National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

.2 of the Bulletin. the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No. this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II. 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy.This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy. As such. Further.

and supporting scientific literature. Achieving cost-competitive. and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. engineers. Department of Energy Preface  i . development.Preface Welcome to the U.S. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. reliable energy. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. research managers. and the stability of our global climate. Therefore. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. our economic wellbeing. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop. and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. Biomass Program U. DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. comments gathered during a public comment period. and other stakeholders. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. industry representatives. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. private companies. engineers. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager. other federal agencies. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. Meanwhile. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. DOE is investing in a variety of research.S. Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. environmentally sound biofuels. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers.

2009. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus.S. President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. ii Executive Summary  . sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. Of these candidates. held December 9-10. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. development. announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years. illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. 2008. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. Photo courtesy of the our national security. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. weight). These include: the goal. provide environmental benefits. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products.S. a scalable. While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock. To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U. saline. and create economic and programs. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program.S. Under certain conditions. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. engineers. and Renewal Act. the end of the program. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. by 2022. The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). meet the new RFS feedstock resources. In addition fuel sold in the U. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. marine. The term algae can refer to microalgae. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. produced. brackish. This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. and advanced biofuels. fungible Workshop. was convened fuels.

The Roadmap In summary. guide researchers and engineers. this document will serve to commercial scale. The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes.research managers. and regulators from across the country to scale. supporting scientific literature. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. Executive Summary  iii . This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. lawyers. federal agencies. and sustainable algal-based fuels. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable. development. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. policymakers. and deployment efforts. industry representatives. research. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. and comments received during a public comment period. By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps.

and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater. to generate new biomass). such as sugars. scalability. brackish waters. and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products. Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. Understanding. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. macroalgae (seaweed). marine. and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae. and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. managing.

industrial enzymes.. biochemical. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction.g. Affordable. optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products.g. biodiesel and jet fuel). While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e.. animal/fish feeds). though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites. carbohydrates. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion. Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. and proteins. and thermochemical processes.g. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering. Abundant. and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass. fertilizers. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. gasoline. The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized. These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions.. issues. While many analytical techniques exist. bioplastics. proteins can be used for co-products (e. Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels. CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids). animal feed.

vi Executive Summary  .

.................................................................................................... 31 Contents  vii .....1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks.............................................................................8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers.......5 1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures ............................... 23 3........................................................................10 2...................................................................................................1 About the Roadmap........2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development...............29 3............................................................................................1 Strain Isolation....................8 2.....................7 Public-Private Partnerships........................................................................................................ .............................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges......................................... 12 Biohydrogen ..................................................................................... 16 The Genetic Toolbox................................................................................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study.......................................................................................................2 Scale-Up Challenges........................................3 Early Work to 1996............................................................................................................................................................. Contents 1......................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Regulations and Standards.. 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics. 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation.................1 Cultivation Pathways.................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates...................................................................................3 Research from 1996 to Present....................................................... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria............................................... 29 Macroalgae..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae .................................................................. 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 2.......................................................................................................................................................7 2..................................3 Algal Biotechnology...........................................................3 1...............................................................................................................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today.................. Overview...... 22 References..............................................................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Algal Cultivation........................................................1 1...................................................................................................................................................................... Screening and Selection ................................................ 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization...................................................7 References.........................................................................................................................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges......................... Algal Biology..........................................................................................................................................................30 3................2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry.......11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism...............................................................................

.........................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction.............................................................................................................3 Systems Engineering ................ 38 4................................................................................. 54 viii Contents  ................................................................................................................................... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies .............................................................................44 Selective Extraction...............................................................................................................................................................................46 References..........................................................................................................2 Challenges..................................................................................................... Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering.....................................................................50 Pyrolysis.............2 Processing of Whole Algae.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 5............................................ System Productivity.......................................... 37 4....................................................................................................................................................................................1 Approaches for Microalgae.................................... Extraction of Products from Algae ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Hydrogen.................................................46 6............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 Drying....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Approaches for Macroalgae ...........................48 6.................................................................................................................................. 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures........................................................................................................................................... 53 Chemical Transesterification....................................................................................................................42 5............................50 6.................................................................................. 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction................................................................ 45 Heterotrophic Production......................................................................1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae.............................. 32 Water Management................................................................................40 5................................... 51 Liquefaction........................................................ 39 4.............................. and Management............................................ 52 Supercritical Processing........ ... Sustainability.....................37 Harvesting......................... 32 Nutrient Sources...............................................................................48 Alcohols...................................................... 53 6.................... 39 References........................................ 35 4......44 Subcritical Water Extraction............... 38 Harvesting..............................................................................................40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance ................................................................................... ..........................................................................................50 Gasification............................................... 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae....................................................................................................................................................... 38 Preprocessing..................................................................................................................................................................... Conservation........................ 42 Mechanical Disruption (i......................................................e.......................................................................................... 49 Alkanes.............3 Conversion of Algal Extracts............................................................................................................................................................................................ 33 References............................................................................. Cell Rupture)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Recycling............................... 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction........

.................................................3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products......................................... 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources........ 86 9................................................................................................... ....................................................................... and Jet Fuel . Resources and Siting ................................................. 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications..............................................................................................64 7.................................................. 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources .....1 Distribution.....................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach............................................ 67 8...................... 56 6.............................75 Climate ....2 Resources Overview.................................. 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel...........................4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction...................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 References.........................................................................................................................77 Carbon Dioxide......4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities .................................................................................................. Gasoline....................................................... 73 9....................................71 References................................................................. 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants........................74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach............................................................................................................................ 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater .............. Distribution and Utilization.............................. 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products..................................................................... 88 Directions for Research and Development........................................................................................................... 81 9........................................ . 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products................................................................................................. 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach......................................................... 88 References................................................................................2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae.................................................................................75 Water.......................90 Contents  ix .......................2 Utilization.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 Land............................. Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion............................. 69 8................................................................ 55 Catalytic Cracking...............................................................................74 9...................... 61 7........................................................................69 8.................... 61 7........................................................................................1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches.......................... Co-products ...................................................................................................................................................57 References...................................................................................................................................................................................................72 9........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries....................... 58 7.........................................................................................................................................................

...................... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants......................................................................................................... 97 10.......1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis ...................94 10................................................................................................... 111 References........................................................................6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling ........................................................10..................110 11................................................................................................................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships.................................................................................................................................................................................3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships......115 Appendix 2: Contributors..................... 111 11.....................93 10...............................................110 11.......................................................5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties.....................4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry.......................7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort ...................................................................................................................................................................99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments.................................................................4 Systems Analysis.........................................5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development................ 109 11.............................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)...........................114 Appendices ................................. 105 11.............................................................................................................124 x Contents  ........................... 104 10........ Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis.................................................................................. 93 10................................................102 Life Cycle Analysis........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships................... Public-Private Partnerships ......... 104 10.................................................................................................................................................. 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs...................................122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap...................................... 109 11......................99 Overview.......................................................................................................2 TEA Scope and Methods......... 104 10............

orau. Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry. and creates be found at http://www. the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D.S. energy security. 1. and industry. government and new energy technology research and development. agencies. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels. with national laboratories. In doing so. To accomplish its goals. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific.S.S. the Roadmap describes fuels. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop.1. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. scalable. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts. 1. Despite their potential. economic opportunities across the Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision. and sustainable algal-based biofuels.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. at the University of Maryland-College Park. provides environmental benefits. In 2007.1). energy efficiency. intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry. of a viable. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities. Furthermore. and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. and non-governmental organizations. and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. the production of economically viable biofuels. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. bioproducts and biopower. A major objective of the reserves. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. held December 9-10. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum. academia. industry. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive. development. viewpoints. of which only 15 economic. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol. The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. commercial. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. the national laboratories. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U. academia. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. 60% of 2008. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap. as well as made provisions that Workshop. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of 2007. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. Overview  1 . reduces our dependence Roadmap. Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1.

5 0.0 billion gallons.75 16.0 2019 8.25 22.25 0.55 2014 1. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha.95 2011 0.5 20.80 1.0 30.2).0 26.0 a 11.75 18.2 2013 1. and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.0 15.6 11. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.25 2017 5.75 a 3.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking..5 a 15.0 24.0 36. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1. while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.0 a 21. 2005).5 2016 4. but no less than 1.15 2015 3. Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al.35 13.5 1.0 a 5.0 2.65 0. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates.5 a 18.0 28.0 33.0 2020 10. For example. As required by EISA.. the study did not explore the potential of algae.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA.95 12.5 a 13.1 0.0 2022 16.1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass. oleaginous Exhibit 1.5 a 9.95 2012 0.1 2010 0. 2 1.25 a 7.0 a 2. However. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.0 2018 7. Overview  .0 2021 13. 2009).

The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon. dates back to the 1940s. to the 300 most promising strains.2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. with projected costs for fossil fuels. process development. pH. During the early years. this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. and temperature. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program.S.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. freshwater supplies. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. surges through the decade. and also for their ability not yet emerged. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters. such saline water.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. • Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. Overview  3 . The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s. In 1998. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century.000-6. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. 1998). (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. Some of the highlights are described briefly below. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture. a comprehensive overview Algae 1.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U.000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. gained serious attention only during from stationary sources. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. northwestern. inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy. 1. a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields. however. and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. 1. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). a scalable. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types. commercially viable system has in salinity. Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. could lead to this phenomenon.. produced water. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al.

In addition. and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al.After promising microalgae were identified.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program. Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. For example. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. but lower oil producing. which Microbial Products. petroleum consumption. estimated costs for unextracted 1998). biomass was demonstrated. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology. 1990). Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. productivity improvements. purification. 2007). the commercially viable strains for oil production. depth research.g. 1990). 1998). A Test Facility in Roswell. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies. 1996). and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues.000 m2 outdoor.and capital-intensive. however. and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler.. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. 50 g/m2/day. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation. characterization. The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. chrysolaminarin saline water. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid. This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. and the efficiency of CO2 1995). but Among various techniques. The 4 1. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields. Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate. growth was conducted in California. primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti. issues associated with such methods. 1985). strains from the wild. Under inducing conditions. Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale. but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al. The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel. 1999. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production.. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald. production. Sheehan et al.. The systems were characterized (Roessler. ACCase activity was found to increase deep).or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). Studies focused on suitable land.. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase). some process options (e. analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress. suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U. In this species. Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. However. Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis. Inc. Cyclotella cryptica. 1998).. (Weissman et al. Different cost process step that is highly energy. conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al. further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems. 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. 1988). 1989). scale-up. cost. or engine testing was carried out. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term. and CO2 resources (power plants). Hawaii. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al... cryptica were characterized (Roessler. smaller ponds for inocula production.S. costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control. distance from CO2 point sources. and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley. an oleaginous diatom.. Overview  . New Mexico. the Roswell area. shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis.. primarily in C.

and the Department of Agriculture. However. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs. Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes. significantly outpacing government funding. suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized. needed to support commercialization activities. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals.barrel (Sheehan et al. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. Further. the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. Office of Science. the Department of Defense. macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. federal agencies.S. regulations and standards. funding levels are beginning to increase. policymakers. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program. Additionally. there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. 1987). and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. Species Program. and public-private partnerships. 1998). a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1. In particular. Courtesey of CCMP. federal funding for algal research has come scale. the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally. Overall. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www. cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges.nrel. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel gas. cyanobacteria. Office of Fossil Energy. feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels. Cyclotella cells. affordable. the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. Overview  5 . that include investigating microalgae. A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. Also from 1968-1990. a number of U.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. Recent initiatives. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E).

climate. Overview  . and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency.g.g. hybrid. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses..g. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e. selective extraction. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale. fertilizers. and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance. solvent systems. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e. sedimentation. open. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges. energy. water. dissolved air floatation. such as operational temperature. phototrophic. microwave. biogas. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry. intermediates. animal/fish feeds. supercritical fluid. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land. bioplastics. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. carrying capacity. industrial enzymes.g.. flocculation. 6 1. activity. water & nutrient reuse. heterotrophic. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. biochemical conversion... weather impacts.. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. and materials from algal remnants (e. pressure. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e. and coastal/off-shore systems. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i. sonication. side reactions. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land.. direct fuel production. closed. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass.g. water.g.. biofuel. centrifugation. energy balance. subcritical water. stability. energy. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates.e. filtration.

R. Oak Ridge. regulation. However.. Jarvis. Available at: [Accessed November 3. Evans. E.B. NTIS# H CP/ T. Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline. Rodolfi.J. 1999. Biotechnol Bioeng.e.G. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System. 294–306. and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production. Appl. 2007.. 219-232.. TN. Microbiol. 179–183. Biomass.G. and policy. 1995. Solar Energy Research. 11. Chisti. ORNL/TM-2006/66.. 1990. Microalgae for oil: strain selection. 31(6). & Oswald... R.D. R. 1. P. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. References Benemann. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila.L.. & Nagle. P. Dunahay. 223–242. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels.. C. 2009]. Biological transformation of solar energy. 1993. N. T. Jarvis.G. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor.R.G.J. 1955. 25(3). Oswald.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological. Milne. Roessler. 2008. 2005. & Roessler.G. 1004–1011.. Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica. et al. 1978. 100–112.. 24. 102(1). it is recognized economic. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. L.E. Meier. Perlack. J.J.. P. & Roessler.. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Biodiesel from microalgae.. Being a nascent industry.A. 21(3). supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i. Biotechnology Advances. J. J. 1988. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica . RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards. P. Roessler. such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. T. et al. Algal from multiple entities. Phycol. & Golueke. W. consumption standards. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. P. 91. & Ohlrogge. Adv. However. 394–400.. with shape-selective zeolites. Overview  7 . Journal of Phycology.. E. with algal biofuels commercialization. 1960. 1605(UC-61). Final Report to the US Energy Department.. W. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Y. Also.US Patent 5928932 Abstract. Pursoff.

metabolite production. algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life. pH. this is not always the case. 2. In all cases. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. rivers.2. maps.or eukaryotic. which includes fresh. 8 2. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. and generation. other gene markers. large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. the development and hyper-saline environments. products. and soil (Round. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. oxygen levels. Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats. of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. brackish. Due to their diverse characteristics. locations to maximize genetic diversity. cultivation and strain development. oceans. versatility possible. marine require significant experimental effort. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. see Anderson. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. 2005). CO2 levels).1 Strain Isolation. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. questions medium. within an aqueous habitat. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats. streams. 1984). Traditionally. high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). Furthermore. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison. and strain robustness. salinity. Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. lipids. 2004).. 2005). Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology.e. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale. lakes. hypersaline.. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature. The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. Algal Biology  . whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro. (seaweeds). on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats. For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. ponds.

pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics. and predators present in a given environment. for example. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology. Solvent extraction. no central database exists that provides global 9. et al. Texas).. Strain name (species. Environment and strain history (specific habitat. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. Previous robustness of particular existing strains. Mutants biology. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae. 1959).. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. molecular. germination conditions cryopreservation. They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species. and provide 3. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth. subspecies name. Biological interaction (symbiosis. such as growth rate and metabolite properties. Strain properties: Cytological. and phylogeny either by themselves 8. protect genetic material.500 strains. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. 2007. Transcriptomics. which data. Omics data (Genomics. However. The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. Algal Biology  9 . but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. ) (Bligh and Dyer. Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. 2003). but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. some may have lost original phenotypes. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. Therefore. valuable strains. The function of a culture collection often 6. Growth conditions (media. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. other countries.000 strains. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2. Strain administration (number in collection. Proteomics. Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. cultures (Sheehan et al. basic research resources. They may also 7. de la Jara et al. community stability. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described. metabolites. and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. native al. or in connection with outside collaborators. Maine).For mass culture of a given algal strain. Not only document data on strains. with more than 2. biochemical. Information could include: 1. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed. toxicity) Currently. but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. existing culture collections. temperature.. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10. 1998). 1991. to determine a strain’s robustness. pathogenicity.. such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. taxonomy. algal strains. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research. At present. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor. is the most nutrient requirements.

or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). 2006). which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. Finally. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system. intermediate. so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. Also to be considered is whether growth. the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. In some species. supplements. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. or co-product to be produced. For example. if the desired product is volatile.g. Algal Biology  . systems could be studied. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily. However. However. or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. lipids. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al. Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. carbohydrates. Even that other strains will be chosen for production. Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. 2006). and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. In such a strain. such as. The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. If the carbon source is utilized by the cell. and high cell densities can be achieved. Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion. Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). in a practical sense.volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites). For example. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii). transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al. However. and species be necessary to isolate it. this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism.Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. 2002). contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. food low. a large number of model and possible strain development for production. production of biofuels. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high. an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. However. 1998). to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors... secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter. there are two types of algal model harvesting step. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. source.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol..

2. Nelson and Yocum.. the percent of biomass and Fernie. 2003. proteins. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al. as 2008). It is. cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne.. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti. indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi. 2005).. Theoretical productivity is an important concept. Mcdermid and Stuercke. which can lead to oxidative damage. Algal Biology  11 . Sweetlove production.. plants (Hu et al. 1991).. 2005.” Even with this photoprotection. accumulate mostly carbohydrates. nutrient starvation. 2007). understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al..2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy. are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al. Foyer et al. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al. Though theoretical However. knowledge of metabolic pathways. 2009.e. algae. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. exposed to high light. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke.. Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis. it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds. preventing it from et al. because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009. Schwender et al. 2007). and shares the Eberhard et al. possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3). biomass 2007. in their productivity.. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids. 2008. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects. 2008). In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. 2002). accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization. studies in higher plants showed that when 2. and Niyogi. storage compound in plants and algae... the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. Yang et al. Lipids and carbohydrates.. and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou. 2008). 1994. 1994. 2003). 1999). and potentially. therefore. affecting growth rate. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. 2003).. there remains be inter-convertible.. and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al.. algal photosystems have built-in More recently. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. 1994. It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. however. 1994. Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted. 2002). In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures. along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols. although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. 2007 and 2008) Further. some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier. More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. 2004. Libourel and Shachar-Hill. for biofuel production.1). 2002). that is the desired fuel precursor. 2006. starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. carbohydrates. with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production. therefore. Allen et al. pathway analysis. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established. Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2.. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. It is. Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically.

1988). Vigeolas et al. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan. There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. degradation.. While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. mannitol. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. for specific acyl CoA molecules. envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. plants and yeast based. cell walls entirely.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited.. some red algae and dinoflagellates. In the final step of TAG synthesis. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2.. (Roessler. 1992).. or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors. these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG). must typically 2006. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel. Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. while some algae lack synthesis. 2006). though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al. As mentioned above. plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. 2002). therefore. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation. 1971. 1987). Algal Biology  . are 3-phosphate. Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. 2008. featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. Athenstaedt and Daum.. be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis. Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. as example many brown algae and diatoms. an enzyme wall. The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound. accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. Yoo et al. biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. the nature of the interaction is unknown. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae. which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. feedstock potential. including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids. An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls.. and thus may play an for example. greatly.. and extraction processes. Some red In microalgae.1). Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. growing cultures. 2004). the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. It could. Some algae. Other abundant polysaccharides. recently been demonstrated in bacteria. Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. 12 2. or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. but like those from plants. 2000). for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. However. Other algae. naturally or under stress conditions. Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. 2008). it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse. carbohydrates. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. TAG is formed by food reserves.

it will be difficult galactolipids. 2000. CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 . If the or culture conditions. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. ACP: acyl carrier protein..1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). laboratory (Hu et al. Stahl et al. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes.. Algal Biology  13 . pathways. it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. PA and be true. 2008. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase. Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. if any. Similarly. Such pathways property of individual species or strains. 2005). the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier. enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement. 2004). and other 2. These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP.. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. Moreover.. as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al. Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. Sheehan et al. DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase.. 1998). Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG. This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants.C18 CoA Figure 2. If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae. Thus. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. As an example.

in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. or with other organelles such as may be.. and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. and et al. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. Huang. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. 1992). phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs. Under high light stress. In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking. Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds.and glyco.. and spatial. Zhekisheva et al. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. In oil-producing microorganisms. 1998. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. the structure and function of lipid However. Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. their apparently widespread envelopes. including vitamins. proteins. 2002).. with acyl earlier). Some acids. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). It has as acyl donors. with exceptions.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. starvation). the exact relationship between oxidative stress. This relationship may be both metabolic. with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species. some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. and other macromolecules. which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes. therefore.. Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies. as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009).lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel. Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. 2008). This and lipid fate (Benning. TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies.g. 14 2. β-carotene. 2008). the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. Nevertheless. excess membrane lipids. As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier. Algal Biology  . The study the plastid where they are assimilated. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes. 1993. thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products.. as rapid lipid energy storage compound. a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. lutein. sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear. Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae. Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. metabolism in algae. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions. stress conditions on lipid production in algae. and other components into form of TAG. an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy. cell division. It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy. Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. 2001). 1998).

for example. and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production). would enzymes). One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive. Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs. In all pathways. and a third. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1.Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007). Based on such information. in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e.. driven H2-photoproduction pathways. fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang.4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0. ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme. 2003). compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product. and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I).2 P700* A0 A1 -0..8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production. Posewitz.8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al. 2005).. studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving). M. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis.→ O2 + 2H2. There are two major types of hydrogenases. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al. Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor. (Drawing courtesy of Prof.2) (Melis et al. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2.. (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP. Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. Algal Biology  15 . As a substrate. those and carbohydrates. 2008). (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. 2000.. and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al.2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. 2009). Colorado School of Mines ) 2. and proteomic studies. 1984).4 PC Chl fixation P700 0.0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0. or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis.2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. hydrogenases. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae. light. Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. Three et al.

Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells. modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. Algal Biology  . potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. 1987). In all cases. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. 2008). While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. more knowledge cannot be overlooked. examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day.. In cyanobacteria. and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar. 2002. the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. and CO2 (van der Oost et al. and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. Collectively. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. al.. For all of these with ethanol. biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. human health. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. to delete or disrupt genes. (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. for commonly used bacteria. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4.. fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels. hydrogen evolution pathways. A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). 1989). This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains. From here. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis. and to acetate. formate. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. Similarly economic viability. engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2. 2005). fungi and higher plants.. 2009). Using hydrogenase as the catalyst. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp.3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. Thus. Prince and Kheshgi. hexose) (Turner et al. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. However. questions to consider in the context of mass production. 16 2. Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2.. 1998). the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms. the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein.

This the DNA is present. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest. Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified. large-scale algal production. generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e. 1985.. Hallmann and Rappel.. in the presence of an antibiotic).. However. 1985. or markers.. For the latter. Arthrospira). 1993.. which necessitates a large amount of screening. element called a plasmid. this resistance is a powerful tool for research.. including resistance to neomycin. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis.. 2006). Targeted 1996.. the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus. 2006). use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. 1999). 1989). 1995). and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al.. 2002). The second Volvox). The green algae (Chlamydomonas. antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae. occurring mutations. Dunaliella. Debuchy et al. For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. 1987) can be screening criteria.. Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. large-scale production has two major drawbacks..As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use. Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes.. Navicula. kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. Typically. Anabaena.. Dunahay et al. 1999). dinoflagellates (Amphidinium. simplified identification of the mutated gene. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell.. reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al. This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically. zeocin (Apt et al.. Chlorella. diatoms (Cyclotella. Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al. Nostoc. a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome. there marker (Hasnain et al. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. An algal strains. ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented. 1994). Dunahay et al. 2005). or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach.g.g. spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al.. to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. also been successful (Del Pozo et al. For example. but markers based on resistance assayed. A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al. 1989. Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype.. Phaeodactylum. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira). however. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. Algal Biology  17 . or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al. changes in fluorescence properties. 1995). first concern is the cost of the antibiotic. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al.. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. which could exacerbate current problems developed. 1994). presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells. 1995). Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. However. 2.

inducible and repressible promoters that 1993). Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. 1995). or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al. 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria. 2005). 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson. 1998). but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. 2004). vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i. Frequently. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. because it is induced could be applied. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. Algal Biology  . Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction. In addition..Symbiodinium). challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall.e. small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae.... RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al. Algal strains often contain expression. reinhardtii. use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al. 1995). The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al. and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. (Deng and Capecchi. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense. 1996). 1993). 2001). 2009). including conjugation.. (Kindle et al. 2005).. and can be used to knockout genes. electroporation. microarrays). crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). 2006). traits. classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al... Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae. In a practical but less so in microalgae. RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al. selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements. 1987). especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome. need for balance in cellular metabolism. brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria. Dunahay. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. For most of these approaches. ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. intermediate. transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi. which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. 1988. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications.. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama. 1992). be desirable. 18 2. a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable. Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct... Gracilaria. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. 1990).. Porphyra). If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. The selection process was based on a gene is present. high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al.

Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. Bathycoccus sp. and proteomics. Quality standards and appropriate data. Undoubtedly. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al. Genome size in algae can vary substantially. 2008). obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. visit http://genome. in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This could 1 For a listing. Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible.jgi-psf. with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context. 2006). applied research and technology development..). Gaietta et al. 2006). a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi).Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time. forming the foundation for at Genoscope . Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes.html 2. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl. It must be noted level. reinhardtii. pussilla. If not properly done. such as genomics. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production. including allosteric activation and metabolic though. 2002). Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens). will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable. this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. even in closely related species (Connolly et al. but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. Volvox carteri). These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date. Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla.1 These species include computer sciences. Although time families).S. at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. especially at the basic level of gene annotation.. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology. Together.. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. Except for cyanobacteria. cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain. a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae). approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the data.. all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags. useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production. 2004). the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C. that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. Fragilariopsis cylindrus). the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. transcriptomics. Osteococcus tauris.Centre National de Séquençage (France). for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available.. Algal Biology  19 . 2005. This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes. Indeed. so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming. distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors.

These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. Aebersold. Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. identification. as well as spectrometry. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al. which survey. For example. gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the absence of genomic information. quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. 1998). 2006. different metabolomic analysis tools are applied. and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas. or can determine fuels and intermediates.. Moreover. high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. sp. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation. 2007. Chlorococcum sp. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. identifying final fuel produced.. including liquid chromatography mass Currently. and some strains can fix peptides. Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example. Castellana et al. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research. and Pseudochlorococcum sp.. 2009). proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate. and metabonomics. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al. and proteins. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers. in response to particular environmental conditions. transformation. Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest.. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). Mass-spectrometry lipids. 2006).. notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. Algal Biology  .. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms. and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment. Tanner et al.. approaches (Han and Gross. especially with regard to translational regulation. 2004. The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential. there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. Dettmer et al. another dozen or so EST projects...include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling. was sequenced over a decade ago. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. however. Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. at least10 other algal genomes. Many 20 2.. 2008). approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. 2005. 2007).. 2005). are underway.. small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites. but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. which is the quantitative Therefore. 1996). Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. and function. Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. Applications of Biotechnology New. double-homologous recombination. Nannochloropsis sp. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al. 1999). the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell.

. 2004).. C. Algal Biology  21 . and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al. which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions. For example. anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae. The genome sequence of D. 2007). 2007).. and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. sucrose. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable.. Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation.. 2007. 2007 ). et al. 2009) in Synechococcus.. the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez.. but nevertheless. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress.. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution. reported (Neupert et al. Lipid production. fatty acid synthesis.. and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al. 2002). In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0. Synechocystis. glucosylglycerol.. For example.1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al.. However. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production. which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast.. productivity under various environmental conditions. and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome.. filamentous strain that can form heterocysts. Koksharova et al. 2008. 2006. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae. it will be necessary to further being developed. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. sucrose (Nobles and Brown.. It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. 1999). These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb).home. Relatedly. 2003). The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al. In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al. Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. 2008). 2006). The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed. reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria. 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose. 2000). Ferrante et al. A possible drawback of C. 1997) strategies to address these issues are production pathway. pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production. 2008).. In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al. but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production. RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al. 1998).. Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms. 2006. 2004). resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. proteome. and metabolome (Singh et al. 2008). like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. physiological conditions. capabilities.jgi-psf. and chloroplast (PHB). 2006). it can be sexually crossed. whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers. It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed. 2009. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. Eisenhut et al. C.2 Several production.. 2008).. 2007). 2 http://genome. and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C. reinhardtii can serve et al. including glycogen. accumulation..html 2. protothecoides. Fulda et al.

the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete. 2004. 2005).. 1999. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al. brown. or seaweeds. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination. 2003. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta. 1995. 2003). They are and proteomic profiling. represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms.. and regulatory gene expression control 2005).. general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse. Unlike microalgae.. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels.. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata. Currently. also have microalgal counterparts. and four more 1999. Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina. Roeder et al. anoxic zone formation. even with these (brown algae). as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal. Niwa et al. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments.. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al.. the stipe. Apt et al. et al. 1995. because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients.. 2001. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. 2005). are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999.. 1994. 22 2. and alternation of generations. species. and Rhodophyta safeguards.. and green seaweeds. However. and metabolic and coastal waters.jgi. Bouza et al. GE algae are defined as strains life histories. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function. For example. Ho are underway. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red. of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report. Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms.doe. Niwa et al. combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008). Fischer et al. For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example. 2006. are very important. Algal Biology  . 2005). For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report. (Armbrust et al. Bowler et al. Baldauf.. Chlorophyta (green algae). Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms. which includes diatoms. affinity with corresponding microalgal forms. 1996. 1997.. Dutcher and Kapraun. Use of gene-specific probes al. As such. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer....and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. 2000). Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. potential for toxin markers. Meneses and Santelices. Moulin et al. induction response. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. 2008). Genome sequencing Macroalgae. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production.. with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains. such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. 3 http://www.3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains. tools is still imperative from a research standpoint. the status of macroalgal systematics production.. and choice of cultivation methods In general. and expression profiling (Collen et al.

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open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation. Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways.g.g. Algal Cultivation  29 . (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds. important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. industry.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3.. For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007). However. but long-term culture Broadly speaking. It is. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. Though photobioreactors (e.1 compares the readily introduced. capital costs maximizing light exposure. photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria. Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches). however. especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e.3.1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity. open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2). both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3. photobioreactors). reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi. algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. therefore. it is important to 3. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally.. it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation.

. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather.. 2004. such as sugars. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander. A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation. Dipakkore et al. been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. Turbinaria. improvement in strain al. seeds grown spp. 2006). 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. 1995) or a series of al. Heterotrophic as a nutrient source. Hypnea. Reddy et al. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. Typically.. or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities. Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra. efforts. and presented (see Chapter 10). important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3. 2004. et al. In the latter. Laminaria hyperborean. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. Buck. considerable scale-up from current activities. environmental regulations from other sources. Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp. Algal Cultivation  . Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). 2005).. 2004. 2006) and field Additionally. near-shore. 2005). photobioreactors could (Dai et al.. both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation strategies. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al. linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al. located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries. 1993). (Chynoweth. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology. and there is the the structures... 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. appears especially open raceways. 2007).engineering designs. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp. 2005. already widely used to Southern California. Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al. Kumar et al. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones. providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004. 2007). Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander. 2002). Macroalgae 1987). to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. and major technological 1991). it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation. in hybrid systems. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods. and predation... Hanisak. Japan. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe. Dai et al. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures.. over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. in particular. Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. and Chile. In sugars. 2004. Sargassum.. 1993.. wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda. Dai et al.. However. 2008.. As a result. they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies. 2009). then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. 2008). have been algal growth. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain.

2006. and inexpensive. It should be noted that. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success. and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption. 2009). commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective. Wilson et al. to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al. and simple and complex carbohydrates. Boutte et al. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes. 1999. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research. viable. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. and management of competitors. 2005.. pervasiveness of issues related to scale.. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays.g. chemical compounds.. and recycling. limited.. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability. management. proteins. it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present.000 and several million phytoplankton 3..Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms. 2009).. In certain cultivation systems. 1994. competitors. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms. 2004. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies.. for real-time monitoring. Viprey et al. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. 2008) productivity analysis. e. Wilson et al.. it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale. Nutrients. 2008. Honda et algal physiological adaptation. Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens. Rittmann et al. The methods must be sensitive. Others will compete for shared resources. Continuous monitoring will management. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. The cost-benefit analysis al. (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. Cheng et al. although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding. 2008.2 Scale-Up Challenges species. 3. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation. Algal Cultivation  31 . This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. 2008). 2004). TSA- • Nutrient source scaling. automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al.. sustainability and FISH (Marie et al. predators. Brussaard. predators. Additionally.... Methods for rapid.. 2005). 2006 ). One of the more into a variety of useful products. 2008. and pathogens. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined..

1999. biochemists. productivity lost during down time. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources. molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae. Gao et al. and normalization. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists. need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity. and production siting. Algal Cultivation  .. 32 3. and significant operating cost. automated. and silicon (in the case of diatoms). Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. 1938. 1994). The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. and because of the 2005. permeable. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress. sustainable fuels. There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. and genetic. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account. accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U.. trace metals. 1987. metabolites. competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. densities. Douskova et al. From a productivity standpoint. and products. The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring. a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. sustainability. Benemann and Oswald. For example. 1996).. More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. phosphorous. light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen.. research in multi-trophic.. phosphorous. developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. etc. New approaches are split Oswald. fit-for-purpose fuels. Requirements for additional nutrients. 2008). Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). Sheehan et al.. Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues.. (Ketchum and Redfield. For example. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. iron. diverging dynamics will be important. predator-prey relationships. Eltgroth et al.Furthermore. These tools. Thus. must also be R&D in both areas. Spalding 2008). 2008. predators. 1999). invasive species. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields.. 2008. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. This information will productivity of potential strains. and Management 1981. Reed et al. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. and adapted for rapid. as siting requirements for efficient considered. out (Abelson..S. 1996. Along with standards. dollars (Benemann and renewable. The development of studied. but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen. 2002). Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. physiologists. rates. vitamins.

Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia. This may be nitrogen. e. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. or iron. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha). Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon. Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically.g.” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up. nitrate. Douskova et al. 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. for example. The final fuel product from algal oil biology. agricultural.g. 1998). these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). and sustainability implications of various discharge. availability. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. phosphorous. by preventing eutrophication. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. 1996). too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. If the biomass residues are. 1989). disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet. and potential nitrogen and phosphorous. or urea. Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e. Algal Cultivation  33 . the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy. At the same time. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass. or silicon) as a economics. buildup. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective.000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted.000 gallons to fill. or industrial unsuitable for land crops.5 cm per over long distances.. 2009). Water Management. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. Therefore. it may NOx and SOx (Doucha. and sustainability issues. From a to fossil fuel prices. however.. Currently. phosphorous. The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive.. 2005. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable. which is a loss of 13. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood.. Also. nitrogen. aquifers and seawater. On the other hand. In the future. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. tend to be near enormous. produced 3. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper. However. for example. productivity. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. biogas. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth). A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. With large cultivation systems. nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels. brackish. evaporative losses can exceed 0. If not addressed adequately. For example.

including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers.1999). and water double their biomass on a daily basis. • GIS analysis of water resources. toxins (including heavy cooling. while effectively Water recycling is essential. which could contain salts. from flue gas). accumulated salts.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water. wastewater. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process. municipal wastewater. This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. flocculants. heavy metals (e. A critical water consumption. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment. This is an enormous amount of water (260. the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. materials in the culture. or other remediation before use. accumulated toxics. desalination. and residual live algal cells. The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers.g. or may require decontamination. Algal Cultivation  . Incoming water (surface water. To contain costs. makeup water/recycle. water. The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. process. activated charcoal filtration. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water. However.. and treatment (e. Disposal of the spent water.water from oil wells. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. however. groundwater. and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts. disinfection. or other low. • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown).000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above). This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. Furthermore. toxins. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location. flocculants. or seawater) may be suitable as is. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. chemical flocculants used in harvesting. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture.g. but live cells could adversely is fresh water. etc. by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals). moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost. could pose a serious problem. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture..

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1988).02 . 1977. make harvesting more difficult.. 1998. and small size (~1 to 30 µm). These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue. may analysis of engineering designs. 2006. This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. Phochinda and White. energy costs climb steeply. Cultures Finally. 1988. Knuckey et al. and Shelaf. Addressing these issues requires careful mind. 1984). The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. additives.. and recycling issues. Alum. salts. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. being considered. mixtures. As the desired percentage concentrations. 2005.4.. Koopman and chitosan. circulation. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled. lime. cellulose. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases. water quality. 1983). therefore. is required to promote sedimentation at harvest. at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. Edzwald. 1971).g. impact the required energy input. Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al.. algae harvesting (Sim et al. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered.. 1975. Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies. Bare et al. however. Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae. 2004. some into further downstream dewatering techniques. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. Their small sizes. 1993. polyacrylamide polymers.1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds.. the presence of flocculant in 4. McGarry and Tongkasa. the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. Botes and Vanvuuren. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering. therefore. 2003. 2004. Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures. surfactants. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied... only now being recognized as critically important. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. 1991. Likewise. and on empirical of transportation. 1987). type. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. Poleman and Pauw. electroflocculation. Culture manipulation techniques. 1969. bioreactors. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. Kwak et al. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. 1997). In managed cultures. and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln. 2001).0. A determinations in particular processes. lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates). Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. Pan et al. and then air is bubbled 4.

Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied. in low-humidity climates. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen... but doing or dredging with cutters.6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide. 2008). and mechanized harvesting methods. pores decreasing filter efficiency. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. Moving filters Currently. 1996). 2002. 2001). Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency.g. methane drum size. and bioharvesting. Culture purity However.through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm. 1991). but are not limited to. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. suction. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible.. • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations. acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. Durability and 4. pores. These include. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. operating costs. Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates. but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. of the roughly 1. water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity.. floc optimization. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size). In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. where fuel precursors very expensive. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields. the growth substrate can be easily removed. Filtration designs Invariably. separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. 2003).. Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. For instance. however. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out. 1995. The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing.. leads to blinding. so leads to re-dilution of the product. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades. filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed. The flocculant efficiency. such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements. Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al. Application of mechanical 38 4. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. 2009). about 90% is (Oswald. microalgae. Saidam and Butler. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e. and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e. Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. design.2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues.g. and reduction of filtering rates. Washing the filter is one practice. or ships for operation. and have the ability to remove the algae later. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate. the filter. have also been developed.

litter. Further. maintenance. a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”.85% water content (Peterson et al. although breakthroughs are still needed in each. In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. influence. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. 1989)... given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated. 2009). attached forms that tend to stand upright. about 20 . the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined. Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. anaerobic digestion and fermentation. strict regulations 80 . The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. culture and end-use. will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas. new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. 2009). The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured.. with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly. with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng. In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al. scale of harvesting and dewatering. example.harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed. shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions. e. and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis. mechanized harvesting techniques. by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded. 2008).g. surface area to volume ratios. 2009).. stones. laws have approaches 90% may be necessary. 2004). biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al. Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz. The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols. such fermentation. 2001).. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 .3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. 2009). sand. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. may be amenable to mowing. cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water. To manage seaweed harvests. adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately. final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils. for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. and depreciation. operations.. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. For part of the pretreatment process.20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore.30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. Smaller particles. This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al.. Anaerobic digestion. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp. opportunities for products apart from fuels. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 . • Removal of foreign objects and debris. and the amount of debris method.

likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates. M. C. Edzwald.J. Green. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . T. (2009). Jones. Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process. Ferguson. Ku.B. E. (2005). J. Jung.. 713. Johnson. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. J. S. (2010). Vanvuuren. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses. Lavoie. & Wen. Micro-Algal Biotechnology.. Logsdon. (2004).B. 250. L. Progress in Water Technology.P. Y. Botes. Filtration. (2006). W. M. T.J. 231.M. (1977). A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. 40 4. 27(10). Koopman. Stanley. Downing.J. Shales. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. 9(3). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. R. Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale. (1975). Water Science and Technology: Water Supply.J. Borowitzka. along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass. Brown. and M. Buchholz. Sedimentation and Flotation. 9(1). B. Kwon. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. Dublin. Kim. Ferguson. Zubieta. Agricultural Wastes. B. flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal. et al. (1983). 525-534.J. Kwak. 631-635. Water Science and Technology. Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media. 113.H. Delanoue. Aquaculture.J.B. Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. H. (1993). Large-scale algae culture systems.. Ireland Buck. (1991). 31(3-4). I.. of each in algae are considered (Illman et al. (1987). Borowitzka. (2002). M. Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. C. Bruton. Oswald. and C. Z. Water Science and Technology. Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents. Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. V. Curley. Chen. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away. 45(1). (38). D. G. based on the latent heat References Bare. Lincoln. Won. Dodd. 50(11). Lyons. 67.L. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. Sustainable Energy Ireland. coagulants.F. M. F. Rasmussen. D.A. G. B. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies..C. A.54 watt-hours/gram.from algae. de-watering.. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Knuckey. Middlebrooks. 612. E. (1995). 2000). 133. However.H. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters.R. A. B. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt. (1969). J. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0. J. 117. Cambridge University Press. C. Bracco. bubbles. (2000). 30 (7). H. Enzyme and Microbial Technology.R.Y. D. and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge.. Butterfi. H. R. 357-394.X. Lundquist. Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. 95.S. Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting. Jones. N. J.R. 6(1). Separation and Purification Technology. W. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae. 153.. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal. (1988). algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids. 11..F Frampton. (2005). E. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. Lerat. 300. Illman. S.. Algae.K. 5(4). Aquacultural Engineering. J. Robert.B. 674-691. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. Scragg. Anderson. and dissolved air flotation. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea.M. Water Science and Technology... 35(3). 47(1). 852-859. 85(3). (27).

Pringle. Tester.M.Y. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 . R. 32-65. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration.. S.G. Huang. Froling. Environmental Technology. 491–515. (26). Antal. 824. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . Sim. A. B114. J. Shelaf. A. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics.Lee. 43(5).W. H. T. A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum. M.. Ugarte. N.J. A. Wu..S. Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. 14. 199.G. Copping. (27). A.J. (2001). (1991). W. 1. Mar 42. E. 185. Fundamentals. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii. 63-70. Tongkasa. Conservation. Huesemann. (1997). Robles Medina. Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters. 24(5). 16(1). A.Qingdao.A.. Lachance. (20). 142. Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism. J. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. (2003). Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products. Water. McGarry.P. Kwon. Acién Fernández. (2003). Letters in Applied Microbiology. 1. 4. K. Tseng. Y. (1971).S.. (1996). Mollah. White. H. and Recycling.. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal . G. Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. (2008). D. (2004). Phoochinda. R. P.D. Oswald. (1988). 24(1).. Journal of Biotechnology Advances.. Energy & Environmental Science. F. Biol. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. A. W. D.. F. Yoon. Peterson. M.and supercritical water technologies. (1984). Butler. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. The Journal of Applied Phycology. Forster. C. C. Kim.C. (2008). Roesijadi. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. C. and J. 87. E. S.R.C. W. C. J. 327. Resources.. Biomass. 1987. Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub. et al. M.P. Oh. M. M. Saidam. Comparison of centrifugation. G. Science and Technology. (2001). E-H Belarbi. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. Benemann. Pauw.. (1989). R. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Chisti. E. G. (1998). 150(1-3). J. (1).B. Goh. China. Vogel. 83-89... Molina Grima E. Sharp. 1-7. Sukenik. Pan. G. Cah. Chuang. (19). Removal of algae using froth flotation. B. Poelman. 51. Becker. D. M. Y.. and J.

.5.... extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. 2008). The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out. As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development. Dibenedetto. and (3) solvate the >40%. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5. Lipid Extraction sonication. application of organic solvents. 2010) and osmotic shock. and Barberio. While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks.and laboratory-scale procedures.. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. For this reason. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing. 2010). osmotic shock. though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear. but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. pretreatment of (Zhang et al. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material. Cell Rupture) component for extraction. Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. base.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid. Additionally. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production... some systems 42 5. autoclaving. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals. 2010). sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids. Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. different logistical challenges arise from access.e. 2003). and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta. algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations. 2010). extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective. as well as the be successful. pulverized biomass. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly. using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al.. For waste treatment. 2008). little is known about the scale. Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al. Extraction of Products from Algae   . that secrete products directly into the growth medium. Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. and acid. and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al. prior to the application of the extraction solvents.. different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion. ultrasounds. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. To operations could affect extraction processes. or for the sonication for cell disruption. This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. 2008. which is dependant on the algal species and growth status. 2005) et al. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process.

dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers.. the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy). and hexane/isopropanol for lipids. and then water) (Lewis. ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol. 2007). these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i.. 1996). and extract the lipids.. (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path. making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted. despite the added added. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. methanol) and acid catalyst (e. disruption of the cell Malcata. biomass. other combinations lipids and cell structure. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system.e. Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids. 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke.g. has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first).e. give relatively high hexane mixtures. pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids..g. and methanol. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap. (i. hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. In these applications... biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. In general. 2007). but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. 5.. 1990). the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent. Extraction of Products from Algae   43 . single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency. Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin. acetyl chloride).Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al. After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. chloroform. The hexane system as chloroform to contact. their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins. 1998). prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. In general. if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system). Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al.g. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e. thereby improving downstream separations.e... Similarly. and Dyer co-solvent method. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. In general. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. 2000). solubilize. In other cases. 2000). (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer. More. These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978). 1990). 1959). Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. 2007).. chloroform.g. the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments. at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly.. Consequently. 1994). 2005).. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al.. water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids. They explained lipids (i.

and production of triglycerides for biofuels production.e. and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells. and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times. using the process. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure). break down the cell membrane. Extraction of Products from Algae   .. the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point. Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer. extraction temperature. to all pores within the biomass matrix and. 1996. (Denery et al. ASE of higher hydrophobicity. Conceptually. must use dried Consequently.. ASE can also be applied to remove co. This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure.55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). free fatty acids. Accordingly. on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al.. extracted 85 . What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass.3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 . a step that also requires energy input. The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE . For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref). 2004).95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 . the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples. 2009). some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. depending on the solvent. 1996). Denery et al.. reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent.the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i. example. is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 .. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. screening viability (500 . In general. It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al.10 min). separate out desirable by analogy.e. By using solvents technique on 1 . however. viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents. Hejazi et al. and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol. noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore. the polarity) to values that match the lipids.200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water. 2006).30 g samples of dried biomass. the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). and optimize the energy cost. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel. If this process can be 44 5. a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina.. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i. sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio... being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent.

been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however. Large-scale design scenario. 2001) . ease of scale-up.. this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process. at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid. via transesterification. 2006).. 2006).. higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts. however. The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 . phototrophically or heterotrophically. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel. triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae.. water extraction. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro. higher productivity Castro et al. under these conditions. 2005). Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature. this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates. 2006). but other fluids used have included ethane. for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. The technique. 1999). however. water.. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage. 2006). easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al. just below the critical temperature. However. 73.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids.. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s). More recently. by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al.. one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail). thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step.g. nitrous oxide. the ability to 5. Some degradation. CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll). non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. 2007).e. e. liquid feeds (Reverchon et al. 1999). The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid. The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005)..g. as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al. products miscible Largeau. In this 2006). 1994.. and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al. The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. A major constraint. There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case. the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions. low toxicity. is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans. lower costs of the extracting agent. 2007). as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction. It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above.applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%. whether grown has the effect of converting lipids. originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner. 2005). of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times. al. 1999).. Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 . is that water. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et. 1992).. the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. Some pressures of 241 .. In this system up to subcritical temperatures. methanol. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. ethane.379 bar (Chueng... 1994). In addition.50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al. becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature.9 bar). sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride. creating additional energy use challenges.

5049–5059. 73(8). 2004. et al. & Rowshanzamir. Denery.. K. & Mazza. 2005. G. Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. 1025–1031. reduce the pressure and temperature requirements. Cartens.R.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute. Brunner. Increased of sugar-based feedstocks. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures. 15(5). S. A. Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions.. Extraction of Products from Algae   . F. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4. E. 1994. Eikani. J. In this context. Güçlü-Üstündag. G. Balsevich. J. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies. Fajardo. 2007.H. 6(2).. 735–740.R. A. Food Chem. Journal of Applied Phycology.M. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. 21-33.. Meager. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. Carvalho. 120–126. Lipid-Fett. However. G. 1996.. 80(2). 898-902. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores. Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components. versa. 2008. the issue of solvent energy load. Journal of Food Engineering. 123-129. Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5.). produced per day. thereby improving the References Barclay. When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. 67(1-2). 955–959. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2007. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. the following in side reactions. J. to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems.P. W. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry. Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. et al. 109(2). 46 5. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. M. et al. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. 175–181. 1994. M. 2005. Agric. Journal of Food Engineering. as Btu. This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier. 53(13).3. Cravotto.transesterifiable lipids. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass.... F.. Journal of Food Engineering.X. et al. et al. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2007. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations.. & Abril. 80(2).. Golmohammad. Grima. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. At the cellular level. 71(9). 619–630. & Malcata. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. J. 501(2).

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
with retention of viability. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 79(1), 29-36.
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natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36(11), 1283–1287.
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from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
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from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
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for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
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5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

but algae. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. 2008). 2007). feedstocks must be ground into fine particles. 2004). produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. 2003). such as mannitol. and the United States. at least some level of dewatering is still required. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil.. efficiently. with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. the algae. degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. typical biomass throughout the country... This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. gradient.. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. though from algae. McDermid & Stuercke. and significant dehydration crops. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion. where finely on economic considerations. The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and. Miao and Wu. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae. 2003). products. Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times. laminarin. There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 . Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. social acceptance. It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen.e. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors.e.500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. 2006. improvement in hydrocracking. gasification. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. Brazil. too low for conversion to biodiesel. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. 50 6. represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh. biohydrogen) substance by heating. anaerobic digestion. competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2. 2003. can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing. These current time (Bridgwater.1). i. especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. 2004). requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae. algae: pyrolysis. is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. depending on the reaction parameters. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006). place in their presence.. For flash pyrolysis. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003).2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with. Polysaccharides. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Also. in that it is extremely fast. including direct biophotolysis.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step. and the added benefit of being fuels. The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis. photo-fermentation. or other biomass. although the scientific literature.

H2. Srinivas et al. 1994). Another research paper comparatively straightforward. and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process. the process more flexible. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. 2007. and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for. First and foremost. alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas. The methods. Additionally. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al.. Another advantage is the Additionally. FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO. 2006). research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. etc.. 6. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels .. 2009). there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 . Exhibit 6. Unfortunately. 2004). the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al. since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. CO2. so the bio-oil may be more investment required. 2009. Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. Yung et al. 2007. Balat. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally.. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed.

FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall. usually requires pretreatment. A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process. 1995). with oxygen at high temperature. algae may have a unique advantage balance. there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al.. In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al.330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. the most significant problem al. However. This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process. Typically. Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. 36 kJ g−1. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency...for dedicated biomass plants. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993). The first reactor was a low. The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes. Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input.. 1995). Also. There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al. considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char. First. 2005).. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al. of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH. and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso.. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   .4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale. The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals.. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger. 2006). it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. comparable to those of fuel oil. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further. with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst. Even though FTS is a mature technology. as high as 75%. The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles. Neste Oil. France in 2006. 2008). A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option. These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic.. (Raffelt et al. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date. Germany. Additionally. 2005).

fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. 2008).g. 2008. the typical mode of biofuel production from algae.. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. including drying. In for example. 1987). 2009). the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al. a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study. oil extract. therefore. and efficiency. In this process variant... Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority.51/gal). effect of milder process conditions. gal vs.. $0. triacylglycerides. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008). It is.4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. further study will also 6. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. in place. it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production. 2009). Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae. Additionally. Similar results have been Fernández et al. and one that receives scant attention of algae. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. raw. 2009). key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). in particular. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach. with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. 2007).e. lower reaction temperatures. transesterification.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. cost. is to demonstrate are selective.. Additionally. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas. could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. level that can be scaled to commercial production.. conversion of vegetable oils. supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. 2008). Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment. 2006). with a conversion cost-effective methodology. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production. which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6. and fuel conversion. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . ensuring maximum particular.Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures. however. and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process. Vieitez et al. and as such. at less than 50˚C. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based. If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas. There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts.. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality. e. supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al. $0. This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts. is an interesting mode of gaseous oils.. in terms of yield. the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180..

2008.. generally required as a result. and therefore. 2008). Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. Recently. Diesel. 2009).. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum. which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. 2008). 2008). 2007). (Exhibit 6. it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. 2006). they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. Cao et al. As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. Though acid catalysts have these advantages.can be converted into biodiesel. Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves. Boocock. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4. In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are.. (Ataya et al. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. This section discusses water and free acids. it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts. catalyzed methanol approach. Kerosene. The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts.. there are other solution and mixing well.2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. mitigate saponification chemical. heteropolyacids (HPA). 2008). Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. In addition to the classic base. therefore. 2008). a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Transesterification (Alsalme et al.. The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al. HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. acid methyl esters). When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al.. enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts.2). biochemical. heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy.

(a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely. but (Lopez-Hernandez et al. engineering. Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time. Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing. to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive... 2007). inexpensive (McNeff et al. and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. difficulty in removing the glycerol. as with other approaches. It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al. These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases. the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly. reaction temperatures. and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al. Although very effective and relatively economical. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 . increasingly attractive. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. 2008). both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al. process must be able to function in the presence of these However. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base. 2003).. in many cases. Lewis acid catalysts. catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. production. This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse.. 2008). 2005). 2008). they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol.. Liao et al. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process. 1998). In particular. 2006). converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. 2008). 2008). This work more mature conversion processes currently available. at a commercial scale and at competitive prices. and 2008)... ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained. such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or ZnCl2. much R&D is needed in the discovery. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production. optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al. Use of biocatalysts cell walls. Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end. have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. 2008. converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters. Again. these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al... and energy input (Kalva et al. There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost. defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin).. sugars. catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. In the ultrasonic reactor method. Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts. it has been noted 6. The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. 2007)..

Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil. active catalysts during transesterification. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. 56 6. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. for whale oil. One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. temperatures of about 170˚C). 2009). This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights. Although are stable. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. and x is an and process steps. Moreover. gasoline..240°C). and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. be completed before these catalysts are fully understood. catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water. maximizing the final energy content. jet fuel. The catalysts are active feedstock. On the other hand. jet fuel. the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. in an assortment of end products. they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline. obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. such as biomass or plant oil. From a refinery’s At these temperatures. separation In another example. Other based analog. and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. such as tehtrahydrofuran. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements. In this way. and cloud point. fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content.The presence of a co-solvent. Many of the catalysts cracking. demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. initial and final boiling point. such as oil shale and tar sands. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . and insoluble. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. and Al2O3. As noted in chapter 8. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO. CaO. M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom. flash point. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. the process pressure is high perspective. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure. can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO..60 bar). hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full.

Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. Referred to as hydrotreating. In particular. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas. a chemical reductive process). Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 . Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e.4 Processing of Algal (basically. as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. 1979). 6. Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner. and for recycle to the culture. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson.g. once H2 used. nitrogen from extracted proteins. as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process.. It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. carbon dioxide. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. In addition. There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. metals.

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proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7.30 . the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6). without invoking competing co. and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 .1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products.1). glycerol. dyes. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. and stable isotopes for research purposes. fertilizers and soil conditioners. Inorganics Proteins enzymes. corresponding markets in the long term. and energy from photosynthesis. wastewater. Exhibit 7.2.$1. Moreover. and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7.. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers. The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb. the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. hormones. The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal. valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products. $0. CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. poly-unsaturated fatty acids.500 x106 lbs/yr. anti-oxidants. reductant. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. is predicted to be generated by the process. As summarized economics of the system.7. Vorlop.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. a reasonably benefits to the technology. For the purposes of the Roadmap. pharmaceuticals. novel technologies with increased coloring substances. the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7.00/lb. The topic of polysaccharides. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products. aromatic essences. 2007 7. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition. 2004). flavors. etc. Indeed. Using appropriate technologies. Co-products   61 . 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. fats (oils). generation will inevitably compete for carbon. cosmetics. Heat. and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria.

gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal. not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products. However. 1990. ca. Isochrysis. the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term. 2006). market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova.10% (wt. appearance. and soil fertilizer. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). Nitzschia. yet in the short term. • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. arsenic. and ca.g. 1. 1996. γ-linolenic acid (GLA).000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al. particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira). 2006). it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. having presently a retail value of 1. US$.000 t/yr Spirulina.. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs... significant amounts of lead. Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species. Radmer. All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price. these existing markets (and associated Spirulina. 2. Although small. the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon. microalgal (of biomass. In poultry rations.200 t/yr Dunaliella. Chlorella. 2004. currently at about 2. and Thalassiosira.) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. Radmer. which is sold either fish (Benemann. Nannochloropsis. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. fertility.. Scenedesmus. However. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina.) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 ..e. 2006).5 billion A number of anti-oxidants. from 300 to 3. crustaceans (shrimp). 1986. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds. Anti-Oxidants The market. pigs. product.g. cadmium and derived biofuels. With the possible exception of the existing response. is expected to expand significantly. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. 62 7. Spolaore et (e. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium. e. poultry. etc. etc. weight gain. 1990. GLA from evening primrose oil). Chlorella and Scenesdesmus.By definition. better immune to the consumer. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i. sold for the health food market. 1996). The Dunaliella. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. 1994 and 1996). 600 t/yr Nostoc. The market size. Malcolm et al. ca. have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). horses. Tetraselmis. docohexaenoic acid (DHA).5 billion US$. ca. Phaeodactylum. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high. 2006). 1990. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium. Skeletonema. The production includes ca. This situation. The market for microalgal animal feeds. Co-products   . et al. The main species used in products. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis. is expected to grow in the future.) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows.. The most very large potential markets are developed. is quickly growing. Pulz and Gross. GLA by Arthrospira. animal feed are Spirulina. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. 280 million US$. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann. 1999). 3. al.000 t/yr Chlorella. Dunalliella... Chlorella. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$.

are used as food dyes.. 2006).500 Spolaore et al.. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross.. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin. 2006). Spolarore et al. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics.e.. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Phycobiliproteins. 2006).Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1.. growth promoters. Spolaore et al. cosmetics. and Exhibit 7. (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al. Benemann. and research.. or as pigments i. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers. 2003. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1. Co-products   63 . pigments in pluvialis..000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7. 1986. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5.000 700 Spolaore et al. dyes for food. (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product. a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. Astaxanthin. (Olaizola. (2006) EPA Potential product.. 1990).500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1.000 2. 2004.200 >280 Spolaore et al.2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al...

1994. Exhibit 7. 2001). 2007. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. polysaccharides (Benemann. it 2004).. or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7. 1986). 2004). 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori. Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. pet food. aonori. medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium. wakame..e. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose. food additive. or other product. Here price is a major 7. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics). 2005. pharmaceuticals and In this instance. This sets a high bar research (Benemann.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing. mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al.2 Commercial Products factor. Olaizola. but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. cosmetics (Spolaore et al.5-6 BILLION 64 7. fuel. These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka. Co-products   . 1987).. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al. Alginate.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds. Wu et al. must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986. kombu. Borowitzka. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. macroalgae (i. Singh et al. Metting and Pyne. the only issue is price. Pulz and Gross. 1. pharmaceutical. cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. plant growth regulators could be 7. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004). 2. The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products. 2003. 2001. toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5.. pharmaceutical. Radmer.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh. Identical to an existing chemical.. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro. 2006). Pulz and Gross. Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae. fuel or other product. Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. 1986).) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient. 1990. Furthermore.3). etc. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable. 1990.. Pulz and Gross. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al. 1990). be very small due to their specialized applications..

as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels. Nevertheless. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann.4). Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology. New material with unique and useful functional production systems. with reported methane yields of about 0. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. and Benemann.unh. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy. The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass.pdf).. it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage. Therefore. the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. 2009). Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure).e. the issues enough markets for potential co-products. both (Exhibit 7.3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid.3. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass. However. Co-products   65 . gasification. 2009). and combustion. conversion technologies. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production.4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. lipids only. which could then be either sold on the new product. In this case. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. such as pyrolysis. The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www. with potential whole (i. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass.

and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and this option (Datta et al. etc. due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. fish. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide. it is also used in the In addition. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. Since the generation of gasoline. Furthermore. than $0. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed. butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed. Option 2.. the projected market for cellulases is 2007. acetic. Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products. and butanol). from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. 2007).. it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed. relative derived ethylene and propylene. which contains proteins. ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24.5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be solvents. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. For example. the residual microalgal (http://www. green solvents and a result. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes. Similarly. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. poultry. 2007.txt). to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. least 10. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. biomass for liquid biofuel production.e. As of industrial surfactants. polycarbonates and polyurethanes. 2001). 2008). 2009. epoxies. a food and feed supplement. a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. 2007). i. 2008). (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol. bioplastics. However. and (c) at products such as polymers.ams. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes. however. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. propionic. Furthermore. (Hu et al. ethanol. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. adhesives. Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. Furthermore. butyric. Choi. Finally. 2006). the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass. Kawaguchi et al. might ethanol could be used as biofuel.. including and interactions with animal digestion. antifreeze. and Option 4. 1995). pigs.20 per gallon ethanol.. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. 1 billion kg.. The Glycerol. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. Kamm and Kamm. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 . generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. the market for animal feed (cattle. succinic. solvents (acetone. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. 2007). However. is potentially very large. and could be advantageous. human nutrition may organic acids (formic. produced by 2020. and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. detergents. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids. and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al.3-propanediol. glycerol could be used to potentially very large. is the starting material for the production of polyester.usda. feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry.. As was pointed out above. Co-products   . Furthermore.g. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers. current levels. thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced. jet fuel. aliphatic polyesters.

A guide to the seaweed industry. physiology. 386-394. Burja. Crouch.R. As was mentioned above. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. J. K. A. E.H. McHugh. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. Microalgae products and production: An overview. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products. Burgess. B. 221-231. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). Frank. M. 2007). genomics. the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3. Netherlands. Once again. Zimmerman. Hu.. Kamm. Forro. M. The Plant Journal. Ghirardi. K. A. M. J. The Hague.biodieselmagazine. (1990). and biotechnology. 277-282. Moon. Enzyme Microbial Technology. Miyamoto. Choi. (8). L.. (105). Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. J.W. if desired. 9347-9377.G. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2. (16). W. Sommerfeld. van Staden. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only.R. As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5. Good. Hirata. Metting. Jarvis.J. L. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5). M. (1986). Wright. Q. Kamm. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus. P. Abou-Mansour. (91). processes. SPB Academic Publishing. (2001). B. (2008). and potential. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. (2). Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. D.M. 173-180. 7.A. B. 1994). Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology.H. Tetrahedon. Suppl. Banaigs. microalgal metabolites. J. M. the issue of scale enters in. (1987). Tsai. Science Publishers. Co-products   67 . A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. No. (2007). Microbiological Sciences. 621-63. Champaign-Urbana. 5. K.Kadirgan. The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. Posewitz. organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. (2001).R. J. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. S. Kawaguchi H. it applications (Mooibroek et al. with saturated. polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids.. Pyne. and P. (2009).jsp?article_id=377). and carbohydrates is not cost-effective. Food and Agriculture Organization. with special focus on Dunaliella sp. (2007). W. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources. Seibert. (2006).. specifically. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses. Finally. B.J. University of Illinois.. Datta. Developments in industrial microbiology. (2008).P. including www. M. R. carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. (54). (2003). Huesemann. 247-256. this option will also require and potentially growing. (1990). Biorefineries – multi product processes. (1986). 3(12). J. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. Metting. Hashimoto. FEMS Microbiological Review. E. Darzins. (57).000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products. (31).175-204. S.. 589-627. Microbial degradation of marine biomass.. Benemann. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives.e.C.. Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. Recent Patents on Biotechnology. J. i. these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann. Bonsignore. Biologically active compounds from microalgae. Algal Biology. 372-375. Introduction to Applied Phycology. J. Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering. M. Berger.. carbohydrates. New Hampshire. I. the recovery and use of energy. Borowitzka. proteins.S.

(6). Kadirgan. M. (2007). G. Franssen. K. Olaizola. BioScience. Isambert.. Bioresource Technology. R. (77). Duran.. Oosterhuis. (76).. 233-247. Q. N. PCC6803. Kate. Banerjee. (71). Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. J. 213-219. Yildiz. Z. Giuseppin. (82). Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Velikodvorskaya. G. Philip. Roy. W. F. 87-96. Keshavarz.Mooibroek. (2007). Yazdani. (66). G. C. Singh. Wu. M. Current Opinion Biotechnology. V. Radmer. Radmer. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. (1994). (25). Shen.. 93-98. Journal of Applied Phycology. T. O. Commercial applications of microalgae. Pulz. Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. (18). 73-95. (2003).H. Willke. 46(4). E. R. M. (1996). I.C. A. (2004).Y. E.Y.C. T.A. (2005). 131-142.Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. 723-730. (2006). S.J.. (141).. Parker. (2006). Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology.. W. 101(2).D. (1994). Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. (20). 635-648. Algal diversity and commercial algal products. R. Steinbüchel. Wu. H. Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol. Gonzalez. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. P. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.. 257-267.F.J. (2007). A.V. 263-270. Toonen. S. Berezina.. Biomolecular Engineering. 587-597. H. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace. U. Joannis-Cassan. O. B. Scott. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.H.. Zerlov. Vorlop. 459-466. (2004). (65). Sanders. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 85-90.N. Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. Gross.. Spolaore. B. S. Co-products   .S. Journal of Electrochemical Society. (2001). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Schwarz. 68 7.

• Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). 2009). be transported to the refinery. for ideal lipid compositions. Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. 1986). with some evidence suggesting scalability.g. such as cultivation and harvesting. and final fuels from the systems. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. Some of these fuels are to be sited. biodiesel. as corrosivity) for trucks. pH and from algal biomass resources. 1990). and • Third.. and final fuels biomass. higher alcohols. depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above.1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established. fuel intermediates. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. poorly characterized. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. dispensing equipment. Thus. and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. The optimal Technologies). and the quality of the final fuel product. Ethanol. conforming to existing standards (e. • Second. In all cases. have been shown biofuels as well. combusting. 2009. transporting... biofuels. storage. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks. blending. As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. transport. storage tanks. similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. fuel intermediates. However. 2008). container dimensions. Efstathiou and Credeur. diesel. It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. Specifically. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. In turn. fuels intermediates. pyrolysis oil. 8. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. infrastructure concerns. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al. These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. other distribution aspects pipelining. and bioproducts. the specific distribution and dewatering levels. and end-use vehicles). rails. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. within the context of from algal biomass. including algae. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass.. it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. production. materials and temperature considerations (e. Distribution and Utilization  69 . high capacity. biogas.g. 2009) and infrastructure. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts. delivery vehicles. and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. and different fuels from algae are being considered. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points.8. few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. products – ethanol. biodiesel.

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

Aatola, H., Larmi, M., Sarjovaara, T., and Mikkonen, S. (2009). Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as a renewable diesel fuel: Trade-off
between NOx particulate emission and fuel consumption of a heavy duty engine. SAE International Journal of Engines. 1(1), 1251-
ASTM International. (2009a). Standard specification for diesel fuel oils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available online
ASTM International. (2009b). Standard specification for biodiesel fuel blend stock (B100) for middle distillate fuels. West Conshohocken,
PA: ASTM International. Available online at
ASTM International. (2009c). Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available
online at
ASTM International. (2009d). Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at
ASTM International. (2009e). Standard specification for diesel fuel oil, biodiesel blend (B6 to B20). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
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72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

1). as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs.1 Resource Requirements for production. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production. other nutrients. concepts are also being proposed. availability. nutrients.9. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials. both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. labor. 1985. as with any biomass-based technology and industry. CO2. Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale.S. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. CO2. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U. a for algal biofuel production. facilities design. energy. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass. the major resource and environmental parameters that Further. and land. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate.. water. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described.1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate.. energy. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined. characteristics. the siting and resource factors (e. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. 1990. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability. 1990). and costs. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al. Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate. and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. water. Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale. supplemental CO2 supply. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. For each parameter. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. water. Sufficient land. Resources and Siting   73 .g. capital. Maxwell et al. Similarly...2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9.. 1998). needs to be analyzed from a site location. concentrated CO2. Lansford et al. This scenario Exhibit 9. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10.

whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production.3).2 to off-shore macroalgae production. The latter throughout the country. e. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9. Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production. and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can.. selected to meet production needs. DOE. Resources and Siting   . availability. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. beets. cost and availability of space 74 9. Use of sugars from cane. The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated.. biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. 2005). and land-based ponds.. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets. 2006a). near-shore coastal farms. an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures.. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9. 2005. in terms of cultivation and harvesting. Perlack et al. A supply issues with first. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials.2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al.g. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis. other sugar crops.and second-generation biofuels. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9.2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams. supply logistics. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand.

weather conditions. precipitation. whereas precipitation. both seasonally and annually.muni WWT & Seperation . the level of production affect productivity.lake. key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al. would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels. The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production.3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients..4 million dry sunlight. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture density. will most directly metric tonnes for food products). Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate. technology development. and day/night light and temperature cycles. Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can provide.closed PBRs . As illustrated in Exhibit 9. Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market. and competition CAFO Low-Density Algal .2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation. Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae. From a resource use perspective. rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9. Ligno-Cellulosic N. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. other Water Treatment Deconstruction .hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich ponds CO2 .4. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9. and severe weather. and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation. particularly in the case of land-based with other uses. environmental impacts. research. Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures.power plants . K. 2004) factors include solar radiation. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . P. the heterotrophic approach can 9.other industrial . evaporation. Resources and Siting   75 . temperature.

In Exhibit 9.4 and the Michigan. New Mexico. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii.4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). and Florida being most promising).. This could fresh water. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. California. i. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. lower elevation sites. with the higher growth regions northern latitude states. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. including Minnesota. Wisconsin. Within that context. The more to total biomass growth. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. controls. having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9. Arizona. the availability of non.high-cost systems. Resources and Siting   .4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity. currents. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F. but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. resource conditions for algae production. and the New England states. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2.e. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9. identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions. For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800. whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months.

Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. Florida. but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. For closed photobioreactors. Evaporation. a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors. hail storms. and the Southeast. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. For outdoor ponds. and parts of Louisiana. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. Areas with higher annual average and. Arizona. for closed reactors. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. 1985).industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations. represented by specific regions of Hawaii. integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. however. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. Georgia. available for productive cultivation.. events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. Arizona. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. both high and low. discussed later in this section. is a wide range of temperatures. and California. Southeast. respectively. require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. waves. New Mexico. the Northwest. dust storms. The southwestern states (California. and coastal areas. Evaporation is a Therefore. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas. locations for open pond production. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states. such as heavy rain and flooding. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. This would. quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. tornadoes. cooling in the summer. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. of Hawaii. precipitation (more than 40 inches). algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation. requirements for an open algae growth system. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind. Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. and overall economics. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. killing frost in the fall. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. Evaporative however. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. with more than 60 inches annually. Resources and Siting   77 . throughout the seasons.

2002). reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. along with associated salt build-up and 2008. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. one-half of the total U. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. were for thermoelectric-power generation. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater. withdrawals (201. withdrawals. This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al. The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil. 2008. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. 2009). the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems. 2006b. are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. 2008. Kokya et al. climate conditions. ). Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980. and field assessment. or “co. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build. management. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. or from desalination operations. for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128. 2009). Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value.. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude. modeling.. Almost all saline water. representing etc. humidity.. following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al. such as saline and brackish ground water. natural gas. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. closed vs. In 2005.. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d). all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE.. 1999. salt content effluent or solid byproducts. 1995). elevation. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss. and operational costs.. 2009). for future research. energy. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. 2006b. various locations throughout the eastern half of the country. 2003.S. from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. USGS. Hutchison et use.). Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up. Mao. Kenny et al. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U. A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues. 2004. hybrid combination). the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress. 61% of all surface water. water-sparse locations. wind. humidity.. 2009). nearly and the site-specific details of climate. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement. solar insolation. can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total. Resources and Siting   ... solar insolation. to cool electricity-generating equipment. or 460. depending on the chemistry. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up. periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater. 2002. Kenny et al. Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions. Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. about 95%. and coal-bed the past 25 years. is used by microalgae (open vs. with the majority (85%) resources.uses. However. water demand over the 30 years prior to that. 2009). Hightower et al. 1978. Oroud.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. At the national scale.000 heterotrophic). Hightower et al. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. This will require periodic blow.S.000 ambient temperature variations. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up. Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater.000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover.

which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. Along with geological data. depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary. 2008). reclaimed. 31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. limited fresh water supplies. monitored. and may well also be saved. Shuttleworth. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels. depth. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that.. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources. and of greater investment. held in December 2008. 1982a and 1982b. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop. 2009). Hightower et al. depending on systems and process specifics. and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. Resources and Siting   79 . as noted earlier. where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized. saline. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. 2006b. Gerbens-Leenes et al. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent.. If less water quality and chemistry. with open systems. the estimated capacity. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. and evaluated under a depth. 1993. 2004). 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. Saline groundwater resources.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. NAS. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9. The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced. resource development. 2009). There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish.S.. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. systems are implemented. 2007. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels. define the spatial distribution. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed. physical and chemical characteristics. and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed. quantity. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. 1985).. Dennehy. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced.7). Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. analysis for algal biofuels. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al.. Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. 2007. The maps of saline groundwater 9. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. are also of Along the way. by state engineers and water authorities. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation. putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. and recycling nutrients. The location. Additional analysis. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. southwestern United States. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. Unfortunately.

typically output a steady 1. Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. 2004. sustainability of supply. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. or more than 1965. The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. natural gas. aquifers. scale of algae production. is not a simple issue. Dennehy. separating CO2 in large industrial plants. including algae production. would be a good source of CO2. Applications fuel-fired power plants. Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al. The sources shown (NATCARB. and analyze this information. identify. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. addition. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield. The geographical location. such as from fossil. 2009).. Therefore. Flue gas. using coal) represents over 40% of the total.g. for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources. depth. NATCARB. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours.resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products. at some large growth system and incident light conditions.200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al. potential As an example. and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. 2008 and 2009). Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country. spatial extent. and distribution could require more production. recharge rate. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. biomass growth rate. 2008 and 2009). parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment. However.000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. longer distance transport and distribution. including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. 2002). it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae. 2008b). if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas. USGS. 2006). and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA.. content. transport. and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking.. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. 2008). In addition. including Exhibit 9. collect. 2009. Resources and Siting   . but a significant effort will still be needed to et al.. The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. 2005. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species. Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. Data on small. Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate.5. 2004). represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced. and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003. 2009). As a result. However.

algae production siting and CO2 sourcing.3 163 Fertilizer 7.5 3. Physical characteristics. oil feedstock. 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6. Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling.3 112 Electricity Generation 2. 9. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis). lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e. For example. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use. as will be discussed further in chapter 10. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region..6.1 4.g.796 9. One outcome economic. Soils. affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing. and purchase requirements. and political factors. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9.276. Resources and Siting   81 .002 Ethanol Plants 41.production.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196. This of land for algae production (i. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation.e.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical. such as topography and soil. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities). 2006 and 2009). much of the land in the West is government owned.. Exhibit (USDA.702.g. several characteristics need to be considered.0 13 Industrial 141. and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics. lease.9 173 Total 3. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock. grassland.5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land. R&D program (e. legal. social..9 665 Other 3.3 140 Cement Plants 86.6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90. including pasture.

can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al. Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference. such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. system structures. given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist.. for algae productivity. systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However.20 g/m2 per day. 1985). reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production. the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al. the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further. It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses. Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity. (chapter 10). 1985 ) 82 9.. as with any form of biomass.or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used. Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 . the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source. Resources and Siting   . the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions.60 g/m2 per day..6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost. than real. algae productivity crops. Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. 2009).

nutrient recycling. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al. metals. excess nutrients (e. or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production. phosphorus. wildlife areas. 9. offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. 1985).not be seen as suitable for algae production. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. Beyond economics.. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. organic matter. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al. nitrogen. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use. dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. and wastewater treatment facilities. On the other hand. Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. synthetic organic compounds.. The roles of nutrients. monuments. and potassium). Examples of this type of constraint include technologies. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment. archaeological sites. biomass production facilities 1985). treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites. this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel. phosphorus. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. Resources and Siting   83 . in suitable climates.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. nutrients from treatment. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming.g. for additional rounds of algae production. as noted earlier. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities. The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration.. algae-based parks. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production.

confined animal facilities). municipal and industrial sources) sludge. Aksu. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water. The ability agricultural drainage. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds. harvesting is a 2002). These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e. Kohn et al. might be prevented to a 84 9. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). 1998.g. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study. food processing). of chemical addition ($0. The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass).. organic nutrients. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters. including wastewater treatment ponds. Resources and Siting   . followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned. 2009). The cost biomass production. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production. and rivers).and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald. This nutrients (e. dissolved oxygen. Borde et al. practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment. cost savings.17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion... and lakes)..g. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e. 2008) is high for biofuel production.. which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al. 2008) and throughout the world. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. Muñoz et al. 2009. 2002). 2002. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al. the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation. which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. 2003. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains. productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production). Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment.10 . to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. For example. natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants.. recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment.. whereas pond (~1 cm). rivers. The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e... at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers.g. which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products. coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e. Even with internal recycling. 1988. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems. 2007). Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells. and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al.g. Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours. to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9.g. including nutrient removal. autoflocculation) are far less costly. harming higher organisms. As noted above. the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities. Woertz et al.. As with other algae production systems.g. Finally. The (e. lakes. Non- production. 2005). organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae.. agricultural drainage.7). endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only). Thus. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present.$0.. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9.. The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity. These highly productive systems use shallow reactors.7..

High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation.Exhibit 9. Resources and Siting   85 .

.g. potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient. Calif. 2004). constraints significant. mine drainage. dispose of agricultural drainage.. integration opportunities and challenges. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. The topics wastewaters. Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section.. needed to confirm this. 2008. It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting. Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system. co-products. micro-screening. very different business models and goals for algae selenium. Furthermore. For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks. any heavy metals autoflocculation. of several issues. such as bioflocculation. Resources and Siting   . technical and market challenges. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed. etc. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e. Salton Sea. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).. hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. Lundquist et al. market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized. etc. but further investigation is techniques. an overriding or other wastewater.. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing.g. their ability to treat high. However. CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. al. 2002). and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government. Mulbry et al.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. calls. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical. low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities. 1996.. Thus. 9. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water.

plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective. construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants. Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. etc. Resources and Siting   87 . while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil. as sources. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. beneficially used in algae production. fossil fuel require establishing a U.15%) than natural gas plants (5 . The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. fired power plants. While algae biofuels can be produced. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. However. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture. carbon sequestration. Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. 9. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. The regulatory implications transport.g. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. cement manufacturing. 2005).6%). This will industries (e. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere.S. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production.The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2.5. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. the algae through photosynthesis. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. During those times. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted. fermentation-based industries. depending on the type of plant and fuel used. but. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. Thus. Also.. it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities. The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. policy on carbon extraction/refining.). beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater. The growth. conditioning. which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%.

Thus. distributors. algal technology companies. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon. This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations.). and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations.10 acres). Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae.. Resources and Siting   . not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. CO2 is only at the national level. and other participants coordinated plants. P. credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 .30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. etc. Also. universities.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities. advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae. or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . Therefore nutrients must be production arena. mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. etc. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. Several areas for research. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. K) supply. CO2 emitting industry facilities. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act. and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. ethanol plants. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9. ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”. solar resource. algal facility. • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009). will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts. required. the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners. Although often referred to as a “free” resource.

▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. etc. crop fertilization. storage. Resources and Siting   89 . and other sites. salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management. flocculation harvesting. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development. proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction. etc. SOx. Develop university training programs. costs. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. and refiners/distributors. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx.

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D... McNeill. and Donald C. Turhollow. Kenny. Linsey. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen. M. U. Robert D.G..S. S.L. Cambridge University Press.K. Department of Energy. 4626-4632. M. NM. and Maupin.L. (2004). OK. 285-286. Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. D. E.. Guieysse. Saline aquifer data http://www. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project. N. E. Washington.E. Kondrad. Barber. Ecological Modelling. (2008).. Oklahoma Geological Survey. D. (2009).B. Environmental Science & Technology. Folger. McIntosh. Solar Energy Research Institute. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003). Hutson. 261-265. T. Robin L. K. W. Kenny. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. (1982).natcarb.. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status. A. Ahmadzadeh B. S.. Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States.S. The National Academies Press. K. ORNL/TM-2005/66).L. Linsey.. (2008). (2007). Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations. DC. Cambridge University Press. CO. Huang. and the environment. M and Pierce. (Eds). (USGS Circular 1268). J.. UK. Water Science Technology. N. B. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). Rubin. Bryce J. M. and Hogg..T. (USGS Circular 1334). Water implications of biofuels production in the United States. S. Bioresource Technology. H. Lundquist.F. R. Fresno. Hutchison. and Einfeld. C. Available online at: http://pubs.. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Oroud. Produced water and associated issues. Lovelace. Hsieh.S. Wright. Hightower.. L. C.J. E. I.232-3820). and research requirements. (1965).natcarb. Kokya.). National Academy of Sciences (NAS). D. Muñ Kohn. Denver. Resources and Siting   91 . (1986).L.. M. B. R. Department of Agriculture. CO.R.Y. (1995). 99. Feinberg. Nature. Pate. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington.P.A. O. Technical summary.K. NATCARB (2008a).html NATCARB (2008b). and Kokya.usgs. Hydrological Processes.CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www.H. CO.. CO. Quinn. (2003). B. 12). (Atlas HA-199).M. Loos. CO2 Source Map of US . Theoretical and Applied Climatology.... L. W. 452. Golden. (SERI/SP-231-2550).L.C. K.. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1. Anthony F. Solar Energy Research Institute. Los Alamos. and Oswald. Feth. 41(13). W. R. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. Davidson. K.. C. J. I. Washington. and Nelson. Hightower.S. (2006). (2007).. Barber. University of Illinois. (1985). California. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.S. (SERI/TP.. (1978).F. N. S..S. and de Coninck.C. R.K.A.000 parts per million dissolved solids. Maxwell. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy.W..S. Graham. Microalgal Biotechnology (chap.. T. Rolvering. (1988). U. and Kebede-Westhead. B. 9. Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. W. F. Pizarro. D. S. potential.. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources. Hutson. K.. Reynolds. and Midgley.. The energy challenge: Commentary. Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake. E. Hill. Perlack. J.. Golden. and Meyer. S. (2008). D.. E. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. 22. Solar Energy Research Institute. Golden. (2007). 51(12). A. 52.. Erbach (2005). (2004).A. and Mattiasson. R. 4.. R. Mulbry. (DOE/GO-102005-2135. H. and Peck. C. Meyer.J.J.. Shannon.G. Borglin. California Department of Water Resources. and Karpuk. Sandia National Laboratories...html Neehan. United States Geological Survey. Feinberg. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Grandbois. M.. 211-235.. Lumia.. 2005-2012. Cameron. Oswald.. M. Lynn L. and Maupin M. National Academy of Sciences. de Connick. (SAND 2007-1349C). (2005). T. energy.. J.. Thompson. CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production. (1990). and Terry. Norman. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources. 8137-8142.C.. In Metz. (2005). Stokes.E.

. M.E. Pierce. M. and Roessler. Wu. D. Applied Environmental Microbiology. P.S. (2009. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production.ers. Dunahay. and Nelson. I. 4). and management: Major uses of land. & Willson. (1998).. Bush. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Major uses of land in the United States. 68(3).. (2009).B.usgs. CO. Geological Survey. 110(2). Woolhiser. (2002). R. R. C. Geological Survey Circular 1200). Solley. Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective.. J. R.M. (1984). (ANL/ ESD/09-1). Darzins. Golden. Wang. 135(11). 92 9. Land use. 246-250..Sheehan. and Arora. (2009). K. 1115-1122. Evaporation. USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www. Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy.htm U. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae. D.A. In Maidment. A. W.. (U..R. (1993). BioEnergy Research. D. Benemann. Resources and Siting   . USDA Economic Research Service. and Wallace. U. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Feffer. 1–10. value. (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). and Perlman.H.A. and Davies-Colley. M. Lynch.J... (1998).usgs. 1993..usda.S.A. McGraw-Hill. (2002).J. Hall. Sinton.S.S. J. S.. H. (2009).S. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Mapping average daily pan evaporation. T. B. L. Available online at: http://water. M. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2002. W. A look back at the U.R.J.1122-1131. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Argonne National Laboratory. Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters. (USGS Circular 1331). (2009).. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline. Y.htm U. Woertz.. Mintz. Geological Survey.G. US Geological Survey. (2006). Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Weyer. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. (Ed). Shuttleworth.S.. Handbook of Hydrology (chap. U. A.). Lundquist. National Renewable Energy Laboratory..

Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment.10. and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry.1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid . as illustrated in Exhibit 10. tradeoffs among different technologies. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain.Harvesting Systems .Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise. objective successful commercialization.g. systems.g. can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies. Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. to an overall regional and marketing.. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short. significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10. coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways. e. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 . Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical.2.Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic . economic.Dewatering . It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical. comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10.1).. infrastructural. Toward this end.1 Objectives of investments. environmental. processes. e. systems. and market conditions and constraints. and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches. and processes. political.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain


Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10.Performance . unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation. scales. different levels within the broad systems scope presented.Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids .Water Water Capture .Open systems . individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes. It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling.Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction.Labor . similar to the modeling approaches.Capital Co-Gen .Solar Insolation Environment . location.Characteristics . geology. identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled. Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt. Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy.Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion .CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 . Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Incentives & Barriers Siting .Equipment . be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant.GMOs Biology . and therefore. unit operation.Materials Energy Feedbacks . Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels. It is also expected available and emerging information and data.Heterotrophic . and utilize a range of and industry development effort.Autotrophic .Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation . Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary. that should tend to focus on a technology or process. etc.Species . develop.6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on. Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development. Policy & Regulation.Land (cost. Maintenance. or enterprise level rather than broader efforts. and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. tilt. as exemplified by Exhibit 10. One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10. Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives.Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation . Demand & Price for Co-Products vs. Exhibit 10.Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use . their alternatives.Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient . Operations. Monitoring. soil) Broader .3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain.7.

transport. • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters.... with learning curves & improvement projections .6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling. economic. etc. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry. The size of the “matrix” engineering design. and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state.. enviromental. closed photobioreactors. Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. Beyond this. with time delays. • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10. regional. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential.Technical.. and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond. specific technologies. 98 10.Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment .. production availability.. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations . across an emerging approach.) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. development. constraints & impacts . and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies.Engineering & construction estimates from industry .g. The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility. platform). Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing. processes and integrated systems for commercialization. and national level. and interface approaches.Integration with existing infrastructure . GIS Analysis. various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e. Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards. or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination. and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable. resource use.. and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired. and processes and performance parameters is another definitions. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis). Etc.. economic. how better inform technical..ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  .Required build-up of new infrastructure.

7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry.1 Fuel 5. 2009).2 Co-products 1. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development.1. Ethanol 1.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1. Fertilizer Inputs 1. Dried Algal 1.g.) and non-technical issues.3 Water 3.1 Flocculation 2.4 Off-shore systems 3. Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1. processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10. Fatty Acids M.5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D.3 CO2 2.1.. Other Q. and other technical Defense. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems. 5. processes.2 Cyanobacteria R.1.2 Filtering 8.5 Biological Assist 2.2 Thermochemical & Separation D. Feed 1.Field .2 Electromagnetic 5. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies.3 Biochemical E.3 Centrifuging biomass 3.1 Microalgae Conservation F. Materials 2. universities.1 Algae species 3. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop. Aviation 6. Proteins P. and national labs. 10.0 Drying . Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3.End Use Exhibit 10. cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets. etc.1 Solar . Gasoline-like 6.0 Extraction Conservation 6. Hydrogen K.) 4. Exhibit 10.0 Harvesting L.Storage 4.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5.1.7 is a revised adaptation systems.5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp.0 1. etc.2 Open system 2.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment.1.1 Closed system 1. biofuel production. Biogas / Methane Metabolites I. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality.0 J.2 Fuel . USDA. Triglycerides N.1 Chemical C.5 Light or Alt. moving in this direction (Getman. EPA. Lipids H.Distribution .4 BY PASS A.1. 4. Biodiesel 5. Chemicals 2.4 BY PASS 6. and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 . Green diesel 6. assessment.Transport fish excrement.3 Chemical G.2 Land Cultivation 3. Carbohydrates O.3 Macroalgae R. Exhibit 10.

A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use. and environmental impacts. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. • CO2 resources (point source emitters. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. solar insolation.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. wind electrolysis. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales. etc. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM.5 and Exhibit 10. assumptions in individual processes to the overall system. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen. Inputs to each will likely emerge. This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production. etc.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved. among others. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown. and organic molecule reforming. Exhibit 10.8. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. The many process permutations. regional. and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. K) supplies. availability of suitable land. Sub-level accurate analyses.) interdependencies and feedbacks. and comparing trade. • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. storage infrastructure technical performance. • Fuel processing. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. availability. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. The impact that availability and cost biological. thus Fuel Initiative. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. especially where Both Exhibit 10. risk.8. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. evaluate costs. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis. etc. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions.) uncertainties. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). (N. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. hydrodynamic. temperature. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development. nuclear energy. P. transport. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step.of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water.

Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 .by the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure. storage..9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting.g.g.g. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible. • POLYSYS At the downstream end. with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. in press).g. with the appropriate models. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10. P. and policy decisions. Biomass e. and energy). can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport. nutrient other co-products. e. Currently. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2.. Utilities. ambient temperature.. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e.. Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research. • Equipment. e. Equipment. sourcing. business deployment. supply chain. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data. Structures. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain. storage. etc.. the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. etc. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials.g.g. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. the economics can be expected to improve. The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. This information. and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun. e. Some examples are: development.. Land. this will include the logistics different site conditions. K. followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. storage. resource management.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example.) forcing functions and boundary transport. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. nutrients. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth. same would apply to co-products and their potential markets. solar insolation. Exhibit 10. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. and transport of water. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing. including example calculations presented later in this chapter..g. and biorefining into fuels and (e. is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance. tools. Hexane microfiltration e.

but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation. O2…) to model growth rates. • Availability. and fertilizer. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. and basis. productivity. on the other hand. 2009). vary over the U.5. precipitation. P. water. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water.000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured.) will also affect both conditions. the variations. and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. photosynthetic efficiency. etc. can potentially help fill this need. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. The daily. Under large power. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4. seasonal. evaporative loss. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10. and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. aspects of large scale agriculture. the productivity and reliability of production. Certain elements. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38. in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product. availability. on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed.) (Weyer et al. and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. temperature.S.9. and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions. climate. Exhibit 10. and affordable accessibility of such water sources. wind. coastal. though important for overall TE analysis. cost.700 gal/ac-yr. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply.. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. Si. 50% oil content. availability.350 . based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover. and offshore sites. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. heterotrophic. etc. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis.

. In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. such as are present in some forms of flue gas. water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources. The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). availability. carbohydrates. scale. The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture. lipids. nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. other) production. and inland • The supply. though it is not yet energy crops.. algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2. Malcolm et al. but this the cost of operations. 2008). 9.. 2009. if not more. derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass.e. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins. Conversely. and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. P. and perhaps also for offshore sites.. and operating expense. It is reasonably (i. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. transporting. 2005). it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. dependent on the geographical location. 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. risks.. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution. If it is agriculture (Huang.. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. and co-products like animal feed. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up. 2009). carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. on the industrial build-up. adding to the cost. 2009). some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. N. and forest industries. 1998. infrastructure facilities for offshore.g. Finally. the right of access and use. term. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. Mehta and Gaur. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent. it may not much. materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites. availability. the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. coastal. This As with cellulosic ethanol. temperature control. and petroleum). (Huang. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae.

algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology.6 Preliminary System (EPA. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. 2001 and 2002). energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts. EPA. While most algal biofuels production. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009. eliciting discussion. use. LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water. from manufacture. and water. 2009).g. Delucchi. 2006. nutrients. LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties.g. delays. environmental. white papers / industry analyses.11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. potential. however. Department of Energy (e. 1997. 1993). 2004) up systems. In resource capture and reuse. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . energy. that a and including algae (Kadam. costs. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI).12 (ISO. 1987). and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10.. 1997. and maintenance. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). or service. ISO. 1996. Benemann and and processes.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs. 1997). These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. waste stream 2002 and 2004). There are indications. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. 2009. constraints and impacts 2009). would be subject to narrow operating margins. These 1993. Exhibit 10. EPA. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel. A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping.In summary.. and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL.g. a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. resource use. the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. to final disposal. operating costs. and other resources. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions. output flows. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical. peer-reviewed literature (e. and co-product credits. • Input resources.. Bernard.S. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. data base resources. economic. process. and numerous others (EPA. 1996). they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. modeling. The process employs a and scenario studies. EPA. UNEP.

and resource constraints.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation. expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output. and has • Employing modular modeling. The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. e. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 . The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis.can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios.The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information. Interactive graphical user interfaces. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. • Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10.g.

can facilitate Roadmap. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. etc. units. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation. significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization. and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. the development. operation. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  .12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. have been identified along various steps in the value chain. monitoring.

Malcolm. 2002. and Chisti. Delucchi. Stephens. (2003).energy.. (EPA/600/R-92/245). 20. 113-152. Mussgnug. and Oswald.. (1998).R. NREL Report No. Berlin. and specifically the DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project: http://www. W.nrel. (1998). “Power Plant Flue Gas as a Source of CO2 for Microalgae Cultivation: Economic Impact of Different Process Options”. Schenk. Environmental management .27. and Gaur. regulated emissions. E. Tam. U.. Cincinnati: Ohio.. Bioenergy conversion (1993). USDA.osti. Office of Research and Development.. “Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis”. Thomas-Hall. and Varun. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: Process options and economics.. S505-S510. Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice.C. P. K.. K. 10. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. M. “Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U. 2002-08”... Kruse. pp. Report prepared for the Pittsburg Energy Technology Center. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). eds.transportation. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms. Belarbi. E. International Standards Organization. Geographic Information Science and Technology Group. (EPA/600/R-06/060). E.pdf Rittmann. Y. DOE (2009). and Hankamer. TP-510-29417. 20–43. (1997). Office of Research and Development. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles.E. (Grant No.G.. Journal of Computational Biology. (NREL/TP-580-24190).anl.Life cycle assessment . (2008). (2003). James. March 2009. F.H. Huang. Springer-Verlag.F. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bioenergy Research. UCD-ITS-RR-04-45. Marcel Aillery. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. February 2009. J. “Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape”.. Kadam. 2004. 203-212. Posten. and Roessler. The greenhouse gas. Mark (2004). Available online at: http://www. USDA ERS Report Number 86. Mgmt. Bioenergy knowledge discovery framework. B. US-EPA LCA Resources Web Site (latest update July 2009): Available on line at: http://www. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. November 2009. Energy v.aspentech. AspenTech software product portfolio. pp.H.L. and energy use in transportation (GREET) model.S. Kadam. ISO 14040. including AspenPlus® and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®). 1(1).L.biblio. Second generation biofuels: High-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. Optimizing algae growth in open-channel raceways. A look back at the U. 1997. v. (2002). AspenTech (2010). A. Curran (ed).hydrogen. (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: Progress and prospects.epa. (2009). (2006).gov/ord/NRMRL/lcaccess/resources. K.References Aksu. T. C. DE-FG22- 93PC93204). Energy Convers. P. and Marca Weinberg (2009). Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass.S.” In: Wastewater Treatment with Algae. Cincinnati: Ohio. 491-515. 905-922. http://www.hydrogen. B. G. http://www. 25(3). Available online at: http://www..L. C.R. ISBN 0-07-015063-X.. Y-S Won and N.Y. “Environmental implications of power generation via coal-microalgae cofiring”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. ERS Report Kadam.K. McGraw-Hill. “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Lifecycle Analyses of Transportation Fuels“.Principles and Framework. Medina. Marx. D. Available online at: http://www. pp. Suppl. S.A. (2008). (2001).localenergy.. Benneman.P.html Getman. Argonne National Laboratory (2009). DOE Hydrogen Program. (2009). 37-54. A. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=493389 Curran (1996). J. (1997). Wen-yuan (2009). (in press).html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). International Standards Organization. O. Molina. (1996). J. http://www. Scott A. 100(2). Sheehan. Fertilizer Prices. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  107 .. S. DOE’s aquatic species program – Biodiesel from algae. B. Biotechnology Advances. Acien Fernandez..

T. B. Life cycle approaches: The road from analysis to practice. American Society of Civil Engineers. Available online at: http://jp1. Microalgae production: Technical and economic evaluations.asp?site=lcinit&page_id=138F5949-6997-4BE6-A553-585E92C22EE4#lcirap Weyer. Woertz.Tapie. D. 873-885.estis. v135. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. pp. I. Bush. Feffer. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. D. M. Nelson (2009).. Lundquist. 1115-1122. n11. P and Bernard. United Nations Environmental Program. BioEnergy Research. 32. R.. United Nations Enivironment Programme (UNEP). “Algae Grown on Dairy and Municipal Wastewater for Simultaneous Nutrient Removal and Lipid Production for Biofuel Feedstock”. A. & Willson. (2005). A. Journal of Environmental Engineering.. (1987). UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. K. (2009).. 108 10. A. Darzins. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . net/sites/lcinit/default. 1 -10. and Y.

thereby facilitating growth and development infancy. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D. in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge. the U. algal biofuels industry.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories.g. and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation. Gallagher et al.1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation. national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. Public-Private Partnerships   109 . collaboration between private entities (e. academia can be either public or private. pre-revenue.. and industry. Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. 2001.11..A 11. as well as reduces the risk of private 2001. Partnerships based participants. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology. investment. universities. 2006).. The the algal biofuels value chain.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. The type of this industry. in turn. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. academia. however. realizing benefits in both categories. 11. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development. Link could.g.. infrastructure projects. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies. 2002. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11. 2002). Brown et al.S. Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al. but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten. Indeed. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s. industry) and public entities (e.. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. including characteristics Exhibit 11. given the current state of of a sustainable. including specific studies on the impacts firms.. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market. More specifically.

players (e. into a working system to solve a problem. new partnership. including the development of biofuels. and may compete poorly in this type of award. and private investors) into a single competition. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops. Through these events. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation.B. industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. However. • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration.. scientists and engineers can learn of new research. labor). and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors. be proportional to the value of the contribution. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical. organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships. or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge. because some awards are based on having solved the problem. These events are often 11. conferences. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level.4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. However.C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. environment. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow. However. as well as a platform to share research.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. global problems. technology scale-up and demonstration. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau. By maintaining an active directory. non-profit foundations. national. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually.g. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria. which could allow In recent years. as common interest. 110 11.3 Forums for Public. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. of solicitations are system-oriented. Through their structure. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. Public-Private Partnerships   . 2008). Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development. Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. they are often formed to serve no other purpose.

) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal C http://www.g. and academia. economic. or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry. dewatering pathway. 2009). events. to road-test their technologies.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships.g. By reducing scaling risks. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. Academia will competitions. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations 11. etc. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. algal oil extraction. Collaborative partnerships. it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. overcoming the lab-field and information technology. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations. government solicitations. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www.. facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. biofuels. public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable. conversion process. particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors. Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition. lawyers. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures.xprize. aviation. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain. technology development. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. effective way to address technological. this characteristics. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. and fuel conversion. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness. requirements.). 11. • Technology development in algal biology. Also. distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain. Therefore. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems. nanotechnology.mitcep.2.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel. real estate developers. and the most difficult to implement. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry. etc. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document.. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field. several in algal biofuels. technologies developed in the • Industry Growth. Public-Private Partnerships   111 . consortia. construction personnel. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership. algal growth and harvesting.

Public-Private Partnerships   . However. discuss and debate the merits of each.models presented. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game. • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11. this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs. then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully. Exhibit 11.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners.

• Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. standardization operational. companies 11. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive. facilities business. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners. royalty. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. Public-Private Partnerships   113 .

193-237. 29(14).N. and Sagar. and Scott. Council on Competitiveness. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research.B.E. Brown.D. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. The MIT Press. J. W.. (2001). Levine. (2002). J. D. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Willem. Scenarios for a clean energy future. 31(1). and Wallsten.T. Public-private policy partnerships. (2000). (1996). In Rosenau.. 1197-1207.D. A. K. Paton. Link. M. and Koomey J. 31. Energy-technology innovation. (ed). Washington: U. 29(14). 1459-1466.References Audretsch. P.P. A. M. (2006).G. Brown.A.. The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. A. limited resources. 145-158. J.S. Gallagher. 31. D. (2002). Public-Private Partnerships   ..A... 707-708. S..S.A. Research Policy..N. (2009). M.V. Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass. and Siegel.J. P. Endless frontiers. 325(5941). Science. 114 11. Link. Holdren. Research Policy. Short. D. Stiglitz. Energy Policy. (2001). R&D Policy for Competitiveness. Energy Policy.. 1179-1196.S.

Inc. Lauder School of Government.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS. Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U.S.Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U.S. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   .

Inc.Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K.William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U.S.S.S.C. Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska .S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS. Department of Energy. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 .

S. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U.S. Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U.S.S.S. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   .S. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U.S. Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U.

Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J.S. Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation.Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic. Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U. LLC J. Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 .C. Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp.

Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U. Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain . Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P. Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink.V.S. N.Shell Global Solutions Inc.S.John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   .

LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical. Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate. Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U. LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 .Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U.S.S. Department of Energy. Department of Energy.

Inc. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company.V. Inc.S. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U. Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink. N.Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   .Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources.S. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska .

Molly Hames U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. LLC.S. Appendices   122 . Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF. Inc.S. Inc. Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U.

S. Department of Energy. Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate. Inc. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U. Department of Energy. Biomass Program 123 Appendices   . Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS. Department of Energy. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U.S.S. LLC.

Biotechnology Institute David L. Biodesign Institute. Gale PetroAlgae. Rittmann Arizona State University G. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor). Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 . Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . Inc. Dr. Dr. Whitton. Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R.Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Bruce E. Algal Farms Inc. Inc.

. .eere. DOE/EE-0332 www.

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