. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products.. (Hu et al. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. current levels. due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. might ethanol could be used as biofuel. it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. However. butyric. 1 billion kg. epoxies. human nutrition may organic acids (formic. 2007. the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. and (c) at products such as polymers. relative derived ethylene and propylene.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. glycerol could be used to potentially very large. the residual microalgal (http://www. As was pointed out above. feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 . 2008). bioplastics. solvents (acetone. Finally. Kamm and Kamm.5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be solvents. the market for animal feed (cattle.. 2001). Choi. succinic. to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants.ams. 2006). least 10. Furthermore. from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants.usda. acetic. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers.. polycarbonates and polyurethanes. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes.e. 2007). than $0. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. 2007). detergents. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. Similarly. 1995).g. The Glycerol. and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al. adhesives. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes. it is also used in the In addition. and could be advantageous. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. produced by 2020. pigs. butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed. propionic. Co-products   . Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e.

(2008). proteins. J. B. this option will also require and potentially growing. (2001). Microbiological Sciences. M. University of Illinois. W. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources.175-204. including www. and carbohydrates is not cost-effective. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5). Introduction to Applied Phycology. Tsai. Wright. (105). Co-products   67 . The Plant Journal. Banaigs. Burgess. carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. Biorefineries – multi product processes. Ghirardi. The Hague. the recovery and use of energy. Suppl. S. L. 589-627. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2. Seibert. (2003). E. M. (2009). Enzyme Microbial Technology. Hu. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses. 173-180. Finally. Good. K. with special focus on Dunaliella sp. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. J. Tetrahedon. (1986). J. Recent Patents on Biotechnology.000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products.R. Forro. FEMS Microbiological Review. D. Miyamoto. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only. (2007). i. 277-282. 386-394. K. polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids. 221-231. McHugh. carbohydrates. M. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. processes. SPB Academic Publishing. Once again.. Science Publishers. Choi. Microalgae products and production: An overview. Burja. Crouch. (2001). J. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products. Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products. (54).S. W. (91). Microbial degradation of marine biomass. van Staden.. Abou-Mansour. (1987)..R. Food and Agriculture Organization.J.P. microalgal metabolites. 5.jsp?article_id=377). As was mentioned above. (8). K. these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann. Huesemann. Posewitz.L. Biologically active compounds from microalgae. Jarvis.C. J. L.. it applications (Mooibroek et al. A. E. I. A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). Benemann. Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. 1994). Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. Darzins. Borowitzka. Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. genomics. Metting. (1990). Metting. 2007). New Hampshire. No.G. the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3.. Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering. 7.e. Netherlands.. P. Kawaguchi H. Hirata. Champaign-Urbana. Zimmerman.M.H.com/article. 372-375. M. (2006). B. Bonsignore. Developments in industrial microbiology. (16).W. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. and potential. Frank. Berger. the issue of scale enters in. 247-256.R. M. (2). if desired. J. B. M. Kamm. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. and biotechnology. Datta. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus. D. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. M. specifically. (2008). and P. physiology. As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5. 3(12). A.biodieselmagazine.H. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. Q. Algal Biology. Kamm. (1986). (2007). Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. B.Kadirgan. including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. Sommerfeld... S. J. Moon.J.A. Hashimoto. (31). A guide to the seaweed industry. Pyne. with saturated. R. 621-63.. J. (1990). organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. (57). 9347-9377.

Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol. Z. 87-96. (1994). I. 85-90. G. Singh. (82). (76). Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology.Y. (141).N. Kate. G. V. H. Wu. Giuseppin. 73-95. 723-730.H. Schwarz. 213-219. U. BioScience. Algal diversity and commercial algal products. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Parker. 459-466. W. J. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. (2007). 257-267. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. Journal of Electrochemical Society. A. Velikodvorskaya. Co-products   . Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. 101(2). Duran. (2004). Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. Vorlop. Bioresource Technology. Philip.. 587-597. 131-142. (71). 68 7. Banerjee. P. (77). 635-648. Oosterhuis. N. Yildiz. (18). F. (2004). O. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (65).C. Radmer. Scott.. W. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications.. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Gonzalez.D. (1996). (2005). (2006). (2001). T. (6). O. Berezina. H. (25). B. (66). Roy.F. C. 263-270.H. Olaizola. Journal of Applied Phycology.C. Keshavarz. Isambert. B. Toonen. 46(4).S. R. Gross. 93-98.J. Joannis-Cassan. Current Opinion Biotechnology. R. S. (2007).. Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.Y. T.. PCC6803. Biomolecular Engineering. M.. Commercial applications of microalgae.. S. E. Radmer. S.. (2003). M. K.Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Wu. (20). 233-247. Sanders. (2007). G. R. Yazdani.A.. Zerlov. Franssen. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production.V. A.. Spolaore. Kadirgan. Pulz. E.. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. (1994). Steinbüchel. Q. M. Shen.J. Willke. (2006).Mooibroek. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace.

biofuels. container dimensions. biodiesel. biogas.g. as corrosivity) for trucks. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity. Specifically. and final fuels biomass. 2009) and infrastructure. including algae. Some of these fuels are to be sited. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. the specific distribution and dewatering levels.. 2008). diesel. blending. materials and temperature considerations (e. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. Thus. Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. combusting. fuels intermediates. Ethanol. and bioproducts. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts. products – ethanol. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. infrastructure concerns. storage. 2009. and • Third. fuel intermediates. dispensing equipment. pH and from algal biomass resources. As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. and different fuels from algae are being considered. depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above. it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. have been shown biofuels as well. rails. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. delivery vehicles. fuel intermediates. In all cases. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks. within the context of from algal biomass. high capacity. transporting. and final fuels from the systems.. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. In turn. storage tanks. higher alcohols. biodiesel. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al. pyrolysis oil. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas. 2009). few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. other distribution aspects pipelining. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. and end-use vehicles). These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. 1986).1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established. be transported to the refinery. and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. 8.. conforming to existing standards (e. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. such as cultivation and harvesting. Distribution and Utilization  69 . transport. • Second. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery.. it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. and the quality of the final fuel product. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery.8. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs.g. for ideal lipid compositions. The optimal Technologies). • Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). production. However. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. Efstathiou and Credeur. poorly characterized. 1990). with some evidence suggesting scalability.

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
concerns.
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

References
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at http://www.astm.org/Standards/D975.htm
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PA: ASTM International. Available online at http://astm.org/Standards/D6751.htm
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72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate.. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass. capital.g. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. CO2.1 Resource Requirements for production. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. and land. nutrients. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined.2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. concentrated CO2. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al. labor. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs. facilities design. needs to be analyzed from a site location. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9.1). CO2. Maxwell et al. a for algal biofuel production. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability.. Sufficient land.S. the siting and resource factors (e. water. as with any biomass-based technology and industry. other nutrients. energy. Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. 1985. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production. This scenario Exhibit 9. focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. 1998). The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale. availability. 1990. and costs. 1990).. and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources. water. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U. characteristics. the major resource and environmental parameters that Further. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. For each parameter. water.9. both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency. Resources and Siting   73 . Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. Lansford et al.1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. energy. concepts are also being proposed.. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials. Similarly. supplemental CO2 supply. as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective.

and land-based ponds. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production.. 2006a). e. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9. other sugar crops. Perlack et al.2 to off-shore macroalgae production. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. selected to meet production needs. beets. DOE.and second-generation biofuels. 2005. 2005). cost and availability of space 74 9. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass.2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al..2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams. The latter throughout the country. Resources and Siting   . biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. availability. supply logistics. and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can.3). an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production. Use of sugars from cane. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis.g. Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA. A supply issues with first. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand. near-shore coastal farms. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9. that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9. in terms of cultivation and harvesting... thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets.

and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . weather conditions. precipitation. whereas precipitation.power plants . Ligno-Cellulosic N. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture density. the level of production affect productivity. both seasonally and annually. environmental impacts. 2004) factors include solar radiation. K.hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich Water. and competition production. rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9. Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. P.4. As illustrated in Exhibit 9. will most directly metric tonnes for food products). are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can provide.open ponds CO2 . particularly in the case of land-based with other uses.closed PBRs . research. key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. temperature. Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9. and day/night light and temperature cycles. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation.other industrial . and severe weather. Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae.4 million dry sunlight. From a resource use perspective. Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market. technology development. Resources and Siting   75 . evaporation. the heterotrophic approach can 9.2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation. The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production. other Water Treatment Deconstruction . would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels.lake.ag CAFO Low-Density Algal .3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients..muni WWT & Seperation . Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures.

4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. New Mexico. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2. and Florida being most promising).4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9. but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available. the availability of non. lower elevation sites. from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii. and the New England states. Resources and Siting   . California. Wisconsin. In Exhibit 9. but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude. controls. This could fresh water. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. Arizona. For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800. annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production. currents. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves.high-cost systems.e. identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation. the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however. whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. including Minnesota. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9.. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. i. The more to total biomass growth. with the higher growth regions northern latitude states. resource conditions for algae production. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. Within that context.4 and the Michigan. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data.

the Northwest. Southeast. Evaporation. require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. and the Southeast. of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. such as heavy rain and flooding. Evaporative however. hail storms. Areas with higher annual average and. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. both high and low. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors. Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. and parts of Louisiana. killing frost in the fall. locations for open pond production. tornadoes. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region. for closed reactors. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. For outdoor ponds.industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations.. waves. and California. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems. 1985). quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. and coastal areas. Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. discussed later in this section. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. is a wide range of temperatures. Resources and Siting   77 . but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind. however. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. respectively. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. represented by specific regions of Hawaii. Florida. For closed photobioreactors. available for productive cultivation. with more than 60 inches annually. Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. The southwestern states (California. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. This would. of Hawaii. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. Arizona. precipitation (more than 40 inches). New Mexico. Arizona. throughout the seasons. Georgia. integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. and overall economics. requirements for an open algae growth system. Evaporation is a Therefore. dust storms. cooling in the summer.

Almost all saline water. This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al. Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d). nearly and the site-specific details of climate. ).. Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location. However. This will require periodic blow. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up. the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al. or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions. to cool electricity-generating equipment. Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value. solar insolation. along with associated salt build-up and 2008.. closed vs. from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement.. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up.. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation. various locations throughout the eastern half of the country. 2009). Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. or 460. 2006b. 61% of all surface water. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues. representing etc. 2003. about 95%. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up. Kenny et al. wind. 2008. withdrawals (201. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater. are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude. or from desalination operations. 1999. humidity. Mao. depending on the chemistry. A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9. and coal-bed the past 25 years. The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil.000 ambient temperature variations. water demand over the 30 years prior to that. In 2005. the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress.. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest. 2009). 2004. elevation.. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. one-half of the total U. climate conditions. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980. hybrid combination). periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater.. Resources and Siting   .. 2009). salt content effluent or solid byproducts. natural gas. 1995). for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128. Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. energy. 2002). Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total. or “co. Hutchison et use. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. Kokya et al. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build.S. USGS. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. Hightower et al. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. is used by microalgae (open vs. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss.S. 2006b. were for thermoelectric-power generation. Kenny et al. with the majority (85%) resources. 1978. At the national scale. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater. all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. and operational costs. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. 2002.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. Oroud.). reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. modeling.uses. 2009). withdrawals. water-sparse locations. humidity.000 heterotrophic). for future research. 2008. and field assessment. following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. such as saline and brackish ground water. Hightower et al. management. solar insolation. 2009)..000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover.

1982a and 1982b. quantity.7). and may well also be saved. Unfortunately. 2008). and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. NAS. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. define the spatial distribution. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop. reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled. 2007.. saline. monitored. 31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. and evaluated under a depth. analysis for algal biofuels.. The location. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas.. 2004). physical and chemical characteristics.S. Gerbens-Leenes et al. If less water quality and chemistry. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important. and recycling nutrients. southwestern United States. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. 1993. Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. Along with geological data. which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. with open systems. are also of Along the way. reclaimed. Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al. There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish. limited fresh water supplies. depth. Shuttleworth. and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed.. 1985). systems are implemented. Hightower et al. Saline groundwater resources. 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. 2009). where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. 2009). depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. by state engineers and water authorities. depending on systems and process specifics. Additional analysis. Dennehy. 2006b. The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced.. and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. held in December 2008. resource development. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. as noted earlier. as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed. 2007. and of greater investment. warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that. the estimated capacity. The maps of saline groundwater 9. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources. Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. Resources and Siting   79 .

including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. but a significant effort will still be needed to et al. 2008 and 2009).5. would be a good source of CO2. Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al. represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced. biomass growth rate. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. 2009. collect. 2006). it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae.200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al. Dennehy.. spatial extent. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum.. a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield.. at some large growth system and incident light conditions. 2008b). The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. 2008).resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA. including algae production. 2008 and 2009). Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. recharge rate. sustainability of supply. natural gas. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products. Resources and Siting   . Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. As a result. Applications fuel-fired power plants. parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. Therefore.g. and analyze this information. Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country. Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate. Data on small. USGS. separating CO2 in large industrial plants. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. typically output a steady 1. 2005. identify. transport. 2009). depth. Flue gas. addition. content. However. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. aquifers. and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources. potential As an example. scale of algae production. 2004). detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking. The sources shown (NATCARB. Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. is not a simple issue. The geographical location.000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. including Exhibit 9. and distribution could require more production. or more than 1965. In addition. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e. longer distance transport and distribution. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. However. and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. NATCARB.. if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA. such as from fossil. using coal) represents over 40% of the total. 2004. and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003. 2009). 2002).

and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics.276. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9. oil feedstock. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development.. R&D program (e. 9.1 4.. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure.9 665 Other 3.9 173 Total 3. and purchase requirements. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation. One outcome economic.6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90.e.796 9. social. several characteristics need to be considered.5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land. legal.5 3.3 112 Electricity Generation 2. grassland. Resources and Siting   81 .production.. as will be discussed further in chapter 10.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196. Physical characteristics.3 140 Cement Plants 86. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis). This of land for algae production (i.3 163 Fertilizer 7. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical.g.702.002 Ethanol Plants 41. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use. including pasture. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities). lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e. affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing. and political factors.6. For example.0 13 Industrial 141. algae production siting and CO2 sourcing. much of the land in the West is government owned. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6. 2006 and 2009). Exhibit (USDA. lease. Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB. such as topography and soil. Soils.g.

Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used. Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. algae productivity crops. but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference.. Resources and Siting   . lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses. 2009).. such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. for algae productivity.6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. than real. reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production. the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions. systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However. Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity.or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process. Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost. the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further. as with any form of biomass. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions.20 g/m2 per day. can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al. (chapter 10). the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability. given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist. 1985 ) 82 9. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source. the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al.60 g/m2 per day. 1985). system structures. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 ..

offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. Resources and Siting   83 . dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. biomass production facilities 1985). for additional rounds of algae production. archaeological sites. treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites. in suitable climates.. The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. monuments. 9. or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. nitrogen. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. 1985). Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service.g. On the other hand. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production. wildlife areas. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. metals. excess nutrients (e. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production. synthetic organic compounds. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming.not be seen as suitable for algae production. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. The roles of nutrients. Beyond economics. algae-based parks. and wastewater treatment facilities. organic matter. this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel. as noted earlier. Examples of this type of constraint include technologies. phosphorus. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. and potassium). The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al.. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use. nutrients from treatment. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection.. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. nutrient recycling. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. phosphorus.

and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al. Kohn et al. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight.. coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. This nutrients (e. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water.g.. 2002.17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion.. Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). whereas pond (~1 cm). to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al. 2008) is high for biofuel production. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains. organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae. As with other algae production systems. autoflocculation) are far less costly. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production. 1988. Non- production. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment.10 . to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9. rivers.. the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e..g.. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. Aksu. food processing)... might be prevented to a 84 9.g. cost savings. agricultural drainage. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems. municipal and industrial sources) sludge.. which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products. The cost biomass production. and lakes). Finally. These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e. organic nutrients. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present. natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds.. 1998. Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours.7). The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e..g. 2003. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment.and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald. The (e. 2009.7. including nutrient removal. Thus. Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Resources and Siting   . 2007). high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e. 2008) and throughout the world. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al. productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production). which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al. harming higher organisms. of chemical addition ($0. These highly productive systems use shallow reactors...$0.g. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9. 2002). The ability agricultural drainage. The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass). and rivers). followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned. confined animal facilities). Muñoz et al. As noted above. at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers. lakes. For example..g. including wastewater treatment ponds. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells. The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. Woertz et al. which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. harvesting is a 2002). 2009). Borde et al. endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only). Even with internal recycling. dissolved oxygen. 2005). the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities.

Resources and Siting   85 .7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation.Exhibit 9. High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.

For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development.. 9. their ability to treat high. Furthermore. dispose of agricultural drainage. Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products. Lundquist et al. market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers. 2002). hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The topics wastewaters. but further investigation is techniques. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water.. calls. such as bioflocculation. al.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed. Mulbry et al. It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. Calif. 2008. co-products. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient. and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government. very different business models and goals for algae selenium.. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. mine drainage. micro-screening.g. Salton Sea. technical and market challenges. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants. any heavy metals autoflocculation. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs. 1996. etc. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical. needed to confirm this. CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. 2004). Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section. Thus. etc.g. an overriding or other wastewater. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized.. The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system. of several issues.. and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. constraints significant. integration opportunities and challenges. Resources and Siting   .. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing. However. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies.

consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. Thus. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. During those times. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. as sources. Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. The growth. cement manufacturing. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. beneficially used in algae production. which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%. fired power plants. beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted. carbon sequestration. The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown.).g.The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2. Resources and Siting   87 . the algae through photosynthesis. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. However. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production.5.S. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. Also. but. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources.6%). policy on carbon extraction/refining. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere. 2005). The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. This will industries (e. concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere.15%) than natural gas plants (5 . it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities. and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site. introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil. fossil fuel require establishing a U. etc.. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . conditioning. The regulatory implications transport. 9. depending on the type of plant and fuel used. fermentation-based industries. While algae biofuels can be produced.

solar resource. will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae.10 acres). stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities. • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009).. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 . • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon. mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae. Resources and Siting   . etc. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. distributors. and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. algal technology companies. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”. Although often referred to as a “free” resource. CO2 is only at the national level. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners. or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology. and other participants coordinated plants.30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9. etc. universities.). Several areas for research. credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities. not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. Thus. The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. P. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . algal facility. and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations. CO2 emitting industry facilities. K) supply.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake. ethanol plants. Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. required. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. Also. Therefore nutrients must be production arena.

etc. etc. costs. and other sites. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx. Resources and Siting   89 . storage. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. Develop university training programs. flocculation harvesting. and refiners/distributors. salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management. and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling.▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. SOx. crop fertilization.

E. and Ruijs.. 117–125.F. (2008). Wastewater Treatment with Algae (37-54).pdf. In Y-S Won & N. Massingill. 2009). Dennehy. 149-169.htm Craggs. Naucler.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Carbon capture & storage: Assessing the Economics. (2008).J.R. Department of Energy. (1998). US Department of Energy. Benemann. 293-300. H. (1996). (2002).J. DC.S. (2006b). 135(11).epa. Energy demands on water resources: Report to congress on the interdependency of energy and water. Lundquist. T. Delgado. Synergistic relationships in algal- bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. Environmental Protection Agency. (DOE/EIA-0484).. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). W. Washington. Albuquerque Journal. Environmental Protection Agency. DC. Kyoto. D.J. Adey. Washington. Washington.K. DC. H.F. Microalgal biomass for greenhouse gas reductions: Potential for replacement of fossil-fuels and animal feeds. 90 9. and annual pan evaporation for the United States. Hess.. G. A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage.J. J..C. Japan. E. Bracco.. and Oswald.N. S. Campbell. Easterly. (2004. 95-122.. DC. (2002). J. In Water Desalination and Reuse Strategies for New Mexico. 45(1).. J. 6. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems.. Foust. Water Science and Technology. 2002... Desalination of groundwater: Earth Science Perspective. Ku. L.eia. (2009). (2008). Available online at: http://www. W. (2002). Thompson. Available online at: http://www.pdf Downing. Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States. J. D. Desalination.. Available online at: http://genomicsgtl. seasonal.. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Turhollow. B.doe. Washginton. B. and Mattiasson..Y.com/news/state/aph2orush02-11-09.. Ecological Engineering. Zubieta. Department of Energy. Available online at: http://www.S. W. K. Evaporation rate as a function of water salinity. Brune. Hatti-Kaul.L. Energy Information Administration (EIA).. Tagore.. (DOE/SC-0095). Water rush: Deep aquifers sought for metro growth. Patin. H.E. Human-related sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. D.L. (2003). (2009). S.X.. McKinesey Climate Change Initiative. The controlled eutrophication process: Using microalgae for CO2 utilization and agricultural fertilizer recycling. Breaking the biological barriers to cellulosic ethanol: A joint research agenda. Denver... US Department of energy Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Enery. 8). F.doe. DC. Mean monthly. Farnsworth.. (DOE/ EIA-0573)..abqjournal. Washington.pdf Department of Energy (DOE). J. GHGT-6. D. J. DC. Ocean Coastal Management.. Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis. Available online at: http://www..gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions. I. J.References Aksu. 86(3). J. W.C. (2004). Washington. A.energy. Guieysse.sandia....R. September).B.gov/biofuels/2005workshop/b2blowres63006. Sheehan. Emissions of greenhouse gases report.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).S. Resources and Siting   . Jessup.eia..J. Tam (Eds. R.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/ Energy Information Administration (EIA). Cushman.. Berlin.. Green.. (2009. International energy outlook 2009 (chap.R.C. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2007.mckinsey.. and Wright. A. 150. R. H. Geological Survey. R. (USGS Fact Sheet 075-03). (1982). X.R. and Oswald. Washington. Krause.H. (2007).. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. 1136-1144. M. Sokhansanj.S. T.K. Available online at: www. H.E. Van Olst. Hoskinson. Available online at at: www. Alley.Y. National perspective on saline aquifers. DC..). Al-Shammiri. Munoz.gov/algae2008/breakouts/dennehy2004.R.orau. J.. D. J. Inventory of U. (2006a).C. B. Borde. Weissman. J. A. R. J.. O. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 34). Available online at: http://www. (2002). CO: U. T. (February 11. 47. (2003).gov/climatechange/emissions/CO2_human. B. and Benemann. October. R. Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: The prospect of offshore co-management and legal constraints. and Rosenthal. Washington. Bioresource Technology..B.L. Environmental Protection Agency.J.com/clientservice/ccsi Clark. Lundquist. W.J. Erbach. April 15). Springer-Verlag.. M. and Brune. 189-203.. U. Department of Energy. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress. Hettenhaus. Department of Energy (DOE). and Thompson. Buck.gov/energy-water/docs/121- RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.

Hutchison.. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.L. and Oswald. Oklahoma Geological Survey. C. (2006). W. H. Borglin. California Department of Water Resources. Reynolds. D. Kondrad. Thompson. (1990). and Meyer. Cameron. Green. and Maupin.E. Oroud. and Terry.S.C. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project. (2007). Graham. and Mattiasson. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003). Saline aquifer data http://www. Davidson. and Maupin M. Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems.S. (2007). Meyer.. 12). Denver. C.. Loos. E. M. and Kokya. (1965). (2009). and Nelson. D. Maxwell. T. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. A. D. (2003).W. (2005). S. energy.C.. Kenny. Resources and Siting   91 . (2008). U.. Solar Energy Research Institute. and Hogg. 41(13). (1978). R. Erbach (2005). Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. Lumia. and the environment. Hightower.K.. Stokes.natcarb.E. DC. (SAND 2007-1349C). T. 285-286. and Karpuk.. Microalgal Biotechnology (chap. McNeill.usgs. B. Grandbois.. K. Robin L. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy. Produced water and associated issues.A. L.F. (2005). Department of Agriculture. M. 4..R. J. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Washington... CO. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. M. and Kebede-Westhead.. Lynn L.. B. S.).Farnsworth. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources. M. Cambridge University Press. Huang. Feinberg. 211-235. Golden. Lundquist. Available online at: http://pubs.T.K.C.CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www. (1985). Theoretical and Applied Climatology. NM. 261-265. D. Barber. 52. W. Anthony F. (1995). CO. L. Kenny. F. D. Hsieh. Fresno.. CO2 Source Map of US . Barber. Linsey.. J. (2004). Washington.S. Lovelace. R. Cambridge University Press. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States. National Academy of Sciences..html NATCARB (2008b).H.J. (SERI/TP.. McIntosh. Pate.html Neehan. Water Science Technology.. Rolvering. N.. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources. Turhollow. OK. The energy challenge: Commentary. de Connick. J. (Atlas HA-199). K.F.gov/circ/1344/ Kohn. Hightower.232-3820). B. (2008). N.L. Mulbry. B. and Einfeld.000 parts per million dissolved solids. K. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Sandia National Laboratories.S. (SERI/SP-231-2550). Feinberg.Y.. R.J. United States Geological Survey. Robert D. Hill. Ecological Modelling. Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States. C. (1988). Feth.. 4626-4632. D. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). Guieysse. 9. and Donald C.. Nature. 231-240.. S.. Ahmadzadeh B. California. Perlack. M..A. 2005-2012.. Hutson. E. R. University of Illinois..K.. Department of Energy. (USGS Circular 1268). W. M and Pierce.natcarb. K. and Midgley. Wright. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1.. and research requirements. Pizarro. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations. H. 51(12).L.. CO. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. Kokya.. T. (1982). R.G... (2004).. E. Bioresource Technology.J. and Peck. CO.. (2007). A. 22.S. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds.S.. The National Academies Press. Environmental Science & Technology.. Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. K. Solar Energy Research Institute. UK. Los Alamos.. E. Golden.. I. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen.G. S.S. 452. Hydrological Processes. Folger. (USGS Circular 1334).org/Atlas/data_files. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Shannon.L. 8137-8142. W. Muñoz. Technical summary. Golden. 99. M. NATCARB (2008a). Solar Energy Research Institute. Linsey.. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.L. J. Rubin. I. Hutson. Quinn. R. Oswald. (DOE/GO-102005-2135. and de Coninck.. C. U. ORNL/TM-2005/66).A. Norman.B. (1986). Fuels from microalgae: Technology status. potential.org/Atlas/data_files. S..P. (Eds). Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake.. E. (2008). CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production. In Metz. O. N. S.M. Bryce J.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2002). Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters.usgs.. D. 1115-1122.htm U. Resources and Siting   . Bush.1122-1131.J.gov/Briefing/LandUse/majorlandusechapter.usgs. (2009). Applied Environmental Microbiology.gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/ U. USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production.. Geological Survey.H. 2002. (2009). Geological Survey. (2009).R. Mapping average daily pan evaporation. J..... Feffer. Evaporation.A. Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective. and Davies-Colley. Lundquist. Dunahay.S.S. K. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline. A.B.S.. and Wallace. and Nelson. McGraw-Hill. Hall. Wu. M.S. I.S.. USDA Economic Research Service. J. (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). Lynch. Y. Darzins. Solley. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 4). M..J. (1998). and Arora. Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy. Argonne National Laboratory.. H. P. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae. D. Handbook of Hydrology (chap. Pierce. (1993).gov/prov/prodwat/dictionary. D. (2002).E.A. Mintz. T.G. Wang. Shuttleworth. Benemann. T.J.. Geological Survey Circular 1200). and management: Major uses of land. (Ed). Woertz.). A look back at the U. 1–10. Department of Agriculture (USDA).R. (U. (NREL/TP-580-24190).W. W.. 246-250... (1998). (USGS Circular 1331). and Perlman. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.S. (2009. (2009). R. (2006). CO. C. M.M. Available online at: http://water. A. Woolhiser.C. Golden. D. 1993. & Willson. value. (ANL/ ESD/09-1).Sheehan.htm U. Land use.. Journal of Environmental Engineering. (1984). M. 135(11). P..S. In Maidment.ers. L. U. US Geological Survey. BioEnergy Research. R. Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters. B. R.cr. and Roessler.usda. 110(2).A. 68(3). S. Sinton. D. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. 92 9. Major uses of land in the United States. W.. Weyer.

and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry. can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies..2.Dewatering . Toward this end.1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid . and processes. ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise.10.g. as illustrated in Exhibit 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways. and market conditions and constraints. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain. Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical. It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical.Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic .g. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10. e.. to an overall regional and marketing. infrastructural. significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10. political. and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap.1). Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. economic. comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10.Harvesting Systems . coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity. objective successful commercialization.1 Objectives of investments. Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment. processes. e. tradeoffs among different technologies. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 . environmental. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short. systems.Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. systems.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
decisions
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Perfomance
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk
Reductions
Perfomance
Improvements

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences
Capture

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION & INTERDEPENDENCIES

Conversion
Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Operations,
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
Infrastructure
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt.Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use .Open systems .Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion . Monitoring. individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes.Characteristics . tilt.Autotrophic .GMOs Biology . that should tend to focus on a technology or process. etc. identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled. Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives. be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant. It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling.CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. Exhibit 10. Maintenance.Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction.7. Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary. scales.Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient . geology. their alternatives. unit operation. and utilize a range of and industry development effort.Heterotrophic .5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10.Labor . similar to the modeling approaches. It is also expected available and emerging information and data.Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation .Water Water Capture . soil) Broader . and therefore.Equipment .Land (cost. Operations.Species .Materials Energy Feedbacks . Policy & Regulation. Incentives & Barriers Siting . location. develop.3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain. as exemplified by Exhibit 10. Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development. Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy.Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation . different levels within the broad systems scope presented. Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels.Capital Co-Gen . or enterprise level rather than broader efforts.6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on.Solar Insolation Environment . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 .Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids .Performance . Demand & Price for Co-Products vs. One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10. unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation.

Etc. and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond.) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. transport. • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10. constraints & impacts . Beyond this.Engineering & construction estimates from industry . how better inform technical. with learning curves & improvement projections . Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards. development. economic. and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state. Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging.. specific technologies.Integration with existing infrastructure . and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable. economic.g. platform).6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling. regional. closed photobioreactors. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies.Technical. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations .. enviromental. and national level. various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e..Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment .. etc.. • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters.Required build-up of new infrastructure. production availability.. and interface approaches. Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. GIS Analysis. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential. resource use. with time delays. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  .. 98 10. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis). and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing.. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry.ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics. The size of the “matrix” engineering design... or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination. across an emerging approach. processes and integrated systems for commercialization. The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility. and processes and performance parameters is another definitions.

1.4 BY PASS A.1.5 Biological Assist 2.0 1.) 4.1 Closed system 1. Materials 2. Feed 1. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development. Biogas / Methane Metabolites I. Chemicals 2.4 BY PASS 6.2 Land Cultivation 3.2 Fuel .1. and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e.End Use Exhibit 10. biofuel production. assessment. Biodiesel 5.g.3 Chemical G. Dried Algal 1. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems.1. processes. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop.3 Water 3.0 Harvesting L.2 Filtering 8.Field . Ethanol 1. 5. USDA.1. Exhibit 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 . and national labs. Fatty Acids M. Lipids H.2 Electromagnetic 5.0 Extraction Conservation 6. universities.2 Open system 2.3 Macroalgae R.1 Flocculation 2.1 Microalgae Conservation F.Storage 4.7 is a revised adaptation systems. Aviation 6.0 J. etc.2 Thermochemical & Separation D.1 Algae species 3.5 Light or Alt.3 Centrifuging biomass 3.Transport fish excrement.0 Drying . Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1. etc.7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry.Distribution . Carbohydrates O. EPA. Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3. 2009). cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5.1 Fuel 5.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment. and other technical Defense. 4.5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1. Fertilizer Inputs 1. moving in this direction (Getman. 10. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality.) and non-technical issues.1 Solar . Hydrogen K.3 CO2 2. Green diesel 6.1 Chemical C.5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp.2 Cyanobacteria R..3 Biochemical E. Other Q. Gasoline-like 6.1. Proteins P.2 Co-products 1.4 Off-shore systems 3. Exhibit 10. Triglycerides N. processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10.

risk. nuclear energy. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. etc. Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. evaluate costs. especially where Both Exhibit 10. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. availability of suitable land. storage infrastructure technical performance. • CO2 resources (point source emitters. (N. availability. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown. assumptions in individual processes to the overall system.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. Exhibit 10. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. hydrodynamic.) uncertainties. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step. This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production. temperature. etc. and comparing trade. P. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis.8. etc. Inputs to each will likely emerge. and organic molecule reforming.5 and Exhibit 10. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. Sub-level accurate analyses. • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. and environmental impacts. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use. wind electrolysis. transport. K) supplies. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed.8. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. • Fuel processing.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved. solar insolation. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. The impact that availability and cost biological. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. The many process permutations. These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water.) interdependencies and feedbacks. regional.of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. thus Fuel Initiative. among others. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales.

same would apply to co-products and their potential markets. the economics can be expected to improve. Equipment. and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials.g. ambient temperature.) forcing functions and boundary transport. Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport. this will include the logistics different site conditions. storage. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. including example calculations presented later in this chapter.g.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo. and energy). with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. nutrients. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N.g. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling. • Equipment. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth. P. K. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data.g. etc. tools. nutrient other co-products. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure..9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting. Utilities. sourcing. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. Structures.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. with the appropriate models. and transport of water.. e. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example. Biomass e. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research.g. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry.. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain... is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2. Some examples are: development. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10. followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. resource management. storage.g. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain.. e. The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. This information. Currently. etc. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 . the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. Exhibit 10. Land.g.. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance. and policy decisions. business deployment. solar insolation. • POLYSYS At the downstream end. supply chain. in press). and biorefining into fuels and (e. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport. Hexane microfiltration e.by the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production. e. storage.

P. precipitation. in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product. temperature. but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun.5. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions. and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. productivity. and affordable accessibility of such water sources. vary over the U. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation. and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular.9. but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. on the other hand. aspects of large scale agriculture. O2…) to model growth rates. availability.700 gal/ac-yr. Si. The daily. Certain elements. evaporative loss. based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. and fertilizer. wind. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis.. as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover. cost. 2009). and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. seasonal. the productivity and reliability of production. though important for overall TE analysis. on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. Under large power. 50% oil content. the variations. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed. availability. can potentially help fill this need. and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4. etc. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38.000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured. heterotrophic. and basis. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies. and offshore sites. • Availability. Exhibit 10. photosynthetic efficiency. water.) (Weyer et al. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water.350 . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation. and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. etc. coastal. climate.) will also affect both conditions.S.

but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). scale. Mehta and Gaur. carbohydrates. (Huang. The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. risks.e.. but this the cost of operations. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. 2005). other) production. materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites. the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. it may not much. carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. and operating expense. though it is not yet energy crops. and petroleum).. some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10.g. infrastructure facilities for offshore. and forest industries. nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al.. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae. coastal. 2009. 9. derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass. dependent on the geographical location. 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility. adding to the cost. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources. 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent. transporting. Malcolm et al. such as are present in some forms of flue gas. 2009). and co-products like animal feed. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. 2009). Finally. This As with cellulosic ethanol. The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al.. term.. If it is agriculture (Huang. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. the right of access and use. N. P. Conversely. lipids. temperature control.. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. It is reasonably (i. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture. algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. and inland • The supply. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. 1998. In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. availability. if not more. and perhaps also for offshore sites. it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. on the industrial build-up. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution. availability. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. 2008).

UNEP. LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water. or service.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. 2004) up systems.g. EPA. 2009. 1996). 1993). To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs.. While most algal biofuels production. resource use. These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. to final disposal. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. delays.12 (ISO. a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. environmental. it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. EPA. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel. nutrients. white papers / industry analyses. energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. Delucchi.6 Preliminary System (EPA. and other resources. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10. the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10. EPA. from manufacture. Department of Energy (e. The process employs a and scenario studies. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. waste stream 2002 and 2004).11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. and maintenance.In summary. Benemann and and processes. In resource capture and reuse. however. While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties.. that a and including algae (Kadam. output flows. they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). economic. 1997. would be subject to narrow operating margins. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping. 1997. modeling. • Input resources. 2001 and 2002). and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL. 1997). Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . constraints and impacts 2009). and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10.S. 1987). algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions.g. 2009). combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. 2006..g. energy. use. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated. Bernard. potential. and numerous others (EPA. Exhibit 10. peer-reviewed literature (e. process. eliciting discussion. ISO. data base resources. costs. and co-product credits. operating costs. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). and water. There are indications. These 1993. 1996.

expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 . data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. and has • Employing modular modeling.g. and resource constraints.The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. Interactive graphical user interfaces. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output.can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios. • Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress. e. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10.

12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization. monitoring. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. have been identified along various steps in the value chain. the development. etc. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. can facilitate Roadmap. operation. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. units. and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process.

anl. S505-S510. P. E. U. J.osti. 37-54. (2002). UCD-ITS-RR-04-45. Suppl. Y-S Won and N. Bioenergy knowledge discovery framework. ISO 14040.. (EPA/600/R-06/060). Posten.R. E.A. Bioenergy conversion factors. A.. Office of Research and Development. ERS Report AR-33. “Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U. pp. February 2009. 1997. Office of Research and Development. Kadam. International Standards Organization. Cincinnati: Ohio. Mussgnug. Fertilizer Prices. DOE (2009). International Standards Organization. Berlin. S. Argonne National Laboratory (2009). Belarbi. “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Lifecycle Analyses of Transportation Fuels“.gov/ and specifically the DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project: http://www. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  107 . B. D. Dunahay.H. A look back at the U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Y. 1(1). Stephens.References Aksu. Biotechnology Advances. P. Kadam. eds. USDA ERS Report Number 86. November 2009. Bioenergy Research. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. and Varun. Acien Fernandez. Marx. (1997).. G.energy. Environmental management . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DE-FG22- 93PC93204). Delucchi. J. and Hankamer. (1996). “Power Plant Flue Gas as a Source of CO2 for Microalgae Cultivation: Economic Impact of Different Process Options”.nrel. (1998). Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. http://www.R. Huang. 113-152. ISBN 0-07-015063-X.biblio.energy. “Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis”. USDA. K. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). S. Optimizing algae growth in open-channel raceways.com/core/ Benneman. 2002.aspentech. (in press)... Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.E. regulated emissions. J. Energy v. and Gaur.html Getman.. C.C. US-EPA LCA Resources Web Site (latest update July 2009): Available on line at: http://www. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems.. Medina. Molina.pdf Rittmann. 491-515. (2001).hydrogen. K.K. B. and energy use in transportation (GREET) model. (2008).Life cycle assessment . M.S. C. “Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape”. O. Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice. (1998). DOE’s aquatic species program – Biodiesel from algae. Curran (ed).38. Sheehan. Springer-Verlag.27. Second generation biofuels: High-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. (2009). Marcel Aillery.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=493389 Curran (1996). Geographic Information Science and Technology Group.S. Available online at: http://www.. Available online at: http://www.hydrogen.Y. J. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. 2004.L. Tam. and Roessler.gov/h2a_analysis. (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: Progress and prospects.. v.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190. A. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Mehta.. K. 100(2). 20. F. AspenTech software product portfolio. http://www. Journal of Computational Biology. Energy Convers.org/pdfs/Document%20Library/Bioenergy%20conversion%20factors. Benemann. (2009). “Environmental implications of power generation via coal-microalgae cofiring”.Principles and Framework.P. E.transportation. Kadam..L.” In: Wastewater Treatment with Algae. and Chisti. pp. http://www. 905-922. Report prepared for the Pittsburg Energy Technology Center. Schenk.F.pdf 10. Wen-yuan (2009).. W. DOE Hydrogen Program. (1993). and Marca Weinberg (2009).. (Grant No. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: Process options and economics. McGraw-Hill. Available online at: http://www.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).G. S. (1997).gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/ AspenTech (2010). (2008). Cincinnati: Ohio. 20–43. including AspenPlus® and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®). Mark (2004). Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 25(3).gov/bridge/product. NREL Report No. (2003). Thomas-Hall. T. and Oswald.H. J. (EPA/600/R-92/245). Mgmt. B. 203-212. (2006). pp.epa. March 2009.. Scott A.. TP-510-29417. Malcolm. James. (2003). 2002-08”. Kruse..localenergy.gov/ord/NRMRL/lcaccess/resources.L. The greenhouse gas. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. More specifically. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies.. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market. algal biofuels industry. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. Public-Private Partnerships   109 . however. academia can be either public or private. in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge. as well as reduces the risk of private 2001.. thereby facilitating growth and development infancy.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D.. Link could. given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. given the current state of of a sustainable. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology. 2002). realizing benefits in both categories.. The type of this industry. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. investment. including specific studies on the impacts firms. many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories.. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. Indeed. Gallagher et al. pre-revenue. including characteristics Exhibit 11.g. and industry. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s. universities. 2006). academia. The the algal biofuels value chain. industry) and public entities (e.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. 11. Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development. but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten. 2001. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale. Brown et al. 2002. in turn.g.11.1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation. collaboration between private entities (e. the U. and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11. infrastructure projects.A 11.S.. Partnerships based participants. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al.

Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. as well as a platform to share research. Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). 2008). Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops.3 Forums for Public. environment. and private investors) into a single competition.. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow. of solicitations are system-oriented. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration. However. By maintaining an active directory. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge.B. new partnership. Through their structure. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria.g. national. Public-Private Partnerships   .4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. Through these events. and may compete poorly in this type of award. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. However. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. technology scale-up and demonstration. including the development of biofuels. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. scientists and engineers can learn of new research. or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development. global problems. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation. 110 11. and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors. conferences. labor). industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. which could allow In recent years. These events are often 11. into a working system to solve a problem. be proportional to the value of the contribution. non-profit foundations. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. because some awards are based on having solved the problem.C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually. as common interest. consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau. However.players (e. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership. they are often formed to serve no other purpose.

economic. real estate developers. this characteristics. requirements.g. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. etc. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products. Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. Public-Private Partnerships   111 . construction personnel.org/future-x-prizes/energy-and-environment C http://www. Therefore. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization. and fuel conversion. technologies developed in the • Industry Growth. etc. events. lawyers. aviation. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition. 11. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field. distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain. Also. and the most difficult to implement. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. algal growth and harvesting. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry. • Technology development in algal biology. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems. it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. conversion process.) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use.xprize. government solicitations. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. biofuels. technology development.. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures. algal oil extraction. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations specialists. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon. effective way to address technological. consortia. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal operations. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness.g.2. Academia will competitions. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable.mitcep. or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations. overcoming the lab-field and information technology.).org/ 11.. several in algal biofuels. and academia. particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. By reducing scaling risks. dewatering pathway. nanotechnology. to road-test their technologies. This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. 2009). Collaborative partnerships.

high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners. Exhibit 11. it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. However. this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully.models presented. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes. Public-Private Partnerships   . • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. discuss and debate the merits of each. then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game.

including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. • Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. companies 11. non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. facilities business. royalty. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. standardization operational. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. Public-Private Partnerships   113 . academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners. TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive.

Energy Policy. W. 193-237. A. Energy Policy. (2006). R&D Policy for Competitiveness. 31. (1996). D.T. Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. S.A. M. P.References Audretsch. M... 31(1). 145-158. Brown. A.S.J. The MIT Press. D. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. J.V.N. (ed). P. 1179-1196. 29(14).A. J. M.N.E. (2002). 114 11. and Koomey J.A.B. (2002)... 29(14). Research Policy.. Willem.G. (2000). Link. K. (2009). Research Policy. Science. Scenarios for a clean energy future. 325(5941).. Brown. Public-Private Partnerships   . 1197-1207. (2001)..D. Paton. Gallagher. 1459-1466. A. Energy-technology innovation. and Siegel. 31. Short. The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry.S. Washington: U.D. J. Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass.P. 707-708. Levine. and Wallsten.. Public-private policy partnerships. D. Endless frontiers.. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. In Rosenau. Link. (2001). Council on Competitiveness. and Sagar. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. and Scott. limited resources. Holdren. Stiglitz.S.

Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U.S. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   . Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Lauder School of Government.S. Inc.Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U.S.

William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U.C. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 .Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K. Inc. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS. Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U.S. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska .S. Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U. Department of Energy.S.S.

Department of Energy. Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   .S.S.S. Department of Energy. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If. Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U.S. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U.S.S.S. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U.

Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic. Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U. Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 .S. Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J.C. Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation. LLC J. Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp.

Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U. Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain . N. Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P.John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   .Shell Global Solutions Inc.S. Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink.V.S.

Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate.Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U.S. LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical.S. Department of Energy. LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 . Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U. Department of Energy.

Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink.Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   . Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska .S.Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company.V. Inc. Department of Energy.S. Department of Energy. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources. N. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U. Inc.

S. Molly Hames U. LLC. Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. Inc. Appendices   122 . Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF. Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U. Inc.S.

Biomass Program 123 Appendices   .S. Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U. Department of Energy. Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. LLC.S. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U. Inc.S.

LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Biodesign Institute. Biotechnology Institute David L. Dr. Dr. Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M. Whitton. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R. Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Bruce E. Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 . Algal Farms Inc. Rittmann Arizona State University G. Inc.Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . Gale PetroAlgae. Inc. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor).

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DOE/EE-0332 www.energy.gov .eere.

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