BIOMASS PROGRAM

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap

MAY 2010

National Algal Biofuels
Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap resulting from the National Algal Biofuels Workshop
December 9-10, 2008
College Park, Maryland

Workshop and Roadmap sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program
Publication Date: May 2010

John Ferrell Valerie Sarisky-Reed
Office of Energy Efficiency Office of Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy and Renewable Energy
Office of the Biomass Program Office of the Biomass Program
(202)586-5340 (202)586-5340
john.ferrell@ee.doe.gov valerie.sarisky-reed@ee.doe.gov

Roadmap Editors:
Daniel Fishman, Rajita Majumdar,1 Joanne Morello,2 Ron Pate,3 and Joyce Yang2
1

Workshop Organizers:
Al Darzins, Grant Heffelfinger, Ron Pate, Leslie Pezzullo,2 Phil Pienkos,4 Kathy Roach,5 Valerie Sarisky-Reed,2 and the
4 3 3

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

A complete list of workshop participants and roadmap contributors is available in the appendix.

Suggested Citation for This Roadmap:
U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Biomass Program.
Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information

BCS, Incorporated 2Office of the Biomass Program 3Sandia National Laboratories
1

4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MurphyTate LLC

the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law No. This report has been peer reviewed pursuant to section II. this report could be “influential scientific information” as that term is defined in the Office of Management and Budget’s Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review (Bulletin). 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of energy. .This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy. As such. Further.2 of the Bulletin.

and the academic community are also increasing their efforts to optimize and commercialize this renewable energy source. engineers. our economic wellbeing. Achieving cost-competitive. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Acting Manager. but their significant potential to serve as renewable transportation fuels warrants our thorough consideration of what efforts are necessary to make them a commercial-scale reality. and the stability of our global climate.S. sustainable algal biofuels will entail years of research and careful planning. These national challenges require near-term solutions as well as investments in nascent technologies that show promise for the future. private companies. Department of Energy Preface  i . Through appropriated dollars and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. this document represents the synthesis of the Biomass Program’s National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop. DOE is investing in a variety of research. development. as well as the recognition that we will not likely achieve these goals via one technology pathway. Biomass Program U. This Roadmap lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that will likely need to be surmounted for algae and cyanobacteria to be used in the production of economically viable. it remains committed to fostering technologies that could yield substantial benefits over time. environmentally sound biofuels. Meanwhile. and decision-makers by providing a summary of progress to date and a direction for future algae RD&D activities. It is intended to serve as a resource for researchers.S. while DOE works to deploy renewable energy and energy-efficient projects across the country today. DOE has recently revived its investment in algal biofuels in response to the increased urgency of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and producing affordable. and demonstration (RD&D) projects that seek to tackle key technical hurdles associated with commercializing algal biofuels. This Roadmap is intended to summarize the state of technology for algae-based fuels and document the research and development challenges associated with producing them at a commercial scale. and we hope it fosters and informs participation from existing and new stakeholders as the next steps are taken to advance algal biofuels. engineers. reliable energy. and other stakeholders.Preface Welcome to the U. research managers. Prepared with the input of more than 200 scientists. comments gathered during a public comment period. DOE looks forward to continuing its work with diverse partners in evaluating renewable energy options and facilitating development of those that carry the greatest benefits today and in the years to come. Therefore. industry representatives. and supporting scientific literature. Renewable energy lies at the intersection of some of our nation’s most pressing issues: our energy security. other federal agencies.

illustrated the potential Program to invest in the research. marine. 4) utilization of a wide variety of water energy independence. biomass-derived fuels have received increasing attention as one solution to our nation’s continued and growing dependence on imported oil. These include: the goal. including starches and brought together more than 200 scientists.Executive Summary “ ” Developing the next generation of biofuels is key to our effort to end our dependence on foreign oil and address the climate crisis – while creating millions of new jobs that can’t be outsourced — Secretary of Energy Steven Chu at the White House ceremony on May 5. a variety of different biofuels and gallons of renewable fuels. Photo courtesy of the our national security. sustainable of lipids (more than 50% of their ash-free cell dry and commercially viable system has yet to emerge. biofuels derived from algae 1) high per-acre productivity. which exposes the country to the risk of critical disruptions in fuel supply. brackish. These characteristics give great potential for The National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap an immediate pathway to high energy density. held December 9-10. and macroalgae (or While the basic concept of using algae as an alternative seaweed). the end of the program. fungible Workshop. opportunities across the nation have renewed interest in developing algal feedstocks for biofuels production. dependence on foreign research both in EERE and other government agencies oil. and impacts A culture of the microalgae Botryococcus. some microalgae and renewable source of biomass feedstock for biofuels have the potential to accumulate significant amounts has been explored previously. Rising petroleum prices and a Additional funding is being directed to algae-to-biofuel national mandate to reduce U. The term algae can refer to microalgae. 2) non-food based have the potential to help the U. and Renewal Act. while at the same time moving the nation ever closer to non-arable land. development. The Energy Independence and Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established a mandatory (CCMP). produced. President Obama and Secretary of wastewater). announcing $800 million in new biofuel research activities I n recent years. 5) production of both biofuels and valuable Energy Steven Chu announced the investment of $800M co-products. and 6) potential recycling of CO2 and other in new research on biofuels in the American Recovery nutrient waste streams. and create economic and programs.S. saline. and of algae as a biofuel feedstock. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requiring transportation sugars from cyanobacteria and macroalgae. In addition fuel sold in the U. weight). a number of next generation have combined to capture the interest of researchers and biofuels show significant promise in helping to achieve entrepreneurs around the world. 3) use of otherwise non-productive. Of these candidates. provide environmental benefits. The two-day event feedstocks and intermediates.S. creates economic and social uncertainties for businesses and individuals. engineers. ii Executive Summary  . To accelerate the deployment of sources (fresh. meet the new RFS feedstock resources. cyanobacteria (the so called “blue-green algae”). This announcement included funds for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy The DOE-supported Aquatic Species Program. was convened fuels. While cellulosic ethanol is expected to play a large role There are several aspects of algal biofuel production that in meeting the EISA goals.S. and advanced biofuels. Much has changed since deployment of commercial algae-to-biofuel processes. to contain a minimum of 36 billion to fungible biofuels. by 2022. a scalable. cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel. an effort Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Biomass undertaken from 1978 to 1996. These fuels can also be produced using other algae by DOE-EERE’s Biomass Program. 2009. Under certain conditions. including advanced and products can be generated using algae precursors. 2008.

This document also seeks to explore technologies in an integrated process will be a key the economic and environmental impacts of deploying component to accelerating progress. industry representatives. and the private sector in implementing national This document represents the output from the Workshop. By documenting the challenges across the algal discuss and identify the critical challenges currently biomass supply chain and highlighting research and hindering the economical production of algal biofuels at coordination needs and gaps.research managers. guide researchers and engineers. Executive Summary  iii . federal agencies. policymakers. algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and scalable. and comments received during a public comment period. the Roadmap Workshop effort suggests document is intended to provide a comprehensive state that many years of both basic and applied science and of technology summary for fuels and co-products from engineering will likely be needed to achieve affordable. development. algal biomass production systems at commercial financiers. supporting scientific literature. research. and regulators from across the country to scale. and deployment efforts. lawyers. and sustainable algal-based fuels. The ability techno-economic challenges associated with scaling to quickly test and implement new and innovative up of processes. The Roadmap In summary. this document will serve to commercial scale.

Isolating new strains directly from unique environments will ensure versatile and robust strains for mass culture needed in biofuels applications.FROM ALGAE FROM TO TO ALGAE BIOFUELS BIOFUELS An Integrated Systems An Integrated Approach Systems to Renewable Approach Energy to Renewable that is E nergy ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS CULTIVATION Microalgae and cyanobacteria can be cultivated via photoautotrophic methods (where algae require light to grow and create new biomass) in open or closed ponds or via heterotrophic methods (where algae are grown without light and are fed a carbon source. to generate new biomass). and taking advantage of the biology of algal strains selected for use in production systems is the foundation for processing feedstocks into fuels and products. managing. and sustainability of algae to biofuel systems. such as sugars. brackish waters. and cyanobacteria (formerly called “blue-green algae”). Open Ponds Example Cultivation Systems POLICY SITING AND RESOURCES iv Executive Summary  Development Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis: Guiding Path Toward the Research and a . Understanding. macroalgae (seaweed). Algae occur in a variety of natural aqueous and terrestial habitats ranging from freshwater. marine. Designing an optimum cultivation system involves leveraging the biology of the algal strain used and inegrating it with the best suited downstream processing options. scalability. Macroalgae (or seaweed) has different cultivation needs that typically require open off-shore or coastal facilities. Choices made for the cultivation system are key to the affordability. and hyper-saline environments to soil and in symbiotic associations with other organisms. Fermentation Tanks MICROALGAE CYANOBACTERIA MACROALGAE Algae as feedstocks for bioenergy refers to a diverse group of Closed Photobioreactors organisms that include microalgae.

and thermochemical processes.. While lipids and carbohydrates are fuel precursors (e. biochemical. or harvested algal biomass prior to extraction and conversion. These steps can be energy-intensive and can entail siting Conversion technology options include chemical. End Uses: • Biodiesel • Biogas • Renewable Hydrocarbons • Co-products • Alcohols (e. Some algal biomass production processes are investigating options to bypass extraction. and surfactants) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Executive Summary  v Commercially Viable Algal Biofuel Industry . Abundant. and Sustainable HARVESTING / DEWATERING CONVERSION Some processes for the conversion of algae to liquid Conversion to fuels and products is predicated on a basic transportation fuels require pre-processing steps such as process decision point: harvesting and dewatering. 3) Processing of direct algal secretions.. bioplastics. though these are also subject to a number of unique scale-up challenges.g. optimizing extraction systems that consume less energy than contained in the algal products is a challenge due to the high energy needs associated with both handling and drying algal biomass as well as separating out desirable products. and proteins.. While many analytical techniques exist. proteins can be used for co-products (e. industrial enzymes. gasoline.g. Focusing on biofuels as the end-product O poses challenges due to the high volumes and relative low CH2-O-C R1 values associated with bulk commodities like gasoline and O diesel fuels. The end products vary depending on the conversion technology utilized. fertilizers.g. biodiesel and jet fuel). carbohydrates. Algal cultures are mainly grown 1) Conversion of whole algal biomass. animal/fish feeds). animal feed. Most challenges in extraction are associated with the industrial scale up of integrated extraction systems. CH-O-C R2 O CH2-O-C R3 Bio-Crude Algal Lipid: Precursor to Biofuels Three major components can be extracted from algal biomass: lipids (including triglycerides and fatty acids). issues. in water and can require process steps to concentrate 2) Extraction of algal metabolites. or a 2-O-C EXTRACTION combination of these approaches. Affordable.

vi Executive Summary  .

................................................................1 About the Roadmap................................................................................... 12 Lipid Synthesis and Regulation..................................................................................................................................................................................................30 3................ Contents 1................................. 15 2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 2.................................. 19 Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy..........................................2 A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development................................................1 Strain Isolation...........................................................................2 Scale-Up Challenges........................................................................................ 31 Stability of Large-Scale Cultures ..........1 1..............................................................................................................1 Cultivation Pathways.....................................................................................................................................7 2.................................................................................. ......................................................................1 America’s Energy Challenges..............................................3 Algal Biotechnology............................................................................................................... Screening and Selection ..................................................................................................................... Algal Biology...................................................5 1.. 22 References...........................................................................................................................................9 Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study..................................................................................................................................................................................8 Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae .................................................................................................................................................... 23 3................7 Public-Private Partnerships.................................................................................................................2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry.................................................................. 31 Contents  vii .....................................................................................................................................................29 3...................3 Research from 1996 to Present.......................................3 Early Work to 1996.............................. 12 Biohydrogen ...............................7 References........................................................... 29 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria................................................................................................ 11 Photosynthesis and Light Utilization..................................................................................... Overview................................. 16 The Genetic Toolbox........................................................................................3 1..............................................................................................................................................................................3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today...............................................................................................................5 Regulations and Standards...........8 Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers....................................................... 16 Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics..................................1 Advantages of Algal Feedstocks....................................................................5 Technology and Analysis Challenges.11 Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism............................................................................................................................................................................10 2............................................................................................................................................................................20 Considerations of Genetic Modifications.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Algal Cultivation.......................................... 29 Macroalgae....................................................11 Algal Carbohydrates.....................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 Harvesting........ 53 Chemical Transesterification..............40 Preliminary Look at Energy Balance ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 4...................................................................................................................................... 53 Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae.................................................................................................................................2 Processing of Whole Algae..............44 Subcritical Water Extraction................................................................................................ 38 Preprocessing........................1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. and Management.........................................................3 Systems Engineering ............................................37 Harvesting...............e............................................................ Sustainability........................... and Recycling................................. 37 4............................... ...................... Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering..... 49 Hydrogen......................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Conversion of Algal Extracts.... 49 Alkanes...................1 Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 References............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 54 viii Contents  ............................. 51 Liquefaction............................................................................................... 43 Accelerated Solvent Extraction............ 45 Heterotrophic Production...................................................... 33 References....................46 6...46 References.................................................................................................................................................37 Drying.........48 Alcohols......................... 52 Supercritical Processing............ 35 4.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 6..................................................................................................................... 42 Mechanical Disruption (i.........................................................................48 6..........................................................40 5...................................................... 42 Organic Co-solvent Mixtures..................................................................................... 39 4...................... 32 Water Management..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Gasification....2 Approaches for Macroalgae ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................. 32 Nutrient Sources........................................................................................................................................................... System Productivity.........44 Selective Extraction......................................................................................... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies ...................42 5.......50 Pyrolysis......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Cell Rupture).........................................................................2 Challenges........................................ Conservation.................................................... Extraction of Products from Algae .............................................. 45 Supercritical Fluid Extraction............................................................................................................... 45 5............................... 53 6...........1 Approaches for Microalgae.........................

.............................................................................................................................................1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria................................................................................... and Jet Fuel ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 7................................................. ...........80 Land................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 9.... Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction..........75 Climate ..1 Distribution...................................................................................................................................................2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae....................... 55 Conversion to Renewable Diesel.. 61 7........................73 Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach............................................................................................................2 Utilization........................................................................................................ 70 Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products.................. 81 9.............. 55 Catalytic Cracking.......... 73 Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach................................................................... 70 Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products............................................ Distribution and Utilization....................................................................................................................................................................................... Co-products ...... 86 The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources........................................................................................................69 8...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Co-location of Algal Cultivation Facilities with CO2-Emitting Industries.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 56 6.......................... 83 Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications................................................................................... 69 8.......64 References......................................................2 Resources Overview..................................... 88 References...........................57 References...................................................................................77 Carbon Dioxide.............................75 Water........................................................................................................64 7..................................................................................4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities ...1 Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches................................................................................................. Resources and Siting ................................................................................. 84 Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater ..............90 Contents  ix ........................................................... 88 Directions for Research and Development........................... 67 8............................... Gasoline...................................................................72 9......... 58 7........... .............................................................................................................................................. 87 Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO2 Sources ...........74 9......................3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products...................................................................... 86 9...............................71 References... 83 Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants...........................................................................74 Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach.................................................................................

.............................................................................. Public-Private Partnerships ...... 111 11................................99 Overview...................................................................................94 10. 111 References......................................................................................................... 104 10..................................1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships...............................................1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis .................................................................................................................99 Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments...............10............7 Potential Directions for R&D Effort ................4 Partnership Challenges in the Algal Biofuels Industry................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 10...........................3 Forums for Public-Private Partnerships.................................4 Systems Analysis.......6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling .......................................................115 Appendix 2: Contributors............... 105 11.............................................................................................................................. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis................................................122 Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap.............................................................124 x Contents  ........ 109 11.........................................102 Life Cycle Analysis.................2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships................2 TEA Scope and Methods........................................... 100 Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs.................................................................................................................5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development......................3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion).....................5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties................................................................................................................................................................ 97 10.................... 115 Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants..................................................... 104 10..................................................................................................................................................................110 11................................................................ 104 10..........................................................................................93 10..................114 Appendices .......................................................................................... 109 11..........................................................................110 11.................

To accomplish its goals. scalable. the Roadmap describes fuels. gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. industry. at the University of Maryland-College Park. to the development of this Algal Biofuels Technology enhances U. The RFS mandates blending of 36 billion This Roadmap presents information from a scientific. The United States currently imports Technology Roadmap Workshop. Algal biofuels offer great promise in contributing to Every attempt was made to ensure that the Roadmap the Program’s vision. In 2007.gov/algae2008pro/. energy efficiency. A major objective of the reserves. as well as helping to meet the development process was transparent and inclusive. including the Energy Independence and Security Act a 60-day public comment period was held to allow of 2007. agencies.S. All comments are noted in the Appendix of this document. The Program’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws. Department experience and expertise during a series of technical of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and break-out sessions that spanned critical aspects of the Renewable Energy is committed to advancing the vision algal biomass supply chain and cross-cutting issues. viewpoints. the Program has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research. 1. In doing so. and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. Workshop participants to evaluate the Roadmap for and deployment (RD&D) activities. that both assesses the current state of technology and provides direction to the Program’s RD&D efforts. the combustion of petroleum- Workshop was to gather the necessary information based fuels has created serious concerns about climate to produce an algal biofuels technology roadmap change from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. government and new energy technology research and development. bioproducts and biopower. Furthermore.1. reduces our dependence Roadmap. of which only 15 economic. academia.1 America’s Energy Challenges About the Roadmap As global petroleum supplies diminish. approximately two-thirds of its petroleum. commercial. and policy perspectives that can support billion gallons can be produced from corn-based ethanol.orau. The The legislation establishes production requirements for Workshop provided a stimulating environment to explore domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuels topics affecting the development of algal biofuels industry. academia. energy supply for transportation liquid transportation fuels. representing a diverse range of expertise from promote the use of renewable fuels. 1. the state of technology the current status of algae RD&D. and creates be found at http://www. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandate established within EISA. economic opportunities across the nation. Standard (RFS) that increase over time (Exhibit 1. the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) was enacted. and industry. of a viable. held December 9-10. Overview  1 . and sustainable algal-based biofuels. which set new standards for More than 200 stakeholders were convened at the vehicle fuel economy. as well as made provisions that Workshop. The which is used for producing transportation fuels. the national laboratories. Overview The Workshop was able to capture the participants’ The Biomass Program (Program) of the U. the production of economically viable biofuels. in partnership fidelity and incorporate new information. and non-governmental organizations. energy security. with national laboratories. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to rising energy demand in many rapidly developing discuss and identify the critical challenges currently countries around the world is beginning to create hindering the development of a domestic. and criticisms not captured during the Workshop. provides environmental benefits. sustainable domestic biomass industry that The outcomes from the Workshop provided key inputs produces renewable biofuels. Despite their potential. development. The full proceedings of the Workshop can on oil. While Biofuels derived from algae can meet these l onger-term addressing the potential economic and environmental needs of the RFS and represent a significant opportunity benefits of using algal biomass for the production of to impact the U. Following the release of the initial draft of the Roadmap.S. it lays for producing algal biofuels is regarded by many in the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely the field to be in its infancy and there is a considerable need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in amount of RD&D is needed to achieve affordable.1). intense competition for the world’s dwindling petroleum scale algal biofuels industry. the United The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology States is becoming increasingly dependent upon foreign Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels sources of crude oil. 60% of 2008.S.

0 28.5 1.0 a 11.25 a 7.2).6 11. the study did not explore the potential of algae.1 2010 0.0 a 21.5 a 18.0 24.0 2022 16.0 33.0 36. 2005).75 18. Cellulosic feedstocks were • Recycles stationary emissions of carbon dioxide identified by the Billion Ton Study as a significant source • Compatible with integrated production of fuels and of biomass (Perlack et al.95 2011 0.95 2012 0. 2 1.Advanced biofuels face significant challenges in meeting the ambitious targets set by EISA..1 Renewable Fuel Standard volume requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel are included in the advanced biofuel requirement. As required by EISA.1 0. However. Significant acreage and productivity will be required • Minimizes competition with conventional agriculture for biomass production to generate sufficient feedstock • Utilizes a wide variety of water sources to meet the RFS mandates.0 30.5 0.0 15. microalgae have demonstrated potential oil yields that are significantly higher than the yields of oilseed crops Many pathways are currently under consideration for (Exhibit 1.5 2016 4.0 2023 b b b b a To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.35 13. b To be determined by EPA through a future rulemaking.75 a 3.25 0.2 2013 1.5 20. while algae may co-products within biorefineries offer comparable biomass productivity as lignocellulosic feedstocks – the key biomass resource factored in the study. The most promising among these are routes from soybeans.0 2019 8. For example. offer significant advantages that complement traditional feedstocks towards these fuels. CELLULOSIC BIOMASS-BASED ADVANCED BIOFUEL TOTAL RENEWABLE BIOFUEL DIESEL REQUIREMENT FUEL REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT 2009 N/A 0.65 0.0 2.5 a 15..55 2014 1. but no less than 1. Potential oil yields from certain algae production of biofuels and bioproducts from components strains are projected to be at least 60 times higher than of biomass. approximately 15 times more productive to advanced biofuels such as high energy density fungible than jatropha.0 a 5. and approximately 5 times that of oil palm fuels for aviation and ground transport.0 2021 13.75 16.15 2015 3. oleaginous Exhibit 1.0 26.0 2018 7.5 a 9. 2009). Overview  .95 12.5 a 13.80 1.25 2017 5.25 22. Algal biomass may per acre of land on an annual basis (Rodolfi et al.0 2020 10.0 a 2.0 billion gallons. advanced biofuels must demonstrate GHG emissions UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF ALGAL FEEDSTOCK FOR across their life cycle that are at least 50% less than GHG ADVANCED BIOFUELS emissions produced by petroleum-based transportation • High area productivity fuels.

000 strains of microalgae over a seven-year period from various sites in the western. representing a diversity of aquatic Algal Biofuels Development environments and water types. 1. The isolates were screened for their tolerance to variations Although. Techno-economic analyses Oil palm 635 and resource assessments were also important aspects of the program. commercially viable system has in salinity. Approximately $25 million (Sheehan. freshwater supplies. (1978) indicated that algal • Algal productivity can offer high biomass yields per systems could produce methane gas at prices competitive acre of cultivation. The program lasted from 1978 until 1996 and supported research primarily at DOE’s National Exhibit 1. produced water.500b of the project was completed (Sheehan et al. this report The Aquatic Species Program researchers collected more than 3.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks Early Work to 1996 Algae can be preferred feedstock for high energy density.S. A detailed engineering analysis by Benemann et al. The collection was narrowed approaches to the technologies being explored today. genetic Jatropha 202 engineering. 1. surges through the decade. During the early years. The Aquatic Species OIL YIELD Program also funded research at many academic CROP (GALLONS/ACRE/YR) institutions through subcontracts. and temperature.2 Comparison of oil yields from biomass feedstocksa Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. northwestern. have been apparent since the mid-twentieth century. 1998). In 1998. Overview  3 . Proposals to use algae as a means of producing energy fungible liquid transportation fuels. The concept of utilizing the lipid stores as a source of • Algae can recycle carbon from CO2-rich flue emissions energy. a comprehensive overview Algae 1. Advances were made through algal strain isolation and characterization. a scalable. The discovery that • Algae cultivation strategies can minimize or avoid many species of microalgae can produce large amounts of competition with arable land and nutrients used for lipid as cellular oil droplets under certain growth conditions conventional agriculture. Some of the highlights are described briefly below. process development. such saline water. Many of the strains were isolated from shallow. earlier studies have laid foundational to produce neutral lipids. pH. formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). dates back to the 1940s. and also for their ability not yet emerged.2 A History of Domestic and southeastern U. There are several started in the late 1950s when Meier (1955) and Oswald aspects of algal biofuel production that have combined to and Golueke (1960) suggested the utilization of the capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs around carbohydrate fraction of algal cells for the production of the world: methane gas via anaerobic digestion. but the focus changed to Camelina 62 liquid fuels (biodiesel) in the early 1980s. with projected costs for fossil fuels. • Algal biomass is compatible with the integrated biorefinery vision of producing a variety of fuels and The Aquatic Species Program represents one of the most valuable co-products. thereby reducing competition for limited as nitrogen or silicon.000-6. primarily green algae (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). gained serious attention only during from stationary sources.. a Adapted from Chisti (2007) b Estimated yields. could lead to this phenomenon. 1998) was invested during the 18-year Soybean 48 program. comprehensive research efforts to date on fuels from microalgae. to the 300 most promising strains. inland saline habitats that typically The advantages of algae as a feedstock for bioenergy undergo substantial swings in temperature and salinity. and and 1960s indicated that starvation for key nutrients. this idea ultimately became a major push of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program. the emphasis was on using algae to produce hydrogen. Sunflower 102 studies of algal physiology and biochemistry. including power plants and the oil embargo of the early 1970s and the energy price other industrial emitters. however. Various reports during the 1950s • Algae can utilize waste water. and demonstration- scale algal mass culture.

analyses led to differing conclusions on fuel cost. stable production of algal successful transformation of microalgae (Dunahay et al.. Hawaii. These initial to be more than 90% with careful pH control. but studies examined the ability of many strains to induce failed to fully address the scale.or methyl-esters (biodiesel) was overall rate of oil production in a culture (because of the successfully demonstrated in the Aquatic Species concomitant decrease in the cell growth rate). 1987 and in desert regions of the Southwest (Maxwell et al. With the advent of the first successful in that long-term.. depth research. 1985). A Test Facility in Roswell.. estimated costs for unextracted 1998). Extraction of oil droplets from the cells and algal oil were determined to range from $59 . and thus the enzyme was extensively University of California-Berkeley. 2007). Under Aquatic Species Program subcontracts. 1998). paddlewheel-mixed raceway ponds. production. it became clear that novel solutions would be of aquifers. primarily in C. was the focus demonstration-scale outdoor microalgal cultivation of many of the biochemical studies. studying Program and shown to be one of the less challenging this response led to valuable insights into the mechanisms aspects of the technology.. (Weissman et al. the commercially viable strains for oil production.. This catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids used facility utilized two 1. 1988) with the hope of eventually turning down the Sufficient resources were identified for the production flow of carbon through these pathways. Cost-effective methods of harvesting the necessity for very low-cost culture systems. smaller ponds for inocula production. cryptica were characterized (Roessler. but Among various techniques. Cyclotella cryptica.After promising microalgae were identified. shallow (10-20 cm for TAG synthesis. Of particular note was the Outdoor the cell wall) is a trigger for increased oil production. further Aquatic Species Program focused on solvent systems. 1990). enzymes involved in the Aquatic Species Program. primarily triacylglycerides (TAGs) (Chisti. growth was conducted in California. 1988). and the efficiency of CO2 1995). 1999. however. biological productivity was shown to have commercialization of the technology. Conversion of Although nutrient deficiency actually reduces the algal oils to ethyl. an oleaginous diatom. characterization. However. Sheehan et al. other biofuel of lipid biosynthesis. costs of these resources can vary widely depending During the course of the Aquatic Species Program upon such factors as land leveling requirements. Different cost process step that is highly energy. One serious problem encountered was that the desired starting strain was often outgrown by faster Additional studies focused on storage carbohydrate reproducing.g. or engine testing was carried out. strains from the wild. 50 g/m2/day. scale-up. For example. and conversion to fuel are critical to successful In addition. and environmental lipid accumulation under conditions of nutrient stress. Overview  . suggesting that the of the Aquatic Species Program in 1996 halted further technology could have the potential to have a significant development of these potentially promising paths to impact on U. which Microbial Products. Inc..S. and CO2 resources (power plants). petroleum consumption. Harvesting is a the single largest influence on fuel cost. chrysolaminarin saline water. In addition. biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate.. The raceway design suggesting that it may play a role as a “spigot” controlling was based on the “high rate pond” system developed at lipid synthesis. as biosynthesis of these compounds competes for fixed carbon units that might otherwise be used for Several resource assessments were conducted under the lipid formation. 1990). such and dewatering algal biomass and lipid extraction. but lower oil producing. Under inducing conditions. The systems were characterized (Roessler. and other needed for biological productivity and various problematic issues. 1996). Detailed techno-economic analyses underlined process steps. some process options (e. Low attempts at metabolic engineering identified a pathway to nighttime and winter temperatures limited productivity in modify the gene encoding in the ACCase enzyme. New Mexico. operated by key enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase). The 4 1. but overall biomass productivity averaged no effect was seen on lipid production in these preliminary around 10 g/m2/day with occasional periods approaching experiments (Jarvis et al.$186 per purification of the oil are also cost-intensive steps. productivity improvements. issues associated with such methods. The termination of many billions of gallons of fuel..000 m2 outdoor. Studies focused on suitable land. the Roswell area. plus several under the nutrient stress conditions (Roessler.. cost. but no further fuel much as 60% of their dry weight in the form of lipid. distance from CO2 point sources. ACCase activity was found to increase deep). conversion of lipids to gasoline) species in the collection were shown to accumulate as were evaluated (Milne et al.and capital-intensive. harvesting via flocculation even with optimistic assumptions about CO2 credits and was deemed particularly encouraging (Sheehan et al. purification. as unlined open ponds (Benemann and Oswald. and New Mexico under conditions of insufficient silicon (a component of (Sheehan et al. it became possible to manipulate the expression of utilization (bubbled through the algae culture) was shown ACCase in an attempt to increase oil yields. 1989). In this species. 1998). biomass was demonstrated.

nrel. State funding programs and research support from private Technology and Analysis Challenges industry also make up a significant proportion of research funding. particularly to substitute natural gas Today (SNG) via anaerobic digestion (Bird and Benson. federal funding for algal research has come scale. and the private sector in implementing a nationally coordinated effort toward Additionally. Additionally. 1998).3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Program. the work highlighted the need to understand and optimize the biological mechanisms of algal lipid accumulation and to find creative. national labs are developing a viable and sustainable algal biofuel industry.gov/publications. from algal feedstocks and to document the feasibility and techno-economic challenges associated with commercial scaling up of processes. the Air Force Based on the information provided at the Workshop. Further. Overview  5 . Private investment in algal biofuels This Roadmap seeks to lay down the first comprehensive has been increasing at a dramatic rate over the last few state of technology summary for fuels and co-products years. it also became clear that significant barriers would need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically feasible process. Species Program. increasingly focusing on algal biofuels research. regulations and standards. and sustainable feedstocks are the California kelp. Similar to the findings of the Aquatic lifeblood of the burgeoning biofuels industry today. funding levels are beginning to increase. significantly outpacing government funding.. and the Department of Agriculture.barrel (Sheehan et al. a number of U. Cyclotella cells. 1987). Office of Science. macroalgae for biofuels and beneficial re-use of CO2. that include investigating microalgae. Office of Fossil Energy. it was Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) algal bio-jet determined that a great deal of RD&D is still necessary program. and several DOE Small Business Innovative to reduce the level of risk and uncertainty associated with Research (SBIR) request for proposals. Primary efforts were focused on open ocean culture of Abundant. Recent initiatives. In contrast to the development of cellulosic biofuels which benefit from a direct agricultural and process Research from 1996 to Present engineering lineage. a research initiative to determine the technical and economic feasibility of macroalgae cultivation and Opportunity and Challenges conversion to fuels. cyanobacteria. researchers concluded that algal-derived Algae must be considered as part and parcel of the SNG would not be cost-competitive with fossil fuel gas. Courtesey of CCMP. Also from 1968-1990. federal agencies. such as a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency solicitation. Detailed results from the Aquatic Species Program research investment are available to the public in more than 100 electronic documents on the NREL Web site at www. However. suggest that the algae-to-biofuels process so it can be commercialized. the National to tackle the challenges of algal biofuels is thus Science Foundation. there is no parallel agricultural Since the end of DOE’s Aquatic Species Program in enterprise equivalent for cultivating algae at a similar 1996. It was concluded that algal biofuels would not be cost-competitive with petroleum. policymakers. Overall. and Biomass Program are all funding research activities By reviewing the technology gaps and cross-cutting needs.S. and public-private partnerships. and the Roadmap aims to guide researchers and engineers. the Department of Defense. which was trading at less than $20/barrel in 1995. In particular. A sizable and strategically structured investment from DOE. affordable. these activities must be accompanied with DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy conducive developments on the non-technical fronts – (ARPA-E). cost-effective solutions for the culture and process engineering challenges. the Aquatic Species Program was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of algal culture as a source of oil and resulted in important advances in the technology. feedstock mix for producing advanced biofuels. 1. DOE sponsored the Marine Biomass 1. needed to support commercialization activities.

g. biochemical conversion. solvent systems. fertilizers. flocculation. and separations CONVERSION CONVERSION • Investigate multiple approaches to liquid transportation fuels (e. microwave.e. and surfactants) Co-products • Optimize co-product extraction and recovery • Conduct market analyses. and thermal management PURSUING STRATEGIC R&D: TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS Given the multiple technology and system options and their interdependency. dissolved air floatation.. stability. and end-product variability and Utilization • Optimize distribution for energy and costs in the context of facility siting • Comply with all regulatory and customer requirements for utilization (e. centrifugation. including quality and safety trials to meet applicable standards • Characterize algal biomass. filtration. carrying capacity. open.g.g. biofuel. and nutrient resource requirements for siting of microalgae Resources (heterotrophic & photoautotrophic) and macroalgae production systems and Siting • Integrate with wastewater treatment and/or CO2 emitter industries (in the case of heterotrophic approach) • Address salt balance.. pressure..g.g. and bioproducts under different storage and transport scenarios for INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Distribution contamination. closed. water. phototrophic. and materials from algal remnants (e. and mechanized seaweed harvesting) Harvesting and • Minimize process energy intensity Dewatering • Lower capital and operating costs • Assess each technology option in terms of overall system compatibility and sustainability • Investigate multiple approaches (e. sedimentation. Overview  . animal/fish feeds. and coastal/off-shore systems. bioplastics. such as operational temperature. intermediates. FEEDSTOCK and mixotrophic growth) Algal • Achieve robust and stable cultures at a commercial scale Cultivation • Optimize system for algal productivity of fuel precursors (e. hybrid. engine performance and material compatibility) • Assess and characterize land. activity. and anaerobic digestion) Fuel • Improve catalyst specificity. preserve co-products Fractionation • Minimize process energy intensity • Investigate recycling mechanisms to minimize waste • Address scaling challenges. high-throughput screening technologies Algal Biology • Develop open-access database and collections of existing strains with detailed characterization • Investigate genetics and biochemical pathways for production of fuel precursors • Improve on strains for desired criteria by gene manipulation techniques or breeding FEEDSTOCK • Investigate multiple approaches (i. thermochemical/catalytic conversion. subcritical water. side reactions. energy. energy balance. and nutrients • Identify and address environmental risks and impacts • Investigate multiple harvesting approaches (e. selective extraction. heterotrophic. water. weather impacts.. industrial enzymes. sonication. direct fuel production.. lipids) • Sustainably and cost-effectively manage the use of land. climate. and durability Conversion • Reduce contaminants and reaction inhibitors • Minimize process energy intensity and emissions over the life cycle • Achieve high conversion rates under scale-up conditions • Identify and evaluate the co-production of value-added chemicals. 6 1. supercritical fluid. energy. water & nutrient reuse.g... biogas. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ALGAL BIOFUELS: TECHNOLOGY GOALS PROCESS R&D CHALLENGES STEP • Sample strains from a wide variety of environments for maximum diversity • Develop small-scale. and secretion) Extraction and • Achieve high yield of desired intermediates. an integrated techno-economic modeling and analysis spanning the entire algae to biofuels supply chain is crucial in guiding research efforts along select pathways that offer the most opportunity to practically enable a viable and sustainable algae-based biofuels and co-products industry.

such as research and development process to help ensure algae intellectual property rights.. Catalytic conversion of microalgae and vegetable oils to premium gasoline.. W. Overview  7 . P. TN. 1999. Solar Energy Research. 31(6). Perlack. RD&D activities can inform further development of applicable laws and standards.G. E. Algal from multiple entities. Evans.G. 2008.J. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply.E...D. 25(3). supporting education are legally and safely developed and the end-products will be critical to create intellectual talent and the (i. Chisti. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. 2009].. Jarvis. Genetic transformation of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. with algal biofuels commercialization. & Ohlrogge.B.A. 219-232. 223–242. 1978. 394–400. Oswald.US Patent 5928932 Abstract. P. W. et al. Rodolfi. P. Jarvis. there are no existing standards for various aspects of algal biofuels production. Engineering Design and Cost Analysis of a Large-Scale Microalgae Biomass System. Microbiol. T.G. 21(3). References Benemann. it is recognized economic. biofuels and co-products) comply with applicable workforce needed to allow this industry to grow. 1960.L.. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Also. structuring public- biofuel developers need to foresee and understand the private partnerships for successful ventures is a challenge potentially applicable legal requirements early on in the in itself given the myriad issues and interests. & Nagle.. Oak Ridge. Phycol. N. & Roessler. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica . 11. 1955. Meier. Available at: [Accessed November 3. T. ORNL/TM-2006/66. Final Report to the US Energy Department. and policy. with shape-selective zeolites.. Roessler. Being a nascent industry. J.. R. 91. Pursoff. Dunahay. J. 1990.. & Oswald. P. 24. Biotechnol Bioeng. & Roessler. and policy and regulatory challenges as that RD&D activities need to be carried out under a resolution of these issues will likely require participation framework of standards. Journal of Phycology. However. et al. Biodiesel from microalgae.Regulations and Standards Public-Private Partnerships While the Roadmap’s primary objective is to highlight A collaborative framework of public-private partnerships the technical challenges and opportunities associated offers an opportunity to jointly address the technological.. Biological cycles in the transformation of solar energy into useful fuels. 1. P. & Golueke. 294–306. induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. Biological transformation of solar energy. NTIS# H CP/ T..G. 2007. Roessler.J. R. 102(1). regulation. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. consumption standards.J. Appl. 2005. 100–112.. Y. R.G. 1995. 1605(UC-61). J. 1004–1011.e... Cloning and characterization of the gene that encodes acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the alga Cyclotella cryptica. However. 1993.. Biomass. 1988. Biotechnology Advances. Microalgae for oil: strain selection. Milne. C. L. 179–183. Adv.R. E.

ponds. cultivation and strain development. marine require significant experimental effort. tolerance to environmental variables (temperature. 2. within an aqueous habitat. Algal Biology  . For large-scale sampling and isolation efforts. coordinated to ensure broadest coverage of environments and to avoid duplication of efforts. which includes fresh. Algal Biology The term “algae” commonly refers to a diverse mix of Additionally. actual strain identification should be based on The goals of algae isolation and screening efforts are to molecular methods such as rRNA sequence comparison. Traditionally. Due to their diverse characteristics. 2005). pH. Algae include Isolation Techniques microalgae (unicellular eukaryotic organisms). and strain robustness. high-throughput automated isolation techniques involving Screening and Selection fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have proven to be extremely useful (Sieracki et al. Because all of these parameters habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. streams. can include public lands as well as various sites within many strains also secrete metabolites into the growth our national and state park systems. 8 2.. and measuring the productivity of analysis tools. salinity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and and carbohydrates. brackish. Screening Criteria and Methods new strains should be isolated from a wide variety of An ideal screen would cover three major areas: growth environments to provide the largest range in metabolic physiology. CO2 levels).e. see Anderson. and generation. the enrichment cultures (Andersen and Kawachi. Because it is not yet known how algae will be cultivated on a mass scale. acidic and alkaline environments) and For example. and though find application in biofilm-based production facilities. other gene markers. oxygen levels. Algae can be in suspended mass cultures. type and strain of algae being cultivated will ultimately However. 1984). algae are organisms from different kingdoms of life. questions medium. lipids. Natural Habitats maximum cell density. some algal strains take weeks to months to affect every step of the algae to biofuels supply chain. on the cultivation approaches and fuel precursor desired. products. large-scale sampling efforts should be all parameters simultaneously would be helpful. of automated systems that provide information regarding Furthermore. distribution but also for the temporal succession brought about by seasonal variations of algae in their habitats. Furthermore. Ecosystems to be sampled could include the organism regarding metabolites useful for biofuels aquatic (i. In all cases. oceans. typically found in planktonic (free floating) and benthic algae have been unified based on their ability to carry out (attached) environments. (seaweeds). 2004). this is not always the case.or eukaryotic. the development and hyper-saline environments. The selection of specific locations can be determined by sophisticated site Screening for metabolite production may involve selection criteria through the combined use of dynamic determining the cellular composition of proteins. locations to maximize genetic diversity. versatility possible. be isolated by traditional methods (for a comprehensive review of algal culturing techniques. a helpful screen for oil production would terrestrial environments in a variety of geographical allow for distinction between neutral and polar lipids. and cyanobacteria (historically known as traditional cultivation techniques may be used such as blue-green algae). Because of Isolation and Characterization of morphological similarities when comparing many algal Naturally Occurring Algae species. or identify and maintain promising algal specimens for in the case of closely related strains. Collection sites and would provide fatty acid profiles. The exact screens employed would depend geothermal springs. lakes. metabolite production. macroalgae For isolation of new strains from natural habitats. they typically live in aquatic environments and are capable of photosynthesis. and soil (Round. and Algae can be isolated from a variety of natural aqueous nutrient requirements. and new approaches are needed to develop Sampling strategies should not only account for spatial screening methods for extracellular materials. Some of these could prove to be valuable co- of ownership of isolated strains should be considered.1 Strain Isolation. 2005). maps. The term growth physiology encompasses a number of parameters such as maximum specific growth rate. whereas benthic algae may single or multi-cellular and pro. hypersaline. Planktonic algae may be used photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats..2. rivers.

and breeding and metabolic engineering approaches to improve though these methods require much less biomass (as little biofuels production. 1991. community stability. open access repository could accelerate do not always perform similarly in outdoor mass R&D of algae-based biofuels production systems. and provide 3. Biological interaction (symbiosis. Culture collection organizations of species (particularly in mixed field samples) necessary could be responsible for the gathering and for the future of algal ecology. Role of Culture Collections as National reference) Algae Data Resource Centers 2. Transcriptomics. other countries. temperature. is the most nutrient requirements.. Strain properties: Cytological.. but it is very difficult to obtain resilience. which data. They currently maintain thousands & screening results of different algal strains and support the research and industrial community with their expertise in algae 5. biochemical. They may also 7. only a few major collector) algal collection centers exist in the United States and 4. algal strains. pH) & support research on determining strain characteristics. It could also reduce dissemination of detailed information about potentially the number of redundant screens of algal species. valuable strains. and predators present in a given environment.. Mutants biology. Previous robustness of particular existing strains. National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in West Boothbay At this time. for example. Practical applications (general and industrial) information on the characteristics of currently available 10. basic research resources. but could prove extremely useful for the identification resource centers. it will be important to isolate a wide as a single cell). de la Jara et al. small-scale simulations of mass A number of algal strains are currently available from culture conditions will need to be performed.For mass culture of a given algal strain. metabolites. that can be used for mass culture in biofuels applications. 1998). or in connection with outside collaborators. cultures (Sheehan et al. Information could include: 1.000 strains. Culture collections are necessary to preserve the diversity preservation) of natural habitats. Protection of intellectual property in private or Metabolomics) 2. and phylogeny either by themselves 8. algae stems from a lack of high-throughput methodologies because many of the strains in these collections have been that would allow simultaneous screening of multiple cultivated for several decades. Fluorescent methods strains directly from unique environments. Plasmids and Phages transcends simple depository functions. taxonomy. molecular. such as mating capability or versatility regarding productivity. However. such as growth rate and metabolite properties. some may have lost original phenotypes. Environment and strain history (specific habitat. The function of a culture collection often 6. At present. the bottleneck in screening large numbers of Harbor.. existing culture collections. Not only document data on strains. Proteomics. The culture collections such as UTEX (The Culture Collection development of small-scale but high-throughput screening of Algae at the University of Texas at Austin. it is also industry has further exacerbated the flow of relevant strain important to consider the strain’s robustness. they could potentially are rapid screening procedures necessary for the biofuels serve as nuclei for the development of national algae field. native al. The establishment studies revealed that algae strains tested in the laboratory of a central strain. Algal Biology  9 . germination conditions cryopreservation. Texas). Maine). no central database exists that provides global 9. with more than 2. to determine a strain’s robustness. and susceptibility to more detailed information on growth. Strain name (species. it has not yet been established if these variety of algae for assembly into a culture collection that methods are valid across a wide range of algal strains (Elsey will serve as a bioresource for further biofuels research. Therefore. To obtain versatile and robust strains common method for determination of lipid content in algae.500 strains. et al. and CCMP (The Provasoli-Guillard of hundreds to thousands of different algal isolates. Further improvements in analytical methodology could be made through the As the major culture collections already collect and development of solid-state screening methods. Omics data (Genomics. pathogenicity. 2007. subspecies name. ) (Bligh and Dyer. 1959). Growth conditions (media. but it requires a significant quantity of biomass (Ahlgren et it would be prudent to consider the isolation of new. protect genetic material. For both direct using lipid-soluble dyes have also been described. Strain administration (number in collection. with technologies is an important step in enabling the testing about 3. Solvent extraction. 2003). toxicity) Currently. Some minimal growth information is available from includes parameters such as culture consistency.

there are two types of algal model harvesting step. A potential disadvantage of the addition One consideration in choosing model systems is the of external carbon sources is the possibility of increased type of fuel. systems could be studied. but we cannot be certain that laboratory strains unfavorably alter fluidics properties or provide a carbon and production strains will be sufficiently related to allow source favoring growth of contaminants. carbohydrates. or a screen of environmental isolates for species 10 2. which simplifies characterization Given the diversity of algae. to providing information on basic cellular processes then collection of the atmosphere above the culture will regarding the synthesis of fuel precursors. If the carbon source is utilized by the cell. Pilot-scale experimentation and further metabolic engineering is required to evaluate Culture stability over long periods will be a key to low cost possible advantages and disadvantages of secretion. growth in both Targeting Desired Fuel Product or Intermediate light and dark periods is possible. and high cell densities can be achieved. In some species. they are still associated with the cells in a lipid strains that grow well in the laboratory are suitable for biofilm matrix. Rapid growth is important both for overall productivity and the ability to compete with Capability for Heterotrophic or contaminating strains. A reasonable first approach to identify model species that are optimal for the production of a desired fuel is through a survey of the literature. For example. secretion for lessons from the former to be applied to the latter. of either intermediates or products into the growth medium could make these compounds vulnerable to contaminating Useful Algal Characteristics microbes for catabolism. viruses could also be a useful phenotype. Other traits like the ability to grow to Mixotrophic Growth high cell density in continuous culture may allow a strain to be maintained while at the same time reducing the amount Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth capabilities may of water to be processed daily. Also the ability addition of supplemental carbon results in increased lipid to flocculate without addition of chemical flocculating accumulation (Xu et al. In such a strain. Even that other strains will be chosen for production. there may be practical problems systems to consider studying: species or strains amenable to consider. contamination by undesired microbes living off the carbon Possible fuel types of interest could include H2. However.Selecting Algal Model Systems that naturally make abundant amounts of the desired for Study product. cellular metabolism is already geared toward production. in a practical sense. the number of algal systems that can be studied in depth has to be limited because a critical mass of researchers Secretion of Products or Intermediates is required to make progress on a given species. 2006). a large number of model and possible strain development for production. and thus are not free to form an organic large-scale culturing (Sheehan. and species be necessary to isolate it. Co-products could include pharmaceuticals manufacture everything from cancer drugs to high. an abundance of exported lipids could feasible. supplements. 1998)..volume/ (therapeutic proteins and secondary metabolites). However. The ability of an algal species to secrete fuel precursors may be attractive because it could reduce or skip the cell In relation to biofuels. 2002).g. or materials for nanotechnology (in the case of the silica cell wall of diatoms). this is not generally a problem with well- isoprenoids. intermediate. although there are algae known processes since the basic tools are in place. or methane (via anaerobic that are currently deployed worldwide at massive scale to digestion). Resistance to predators and be attractive attributes of algal strains. it to secrete long-chain hydrocarbons (e. lipids. such as. production of biofuels. alcohols (either directly or established fully-heterotrophic fermentation technologies through biomass conversion). so it is possible hydrocarbon phase in solution (Banerjee et al. if the desired product is volatile. source. Finally. However. 2006). Species with sequenced genomes and transgenic secretion actually makes the product more readily capabilities are the most amenable to investigating cellular available. Algal Biology  .. For example. Adapting if sustainable secretion could be achieved. Also to be considered is whether growth.cost commodities such as lysine and ethanol. transported into the cell (Ceron Garcia et al. even under mixotrophic agents could reduce the costs of harvest as long as it could conditions where the substrate is not known to be be controlled to avoid settling in the cultivation system. However. or co-product to be produced. Botryococcus was shown in the Aquatic Species Program that not all braunii). it is not clear the lessons learned from laboratory model strains to what the effect of a lipid emulsion in an algal culture would strains known to be capable of large-scale growth may be be. which will necessitate the use or strains with characteristics useful for large-scale of closed bioreactors.. food low.

. 2008. Libourel and Shachar-Hill.” Even with this photoprotection. therefore. proteins. Theoretical productivity is an important concept. knowledge of metabolic pathways. nutrient starvation.. Yang et al. that is the desired fuel precursor. possible that TAG and starch could to maximize light exposure (see Chapter 3). which can lead to oxidative damage. 2003). biomass 2007. 2005). starch transiently accumulated culture at greater than laboratory scale is not utilized. and shares the Eberhard et al.. indicating that starch is an important storage reaching more distant cells (Christi. total dry weight (Mcdermid and Stuercke. Algal Biology  11 . 1994. however. Research has also When algae are cultivated photosynthetically. been carried out for plants (Zhu et al.. and Niyogi. Foyer et al. 1991). It may be useful to carry out photosynthetic of carbon between alternative storage products will efficiency studies in algae similar to those that have be important for metabolic engineering of algae. 2002). understand the metabolic pathways and processes that Understanding carbon partitioning will require extensive generate them in order to advance biofuels production. affecting growth rate. although concentrations approaching 20% lipid have been reported Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism in some species (Chu et al. a link between starch and lipid metabolism has There are many good reviews available that cover basic been established.1). Ruuska tend to absorb all the incoming light. there remains be inter-convertible. More emphasis should be placed on understanding a general rule. 2002). Krause and same precursors with the storage lipid TAG (Exhibit Weis. Schwender et al. important to strain development and designing cultivation strategies. Metabolic networks have been reconstructed in various microbes from genomic and transcriptomic data. with lipid these processes if we are to better engineer the capture accumulation in macroalgae typically being less than 5% of and utilization of light energy for biomass production. 1994. accumulate large amounts of TAG (30-60% of dry weight). and potentially. Certain microalgal species also naturally the efficiency of light utilization (Polle et al. cells nearer to the light source accumulation phase (Kang and Rawsthorne. 2008). and predictive Photosynthesis and Light Utilization modeling (Vemuri and Aristidou. and exhibit photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production There is still much to learn about the dynamics and at least an order of magnitude greater than terrestrial crop regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus (Eberhard et al. 2009. Though theoretical However. pathway analysis. the percent of biomass and Fernie. algae. photoinhibition or the reduction O2 and organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates of photosynthesis due to light damage can still occur and lipids. carbohydrates. 2006. 2008).. studies in higher plants showed that when 2. 2007). in their productivity. carbon partitioning in algae is less understood biomass productivity values in the range of 100-200 g/ and research on how algal cells control the flux and m2/day have been presented (Chisti.2 Algal Physiology strategies to prevent the over-absorption of light energy. for biofuel production. and lipids) is critically needed (Boyle and Morgan. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae. 1994. It is. Lipids and carbohydrates. therefore. A fundamental understanding of both cultivation process design and strain improvement ‘global’ regulatory networks that control the partitioning projects.. algal photosystems have built-in More recently. some microalgae accumulate lipids In an effort to overcome this barrier.. as 2008). 2007 and 2008) Further. 2007). accumulate mostly carbohydrates. are all potential biofuels lipids and/or carbohydrates could be very useful for biofuels or biofuel precursors. It is.. 1999). Regardless of the cultivation practices used 2. 2002). A large majority of and Biochemistry absorbed incident light is dissipated as heat and could be Many algae are photosynthetic organisms capable of considered “wasted. a potentially important implication limitations of algal photosystems regarding light utilization. preventing it from et al.. 2003). under harvesting solar energy and converting CO2 and water to certain light regimes. the been done in plant systems to understand carbon flux in efficiency of photosynthesis is a crucial determinate biosynthetic and degradative pathways (Lytovchenko et al. it was shown that such as triacylglycerols (TAG) as their main carbon storage reducing the size of the chlorophyll antenna can increase compounds. storage compound in plants and algae. In and starch metabolism was most active before the lipid high cell density cultures. Nelson and Yocum.. Even when compound and its synthesis precedes oil accumulation. Starch is a common carbon and energy algal photosynthetic processes (Nelson et al. plants (Hu et al. Allen et al. 1994. In young Arabidopsis seeds The majority of light that falls on a photosynthetic algal and Brassica embryos. Sweetlove production. along with biologically Knowing how and when carbon is partitioned in a cell into produced hydrogen and alcohols. there is no partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon into various current consensus on the true maximum productivity of groups of major macromolecules (i.. because it can be used to set achievable goals for 2009.2... 2005..e. Mcdermid and Stuercke. Under stress conditions such as high light or (Long et al. 2004.. exposed to high light. 2003.

though their physical structure and the presence in an acyl CoA-independent way (Arabolaza et al. The acyltransferases be broken down into simpler sugars before conversion involved in TAG synthesis may exhibit preferences into biofuels. use 16 or carbohydrates such as laminaran. many membrane lipids and/or carbohydrates to TAG have algal cell walls from different groupings are cellulose. plant embryos or absence of other structural polysaccharides varies or seeds accumulated 40% less oil (Periappuram et al. and complex carbohydrates that they use for carbon storage and cell structure. the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the 1995). Diatoms are also unique among algae for the presence of silica in their cell walls. 2008). and thus may play an for example. However. Microorganisms capable of fermenting laminarin and TAG biosynthesis in algae has been proposed to occur mannitol from Laminaria hyperborea to ethanol have via the above Kennedy pathway described in plants. Yoo et al. Since polysaccharides may still prove useful as intermediates diglycerides are usually present in high amounts in rapidly to other types of conversion processes and final fuels. If carbohydrates Lipid Synthesis and Regulation are to be used as fuel precursors. 2008. TAG is formed by food reserves. for The synthesis of cellular and organelle membranes. must typically 2006. These structures can be an important source of that is unique to TAG biosynthesis (Lung and Weselake. which are important cellulose-based cell walls and accumulating starch as potential fuel precursors. while some algae lack synthesis. Cell walls can also be a technical barrier. degradation. 1987).. therefore. Some algae. are encased in a polysaccharide sheath (Hoiczyk and Hansel. be fruitful to Most cyanobacteria have a peptidoglycan layer and cell further research de novo starch synthesis. Vigeolas et al.. Cyanobacteria often store large quantities incorporation of the fatty acid into a glycerol backbone of glycogen (Chao and Bowen. The major pathway for the their main carbohydrate storage compound. been identified and partially characterized (Horn et al. An important lesson is the recognition of the diversity of algal polysaccharides and cell walls. an enzyme wall.. envelope similar to those of gram-negative bacteria. In the final step of TAG synthesis. some red algae and dinoflagellates. featuring rigid such as triacyglycerols (TAG). and and interaction with lipid metabolism in algae.. As mentioned above. 2006).. 2004). Another important consideration in algal strains is the a third fatty acid is transferred to the vacant position 3 composition and structure of the polysaccharide cell of DAG by diacylglycerol acyltransferase. carbohydrates. (Roessler. as example many brown algae and diatoms. Other algae. these phosphatase releases diacylglycerol (DAG). Athenstaedt and Daum. including de novo fatty acid synthesis in the stroma of plastids. cell walls entirely. via three sequential acyl transfers (from acyl CoA) These major storage polysaccharides represent potential in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Exhibit 2. resulting in the formation of the central considered less suitable for ethanol fermentation because metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) (Ohlrogge and Browse. 2002). or efficiently extracting biofuel precursors of TAG (Hu et al. when trying to access DNA for genetic important role in determining the final acyl composition manipulations. 2000). recently been demonstrated in bacteria. Dephosphorylation of PA catalyzed by a specific end product (Bird and Benson. It could. growing cultures. 1971. 1992). greatly. the nature of the interaction is unknown. 12 2. but like those from plants. biochemical feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels. it may be of interest to research these TAG intermediates. feedstock potential. accumulate significant quantities of neutral storage lipids Many green microalgae are plant-like. Several formation of TAG in plants first involves algae commonly use starch for energy storage. naturally or under stress conditions. plants and yeast based. and extraction processes. 1988). Alternative pathways to convert from cells in mass culture. for example for fermentation to produce alcohols. Other abundant polysaccharides.starch synthesis was impaired or inhibited. for specific acyl CoA molecules.. Some red In microalgae. While these results provide cellulose and have other polymers that provide structure an indication that starch synthesis is linked to lipid to the cell (Raven et al. There are also many algae that completely lack 2000. accumulate well as of neutral storage lipids such as TAG. Algal Biology  . Fatty acids produced in the chloroplast are sequentially 2000a and 2000b). or fucoidin as 18 carbon fatty acids as precursors.. mannitol. it is important to Primary Pathway for TAG Synthesis determine the predominate types that are present. and the Algal Carbohydrates technical challenges these structures may present in strain Algae are incredibly diverse in the kind of simple manipulation.1). are 3-phosphate. transferred from CoA to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol- for example alginate found in many brown algae. such an interaction has been also algae also have a thick extracellular matrix composed indicated by studies on the diatom Cyclotella cryptica of important products such as agar or carrageenan.

This has revealed that algal lipid metabolism may be different lack of understanding may contribute to why the lipid from that in plants. involved in lipid metabolism in algae. ER AGPPase: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. ACP: acyl carrier protein. Analyzing different algae could help ability to control the fate of fatty acids varies among algal to elucidate the possible pathways of TAG synthesis: the taxonomic groups or even between isolates or strains. Similarly. If this proves to have not yet been studied in algae. Glc6P: Phospholipids glucose-6-phosphate. If the or culture conditions. PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase (putative pathways were proposed in dashed lines). Because fatty acids are common precursors for the Alternative Pathways to Storage Lipids synthesis of both membrane lipids and TAG.C18 CoA Figure 2. KAS: 3-ketoacyl-ACP. Thus. to develop hypotheses for strain improvement in algae. if any. enzymes and new scenarios for lipid production and strain improvement.1 Major pathways for fatty acid Phosphatidic acid and TAG synthesis in plants and algae 3-PGA: 3-phosphoglycerate... laboratory (Hu et al. algal cell coordinates the distribution of the precursors to and the relative contribution of these individual pathways distinct destinations or how the inter-conversion between to overall TAG formation may depend on environmental the two types of lipids occurs needs to be elucidated. de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis should Understanding lipid regulation can help to maximize be studied in order to identify key genes. CO 2 Glc6P Starch AGPPase Central Starch Glc6P 3-PGA 3-PGA Amylases Metabolic Pyruvate Mitochondria PDH CO 2 Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Acetyl -CoA Chloroplast ACCase TCA cycle Acetyl-CoA KAS I KAS II Glycolipids SAD Galactolipase? C16 . 2004). These pathways are worth investigating to use information regarding lipid biosynthesis in plants when developing strains for improved lipid production. GDAT: putative Acetyl- glycolipids: DAG acyltransferase. As an example. PA and be true. 2000. and other 2. as indicated by the presence and/or yields obtained from algal mass culture efforts fall absence of certain pathways and by the size of the gene short of the high values (50 to 60%) observed in the families that relate to various activities (Riekhof et al.. 2008. DAGT PDAT? PDAT: Phospholipids: DAG acyltransferase. Algal Biology  13 . pathways. Diacylglycerol (DAG) ER: Endoplasmic reticulum. it could be a challenge to extrapolate information DAG can also be used directly as substrates for synthesis learned about lipid biosynthesis and regulation in laboratory of polar lipids. Stahl et al.. the annotation of genes involved in lipid The regulation of the synthesis of fatty acids and metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii TAG in algae is relatively poorly understood.. such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and strains to production strains. Moreover. 1998). it will be difficult galactolipids. how the Algae may possess multiple pathways for TAG synthesis. Sheehan et al. Such pathways property of individual species or strains. Accase: acetyl GDAT? CoA carboxylase. the de-novo Kennedy Pathway. 2005). Triacylglycerol Lipid Body Dahlqvist et al. the potential pathway for lipid basal lipid and TAG content may represent an intrinsic formation from starch reserves mentioned earlier.

In order to better understand lipid to membrane lipids. an important aspect of membrane formation the role of oleosins (Murphy. Huang. 1992). and thus relax the over-reduced electron related to storage lipid formation requires further study. In oil-producing microorganisms. metabolism in algae. and et al. Under high light stress. and their interactions with other organelles excess electrons. proteins. to the obvious physiological role of TAG as a carbon and 2009).. the default pathway in some mitochondria and glyoxysomes/peroxisomes. including vitamins. 2008). some algal cells stop division and accumulate TAG as the main carbon storage compound. with acyl earlier).and glyco. which direct physical continuities between lipid bodies and may in turn cause inhibition of photosynthesis and damage bilayer membranes. Fatty acids can then Despite the economic importance of algae as a source of be either assembled into glycerolipids at chloroplast a wide range of lipophilic products. 14 2.potential pathways to convert membrane phospholipids and The TAG synthesis pathway is also often coordinated glycolipids into TAG. 1998. the exact relationship between oxidative stress. Current work in plants is understandable in view of their exclusive localization is focused on deciphering lipid transport across plastid on lipid-body surfaces. The thylakoids of chloroplasts are with secondary carotenoid synthesis in algae (Rabbani the main intracellular membranes of eukaryotic algae. toxic fatty acids excluded from the membrane system the fate of these abundant lipids remains unclear.g.. excess membrane lipids. sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~15%) and the chloroplast under stress. transport chain under high light or other stress conditions. Carotenoid-rich lipid bodies serve as a (~50%). and other components into form of TAG. and spatial. membranes or they can be exported to the ER and hydrocarbons and very long-chain ω-3 and ω -6 fatty assembled into lipids for cellular membranes. Zhekisheva et al.. Such work is also important in algae to distribution and their great abundance in many lipid- better understand the interaction among organelles as storing seeds.lipids (Alvarez and Steinbuchel. It has as acyl donors.. the TAG synthesis pathway body accumulation occurs.. the role of oleosins in the biogenesis of plant lipid bodies. as an electron sink under photo-oxidative stress (discussed 2002). 1993. In addition to load or discharge their lipid cargo (Zehmer et al. The de novo TAG synthesis pathway can serve phospho. as rapid lipid energy storage compound. the chloroplast stroma is the primary location to Other Organelles for fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. β-carotene. As mentioned Lipid Body Formation and Relationship earlier. their apparently widespread envelopes. It has been suggested that oleosins may be primarily Oxidative Stress and Storage Lipids associated with the stabilization of storage lipid bodies during the severe hydrodynamic stresses of dehydration Under environmental stress conditions (such as nutrient and rehydration that occurs in many seeds (Murphy. with exceptions. The study the plastid where they are assimilated. 1998). a close relationship is often may also play a more active and diverse role in the stress found between neutral lipids like TAG and the membrane response. or with other organelles such as may be. This relationship may be both metabolic. Nevertheless. TAG synthesis may also phosphatidlyglycerol ( ~15%) (Harwood. phatidylethanolamine or stress conditions as degradation of chloroplasts occurs. Some acids. Lipid trafficking of lipid-body biogenesis in plants has focused largely on is. excess electrons that and glycerol moieties exchanged between the different accumulate in the photosynthetic electron transport chain lipid classes. cell division. Synthesis of Lipid bodies may dock with different regions of the ER TAG and deposition of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies and plasma membrane. Under utilize phosphatidylcholine. 2008). Because of the potential importance of TAG play an important role for cell survival under stress. the structure and function of lipid However. Organelle Interactions and storage lipid formation warrants further study. thereby serving as a mechanism to been proposed that these alternative pathways that convert “detoxify” these compounds and deposit them in the starch. This and lipid fate (Benning. or astaxanthin) produced in cells under favorable growth conditions. 2001). Algal chloroplasts the carotenoid pathway are sequestered into cytosolic contain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as their main lipid lipid bodies. starvation). with growing evidence of induce over-production of reactive oxygen species. there have been relatively few studies on lipid glycerolipids assembled at the ER are then returned to bodies in algae compared with plants and fungi. stress conditions on lipid production in algae. 2002). therefore. Chloroplast membranes control the exchange of metabolites between the plastid and the cytoplasm. there are now doubts about it relates to lipid formation and lipid trafficking. The molecules their lipid composition dominates extracts obtained from (e. and other macromolecules. in order algae under stress conditions (Hu et al. the formation of fatty acids could help consume bodies. with smaller amounts of digalactosyldiacylglycerol ‘sunscreen’ to prevent or reduce excess light from striking ( ~20%). lutein. Algal Biology  .

2 P700* A0 A1 -0.Besides biochemical analysis to study algal lipids 2007). and a third. studies involving Expressed containing iron (which are generally H2-evolving). those and carbohydrates. in the following reactions: 2H2O hydrogenases with improved tolerance to O2 (Cohen + light energy → O2 + 4H+ + 4e. In all pathways. would enzymes).. Based on such information. Posewitz. 2000. 2003). fermentative H2 pathway coupled to starch production (Mathews and Wang. 2005). Gfeller the photosynthetic membrane for decreased efficiency of and Gibbs. (c) regulatory issues associated with the over production of ATP.. and (d) engineering I) or NADH from the glycolytic breakdown of stored the photosynthetic antenna pigment content for increased carbohydrate (through photosystem I). There are two major types of hydrogenases. (b) identifying metabolic pathways that pathways have been described in green algae: two light. Three et al. Either O2+2H+ water or starch can be the electron donor. and engineering their down-regulation during H2 independent. the light-driven pathways photosynthetic-electron-transport-coupled ATP production can either employ water (through photosystems II and (ATP is not required for H2 production). As a substrate. a These challenges could be addressed by (a) engineering potential fuel product.4 PC Chl fixation P700 0. and proteomic studies. (c) engineering degradation (see Exhibit 2. Carbon is fixed under Photosynthesis normal photosynthesis with water as the donor. Hydrogenases are the enzymes responsible for releasing molecular H2 (Ghirardi et al.4 Pheo QA QB 2H+ Photosystem II 0. (b) competition for photosynthetic reductant at the level of ferredoxin. carbon partitioning and lipid/carbohydrate synthesis in algae.8 Chl 2H2O Figure 2. (Drawing courtesy of Prof.2) (Melis et al.2 P680 Two are driven by light and the third occurs in the dark. metabolic Four biological challenges limiting biohydrogen production engineering through genetic manipulation represents in algae have been identified: (a) the O2 sensitivity of yet another strategy for the production of algal oils. 2009). or Sequence Tag (EST) analysis. Colorado School of Mines ) 2.0 PQ Cyt b CO2 Cyt f 0. One of the most important characteristics also help provide information about photosynthetic of hydrogenases is that they are O2 sensitive.. compete with hydrogenases for photosynthetic reductant.. M. efficiency of solar light utilization (Polle et al. driven H2-photoproduction pathways.. ferredoxin (FD) is the primary electron donor to the hydrogenase enzyme. 2008). Some microalgae and cyanobacteria can produce H2. for example.→ O2 + 2H2. cDNA microarray both nickel and iron (which are generally H2-uptake analysis.2 Three different pathways for H2 production 1. hydrogenases. 1984). and (d) inefficiencies in Biohydrogen the utilization of solar light energy (Seibert et al. light. but the electron acceptor is switched at the level of ferredoxin (FD) from CO2 to protons under conditions that lead to H2 production.8 Fx H2 Photosystem I P680* FA/FB FD H2ase Energy (Volts) -0. Glycolysis ADP ATP starch pyruvate Acetyl-CoA + CO2 NAD++H+ NADH PFOR NPQR NAD++H+ FD(ox) FD (red) -1. Algal Biology  15 .

modify genes or gene expression in a particular organism. human health. and (c) learn to express multiple hydrogenases The generation and characterization of mutants is a so that electrons from both ferredoxin (Fd) and NAD(P) powerful approach to understand gene function and H can serve as electron donors to support H2 production. more knowledge cannot be overlooked. using the carbon reserves biology of algal growth and metabolite accumulation produced during the day. potentially generate strains with desirable characteristics. 1987). fermentation is using modern analytical approaches will provide a wealth constitutive. 2) describes were found to use pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. 2002. biological process engineering breakthroughs directly tolerant hydrogenases (Ghirardi et al. 1989). the stability of the desirable trait through many production via indirect biophotolysis. examples of how algal biotechnology has been applied 1997). the ability to improve on native strains under non-N2 fixing condition. In cyanobacteria. accounting for their ability to adapt quickly of hypotheses for strain improvements. al. fungi and higher plants. For all of these with ethanol. using nitrogenase as the catalyst. the limited algal to changing environmental conditions (Stal and Krumbein. and 3) highlights a few via nitrogenase or hydrogenase (Stal and Moezelaar.. 2008). Some of these methods can also be used to study the It is well established that dark fermentation suffers from localization of gene products (mRNAs and proteins) low H2 molar yield (less than 4 moles of H2 per mol within cells. the unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium The Genetic Toolbox Gloeocapsa alpicola can evolve H2 from the fermentation Because biological productivity is a key driver for of stored glycogen (Serebryakova et al. and CO2 (van der Oost et al. ATCC 51142 (Toepel et and these are the subjects of Chapters 3 and 4. This temporal separation of H2 production from to date. and to acetate. (b) remove or down-regulate competing fermentative pathways thus directing more of the cellular flux toward H2 Mutagenesis production. several challenges generations and the possibility of unintended horizontal must be addressed: (a) improve photosynthetic efficiency gene transfer to other organisms are important research to increase the yield of carbohydrate accumulation. In all cases. hexose) (Turner et al. A possibility enabled new multi-billion dollar commercial enterprises to improve the efficiency of biological H2 production for agriculture. Efforts should be undertaken to understand the fundamental To circumvent the inhibition of hydrogenase by O2. Algal Biology  . and the production of includes developing biohybrid (those with biological chemicals. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for degradation Thus. While many of the challenges described above The biotechnology industry grew from more than 100 exist in these organisms.. hydrogen evolution pathways. for commonly used bacteria. 2005). While a better understanding of the basic for H2 production at night. and algae genetically remain far behind those developed hydrogenase structure and function is required. Genetic approaches are commonly also excretes typical fermentation byproducts including used to introduce genes. From here. enabling technologies and analyses that can be applied which reduces ferredoxin for subsequent H2 production for biofuels and bioproducts. this subsection seeks to 1) address the genetic of glucose to pyruvate. In order to fully realize the potential of H2 approaches. the importance of being able to harness and synthetic components) and synthetic photosynthetic biotechnology approaches to generate algae with desirable systems that mimic the fuel-producing processes of properties for the production of biofuels and bioproducts photosynthetic organisms. genetic and cellular processes involved in the synthesis another option for H2 production is to take advantage and regulation of potential fuel precursors from diverse of the fermentation pathways that exist in some algae species of algae. genetic toolbox that can be used to modify process- 1987). 16 2. to delete or disrupt genes.Recently there has been a focus on using cyanobacteria to 2. they are typically more easily years of basic biology and genetics R&D. methods to manipulate of photosynthesis.. the hydrogenase from is a potentially important element in the research effort Cyanothece PCC 7822 produces H2 in the dark and toward algal biofuels.3 Algal Biotechnology produce H2 (Tamagnini et al. engineered than eukaryotic algae and have more O2.. For algae that undergo sexual reproduction. Thus. formate. 2008) and Oscillatoria (Stal and Krumbein. However. Methods to cultivate and process algae in photosynthesis has been demonstrated in the unicellular commercial settings are no less important to biotechnology. 1998). questions to consider in the context of mass production. All cyanobacteria examined thus far employ the relevant strains remains a significant technical hurdle. Prince and Kheshgi. Collectively. 2009). Using hydrogenase as the catalyst.. Similarly economic viability. several cyanobacteria tools available to modify algal strains. This is due to the production the toolbox allows traits to be recombined into a single of organic waste by-products described above along individual by mating parental strains.

Antibiotic in DNA replication can be identified. 1993.. and to select for cells in which element that functions in the species of interest. which could exacerbate current problems developed. Several in mapping the locus responsible for the phenotype. The second Volvox). Algal Biology  17 . large-scale algal production. Marker systems that take advantage of the ability to genetically complement Transformation Methods auxotrophic and metabolism mutants have also been Gene transfer systems have been established in many achieved (Kindle et al. important consideration is that the use of antibiotics in Synechocystis. Nostoc. Once an appropriate antibiotic resistance or Selectable Markers complementing gene is identified. 1994). other approach is limited by the low frequency of naturally methods may need to be considered for production scale. diatoms (Cyclotella. whereas nourseothricin in gene expression. there marker (Hasnain et al. However. Typically. however.. 1985.g.. including cyanobacteria (Synechococcus.. Hallmann and Rappel. zeocin (Apt et al. Anabaena. Dunahay et al. 2005). or that the native gene may need to Given a well-developed screening approach. Mutants are more readily generated by For research purposes.. selection marker to use includes whether the antibiotic Drawbacks of this approach include the introduction compound is sensitive to light and whether its potency is of multiple mutations in a genome and the difficulty modulated by the salinity of the growth medium. Caveats are that the mutated gene may need staining (Cooksey et al. Dunaliella. Targeted 1996. changes in fluorescence properties. For the latter. For selection could be used to generate useful algal strains complementation approaches. appropriate mutations must without the need to generate genetically engineered be generated in the species of interest. to be expressed at a higher level than the native gene (Nelson et al. Any mutagenesis approach requires an appropriate screening technique to enrich for and isolate mutants. For example. 2006)... dinoflagellates (Amphidinium.. The mechanism of antibiotic native gene is to be entirely replaced). occurring mutations. Navicula. including resistance to neomycin. first concern is the cost of the antibiotic.g. which necessitates a large amount of screening. Tagging can be accomplished is inactivated enzymatically.. spontaneous mutants arising from errors with increased antibiotic-resistant microbes. Phaeodactylum.. 1999). 1994). This Sophisticated metabolic engineering could require the can include either a requirement for mutants to grow under introduction of multiple selectable or complementary certain conditions (e. Chlorella. also been successful (Del Pozo et al. However. kanamycin (Hasnain Targeted or tagged mutagenesis offers the advantage of et al. 2006).. reduced chlorophyll fluorescence (Polle et al.. use of transposons (Miller and Kirk. large-scale production has two major drawbacks. 1995). and nourseothricin approaches rely on homologous recombination (if the (Poulsen et al. 1985. simplified identification of the mutated gene. Nelson et or increased neutral lipid accumulation via Nile Red al. Dunahay et al. Arthrospira). a modified copy of the gene that inserts elsewhere into zeocin resistance requires stoichiometric binding of the the genome. constructs must be A powerful way to manipulate genomes is the ability to made to place the gene under control of an expression introduce DNA into the cell. 1999). An algal strains. concern is the environmental implications of widespread Thalassiosira). Most of the current selectable markers are derived to exhibit a characteristic phenotypic change that is easily from bacterial genes. but markers based on resistance assayed. element called a plasmid. 1989. 1995). or introduction of resistance can also be an important factor. 1995). presumably because requirements for expression levels of the gene are lower and less taxing to the cells.. ideally in well- (GE) algae—something that could be desirable for characterized genes that can be easily complemented. This the DNA is present.. 1987) can be screening criteria. the decision as to which antibiotic standard chemical or UV-based mutagenesis approaches. iterative be replaced in order to generate the phenotypic effect. 2. or through the larger numbers of transformants (Poulsen et al. 2002)... Certain strategies can also enable changes antibiotic by the resistance protein. The green algae (Chlamydomonas. this resistance is a powerful tool for research. antibiotic markers have been developed for microalgae. generated by conserved ribosomal protein mutations have e. A direct comparison of the by introducing a selectable marker randomly into two has shown that the nourseothricin system generates the genome (Adams et al. in the presence of an antibiotic). are examples of control elements that work across along with the DNA of interest on an extra-chromosomal evolutionarily diverse species (Dunahay et al. Debuchy et al. 1989).As long as an appropriate screening process is antibiotic use.. this is accomplished by typically involves using control elements from a introducing an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable highly expressed gene in that species. or markers..

.. other inducible or repressible control elements would be useful for both research and commercial applications. red algae (Cyanidioschyzon. ammonium (Poulsen and Kroger. or reduced levels of expression may transformation (Boynton et al. 2001). 1991) or silicon carbide whiskers (Dunahay. RNAi approaches have been investigated primarily Homologous Recombination in the model green alga. 1992). and so recessive genotypes or when dealing with redundant genes where traditional may not manifest unless that genotype is allowed to genetic manipulations are difficult. because it is induced could be applied. 18 2. 1995). Frequently. Gene Expression Control Elements Porphyridium. 2004). traits... The selection process was based on a gene is present. including conjugation. and repressed with for cyanobacteria. microarrays). Dunahay. Two general types of RNAi vectors can be constructed but this methodology could prove to be extremely – one containing an inverted repeat sequence from the important.e. challenge to introducing DNA into a cell is the nature of allowing for precise control over the timing of gene the cell wall. With the exception of cleaving specific mRNAs or sequestering them away Chlamydomonas. Identification of and biolistic approaches (Matsunaga and Takeyama. Algal strains often contain expression.. Some diatoms can be propagated vegetatively gene to be silenced. 1987). vortexing with glass beads high throughput transcriptomics (i.. (Deng and Capecchi. and can be used to knockout genes. or co-introduction of recombinase genes with the transforming DNA (Reiss et al. used in a red alga (Ohnuma et al. need for balance in cellular metabolism. 1990). 1996). (Kindle et al. 2006).. which can then subsequently affect algae algal transgenics and implications for biotechnology. The nitrate reductase promoter has proven cell wall. Even on vectors containing both the genome (Dunahay et al. Gracilaria. In addition. small sizes and used to target suppression of specific and traditional mutagenesis and breeding has been used genes by base pairing. Sexual Crossing Breeding of desired characteristics from a number of RNA Interference (RNAi) phenotypic variants can allow for strain development RNAi can be a useful tool to down-regulate gene without creating GE algae. In a practical but less so in microalgae. 1988. Gene replacement a selectable marker and an RNAi construct. 1998). then chemically based methods of transformation useful in this regard in microalgae. RNAi can inhibit transcription to improve commercial varieties of seaweed since the (Storz et al. 2005).. Many transformation methods also exist with nitrate in the growth medium. RNAi operates “breed true” though a series of sexual crosses. especially in the study of polyploid organisms multiple copies of their genome. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. sexual crossing are not well developed in microalgae. Algal Biology  . be desirable. If methods exist to remove or perforate the expression. inducible and repressible promoters that 1993). Undaria) and euglenoids (Euglena). a fundamental can be actuated by simple manipulations are desirable. transcriptional regulators) can modulate the levels Hallmann (2007) provides a comprehensive review of of mRNA. Control element strength can be evaluated Other successful methods include electroporation by monitoring mRNA levels by quantitative PCR or (Shimogawara et al. which is useful for both nuclear and chloroplast slightly elevated. use of single stranded DNA (Zorin et al. 2009). brown algae Gene expression control elements (also known as (Laminaria. One solution to this problem was developed in dominance issues when more than one copy of the C. Porphyra). classical genetic approaches using from the ribosome (Valencia-Sanchez et al. 1993). but considering the is the biolistic (“gene gun”) approach (Armaleo et al. only a small via homologous recombination is more desirable than percentage of selected transformants will have functional random integration because it can overcome phenotypic RNAi. DNA introduced into the nucleus sense.. For most of these approaches... crossed periodically to maintain culture viability. 2005) and control translation by either 1950s (Bird and Benson. transgenes are overexpressed by A common method for introducing DNA into algal cells using strong control elements. 1995). electroporation. selecting for functional RNAi can be problematic of microalgal cells generally integrates randomly into (Fuhrmann et al. reinhardtii.Symbiodinium). Many through double-stranded RNAs that are cut down to macroalgae species are capable of sexual reproduction. intermediate. and another in which bidirectional only for a limited number of generations and must be transcription generates the double stranded RNA. high-throughput phenotypic screen for functional RNAi Successful recombination approaches have included the by co-targeting an amino acid synthesis pathway along addition of long flanking regions to the gene of interest with the desired gene of interest (Rohr et al.. 2005). Homologous recombination-based gene integration although there is a recent report of the method being approaches are common in many strains of cyanobacteria.

. 2008).1 These species include computer sciences. Sequenced genomes are an essential basis of information bioinformatics can represent the largest stumbling block for the interpretation of transcriptomic and proteomic to achieving that goal. a pelagophyte (Aureococcus annophageferrens). Undoubtedly. Algal species are being analyzed using these analytical and several diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Osteococcus tauris. creating the new field of bioinformatics unicellular green algae (C. species within classes that make abundant fuel precursors. Although time families). Bioinformatics analysis of sequenced genomes. will be essential Sequencing and Annotating Algal Genomes to make sequence data usable. transcriptomics. 2004). that the genomic data are only as useful as feedback. distribution of DNA between the plastid and nucleus (Wilhelm et al.. Volvox carteri).org/euk_cur1. Together. especially at the basic level of gene annotation. which could impact the regulation Enabling Technologies: “Omics” and processes of fuel precursor production. Quality standards and appropriate data. in which costs have been substantially to ensure consistent and useful annotation. obtaining a genome sequence should Regarding core cellular metabolic processes. at least semi-quantitative evaluation of their abundance assembly of such data (especially with short read lengths) in a simple measurement. Indeed. It must be noted level. This could 1 For a listing. such as genomics. engineering so that they function more efficiently or have other favorable characteristics could be valuable for the development of algal biofuels technology.html 2.. Green Eukaryotic algae constitute members from at least eight fluorescent protein and its derivatives are the most major phyla. 2006). for which over 20 completed these methods have revolutionized the study of organisms genome sequences are available. 2002). Except for cyanobacteria. One reason for this variation is likely to be the accumulation Protein Tagging Technologies of repeated sequences in the larger genomes (Hawkins Tagging proteins with fluorescent markers is useful in et al. the nuclear genomes both in culture and in natural habitats. pussilla.). Fragilariopsis cylindrus). but others have and secondary endosymbioses (Falkowski et al. 2006).Centre National de Séquençage (France). all featuring a complex series of primary widely used and versatile protein tags.jgi-psf. cellular processes and regulation involved in Genome sequencing projects are also underway for the defining the attributes of the strain.S.Directed Evolution of Enzymes/Proteins reduced and more coverage is obtained in a shorter period of time. applied research and technology development. Micromonas in ways and timescales that were never before possible. A genomic survey of representatives from all major algal classes is Approaches and Bioinformatics desirable. reinhardtii. a coccolithophore (Emiliania huxleyi). Even though new sequencing technologies determining their intracellular location and can provide readily enable accumulation of data for large genomes. These biological of only a handful of microalgal species have been fully advancements have been complemented by developments in or partially sequenced to date.. approaches to better understand the underlying Thalassiosira pseudonana. Genome size in algae can vary substantially. this level of regulation integrates the annotation (the assignment of gene functions or the proteome with the metabolome. forming the foundation for at Genoscope . Algal Biology  19 . and proteomics. several picoeukaryotes helping biologists share and build upon experimental results (Osteococcus lucimarinus. the macroalga Porphyra purpurea at the Joint Genome Institute characterization of these cellular processes will prove (U. demonstrated utility and some possible advantages It is likely that the different symbioses have affected the (Regoes and Hehl. so it will be important to provide sufficient consuming. If not properly done. 2005. even in closely related species (Connolly et al. Gaietta et al. with a special focus on classes or individual High throughput approaches. Bathycoccus sp. approaches to modify proteins by genetic resources to allow for detailed analysis of the data. With the development of more powerful sequencing training should be established at the onset of activities methods. have enabled in-depth analyses to be performed in a whole cell context. a be strongly considered for any strains being developed substantial amount of regulation occurs at the protein for biofuels research or production.. useful in monitoring intracellular metabolic processes associated with biofuel precursor production. This information could be can be more challenging in repeat-laden genomes. visit http://genome. a where powerful new databases and search algorithms are red alga (Cyanidioschizon merolae). including allosteric activation and metabolic though. Department of Energy) and for Ectocarpus siliculosus useful for applications.

Applications of Biotechnology New. Chlorococcum sp. as well as spectrometry. there are still a large number of useful algal measurement of the dynamic multi-parametric metabolic species to sequence that are related to biofuels production. gas chromatography mass spectrometry. 2007) and should be applicable in cyanobacteria.. Tanner et al. spontaneous considered in investigations of gene expression regulation. 2007). and some strains can fix peptides. high Quantitative comparison of lipid type and abundance are throughput sequencing technologies will also become critical components of lipid-based biofuels approaches as increasingly important because it will not only help lipid characteristics can determine the suitability of the with genome annotation (for example. Because the chemical that carry out similar functions can also help assign gene nature of metabolites varies more than for mRNA function and identify metabolic pathways of interest. in response to particular environmental conditions. 2009). 1996). at least10 other algal genomes.. 2006). 2007. or can determine fuels and intermediates. In the absence of genomic information. 2005). Dettmer et al. and metabonomics. and proteins. Some strains can double membrane-associated proteins in the form of protein quickly (less than 10 hours). the first among photosynthetic organisms (Kaneko et al. Castellana et al.. 1998).. 2004.. Scenedesmus stimuli or genetic modification (Nicholson et al. 2005. The cellular complement of proteins reflects its metabolic potential. Both metabolomics and metabonomics may be important in terms of algal biofuels research. but also allow for protein quantification and many can be genetically manipulated. but they are prolific carbohydrate and secondary approaches allow for robust evaluation of soluble and metabolite producers.. response of living systems to pathophysiological such as Dunaliella sp. Lipid analysis is done using mass spectrometry of any algal biofuels technology development effort. especially with regard to translational regulation. Aebersold.. and function. For example. not related to lipid production or other biofuels efforts. Transcriptomics Lipids are a subset of the molecular repertoire of the While genome sequencing will be an important component algae cell. including liquid chromatography mass Currently. the rationale for sequencing these organisms was involves the identification and analysis of metabolites.. are underway. Cerutti more advanced than that of eukaryotic algae because and Casas-Mollano. approaches (Han and Gross. however. which is the quantitative Therefore. Nannochloropsis sp.. Moreover. Most transcriptomics approaches Cyanobacteria evaluate mRNA levels. The genome of this strain functional diversity of a community of organisms. sp. Mass-spectrometry lipids. approaches between related organisms and organisms maintenance. transformation. another dozen or so EST projects.. high-throughput sequencing technologies enable to Algal Bioenergy comprehensive coverage of transcripts and quantification of their relative abundance. identifying final fuel produced. and Pseudochlorococcum sp. Many 20 2. These approaches not only enable protein atmospheric nitrogen and produce hydrogen. notable that while these projects represent a very useful There is a distinction between metabolomics. Small RNAs have been many of the tools developed for bacterial genetics are identified in microalgae (Zhao et al. and protein tagging are routine in some cyanobacterial systems.. different metabolomic analysis tools are applied.. 2008). 1999). Comparative genomics weight compounds in a cell that are involved in growth. 2006. double-homologous recombination. identification. making them detection of post-translational modifications (Domon and attractive organisms for biofuels production. but it is also emerging as a variety of different cultivation regimes can also help inform robust approach for genome-wide expression analysis process engineering and improve yields (Yu et al. Algal Biology  . was sequenced over a decade ago. and ultimately determines how a cell functions Cyanobacteria generally do not accumulate storage in response to the environment.include the standardization of using a particular sequencing Metabolomics and Lipidomics approach that provides sufficient coverage of ESTs to The metabolome is the collection of small molecular ensure accurate gene modeling. which survey. Monitoring lipid characteristics under a coding regions of DNA). small RNAs also play Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria is generally major regulatory roles in algae (Bartel. It is and nuclear magnetic resonance (Dunn et al. and at least half a dozen selectable markers Proteomics are available for Synechocystis (Vermaas. quantitative transcriptome profiling using new. proteomic Synechocystis has been used extensively for the study of approaches can also help assess the metabolic potential of carbon metabolism toward production of hydrocarbon organisms that may be difficult to isolate.

1 M to near Unicellular eukaryotic microalgae are the product of saturation). and isobutanol (Atsumi lipid producer.2 Several production.. which occurs in the Diatoms were a major focus in the Aquatic Species Program chloroplast.... capabilities. These currently being determined (estimated size 130 Mb). and chloroplast (PHB). and stable and successful expression characterize the dominant carbon storage compounds of foreign genes in C.. Lipid production. 2006. salina is occurred during the evolution of microalgae. which increases both growth PHB accumulates under nitrogen depleting conditions rate and lipid production. A possible drawback of C. Eisenhut et al.. The genome sequence pathways can be manipulated for the benefit of biofuels of Chlorella NC64A was recently completed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most studied eukaryotic algae. In addition to having a sequenced nuclear genome Transgenic approaches have enabled the production and (Merchant et al. 2009. 2008. Continued exploration of the evolutionary A distinguishing feature of diatoms is their silica cell walls. a comprehensive understanding due to codon bias (Heitzer et al. 2003). accumulation. For example.. physiological conditions. 2004). Synechocystis. whereas glucosylglycerol and sucrose and some species are abundant lipid producers.jgi-psf.. and there are fundamental differences in (Sheehan et al. proteome. algae with different extents of endosymbiosis (Wilhelm suggesting favorable growth rates for biomass production. it can be grown under extreme conditions over 3 billion years of evolution. reported (Neupert et al. 2004). Fulda et al. and the conditions that trigger carbohydrate protein expression systems are well developed. anaerobically (important for the production of hydrogen).org/ChlNC64A_1/ChlNC64A_1. 2008). protothecoides. These studies can not only serve to advance examples of Chlorella transformation have been reported. 2007). C. In order to redirect carbon to a fuel al. Koksharova et al... sucrose. Dunaliella salina has several useful characteristics for large-scale biofuels production. 1998). filamentous strain that can form heterocysts... 2000). reinhardtii can serve et al. 2006). but may also serve to guide the development of other types of algae for biofuels production. reinhardtii is the fact that nuclear expression of foreign genes is still problematic Despite all of the progress. Relatedly.. It produces abundant Microalgae lipids (Weldy and Huesemann. reinhardtii has been recently been (sinks) in cyanobacteria. and metabolome (Singh et al. but nevertheless. Multiple endosymbiotic events organisms. is at least partly regulated by nuclear-encoded given their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids gene products. glucosylglycerol. 2006). 2008). 2007). the addition of an external carbon source Xiaoling Miao et al. which are cells is also often dependent on environmental conditions.. and polyhydroxybutyrate Chloroplast transformants are also stable.. and are highly diverse that could reduce the growth of possible contaminating (Falkowski et al. productivity under various environmental conditions. it can be sexually crossed....html 2. It has also been shown that induces heterotrophic growth. the understanding of how the production of different although the stability of the expression of the foreign carbon storage molecules are controlled in response to genes is still questionable (Leon and Fernandez.photosynthesis and carbon metabolism mutants have been diversity of algae is important to identify species that generated. and positional effects (Ferrante et in all cyanobacteria. The genome sequence of D.. 2008). In can accumulate under salt stress (Yoo et al. 2007 ). The latter is a production of other carbohydrate-based storage compounds. C. Ferrante et al. pathways and regulation of fuel precursor synthesis. it will be necessary to further being developed. 2007) and well developed transgenic secretion of cellulose. For example. et al. However. resulting in greater than 50% (Miyake et al. 2007. 2006. strategies to address these issues are production pathway. 1997). 2008). with specialized structure and metabolism that function some of which await elucidation and development. Synechococcus as a model system for understanding the fundamentals of and Anabaena strains have been studied for their hydrogen lipid synthesis and regulation. Diatoms are responsible for 20% the interaction between the nucleus and chloroplast in of the total global carbon fixation (Armbrust et al. fatty acid synthesis.. and because it has outstanding salt tolerance (from 0. 2007). sucrose (Nobles and Brown.home.. including glycogen. 2002). like the production potential (Tamagnini et al. 2009) in Synechococcus. 1999). and events likely had significant effects on the metabolic transgenic strains have been reported (Li et al. It has not been shown how these dry weight lipid (Xu et al. RNA silencing of carbon metabolism and regulation is not yet available (Cerutti et al. It is not an abundant ethanol (Deng and Coleman. Algal Biology  21 . 2 http://genome. it is known that glycogen accumulates under normal growth conditions in Chlorella is another well-studied genus of green algae. and high-throughput analytical techniques are adept at making fuel precursors and with high have been applied to the study of its transcriptome.

.. brown. Roeder et al. Since the beginning of the deployment of GE organisms. such as the unicellular alga Porphyridium cruentum. combinations of sexual and asexual carrying coding sequences obtained from a foreign reproductive strategies. potential for large-scale blooms and subsequent is in a state of flux (Ali et al.and their requirement for silicon as a nutrient for growth. 2005). 2000). Apt et al. as protoplast fusion will be the basis for new strain creation where outplanting of individuals for growth Macroalgae in natural environments is a goal. Ho are underway. For example.. there have usually been built in safeguards to prevent the release of GE organisms to avoid potential Macroalgae are historically classified as Phaeophyta disruption of ecosystems. because silicon metabolism is not restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and believed to be tightly coupled with the metabolism of other random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis nutrients. GE algae are defined as strains life histories. 3 http://www. constructing detailed pathways evolutionarily diverse and abundant in the world’s oceans for secondary metabolite production. affinity with corresponding microalgal forms. 2005). Genome sequencing Macroalgae. tools is still imperative from a research standpoint.. Advances in seaweed cell and molecular biology are Silicon limitation is one trigger for lipid accumulation currently being applied toward a better understanding in diatoms. with different the appropriateness of deploying these strains.. there is nevertheless hard substrates in marine environments. 1994. and strain selection and been focused explicitly on biofuels. Bouza et al... The life cycles a great deal of uncertainty regarding the need for or of macroalgae are complex and diverse. 2006) are elements have been identified (Poulsen and Kroger. they are Considerations of Genetic multicellular and possess plant-like structural features. 2004.. Niwa et al. which includes diatoms. (Armbrust et al. each of the major macroalgal groups has in terms of organism containment. Currently. Modifications They are typically comprised of a blade or lamina. of GE organisms over the past 15+ years (GAO report.. the brown macroalgae such as the kelps are GE algae as production strains. are very important. Red macroalgae such as Porphyra spp. Dutcher and Kapraun. 2006.jgi. As such. Chlorophyta (green algae). Moulin et al. 1997. there have been several unintended releases (red algae) on the basis of their predominant pigments. 1995... even with these (brown algae).. Bowler et al. Fischer et al. and choice of cultivation methods In general. They are and proteomic profiling. Use of gene-specific probes al. anoxic zone formation.. 2003). et al. Green macroalga such as Ulva (also known as sea lettuce) are classified together with common green microalgae such as Chlamydomonas and Chlorella as Chlorophyta. and metabolic and coastal waters. the stipe. and alternation of generations. and Rhodophyta safeguards. and green seaweeds. This is advantageous for studying the lipid of seaweed genetics and cell function. development of genetic classified as Heterokonta within the Chromalveolata.doe. species. Unlike microalgae. 1999. taxonomic affinities are under re-examination 2008). the gene existing genes through selection and procedures such manipulation toolkit for diatoms will be fairly complete. Baldauf. general rule but are high in carbohydrates that can be converted to various fuels. also have microalgal counterparts.gov 22 2. For the species displaying variations of annual and perennial purpose of this report. being applied to understand cell function in representatives With the development of robust gene silencing approaches of red. are well established for several diatom species (Dunahay et 1999. Two diatom genome sequences are complete are used in seaweed population genetics (Alberto et al. potential for toxin markers. 1995. For Despite the uncertainty regarding the development of example.. 2003... Algal Biology  . 2005). and expression profiling (Collen et al.3 None of the sequencing projects has thus far et al. 2001. Zaslavskaia (Jacobsen et al. the status of macroalgal systematics production. Niwa et al. 1996.. Recombination of and possibly with homologous recombination. However. represent a broad group of projects will facilitate efforts such as global genomic eukaryotic photosynthetic marine organisms. and four more 1999. or seaweeds. Meneses and Santelices. Transgenic techniques characterization (Jin et al. They have low lipid content as a engineering of seaweed genes to create valuable products. Understanding the basic biology that will inform with the use of molecular tools and phylogenetic such aspects as lateral gene transfer. and regulatory gene expression control 2005). induction response. 2008). 1999. and holdfast for anchoring the entire structure to Despite the great promise of GE algae.

(2008). 105(52). 22(3). (2001). Traditional microalgae isolation techniques. R. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology. Banerjee. et al.A. Cell & Environment. Functional Plant Biology. Cell. The life cycle of neutral lipids: Synthesis. Johnston. Arabolaza.. Tural. Stable nuclear transformation of the diatomphaeodactylum tricornutum. The Plant Cell Online. 1177-1180.G. Science. Bartel.. Phylogenetic relationships among algae based on complete large-subunit rRNA sequences.C. evolution. Ceron Garcia. H. 572–579. G. N. S. R. Shark. L.R. D.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=51&SID=2EJn46bcIj4fjd CDlNp&page=1&doc=3. (32). Boyle. 27(12). Athenstaedt.. (2006).. (2008). Chloroplast transformation in chlamydomonas with high velocity microprojectiles. 37(8). A. Assessing patterns of geographic dispersal of gelidium sesquipedale (rhodophyta) through RAPD differentiation of populations. C. (2002). 32(9).. Direct photosynthetic recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde. 295–306.. Sanford. (2009). Alberto. et al. 47(5). S. (2009). 116(2). 51(3). Daum. J. (2004). Elsevier Science Ltd.M.T. et al.E. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS. et al. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 281–297..C. Science. H. Botryococcus braunii: A renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Apt. Armaleo. Castellana. (1987). Leitao. H.K. (1999). Bird. 239-244. E. G. 367-376. J. W. Lipid analysis of freshwater microalgae: a method study. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Kawachi. A. 16(5). storage and degradation. The deep roots of eukaryotes. (2002). Dyer. Moroney. 17(2). Shachar-Hill. Armbrust.M.L. et al. (2008). Altabe. Kroth-Pancic. Casas-Mollano. On the origin and functions of RNA-mediated silencing: from protists to man. (2005). 60(4). Ahlgren. 97–103.isiknowledge. C. M. (1997). The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes. Bowler. Steinbuchel. A role for lipid trafficking in chloroplast biogenesis. Algal Culturing Techniques. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Colombo. (2009). Nature. Genetic structure of natural populations in the red algae gelidium canaariense (gelidaiales. A mutant of chlamydomonas reinhardtii that cannot acclimate to low CO2 conditions has an insertion in the Hdh1 gene.. et al. 1241-1257. J. 737-749.E. K. Metabolic flux analysis in plants: coping with complexity. 1355-1369.G.. 300(5626). http://apps. 1703-1706. E. 55–66. Progress in Lipid Research. 1534-1538. Andersen.B. Santos. P.J. Alvarez. et al... (1959). 63(12). Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. Science.B. Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Atsumi.E. 252(5). Rodriguez. 381–389. 689–694. Mixotrophic production of marine microalga phaeodactylum tricornutum on various carbon sources. Critical reviews in biotechnology. N. Nature Biotechnology. Cerutti.L.74(9). S. Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Cerutti. Retrived January 5. Progress series(Halstenbek) (191). Current genetics. 2573-2582. S. Plant. Alvarez. Mason.. et al. The Genome of the diatom thalassiosira pseudonana: Ecology.. Bouza. Discovery and revision of arabidopsis genes by proteogenomics. (1990). & Merino. 240(4858).V. 925-945. 50(2).E. 83–102. 2010. Klein. 81–99. Elsevier. H. MicroRNAs genomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Higashide. Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Benson. mechanism. Epigenetic silencing of a foreign gene in nuclear transformants of chlamydomonas. 9(6).P.L. (1988). 1991. Amsterdam. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification.Gramajo. B. K. J Morgan. H. T.. K. Y. Allen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. R.. N. D. PH. C. Triacylglycerols in prokaryotic microorganisms. biogenesis. 911–917. and metabolism. Current genetics. Libourel.A. (2004). J. Baldauf. Ynalvez.. (2006). 21034-21038. (2008). et al. (2005). M. 101–108. 2. Boynton. rhodophyta) investigated by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. 121(3). Ye.C. F. 42(2). (1996). A.A. Multiple pathways for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. A. (2006). 306(5693).. K.. Grossman. D.V. Benning. 304-311. BMC Systems Biology. (2003). Algal Biology  23 . 79-86. A. 3. Bligh. W. I. J. S. E.References Adams. 456(7219). J. G. 245–279. Journal of Phycology. and function. (2006).com/full_record. J. Marine ecology. Liao.G. Ben Ali.

L. 696-717. Coleman. Metabolome phenotyping of inorganic carbon limitation in cells of the wild type and photorespiratory mutants of the cyanobacterium synechocystis sp strain PCC 6803. 15(5). Chu.G. Finding gas diffusion pathways in proteins: Application to O2 and H2 transport in CpI [FeFe]-hydrogenase and the role of packing defects. 130(5). 463–515. 35(1). Molecular and Cellular Biology. (2008).. Roessler. Transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardtii with silicon carbide whiskers. Aebersold. The Analyst. 213(2). Rochaix. C. 44(1). Journal of Experimental Botany. & Phang. 354-360. Correlated evolution of genome size and cell volume in diatoms (bacillariophyceae).. Fatty Acid Composition of Some Malaysian Seaweeds. (1993). (1994). Genetic transformation of the diatoms cyclotella cryptica and Navicula saprophila. Dunahay. Journal of Cell Science. et al. Biotechniques. 24 2... Proteome analysis of salt stress response in the cyanobacteriumsynechocystis sp. 267-273. A.E. Prometrics. Lelandais.. 523528.E. Aronov. C. Norazmi Mohamed. Wollman. (1993).D. A. et al. 22(2). (1999). Dutcher. (2003). 3365-3371. (2008). et al. D. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2733-2745. 12(8). M. J. Journal of Bacteriology. 26(1). Bowen. 2803-2809. M. Kapraun. P. T. P. R. Plant Physiology. (2008). et al. (2001). H. Two different genes from schwanniomyces occidentalis determine ribosomal resistance to cycloheximide. 97(12). B.H. Photooxidative stress in plants. 1004–1011. 312(5771). Cohen. Debuchy. (2003).G. Dahlqvist. Phospholipid: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase: an enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in yeast and plants. Mass spectrometry and protein analysis. Purton..J. 15(3). et al. (2007). 68(3). (2007). 2109-2120. (2006). et al. (1994).. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 124–131. et al. et al. Fluorescent measurement of microalgal neutral lipids. The EMBO Journal.G. 65(2). Elsey. 171. e3200. (2004). Expression profiling of chondrus crispus (rhodophyta) after exposure to methyl jasmonate. Science. H. Kunert. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) identification of genetic variation in three species of porphyra (bangiales. 294–306. Dettmer. (1971).C. European Journal of Biochemistry. L. An optimized. (2005). et al. 452. 6(3). Journal of Microbiological Methods.Chao. Science Signaling. nostoc muscorum. The argininosuccinate lyase gene of chlamydomonas reinhardtii: An important tool for nuclear transformation and for correlating the genetic and molecular maps of the ARG7 locus. Fuhrmann. PloS One.A. crypthecodinium cohnii. 1321–1329. N. C. Finazzi. (2005). Bailey. Fischer. Falkowski. 212-217. T.A. Deng. 21-27.G. Jarvis. Dunn. 25(3). 6487-6492. Ethanol synthesis by genetic engineering in cyanobacteria. 333–345. E. J. (2008). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Del Pozo. 3857-3863. Measuring the metabolome: Current analytical technologies. Targeting and covalent modification of cell wall and membrane proteins heterologously expressed in the diatom cylindrotheca fusiformis (Bacillariophyceae). (2006). Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. 433–438. Structure. 92(4). 331-338. S. (1989). (1987).B. Fluorometric determination of the neutral lipid content of microalgal cells using nile red. Johnson. et al. 6(9).. 13(9). P. 113–120. 114(Pt 21). J. The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton. Malaysian Journal of Science.R. Eberhard. Capecchi. Chisti. (2006). Dunahay. S. Purification and properties of glycogen isolated from a blue-Green Alga. Physiologia Plantarum. 148(4).E. et al. J. rhodophyta). Algal Biology  . Fulda. J. Ferrante. The dynamics of photosynthesis. 6(6).D. 42.105(1). 3(9). Journal of Phycology. M. (2007). P. 51-78. G. Journal of Phycology. 849–857. et al. Hammock. 8(10). S. Reexamination of gene targeting frequency as a function of the extent of homology between the targeting vector and the target locus. The abundant retinal protein of the chlamydomonas eye is not the photoreceptor for phototaxis and photophobic responses. et al. Cooksey. Y.R. Deng. 305(5682). Biotechnology Advances.. chemically regulated gene expression system for Chlamydomonas. Domon. S. K. 639-642. 31(6).. (1999). Flow cytometric determination of lipid content in a marine dinoflagellate. 606–625. De la Jara.D. Journal of Phycology. B. J. W. F. K.J. R. M. Connolly. Biodiesel from microalgae. et al.A. (2000). Collen. M. Mass spectrometry reviews. (1992). Annual Review of Genetics. W. Journal of Microbiological Methods. K. (1995). strain PCC 6803. Foyer. D. Eisenhut. Journal of Applied Phycology.

Genome Research. Algal Biology  25 . Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: The basics. eds). et al. (2007). Algal transgenics and biotechnology. 109(6). T. G.. 6-53. 1252-1261. 42(1). (2007). 71-91.C. J. Nuclear transformation of eukaryotic microalgae: historical overview.S. 43(1). S.. Hasnain. 503-507. (2008). Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. Production of ethanol from mannitol by zymobacter palmae. Koksharova. 54(4). 39(5). (1985). (2000). Kindle. 403(1- 2). C. Huang. A. E. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 58.. Hydrogenases and hydrogen photoproduction in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms*.org/10. Østgaard. Plant journal. Membrane lipids in algae. 132-142. Influence of codon bias on the expression of foreign genes in microalgae. Ghirardi.L. 9(6). Oil bodies and oleosins in seeds. Heitzer. Multicolor and electron microscopic imaging of connexin trafficking. Weis. Gross. 795–805. Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences... Kaneko. D. Leung. Engineering the chloroplast genome: Techniques and capabilities for chloroplast transformation in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Microbiology. et al. K. 3(3). (2000). F. A. (1989). Jin. 6(6). Gibbs. Journal of Cell Biology. Rasmussen. PA and Murata.H. et al. (2007). Transgenic Plant Journal. 75(1). 2009. Differential lineage-specific amplification of transposable elements is responsible for genome size variation in gossypium..P. Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Hansel. (1997). Gelling agents for tissue culture of the seaweed hizikia fusiformis. 616.. 313-349. et al. et al. 81-98. Manavathu. 109-136. 489-493. Ho. Aasen. K. 296(5567). J. S. E. The Plant Journal. Aasen. S. Richards. (2007). 17. Han. achievements and problems. (2006). 2(2). & Fernández. 88(5). M. S. et al. F. et al. (1999). Kindle. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Pang. Fermentative metabolism of chlamydomonas reinhardtii: I. J.K.L. 177-200. (1994). Stable nuclear transformation of chlamydomonas using the chlamydomonas gene for nitrate reductase. (1998). T..). K. Lipids in photosynthesis: Structure. analysis of fermentative products from starch in dark and light. (1995). Molecular and Cellular Biology. R. Phang..L. Horn. et al. Stern.M. 1721-1725. Cyanobacterial cell walls: News from an unusual prokaryotic envelope. (2005).M. Hu. Expert Review of Proteomics. K. 888-896. Hallmann. Q. 51-57. Journal of Applied Phycology. 253–264. W. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Klint. II. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. The first protein map of synechococcus sp. A. I.. The Journal of Bacteriology.L. H. (1996). (1992). Annual Review Plant Biology. N.Gaietta. 621–639. 1-11. Goulard. Harwood. R. (2007).W. (2003). 1191- 1199. M. J. A. Kang. Shotgun lipidomics: Multidimensional MS analysis of cellular lipidomes. S. León. X. O. Dordrecht..H. Hawkins. strain PCC 7942. M. Lüning. Jacobsen. Hallmann.J. Molecular characterisation of sargassum polycystum and S. Sequence determination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions. Plant Physiol. 182(5). Li.1007/978-0-387-75532-8_5. DNA-mediated transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardi cells: Use of aminoglycoside 3’-phosphotransferase as a selectable marker. E. 16(10). (2000). Ethanol production from seaweed extract.doi. (2006). function and genetics (Siegenthaler. I. Plant Journal. 3647-3650. siliquosum (Phaeophyta) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. 7(1).A. Gfeller. R. Journal of Phycology. 664-672. (1984).C. 212-218. et al. Genetic engineering of the multicellular green alga volvox: A modified and multiplied bacterial antibiotic resistance gene as a dominant selectable marker. Horn. 249-254. In transgenic microalgae as green cell factories. 2. Østgaard. S. U. 1(1).. Rappel. 33-41. 2589-2601. G. DNA Research.J. Retrieved December 30. 25(5). Journal of Applied Phycology. (1991). strain PCC6803. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology.L. Rawsthorne. K. (1991). Starch and fatty acid synthesis in plastids from developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. 24(1). Hoiczyk. 99–110. Gene. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Krause.. A. 5(12).E. The nitrate reductase gene-switch: A system for regulated expression in transformed cells of dunaliella salina. E. K. http://dx. 53–64.B. (2002). Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the maring macroalga kappaphycus alvarezii (rhodophyta). 75(6).

Merchant.S. Niwa.. Lipids. J. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. H. 1140-1150.. S.A. et al. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase: A key mediator of plant triacylglycerol synthesis.. Sucrose accumulation in salt-stressed cells of agp gene deletion-mutant in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp PCC 6803. et al. & Stuercke. A. 1237-1245. (2005). J. et al.. Journal of Applied Phycology.L. R. Cellulose. (1999). (2006). Y. Falkowski. Xenobiotica. S. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Molecular and Cellular Biology.. Annual Review of Plant Biology. D. 957-970. Miao. 122(1). 247- 280. 53(4). Y. Aruga.B. Browse. 57(6).G. Miller. J. Generation of chlamydomonas strains that efficiently express nuclear transgenes. Lung. Photoprotection revisited: Genetic and molecular approaches. 14(6). Metabolic flux analysis in plants: From intelligent design to rational engineering. Miao. (2000). Journal of Phycology. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 218(1). Metabolic pathway engineering for enhanced biohydrogen production. 7404-7416. J. 296-302. Isolation and characterization of six cDNAs involved in carbon matabloism in laminaria digitata (phaeophyceae). 7(1). 318(5848). 41(12). 57. 45(1). Lipid biosynthesis. (2005). (1993). (2003). Transgenic expression of gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53582 cellulose synthase genes in the cyanobacterium synechococcus leopoliensis strain UTCC 100. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Ohlrogge. P. Current opinion in plant biology. Moulin.. G. (1999). Development. glsA.. (1999).P. Wu. The CRY1 gene in chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Structure and use as a dominant selectable marker for nuclear transformation. 333-359. (1994). S. G. Takeyama. (1994). 126(4). M. McDermid. 77-84. 245- 250. J. The Plant Cell. T. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from carbon dioxide by cyanobacteria. 649-658.C. (2007). 84- 86(1). 633-662. (2003). 40(5). Niwa. 50(1). Yocum. Progress in Lipid Research. Confirmation of cultivated porphyra tenera (bangiales. X. ‘Metabonomics’: Understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data. (1999). D.. E. S. Savereide. rhodophyta) by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the plastid and nuclear DNA. 325–438. Karcher. I. Q. 294-304. (1999). Mathews. (2008). Progress in lipid research. (1995). Holmes. 127-135. 34(17). Plant Physiology. Y.A. The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions. Strain selection and genetic variation in gracilaria chilensis (gracilariales. B. (2001). Matsunaga. X. J.J.. N. Sucrose accumulation in salt-stressed cells of agp gene deletion-mutant in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. 71-77. Nicholson. Structure. J.. 1073-1088. rhodophyta). 10(3).. 513-524. 691–701. A... Nelson. (2008). Miyake. (2003). K. Murphy. Shachar-Hill. Lytovchenko. Journal of Applied Phycology. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Humphries. (2000). (2006). Kikuchi.K. Aruga. Phycological Research. a volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in nature. 218(1). I.G. & Zhao. Long.R. 7(7).. Algal Biology  .J. K. Journal of Applied Phycology.11(3).. Nobles. Wang. P. Weselake.K. D. 241-246. Journal of Phycology. Lindon. 521-565. (1995). 29(11). K. S. (2009).Libourel. Melis. function and biogenesis of storage lipid bodies and oleosins in plants.. N. 625-650.M. A. plants and microorganisms. K. Sonnewald. et al. Bock. 71-77. 32(3). A. The complex network of non-cellulosic carbohydrate metabolism. 991-1002. U. D. Fernie. R.M. 26 2. Neupert. Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Science.. N. Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds. B. Lefebvre. (2009). 41(2). D. 15(6). encodes a chaperone-like protein. P. 59. Murphy. Structure and function of photosystems I and II.R. 15(5). Santelices. Niyogi. P. R. 35. The biogenesis and functions of lipid bodies in animals. 4011-4019. C.L Kirk. (2007). Brown. 227–235. Morphological and molecular analysis of the endangered species porphyra tenera (bangiales. Kobiyama.J.. Wu. J. 1181–1189. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. rhodophyta). Genetic engineering in marine cyanobacteria.. Meneses. et al. The Plant Journal: For Cell and Molecular Biology. Nelson.

A reversible enzyme reaction with an important role in metabolic control.E. Kroger. (1998). Poulton. FEMS Microbiology Letters. V. (2004). Archives of Microbiology. Moezelaar.A. 40(4). Crosbie. et al.A. (1996).F. Sears. Academic Press. M. 199-217. 272. 236(1). Krumbein. Raven.. T.E.J. Kheshgi. A Look Back at the U.. K. ASM Press. Sheehan. DC.. H. Plant Physiology. Photosynthetic water-splitting for hydrogen production. et al. T. Stal. (7). Induced beta-carotene synthesis driven by triacylglycerol deposition in the unicellular alga dunaliella bardawil. Kröger.J. Kanakagiri. 467-478. N. M. 27(11-12). et al. 42(5).. N. N. 3413–3423. Serebryakova. (1984). (1987). 107-112. L. et al. W. S.E. Melis.H. Plant Physiology. et al. K. Stahl.. O. C. Washington. 179–211. Y. A.B. SNAP-tag™ mediated live cell labeling as an alternative to GFP in anaerobic organisms. Polle. a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. 273-291. Fermentation in cyanobacteria. S. 309–317. 7(3).. L. 103-116. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2004). Plant Physiology. 1324-1335.. Annotation of genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Discovery of the betaine lipid synthase BTA1Cr. Tanaka. 217(1). 166(1). The photobiological production of hydrogen: Potential efficiency and effectiveness as a renewable fuel.. J. Watanabe. Journal of Phycology. Sheremetieva.. et al. Storz. Journal of Phycology. M. R. New York. Plant Physiology. 1239-1248. Polle. 3094-3098. 122(4). The Plant Journal. J. Sieracki. 14(6)..R. 135(3). B. 1257–1264. J. G.. Journal of Phycology. C. Misumi.. 41(6). 31(1). (2004). 49–59. Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. J. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom cyclotella cryptica. An abundance of RNA regulators*. Contrapuntal networks of gene expression during arabidopsis seed filling. et al. Tsygankov.C. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. Evert. Rohr. 2. Fujiwara. H. (2005). 242-52.E. (2002). Algal culture techniques. (1998).M. Cloning and functional characterization of a phospholipid: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase from arabidopsis. (1992). 116(4). Roeder. et al. 611–621. Singh. A. 4(2).B. S. 148(1). N. 1821-1828. U.S. Rabbani. Stal. M. Ruuska. (2009). 1059–1065. et al. The Plant Cell Online. 148(4). Tandem inverted repeat system for selection of effective transgenic RNAi strains in Chlamydomonas. et al. Round. (1997). (2003). A new molecular tool for transgenic diatoms. Automated isolation techniques for microalgae. J. Riekhof. P.M. Reiss.T. Worth Publishers. Roessler. W. (2005). Ohlrogge. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae. (2006). S. F. 93(7). Truncated chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems—a practical method to improve microalgal productivity and hydrogen production in mass culture. Regoes. N. Molecular genetic manipulation of the diatom thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae). Poulsen. Reversible hydrogenase activity of gloeocapsa alpicola in continuous culture. B. 1191-1206. (1998). Periappuram. Protoplasma. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Schwender. R.. Biology of Plants 5th ed. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Eichhorn.S. Benning. 394–400. A.R. Understanding flux in plant metabolic networks.. Prince. Hehl. Integration of carbon and nitrogen metabolism with energy production is crucial to light acclimation in the cyanobacterium synechocystis. 1227-1235. Annual Review of Biochemistry. High-efficiency transformation of chlamydomonas reinhardtii by electroporation. A. Algal Biology  27 . 1193-1199.J.G. Poulsen. A. (2000). (1998).. Planta. Y. Genetics. Cambridge University Press. non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. 76–80. Chesley. S. Shachar-Hill. 21(2). L. (2005). 809. 149(1).D. tla1. 24. Wassarman. Transient gene suppression in a red alga. (74). Altuvia. The plastidic phosphoglucomutase from Arabidopsis. Temporal separation of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis in the filamentous. 89–94..Ohnuma.. 39(6). (1988). N. (2005). Bioenergy. Eukaryotic Cell. Seibert. & Kuroiwa. Shimogawara. P. P. Identification of stress gene transcripts in laminaria digitata (phaeophyceae) protoplast cultures by expressed sequence tag analysis.E. J. (2002). Biotechniques. 19-31. S.. (2005). K. Current opinion in plant biology. et al. (2004). (2005). (2008). The Ecology of Algae..E. The FEBS Journal. RecA protein stimulates homologous recombination in plants. (2008).

91–124. 157(2). Long. 197-216. Regulation of metabolic networks: Understanding metabolic complexity in the systems biology era. C. M. 499-507. Eukaryotic Cell. 337(21-23). Valencia-Sanchez. J. Journal of Phycology. et al.R.G. M. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. Methods in enzymology. S. (1989). H. Yoo. Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs. T. (2002). 40(5). (2005). (2008). Zhu. Zaslavskaia. 152(5). et al. (126). et al. 325–331. Hegemann.. 136(1)..S. B. Turner. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research. International Journal of Energy Research. Journal of Applied Phycology. Q. M. J. Lane. D. strain ATCC 51142 during light-dark and continuous-light growth. (2007). W. Tanner. S. Genes and development. (2006)... Archives of Microbiology. Vermaas. 513-526. 32(5). et al. C.A. U. 19(2). Plant Physiology. 66(1). E. Journal of Phycology. L. Metabolic engineering in the -omics era: Elucidating and modulating regulatory networks. 38(2). et al. 1190-1203. S. (2000). Effects of growth condition on the structure of glycogen produced in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. 20(5). et al. Metabolic flux analysis in synechocystis using isotope distribution from C-13-labeled glucose.H. 2676-2686. Optimizing the distribution of resources between enzymes of carbon metabolism can dramatically increase photosynthetic rate. D. 293-310. et al.. Gene modifications and mutation mapping to study the function of photosystem II. Long. A. 21(10). F. M. W. Wu. What is the maximum efficiency with which photosynthesis can convert solar energy into biomass? Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 379–386. (2005). K. J. H. 168(1). 297. Zehmer. (2006). Renewable hydrogen production. Spalding. X. Improving gene annotation using peptide mass spectrometry. 2195-2203. Shimizu. Ort.. (2002). 415-419. Journal of Bacteriology.P. New Phytologist. 36(2). (2007). 28 2. L. 515-524.Sweetlove. E. 914-921. Yu. T. Embryo-specific reduction of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase leads to an inhibition of starch synthesis and a delay in oil accumulation in developing seeds of oilseed rape. Accumulation of oleic acid in haematococcus pluvialis (chlorophyceae) under nitrogen starvation or high light is correlated with that of astaxanthin esters. P. Algal Biology  . et al.P. et al.N. Protist. Genes & development... Jane. (2009). Triacylglycerol accumulation and profiling in the model diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Baccilariophyceae) during starvation. (2008). Huesemann. 231-239. Miao. (2009). Vigeolas. 21(6). et al. A. J. A numerical simulation using an evolutionary algorithm. Xu. Fermentation metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece PCC 7822. Zhekisheva. 9-24. (1998). Hydrogenases and hydrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria.. 69(2). Carbohydrate Research. (2007). P. Simmons. et al. Vemuri. Sizova.. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.R. Zendejas. et al. X. Characterization of cyanobacterial glycogen isolated from the wild type and from a mutant lacking of branching enzyme.S. et al. (2007). (2002). A role for lipid droplets in inter-membrane lipid traffic. Tamagnini. Aristidou. (2008). J. 4(3). 498-504. Zhu. (2004). B. (2007). Toepel.. Journal of Biotechnology. Van der Oost. Zorin. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. PCC6803. 669-681. J. S.A.F. Fernie. Gaucher. Yang. 379–407. Hua. A complex system of small RNAs in the unicellular green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 1-20. 17(2). Differential transcriptional analysis of the cyanobacterium cyanothece sp. deSturler.. A. S. Wilhelm. I. X. (2005).A. Q. 4(7). T. 3904-3913. P. 9(4). The regulation of carbon and nutrient assimilation in diatoms is significantly different from green algae. (2006). Lipid production by dunaliella salina in batch culture effects of nitrogen limitation and light intensity. Prometrics. Transformation of the diatom phaeodactylum tricornutum (bacillariophyceae) with a variety of selectable marker and reporter genes. & Lane. S. Plant Physiology. Zhao. G. Yoo. Metabolic Engineering. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. 115-122. 153–159. 1264-1277. (2002). 202-216.. Weldy. Nuclear-gene targeting by using single-stranded DNA avoids illegitimate DNA integration in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 190(11). Genome Research.G. 145. C.J.

algae can be cultivated via maintenance is likely to be superior to that in open ponds photoautotrophic or heterotrophic methods. However.g. are unlikely to be sterilizable and may require periodic cleaning due to biofilm formation.. Photobioreactors can also provide a various features of both approaches).1 Cultivation Pathways acknowledge the advantages and disadvantages of both photoautotrophic cultivation approaches. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Given the multiple pathways to cultivating microalgae Traditionally.g. however. reducing the amount of water that Photoautotrophic Cultivation must be processed and thus the cost of harvest (Christi. higher surface to volume ratio and so can support higher volumetric cell densities. photobioreactors have suffered from and cyanobacteria. industry. both varying in where contamination and “foreign” algae are more their challenges and advantages (Exhibit 3.. Algal Cultivation than for open ponds raceways.3.1 compares the readily introduced. are subject to daily and seasonal in the context of upstream and downstream processing changes in temperature and humidity. Though photobioreactors (e.1 Comparative features of microalgal cultivation approaches ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES • Less loss of water than open ponds • Scalability problems • Superior long-term culture • Require temperature maintenance as they Closed maintenance do not have evaporative cooling Photobioreactors • Higher surface to volume ratio can • May require periodic cleaning due to support higher volumetric cell biofilm formation Photoautotrophic densities • Need maximum light exposure Cultivation • Subject to daily and seasonal changes in • Evaporative cooling maintains temperature and humidity Open Ponds temperature • Inherently difficult to maintain • Lower capital costs monocultures • Need maximum light exposure • Easier to maintain optimal conditions for production and contamination prevention • Cost and availability of suitable Heterotrophic feedstocks such as lignocellulosic sugars • Opportunity to utilize inexpensive Cultivation • Competes for feedstocks with other lignocellulosic sugars for growth biofuel technologies • Achieves high biomass concentrations 3. open ponds) or hybrid systems will prevail in the lose much less water than open ponds due to evaporation. Algal Cultivation  29 . capital costs maximizing light exposure. therefore. photobioreactors). especially in terms of mixing and algal cultivation in closed (e. important that cultivation R&D they do not receive the benefit of evaporative cooling projects are closely associated with techno-economic and so temperature must be carefully maintained. Many of these issues are being for closed photobioreactor construction are currently higher addressed through improved material usage and enhanced Exhibit 3. open gas exchange (both CO2 and O2). Photobioreactors to identify the best-suited cultivation system. but long-term culture Broadly speaking. For photoautotrophic cultivation strategies where algae 2007). (TE) analysis that can evaluate the cultivation system Open ponds. it is important to 3. It is. it is premature to predict whether problems of scalability. Both types of cultivation systems must contend with require light to grow and create new biomass.

Recent studies have play a critical role as breeder/feeder systems linked to shown that Porphyra. 2002). Heterotrophic as a nutrient source. considerable scale-up from current activities. As a result. Saccharina latissima and Nereocystis luetkeana have in greenhouses are attached to substrates (usually rope been successfully co-cultured with salmonid fish species structures). 2004. Buck.et al. Kumar et al. Advantages of the land-based systems to coastal farms for grow-out to harvestable size. Laminaria hyperborean. Turbinaria. Algal Cultivation  . This approach takes advantage of mature on growth structures in deep waters off the coast of industrial fermentation technology.. Demonstrations of successful callus formation and improvements in efficiency of water movements and plantlet regeneration have been reported in commercially pond construction costs are needed (Friedlander.. difficulties were challenges compared with photoautotrophic methods. 3) ease of nutrient application without dilution. and there is the the structures. such as sugars. been adopted by seaweed biologists (Garcia-Reina et al. 2006). which harnesses both the overcome due to the conflicting uses of coastal zones. to generate Biomass Program through several deployments of kelp new biomass. Dai et al... 2005. Modern integrated aquaculture scenario in co-culture with finfish macroalgal cultivation technology that is based on the use and mollusks. Hanisak. 2006) and field Additionally. in particular. 1993) and the phycocolloid-producing seaweeds pond and photobioreactor systems have been published or Gracilaria. availability of suitable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic which have viable seaweed aquaculture industries. and 5) possibility of farm operations of seaweeds through cell and tissue culture techniques. Dai et al. Reddy et al. Macroalgae can be cultivated in off-shore. environmental regulations from other sources. 2007). and presented (see Chapter 10). over those in water have been listed as 1) ease of plant management. algae are grown without light seaweed farms was initially tested by the Marine and are fed a carbon source. 2008. Japan.. 2007). 2008). efforts.engineering designs. Land-based pond systems have also been considered for macroalgal cultivation (Friedlander. much of the information used Gelidiella (Collantes et al. located in close proximity to conversion operations Although the field is still at an early stage of development. seeds grown spp.. and culturalists to advance the vegetative propagation disease. Because these systems rely on primary productivity the United States and Europe. biomass concentrations that reduces the extent and cost of 2004. in hybrid systems. However. In sugars. photoautotrophic and heterotrophic ability of algae. modern prototypes for offshore potential to utilize inexpensive lignocellulosic sugars for growth of the kelp. thus providing optimism for future the infrastructure required to grow the algae (Xu. For contribution to a biofuels the micropropagation of plants is a concept that has marketplace. 2004. The operation of large offshore In heterotrophic cultivation. wastes from the other species of artificially produced seed as a source of propagules has represent a nutrient supply for the macroalgae. improvement in strain selection. In the latter. 2) use of plants with or without holdfast Modern tools developed in the larger plant breeding structures.et al. and predation. Dipakkore et al. important seaweeds such as Undaria (Kawashima and 30 3. using artificially upwelled water produce a variety of products at large scale. they could compete for feedstocks and popular resistance against use of coastal regions for with other biofuel technologies. et al. Macroalgae 1987). providing high cell density algal inocula promising for growing plants from protoplasts (Dai et for production ponds (Ben-Amotz. 1993. Near-shore coastal environments are already The primary challenges with this approach are the cost and being exploited by countries like China.. and Chile. it remains to be seen which system protoplasts is possible in both the laboratory (Dipakkore will be preferred at scale over long periods of operation. for these analyses is based on assumptions or proprietary Kumar et al... Hypnea. Sargassum. Porphyra been in practice since the 1950s. While it was determined that such cultivation presents a different set of advantages and structures would support growth of kelp. photobioreactors could (Dai et al. Typically. have been algal growth. (Chynoweth.. Growth of plantlets regenerated from data. A related approach aquaculture represent challenges that will need to be is mixotrophic cultivation.. 2009). both as free-standing algal farms and in an Macroalgae require unique cultivation strategies. community are now available to seaweed biologists 4) avoidance of open sea problems such as bad weather. or Heterotrophic Cultivation in open pond facilities. 1993). Though TE analyses for both open Tokuda. near-shore. Heterotrophic cultivation also achieves high successfully tested in the North Sea (Buck and Buchholz. already widely used to Southern California. 2005). 2005)... then reared to plantlet size and transplanted (Bruton et al. encountered with the stability of either the structures Optimal conditions for production and contamination themselves or the stability of the attachment of kelp to prevention are often easier to maintain. appears especially open raceways. 2004.. 2004. and major technological 1991). 1995) or a series of al. linked turbidostats or chemostats (Benson et al.

viable. and be necessary in open systems since seasonal variation in • Water conservation.000 and several million phytoplankton 3. In certain cultivation systems. and pathogens. 2008. Algal Cultivation  31 . (2009) point out that though there may be between 40. Boutte et al. and pathogens is expected (Hoffman et al.Other options for algal cultivation are being investigated Stability of Large-Scale Cultures including the harvesting of naturally occurring marine algal Systems for large-scale production of biofuels from algae blooms. Others will compete for shared resources.. 2006. including worrisome components of large-scale algae cultivation CO2. must also be managed in a way that balances is the fact that algal predators and pathogens are both productivity and pathogen sensitivity with the plasticity of pervasive and little understood (Becker. Nutrients. and management of competitors. 2005). although current has yet to consider the intricacies of biological carbon understanding of their diversity and host range is very concentration mechanisms (Wang and Spalding. management. 2008) productivity analysis. 2009). TSA- • Nutrient source scaling. This model would can scavenge and recycle nutrients or synthesize essential require a downstream biorefinery capable of processing vitamins. One of the more into a variety of useful products... 2004. competitors. limited. and lipids still others will cause culture disruption.. “Environmental” DNA sequence analysis can contribute to the development of PCR-based • Standardized metrics for system-level (Zhu et al. Because of the and even less is known about host resistance mechanisms. • What prevention or treatment measures Wilson et al... sustainability and FISH (Marie et al. or and take over bioreactors and open ponds? heavy metals into the biomass stream (Hoffman et al. Tapping into existing agricultural or reservoirs of algal pathogens and predators? municipal waste streams will lower nutrient costs but could • To what extent will local “weedy” algae invade introduce unacceptable pathogens. 2008. it will be and require significant investment in methods for detection challenging to maintain algal monocultures on this scale. and recycling. chemical compounds. Brussaard. and the use of algal mat or biofilm cultivation must be developed on scales that are orders of magnitude schemes. but very little is known about host specificity and economic barriers to success. to large-scale algal cultures include: Nutrient sources and water treatment/recycling are • Are agricultural or municipal waste streams—a technically trivial and inexpensive at small scales and potentially significant source of nutrients for algal yet represent major technical and economic problems at cultivation—actually a liability because of significant commercial scales. commercial-scale algal cultivation: selective. Additionally. The methods must be sensitive. Fungal of supplemental CO2 in large-scale algal cultivation and viral pathogens are common.. and inexpensive. an investment in “open source” test bed facilities for public sector Important questions concerning this threat RD&D may foster more cultivation research. and simple and complex carbohydrates. Wilson et al. Honda et algal physiological adaptation.g.. predators. Some members of the a mixed or natural assemblage of organisms in an attempt community will be of positive value. pervasiveness of issues related to scale. proteins. Cheng et al.. Chytrid fungi have also been known to cause The inherent difficulties of scaling up from laboratory the collapse of industrial algal cultivation ponds (Hoffman to commercial operations present both technical et al. monocultures are inherently difficult to maintain combined. 2009). predators. automated or semi-automated biological and chemical monitoring in production settings will Four broad cultivation challenges have emerged be essential for assessing the health and compositional that are important to address for economically dynamics of algal cultures. or flow-cytometry-based taxonomic assays.. 1994. 3. 1999. there have only been 150 formal descriptions of phycoviruses. 2004). It should be noted that. e. Wilson et al. it may become necessary to understand and manage the One possible approach to contend with this is to cultivate communities that will be present.. Methods for rapid. Rittmann et al. Continuous monitoring will management. 2006 )... 2008. 2005. as well as potentially provide • Culture stability.. The cost-benefit analysis al. especially in open larger than all current worldwide algal culturing facilities systems. little is known about might limit such takeovers? artificial pond ecology or pathology. for real-time monitoring. 2008). Viprey et al.2 Scale-Up Challenges species. such as those that to maximize total harvested biomass. and investigation into these areas will be important for the development of large- scale cultivation risk mitigation and remediation strategies.

and normalization. Fluorescent and Nuclear also inform efforts at developing robust. New approaches are split Oswald. productivity lost during down time. need to be more rigorously culture prior to water recycle. nitrogen nutrition has long been known to affect lipid accumulation in phytoplankton Nutrient Sources. 2009) and a focus especially important issue as there have been calculations on better understanding the mechanisms of biological that the world’s supply of phosphate is in danger of running CO2 concentration from ambient air (Lapointe et al. Spalding 2008). and Management 1981. trace metals. Requirements for additional nutrients.. and production siting. must also be R&D in both areas. as siting requirements for efficient considered. Gao et al... light stress in some marine phytoplankton may also The primary focus is the major nutrients – nitrogen. Reed et al. supplemental CO2 has Nitrogen. 1994). but vary depending upon the specific strain and algal cultivation may rarely coincide with high-volume water source chosen. National and international efforts toward improvements in productivity while at the same time generating quality assurance policy standards early on lower the cost of production. civil and mechanical engineers is needed for cultivation science and engineering will yield significant rapid progress. and significant operating cost. The cost of CO2 based nutrients for heterotrophic growth will also affect the economics and sustainability of such systems. molecular-level algal ecology will be an important component of the investment There is an immediate need to standardize productivity portfolio required for developing the potential of algae. Strain selection should take nutrient requirements into account. etc. 2008. models and establish protocols for measurement of yields. and adapted for rapid. Research at the interface between basic algal biology and chemical. fit-for-purpose fuels. 2008). competitive Magnetic Resonance-based methods for rapid lipid content production strains. Sheehan et al. The frequency of contamination screening in algae have been developed and applied to events that require decontamination/restarts will be an many different types of phytoplankton with mixed results important parameter in the cost of production because of (Cooksey et al. 2008. Phosphorous appears to be an (Rosenberg et al. Nutrient supplies for algal cultivation have a sizeable 1998). Along with standards.S.. sustainable fuels. and iron additions represent a long been known to increase algal growth rate. Douskova et al. The development of studied. biochemists. This calculation takes into account a 50% between using algae to scrub CO2 from emission gasses rate of nutrient recycle. This information will productivity of potential strains. 1996). For example.. accounting for 6-8 cents per this area is receiving new attention from the search for gallon of algal fuel in 1987 U. and genetic. developing an understanding of pond transportation and the volatile market for carbon credits will speciation. Dynamic pond monitoring will be important are also important. 32 3. dollars (Benemann and renewable. automated. as well as others such potential need to either discard or treat the contaminated as Near Infra Red spectroscopy. derivatives of the Bodipy for both wild-type and genetically modified algae... permeable.. Benemann and Oswald. 2002). densities. predator-prey relationships. molecule with higher lipophilicity or lower quantum yields whose competitiveness in the field cannot be accurately in aqueous solvent may prove to be more reliable indicators predicted. and ecology be a major challenge for TE feasibility studies. research in multi-trophic. There is justification to carry out such as sulfur. 1999. Algal Cultivation  . These tools. cultivation schemes should lead to enhancements in productivity. rates. result in increases in lipid content (Azachi et al. vitamins. The use and availability of carbon- point sources of CO2 (see Chapter 9). Early detection schemes for business models are already apparent on these issues. inexpensive chemical treatments or physiological adaptations and high-throughput monitoring. 1996. phosphorous. phosphorous. out (Abelson. a significant investment toward basic of algal lipid contents (Gocze and Freeman. iron. diverging dynamics will be important. physiologists. 1999). and silicon (in the case of diatoms). (Ketchum and Redfield. invasive species. and pathogens will be a key to the success of remedial actions and for determining Better methods to detect the amount of desired fuel when decontamination and subsequent restart procedures precursor produced will be required to assess the represent the only alternative. 1938. Thus. fluorescent indicators other than Nile Red necessary.. predators. sustainability. Eltgroth et al. The synthesis of new non- genetic modifications of production strains may become toxic. For example. and products. 1987. Utilization of existing and in the development of an algal biofuel industry could new knowledge related to the physiological regulation of facilitate the deployment of algal based-biofuels by lipid or carbohydrate accumulation coupled with scalable ensuring consistent. coordinated research amongst analytical System Productivity chemists.Furthermore. From a productivity standpoint. Shifrin and Chisholm Sustainability. More recent data suggest that high salt and high impact on cost. and because of the 2005. metabolites.

2009). means to induce oil accumulation in the cells (Sheehan Important research areas therefore include: et al. This may be nitrogen.. to be more valuable than using the spent biomass for It is possible to consider the use of nitrogen-fixing products such as animal feed. Although economics dictate that the bulk of nutrient sources and recycling scenarios water derived from the harvesting step must be returned • Studies to explore the mechanisms of nutrient to the cultivation system (where remaining nutrients recycling. unused nutrients in • TE and life cycle analysis to understand the cost. which these nutrients are re-mobilized and made available which may or may not be compensated for by the “free” for algal growth are not well understood. for example. but One of the main advantages of using algae for their costs are still significant. Reagent grade sources of nutrients could make the price Conservation. For example. aquifers and seawater. Therefore. a hypothetical 1 hectare (ha). If not addressed adequately. produced 3. or iron. Because synthetic nitrogen fixation processes contains no nitrogen. then most of the nutrients will remain in the such a scheme will certainly have some impact on overall digestor sludge and can be returned to the growth system productivity levels as photosynthetic energy could (Benemann and Oswald. or silicon) as a economics.Nitrogen is typically supplied in one of three forms: ammonia. From a to fossil fuel prices. and sustainability issues. a certain amount • Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses of of “blowdown” water must be removed to prevent salt wastewater resources to understand availability. If the biomass residues are. Note also that flue gas fed to algal cultures may particularly problematic for recycling of silicon. evaporative losses can exceed 0. Douskova et al.. In the future. for example. but it may also be desirable to use nutrient levels are vitally important factors for cultivation limitation (e. nitrate. phosphorous. tend to be near enormous. costs are tied end up primarily in the spent algal biomass.5 cm per over long distances. which is a loss of 13. e. Algal Cultivation  33 . disposal will become a problem impact of such sources on algal biofuels production due to concerns of eutrophication of surface waters. algae are used in some wastewater treatment facilities water management poses some of the largest issues because of their ability to provide oxygen for the bacterial for algal biofuels. With large cultivation systems.. Careful control of nutrient levels is also critical. Currently. or industrial unsuitable for land crops. the culture medium pose a problem for waste water energy. The final fuel product from algal oil biology. brackish.000 gallons to fill. water breakdown of organic materials and to sequester nitrogen can easily become a “show-stopper. utilizing the biofuels production is their ability to thrive in water nutrient content of municipal. also become necessary to expand the limits of analysis to include recycling of nutrients from animal waste. The processes through be diverted from carbon fixation to nitrogen fixation. phosphorous. which is provide some of the nitrogen and sulfur needed from a component of the diatom cell walls. by preventing eutrophication. 1996). buildup. If this blowdown water contains substantial compatibility with cultivation sites. and the very large required energy sustainability perspective.” either because of and phosphorous into biomass for water clean-up. these nutrients utilize fossil fuels (particularly natural gas). and Recycling of a gallon of algal fuel cost-prohibitive. 1998). agricultural. too much of a particular nutrient may prove toxic. it may NOx and SOx (Doucha.. and sustainability implications of various discharge. On the other hand. Finding inexpensive sources of nutrients will be important. availability. and it is not practical to transport wastewater In desert areas. from anaerobic digestion sludges can feed subsequent algal growth). 2005. or urea. water demands will be Wastewater treatment facilities. real economic or sustainability problems or because of Utilizing agricultural run-off also poses economic benefits loss of public support due to perceived problems. cyanobacteria as a way to provide nitrogen biologically. productivity. and potential nitrogen and phosphorous. treated by anaerobic digestion to produce perhaps in co-culture with eukaryotic algae. Further research into the availability day (Weissman and Tillet. Limitation of a key nutrient will have serious impacts on biomass Nutrient sourcing and the control of nutrient productivity. A potential problem with this approach however is the impact on facility siting. biogas. Agricultural- or commodity-grade nutrients are more applicable. gallons per day from the 1 ha pond.000 and compatibility of wastewater resources is warranted. Water Management. however.g. However.g. 1989). The ideal form of nitrogen Another approach to reduce nutrient costs is to pursue is a function of relative costs and the specific strain’s a diligent recycle. Though the water used to initially fill the pond can be saline. nutrient recycle may prove inputs should be accounted for in life cycle analyses. At the same time. such as saline water from waste streams is a very attractive alternative. nitrogen. 20 metropolitan areas with high land prices and limited land cm deep open pond will require 530. Also.

accumulated toxics.g. including saline Conservation of water can be addressed to some extent aquifers. which could contain salts. Furthermore. or other remediation before use. it is desirable to recycle most of that water back to the culture. research in the following areas is warranted: in the culture and the salinity of the replacement water. desalination. or may require decontamination. Incoming water (surface water. by disposing of a portion of the pond volume each day as “blowdown. This can be prevented by adding Sterilization of blowdown water. etc. The added cost of such systems must down saline aquifers. or seawater) may be suitable as is. and treatment (e. and their proximity to utilizable cultivation through facility design and siting. materials in the culture. chemical flocculants used in harvesting. toxins.1999). The blowdown water exiting the process will also most likely require treatment. and water double their biomass on a daily basis. or biological inhibitors produced by the strains themselves could impair growth if recycled to the culture. flocculants. could pose a serious problem. accumulated salts. An advantage of sites that may have lower pan evaporation rates closed photobioreactors over open ponds is a reduced • Understanding the long-term effects of drawing rate of evaporation. process. Some actively growing algal cultures can treatment. • Studying water recycle and methods to maximize recycle (and minimize blowdown). wastewater. however. residual nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer.” The amount of blowdown required for Because of the importance of issues surrounding the use salinity control is dependent upon the acceptable salt level of water. This is an enormous amount of water (260. A critical water consumption.. from flue gas). Treatment may be essential for water entering and exiting the process. meaning that half movement (pumping costs) the culture volume must be processed daily. by the Environmental Protection Agency and already quality water stream. Algal Cultivation  . municipal wastewater. groundwater. would be a fresh water—a costly and often unsustainable option—or very costly and energy-intensive proposition. but live cells could adversely is fresh water. heavy metals (e. and continually making up the volume with affect biodiversity of neighboring ecosystems or result low-quality water will concentrate salts.. Disposal of the spent water.g. including the geology of these be balanced against the cost savings and sustainability aquifers and associations with freshwater systems analysis for water usage for a given location. • GIS analysis of water resources.water from oil wells. Surface disposal and reinjection into wells may be an option as regulated 34 3. To contain costs. • Investigating ways to reduce the cost of water and location. the water being lost to evaporation practiced by the oil industry. and residual live algal cells. and live cells or employ cooling towers to keep cultures cool will lose some if not possibly all of the water savings of such • Developing cultivation systems with minimal systems under these conditions (Flickinger. toxins (including heavy cooling. activated charcoal filtration. flocculants. However.) of the recycled stream could be cost-prohibitive. Closed systems that spray water on the surfaces metals). while effectively Water recycling is essential. Note however • Analysis and definition of the regulatory landscape that evaporation plays a critical role in temperature surrounding discharge of water containing various maintenance under hot conditions through evaporative levels of salt. but the amount that can managing the accumulation of salt and other inhibitors be recycled depends on the algal strain. makeup water/recycle. disinfection. or other low. and other in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms. water.000 gallons per day in the 1 ha example above). This could include reducing part of the analysis that goes into siting an algal facility evaporative cooling loads through such strategies will be to analyze the “pan evaporation” rates at specific as selecting thermotolerant strains of algae sites in conjunction with water cost and availability. moving around such large volumes of water is very energy-intensive and can impose a significant cost.

Production and seeding of protoplasts of porphyra okhaensis (Bangiales. Yang. R. M. and W. Dai. Balthasart and A. Oswald. I. (2005). Collantes. B. Y. Ben-Amotz. B. 25. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. (1995).. Biodiesel from microalgae. H. and P. (2005). C. H. Freeman. 15-28. (2008). and Z. 16. (1991). Benson. Rusch. Boussiba. 17. Gokhman and A.. McLachlan and Oliveira. Zhou. B. F. and B. Cambridge University Press. I. The development of a mechanistic model to investigate the impacts of the light dynamics on algal productivity in a hydraulically integrated serial turbidostat algal reactor. M. 129(3). M. 674-691. C. potential and speculative applications of seaweed cellular biotechnology-some specific comments on gelidium. B. Sosa.. M. 355-368 Buck. Bao. parasitic on the green alga Haermatococcus. Q. Yuan and Q. and A. 1-207. P. {Bibliography}Douskova. 331-337.. J. Journal of Applied Phycology. P. S. K.References Azachi. C. S. Q. Microalgae: Biotechnology and Microbiology. W. 331-343.. P. and L. Cambridge. 111. Factors underlying the variability of lipid droplet fluorescence in MA-10 lydig tumor cells. C. (1987). Maeda and A. L. Doucha. Zachleder and M. Cultivation of gracilaria and other marcoalgage in Florida for energy consumption. and P. 125-138. Hino (2004). Testing of primers for the study of cyanobacterial molecular diversity by DGGE. Grubisic. Fluorometric-determination of the neutral lipid- content of microalgal cells using nile red. Z. Buck. K.. J. (1996). and C. Competition between the rotifer brachionus rotundiformis and the ciliate euplotes vannus fed on two different algae. 241(1-4). (2007).. Dai. W. 65(3). D. X. Robledo. Drew SW. A. Gomezpinchetti. Umysova. Final Report to US DOE NETL. P. Goldshlag. C. V. 17. H. Biotechnology Advances. Garcia-Reina. L... Bird. Q. (2007). 56. (1987). Aoki. Shen. (2002). J. (1999). Hanisak. (2004). Y. 191-218. (2004). Seedling production using enzymatically isolated thallus cells and its application in porphyra cultivation. 2005. Reddy. Chynoweth. Callis. Elsevier. New mode of Dunaliella biotechnology: Two phase growth for beta- carotene production. S. Production and cellular localization of neutral long-chain lipids in the haptophyte algae Isochrysis galbana and Emiliania huxleyi. D. biocatalysis and bioseparation.. Wolfe. Zarka. M. A. W. G. ed. (2008). Jha. Zhang. D. Chilensis Bird. in Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. 151-158. M. 139-145. Becker. Vitova (2009). Y. J. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Aquaculture. Review of Biomethane from Marine Biomass. C. 294-306. A. Cooksey. M. Sadka. 7. Gutierrez-Wing and K.. (2006). R. Wilmotte. 179-185. G. 127-131. Brussaard. Watwood and G. Genetic breeding and seedling raising experiments with porphyra protoplasts. T. Cytometry. Rhodophyta) in laboratory culture. Gocze. 512. Mycological Research. Han. Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. Dipakkore. Y. Hydrobiologia. K. Salt induction of fatty acid elongase and membrane lipid modifications in the extreme halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina. (2004). 250. 41(5). Hydrobiologia. J. Guckert. Journal of Microbiological Method. D. Aquaculture Engineering. C. Journal of Microbiological Methods. James and S. M. M. M. The Journal of Applied Phycology. 333-345. Bao. 198-211. Wiley. Cheng. Gutman. Fisher.. 542-550.. Actual. Benemann. R. Benson. E. J. 16. Micropropagation by explants of Gracilaria. R. Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology: Fermentation. (2008). S. Aflalo. 221:181-194. Journal of Microbiological Methods. S. J. W. Machat. Zamir. H.. Buchholz. Y. S. The offshore-ring: A new system design for the open ocean aquaculture of macroalgae. A. 395–419. B. University of Florida. R. L. Amsterdam. Livansky. Boutte. R. 6(6). T. L. Viral control of phytoplankton populations: A review. Algal Cultivation  35 . V. Israeli R & D activities in seaweed cultivation. Novak. E. A. S. Wu. Eltgroth. Isolation and characterization of a novel chytrid species (phylum Blastocladiomycota).. Q. Buchholz. T. X. Zhang. The Journal of Applied Phycology. (1994). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. P. Hoffman. 51. The Journal of Applied Phycology. M. and C. P. Williams and P. Chisti. 3. Journal of Applied Physiology. Candia. 70-81. K. Aquaculture Engineering. 75(3). 112. A. D. J. (1993). Aquaculture. 203-213. M. and D. Xiong.. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. Rapid quantitation of lipid in microalgae by time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance. 2002. Melo. 1000-1009. Liu. (2004). 1320-1329. Friedlander. (1994). 82(1). Gao. Plant Physiology. Z. 437-440. D. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs. J. 65-68. Flickinger MC. 36(2).

D. Roessler. A. Wilkinson and M. J.. M. H. Ketchum. A.. 328: 1-42. R. R. Spalding. Van Etten and M. T. Oyler. X. Vaulot. Phycologia. S. Jha. An external delta-carbonic anhydrase in a free-living marine dinoflagellate may circumvent diffusion-limited carbon acquisition. Halden. W. Mapping of picoeucaryotes in marine ecosystems with quantitative PCR of the 18S rRNA gene. R. Nakahara. (2005). Kumar. L. Xu. Petty. M. Vaulot. 79-92. Journal of Phycology. and M. E. 604-612. G. F. and D. Academic Press. D. Lesser Known Large dsDNA Viruses. Hydrobiologia. N. Environmental Microbiology. Rosenberg. 10110-10115. 10(7). C. Microalgal carbon-dioxide-concentrating mechanisms: Chlamydomonas inorganic carbon transporters.S. 1427-1436. A method for maintaining a continuous supply of marine diatoms by culture. U. (2007). T. Anderson . Schaumann and T. San Diego..: Viprey. Nature Reviews Microbiology. R. Chisholm. Retrieved June 29. 261. (1981). S. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 19(5). Wilson. and A. rhodophyta). CA. (1998).. J. A. K. Pre-genomic.. H. Journal of Biotechnology. Spalding. Marie and D. Not. Berlin. Marie. H. N. (2006). Kumar. and S. Q. Reed. Tillet. (1989). Eswaran.. L. M. 2007. Reddy. Marine Biology. (1938). M. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Graham and R.. from www. Tissue culture and regeneration of thallus from callus of gelidiella acerosa (gelidiales. Redfield. W. M. 15-25. M. 1804-1822. Dipakkore. Y. F. L. J. 385-389. Benemann and P. 46(6). J. Rittman. 637-647. 147(3). Morse. (2009). Biological Bulletin. and H. P. 6. S. Krajmalnik-Brown and R. C. (2005). 499-507. B. 126. D. B. 103.. Plant Physiology.pdf. C. and H. K.. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program-Biodiesel from algae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. D.Honda. Kawashima. 36 3. Regeneration from callus of undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (laminariales. (2008). Bot. Springer-Verlag Berlin. A. 253-268. and post-genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy. Vaulot. Phytoplankton cell counting by flow cytometry. W. Algal Cultivation  . T. (2004). phaeophyta). Neutral lipids in macroalgal spores and their role in swimming. Guillou.. Tokuda.. (2007). 19. Algal Culturing Techniques. H. 737-744. 374-384. Shifrin. J. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. Sheehan. Yokochi. (1993). Exp. 43. 17(4). Weissman. K. The Phycodnaviridae: The story of how tiny giants rule the world. (2006). and Wu. G. J. A green light for engineered algae: Redirecting metabolism to fuel a biotechnology revolution. Ferreol and D. Raghukumar. Y. (2008). Thiruppathi. Zhu. 596-602. Martin H. G.. A look back at the U. Coury. C. D. Design and operation of an outdoor microalgae test facility. Allen. Jha. Simon and D. (2008). B. R.gov/docs/fy04osti/34796. L. 75(1). M. N. S. Wang. genomic. Dunahay. Ganesan. The Journal of Applied Phycology. Phytoplankton lipids-Interspecific differences snd effects of nitrate. Brzezinski. T. K. 133(4). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52(1). (1999). An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Reddy. J. Massana. Callus induction and thallus regeneration from callus of phycocolloid yielding seaweeds from the Indian coast. MacKenzie and D. R.. C. D. Molecular phylogeny of labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids based on the sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene. R. 165-169.nrel.. 430-436. Betenbaugh. S. Nakagiri. Wide genetic diversity of picoplanktonic green algae (chloroplastida) in the Mediterranean sea uncovered by a phylum-biased PCR approach. A. Lapointe. Miao. Higashihara.. J. silicate and light-Dark cycles. (2008). and B. (1999). Rao.

McGarry and Tongkasa.. and extraction of fuel precursors (e. additives. algae harvesting (Sim et al. energy costs climb steeply. consider the imagine selecting/designing strains to aggregate on cue energy costs and siting issues associated with harvesting or designed with a particular flocculant interaction in and dewatering. 2004. CO2 depletion for pH control has been studied (Sukenik Butterfi and Jones. Future research in develop specific processing technologies to support those flocculation chemistry must take into account the following: designs and a fundamental understanding of how algal biology can impact harvesting and dewatering strategies.. salts. 1984). polyacrylamide polymers. A determinations in particular processes. It is possible to feasible algae-to-fuel strategy must. surfactants. Manipulating suspension size of the algae aggregates. electroflocculation. Flocculation leading to sedimentation occurs • Optimized sedimentation tank designs with integration naturally in many older cultures. and then air is bubbled 4. and small size (~1 to 30 µm). however. Edzwald. Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation A number of different forms of forced flocculation have been employed.g. Harvesting • The environmental impact of flocculant or pH Flocculation and Sedimentation manipulation in released water effluent. 2001). 1983). 1969. the mechanism slurry concentration also impacts plant location because of algae-flocculant interactions. therefore. • Chemical flocculant recovery techniques are required Processing technologies depend on the algal feedstocks to minimize cost and control water effluent purity. and Shelaf. Cultures Finally. 1991. The final slurry concentration will depend on the extraction methods employed and will Optimizing flocculation methods. 1998. therefore.02 . Chemical additives that bind algae or Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was otherwise affect the physiochemical interaction between established for sewage treatment and later studied in algae are known to promote flocculation (Lee et al. Flocculation is used to increase the additives that have been studied. water quality. 1988).0. well-managed high growth rate cultures due to their • Bioflocculation. and systems to liquid transportation fuels requires processing autoflocculation in the form of photosynthetically driven steps such as harvesting (Dodd and Anderson. at least 1% algae given the known processing strategies (Borowitzka. combined with RD&D to be useful for promoting flocculation. electroflocculation and electrocoagulation offer with as low as 0. mixtures.. gm water) must be concentrated to slurries containing Mollah et al. and recycling issues.07% algae (~ 1 gm algae/5000 the advantages of no added chemicals (Chen. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering Conversion of algae in ponds. Phochinda and White. is required to promote sedimentation at harvest. Kwak et al. water form of forced flocculation usually involving chemical recycling and flocculate recovery are required. In managed cultures. 1971). This facilitates the transport of electrocoagulation must be scaled-up with cost and cells to the photoactive zone through pond or bioreactor energy analysis. some into further downstream dewatering techniques. 2006. 2005. 2004. the presence of flocculant in 4. Processes that pertain to unicellular algae are quite different from the approaches applicable • The effect of residual flocculant or pH manipulation to macroalgae. Addressing these issues requires careful mind. Botes and Vanvuuren. bioreactors. These energy-intensive processes are has also been considered (Lavoie and Delanoue. and fuel Microalgae and cyanobacteria remain in suspension in conversion and use must be considered.. 1988. Final will very likely depend on strain selection. Culture manipulation techniques.. cellulose.4. 1977. Koopman and chitosan. Bioflocculation where algae are co- dewatering. may analysis of engineering designs. type. 1997). Poleman and Pauw. Knuckey et al.. 1987). lime. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  37 . Pan et al. in recycled water on culture health and stability and lipid production must be understood and controlled. being considered. only now being recognized as critically important.. and other man-made fibers are some chemical Lincoln.1 Approaches for Microalgae further downstream extraction and fuel conversion processes must be understood and controlled. As the desired percentage concentrations. 1975. 2003. lipids cultured with another organism that promotes sedimentation and carbohydrates). Bare et al.. Their small sizes. and on empirical of transportation. Alum. and off-shore pH with and without additives is also effective. and chemistry to maximize algae recovery of dry biomass increases. make harvesting more difficult. impact the required energy input. 1993. Likewise. circulation.

Filtration designs Invariably. and bioharvesting. and flocculant reclamation) are also investments. recovery is largely dependent on current level of centrifugation technology makes this bubble size and distribution through the suspension. microalgae.. 1991).through the suspension causing the algal clusters Centrifugation to float to the surface. leads to blinding. water and technologies must consider large initial capital equipment algae purity. or ships for operation. about 90% is (Oswald. Modern seaweed harvesting vessels can be equipped with pumps to direct harvested seaweeds directly into nets or other containment structures (Ugarte and Sharp. filter materials with controlled hydrophobicity and/or algae affinity can be developed.. operating costs. 2009). separations and has been investigated in algal harvesting (Molina et al. Solutions involving either solar or wind efficiency.. but are not limited to. Decreasing pore Because drying generally requires heat. have also been developed.. Application of mechanical 38 4. 2001). 1996). acoustic focusing to concentrate algae at nodes. These include. energy savings must be realized before any widespread implementation of this approach can be carried out. the Microalgae and cyanobacteria present unique filtration use of organisms growing on immobilized substrates challenges because most strains considered for energy where the amount of initial water is controlled and feedstocks have cell diameters less than 10 µm. shrimp and further understanding of several issues: tilapia) grown with algae (Johnson and Wen. R&D have been proposed to harvest and dewater Downing et al. and have the ability to remove the algae later. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . • Filtration design is an important variable with both Harvesting static and dynamic filtering operations. pores decreasing filter efficiency. approach cost-prohibitive for most of the envisioned DAF facilities require optimized integration with any large-scale algae biorefineries. and can be optimized through are harvested from higher organisms (e. and mechanized harvesting methods. methane drum size. floc optimization.g. such mechanized harvesters require boats should consider minimal or no washing requirements. • An important step is recovering the algal biomass from which can involve mowing with rotating blades. 2002. Culture purity However..6 million dry metric tons have been used in drum and cylinder press designs of total seaweed harvested worldwide. The algae-rich top layer is Centrifugation is widely used in industrial suspension scraped off to a slurry tank for further processing. Washing the filter is one practice.. but doing or dredging with cutters. For instance. Power costs will certainly influence derived from cultivated sources (Roesijadi et al.g. the filter. so leads to re-dilution of the product. of the roughly 1. however. 1995. and reduction of filtering rates. Filtration Solid/liquid filtration technologies are well studied. but will require extra space and • Filter material also influences filtration and recovery considerable time. the growth substrate can be easily removed. The flocculant efficiency. the costs climb steeply with incremental becomes important as a distribution of microorganism temperature and/or time increases. Centrifugation for sedimentation (e. suction. where fuel precursors very expensive. • The filter pore size is critically important as it is defined by the size of the algae species and algae Drying aggregation rate. Air-drying is possible size will affect filtration efficiency and blinding rates. and high throughput encountered in flocculation and DAF. Small algae pass through larger Drying is required to achieve high biomass concentrations. 2003). In addition to processing of large quantities of water and algae. the blocking of filter dryers and other oven-type dryers have been used. Durability and 4. Manual harvesting is common for both cultivated and natural systems. Saidam and Butler. manipulation of Filtration is conceptually simple but potentially electric fields. pores. in low-humidity climates.2 Approaches for Macroalgae blinding are also issues. Other Harvesting Techniques and filtration without prior flocculation can be used A number of other techniques at various stages of to harvest and dewater algae (Ferguson et al. design. The efficiency is dependent on All of the issues arising from the use of flocculants the selected species (as related to size). 2008). Significant cost and engineered design for further downstream processing. Materials can be used that optimize filtration energy are also possible. Moving filters Currently.

and hydrothermal liquefaction have either as Macrocystis. which is beneficial for transportation and other Similarly. 2009). The concept of large off-shore macroalgae farms and fermentation for alcohols... In forms such as Laminaria processing plants (Bruton et al. Dewatering seaweeds such as Sargassum spp. biomass prior to extraction or direct conversion have This has yet to be demonstrated on a commercially been categorized as follows (Bruton et al. a unit operations analysis of energy input debris that should be removed before further processing. 2009). and hydrothermal liquefaction associated biorefineries has from the outset included for bio-oils. could be cultivated in may be more important as a method to increase shelf-life floating pens. 2009): relevant scale and remains a significant challenge. maintenance. • Removal of foreign objects and debris.. and the amount of debris method. 2008). for a range of dry weight content based on extraction Screening for debris is considered mandatory. litter. Anaerobic digestion. strict regulations 80 . 2004). attached forms that tend to stand upright. with needs is required with consideration of capital equipment the degree of screening dependent on the mode of investments. such fermentation. Floating a high tolerance or requirement for water. anaerobic digestion and fermentation. scale of harvesting and dewatering. cultivation in land-based pond systems will processes requiring further drying (Bruton et al. be harvested and the intervals between harvests to allow growth and recovery of biomass (Ugarte and Sharp. laws have approaches 90% may be necessary.85% water content (Peterson et al. The establishment of large offshore seaweeds may alleviate 4. significant fraction of the total amount of energy available 4. For part of the pretreatment process. 1989). Dewatering to grown on off-shore rings (Buck and Buchholz. example. given the issues related to sustainability and potential environmental importance as well as current cost and achievable consequences will need to be carefully evaluated.g. as opposed to attached to the bottom culture. culture and end-use. about 20 .. Algae that are grown in suspension The cost of harvesting and dewatering will depend on the culture. To manage seaweed harvests. new strategies should be developed to combine and integrate Preprocessing these processes in order to take an algae culture and The general preprocessing requirements for macroalgal convert it into slurry of a specific concentration.. This will likely be a significant fraction of the will likely have less impact in procedures that can total energy cost of any algae-to-fuel process and a utilize whole seaweeds (Bruton et al. 2009). adhering epifauna and other forms of Ultimately. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  39 .3 Systems Engineering pressure from near-shore environments and create market While specific process technologies have been studied. Although have been put in place in some countries (Pringle and some dewatering of seaweeds whose water content Tseng. sand. opportunities for products apart from fuels. 2009). and depreciation. operations. with higher a biofuels feedstock in Ireland (Bruton et al. and low growing attached forms such as and reduce weight and associated transportation costs if Gracilaria will require different approaches compatible with algae are to be transported from sites of harvest to distant their growth characteristics. Further. This has important implications for plant design to answer simple • Dewatering questions like “What percentage of the total plant energy requirements or what percentage of that made available by Seaweeds immediately following harvest can have algae must be directed toward harvesting and dewatering?”. stones. Smaller particles. In require technology appropriate for that mode of culture. final algae concentration needed for the chosen extraction will likely have less debris. although breakthroughs are still needed in each. by washing A critical gap is the energy requirements of these processes • Milling are not only largely unknown but unbounded. may be amenable to mowing. shredded or milled macroalgal biomass can go directly into either reactions As a result of growing concern about the potential or extractions. Hydrothermal conversions are suited for environmental consequences of harvesting natural wet biomass and become efficient at 15 . mechanized harvesting techniques.20% solids or populations of seaweed near-shore. 2001). influence. e. The exact nature of such mechanization will obviously depend on the form Macroalgae have less of a demand for dewatering as of cultivation and type of algae being cultured.. will have higher reaction efficiency during anaerobic digestion for biogas.harvesters in European seaweed operations have been Milling is used to reduce seaweeds to particle sizes that are described in a recent feasibility analysis for seaweeds as \more efficiently processed.30% water content is noted to have a stabilizing harvesting may require retrieval and transport to shore. surface area to volume ratios. the exact ratio of water stipulated the percentages of harvestable stock allowed to to solids for marine biomass remains to be determined..

Lerat.J. 852-859. Illman. Algae. C. E. W.. V. J. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. Water Science and Technology. algal biofuel production schemes at scale will of 5 watt-hours/gram if the energy content of lipids. 6(1). F. Ku. 713. Sustainable Energy Ireland. likely need to implement innovative technologies and carbohydrates. T. (1987). Response of offshore cultivated laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the north sea. (1988). C. J. (2002).M. G. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. 250. de-watering. Harvesting of algae grown in agricultural wastewaters. (1993). Removal of clay and blue-green algae particles through zeta potential and particle size distribution in the dissolved air flotation process. Integrated high-rate pond algae harvesting system. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. H. R. Johnson. Borowitzka. Harvesting of scenedesmus-obliquus in wastewaters-auto-flocculation or bioflocculation. 47(1). Production of microalgal concentrations by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. Large-scale algae culture systems. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal.M. Edzwald.C. M.J. (2005).R. Filtration. 612. & Wen.B. J. 153.. H.R. W. M. E. 525-534.R. Y. Jones. D. and proteins and the typical percentage integrated systems in order to overcome this challenge. (1983). 27(10). 231. coagulants. and M. Anderson. A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. (1977).B. of each in algae are considered (Illman et al. Transactions-American Geophysical Union. (2005). Algae removal using dissolved air flotation. Kwak. Butterfi. Middlebrooks. Ireland Buck. It is possible to estimate the energy requirements in watt. Sedimentation and Flotation. (1991). R. and dissolved air flotation.F. Vanvuuren. I. and algae with much higher energy content than available drying as a function of the volume percentage of algae today. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Jones. 9(1). and C. Autoflotation harvesting of algae from high-rate pond effluents.. 2000). Low cost reclamation using the advanced integrated wastewater pond systems technology and reverse osmosis. Jung. Chen. N. J. Dodd. Knuckey. Increase in chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen media.H. Possible approaches may include developing strains of hours/gram of algae for harvesting.. 117. (2000). M. A quick and preliminary energy balance of vaporization of water at 0. 631-635.. (1969). Aquacultural Engineering. 95. Shales. 11. 9(3). Z. 50(11). 300. Water Supply: IWSA/IAWPRC Joint Specialized Conference on Coagulation Flocculation. 30 (7). 85(3). Won..Y. Preliminary Look at Energy Balance In spite of gaps in data precluding more detailed The energy content of most algae cells is of the order analyses.S. Rasmussen. 35(3). B. Aquaculture.B. bubbles. Downing. Agricultural Wastes. J.. 40 4.. based on the latent heat References Bare. Cambridge University Press. et al. Logsdon. 133. J.X. Kim. L. However. The energy requirements for energy intensity of harvesting and drying algae.K.P. D. Comparison of dissolved air flotation and direct filtration. Ferguson. Lavoie. Ferguson. energy example shown below provides some food for thought balance can become an issue in systems that propose regarding harvesting and dewatering technologies.from algae. Lundquist. Kwon.. Curley. Separation and Purification Technology. G. B. C.J. Buchholz. (2010). B. S. 67.A. A. Micro-Algal Biotechnology. E.H. H. Water Science and Technology. 357-394. Koopman.. S. Lincoln. (2009). (1975). (2004). Scragg. Bracco. Borowitzka. Oswald. 31(3-4).J.J. to take algal biomass and concentrate / dry it to enable downstream processing and extraction because of the high volumes of water that must be evaporated away. Botes. Lyons.J.. (1995). Water Science and Technology. 45(1). (2006). Brown. Zubieta.54 watt-hours/gram. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  . (38). B. Stanley. Bruton. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Green. T. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Delanoue. along with innovative solutions to lower the in harvested biomass.B. 5(4).L. A. Dissolved air flotation for the removal of algae and inorganic turbidity on a large-scale. flocculation and sedimentation and the belt filter press are expected to be minimal. (27). Robert. M. 113. Dublin. D. Progress in Water Technology. 674-691.F Frampton..

G. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. A. (1). 16(1). Biomass. A. Tseng. Poelman. Dewatering characteristics of algae-containing alum sludge. Pan. Goh. Huesemann. (1988). 824. 491–515. Saidam. (1984). (2001). Water. T. Advances in Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration. Lachance. Pauw. 63-70.and supercritical water technologies. H. A. Peterson.G. C... Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.Qingdao. Introduction to advanced integrated wastewater ponding systems. J. Tester. Tongkasa.S.C. Acién Fernández. China. 83-89. F. R.. G. A. A new approach to seaweed management in Eastern Canada: The case of ascophyllum nodosum.P. Huang. The Journal of Applied Phycology. Robles Medina. R. C. Water Pollution Control Federation Research Journal ... (26). D. Y. Journal of Biotechnology Advances. Mollah. (2003). (2004). Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering  41 . G. S. Comparison of centrifugation. Potential of electrolytic flocculation for recovery of micro- algae. W. (20). Algal autoflocculation-verification and proposed mechanism. Sharp. Chisti. 4. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products.P. C. Antal. 1987.. J. Kwon. 24(1). (2003). Oswald. (1971). A. Fundamentals. Forster. 142..J. C. W. P. (1998). Roesijadi. M. 199. Energy & Environmental Science.M. (27). (1997). Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub.R. B114.Y. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Report Number PNWD-3931. M. Froling. Sim. White. 24(5). (2008).G. Overview of a workshop on production and utilization of commercial seaweeds . Letters in Applied Microbiology. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. (1991)..B. and Recycling. 51. F. Phoochinda. (1996).A. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. D. Copping. M.. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Pringle. Molina Grima E. Removal of algae using froth flotation. M.C. Yoon. 14.S. K. M. B. Butler. S. A.. Benemann. Oh. 150(1-3). Environmental Technology. D. R. and J. N. Chuang. 43(5). (2008). H. Vogel. dissolved air flotation and drum filtration techniques for harvesting sewage-grown algae. Cah. Science and Technology. present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. Biol. 1.. 32-65. McGarry. 327.D. 1. (2001). Algae removal by horizontal flow rock filters. Sukenik. 87. M... Becker. E. 1-7. (19). 185. E. J. Kim. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga botryococcus braunii..Lee. Conservation. E. Wu. W. Shelaf. et al.J. (1989). Y.W. and J. Ugarte. Mar 42. G. J. Resources. E-H Belarbi.

Extraction depends on identifying the particular biological Mechanical Disruption (i. and autoclaving of lipids and oils at larger-scale is limiting the algal-based (Mata et al. 2008). Lipid Extraction sonication. shown to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion (Rittman et al. Laboratory-scale comparisons of process such as freezing.. 2008). little is known about the scale. but these techniques often rely increase efficiencies of vegetable lipid and oil extraction on freeze dried. 2010). To produce cells without disrupting cellular functions. or for the sonication for cell disruption. extraction step by either converting whole algal biomass or Different methods can be used to disrupt the cell membrane by inducing the secretion of the desired product directly. and extraction algal biofuels as competitive bulk commodity. For this reason. microalgae and cyanobacteria may be cultivated lipid. autoclaving. Extraction of Products from Algae   . and acid. and microwaves and suggested that microwave disruption prior to solvent The basis for lipid extraction from algal biomass is extraction is the most efficient method (Lee et al. A shortfall of relevant information on efficient extraction bead mills (or bead-beating). that secrete products directly into the growth medium. any extracting solvent must be able to (1) fuel conversion process. Dibenedetto. 2003).e. Mechanical disruption can include cell homogenizers. to use elevated temperature and pressure processes that some algae-to-biofuels processes attempt to bypass the force the solvent into contact with desired biopolymers. Assuming a system that requires extraction of oils and lipids from harvested biomass—as noted. sewage sludge with “focused pulse” sonication has been up separation challenges for extracted algal lipids. prior to the application of the extraction solvents. Additionally. extraction of lipids from microalgae (Lee et al. 2010).and laboratory-scale procedures. and Barberio. As such the development of any extraction process as single cells suspended in water at concentrations below must also account for the fact that the tissue structure 1% solids. extraction techniques require concentrated substrates. different logistical challenges arise from access. as well as the be successful. Many effective of the biomass must be disrupted prior to extraction. pretreatment of (Zhang et al. 2010) and osmotic shock. though applications outside of analytical lipid extracts and preparation for conversion to biodiesel labs are unclear. extraction bypass schemes that attempt to engineer algal systems techniques employed must be efficient and effective. ultrasounds.. largely in the realm of laboratory-scale processes that serve analytical rather than biofuel production goals.. Extraction of Products from Algae While relatively limited volumes of bioproducts are are attempting to bypass this step—the dynamics of currently produced from algal feedstocks. 2008... which is dependant on the algal species and growth status.. Virot knowledge exists for the separation of plant biomass et al.5. some systems 42 5. pulverized biomass.. To operations could affect extraction processes.. algal biomass extraction in aqueous phase systems serves as a starting suffers from a lack of well-defined and demonstrated place for industrial-scale extraction operations. The use of microwaves to disrupt cells and have been carried out. thus a high degree of concentration may be necessary before Effective mechanical disruption can help offset the need some types of extraction can begin. While considerable is a promising development (Cravotto et al. While many terrestrial feedstocks penetrate through the matrix enclosing the lipid material. Recent work on extraction of lipids from three different 5.. 2010). using solvents to “milk” algal recovery/removal of high-value products. For waste treatment. base. can be removed from their environment at total solids (2) physically contact the lipid material. osmotic shock. Cell Rupture) component for extraction. This generally requires that the native structure their offshore production and harvesting. Non-mechanical methods include biofuel development. industrial-scale methods for extracting and separating of oils and lipids required for enabling biofuel production. and (3) solvate the >40%. Lipid extraction includes the following approaches: Existing extraction techniques are mainly suitable for solvent-based extraction relying on microwaves and or analytical. application of organic solvents. different Algal biofuel schemes that rely on the accumulation of harvest process operations (discussed in the Chapter 4) intra-cellular lipids are the focus of this discussion. and enzyme reactions (Mata macroalgae (Aresta. While macroalgae are more like traditional and cell walls may present formidable barriers to solvent feedstocks. 2005) et al.1 Current Practices for types of oleaginous microalgae compared bead beating.

the alcohol adipose tissue without prior extraction or purification for is first added as the extracting solvent. (2001) found that the Bligh and Dyer method (Bligh and Dyer. The sequence of solvent addition can also affect two immiscible layers.. give relatively high hexane mixtures.. and methanol. ethanol and Direct Transesterification of Lipids into isopropanol) have been suggested in place of methanol. making it more difficult for less polar solvents such microalgae (Nagle & Lemke. They explained lipids (i.. the efficiency of the reaction increased when a second “less polar” solvent such as To avoid the use of elevated temperature and pressure to diethyl ether or toluene was mixed with the methanol to push the solvent into contact with the analyte (at the cost modify the polarity of the reaction medium (Carvalho and of a very high input of energy).g. pure alcohol solutions of eliminate the need to use antioxidants to protect unsaturated greater carbon length (such as butanol) have not compared lipids. Starting from freeze dried chloroform layer and can then be recovered for analysis. and other lipid and non-lipid contaminants) nonpolar solvents weakening the association between the (Fajardo et al. water (which is not miscible with chloroform) is marine tissue that contained more than 2% lipids but added to the co-solvent mixture until a two-phase system worked well for samples that contained less than 2% develops in which water and chloroform separate into lipids. 1996). These important results have a key impact on liquid phase 1978). biomass in a modified approach to include hexane in the reaction phase in order to avoid a final purification These results suggest that the two most important criteria step (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. the unsaponifiable lipids such as pigments.e. 2000). their results in terms of initial contact of the biomass with lipoproteins. chloroform. 2007).. The lipids mainly separate to the extraction (Lewis et al.. lipids: hexane/isopropanol for tissue (Hara & Radin. despite the added added.. Chloroform will extract more than just the saphonifiable methanol.e. acetyl chloride) hydroalcoholic) that partition the extracted lipids into directly to the biomass sample and followed with heating the nonpolar hexane (Fajardo et al. other combinations lipids and cell structure. This method was applied to dried microalgal well against the hexane/ethanol co-solvent system. In general. More. and then water) (Lewis. Separation is then improved recovery of fatty acids. and hexane/isopropanol for lipids. 1959). In these applications. hexane/ethanol for microalgae suggest that the water will form a solvent shell around the (Cartens et al. disruption of the cell Malcata. Extraction of Products from Algae   43 .g. thereby improving downstream separations. it was found that when (2) the ability of a second less polar co-solvent to better applying direct transesterification using an acid catalyst match the polarity of the lipids being extracted. 5. 1998). and extract the lipids. Lepage and Roy (1984) (e.. Consequently. In other cases. In general..e. It was found that the when selecting a co-solvent system to extract lipids are: entire reaction could be shortened to 10 minutes if the mixture was incubated at 100˚C under a sealed cap. Similarly. 2007). these findings suggest that membrane may be necessary. 1-butanol and ethanol) solvents have been tried proposed the direct transesterification of human milk and (Nagle & Lemke. it has been demonstrated that the extraction of lipids was significantly more efficient when solvents were added in order of increasing polarity (i. 1990). After the extraction reaction is grossly underestimated the lipid content in samples of complete. single alcohol To increase analytical efficiency. less volatile and toxic alcohols (e. 2005).Organic Co-solvent Mixtures Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for The concept of like dissolves like is the basis behind the Lipid Extraction from Microalgae: earliest and well-known co-solvent extraction procedure Iverson et al. The hexane system as chloroform to contact... has been promoted because hexane and alcohol will It is also noteworthy that the extraction efficiency was not readily separate into two separate phases when water is improved (when water was added first). chloroform. (i. methanol) and acid catalyst (e. In general. and Dyer co-solvent method. at 100˚C for an hour under sealed cap would increase applications using pure alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol) fatty acid concentrations measured (as compared to performed similarly. 2007).g.. dimethyl sulfoxide/petroleum ether for yeast extraction systems applied to “wet” biomass because they (Park et al. but never more than 90% of the Bligh and recoveries of volatile medium chain triglycerides. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) One example is the hexane/ethanol extraction co-solvent system (Grima et al. biomass. agitation in the form of sonication or additional methanol. prior to their dissolution in the of co-solvents have been proposed for the extraction of monophasic system of water. 1990). solubilize.. 2000). if not slightly better than alcohol/ Bligh and Dyer co-solvent system).. 1994). acetyl chloride).g. this approach achieved by adding both hexane and water in proportions suggested that a one-step reaction that added the alcohol that create a two phase system (hexane and an aqueous (e. (1) the ability of a more polar co-solvent to disrupt the cell membrane and thus make it sufficiently porous and Continuing efforts along this path.

. 2006).10 min).3000 psi) conditions for short time periods and activity tests of Dunaliella salina in the presence of (5 . The latter is also polarity of the lipids (Herrero et al. Compressed gas is used to purge the different organic phases indicated that cells remained sample extract from the cell into a collection vessel. 2004). 2004) and lipids from microalgae (Schäfer.95% pressure have gained favor for two principle reasons: of the fatty acid content in the harvested microalgae • the elevated temperature and pressure increase the compared to 44 ... If this process can be 44 5. on dairy manure effluent (Mulbry et al. screening viability (500 . reaction ASE is more efficient if extracting solvent. The performance of ASE extraction was compared solvents (i. (2002) proposed the two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases for the selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalgae Dunaliella salina. The single solvent systems at elevated temperature and ASE . the cells can be returned extractable material from various processes. 2009).200˚C) and pressure phase system of octanol and water. In addition to improving yields and reducing loss of cell viability and extraction of membrane-bound extraction time. ASE of higher hydrophobicity. using the process. extracted 85 . viable and active in the presence of organic solvents with a log P (octanol ) > 6 and that β-carotene can be extracted ASE is applicable to solid and semi-solid samples that more easily than chlorophyll by biocompatible solvents. it is only efficient on biomass samples to that of traditional Folch method for microalgae grown containing less than 2% w/w lipids). extraction temperature. a solid sample for both chlorophyll and β-carotene decreased as well. ASE can also be applied to remove co.e. free fatty acids. concentrated for the extraction of triglycerides without 1998). sample-solvent medium) depends upon its ability to solubilize the target ratio.. Denery and coworkers optimized the extraction of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina All the preceding co-solvent systems. is enclosed in a sample cartridge that is filled with an By applying a measurement of solvent hydrophobicity extraction fluid and used to statically extract the sample based on the partition coefficient of the solvent in a two- under elevated temperature (50 . separate out desirable by analogy.55% of the fatty acids extracted by rate of mass transfer and degree of solvent access the Folch method in the first solvent extraction cycle.30 g samples of dried biomass. a step that also requires energy input. must use dried Consequently. Their Accelerated Solvent Extraction observations were that solvents with lower hydrophobicity Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was first proposed reach critical concentrations more easily and in the in the mid 1990s (Richter et al.e. however. some have proposed a modified technique to “milk” oils or neutral lipids from algae using biocompatible solvents and applied sonication. the issue of solvent access to the material biomass. noteworthy in the context that ASE by definition uses non-aqueous solvents and therefore. (Denery et al. example. the polarity) to values that match the lipids. Extraction of Products from Algae   . to all pores within the biomass matrix and.the effectiveness of the second co-solvent (i. and optimize the energy cost. Denery et al.. and showed that higher or equal extraction efficiencies remain largely bench-scale methods that are difficult (compared to traditional solvent technology) could be to scale up to industrial processes due to the actual achieved with the use of less solvent and shorter extraction solvent toxicity and the low carrying capacity of the times. depending on the solvent. being extracted is as important as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. Hejazi et al. and production of triglycerides for biofuels production. It has been proposed a technology that proposes to use solvents such as decane for the extraction of liquid extracts (Richter et al. For to fractionate lipids from biological samples (ref).. the effect of the solvent on uses organic solvents at high pressure and temperatures the membrane decreased and the extraction efficiency above their boiling point. and time have been optimized lipids coupled with its miscibility with methanol. break down the cell membrane.. Accordingly. This observation is a key driving force behind the consideration of solvent extraction Selective Extraction systems at elevated temperature and pressure. In general. to selectively to their original bioreactor for continued growth and extract polar compounds from lipid-rich samples.. 1996). What remains unclear is the effectiveness of such • the elevated pressures can reduce the dielectric an approach at large scale in terms of how to handle constant of an otherwise immiscible solvent (and large amounts of biomass. Conceptually. and dodecane in the presence of live microalgal cells. By using solvents technique on 1 . 1996. can be retained in the cell during the extraction phase (using a solvent front pumped through the sample at the This work has served as the basis for the development of appropriate temperature and pressure).

low toxicity.g. higher productivity Castro et al. phototrophically or heterotrophically. Large-scale design scenario. 2007). 2006). sulfur Subcritical Water Extraction hexafluoride.. However.. by the same issues of energy-intensive processing and and environmental compatibility (Herrero et al. pressure are lowered to atmospheric conditions. non-photosynthetic algae are grown using will also require a significant cooling system to cool sugars as energy source and using standard industrial the product down to room temperature to avoid product fermentation equipment (Barclay et al. The potential benefits of this approach are the power of fluids above their critical point (Luque de use of standard fermentation systems. this method may provide extraction of substances from solid substrates. at temperatures point can be adjusted as can the time of the extraction. Use of methanol as the solvating fluid With respect to microalgae. ethane.. In this 2006).e. In this system up to subcritical temperatures. is that water.1˚C and pressure of be difficult to separate from the desired lipids.. but other fluids used have included ethane. More recently. 1999).. It can be processed using solid and compared to photosynthetic systems. 2006). under these conditions. this approach significantly Supercritical Fluid Extraction reduces the capital and operating cost for an extraction Supercritical fluid extraction utilizes the enhanced solvating process. as well as functional ingredients and lipids temperatures as discussed above. 1994. methanol. 1999).379 bar (Chueng.. products miscible Largeau. as well as n-butane and pentane (Herrero et Subcritical water extraction (also known as hydrothermal al. Some pressures of 241 . 2005). as the water is from microalgae (Mendes et al.. 73. thereby eliminating the need for the dewatering step. 2006). There is also the added benefit of solvent extraction of essential oils from plants (Reverchon et access into the biomass matrix that occurs at the higher al. e. triglycerides) that excludes (Brunner. One of the more attractive points to supercritical hemicellulose as a pretreatment prior to its use as a fluid extraction is that after the extraction reaction has fermentation substrate (Mok et.. Extraction of Products from Algae   45 . liquid feeds (Reverchon et al. CO2 because of its preferred critical properties (i.. the fluid returns to its original gaseous state while al. higher microalgae via supercritical processing is challenged quality of extracts. it has been applied for the selective extraction the supercritical fluid. 2005). nitrous oxide. The basic premise to subcritical water extraction the extracted product remains as a liquid or solid. al. water. however.. as well as pigments (such as chlorophyll). a unique avenue for the selective extraction of lipids caffeine from coffee beans. 1994). Metzger and cooled back down to room temperature. via transesterification.. the ability to 5. Some degradation. 1992). and saponins from oil-seeds (Güçlü-Üstündağ et case.. is the difficulty with designing a system at Other methods for extraction and fractionation include large scale and the high-energy load required to heat the the production of oils using heterotrophic algae. private companies have engineered algae that secrete oil into the fermentation media that can be recovered and later refined into a biofuel. ease of scale-up. just below the critical temperature.applied to microalgae slurries with suspended solid extraction techniques have been used in the commercial concentrations as low as 1 wt%. Lipids have been selectively extracted at the high temperature and pressure become immiscible from macroalgae at temperatures of 40 .. and chemical inertness (Luque de Castro et al. attractive aspects is the use of water as the solvent. whether grown has the effect of converting lipids. becomes less polar and organic compounds are more soluble than at room Supercritical fluid extraction has been applied for the temperature. of the more important advantages described for subcritical economical production of biofuels from oleaginous water extraction include shorter extract times.g. originally termed “pressurized hot but the process can also be operated continuously (Brunner. creating additional energy use challenges.9 bar). as with accelerated solvent Heterotrophic Production extraction. which can moderate critical temperature of 31. The majority of applications have used the extraction of lipids that cannot be transesterified.. one of the more to biodiesel (see Chapter 6 for more detail). The temperature and pressure above the critical liquefaction) is based on the use of water. scaling up the process that is developed mainly for analytical usage.” was initially applied to whole biomass 2005). 1999). for more than two decades suitable for biofuels (e. 2007). A major constraint. the solvent and product can be of essential oils from plant matter (Eikani et al. 2001) . been completed and the extracted material dissolved into however. 2006). In addition. Supercritical extraction is often employed in batch mode. easily separated downstream once the temperature and functional ingredients from microalgae (Herrero et al. Supercritical fluid avoidance of expensive extraction scheme(s). The technique. water extraction. and pressure high enough to keep the liquid state (Soto and Luque de Castro.50˚C and at lower temperatures and can be easily separated. however. lower costs of the extracting agent.

G. et al. Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. 1996. J. 175–181. water can either promote the formation of emulsions in the presence of ruptured cells or participate For sustainable biofuels production. thereby improving the References Barclay. 1994. 1025–1031. 109(2). 53(13). Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream 5. This is a does not suggest that this is an insurmountable barrier.. Food Chem. & Malcata. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. F.. 67(1-2). 46 5. 5049–5059. to achieve sustainable commercial-scale systems. 2007. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L. Eikani. Lipid-Fett. J. reduce the pressure and temperature requirements. Pressurized low polarity water extraction of saponins from cow cockle seed. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. J. 6(2).transesterifiable lipids. Chief amongst is the logistical challenge of that would normally not be contacted by solvents under securing a sustainable biomass feedstock to supply to feed atmospheric conditions. 2005. G. Journal of Food Engineering. Increased of sugar-based feedstocks. 619–630. as Btu.. 120–126.. 80(2).. Meager. J. Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass such as chlorophyll and non. In this context. Carvalho. Journal of Food Engineering. As discussed in access to the material being extracted is as important Section 4. Extraction of Products from Algae   . 73(8). 21-33. Denery. a preliminary look at the energy balance as the miscibility of the analyte in the solvent. 2007. However. 898-902.. intracellular benchmark can be considered: the extraction process water can prove to be a barrier between the solvent per day should consume no more than 10% of the total and the solute. 2008. Golmohammad. 1994. 2007. At the cellular level.M. 955–959. E. Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and/or microwaves. & Rowshanzamir. Cartens.X. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum. the following in side reactions. et al.. K. et al.P. Comparison between extraction of lipids and fatty acids from microalgal biomass. G. Cravotto. A. S. Journal of Food Engineering. & Mazza.3. F. When present in the bulk Energy Consumption and Water Recycle solution. produced per day. A. Increasing the temperature helps to disrupt the solute- matrix interactions and to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the water. versa. & Abril. principal motivation behind the application of extraction but it does serve to highlight the need for innovation techniques at elevated temperatures and pressures... 123-129. M. the issue of solvent energy load. Mechanical disruption can large-scale heterotrophic “algal-refinery” operations.maintain the integrity of the fermentation catalyst and use contact between the solvent and the solute. 2004. 501(2). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: Insight studies.2 Challenges Extraction processes can yield undesirable components. 71(9). Eicosapentaenoic acid from the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. significant downsides pressure facilitates enhancing the transport of the solvent to this approach include many of the same feedstock to the analytes that have been trapped in pores.R.).R. et al. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. W. Agric. Balsevich.. The presence of water can cause problems at both ends at larger scales.. Fajardo. Brunner. Güçlü-Üstündag. 15(5). Lipid extraction from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. M. Journal of Applied Phycology. 735–740. The logistics challenges faced by the nascent lignocellulosic pressure also helps to force the solvent into matrices industry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Very little information is available on this critical The extraction process is affected by the choice of step that is necessary before converting the algal upstream and downstream unit operations and vice biocrude into finished fuels and products. et al. Analytica Chimica Acta. 80(2). Grima.H. 2005..

Hara, A. & Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry, 90(1), 420–426.
Hejazi, M.A. et al., 2002. Selective extraction of carotenoids from the microalga Dunaliella salina
with retention of viability. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 79(1), 29-36.
Herrero, M., Cifuentes, A. & Ibanez, E., 2006. Sub-and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different
natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food chemistry, 98(1), 136–148.
Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L. & Cooper, M.H., 2001. Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for
total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36(11), 1283–1287.
Lee, J. et al., 2010. Comparison of several methods for effective lipid extraction
from microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), S75-S77.
Lepage, G. & Roy, C.C., 1984. Improved recovery of fatty acid through direct transesterification without
prior extraction or purification. The Journal of Lipid Research, 25(12), 1391-1396.
Lewis, T., Nichols, P.D. & McMeekin, T.A., 2000. Evaluation of extraction methods for recovery of fatty acids
from lipid-producing microheterotrophs. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 43(2), 107–116.
Luque de Castro, M.D., Jimenez-Carmona, M.M. & Fernandez-Perez, V., 1999. Towards more rational techniques
for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 18(11), 708–716.
Mata, T.M., Martins, A.A. & Caetano, N.S., 2010. Microalgae for biodiesel production and other
applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1), 217-232.
Mendes, R. et al., 1994. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of hydrocarbons from the
microalgaBotryococcus braunii. Journal of Applied Phycology, 6(3), 289-293.
Metzger, P. & Largeau, C., 2005. Botryococcus braunii: a rich source for hydrocarbons and related
ether lipids. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 66(5), 486-496.
Mulbry, W. et al., 2009. Optimization of an Oil Extraction Process for Algae from the Treatment of
Manure Effluent. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(9), 909–915.
Nagle, N. & Lemke, P., 1990. Production of methyl ester fuel from microalgae. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 24(1), 355–361.
Park, P.K., Kim, E.Y. & Chu, K.H., 2007. Chemical disruption of yeast cells for the isolation of
carotenoid pigments. Separation and Purification Technology, 53(2), 148–152.
Reverchon, E., Iol & Marco, A.D., 2006. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of
natural matter. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 38(2), 146-166.
Richter, B.E. et al., 1996. Accelerated solvent extraction: a technique for sample preparation. Anal. Chem, 68(6), 1033–1039.
Rittmann, B.E., Krajmalnik-Brown, R. & Halden, R.U., 2008. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-
genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy.
Rodriıguez-Ruiz, J. et al., 1998. Rapid simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification
for fatty acid analyses. Biotechnology techniques, 12(9), 689–691.
Schäfer, K., 1998. Accelerated solvent extraction of lipids for determining the fatty acid
composition of biological material. Analytica Chimica Acta, 358(1), 69–77.
Soto Ayala, R. & Luque de Castro, M.D., 2001. Continuous subcritical water extraction as a useful
tool for isolation of edible essential oils. Food chemistry, 75(1), 109–113.
Virot, M. et al., 2008. Microwave-integrated extraction of total fats and oils. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1196-1197, 57-64.

5. Extraction of Products from Algae   47

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies
Potentially viable fuels that can be produced from algae products, and this conservation law must also hold
range from gaseous compounds like hydrogen and methane, true for the algae biorefineries of the future if they
to alcohols and conventional liquid hydrocarbons, to are to achieve significant market penetration.
pyrolysis oil and coke. Attractive targets for this effort,
however, are the liquid transportation fuels of gasoline, A large number of potential pathways exist for the
diesel, and jet fuel. These fuel classes were selected as the conversion from algal biomass to fuels. These pathways can
best-value targets because 1) they are the primary products be classified into the following three general categories:
that are currently created from imported crude oil for the
bulk of the transportation sector, 2) they have the potential 1) Those that focus on the direct algal production
to be more compatible than other biomass-based fuels with of recoverable fuel molecules (e.g., ethanol,
the existing fuel-distribution infrastructure in the U.S., and hydrogen, methane, and alkanes) from
3) adequate specifications for these fuels already exist. algae without the need for extraction;

The primary objective of this chapter is to summarize a 2) Those that process whole algal biomass
number of potentially viable strategies for converting algal to yield fuel molecules; and
biomass into replacements for petroleum gasoline, diesel, 3) Those that process algal extracts (e.g., lipids,
and jet fuel. When a fuel meets all customer requirements, carbohydrates) to yield fuel molecules.
it is referred to as “fit for purpose.” While a successful These technologies are primarily based on similar
fuel-conversion strategy will address the full range of methods developed for the conversion of terrestrial
desired fit-for-purpose properties (e.g., distillation range, plant-based oils and products into biofuels, although the
ignition characteristics, energy density, etc.), these desired compositional complexities of the output streams from
fuel characteristics are driven primarily by customer algae must be dealt with before these can be applied
requirements and are discussed later in Chapter 8. This effectively. Pros and cons of these pathways within each
chapter focuses on fuel conversion strategies from a variety of these categories are discussed below, and a summary
of perspectives to establish the current state-of-the-art, of each fuel-conversion technology is given. Inputs,
as well as identify critical challenges and roadblocks. complexity, cost, and yields are provided (where known),
and key barriers and RD&D opportunities are listed.
Several emerged the Algal Roadmap Workshop in
relation to conversion of algal feedstocks to fuels. These
are noted here to help establish a reasonable framework 6.1 Direct Production of
for the most promising concepts for algal biofuels.
Biofuels from Algae
• First, the feedstock, conversion process, and
The direct production of biofuel through heterotrophic
final fuel specifications are highly interdependent
fermentation and growth from algal biomass has certain
and must be considered together if an optimal
advantages in terms of process cost because it can
process is to be identified. As a result, accurate
eliminate several process steps (e.g., oil extraction)
and detailed feedstock characterization (including
and their associated costs in the overall fuel production
both composition and variability) is essential,
process. Heterotrophic growth also allows for maintaining
since this is an upstream boundary condition for
highly controlled conditions, which first could be oriented
the entire downstream fuel-conversion process.
toward biomass production and then oil production. Such
• Second, life cycle analysis of energy and carbon will a system can generate extremely high biomass (hundreds
be a key tool in selecting the preferred fuel conversion of grams per liter) and a high percentage of that biomass
technologies from those discussed in this chapter. as lipid (well over 50%). The system is readily scaled up
• Third, the greatest challenge in algal fuel conversion is and there is an enormous potential to use various fixed
not likely to be how to convert lipids or carbohydrates carbon feedstocks (which would bring down the cost of
to fuels most efficiently, but rather how best to use production). These approaches are quite different from
the algal remnants after the lipids or other desirable the usual algal biofuel processes that use algae to produce
fuel precursors have been extracted. All of the biological oils which is subsequently extracted and used as
petroleum feedstock that enters a conventional a feedstock for liquid fuel production, typically biodiesel.
petroleum refinery must leave as marketable There are several biofuels that can be produced directly
from algae, including alcohols, alkanes, and hydrogen.

48 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies  

Alcohols In addition to ethanol, it is possible to use algae to produce
other alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, using a
Algae, such as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas
similar process technology, although the recovery of
perigranulata, are capable of producing ethanol and other
heavier alcohols may prove problematic and will need
alcohols through heterotrophic fermentation of starch
further R&D. The larger alcohols have energy densities
(Hon-Nami, 2006; Hirayama et al., 1998). This can be
closer to that of gasoline but are not typically produced
accomplished through the production and storage of
at the yields that are necessary for commercial viability.
starch via photosynthesis within the algae, or by feeding
sugar to the algae directly, and subsequent anaerobic
fermentation of these carbon sources to produce ethanol Alkanes
under dark conditions. If these alcohols can be extracted In addition to alcohols, alkanes may be produced directly
directly from the algal culture media, the process by heterotrophic metabolic pathways using algae. Rather
may be drastically less capital- and energy-intensive than growing algae in ponds or enclosed in plastic
than competitive algal biofuel processes. The process tubes that utilize sunlight and photosynthesis, algae can
would essentially eliminate the need to separate the be grown inside closed reactors without sunlight. The
biomass from water and extract and process the oils. algae are fed sugars, the cheap availability of which
is a key consideration for cost-effective production of
This process typically consists of closed photobioreactors biofuels; these sugars are themselves available from
utilizing sea-water with metabolically enhanced renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass,
cyanobacteria that produce ethanol or other alcohols while in a pressure and heat-controlled environment. This
being resistant to high temperature, high salinity, and process can use different strains of algae to produce
high ethanol levels—previous barriers to commercial- different types of alkanes; some algae produce a mix of
scale volumes (Hirano et al., 1997). There have been hydrocarbons similar to light crude petroleum. These
reports of preliminary engineered systems, consisting of alkanes can theoretically be secreted and recovered
tubular photobioreactors (Hirano et al., 1997). One key directly without the need for dewatering and extraction,
aspect of the system is that a source of cheap carbon, such but more often are associated with the algae and thus must
as a power plant, is typically used to supply CO2 to the be recovered through dewatering and extraction. With
bioreactors to accelerate the algae growth. An example further processing, a wide variety of fuels can be made.
of this process technology links sugar production to The process of growing the algae heterotrophically may
algal photosynthesis. There are claims that this process present some advantages over typical photoautotrophic-
may consume more than 90% of the system’s CO2 based technologies. First, keeping the algae “in the dark”
through photosynthesis, wherein a portion of the carbon causes them to produce more alkanes than they do in the
in these sugars is converted into ethanol. The ethanol presence of sunlight. While their photosynthetic processes
is secreted into the culture media and is collected in are suppressed, other metabolic processes that convert
the headspace of the reactor, purified, and stored. sugar into alkanes can become active. Second, some have
shown the growth rate of the algae to be much higher
This technology is estimated to yield 4,000 - 6,000 gallons than traditional methods (Xu et al., 2006). This is possible
per acre per year, with potential increases up to 10,000 because instead of getting energy for growth from sunlight,
gallons per acre per year within the next 3 to 4 years the algae get concentrated energy from the sugars fed into
with significant R&D. It is theoretically estimated that the process. These higher cell concentrations reduce the
one ton of CO2 is converted into approximately 60 - 70 amount of infrastructure needed to grow the algae, and
gallons of ethanol with this technology. With such yields, enable more efficient dewatering if is actually required.
the price of captured CO2 becomes significant, and may
require a price less than or equal to $10 per ton to remain Using algae to convert cellulosic materials, such as
cost-competitive. Further breakthroughs that enable more switchgrass or wood chips, to oil may have an advantage
efficient production systems and the development of new over many other microorganisms under development
process technologies may be critical in terms of long-term for advanced biofuel production. When lignocellulosic
commercial viability. Scaling of these systems to large- biomass is pretreated to allow for enzymatic hydrolysis
scale commercial biorefineries will also require significant for production of sugars, many toxic byproducts are
advances in process engineering and systems engineering. released including acetate, furans, and lignin monomers.
Metabolic pathway engineering within these algae, enabled In most other processes, these toxic compounds can
by metabolic flux analysis and modern genomics tools, may add process costs by requiring additional conditioning
further help in producing a commercially viable organism.

6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   49

degradable alternative liquid called bio-oil can be produced. typical biomass throughout the country. For flash pyrolysis. and detailed side-by-side comparison was found in 2003).2 Processing of Whole Algae units and has no fiber tissue to deal with. feedstocks must be ground into fine particles. Miao and Wu. fast There are several challenges that remain before heating rates. and the added benefit of being fuels. and moderate temperatures (Huber et al. photo-fermentation. can result in a wide range of and dark-fermentation (see Chapter 2). The thermochemical treatment of indirect biophotolysis. social acceptance. Algae may prove to be more technologies that are capable of processing whole resistant to these compounds and sugar conversion. and supercritical processing (Exhibit 6. depending on the reaction parameters. but also by the so-called “flash pyrolysis” technology. and competitive drainage of fuel cannot yet be produced directly by pyrolysis of algae. improvement in hydrocracking. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . Liquid product yield tends to favor short residence times. such as mannitol.. with hydrogen production by accumulation of a proton reaction times of the order of seconds to minutes. Polysaccharides.500˚C for development of a robust hydrogen infrastructure less than 2 seconds.. in that it is extremely fast. McDermid & Stuercke. 2004). with some hydrotreating and not only on research advances. including direct biophotolysis. biohydrogen) substance by heating. too low for conversion to biodiesel. at least some level of dewatering is still required. place in their presence. especially amenable to processing a diverse range of algae. or other biomass. These current time (Bridgwater. requirement for Pyrolysis is being investigated for producing fuel from bicarbonate binding at photosystem II (PSII) for efficient biomass sources other than algae.. algae: pyrolysis. 2004). Even with the increased methods benefit from reduced costs associated with interest in converting biomass into liquid transportation the extraction process. These include the restriction of photosynthetic conversion methods. where finely on economic considerations. 2008). products. laminarin.e. biological hydrogen production can be considered a viable 2006). represent the main macroalgae biochemical it would be to convert algae into a bio-oil compared feedstocks for conversion to liquid fuels (McHugh. It appears that pyrolysis will concentrations approaching 20% are reported in some not be cost-competitive over the short-term unless an species (Chu et al. anaerobic digestion. it appears fast pyrolysis to create bio-oil. and significant dehydration crops. Hydrogen The production of hydrogen derived from algae has Pyrolysis received significant attention over several decades. Also... gradient. produce a suitable feedstock for generating efficiency through genetically engineered algae and/or the standard diesel fuel. Pyrolysis has one major advantage over other technology. no comprehensive less than 5% of total dry weight (McDermid & Stuercke. Macroalgae has specifically received some attention as a gasification feedstock and initial work shows that while A significant roadblock in using pyrolysis for algae some key differences exist as compared to terrestrial conversion is moisture content. There are several reports on the pyrolysis of algae in the scientific literature (Demirbas. This is one area where algae have a major advantage over other biomass sources because it exists fundamentally in small 6. 2006. certain species are suitable for gasification (Ross et must be performed upstream for the process to work al. but algae. 2003. Brazil. to other biomass sources due to uncertainties in the Lipid content of a variety of macroalgal species is typically ability to dehydrate the feedstock. the whole algae can be processed into fuels bio-oil from pyrolysis is not a commercial product at the instead of first extracting oils and post-processing. the algae.1). 50 6. efficiently. 2007). The bio-oil has an advantage that it can enter directly The future of biological hydrogen production depends into the refinery stream and.e. is a relatively new process (Bridgwater. and the United States. i. It is unclear exactly how much more difficult and fucoidin. It does not involve reactions with technologies provide a wide range of approaches to oxygen or any other reagents but can frequently take generate hydrogen. gasification. Several pilot plants for fast pyrolysis of biomass have been built in the In addition to the direct production of biofuels from past years in Germany. although the scientific literature. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed Biological production of hydrogen (i. higher efficiency can be achieved development of advanced photobioreactors. 2003). Although synthetic diesel photosynthetic activity. and the ground feedstock is quickly heated to 350 . competitive inhibition of photosynthetic hydrogen production by CO2. a electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. 2003). though from algae.steps or the concentration of biomass hydrolysate There are four major categories of conversion in the conversion step.

etc. Work also needs to be performed to understand the can be used to produce a number of products. 1994). 2009.1 Schematic of the potential conversion routes for whole algae into biofuels Algae Anaerobic Supercritical Pyrolysis Gasification Digestion Fluids SynGas Liquid or Fischer Higher Alcohol Vapor Fuel Tropsch Synthesis Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Transportation Liquid MeOH Biogas Fuels .. 6. The methods. the gasification of algae to these biofuels would be (Zhang et al.. bio-syngas is a versatile feedstock and it studied. Balat. It may be possible to feed development of stabilizers for the viscosity of the bio-oil algae into a coal gasification plant to reduce the capital and acid neutralizing agents. 2007. CO2. 2006). Another research paper comparatively straightforward. it is possible to create a wide optimal residence time and temperature to produce different variety of fuels with acceptable and known properties. 2004). primarily that only incremental improvements will occur and a through Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) or mixed breakthrough in conversion efficiency appears unlikely. First and foremost. The synthesis While algal bio-oil may be similar to bio-oil from of mixed alcohols using gasification of lignocellulose is other biomass sources.Liquid or Hydrogen Gas Hydrogen Fuels EtOH. research is needed on the catalytic conversion possibility to integrate an algal feedstock into an existing of the resulting algal bio-oils. there are also significant gaps in the information available about the specifications for Conversion of bio-syngas has several advantages over other converting algal bio-oil and the resulting products. Another advantage is the Additionally. H2. Another area of interest is the thermochemical infrastructure. and it of compounds and compositions depending on the is reasonable to expect that once water content is adjusted type of algae and upstream processing conditions for. Unfortunately. Additionally. FTS is also a relatively demonstrated that the bio-oil produced by pyrolysis mature technology where the syngas components (CO. Yung et al. and impurities) are cleaned and upgraded to usable algal growth conditions (Miao and Wu. so the bio-oil may be more investment required. making detailed molecular composition of the resulting bio-oils. the process more flexible. alcohol synthesis of the resulting syngas.. Srinivas et al.inexpensive dewatering or extraction process is also Gasification developed. 2007. it may have a different range relatively mature (Phillips. address the issue of availability easily transported throughout the upgrading process.. liquid fuels through a water-gas shift and CO hydrogenation (Okabe et al. 2009). since pyrolysis is already a Gasification of the algal biomass may provide an extremely relatively mature process technology. Exhibit 6. of algae can be tailored by carefully controlling the H2O. algal bio-oils from different feedstocks need to be carefully Additionally. it is expected flexible way to produce different liquid fuels. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   51 .

. It would be desirable to efficiency through economy of scale. temperature of 340˚C and holding time of 60 min had a viscosity of 150 . and yield of about 37% (organic basis) at 300˚C and 10 MPa Stora Enso.. Additionally.for dedicated biomass plants.. and there are a few reports that used algal biomass with catalytic cracking of the tar is currently being as a feedstock. 2006). Liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta built in Finland in a joint venture of the Technical with a moisture content of 78. Prior work in direct liquefaction of biomass was very A demonstration plant for gasification of wood chips active. France in 2006. A solvent tar removal demonstration was (Minowa et al. The key roadblocks to using FTS for algae are thought Liquefaction to be similar to those for coal (Yang et al. ongoing syngas-to-ethanol research using cellulosic. While this technology requires sub-millimeter a net energy producer from the overall process energy sized particles.. as high as 75%. 2005). it should be possible to use by algae for use in the gasifier to reduce or eliminate the some of the heat for drying the algae during a harvesting/ need for a tar reformer. Neste Oil. The four of decomposing the algal biomass into smaller molecules basic mechanisms to deal with tar-related problems are: of higher energy density or more valuable chemicals. FTS tends to require applying pressure) is a technology that can be employed to production at a very large scale to make the process convert wet algal biomass to a range of liquid fuels (Patil et efficient overall. it would be useful to leverage dewatering process with a regenerative heat exchanger. report it was concluded that liquefaction technique was 1993). 2008). algae may have a unique advantage balance. The pilot plant used dioxide (Aresta et al.. (Raffelt et al. Another approach for tar-free syngas was liquefaction technique was more effective for extraction demonstrated in a pilot plant in Freiberg. In the same flow gasification at high temperatures (Hallgren et al. 2000) that claim the thermal efficiency. The oil obtained at a reaction installed in a plant in Moissannes. with oxygen at high temperature. There are reports subsequent thermal tar cracker (Goudriaan et al. but certain species of catalyzed by sodium carbonate (Sawayama et al. 2005). However. and improve the process for indirect gasification of algae. The tars cause coking of the shortened time scales. usually requires pretreatment. of the feedstock on a • Fluidized-bed gasification and solvent tar removal dry ash free basis and has energy content that is comparable • Fluidized-bed gasification and to diesel and can be upgraded further. First.4 wt% produced an oil Research Centre of Finland (VTT). of microalgal biodiesel than using the supercritical carbon built by Choren Industries GmbH. more research in this area is needed through an entrained-flow gasifier where it was reacted before it can become a commercially viable option. Typically. considered a promising technological approach but due temperature gasifier that broke down the biomass into to limited information in hydrothermal liquefaction volatiles and solid char. it is difficult to reach such braunii as a feedstock has also been reported. The a small size with other biomass sources and doing so algal biomass was processed by liquefaction at 300˚C. • Entrained-flow gasification at high temperature defined as the ratio of heating values of bio-crude products and feedstock plus external heat input. Germany. A maximum oil yield of 64% using Botryococcus in this process. it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions 52 6. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . there are still several areas that should be investigated and require R&D. Tars geological processes known to be involved in the formation have high molecular weight and can develop during of petroleum-based fossil fuels realized over greatly the gasification process.330 mPas and a calorific value of Tar formation can be minimized or avoided via entrained.. 36 kJ g−1. This technology is a representation of the natural with FTS is the cost of clean-up and tar reforming. The first reactor was a low. comparable to those of fuel oil. with the exception of any upstream process steps that may be Direct hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water a source of contaminants which will need to be removed (defined as water held in a liquid state above 100oC by prior to reaching the FT catalyst. Even though FTS is a mature technology. Liquefaction of algae is two successive reactors. the most significant problem al. Also. The tar-rich gas was then passed of algae to date. algae may not require pretreatment due to their inherent There have also been comparative studies that report the small size... These technologies harness the high synthesis catalyst and any other catalysts used in the activity of water in subcritical environments that is capable syngas cleanup process and must be removed. 1995). 1995). The main product of this liquefaction process is a “bio-crude” • Fluidized-bed gasification and catalytic reforming that typically accounts for 45% wt. since determine the feasibility of using the oxygen generated FTS is an exothermic process.

Supercritical fluids The clear immediate priority. Additionally. If this approach can be modified observed for supercritical methanol processing of vegetable for the use of microalgae. and fuel conversion. $0. Because decomposition was for situations like integrated wastewater treatment. theoretically possible Supercritical fluid extraction of algal oil is far more efficient that if the other upstream algal processing costs could than traditional solvent separation methods. and as such may be a process is capable of tolerating water. It was found that the processing cost of the proposed Supercritical processing is a recent addition to the portfolio supercritical technology could be near half of that of the of techniques capable of simultaneously extracting actual conventional transesterification methods (i. gal vs. Similar results have been Fernández et al. which supercritical process to produce biodiesel from vegetable 6. supercritical tolerate the complex compositions that are found with fluids can be used on whole algae without dewatering. could become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. 1987).4 ml/g-d of biogas can be realized using a two- efficiency. oil extract. in terms of yield. the decomposition of fatty acids is the main stage anaerobic digestion process with different strains factor that limited the attainable ester content (Vieitez et of algae. cost. 2009).51/gal). supercritical methanol in the United States (Hanssen et al. transesterification. Vieitez et al. raw. Several studies have been yield similar to that of the anhydrous process in the carried out that demonstrate the potential of this approach.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts be needed to avoid saponification. 2009). effect of milder process conditions. key obstacles that are responsible for the current high 2004). therefore. there are no organic solvent applied in the processing of algae. e. further work should be focused on the using strains not optimized for lipid production. it must be demonstrated that this process can product stability and quality.. it has been demonstrated that this extraction. triacylglycerides. While the occurrence of A recent study indicated that biogas production levels water in the reaction medium appears as a factor in process of 180. at less than 50˚C. have been types of inputs to the conversion technologies must be shown to be very favorable for large-scale deployment. and as such. ensuring maximum particular. 2008). in particular.26/ and converting oils into biofuels (Demirbas. It also remains to be seen whether the processing of whole algae in this The conversion of extracts derived from algal sources is fashion is superior.. including drying. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   53 . is an interesting mode of gaseous oils. 2008).. unprocessed algae and that there is no negative thereby increasing the efficiency of the process. The most common type of algal extracts under One economic analysis has been conducted based on a consideration are lipid-based. Although it has been only demonstrated for the of macroalgae... 2007). fundamental and exhaustive understanding of the different at least in the case of vegetable oil processing. the overall algal biorefinery in the extraction of other components within algae (Mendes. 2008. conversion of vegetable oils. a The economics of supercritical transesterification process. In for example. The production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion 2008). with a methane concentration of 65% (Vergara- al. In the case of combined extraction and transesterification of algae. further study will also 6. it may be very effective oils (Hawash et al. In the case of catalyst-free supercritical ethanol costs associated with algal biofuels.. impact due to the presence of other small metabolites.. It is. $0. level that can be scaled to commercial production. in place. and this be mitigated through the addition of a transesterification technique has been demonstrated to be extremely powerful conversion process. a consequence of temperature and pressure conditions where algae are grown under uncontrolled conditions used in this study.e.Supercritical Processing oils in one step using alcohols (Anitescu et al. however.. and one that receives scant attention of algae. it is envisioned as being applicable for the processing biofuel production. There is to the transesterification of the algal oil extracts. with a conversion cost-effective methodology. and efficiency. lower reaction temperatures. This supercritical transesterification approach can also be applied for algal oil extracts. thus providing high purity and product that these supercritical process technologies can be concentrations. 2009). In this process variant. the typical mode of biofuel production from algae.g.. with similar yields and efficiencies at a Extraction is efficient at modest operating temperatures. is to demonstrate are selective. The supercritical extraction process can be coupled with a transesterification reaction scheme to enable a “one Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae pot” approach to biofuel production (Anitescu et al. such as Laminaria hyperbore and simultaneous extraction and transesterification of vegetable Laminaria saccharina. 2006). Additionally. The use of or ethanol is employed as both the oil extraction medium this conversion technology eliminates several of the and the catalyst for transesterification (Warabi et al. an obvious and critical link between the type of extraction process used and the product composition. either whole or its residues in the extract or spent biomass (Demirbas.

In addition to the classic base. and therefore. generally required as a result. This technology is relatively mineral acids due to their higher acid strength (L. Boocock... Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   .can be converted into biodiesel. When the transesterification reaction reactions (Wahlen et al. 2008). In triacylglycerols extracted from algae to FAMEs (fatty order to compensate for this. 2008. heteropolyacids (HPA). Biodiesel is then separated processing variants that appear promising. 2007). This section discusses water and free acids. The apparent higher activity of certain standard” in the conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel HPAs with respect to polyoxometallates of higher (Hossain et al..2 Schematic of the various conversion strategies of algal extracts into biofuels Algal Oil Extracts Chemical Enzymatic Catalytic Transesterfication Conversion Cracking Liquid or Biodiesel Vapor Fuel (ME) Catalytic Catalytic Upgrading Upgrading Gasoline. 2008). Recently. Higher temperatures and longer reaction The transesterification reaction is employed to convert times are. 2006). enhancing the product recovery be employed to convert algal extracts. it was can be performed via catalytic or non-catalytic reaction shown that HPA-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable systems using different heating systems that are required oil achieves higher reaction rates than conventional to initiate the reaction. Though acid catalysts have these advantages. have been shown to lower the displacement of an alcohol group from an ester by required temperatures and decrease the reaction times another alcohol (Demirbas. there are other solution and mixing well. heating system that can be used to enhance the kinetics of transesterification involves the use of microwaves (Refaat Another route is found in acid-catalyzed transesterification & El Sheltawy. catalyzed methanol approach. As a or H3PO4 is also considered an attractive alternative as result. (Exhibit 6. 2009). and catalytic processes that can and emulsification. (Ataya et al.. HCl is accelerated and requires shorter reaction times. they are not currently preferred due to their lower activity than the conventional transesterification Chemical Transesterification alkaline catalysts. therefore. 2008). The replacement of is carried out in the presence of microwaves.2).. An alternative from the ether by a vaporizer under a high vacuum. which is simply a process of such as H3PW12O40/Nb2O5. Transesterification (Alsalme et al. the reaction soluble bases by liquid acid catalysts such as H2SO4. Cao et al. 2008).. a drastic reduction in the quantity of co-products the acidic catalysts are less sensitive to the presence of and a short separation time are obtained (Lertsathapornsuk Exhibit 6. Diesel. Olefin Diesel Diesel Aromatics 54 6. Kerosene. mitigate saponification chemical. acid methyl esters). it has been shown that One recommended research focus would be to further transesterification of algal oil can be achieved with ethanol develop these homogeneous catalysts to tolerate the and sodium ethanolate serving as the catalyst (Zhou & contaminants expected to be present in algal extracts. Xu mature and has been demonstrated to be the “gold et al. The products of these reactions are typically separated by adding ether and salt water to the In addition to alternative catalysts. strength resulted in lower pretreatment temperatures. biochemical. 2008).

These preliminary results indicate that that a co-solvent mixture may be critical in defining microwave processing may be cost-competitive with the the optimal reaction medium for the lipases. they have not been demonstrated at large scale mainly due to the relatively high price of lipase and its short operational life caused by the negative Catalytic Cracking effects of excessive methanol and co-product glycerol. converting triacylglycerols into fatty acid methyl esters.. increasingly attractive. time-consuming batch process used in traditional base. In the ultrasonic reactor method. Although enzymatic approaches have become converting lipids into a suitable diesel surrogate. inexpensive (McNeff et al. Other important issues that need further exploration and require removal of alkaline catalyst from the product are developing enzymes that can lyse the algal and treatment of alkaline wastewater. (a) both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and co-product glycerol can be eliminated completely.. Use of biocatalysts cell walls. converting carbohydrates into conventional processes (Svensson and Adlercreutz. 1998).. 2008). as with other approaches.. Bioprospecting for will require further innovation to reach production levels the enzymes in extreme environments may produce sufficient for massive and scalable biofuel production. Enzyme immobilization may also play Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion a key role in developing an economic method of Chemical processes give high conversion of triacylglycerols biocatalytic transesterification (Yamane et al.. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   55 .. engineering. The presence of development of immobilized heterogeneous and/ solvents is sometimes necessary to enhance the solubility or homogeneous catalysts that are very efficient and of the triacylglycerols during the extraction process. Thus significant roadblocks to demonstrating the validity of using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production this approach lies in the conversion of algal oil extracts drastically reduces the reaction time. 2008). 2005). the reaction mixture to produce and collapse bubbles (c) no catalyst regeneration steps are needed for lipase constantly. one of the most transesterification process (Armenta et al. 2008. This work more mature conversion processes currently available. which increases and temperature tolerance of the enzymes in order to the overall costs. 2007). optimizing specific enzyme activity to (lipases) in transesterification of triacylglycerols for function using heterogeneous feedstocks. catalyzing nucleic acid hydrolysis. It is capable of producing these reactions in a variety of estimated that industrial-scale ultrasonic devices can allow environments and on different types of oil feedstocks for the processing of several thousand barrels per day. sugars. Acid and basic catalysts and the enzymes used in the downstream conversion could be classified as Brönsted or Lewis catalysts. One potential solution to this is the enable efficient biocatalytic processing. 2007).. 2008).. to their corresponding esters but have drawbacks such as being energy-intensive. 2008). at a commercial scale and at competitive prices. Although very effective and relatively economical. This cavitation provides simultaneously reuse. production. much R&D is needed in the discovery. it has been noted 6. catalysts may be used to enhance the enzymatic biodiesel production has several advantages: impact of microwave irradiation (Yuan et al. have been proven as a viable means of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production (Su and Wei. There have been of the two types of sites in the overall reaction in terms some recent reports of using a solvent engineering of efficiency and cost. indicates that the use of this co-solvent mixture in the In addition. 2006). these catalysts still require purification One critical area that needs to be addressed is the solvent and removal from the product stream. Lewis acid catalysts.. and 2008). and optimization of enzymes that are catalyzed transesterification (Stavarache et al. in many cases. such as method to enhance the lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of AlCl3 or ZnCl2. both types of sites could be solvents to varying degrees to enable cost-effective present and it is not easy to evaluate the relative importance biofuel production (Fang et al. ultrasonic waves cause (b) high reaction rates and conversion can be obtained. In particular. Liao et al.et al. 2008).. process must be able to function in the presence of these However. and energy input (Kalva et al. The transesterification catalysts presented above are These factors must be addressed before a commercially very strong and relatively mature in the field of biofuel viable biochemical conversion process can be realized. Again. difficulty in removing the glycerol. novel enzymes with desired characteristics that are more suitable for industrial applications (Guncheva et al. defining biodiesel production addresses these problems and necessary enzyme reactions (cell wall deconstruction offers an environmentally more attractive option to the and autolysin). and (d) the operational stability of the catalyst is the mixing and heating required to carry out the high. Hence the process of transesterification can run inline rather than using the To that end. but (Lopez-Hernandez et al. 2003).. reaction temperatures.

they can be used even with oils containing significant Gasoline.. M a niobium atom or a tantalum atom. but have essentially in the esterification reaction. CaO. the ideal conversion process would make use (40 . As noted in chapter 8. There remain significant can be used for the production of typical fuels without fundamental studies and unanswered questions that must disruptive changes in processes or infrastructure. Fatty acids are well suited to conversion to diesel and jet fuel with few processing steps. in comparison to the homogenous catalyst at lower therefore. active catalysts during transesterification. for whale oil. catalytic hydrocracking and hydrotreating. such as tehtrahydrofuran. From a refinery’s At these temperatures. separation In another example. Conversion to Renewable Diesel. begun to explore the conversion of vegetable oils and waste animal fats into renewable fuels. A typical diesel must meet a multitude of performance specifications FAME yield of 91% and glycerol yield of 91% were that include volatility. flash point. This catalyst is also more active than HTiNbO3. the process pressure is high perspective. and they are better defined by their integer not greater than 7. the process development but must resist poisoning and the feedstock is considered fungible with petroleum and leaching of active components. were employed in vegetable oil performance specifications than by the sum of specific transesterification.The presence of a co-solvent. Although are stable. heterogeneous catalyst that has comparable activity Conversion of biological feedstocks to renewable fuels.60 bar). fuels is high energy content which is a function of a near-zero oxygen content. 2009). and insoluble. in an assortment of end products. which translates to very costly plant design of those operations already in place: thermal or catalytic and construction requirements. and x is an and process steps. reducing the concentration the same performance specifications as the petroleum- of free fatty acids in non-refined oil or in used oil. using autoignition characteristics (as measured by octane number HTiNbO3 as the catalyst. and diesel are generally described as amounts of free fatty acids and water. such as biomass or plant oil. and Jet Fuel efficiencies of up to 98% (Soriano et al. demanding additional isomerization steps or high octane blendstocks. Other based analog. is largely a process of eliminating oxygen and temperatures than the ones currently used (~220 . and cloud point. Vanadate metal compounds or cetane number). 56 6. presented above seem to be good candidates for industrial and catalytic structural isomerization. can play a vital role in achieving high conversion Gasoline. be completed before these catalysts are fully understood.240°C). maximizing the final energy content. catalysts derived from the titanium and modification of the components in crude oil to yield compound possessing the general formula ATixMO. In this way. The catalysts obtained are stable and molecules. probably due to the “renewable” or “green” if it is derived from a biological hydrophobicity of their surface. It is worth noting that the Double-metal cyanide Fe-Zn proved to be promising petroleum industry began by developing a replacement catalysts resulting in active transesterification of oil. such as oil shale and tar sands. obtained in a fixed-bed reactor at 200˚C and 35 bar. Many of the catalysts cracking. Typical biological molecules One of the most difficult challenges is finding an ideal have very high oxygen contents as compared to crude oil. the predominant feedstock for the industry is crude oil. and give high glycerol yield with high activities. a great deal of resources developing additional inputs producing the same yields with lower residence times. and now it is apparent that it is beginning to These catalysts are Lewis acids. and Al2O3. On the other hand. The fuel products are a which A represents a hydrogen atom or an alkaline metal mixture of components that vary based on input stream atom. the with TiVO4 being the most active (Cozzolino et al. temperatures of about 170˚C). Moreover. All of the processes that take place in a modern petroleum refinery can be divided into two categories. jet fuel. The catalysts are active feedstock. oil industry has begun to cast a wider net and has spent 2006). One particular concern is the stability and longevity of Various refiners and catalyst developers have already the catalysts in a representative reaction environment. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . jet fuel. initial and final boiling point. gasoline. hydrophobic (at reaction return to biological feedstocks to keep the pipelines full. A major characteristic of petroleum-derived catalyst examples include MgO.. straight chain alkanes are poor starting materials for gasoline because they provide low octane numbers. This process has already provided the renewable jet fuel blends (derived from oils obtained from jatropha and algae) used in recent commercial jet test flights.

as well as the fermentation of renewable fuels is catalyst development. contaminants to arrive at the most cost-effective process. a chemical reductive process). once H2 used. It will be desirable to tune catalysts such that the extraction (Ashare and Wilson. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   57 . carbon dioxide. and sulfur methane and 40% CO2 by volume.g. In addition. 1979). Crude algal oil may contain high levels of phosphorous the nitrogen can be recovered in the form of ammonia from phospholipids. conversion of algal feedstock into fuel. There will also likely be a high metals (especially magnesium) from chlorophyll. Catalysts in any recoverable polysaccharides into biofuels. Refinery catalysts have also been developed to the algae has been harvested. 6. and reduce double bonds to yield technology that derives benefit from every potential hydrocarbons.. It will amount of polysaccharides and other oligosaccharides be necessary to optimize both the level of purification of present in the algal remnants that are well suited for algal lipid as well as the tolerance of the catalyst for the traditional fermentation into ethanol and other biofuels. and for recycle to the culture. metals. current use have been optimized for existing petroleum feedstocks and have the appropriate specificity and activity Anaerobic digestion can be effectively used as a means to carry out the expected reactions in a cost-effective of producing biogas from algae and algal remnants after manner. or One other critical aspect in developing a conversion carbon monoxide. The biogas product typically contains 60% found within the petroleum stream (e.4 Processing of Algal (basically. this process will convert the carboxylic Remnants after Extraction acid moiety to a mixture of water. nitrogen from extracted proteins. as well as the amount of are amenable to anaerobic digestion. Referred to as hydrotreating. Glycerin can be converted to propane input is the conversion of algal remnants after which can be used for liquefied petroleum gas. The liquid effluent and nitrogen heteroatoms) without becoming poisoned. In particular. little if any pretreatment function within a certain range of chemical components is required. the attack on the oxygen-bearing carbon atoms will minimize organic fractions of the algae remaining after oil extraction the amount of CO and CO2 lost. contains soluble nitrogen from the original algal proteins. This includes the anaerobic digestion of algal remnants The primary barrier to utilizing algae oils to make to produce biogas.Algal lipids can be processed by hydrothermal treatment 6.

(1993). Hanssen. Eloy. Y. E. E. Norazmi Mohamed. M. Supported vanadium oxide nanoparticles: Effect of preparation method. Energy Sources.. Jacobs. Energy Sources. 22(2-3). Biomass. In (Ed) Bridgwater.. Van der Wal.L. (pp. Bos. 137-142. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification. (2008). J. Zaher. X.. Aresta. 14(1). S.. A. 697-704. A. Current Microbiology. G. 163-168.. Rev. 17-22. Fuel Processing Technology. Kralovec.F. In Gaigneaux E. Thermal Science.. Lv. 8(2). Dynatech R/D Co.. J. De Vos. (2008).(2006).. Energy Conversion and Management. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society.. 170-176. Demirbas. M. F. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society.A. High temperature gasification of biomass in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor. B.. O. (2003).. M. Utilization of macro-algae for enhanced CO2 fixation and biofuels production: Development of a computing software for an LCA study.. Kozhevnikova. 9th Int. Boerefijn. Liu. 22(2). 579-582. and Xu.. 17(1-2). (2009).E. and Environmental Effects. Naber. and Zhu. M. 31(2). Part A: Recovery..) Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis.M.V. 510-515. J. 162. (2006). September 10-14. Malaysian Journal of Science. Z. Chu. Hirayama. Science and Technology. G. (1979).]. J. P. Oily products from mosses and algae via pyrolysis.. Tyrol. & Wilson.E.M. and Jensen. D.. and Ascophyllum nodosum and application of end products. and Santacesaria.. Int. A. W. N.. Ashare. M. Ueda.. Variables affecting the induction period during acid-catalyzed transesterification of canola oil to FAME. (2000). R. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . MA (USA).R. A. P.. and Ogushi. and Environmental Effects. Devillers. Anaerobic digestion of Laminaria spp. Oestgaard. D. 1312-1325). Indergaard. Biodiesel fuel from Jatropha oil via non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification. Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts Proc. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid. A. S. I. A. Acidolysis of tripalmitin with oleic acid catalyzed by a newly isolated thermostable lipase.J. 101(1).. Sustainable transportation fuels from biomass materials. Hirano. 93-100.. E. Symposium. Anitescu.. Dube. Cambridge.V. Fuel. F. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. and Kambourova. 2006. Adv. Wang.. 1391-1399. Wang.A. Cao. Z. J. Part A: Recovery. 58 6. Goudriaan.. K.. Applied Catalysis A: General. 86(14-15).M.. 679-685.. A. Vinatoru. O. Biomass fast pyrolysis. (2006). Tesser. 338-49.. Sep. Meeting Date 1993. Y.. A. Demirbas... L. Thermal efficiency of the HTU® process for biomass liquefaction. F.References Alsalme. and Bjerle. Bridgewater Anthony. Radchenkova. Lu. Andersson. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant staphylococcus saprophyticus M36 produced organic solvent-stable lipase. 21-27. 923-927. Van de Beld. Balat. 21–50. (2009). Energy and Fuels. 129-132. A. R. S. Analysis of digester design concepts. (2009). Chen.A. Conf. Hallgren. Oxford. 50(4).. A. Fang. Armenta. and Kozhevnikov. and Barberio. E.. Integrated technology for supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration. L.. and Tavlarides. Thermochem. Energy. A.. E.. F.. A. F. I. (1997). Guncheva. Transesterification of fish oil to produce fatty acid ethyl esters using ultrasonic energy. (Eds. 22(1). Louvain-la-Neuve. W. Burja.. Hermans. V. S. M. and Ternan.. Zhai. 28(10). Energy-Oxford. H. S. Production of biodiesel from algae oils. M. Martens. Gaigneaux. F.A. Ataya. Kamal. Ding.M. support and type of precursor on the catalytic performances in the ODH of methanol to formaldehyde.. Austria. (2008). (2004). Kenawi. (2006).. Energy Fuels. Y. 933-940. Deshpande. Wang... Cozzolino. M. and Ruiz. Biomass Convers. S. Zhiryakova. CO2 fixation and ethanol production with microalgal photosynthesis and intracellular anaerobic fermentation. 85(2). X. 3rd (1994).. N.. W. M. A. A. G. Utilization. S. & Phang. (2008).. Pedersen. Demirbas.. F. 1679-1693.E.. UK: Blackwell Science. Utilization. Heteropoly acids as catalysts for liquid- phase esterification and transesterification. Pap. (1987).... Fatty Acid Composition of Some Malaysian Seaweeds.. and Zeevalkink.. 53(6). G. F..... 22(2). T.. Education. 2000. and Barrow. 1-13. COO-2991-42. Baevre. Li. M. 88(3). Di Serio. Proceedings of the Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion.E. R. C. [Ed. J.. (2008). 349(1-2). 84(11)... P. M. (2005). (2007). Dibenedetto.. Belgium. J. Hawash. and El Diwani.. 83-103. 1045-1052. Bie.

Y. 1330-1336. 279-288. B.. (2009). M. (2008).. & Stuercke.G. E.. (2003). J. A. Biodiesel synthesis via homogeneous Lewis acid-catalyzed transesterification. 110(1). An overview of aqueous-phase catalytic processes for production of hydrogen and alkanes in a biorefinery. and Bandow. K. Nowlan. S. 85-93.J. R. 189-213).. 657-660. McDermid. 119–132. (2006). 25(21). McNeff. 66-71. K. Samejima.. Fuel. M. K.. 6. 729-731. 70(6). K. Lopez-Hernandez. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology..Y. Taylor and Francis. Soriano. and Wu. W. V. R. Tran. Venditti. K. M. A. (1995). and Liu. J. C. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology.. CO2 fixation and oil production Through microalga. 48(1). 4(3).. Towards sustainable production of biofuels from microalgae.. Supercritical fluid extraction of active compounds from algae. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds (pp. 15(6).C... Aryusuk.R. Ogushi. (2008). R. Biotechnology Letters. (1995). D. Food and Agriculture Organization. 153-164. C.. (2007). Stavarache. S. Salleh. H. X.. 89(12). 4(4). Srinivas. Journal of Food Science. Y. Y.. T. F. Hossain. Biodiesel fuel production from algae as renewable energy. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   59 . Yokoyama. 534-544. B.. 560-565. and Hill.Hirayama. Pairintra.. T.. B.R. 1857-1861. A unique feature of hydrogen recovery in endogenous starch-to-alcohol fermentation of the marine microalga. A: General. J.3-diglyacylcerols by mixture response surface methodology. Hirano. and Krisnangkura. 343(1-2).N. & Dumesic. Garcia. Rasmussen. (2007).E. (2007). Tsai. S. A. 129(1-3). and Hoye. D.. Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds.. A continuous catalytic system for biodiesel production. Kishimoto. 74. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. M.. (2003). 8887-8897. Energy for Sustainable Development. Lertsathapornsuk.. 39-48..C.T. Synthesis using bio-syngas and CO2. (2005). Ethanol production from CO2 by fermentative microalgae. A. N. 111(1-2). R. C. S. Catalysis Letters. (2006). Dote. R. H. Hon-Nami. Okabe. T. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Koegel. Gyberg.. and El Sheltawy.L.S. Ogi. and Giselroed.F. The BTL2 process of biomass utilization entrained-flow gasification of pyrolyzed biomass slurries. Y. Phillips. Ultrasonically driven continuous process for vegetable oil transesterification.. Journal of Biotechnology. Minowa. Nurunnabi. Huber. McNeff. and Weirich. Yan. J. Microwave assisted in continuous biodiesel production from waste frying palm oil and its performance in a 100 kW diesel generator. 808-828. Applied Catalysis. Technoeconomic analysis of a lignocellulosic biomass indirect gasification process to make ethanol via mixed alcohols synthesis. S. Sawayama. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research... 413-417.-Y. A. M. H. A.. Krohn. Mahajani. (2008).. T.T. A. S.. 46(26). Malik. S. B. S. International Journal of Molecular Sciences..T. K. In Martinez.). and Sanjay M.. (2004). Hon-Nami. K. Energy Conversion and Management. and Okakura. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 114(Advances in Chemical Conversions for Mitigating CO2).. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development. 513-524 McHugh. 1735-1738. M. M.. 171-176. Kalva. Maeda. and Moholkar. V. 14(4). A guide to the seaweed industry. Raffelt. Miao. 131(1-3). Sivasankar. Patil.L. Stahl. and Yokoyama. (2007). Inoue.Jr.. P.. 250-254. and Naqiuddin. R. Ueda. Y..S. 128(1-2). (2006).. L. 9(7). G. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru catalysts by using syngas derived from woody biomass. Physical mechanism of ultrasound-assisted synthesis of biodiesel. Henrich..L. W. K. (1998). Jr.. Vinatoru. Chlamydomonas perigranulata. Steinhardt. Q. (2008). J. C. F. Mendes. Application of solvent engineering to optimize lipase-catalyzed 1.U. Refaat.S. A. and Argyropoulos. Chowdhury.. Time factor in microwave-enhanced biodiesel production.. and Kunito.V. (Ed.K. S... S. J. Fuel Processing Technology. A.. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of medium-chain triacylglycerols and a fully hydrogenated soybean oil. Catalysis Today.. 36. (2008). (2003). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. Journal of Applied Phycology. Chang. Inc. 88(3).. C365-C372.. (2008). H.W. R. 11(4). S. Murata. Boyce... High yield bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis by metabolic controlling of Chlorella protothecoides. V. Liao.. 1188-1195. A..Q.. D. Oil production from algal cells of dunaliella tertiolecta by direct thermochemical liquefaction... (2009). Fuel. T. A. Fedie.. Nakanishi. K. and Shieh. D.

& Wu. Yang. M. 22(4). 10(7)..Y. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Y. 115(1-3). and Doisaki. Multiple intensified performance of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction in organic medium. G. H.A. F. Synthesis of biodiesel using microwave absorption catalysts. 118-125. X. B.R.. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 60 6. (2005).C. and Clark. Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies   . S. and Velasco. (2008). I. 171-179.M. Yamane T. G. 338-344. (1998). (2008).. 2018-2022. H. Oliveira.. and catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil. A highly active and stable Fe-Mn catalyst for slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. B. Review of catalytic conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Chinese Science Bulletin. J. A. Journal of Biotechnology.V. X.. 499-507. Oliveira. Vieitez. Warabi. 2805-2809.Y. and Fu. D.. (2004). 4223-4228. Su. C.. G. Zhong. G. Miao. Iwasaki Y. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Influences of bacterial degradation on gases generated by pyrolysis of heterotrophically yellowing algae. Sheng..C. A. J. Green Chemistry. Roxana R. Zhou. E.D. L.. Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols. Q. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. Yang. P. and Zhu.A... Xu. N. Energy and Fuels. and Adlercreutz. Yung. 83(12). Jablonski.C. J. Wang. (2008).. and Wei. I. 55(3-4). 126. 23(4). W. Catalysis Today. Zhang.. Y. Improvement in lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triacylglycerols for biodiesel production using a solvent engineering method. glycerol.. Y. 32(4). Shimidzu N.S. and Magrini-Bair. Phase distributions of alcohol. 558-563. Corazza. Biomass and Bioenergy. and Jachmanian. I. 548-552.. I.... 110(11). C. 864(Enzyme Engineering XIV). J.. Zhang. 793-801... W. Xiang.. Da Silva. J. 22(6)... and Li. 23(1).H. Energy and Fuels. (2008). Barney.. (2006). and Seefeldt. D. (2009). L. 1007-1013. N... European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology... Yuan. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system. Energy and Fuels.. 39(23). K.. Borges. Synthesis of biodiesel from mixed feedstocks and longer chain alcohols using an acid-catalyzed method. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel in supercritical ethanol-water mixtures.M. B. Yu. and Jachmanian. Alarcon. Effect of temperature on the continuous synthesis of soybean esters under supercritical ethanol.. 23(1). Alckmin. Y. 1874-1887. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Preparation of mesoporous polyoxometalate-tantalum pentoxide composite catalyst and its application for biodiesel production by esterification and transesterification. L. Borges.. Grompone. Vieitez... B. Q. B. Wu.R. (2009).Svensson.. and Boocock.. 746-755. I.A. Guo. G.. Yang.M.. Da Silva. 1047-1052. F. Energy and Fuels. Identification of triacylglycerols in the enzymatic transesterification of rapeseed and butter oil. M. B. (2008). (2008).V. and Saka. Y. Vargas.. H. R. L. Vergara-Fernandez. Wahlen. Xu. Grompone. (1994). Corazza. (2006).. Kusdiana. X. (2008). Energy and Fuels. 106(1-4). D. M. G.. 170-175.

Co-products   61 . the production a biorefinery for utilization of every component of the of industrial. fats (oils). primarily by the derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria. reductant. pharmaceuticals. flavors. anti-oxidants. enzymatic or microbial conversion (see Chapter 6). the generation of other been discussed (see Chapter 6). The topic of polysaccharides. Indeed. a reasonably benefits to the technology. hormones. and stable isotopes for research purposes. Inorganics Proteins enzymes. Co-products The “guiding truth” is that if biofuel production is conversion of algal biomass to other biofuels has already considered to be the primary goal. electricity Energy Modified from Kamm and Kamm. CO2 Products and Complex Fats residues from Substances conversion Special substances: processes pigments. etc.500 x106 lbs/yr.00/lb. and nitrogen-containing components enhance the economics of the process. Heat.$1. 2007) address these options and discuss how some of them and must be considered in determining the economics of are better opportunities as they will not readily saturate the process. generation will inevitably compete for carbon. and efficiencies and reduced environmental impacts may have a variety of specialty products such as bioflocculants. and energy from photosynthesis. corresponding markets in the long term. glycerol. Vorlop. As summarized economics of the system. proteins and a variety of inorganic and complex organic molecules – 7. 2007 7. novel technologies with increased coloring substances. The use of terms such as “high volume” or “high value” This chapter will also address within the context of the can be extremely subjective. but considerably under a dollar for a commodity treatment (for nutrient removal) to provide additional producer. the concept of Under the biorefinery concept (Exhibit 7. all primary components of algal biomass – carbohydrates. and they may vary from region to in Exhibit 7.7. this chapter will focus on co-products must be correspondingly low since their the non-fuel co-products.30 . without invoking competing co. $0. fertilizers and soil conditioners.1 Commercial Products from can be converted into different products.1 An overview of the biorefinery concept Biorefinery Aquaculture Primary Refinery Industry Conversion Carbohydrates Raw biomass. Exhibit 7. valued chemical is defined as one that will cost roughly products. The nature of the end products and of the technologies A large number of different commercial products have been to be employed will be determined. to be developed to handle the large amount of waste that biodegradable polymers. aromatic essences. For the purposes of the Roadmap. poly-unsaturated fatty acids. is predicted to be generated by the process. dyes.2. high-value and high-volume chemicals from biomass raw material must be considered as a means to amino acids. either through Microalgae and Cyanobacteria chemical. these include products for human and animal region according to the cost of the raw material (Willke and nutrition. cosmetics. Moreover. wastewater.. as a “high value” product biorefinery the possibility of coupling biomass cultivation to a fine chemical producer might be well over several with CO2 mitigation (for carbon credits) and wastewater dollars/lb. This chapter will of algal biomass becomes feasible (Mooibroek et al. Using appropriate technologies. 2004).1). and can be produced at a volume of roughly 100 .

In poultry rations. and is β–carotene from Dunaliella salina. the biofuels markets will involve volumes even dogs and cats. is quickly growing. and ca. only DHA has been produced thus Spirulina (Arthospira).) can be safely of commercial plants) that are significantly less than those used as a partial replacement for conventional proteins associated with the existing high-value algae-derived (Spoalore et al. GLA from evening primrose oil). 2006). The main species used in products. Dunalliella. 1990. estimated Therein lies a major conundrum associated with the to be about 300 million US$. Chlorella and Scenesdesmus. 1990. is expected to grow in the future.200 t/yr Dunaliella. Anti-Oxidants The market. pigs. weight gain. ca. product.. appearance. Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia (Spolaore is currently restricted to only a few species. The most prominent aquaculture of mollusks. 3. al. it is important to note that since the flue massive lipid production dominates. Scenedesmus. This situation. Co-products   .. docohexaenoic acid (DHA). Isochrysis. 1990. Nitzschia. The market size. 2004. nascent algal-derived biofuels market: in the long term. which may be added to human food and production at volumes and pricepoints that meet consumer animal feed for their health promoting properties demands or 2) new co-products that are low cost and have (Benemann. currently at ~700 future algal-based biofuels market (designed in part to million US$. and EPA by microalgal biomass as a human health food supplement Nannochloropsis. e. horses. better immune to the consumer.5 billion A number of anti-oxidants. and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). 1994 and 1996). Nannochloropsis.10% (wt. 2006). the goal of the industry is to produce animal feed. Malcolm et al. 1996. 1. 600 t/yr Nostoc. Both the production plants and distribution channels) are for high. have also been produced by microalgae (Borowtizka. 1996). ca. The Dunaliella. 2. Radmer. Radmer. microalgal (of biomass.g. Skeletonema.. not commodity acids determine the nutritional value of microalgal products. the resulting non-oil algal improve the economic viability of some algae processes biomass is very likely to be unsuitable for use as an in the short-term. thereby are known to be effective at metal absorption. 62 7. Although small.000 US$ per kg (Spolaore et al. Chlorella. Yet the existing fossil fuels market is and the aquaculture feeds. Pulz and Gross. fertility. is anticipated to continue until 1) a sufficient Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) number of the challenges outlined earlier in the Roadmap for biofuel production have been overcome and associated Microalgae can also be cultured for their high content life cycle costs are reduced to realize sustainable biofuel in PUFAs.. AA has been shown to be Food and Feed synthesized by Porphyridium. However. 1999). • Aquaculture: Microalgae are also used as feed in the Benemann. However. poultry. arsenic.. 2006). All other PUFAs to a lesser extent. 2006). GLA by Arthrospira. The production includes ca. etc. is expected to expand significantly. 280 million US$.5 billion US$. currently at about 2. 500 t/yr Aphanizomenon. γ-linolenic acid (GLA). particularly given the fact that algae transportation fuels below their market price. which is sold either fish (Benemann. yet in the short term.e.. DHA by Crypthecodinium • Human Health Food Supplement: The consumption of and Schizochytrium.. commonly considered PUFAs are arachidonic acid (AA). these existing markets (and associated Spirulina.000 t/yr Chlorella. gas from coal-fired power plants that will be used co-products of higher value in the marketplace must be to supply carbon dioxide to the cultures will contain pursued in order to offset the costs of production of algal.. and far on a commercial scale by microalgae. crustaceans (shrimp). Tetraselmis. Spolaore et (e. supplant the fossil fuels market) must be commodities • Animal Feed Additive: Microalgal biomass has also based to meet required volumes at price points acceptable been used with good results (i. from 300 to 3.By definition. the DHA oil market is quickly growing. Nostoc and Aphanizomenon are more cost-effectively produced from non-algal sources (Radmer. The market for microalgal animal feeds. With the possible exception of the existing response. and Thalassiosira. The most very large potential markets are developed. Chlorella. sold for the health food market. having presently a retail value of 1. protein content and the level of unsaturated fatty value products or co-products from algae. ca.g. etc.000 t/yr Spirulina. Although it is clear that co-products may other toxic elements.) as market for microalgal biomass for animal nutrition and a feed additive for cows. US$. and soil fertilizer. animal feed are Spirulina.) and scales (sizes and numbers biomass up to a level of 5 . 1986. increasing fuel supplies without drastically increasing price. significant amounts of lead. Phaeodactylum. et al. Most as an extract or as a whole cell powder ranging in price frequently used species are Chaetoceros. market size for β–carotene is estimated to be greater than Pavlova. cadmium and derived biofuels.

2006). no current commercial market Spolaore et al. Spolaore et al. Spolarore et al.Coloring Agents the related carotenoids lutein and zeaxantin. have also been used in the feed of carp and even chicken (Puls and Microalgae-produced coloring agents are used as natural Gross.. has been successfully used as a salmon feed to cosmetics... 1986. Astaxanthin.200 >280 Spolaore et al. or as pigments i. (2006) PUFA Extracts No available information 10 Pulz&Gross (2004) GLA Potential product.000 700 Spolaore et al. no current commercial market Spolaore et al. (2006) Animal Feed Additive No available information 300 Pulz&Gross (2004) POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAs) ARA No available information 20 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) DHA <300 1.e. (2006) Tocopherol CO2 Extract No available information 100-150 Pulz&Gross (2004) COLORING SUBSTANCES Pulz&Gross (2004) Astaxanthin < 300 (biomass) < 150 Spolaore et al. phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. a carotenoid produced by Hematococcus Porphyridium. (2006) EPA Potential product.. pigments in pluvialis. cosmetics. 2003. 1990). 2006).. and research. (Olaizola. (2006) ANTI-OXIDANTS Pulz&Gross (2004) Beta-Carotene 1..000 2. produced by in animal feed (Borowitzka. (2006) Phycocyanin No available information >10 Pulz&Gross (2004) Phycoerythrin No available information >2 Pulz&Gross (2004) FERTILIZERS/SOIL CONDITIONERS Fertilizers. and Exhibit 7.. are used as food dyes. dyes for food. Pulz&Gross (2004) No available information 5..500 Spolaore et al. growth promoters. 2006).000 soil conditioners Metting&Pyne (1986) 7... Co-products   63 . Benemann. and as fluorescent reagents in clinical or research give the fish meat a pink color preferred by the consumers laboratories (Spolaore et al. the cyanobacterium Arthrospira and the rhodophyte Astaxanthin.2 Summary of microalgae commercial products market MARKET SIZE SALES VOLUME COMMERCIAL PRODUCT REFERENCE (TONS/YR) (MILLION $US/YR) BIOMASS Health Food 7.500 Pulz&Gross (2004) Pulz&Gross (2004) Aquaculture 1. 2004. Phycobiliproteins.

must be produced at a cost 30% lower than the existing 1986.. pharmaceuticals and In this instance. cost of the new product must be equivalent to the 1986. Furthermore. food additive. seaweeds) are used as a plant the redox balance favors formation of pyruvate as the end fertilizer and to improve the water-binding capacity and product (Forro. Price becomes less of an issue if algae and agar and carrageenen from red algae. fuel. 1990.. toothpaste) $240 million Other uses of seaweeds Fertilizers and conditioners $5 million Animal Feed $5 million Macroalgal Biofuels Negligible TOTAL $5. pet food.Fertilizers which occurs in high concentrations in brown seaweeds. is considered recalcitrant to ethanol fermentation since Currently. 2001. or with replacements such as algal polysaccharides that are extracted for their commercial proteins for distillers dried grains from corn dry grind value (Exhibit 7.3 Potential Options for the derived from microalgae (Metting and Pyne. the only issue is price. 1986). Here price is a major 7. Pulz and Gross. be very small due to their specialized applications. Metting and Pyne. but has been achieved for some chemicals and proteins/ 2004). 2005. 2003) PRODUCT VALUE Human Food (Nori.. aonori. macroalgae (i. 1. Alginate. Microalgal biomass could in principle serve the same purpose.) $5 billion Algal hydrocolloids Agar (Food ingredient. Singh et al.. biopolymers and biodegradable plastics (Philip et al. etc. and stable isotopes for material (shutdown economics). or other product. Pulz and Gross.5-6 BILLION 64 7. 2. Borowitzka. 2006). Identical in functional performance to an existing chemical. 1994. material it replaces and to be competitive typically. Radmer. 2001). medical) $213 million Carrageenen (Food additive. the product can be labeled “organic” and thus saleable at a premium. fuel or other product. Identical to an existing chemical. 2004). wakame. The production bioactive compounds (Burja et al. Exhibit 7. mineral composition of depleted soils (Metting et al. 1986). pharmaceutical. 1990. This occurs with natural oils which manufacturers in many cases would prefer if the costs Macroalgae possess high levels of structural were comparable. cosmetics (Spolaore et al. Wu et al. plant growth regulators could be 7.3 Global value of seaweed products per annum (McHugh.2 Commercial Products factor. polysaccharides (Benemann. These include acceptable: bioflocculants (Borowitzka. 1987). The market for these specialty products is likely to nutritional products. kombu. This sets a high bar research (Benemann. 1990).. 2007. it 2004). pharmaceutical.e.3). Recovery of Co-products Other Specialty Products Co-products from algal refineries should address one There are a number of specialty products and chemicals of these three criteria to be commercially viable and that can be obtained from microalgae. They include alginate from brown ethanol processing. but the source of the material can often provide from Macroalgae some advantage. Olaizola. 2003. biological/microbiological) $132 million Alginate (Textile printing. Co-products   ... Pulz and Gross.

Recycle Nitrogen Gases Exhibit 7. which could then be either sold on the new product. Co-products   65 .3. could also be potentially considered for the recovery of energy from the lipid-extracted biomass Option 1. both (Exhibit 7. 2009). the open market or used on-site in the various biorefinery operations. The residuals • Option 4 – Recovery and utilization of carbohydrates remaining after anaerobic digestion could either be recycled from lipid-extracted biomass. is the anaerobic • Option 1 – Maximum energy recovery from digestion of lipid-extracted biomass. and combustion. one are less related to costs and more to the functional option would be to convert as much of the lipid-extracted performance and potentially enhanced performance of biomass into energy. lipids only. with Potential Use of a much larger fraction of biomass into fuels. which is significant in terms of reducing the overall cost of liquid biofuels production. thermochemical research needs are discussed below. Maximum Energy Recovery from the (see Chapter 6). The economic value of the produced extracted biomass for use in food and feed methane is equivalent to about $100 per ton of digested • Option 3 – Recovery and utilization of non-fuel lipids biomass. However. These technologies are able to convert Lipid-Extracted Biomass. as is currently already done for • Option 5 – Recovery/extraction of fuel certain waste water treatment sludges (see http://www. such as pyrolysis. In this case. Nevertheless. Residuals as Soil Amendments these technologies are still in the testing and development Given the large amounts of lipid-extracted biomass residues stage.e. These are: from a practical and economic perspective. with potential whole (i. the issues enough markets for potential co-products.pdf). conversion technologies. 2009).4 Overview of the five Algal Biomass potential options for the recovery and use of co-products Option 1 Extract Lipids Energy for Fuel Burn Residue Ash/ Soil Amendments Option 5 Soil Fertilizer/ Conditioners Dry Residue Processing Proteins as Option 2 Co-Products Food/ Feed Supplement Processing Option 3 Non-Fuel Surfactants/ Bioplastics Lipids Chemical/ Biological Conversion Option 4 Carbohydrates Ethanol/ Butanol/ Glycerol Chemical/ Biological Conversion 7. There are at least five different options for recovering economic value from the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass The most promising energy recovery technology. as soil fertilizer and conditioner Each option and its associated technologies and future In addition to anaerobic digestion.unh. and Benemann.3 l per gram volatile solids (Huesemann • Option 2 – Recovery of protein from the lipid. with use of the residual biomass edu/p2/biodiesel/pdf/algae_salton_sea. non-extracted) micro and macroalgal biomass use of residuals as soil amendments has been successfully demonstrated. Therefore. with reported methane yields of about 0. it may be difficult to identify large performance characteristics. New material with unique and useful functional production systems. and the glycerol as nutrients for algal cultivation or could be sold as soil from the transesterification of lipids to biodiesel fertilizers and conditioners. Anaerobic digestion of the lipid extracted biomass. could have poor or even negative energy balances (Huesemann and Benemann.. gasification. and because of their large energy inputs (temperature that will likely be generated in future microalgal biofuels and pressure).4).

2006). Furthermore. etc. would require the use of specially selected or engineered microalgal strains capable of producing these enzymes.the thermochemical conversion of lipid-extracted biomass Option 3. is the starting material for the production of polyester. the mineral-rich ash generated by these thermochemical and diesel substitutes will require specific ranges of carbon processes could possibly be used for nutrient recycle or as a chain length. Kamm and Kamm. butyric. than $0. 1995). and butanol). and as a renewable substitute (Zerlov et al. epoxies. a byproduct of the transesterification of market for industrial enzymes. is potentially very large. byproduct markets are likely to be overwhelmed.usda. the protein fraction and specialty products such as urethanes. the individual local markets for animal feed are often not succinate is an intermediate in the production of a variety located adjacent to areas where algae may be produced. aliphatic polyesters. biodegradable plastics (Kamm and Kamm. solvents (acetone. Recovery and Utilization of Non-fuel Lipids has the potential advantage that the resulting nitrogen- It is well known that microalgae can synthesize a variety containing gases (e.. Co-products   . Kawaguchi et al. bioplastics. thus butanol could serve to the amount of byproduct that would be produced. (b) approximately 100 grams which is used in the formulation of a variety of industrial of cellulase are needed per gallon of ethanol. Similarly. succinic. and lactic) (Huesemann and Benemann. For example. Furthermore.ams. from the residual biomass could be extracted and used as lubricants. Assuming that (a) (Yazdani and Gonzalez.e. the projected market for cellulases is 2007. Finally. could also be anaerobically pretreating lignocellulosic feedstocks prior to fermentation fermented to the above mentioned and other end products to fuel ethanol. The Glycerol. a food and feed supplement. 2001). antifreeze. including and interactions with animal digestion. polycarbonates and polyurethanes. feeding studies acids could serve as renewable feedstocks for the chemicals indicate that algae cannot be used as a high percentage industry. while butanol and organic make a useful animal feed. biomass for liquid biofuel production. which can be converted into polypropylene oxide. pigs. acetic.g. adhesives.150 per ton After the extraction of lipids.5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol will be solvents. to separate specific Biomass for Use in Food and Feed lipids present in the algal oil that have utility as chemical Following the extraction of lipids from the microalgal feedstocks for the manufacture of surfactants. be recycled into the microalgal culture ponds. and Option 4. and could be advantageous. and its applications enzymes such as cellulases or other industrial enzymes include the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries from the lipid-extracted biomass. it will be necessary to either separate the soil amendment. Recovery of Protein from the Lipid-Extracted It may be worthwhile. ammonia and nitrous oxides) could of fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C24. propionic. The current price for DDGS ranges from $110 . (Hu et al. the polymers that are currently produced from fossil oil- overall size of the animal feed market is small. generate electricity directly in biofuel cells (Yildiz and 66 7. and the Glycerol from the to approximately 60 million tons per year for distillers dry Transesterification of Lipids to Biodiesel grains plus soluble (DDGS)) (Berger and Good..3-propanediol. i. current levels. poultry. for chemical synthesis of a variety of products. Furthermore. 1 billion kg. relative derived ethylene and propylene.txt). detergents.. green solvents and a result. it is also used in the In addition. thereby depending on the algal species and culturing conditions reducing the expense for nitrogen fertilizers. might ethanol could be used as biofuel. 2007). however. the market for animal feed (cattle. As of industrial surfactants. Option 2. glycerol microalgal cellulases could be provided at a cost of less could be converted by certain bacteria to 1. supplementation with microalgal proteins to hydrogen. least 10.. which contains proteins. 2007. However. Since biomass may contain sufficient levels of carbohydrates that protein is generally the key and often limiting ingredient could be converted through anaerobic dark fermentations in animal feed. product into the appropriate range or rearrange the carbon chains through catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming. 2008). glycerol could be used to potentially very large. 2007). Choi. it may be possible to recover important industrial production of green solvents. Furthermore. fish. Recovery and Utilization of Carbohydrates pets) is already very large and growing (estimated to rise from Lipid-Extracted Biomass. specifically cellulases for microalgal lipids to biodiesel. and paint (Yazdani and Gonzalez. butanol is a valuable C4 compound of feed. also benefit from supplementation with microalgal proteins. jet fuel. the residual microalgal (http://www. 2009. Hydrogen and The byproduct material. Lactic and byproduct prices will be greatly depressed versus acid. Since the generation of gasoline.20 per gallon ethanol.. However. and (c) at products such as polymers. ethanol. produced by 2020.gov/mnreports/sj_gr225. human nutrition may organic acids (formic. this option (Datta et al. 2007).. As was pointed out above. due to issues such as taste of the meat or eggs. 2008).

M. As was mentioned above.C. Champaign-Urbana. it applications (Mooibroek et al. 5. 173-180.. B. P. and carbohydrates is not cost-effective. genomics..com/article. Biologically active compounds from microalgae. Developments in industrial microbiology.000 tons of glycerol (http:// tools to improve yields of desired products.175-204. Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. (1987). Benemann. Posewitz. No. R. B. J. Metting. Frank. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: Perspectives and advances.A. (1986). A. M. R&D efforts as discussed under Chapter 2. (105). (91). Bonsignore. Metting. additional capacity from algal lipids may find it Use of the Residual Biomass as Soil Fertilizer exceedingly difficult to find uses. University of Illinois.S. D. Hirata. microalgal metabolites. Finally. L. Pyne. (1990). M. 2007). J. 221-231. Datta. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. if desired.biodieselmagazine. 3(12). Biorefineries – multi product processes. W.. (2006). Borowitzka. Forro. Sommerfeld. and P. (8). B. physiology. Berger. J. Marine cyanobacteria – A prolific source of natural products.R. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Netherlands). Banaigs. M.. Microalgae products and production: An overview. Kamm. processes. (1990). J. and biotechnology. Algal Biology.H. and potential. carbohydrates. microalgal is possible to revert to the most simple option (Option 5).M. H2 production from algal biomass by a mixed culture of rhodobium marinum A-501 and lactobacillus amylovorus. Microbiological Sciences. and Conditioner In case none of the above mentioned four options are It may also be possible to extract microalgal economical. S. Ghirardi. Good. the issue of scale enters in. Microalgae as sources of fine chemicals. Choi. Enzyme Microbial Technology. (2008).Kadirgan. Co-products   67 . Distillers dried grains plus solubles utilization by livestock and poultry in corn-based ethanol in Illinois and the U. substituting for lignocellulosic materials derived subsequent use of the biomass residues rich in nitrogen and from forestry resources. specifically.e. (2001). E. Crouch. S.. New Hampshire. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. Once again. with saturated.J.G. Kamm. Miyamoto. 372-375. Introduction to Applied Phycology. Zimmerman.. Q. Suppl. I. (31). B. 247-256. (16). As the current production levels for biodiesel (700 million gallons in 2008) already has the market for glycerol Option 5.jsp?article_id=377). Burgess. Recovery (Extraction) of Fuel Lipids Only. 277-282.H. Darzins. Huesemann. proteins. van Staden... Journal of Biosciences Bioengineering. (2). L.R. the market for organic fertilizer is large As was the case with Option 3. (2007). 589-627. J. E. Kawaguchi H. 621-63.R. K. Glycerol-based biorefinery for fuels and chemicals. The alga dunaliella: biodiversity. A Report from the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. (2008). J. Microbial degradation of marine biomass. Netherlands. (1986). organic matter as soil fertilizer and conditioners. with special focus on Dunaliella sp. A guide to the seaweed industry. (2007). M. Wright. including www. McHugh. 386-394. including sugars and complex Production of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel will result in carbohydrates. M. Hu. (57). this option will also require and potentially growing. (2003). Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. 1994). carbohydrates could be recycled into pulp and paper which involves the extraction of only fuel lipids and the streams. Abou-Mansour. and the development of genetic engineering the formation of more than 400. Tetrahedon. J. SPB Academic Publishing. Hashimoto. Seibert. J. Recent Patents on Biotechnology. W. (54). K.P. 9347-9377. Biofuels from microalgae: Review of products. these are the development of high throughput technologies for the quantitative characterization of References Benemann. Moon. A. M. 7..L. FEMS Microbiological Review.W. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2001). The Plant Journal. Jarvis. Burja. (2009). polysaccharides for use as emulsifiers in food and industrial non-fuel lipids.J. K. the recovery and use of energy. D. Science Publishers. i. Tsai. The Hague.

93-98. V. H. (1994). Applied Microbiology Biotechnology.Y. S. M. Commercial development of microalgal biotechnology: From the test tube to the marketplace..A. 587-597. R. I. 213-219. R. (6). (2005). (82). Wu. (2006). F. Isambert.S. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol.J. Kate. G. Roy. G. Kadirgan. B. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. (18).C. H. Accumulation of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate in cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. Philip. (2003). (2007). Current Opinion Biotechnology. Yildiz. Zerlov. Keshavarz. Radmer.V. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: Use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. (2006). 46(4). Gross.Y. (2007). Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: An overview. (2001). (77). J. Pulz. Co-products   . C. 459-466. N. PCC6803. 68 7.C. Franssen. Berezina. 85-90.. Toonen. 73-95. O. B. (71). Giuseppin.H.. Z. W. T. A.H. Oosterhuis. Gonzalez. K. R. 233-247. S.. E. (2004)..Mooibroek. Singh. (25).... Velikodvorskaya. E.D. Olaizola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.. T. BioScience. 87-96. P. (1994). 101(2). 257-267. U. Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (1996). 263-270.. Joannis-Cassan. Algal diversity and commercial algal products. Commercial applications of algae: Opportunities and Constraints. Parker. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. O. Journal of Electrochemical Society. (2004). Biomolecular Engineering.N. (2007). Wu. Bioresource Technology. Vorlop. Commercial applications of microalgae. Schwarz. Banerjee. (141).F. (65). Willke. 723-730. Journal of Applied Phycology.J. Sanders. (20). 131-142.. Shen. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Spolaore. Steinbüchel. M.Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Radmer. Q. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. Scott. 635-648. W. Duran. (66). Yazdani. G. (76). S. M. A. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: A path to economic liability for the biofuels industry. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.

• Maximizing compatibility with existing infrastructure 1995). such as cultivation and harvesting. and the ultimate economics and operations of that natural bacterial communities increase the an integrated algal biofuels refinery. remain poorly studied: Being intermediate steps in the supply chain. higher alcohols. depending on whether it will be dewatered/ • Optimizing the scale of operations to the parameters densified biomass and/or fuel intermediates that are to stated above. within the context of from algal biomass. poorly characterized. transport. Thus. transporting. In the context of a variety of culturing and syngas.. it is difficult to predict how utilization challenges associated with each of these possible these factors will influence biomass storage and opportunities is discussed. Distribution and Utilization Distribution and utilization are challenges associated with It is also anticipated that gasoline and diesel range fuels virtually all biofuels. 2008). biogas. to be compatible for use in select demonstration flights (Buckman and Backs. and dispensing algal concerning algal biomass. infrastructure concerns. and final fuels biomass. fuel intermediates. materials and temperature considerations (e. Ethanol. implications for biodiesel stability (Bondioli et al.g.1 Distribution of algal lipid intermediates have not yet been established. for ideal lipid compositions. Some of these fuels are to be sited. other distribution aspects pipelining. In turn. It is conceivable that these “bio-crudes” Lowering costs associated with the delivery of raw will be compatible with current pipeline and tanker biomass. Although the biofuel product(s) from algae will not require significant distribution system from algal biomass would ideally be energy-dense modifications during or after processing in the refinery. the stability of the algal biomass under different decision points. fuel intermediates. storage tanks. Specifically. 1986). Each of these different fuels has where the algae production and biorefinery facilities different implications for distributions. biofuels. and completely compatible with the existing liquid transportation fuel infrastructure. it is known that the presence feedstock production center to the ultimate consumer of unsaturated fatty acids causes auto-oxidation of are common goals for all biofuels. and final fuels from the systems. high capacity. biodiesel. account for the storage of algae lipids (Hu et al. distribution and utilization need to be discussed in the context of earlier • First. and barges is critical discussed in detail in Chapter 6 (Algal Biofuel Conversion to minimizing infrastructure impacts. as corrosivity) for trucks. These have been challenging issues appear to be more compatible with the existing petroleum for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Hess et al. delivery vehicles. It is also known that temperature and storage material have important • Maximizing the substrate energy-density and stability. • Second. blending. pyrolysis oil. 1990). storage. diesel..8. 2009. renewable transport method(s) should be analyzed and optimized gasoline. and transport scenarios is these logistics through end-use issues influence siting. conforming to existing standards (e. 2009) and infrastructure. biodiesel. including algae. which carries infrastructure costs can be lowered in four ways: implications for the producers of algae and selection • Minimizing transport distance between process units. combusting. container dimensions. the specific distribution and dewatering levels. and hydroreformed biofuels – are being considered harvesting conditions differing in salinity. The optimal Technologies). pH and from algal biomass resources. and different fuels from algae are being considered. and bioproducts. fuels intermediates. hazardous Distribution is complicated by the fact that several materials and associated human health impacts.. and jet fuels are all possible products for energy-inputs and costs. products – ethanol. biofuels oils (Miyashita and Takagi. rails. 8. As a variety of fuel rate of algae decomposition (Rieper-Kirchner. However. similar to plant lipids may be possibly taken into pipelines. dispensing equipment. and end-use vehicles). production. be transported to the refinery. few studies exist that While the demonstration flights mitigate some address outstanding issues of storing. 2009). Distribution and Utilization  69 . have been shown biofuels as well. In all cases. and the quality of the final fuel product. and • Third.g. an issue that impacts oleaginous microalgae feedstocks is that the transport and storage mechanisms 8. with some evidence suggesting scalability.. Efstathiou and Credeur. jet-fuel blends from a variety can be expected to influence the economics of algal of oil-rich feedstocks.

Ethanol is another likely fuel from algae. With over Typically, compliance with specifications promulgated by
10 billion gallons per year produced and consumed organizations such as ASTM International ensures that a
domestically, distribution-related issues for ethanol has fuel is fit for purpose (ASTM International, 2009a, 2009b,
been studied for some time, and algal ethanol can benefit 2009c, 2009d, and 2009e). Failure of a fuel to comply with
from these analyses. While not as energy dense as purely even one of the many allowable property ranges within
petroleum-derived fuels, ethanol is an important fuel the prevailing specifications can lead to severe problems
oxygenate that can be used in regular passenger vehicles in the field. Some notable examples included: elastomer-
and special flex-fuel vehicles at up to 10% and 85% gasohol compatibility issues that led to fuel-system leaks when
blends, respectively. However, considerable infrastructure blending of ethanol with gasoline was initiated; cold-
investments need to be made for higher ethanol blends weather performance problems that crippled fleets when
to become even more attractive and widespread. One blending biodiesel with diesel was initiated in Minnesota
issue is that ethanol is not considered a fungible fuel; it in the winter; and prohibiting or limiting the use of the
can pick up excessive water associated with petroleum oxygenated gasoline additive MTBE in 25 states because
products in the pipeline and during storage, which causes it has contaminated drinking-water supplies (McCarthy
a phase separation when blended with gasoline (Wakeley and Tiemann, 2000). In addition to meeting fuel standard
et al., 2008). One possible way to address this is to build specifications, algal biofuels, as with all transportation
dedicated ethanol pipelines; however, at an estimated fuels, must meet Environmental Protection Agency
cost of $1 million/mile of pipeline, this approach is not regulations on combustion engine emissions.
generally considered to be economically viable (Reyold,
2000). Another possibility is to distribute ethanol blends by As is true of any new fuel, it is unlikely that new
rail, barge, and/or trucks. Trucking is currently the primary specifications will be developed for algal fuels in the near
mode to transport ethanol blends at an estimated rate of term (i.e., at least not until significant market penetration
$0.15/ton/kilometer (Morrow et al., 2006). This amount is has occurred); hence, producers of algal fuels should
a static number for low levels of ethanol in the blends (5% strive to meet prevailing petroleum-fuel specifications.
to 15%); as the ethanol content in the blend increases, the Nevertheless, research and technology advancements
transport costs will also increase due to the lower energy may one day yield optimized conversion processes which
density of the fuel. can deliver algae-derived compounds with improved
performance, handling, and environmental characteristics
8.2 Utilization relative to their petroleum-derived hydrocarbon
counterparts. If significant benefits can be demonstrated,
new specifications can be developed (e.g., ASTM D6751
The last remaining hurdle to creating a marketable new
and D7467).
fuel after it has been successfully delivered to the refueling
location is that the fuel must meet regulatory and customer
requirements. As mentioned in Chapter 6, such a fuel is The discussion below is divided into separate sections that
said to be “fit for purpose.” Many physical and chemical deal with algal blendstocks to replace gasoline-boiling-
properties are important in determining whether a fuel is fit range and middle-distillate-range petroleum products,
for purpose; some of these are energy density, oxidative and respectively. These classifications were selected because
biological stability, lubricity, cold-weather performance, the compounds comprising them are largely distinct and
elastomer compatibility, corrosivity, emissions (regulated non-overlapping. Within each of these classifications,
and unregulated), viscosity, distillation curve, ignition hydrocarbon compounds and oxygenated compounds are
quality, flash point, low-temperature heat release, metal treated separately, since their production processes and in-
content, odor/taste thresholds, water tolerance, specific use characteristics are generally different.
heat, latent heat, toxicity, environmental fate, and sulfur
and phosphorus content. Petroleum refiners have shown Algal Blendstocks to Replace
remarkable flexibility in producing fit-for-purpose fuels
Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products
from feedstocks ranging from light crude to heavy crude,
oil shales, tar sands, gasified coal, and chicken fat, and are Petroleum “middle distillates” are typically used to create
thus key stakeholders in reducing the uncertainty about the diesel and jet fuels. The primary algae-derived blendstocks
suitability of algal lipids and carbohydrates as a feedstock that are suitable for use in this product range are biodiesel
for fuel production. (oxygenated molecules) and renewable diesel (hydrocarbon
molecules). The known and anticipated end-use problem
areas for each are briefly surveyed below.

70 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Oxygenates: Biodiesel isomerized (i.e., transformed from straight- to branched-
chain paraffins), renewable diesel and SPK will have
Biodiesel is defined as “mono-alkyl esters of long
cold-weather performance problems comparable to those
chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal
experienced with biodiesel. Also, as was the case with algal
fats” (ASTM International, 2009b). Biodiesel has been
biodiesel, contaminants and end-product variability are
demonstrated to be a viable fuel for compression-ignition
concerns.
engines, both when used as a blend with petroleum-derived
diesel and when used in its neat form (i.e., 100% esters)
(Graboski and McCormick, 1998). The primary end-use Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and
issues for plant-derived biodiesel are: lower oxidative Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
stability than petroleum diesel, higher emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), and cold-weather performance problems While much of the attention paid to algae is focused on
(Knothe, 2007). The oxidative-stability and cold-weather producing lipids and the subsequent conversion of the lipids
performance issues of biodiesel preclude it from use as a to diesel-range blending components (discussed above),
jet fuel. The anticipated issues with algae-derived biodiesel algae are already capable of producing alcohol (ethanol)
are similar, with added potential difficulties including: directly, and there are several other potential gasoline-range
1) contamination of the esters with chlorophyll, metals, products that could be produced by algae-based technology/
toxins, or catalyst poisons (e.g., sulfur and phosphorus) biorefineries. Petroleum products in the alcohols and
from the algal biomass and/or growth medium; 2) undesired gasoline range provide the major volume of fuels used by
performance effects due to different chemical compositions; transportation vehicles and small combustion engines in
and 3) end-product variability. the United States. Ethanol or butanol are the most common
biofuels currently being considered for use in gasoline,
and these alcohols can be produced from fermentation of
Hydrocarbons: Renewable Diesel and starches and other carbohydrates contained in algae.
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
The hydrocarbon analog to biodiesel is renewable diesel,
which is a non-oxygenated, paraffinic fuel produced Additionally, the hydro-treating of bio-derived fats or
by hydrotreating bio-derived fats or oils in a refinery oils in a refinery will typically yield a modest amount of
(Aatola et al., 2009). Algal lipids can be used to produce gasoline-boiling-range hydrocarbon molecules. Refiners
renewable diesel or synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), refer to this material as “hydro-cracked naphtha.” This
a blendstock for jet fuel. These blendstocks do not have naphtha tends to have a very low blending octane and
oxidative-stability problems as severe as those of biodiesel, would normally be “reformed” in a catalytic reformer
and renewable diesel actually tends to decrease engine- within the refinery to increase its blending octane value
out NOx emissions. Nevertheless, unless they are heavily prior to use in a gasoline blend.

8. Distribution and Utilization  71

References
Aatola, H., Larmi, M., Sarjovaara, T., and Mikkonen, S. (2009). Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as a renewable diesel fuel: Trade-off
between NOx particulate emission and fuel consumption of a heavy duty engine. SAE International Journal of Engines. 1(1), 1251-
1262.
ASTM International. (2009a). Standard specification for diesel fuel oils. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available online
at http://www.astm.org/Standards/D975.htm
ASTM International. (2009b). Standard specification for biodiesel fuel blend stock (B100) for middle distillate fuels. West Conshohocken,
PA: ASTM International. Available online at http://astm.org/Standards/D6751.htm
ASTM International. (2009c). Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Available
online at http://astm.org/Standards/D1655.htm
ASTM International. (2009d). Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at http://www.astm.org./Standards/D4814.htm
ASTM International. (2009e). Standard specification for diesel fuel oil, biodiesel blend (B6 to B20). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Available online at http://astm.org/Standards/D7467.htm
Bondioli, P., Gasparoli, A., Lanzani, A., Fedeli, E., Veronese, S., and Sala, M. (1995). Storage stability of biodiesel. Journal of the
American Oil Chemists’ Society.72(6), 699-702.
Buckman, R. (2009). Boeing backs biofuels. Retrieved October 26, 2009, from Forbes.com at
http://www.forbes.com/2009/06/17/biofuels-biodiesel-boeing-intelligent-technology-biofuels.html
Efstathiou, J. and Credeur, M.J. (2009). Algae-powered jet proves biofuel in continental test (update 2). Retrieved October, 23, 2009 from
Bloomberg.com at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601081&sid=ayiWn9Z4EwIM
Frega, N., Mozzon, M. and Lercker, G. (1999). Effects of free fatty acids on oxidative stability of vegetable oil. Journal of the American
Oil Chemists’ Society. 76(3), 325-329.
Graboski, M.S. and McCormick, R.L. (1998). Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived Fuels in diesel engines. Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science. 24(2), 125-164.
Hess, J., Kenney, K., Wright, C., Perlack, R., and Turhollow, A. (2009). Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: Situation analysis.
Cellulose. 16(4), 599-619.
Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Jarvis, E., Ghirardi, M., Posewitz, M., Seibert, M., and Darzins, A. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for
biofuel production: Perspectives and advances. The Plant Journal. 54(4), 621-639.
Knothe, G. (2007). Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability. Fuel Processing Technology. 88(7), 669-677.
McCarthy, J.E. and Tiemann, M. (2000). MTBE in gasoline: Clean air and drinking water issues. Washington, D.C.: Congressional
Research Service, The Library of Congress. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/mtbe/crsrtc.pdf
Miyashita, K. and Takagi, T. (1986). Study on the oxidative rate and prooxidant activity of free fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil
Chemists’ Society. 63(10), 1380-1384.
Morrow, W.R., Griffin, W.M., and Matthews, H.S. (2006). Modeling switchgrass derived cellulosic ethanol distribution in the United
States. Environmental Science & Technology. 40(9), 2877-2886.
Reyold, R. (2000). The current fuel ethanol industry transportation, marketing, distribution and technical considerations. Bremen, IN:
Downstream Alternatives, Inc. Available online at http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/documents/111/4788.pdf
Rieper-Kirchner, M. (1990). Macroalgal decomposition: Laboratory studies with particular regard to microorganisms and meiofauna.
Helgoland Marine Research. 44(3), 397-410.
Wakeley, H.L., Griffin, W.M., Hendrickson, C., and Matthews, H.S. (2008). Alternative transportation fuels: Distribution infrastructure for
hydrogen and ethanol in Iowa. Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 14(3), 262-271.

72 8. Distribution and Utilization 

Maxwell et al. For each parameter. This chapter provides an overview of the issues associated with site location and key resources for various microalgae Exhibit 9. Integration with wastewater variety of conditions may be more or less cost-effective treatment can play an additional important role in the for the siting and operation of algal biomass production. the siting and resource factors (e. and from possible nutrient recycling from residual and other inputs associated with facilities infrastructure algal biomass. and land Sourcing of suitable organic carbon feedstock. labor. must also be appropriately matched to the required growth Feinberg et al. and costs. treatment and necessary technical improvements for co-producing algal biofuels are described. other nutrients. 1990). availability. facilities design. supplemental CO2 supply. 1998).S. to couple land-based microalgae biomass production water. To achieve success regarding both Program (Sheehan et al.. Resources and Siting The development and scale-up of algal biofuels 9. Critical requirements—such as suitable land and climate. 1985. sourcing of nutrients from both the input wastewater Additional resources include materials.2 provides a simple high-level overview of and macroalgae production approaches (Exhibit 9. water. cultivation were conducted during the Aquatic Species and affordability. 1990. operation over time will be important complementary Many of the findings of these earlier assessments still aspects of the siting and resources issues that will also apply today and the potential remains for biofuels need careful consideration and analysis using tools and other co-products derived from photoautotrophic and methodologies discussed later in chapter 10. both of which influence siting decisions production efficiency. Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach sustainable water resources.1 Resource Requirements for production. a for algal biofuel production. and other inputs required for siting and operating industrial Heterotrophic microalgae production bioreactor-based algae production and post-processing to fuels and other co-products Availability of suitable coastal and off-shore marine site loca- Photoautotrophic macroalgae production tions 9. transportation fuel needs and displacing petroleum use. focusing primarily on technical and economic performance without adverse the Southwest and southern tier of the United States environmental impacts. These parameters with wastewater treatment and industrial sources of are of greatest importance to siting. Sufficient land. nutrients. The sustainability and environmental impacts biofuel could be supported if sufficiently high algae of national algae production capacity build-up and productivities could be achieved affordably at scale.. In addition to coastal and inland photoautotrophic the challenges associated with coupling industrial microalgae production. characteristics..1 Key resource issues for different algae systems ALGAE PRODUCTION APPROACH KEY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Climate.g. water. the major resource and environmental parameters that Further. and conditions of the particular algae species being cultivated CO2 resources were identified at the time to suggest and the engineered growth systems being developed and that the production of billions of gallons of algal deployed. CO2. capital. energy. water. CO2. microalgae to significantly contribute to meeting U. concepts are also being proposed.1). This scenario Exhibit 9. an in-depth discussion is included on the potential pertain to the algae biofuels production inputs of climate. off-shore marine environment CO2 sources with algae production are outlined. required Photoautotrophic microalgae production energy inputs. land-based photoautotrophic microalgal terms of their geo-location. Assessments of resource requirements and availability and other nutrients—must be appropriately aligned in for large-scale. and land.9. The status of algae-based wastewater and conducting operations and maintenance. Lansford et al.. needs to be analyzed from a site location.. energy. as Different Cultivation Approaches well as from a resource availability and use perspective. as with any biomass-based technology and industry. Resources and Siting   73 . concentrated CO2. Similarly.

2 to off-shore macroalgae production.2 to organic carbon-rich waste streams. This a photosynthetic origin (Exhibit 9. The latter throughout the country. in terms of cultivation and harvesting. 2006a).2 Key siting and resource Parameters Evaporation Salinity Ownership elements for algae biofuel production Severe Storms Allocation Soils Geology (Adapted from Maxwell et al. supply logistics. and land-based ponds.and second-generation biofuels. 1985) can be represented by extension of Exhibit 9. e. is more Options for siting macroalgae (also known as seaweed akin to agriculture and serves as the point of origin for the or kelp) biomass production include offshore farms. other sugar crops. Climate CO2 Nutrients Nutrient Recycle Liquid and Gasous Fuels Processing Algal Harvesting and Production Conversion Secondary Products Water Land Climate Water Land Resources and Insolation Location Topograghy Enviromental Temperature Supply/ Demand Use/ Cover Exhibit 9.. 2005.. DOE. 2005). biomass feedstock supply for the downstream value chain. near-shore coastal farms. Heterotrophic and includes siting and resource issues that are closely photoautotrophic approaches to microalgae production coupled with the production. cost and availability of space 74 9. The algae are adverse food/feed market impacts would be based on cultivated in the dark in closed industrial bioreactors the use of carbon-rich waste streams and the successful that could potentially be established in many locations deconstruction of lignocellulosic materials. lead to the Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach problem of linking biofuel production with competing Heterotrophic microalgae biomass and metabolite food and feed markets. Resources and Siting   . availability. The Resource issues for the heterotrophic approach are more merits of each should be carefully evaluated. A supply issues with first. whereas photoautotrophic Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach production. Achieving affordable scale-up and has the greatest feedstock scale-up potential and is being successful commercial expansion using the heterotrophic pursued and reported elsewhere through bioenergy approach relies on the cost-effective availability of organic programs under DOE and Department of Agriculture carbon feedstock—a resource that ultimately links back to (USDA.3). Perlack et al. an industrial operation with a significant upstream logistics trail associated with the sourcing of the needed biomass- derived input feedstocks. similar conceptual extension holds for the application of Exhibit 9. taking into largely associated with the upstream supply of organic consideration factors such as the scale of farms required carbon feedstock derived from commodity crops. and lignocellulosic conceptually include the equivalence of land and biomass.. The preferred source of sugars production is based on the use of organic carbon feedstock and other appropriate organic carbon feedstocks for in the form of sugars or other relatively simple organic greatest sustainable scale-up potential and avoidance of compounds instead of photosynthesis. beets. and from the hydrolysis of starch grain crops can. after sufficient scale-up of production and demand. have different siting and resource input implications and pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock and thus present synergistic integration opportunities. thereby sharing many of the same feedstock culture facilities with off-shore areas and structures. that is expected to be capable of national scale-up to Heterotrophic production can be characterized as more of over one billion tons annually (Perlack et al. selected to meet production needs.g. Use of sugars from cane..

and competition production.3 High-level Oil Feedstock illustration of heterotrophic Biomass Residue and photoautotrophic Sugars and Other Heterotropic algae approaches to microalgal Organic Carbon production in Fuels biomass and biofuels Feedstock closed bioreactors production Co-Products and nutrients. P.power plants . the level of production affect productivity. weather conditions.2 Resources Overview reduce both water and energy-use intensity in the algae production operation. and severe weather. The co-siting of macroalgal farms with microalgae production. This is done at the expense of Various climate elements affect photoautotrophic algae 9.lake. Additional growth conditions for higher biomass density cultures. has also been proposed as a way of leveraging other evaporation.hybrid mix Nutrient-Rich Water. particularly in the case of land-based with other uses. As illustrated in Exhibit 9. key other structures such as windfarms (Buck et al. open photoautotrophic systems that typically achieve no more than about 1 gram per liter culture density. Synergistic Project Intergration Opportunities Ligno-Cellulosic Autotrophic CO2 Sourceess Plant Material algae production . temperature. Temperature and availability of (annual global production of about 1. and day/night light and temperature cycles.4 million dry sunlight. Ligno-Cellulosic N. the heterotrophic approach can 9..other industrial . precipitation. environmental impacts. Closed photobioreactors technologies to facilitate the cultivation of macroalgae. K. Resources and Siting   75 . rivers Biomass Harvesting or Other Non-Fresh Waters Lignin Dewatering Extraction & CHP Seperation High-Density Algal Biomass FHarvesting Exhibit 9. are less sensitive to climate variability than open ponds Based on the scale of macroalgae cultivation practices due to the more controlled environment that closed currently being used to meet non-fuel product demand systems can provide. From a resource use perspective. evaporation.closed PBRs . research. technology development.muni WWT & Seperation . 2004) factors include solar radiation.4.ag CAFO Low-Density Algal . would need to be greatly expanded for biofuels. other Water Treatment Deconstruction .open ponds CO2 . and severe weather will affect water supply and water quality in open systems. and favorable regulatory Heterotrophic algal cultures can be one to two orders of framework for coastal and offshore environment use could magnitude higher in biomass density than possible with help enable cultivation at scales to meet production goals. whereas precipitation. Heterotrophic algae production A major challenge lies in finding and developing new in closed industrial bioreactor systems utilize mature environments and cultivation approaches that will support bioreactor technology that can provide relatively clean production of macroalgae at the larger scales and lower and protected environmental control needed to optimize costs needed to supply the biofuels market. will most directly metric tonnes for food products). Closed heterotrophic bioreactor Climate systems are decoupled from the variable ambient Sunlight and Temperature Needs outdoor climate. both seasonally and annually.

the availability of non. resource factors that will determine economic feasibility. environment provides a buffer that moderates temperature variation. resource conditions for algae production. Growth of based on the modeling assumptions used. but the availability of adequate sunlight and the from southeast Texas to northwest Florida is attributed suitability of climate and temperature are key siting and to the lower annual average solar insolation available. For the case of sun hours ≥ 2800..4 presents some simple GIS-based scoping solar insolation. productivity in large-scale deployed systems could only be taken as a gross indicator. and the availability of concentrated sources include situations where co-location of inland microalgae of CO2. and the New England states. with the higher growth regions northern latitude states. lower elevation sites. with the major climate element affecting algal It was recognized from the outset that the correlation growth being the availability of sunlight. and annual average freeze-free days ≥ 200. and Florida being most promising). Within that context. the lack of attractiveness of the Gulf Coast region States. the ocean or sea ≥ 55°F. Storm and ocean of these annual average climate criteria with what dynamics affecting waves.e.4 Rough scoping assessment of preferred site locations for outdoor algae production a) Regions with annual average climate conditions meeting b) Fossil-fired power plant sources of CO2 within 20 miles of selected criteria: ≥ 2800 hour annual sunshine. Resources and Siting   .4 algae is technically feasible in many parts of the United (a). identifying preferred regions of the United States for photoautotrophic microalgae production based on Additional factors could conceivably overcome what the application of selected filter criteria on annual might otherwise appear to be uneconomical site and average climate conditions. The climate criteria used to narrow down the production at higher latitudes might be possible with Exhibit 9. and marine nutrient might actually be achieved with annual average algae transport cause additional impacts on productivity. whereas PNNL study suggests projected productivities in this region could be relatively high. Arizona. and enclosures requiring geographical regions were: annual average cumulative energy input for environmental control. having gross qualitative similarity to Exhibit 9. and ≥ 200 freeze-free days region 76 9. California. This is likely due to Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production more moderate annual average temperatures despite lower Exhibit 9. Wisconsin. A significant portion Laboratory (PNNL) using higher GIS resolution and of the United States is suitable for algae production more information-rich climate and meteorological data. including Minnesota. annual municipal wastewater facilities in the preferred climate average temperature ≥ 55˚ F. This could fresh water. i. from the standpoint of having adequate solar radiation Projections of annual average algae biomass production (with parts of Hawaii. currents. the results are suggestive and consistent with with both open and closed cultivation systems is the the more recent assessment by Pacific Northwest National availability of abundant sunlight. controls. These results should be considered simply conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. from the PNNL study show clear patterns relating climate Texas. New Mexico. The goal indicative at this point rather than predictive. Equally important for photoautotrophic microalgae growth however. but suggest was to provide a preliminary high-level assessment preference for lower latitude. The more to total biomass growth. In Exhibit 9.high-cost systems. would have southern tier states showing greatest productivity potential very low productivity in the winter months. annual average daily temperature offshore marine macroalgae production.4 and the Michigan.

both high and low. for closed reactors. algal culture can potentially average productivities in more geographically diverse utilize non-fresh water sources having few competing 9. however. will require that suitable climatic conditions loss can be a critical factor to consider when choosing exist for a major part of the year (Maxwell et al. Seasonal Considerations are desirable for algae production from the standpoint Various species of microalgae have potential for biofuel of long-term availability and sustainability of water feedstock production and are capable of growing under supply. Discovery and development of algae species capable of increased General Water Balance and Management Needs productivity under wider ranges of light and temperature One of the major benefits of growing algae is that. limited periods of commercially viable algae production. Areas with relatively long growing prospects for algae production in both inland and coastal seasons (for example. Thorough analysis (preferably on a state-by-state basis) with detailed data is needed to assess areas most suitable Water for algae production based on this climate factor. This would. and currents that can cause the lower elevation regions of the lower latitude states disruption or damage to physical structures and operations. Arizona. cooling in the summer. hail storms. Other local to materials and usually demands both the use of higher climate and weather conditions will also have influence. and hurricanes pose serious concerns in the inland regions of the central states. tornadoes. throughout the seasons. For outdoor ponds. The marine environment can also be highly corrosive Texas. Arizona. Georgia. precipitation (more than 40 inches). is a wide range of temperatures. such as heavy rain and flooding.industrial operations capable of providing excess heat and locations. and overall economics. discussed later in this section. a critical climate issue for both open and closed less important concern for selecting locations of closed photobioreactor systems is the length of economically photobioreactors. killing frost in the fall. High annual production closely coupled with climate and will increase water for a given species grown photoautotrophically outdoors. The southwestern states (California. Offshore marine algae insolation and average daily temperatures above the lower production will be subject to severe weather impacts threshold needed for economically viable growth) are in the form of wind. different algal species capable of good productivity in cold season and hot season conditions. with more than 60 inches annually. Southeast. integrated with co-located industries providing synergistic particularly extremes in temperature. require a more refined biomass productivity and oil content yield. and parts of Louisiana. respectively. For closed photobioreactors. requirements for an open algae growth system. Resources and Siting   77 . of available sunlight per day and the daily and seasonal and need to be taken into account when looking at temperature variations. Availability and rotation of Evaporative water loss is discussed in a later subsection. but also with analysis for systems that would likely be closed and highly algae that grow well under severe climate conditions. 1985). events can contaminate an open system environment or which have major influence on the hours and intensity cause physical damage to both open and closed systems. The primary geographical location factors for determining Southwest. Areas with higher annual average and. quality and more costly materials and greater maintenance. Evaporation. although evaporative cooling is often viable growing season(s) for the particular strains of algae considered as a means to reduce culture temperature. New Mexico. locations for open pond production. would Severe Weather Events and Elements provide greater flexibility and could extend otherwise Severe weather events. and the Southeast. 240 days or more of adequate solar regions of the United States. of Hawaii. waves. Such analyses should include assessment of the monthly or Water Requirements seasonal solar radiation and ambient temperature ranges. and coastal areas. Evaporative however. dust storms. These weather length of growing season are latitude and elevation. available for productive cultivation. and California. represented by specific regions of Hawaii. the Northwest. the A thorough evaluation of evaporative water loss is conventional crop analog is the greenhouse and the limiting needed to assess water requirements. and New the conventional crop analogy for this is the length of time Mexico) and Hawaii have the highest evaporation rates between the last killing frost in the spring and the first in the United States. implications for energy and cost needed to maintain internal temperature sustainable production scale-up. It is encouraging that researchers today power for cost-effective environmental control of the algae are not only concerned with finding algae with high cultivation. Florida. unlike conditions can also potentially lead to increased annual most terrestrial agriculture. Evaporation is a Therefore.. opportunities for utilizing waste heat and energy. Precipitation affects water availability (both surface it should also establish minimum economically feasible and groundwater) at a given location within a given operational requirement values for heating in the winter watershed region.

Mao. ). This will require periodic blow. Implementing water desalination would impose additional The stress on fresh water supplies in the United States is capital. management. energy. salinity and water chemistry approaching full allocation. to cool electricity-generating equipment. reflects for open pond systems in more arid environments with the fact that fresh water sources in the Untied States are high rates of evaporation. 2002). A rough upper bound estimate of evaporative water loss 78 9. Resources and Siting   . or 460.000 Mgal/d) and weather conditions (cloud cover. Many of the nations’ fresh ground water aquifers are under up. and 95% loss in open systems will be the degree of salinity of the of all saline-water withdrawals in 2005. periodic addition conservation and by the increased re-use of wastewater.000 ambient temperature variations. 2009).S. closed vs. or highly adaptive algae that can thrive supplies for non-agricultural use must increasingly come under widely varying conditions. Water balance and supply from precipitation (DOE. thereby changing fresh water supplies in support of development and the culture conditions. Withdrawals water used for cultivation and the local latitude. and field assessment. Hightower et al. from pond but is also becoming a local and regional concern at drainage and replacement. Kokya et al. 2009). In 2005. various locations throughout the eastern half of the country.. solar insolation.. 2003. This will be of greatest impact and concern in being fresh (Hutson et al. Kenny et al. Also a complicating factor for evaporative water 41% of all freshwater. 1999. Oroud. withdrawals (201.. Whether or not this is a problem for sustainable billion gallons per day in 1980. 2008. Some salt byproducts may have commercial net fresh water withdrawals that exceed the sustainable value. different dominant algae species and growth conditions. modeling. 2009). from both a resource perspective could have major effect on all sectors of water resources and an algal cultivation perspective. Growing demand for limited will change with evaporative water loss. population increase has thus far been offset by increased down of ponds after salinity build-up. elevation. or “co. with the majority (85%) resources. The relatively flat national water withdrawal trend over produced water” from oil. 2004. humidity. Saline water (seawater and heterotrophic assessment. However.. such as saline and brackish ground water. and 37% of all freshwater withdrawals A significant source of water demand with inland algae (Kenny et al.. and the future expansion of fresh water salinity build-up. 2008. one-half of the total U.). hybrid combination). Water use will also depend on brackish coastal water) withdrawals were about 15% of the type of growth systems used for photoautotrophic the total. salt content effluent or solid byproducts. and coal-bed the past 25 years.. following the more than doubling of methane wells (Reynolds. can also become an environmental problem for inland where a growing number of counties are experiencing locations. all of cascading sequence of increasingly saline ponds each with which have increasing energy demand implications (DOE. natural gas. 2002.. 61% of all surface water. Scoping Out Water Requirements for Algae Production Analysis of U. and operational costs.000 acre-feet carbon feedstock production needing to be part of the per year (Kenny et al. Irrigation withdrawals represented 31% of all water al. wind. which also tend to be in the more arid and higher solar resource regions like the Southwest. for future research. humidity. along with associated salt build-up and 2008. At the national scale.S. for irrigation of crops and other lands totaled 128. nearly and the site-specific details of climate. about 95%.000 heterotrophic). Water Supply and Management Water use and consumption for algae-based biofuels will Total combined fresh and saline water withdrawals in the depend on the cultivation approach (photoautotrophic/ United States as of the year 2005 were estimated at 410. of non-saline make-up water to dilute the salinity build. water-sparse locations. or staged as a and from the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Mgal/d and were the second-largest category of water and wind conditions (Al-Shammiri. Hightower et al. Hutchison et use. solar insolation. Open algal ponds may from the desalination of saline or brackish water sources have to periodically be drained and re-filled. with water use in upstream organic million gallons per day (Mgal/d). representing etc. USGS. depending on the chemistry. were for thermoelectric-power generation. Climate change is also recognized as a factor that management issues. the thermoelectric-power industry in the coastal states whether evaporative cooling is used for closed systems. 1995). withdrawals. and locally available water over 400 billion gallons per day. Almost all saline water. is used by microalgae (open vs. 2006b. Kenny et al. climate conditions. 2009). are important areas supply and management in the future (USGS. 1978.. or from desalination operations. total combined production operations could be for the replacement of water fresh and saline water withdrawals more than doubled continuously lost to evaporation from open cultivation from about 180 billion gallons per day in 1950 to over 400 systems. Disposal of high not restricted to the more arid western half of the country. 2006b. the application of desalination treatment to control increasing stress. water demand over the 30 years prior to that.uses. Total withdrawals since algal industry scale-up will depend on the geographic the mid-1980s have remained relatively flat at slightly location.. 2009).

putting less additional demand on evaporative loss than fresh water. integrating algae pan evaporation data will be worst-case and will likely production with wastewater treatment. Open bodies of productively using non-fresh wastewater resources brackish and saline water will usually experience less for renewable fuels. monitored. 1985). analysis for algal biofuels. addition to coastal and possible off-shore areas. and recycling nutrients. Evaluation of water use for the overall value chain from 2003. are also of Along the way. or several hundreds of non-fresh water over a range of salinities means that. 1984) to large area scale-up of algae cultivation (DOE. experimental scale-up scenario study in preparation for the National investigation. and chemical characterization of saline aquifers range of site locations and conditions. and were based on simply applying fresh water production. resource development. 1993. 2008). reducing eutrophication of natural water bodies. and sustainable withdrawal rates Evaporative water loss associated with algae cultivation for these non-fresh ground water resources. Suitable overall input supply needs and consumption. The location. and evaluated under a depth. where brackish or saline groundwater supplies may be The most optimistic production scenario was for the both ample and unused or underutilized. Shuttleworth. NAS. with open systems. warrants aquifers located closer to the surface and nearer to the closer attention and assessment to better understand and cultivation site would provide a more cost-effective source refine water resource requirements. 2006b. Unfortunately. Water requirements of water for algae production than deeper sources located information will not be well characterized until larger scale longer distances from the cultivation site.. in gallons of water per gallon of algal biofuel produced. and residential development needs in high growth rate Water must be considered a key element of life cycle water-sparse regions like the Southwest (Clark. has the potential benefits of actual operating conditions in the field. other inland could be a consequence of open system operation parts of the country can be targeted for algae production in the more arid and sunny regions of the country. Woolhiser and demands on limited sustainable fresh water supplies et al. saline. algal cultivation through harvesting and post-processing particularly deeper aquifers that are largely unregulated into fuels and other products will also be important.. by state engineers and water authorities. additional water will be used and increasing interest and potential competition for access as consumed.. 2007. There is considerable in the United States are areas of investigation in need untapped potential for utilizing brackish. limited fresh water supplies. depth information determines the cost of drilling and operating In summary. Developing and Mapping Water Resources for Algae Production The evaporative loss estimates from the notional scenarios When considering the water resources needed for the provide an indication of the potential magnitude of the future development and expansion of algal biofuel issue. Dennehy. systems are implemented.. water utilization for algal biomass and (including energy input requirements for pumping) a downstream production of biofuels. the use of non-fresh water sources will need open horizontal pan evaporation data (Farnsworth et to be emphasized in the face of the growing competition al. Extrapolations based on fresh water From a resource use standpoint. southwestern United States. An improved knowledge base is needed to better evaporative water loss intensities will be greater. both in terms of well in a given location (Maxwell et al. reclaimed. 2009).S.7). Resources and Siting   79 . as with other forms of Depth to groundwater is pertinent to the economics of bioenergy (NAS. The notional scale-up scenarios and assumptions made are discussed later in this chapter (see Exhibit 9. discussed be an over-estimate of what can be expected under later in this chapter. 2007. 2009). which assumed annual quantitative information remains limited on U. and a source of water for treatment and use to meet commercial recycled. define the spatial distribution. The evaporation estimates suggest that water loss on the order of several tens of gallons of water per kilogram The unique ability of many species of algae to grow in of dry weight biomass produced. The maps of saline groundwater 9. and of greater investment. and may well also be saved. Saline groundwater resources. held in December 2008. brackish average algal biomass and oil productivities of nearly and saline groundwater resources in terms of their extent. 1982a and 1982b. 2004). If less water quality and chemistry. 31 g/m2 per day with 50% dry weight oil content. as noted earlier. Gerbens-Leenes et al. Additional analysis. the effects of their extraction on the environment (Alley. and sustainable withdrawal optimistic productivities are assumed. quantity.with open systems was done as part of a hypothetical co-produced water. Along with geological data. depending on systems and process specifics.. and to predict can be significantly reduced if closed systems are used. physical and chemical characteristics. needed to understand how best to leverage these resources. depth. and field trials at larger scales of operation are Algae Roadmap Workshop. Hightower et al. the estimated capacity.

. 2008 and 2009). 2009). However. if these aquifers are spread over the greenhouse gas emissions offset will be limited to an large geographic areas.. algae production does possible broader use for carbon capture and storage (CCS) not actually sequester fossil carbon. identify. using coal) represents over 40% of the total. detailed analysis is difficult estimated 20% to 30% of the total power plant emissions and often lacking. depth. at some large growth system and incident light conditions. including Exhibit 9. Larger coal-fired base-load generators that locate. 2004). The geographical location.resources are based on incomplete data that was largely EIA. Photoautotrophic algae will only utilize products derived from the algae biomass. 2002). biomass growth rate. 2006). 2005. Resources and Siting   . collect. including algae production. 2004. typically output a steady 1. a recent analysis suggests that for algae yield. but rather provides in response to climate change (Rubin. Power generation alone (mainly developed by the USGS prior to the mid-1960s (Feth. Flue gas. recharge rate. The Carbon Capture Opportunity in Algae Production Efficient algae production requires enriched sources of CO2 The distance for pumping flue gas to algae cultivation since the rate of supply from the atmosphere is limited by systems will become a limiting factor that requires diffusion rates through the surface resistance of the water capture and concentration of CO2 from the flue gas for in the cultivation system. Likely Stationary CO2 Emission Sources Major stationary CO2 emission sources that could An inventory of stationary industrial CO2 sources in potentially be used for algae production are shown in the more promising regions of the country. addition. Produced The degree to which stationary CO2 emissions can water from petroleum. potential As an example. is not a simple issue. Dennehy. However. and the availability of land and water to hyper-saline (Reynolds 2003. 2008) characterization of the CO2 emissions stream (e. and coal bed methane be captured and used affordably for algae production wells is another closely related and underutilized water will be limited by the operational logistics and resource that can range in quality from nearly fresh efficiencies. The sources shown (NATCARB. The CO2 generated by the power (Shannon. longer distance transport and distribution. and of CO2 emitted annually in the United States (EPA.. A limited plant can only be effectively used by the algae during amount of this information is available for major the photosynthetically active sunlight hours. As a result. 2009. More detailed and up-to-date 2 billion metric tons per year (EIA. the utilization of fossil carbon emissions and complement are already in operation today and under consideration for subsurface sequestration. would be a good source of CO2. and details of reduce fossil fuel consumption. NATCARB. 2009). it will be necessary to provide a CO2 source that is suitably free of materials potentially toxic to algae. and the matching of CO2 source availability energy input than the output energy displacement value with algal cultivation facilities. Campbell carbon capture and reuse in the form of fuels and other et al. scale of algae production. separating CO2 in large industrial plants.. Therefore. content. Applications fuel-fired power plants. but a significant effort will still be needed to et al. information is needed to improve our understanding of this resource in support of algae production siting Barriers to Viable CO2 Capture and Utilization analyses (Dennehy. or more than 1965. local aquifers may be due to CO2 off-gassing during non-sunlight hours and the available through state agencies and private engineering unavoidable parasitic losses of algae production (Brune companies. USGS. parasitic losses from flue gas the requirements for CO2 supply to enhance algae treatment. 2008b). aquifers. 2008 and 2009).200 acres of algae cultivation resource availability and suitability for economic uses area (Brune et al.5. spatial extent. for algae cultivation scale-up within reasonable geographic proximity of stationary sources. In represented by the algae biofuels and other co-products. In addition. description of substances toxic to algal growth) and the local availability and distance to suitable land for algae 80 9. and distribution could require more production. natural gas. Any greenhouse CO2 during daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. 2008).000 to 2500 MWe of power would each require many tens of thousands of acres of Carbon Dioxide algae production and large volumes of water to provide a similar effective offset of 20% to 30% of the CO2 emitted. including natural Algae production could provide excellent opportunities for gas treatment plants and ammonia production facilities. transport. gas abatement credits would come from the substitution The rate of effective CO2 uptake will also vary with of renewable fuels and other co-products that displace or the algae species.g. sustainability of supply. and analyze this information. such as from fossil. and quality production to fully utilize the CO2 in the flue gas emitted (chemical components and characteristics) are important from a 50-MWe semi-base load natural-gas-fired power information for assessing non-fresh groundwater aquifer plant would require about 2. Data on small. represent over half of the more than 6 billion metric tons rates and quantities of CO2 produced.

0 13 Industrial 141.. This of land for algae production (i. grassland. Physical characteristics. algae production siting and CO2 sourcing. Hundreds of millions of acres of relatively low- the limited quantity of CO2 that would likely be available productivity. Soils. affect the construction costs and design Factors for Evaluating Land for Algal Production of open systems by virtue of the need for pond lining or Land availability will be important for algae production sealing. such as topography and soil.276.e. One outcome economic. and particularly their porosity and permeability Land characteristics.5 Major stationary CO2 sources in the United States (NATCARB. which means that environmental assessments and/ Exhibit 9.796 9. such systems on which policies and stakeholders could affect project would require in the range of roughly 800 to 2600 acres of development.5) within practical transport distances of suitable algae and relatively barren desert land. oil feedstock. several characteristics need to be considered. social.1 4. much of the land in the West is government owned.g. Topography would be a limiting factor for these because either open or closed systems will require systems because the installation of large shallow ponds relatively large areas for implementation.702.002 Ethanol Plants 41. Exhibit (USDA. land that would be both can be expected to constrain the extent to which algal suitable and potentially available for siting algae production biofuels production can be affordably scaled up within facilities).. could limit the land available for open pond algae farming. Even slope could well be eliminated from consideration due to at levels of photoautotrophic microalgae biomass and oil the high cost that would be required for site productivity that would stretch the limits of an aggressive preparation and leveling. as will be discussed further in chapter 10. legal.9 173 Total 3. is needed for making refined assessments for Land availability is influenced by various physical. and purchase requirements. any given region unless other factors drive the investment in expanding the nation’s CO2 pipeline infrastructure.3 163 Fertilizer 7.production. including pasture. 2008a) CO2 EMISSIONS CATEGORY NUMBER OF SOURCES (Million Metric Ton/Year) Ag Processing 6.6. lease. and political factors. as is expected requires relatively flat terrain.3 112 Electricity Generation 2.5 3.2 475 Gas Processing Refineries/Chemical 196.g. lower-value land exists in the United States from stationary industrial point sources (e. Resources and Siting   81 .6 53 Petroleum and Natural 90. R&D program (e. For example.3 140 Cement Plants 86. 2006 and 2009). 9. Areas with more than 5% with any photosynthesis-based biomass feedstock..9 665 Other 3. For a realistic appraisal production sites in a given geographical region. Publicly and privately owned lands are algae culture surface area to produce 10 million gallons of subject to variable use. as illustrated in of a hypothetical algae production scale-up scenario is Exhibit 9. target annual average biomass production of 30 to 60 g/m2 per day with 30% to 50% Land ownership information provides valuable insights neutral lipid content on a dry weight basis).

such systems have not been optimized for energy losses that occur when incident photons that cannot higher-volume. It must be stressed that “potential” will be constrained by the available energy density algal biomass and bio-oil production projections at in sunlight and the relatively low efficiencies of commercial scale currently remain hypothetical rather photosynthetic processes coupled with other systems losses. 1985). given that large-scale algae biomass production The result will be theoretical and practical upper limits on intended for bioenergy feedstock does not yet exist. Loss mechanisms that often not considered or is relatively small compared to other capital cost. 2009).. for algae productivity. the dissipative heat loading Land Availability Constraints can be a benefit in moderating culture temperatures and Land use and land value affect land affordability.20 g/m2 per day. By improving productivity under colder ambient conditions. Optimizing light utilization in algae production projections for biofuel feedstock of 30 . the amount of biomass growth that can be achieved per unit Relatively large-scale commercial algae production of illuminated surface (Weyer et al. can represent and impose political and regulatory Despite the practical upper limits that will naturally exist constraints on land availability (Maxwell et al.6 Factors and process steps for evaluating and constraining the available and appropriately suitable land for algae production (Adapted from Maxwell et al. algae productivity crops.or environmental impact statements could be required restrict the fraction of incident photon flux that can be as part of the approval process. Indian reservations also effectively used to drive photosynthesis ultimately places comprise a significant portion of this land. (chapter 10).60 g/m2 per day. systems includes the challenge of managing dissipative However. lower-value production with algal strains otherwise be effectively captured and used by the algae developed and improved over time to be more suitable and in photosynthesis are instead converted to thermal (heat) productive for biofuel feedstock rather than those used energy in the culture media and surrounding cultivation for today’s high-value algae biomass product markets. the cost of land is during hotter ambient conditions. Resources and Siting   . the potential remains for high algae biomass production relative to more conventional Further. Land that is highly desirable for development and other set-asides for publically beneficial reasons may Typography Land Ownership Current Land Value Systems Engineering All Physically Politically Land Suitable Affordable Available Available Parcels Land Land Land Land Enviromental Restrictions Current Land Use Legislation Water and and Regualtions Climate Resources Exhibit 9. Land ownership practical upper limits on the biomass productivity. as with any form of biomass. This the light and shade their neighbors farther from the light is significantly lower than the more optimistic target source. but currently reflect lower biomass fact that algal cells nearest the illuminated surface absorb productivities in the range of 10 . reviewing the more recent economic analyses for algae or can lead to overheating and loss of productivity biomass and projected oil production.. Contributing to with open ponds for high-value products can serve as a productivity limits per unit of illuminated surface area is the baseline reference. system structures. Depending on the algae strain and culture system approach used.. than real. 1985 ) 82 9.

monuments. synthetic organic compounds. A subset of wastewater treatment Inevitable nutrients losses during algae production facilities consist of evaporation facilities. particularly in the eastern half of the deployed in the near-term and provides workforce country. organic matter. Land cover categories such as barren and scrubland cover a large portion of the West and may • Development of skilled algae production workforce provide an area free from other food-based agriculture • Potential for nutrient recycling at algae where algae growth systems could be sited (Maxwell et al. 1985). dairy and feedlot operations located throughout the • Algae-based wastewater treatment can be United States. phosphorus.. Dedicated biomass production the United States are insufficient to support large-scale facilities will also require wastewater treatment and algae production on the basis of a single use of nutrients. • Imported wastewater provides nutrients and water to make-up inevitable losses. Recycling Applications • Algae-based wastewater treatment provides a needed Municipal wastewater treatment facilities and agricultural service. algae-based parks. excess nutrients (e. Sensitive environmental or cultural land constraints Although algae-based wastewater treatment requires will also reduce the overall land availability (Maxwell many times more land area than mechanical treatment et al. On the other hand.4 Integration with Water conventional wastewater treatment Treatment Facilities • Lower energy intensity than conventional wastewater treatment (a greenhouse gas benefit) Inevitably. Beyond economics. Two main types of algae production facility are wastewater (municipal and agricultural) would be captured envisioned: dedicated facilities. help provide nutrient removal service in the wastewater For large-scale algae biofuel production. treatment has the following advantages: and other historical sites. in suitable climates. some land • Early opportunity to develop large-scale cover characteristics could present excellent opportunities algae production infrastructure for algae farming. for additional rounds of algae production. and potassium). wildlife areas. as noted earlier. represent potential co-location sites for algae training and experience in large-scale algae operations where nutrient-rich wastewater could be cultivation that would translate to future dedicated used for algae production. and potassium) be a key issue for achieving affordable and Algae can be useful in the treatment of waters polluted with sustainable scale-up of algae biofuels production. and wastewater treatment facilities. The roles of nutrients. 9. which can also help supplement and off-set these facility types in the development of an algae the cost of commercial fertilizers for algae production. biomass production facilities 1985).g. Resources and Siting   83 . Examples of this type of constraint include technologies. biofuels industry are discussed in this subsection. metals. which are and processing could be made up with wastewater used to dispose of wastewater or brines. archaeological sites. and the algae production can algae feedstock production facilities. this also avoids the perception WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT and potential conflict of food and feed production versus fuel.. or other CO2-emitting industry operations The main connections of algae production and • Potential to treat agricultural drainage wastewater treatment are the following: and eutrophic water bodies • Treatment technology is needed to recycle nutrients and water from algae biofuel processing residuals for use in algae production..not be seen as suitable for algae production. wastewater treatment and recycling • Potential to be integrated with power plant must be incorporated with algae biofuel production. The imported wastewater Wastewater Treatment and would be treated as part of the algae production. with the main purpose of by algae and then recycled from the oil extraction residuals biomass production. nutrient recycling. The availability and sustainability of water supplies • Wastewater treatment revenue that in the West will also be a key consideration. offsets algae production costs • Lower capital and O&M costs than 9. The same applies to land highly suited for higher-value agricultural POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ALGAE PRODUCTION use. Nutrient which produce algal biomass as a consequence of the recycling would be needed since wastewater flows in wastewater treatment. Supply and cost of nutrients (nitrogen. nitrogen. nutrients from treatment. phosphorus.

to oxidize waste organic matter (Exhibit 9.. Maintenance of lipid-rich strains. dissolved oxygen. and eutrophic waters dissolved oxygen algae release is used by treatment bacteria with low organic content but high nutrient content (e. Heavy metals may be removed Algae Production Techniques for by adsorption to algal cells.g. have yet to be demonstrated consistently chemical flocculation processes (bioflocculation and for ponds. Aksu. The treatment goals of these facilities (removal of organic removal of trace contaminants (e. This nutrients (e.7. and rivers). lakes. which will be a benefit as Wastewater Treatment Plants long as the resulting metals concentrations in the algae biomass are not excessive or inhibitive for later use in Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment the processing of fuel and other co-products. of chemical addition ($0.g. Borde et al. Existing interaction of algae and bacteria in wastewater cultures algae-based treatment facilities use relatively deep leads to degradation of a wide variety of synthetic ponds (1-6 m). 1988. Muñoz et al. recycling of concentrations is useful in wastewater treatment. As noted above. The major plants in that they both produce oxygen and assimilate classes of wastewaters to be treated are municipal. but research is needed to improve the reliability of these processes (as Algae-based treatment facilities are typically less expensive discussed in chapter 4). The ability agricultural drainage.. whereas pond (~1 cm). at least in terms of maximizing air flotation units or sedimentation clarifiers. autoflocculation) are far less costly. confined animal facilities). Non- production..g. For example. which is algae that would occur in the receiving waters. These reactions are also the best-known industrial (e. needed if algae are to make a substantial contribution to Less well-known are the ability of algal systems to provide national biofuel production..g. organic nutrients. importation of wastes and/or wastewater will still be Disinfection is promoted via the production of oxygen needed in dedicated algae biomass production facilities radicals in the presence of sunlight. endocrine disrupting matter and pathogens only). natural disinfection and remove trace contaminants..17 per m3 treated) or manipulation of culture conditions to promote lipid (Maglion.$0. 2002. the method is chemical addition to achieve coagulation and objectives of biofuel feedstock production and wastewater flocculation. Despite a seeming of algae to assimilate dissolved nutrients down to trace abundance of wastewater and waste nutrients. coupled with the tremendous need for expanded and improved wastewater treatment in the United Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production States (EPA. the is illustrated schematically in Exhibit 9. Closed photobioreactors are not emphasized technologies hold the wastewater for at least several days in this wastewater treatment discussion since they are and in an environment similar to many natural receiving likely to be economical only when also producing waters. harvesting is a 2002). The (e. 2007).7).. rivers. might be prevented to a 84 9. and naturally occurring organic catalysts (Sinton et al. organic agricultural mechanisms of wastewater treatment by algae. including wastewater treatment ponds. These highly productive systems use shallow reactors. 2008) and throughout the world. 2009. productivities (as does biofuels feedstock production). followed by algae separation in dissolved treatment are aligned. 2009)..and potentially endocrine disrupting compounds (Oswald. harming higher organisms. 2005).g. which is the leading water treatment technology and wastewaters mainly contaminated with inorganic used in the United States (Downing et al. provides a Organic-rich wastewaters usually also contain nutrients. eventually unlikely when wastewater contaminants are present. the major types to build and to operate than conventional mechanical of wastewaters available for combined algae production treatment facilities. Even with internal recycling. The bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in high-value products (>$100/kg biomass). municipal and industrial sources) sludge. including nutrient removal. The great depths contribute to low algae organic compounds such as phenol and acetonitrile productivity. Finally. food processing).. to make up for nutrient losses (Brune et al. and lakes). practical opportunity to install algae production facilities requiring two types of treatment. 2002). agricultural drainage. Algae are similar to in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Thus. cost savings. Ponds for more advanced compounds such as human hormones and antibiotics treatment. if the nutrients and carbon at algae production facilities will be nutrient-rich algae are then also removed from the water. Woertz et al. The standard of nutrient removal and wastewater treatment. need high algae from animal facilities) is an area in need of study.10 ... As with other algae production systems. Mechanical treatment technologies typically hold either high rate ponds (~30 cm) or algal turf scrubbers the wastewater for less than 12 hours. 1998.. 2008) is high for biofuel production.g. 2003.. The cost biomass production... high-productivity algae and water treatment are those contaminated with organic ponds have a total cost that is about 70% less than activated matter and nutrients (e. but high productivity is not crucial to the (Borde et al. Resources and Siting   . Kohn et al. High rates of algae production lead to high rates crucial step in wastewater treatment systems.

Resources and Siting   85 .7 Integration of algae production with wastewater treatment for nutrient removal and biomass production: Sun CO2 Reclaimed Algae Water CO2 N P Waste CO2 O2 N Biomass Water P Organics Bacteria a) Basic principles of operation. High Rate Clarifier Clarifier Pond Raw Sewage Treated Effluent Sludge CO2 Digestor Generator kWh Food Algae Biomass Production Inputs Option Liquid Biofuel Products Reclaimed Water Fuels Fertilizer To Fertilizer b) Simplified conceptual system block diagram 9.Exhibit 9.

For all biofuel wastes for algae production feedstocks.5 Co-location of Algal nutrient. contaminating the algal biomass likely would remain in the waste from biofuel processing. However. 1996. Furthermore. constraints significant. etc. Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production In addition to the ability of algae systems to treat organic-rich wastewaters. technical and market challenges. such as bioflocculation. 2002).. any heavy metals autoflocculation. desired absorption is essential since inorganic carbon generation outcomes.. These follow-on efforts were coordinated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). potentially leading electric utilities through later meetings and conference to greater land availability and savings in land costs. chromium) must be carefully evaluated. 2008. Evaporation ponds are currently used to method for producing biofuels and co-products. Thus. waters is likely to occur in more rural settings than and additional input sought from managers at major treatment of municipal wastewaters. an overriding or other wastewater. CO2-Emitting Industries Agricultural drainage and eutrophic water bodies (e. research efforts and policy evaluations would likely need to focus on Main Research Needs for Algae both carbon capture and the production of biofuels and Production with Wastewater co-products to overcome barriers (technical. routes of such contamination should be • Determine the cost savings and greenhouse gas studied and preventative measures developed. Resources and Siting   . and included For algae-based treatment of low-organic content several large municipal electric utilities. very different business models and goals for algae selenium. micro-screening. calls.great extend by pond treatment followed by algae • Determine growth model parameters harvesting. co-products. Calif.. oil field produced electric utilities may need to partner with algae cultivation/ water. dispose of agricultural drainage. integration opportunities and challenges. Treatment of agricultural drainage with on large-scale development. CO2 addition or slow atmospheric of discussion included the value proposition. Findings from rate ponds with CO2 addition has been demonstrated in these interviews and conference calls were integrated California’s Central Valley and elsewhere (Craggs et with the Workshop inputs in developing this section. but further investigation is techniques. mine drainage. 2004).g. of several issues. etc.. needed to confirm this. The processing of the algal biomass for fuel • Develop algae grazer control strategies and other co-products would presumably destroy and • Develop reliable low-cost algae harvesting neutralize the contaminants. 9.g. and potential algal turf scrubbers without CO2-addition and high opportunities for the federal government. al. hazards to wildlife from toxic compounds (e. The topics wastewaters. production in order for this type of co-location to be widely commercialized.) are examples of such waters This section includes findings from discussions held at the (Benemann et al. low-organic content wastewaters will expand Cultivation Facilities with the opportunities for algae production systems. Lundquist et al. market from decomposition of organic matter would not be drivers. (GHG) emissions avoidance benefits compared to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Treatment of nutrient-rich National Algal Roadmap Workshop break-out sessions. Salton Sea. The high rate ponds could create theme was that electric utilities primarily view algae an algal product while performing the service of water cultivation as a means of CO2 capture as opposed to a evaporation. Mulbry et al.. their ability to treat high. It is important to point out that amongst the numerous barriers to co-location of algal cultivation facilities with High rate ponds might be used as components of industrial CO2 sources identified at the Workshop and evaporation systems needed to dispose of blow-down subsequent discussions with electric utilities. as follows: • Large-scale (3-5 acre) demonstration of CO2- enhanced high rate ponds for nutrient removal • Determine CO2 biofixation efficiency 86 9.. potentially increasing • Demonstrate recycling of biofuel processing the cost of waste disposal or recycling. regulatory Successful use of high rate ponds specifically for and economic) for algae facilities that are co-located nutrient removal/recycling requires resolution with electric utilities and other industrial CO2 sources. As with any evaporation pond technology companies and fuel refiners/distributers with system.

construction of algae systems at natural models described in more detail in the Systems and gas-fired power plants may be a better investment. depending on the type of plant and fuel used. etc. shows that fossil-fired power plants represent daylight hours when photosynthesis is active. fired power plants. concentrated • Abundant quantities of concentrated CO2 available sources flue gas from fossil-fuel burning power plants from stationary industrial sources can supplement and other CO2-emitting industrial sources can be low concentration CO2 from the atmosphere. gas-fired power plants and fuel companies are likely to widely adopt algal that operate as peaking plants rather than base-load cultivation co-located with industrial CO2 sources.g. and delivery of CO2 from the power plant to of this will need to be addressed before utilities the algae cultivation site. Also. Gas-fired the majority of CO2 emissions from stationary baseload generators would not be intermittent. While algae biofuels can be produced.15%) than natural gas plants (5 . plants – overcoming a primary resource challenge for algae cultivation at scale. it is also relevant to other CO2-intensive • Potential carbon credit for utilities. in that the carbon will be require proportionally larger algae production systems re-released to the atmosphere when algal-derived per unit energy produced and higher costs per unit energy fuels are combusted.). which typically ranges from about 5% to about 15%. using algae to capture the maximum of CO2 absorption by algae in any carbon-credit or amount of CO2 emissions from coal-fired plants would cap and trade framework. 2005).The Opportunity in Co-Locating with CO2-Emitting Sources ADVANTAGES OF CO-LOCATION OF Since photoautotropic algae growth requires CO2.5.S.. and distance of transport to algae management of algae cultivation systems – this cultivation sites. Thus. the algae through photosynthesis. but. The emissions from fuel in lieu of permanent sequestration. generators will have intermittent operation that would A variety of stationary industrial sources of CO2 introduce intermittency in the supply of CO2 for algae are distributed throughout the United States. Offset of fossil fuel conditions on or near a year-round basis. as sources. Costs are expected to be lower than for will allow developing algal cultivation facilities pure commercially supplied CO2. and ALGAE PRODUCTION WITH STATIONARY productivity can be enhanced by supplementing the INDUSTRIAL CO2 SOURCES limited CO2 available from the atmosphere. However. but economic viability under a broader range of geographic and climate must be determined case by case. Resources and Siting   87 . fossil fuel require establishing a U. Co-location of algal cultivation with industrial available. many of these facilities have higher CO2 concentrations compared to power plant flue gas. reason is that coal-fired power plants have higher CO2 emissions per unit energy produced than natural gas-fired An important policy question to consider is the value power plants. 9. would also emit CO2 distributed across the southern tier states provide during periods of darkness when it cannot be utilized by ample sources for algal growth on a large scale. policy on carbon extraction/refining. some absorption and re-use as transportation geothermal power production. beneficially used in algae production. conditioning. the CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere if not captured and sequestered by other means (Rubin. The Techno-Economic Assessment section of this report.6%). cement manufacturing. Resulting costs for • Excess heat or power may be available to provide CO2 will be site-specific and dependent on methods of heating or cooling for improved thermal capture. the process of capturing flue-gas CO2 to make (10 . while providing While the information in this section focuses on fossil. The impact on algae production would depend quantitative breakdown. introduced earlier in Exhibit on the phasing of the intermittency with respect to the 9. A number of large coal-burning power plants with baseload coal-fired plants. found often in proximity of power CO2 sources is a promising area for further research. The regulatory implications transport. This will industries (e. During those times. coal-fired plant flue gas typically expected to result in a net reduction of overall GHG has about a factor of two greater CO2 concentration emissions. beneficial re-use of cooling water and wastewater. This higher concentration would affect Coal-fired power plants may be a convenient source of the sizing and operations of algae production facilities— CO2 for algae production. fermentation-based industries. The growth. which can transportation fuels may not rigorously be considered bring some advantage in terms of efficiency of capture. consumption by algae biofuel and other co-products must be done with approaches that provide a net GHG emissions • Excess wastewater or cooling water may be reduction. carbon sequestration. but from an emissions control an aspect that could be incorporated into engineering perspective.

Their fundamental objective will be brought in from other sources. etc. Although often referred to as a “free” resource.). mechanisms to encourage partnering CO2 sources and nutrient sources such as wastewater between utilities and algae/fuel companies will be treatment facilities and agricultural waste streams. P. These costs and losses must be parasitic losses of CO2 transport. and agricultural • Too much CO2 near plants for realistic absorption: drainage/water body restoration sites that also represent Large power plants release too much CO2 to a range geographical locations. and be absorbed by algal ponds at a realistic scale climate conditions. CO2 is only at the national level. Current plant cooling and algae pond heating) estimates are that approximately 20% . not in the fuels business and regulated public utility in most cases there will not be a complementary commissions will be constrained in entering the fuel nutrient (N. will be required for commercialization of may not be available adjacent to or near major algal cultivation facilities co-located with industrial power plants CO2 sources and/or wastewater treatment facilities. • Establish national algae biomass production test-beds 2009). ethanol plants or other and optimize algae production will not be “free”. • Emissions from ponds are at ground level: Regulatory The following directions have been identified: requirements from power plants and other stationary • Develop computer models of algae production sources are governed by the Clean Air Act. solar resource. universities. to conduct research at the pilot scale (3 . or in some cases algal to capture CO2 as opposed to producing biofuels and cultivation could be co-located with both stationary co-products. stationary industrial sources of CO2 (cement refiners.30% of a power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions can be offset ▪▪ Development of efficient test-bed facilities by algae biofuel and protein production (Brune et al. algal facility.10 acres). Several areas for research. Therefore nutrients must be production arena. the uncertainty may pose a barrier for wide commercial Directions for Research and Development adoption of the technology. Also. sources of concentrated CO2 can potentially provide • Resistance from electric utilities: Electric utilities are ample carbon for photosynthesis-driven algal growth. and facilities that will aid the following: are based upon point-source emissions from high ▪▪ Rapid and consistent engineering design elevations. include: ▪▪ Technology evaluation at larger scales ▪▪ Determination of algae production facility model parameters 88 9. credits: Until there are regulations in place that quantify carbon credits from algal growth facilities. stationary industrial sources as a supplement to enhance wastewater treatment facilities. distributors. Specific test-bed R&D absorbed during periods when sunlight is available topics relevant to power and wastewater utilities and photosynthesis is active in the algae. ethanol plants. The use of flue gas to cultivate algae will involve non-point source emissions at ground level. and new business models will be needed to • Unclear regulatory framework for carbon-capture commercialize this approach. the capture and delivery of concentrated CO2 from The test-beds would ideally be located at power plants. etc. Resources and Siting   .. algal technology companies. K) supply. ▪▪ Techno-economic analyses • Capital costs and operational costs: There exists a ▪▪ Life Cycle Analysis and GHG abatement analysis need to evaluate capital costs and parasitic operational ▪▪ National inventory of potential production sites losses (and costs) for infrastructure and power required ▪▪ Evaluation of economies of scale vs. This effort could involve a likely to be possible near the power plant consortium of R&D organizations. and other participants coordinated plants. as well as policy-development • Land availability: Suitable and affordable vacant land efforts. minimized and compared to other approaches for the ▪▪ Evaluation of temperature control (power capture and sequestration or reuse of carbon.Barriers to Co-Location of Algae • Maintaining cultivation facilities during utility outages Production with Stationary Industrial and through seasonal changes in algal growth rates: Detailed models will be needed to develop and evaluate CO2 Sources approaches for managing the variable nature of both • Need for nutrient sources: While stationary industrial CO2 emissions and algal growth rates/CO2 uptake. advantages to capture and deliver industrial CO2 to ponds and of decentralized production considering grow/harvest algae. Thus. required. The same generally holds true for other cultivation companies. CO2 emitting industry facilities.

Develop university training programs. flocculation harvesting. crop fertilization. salinity and blowdown • Evaluate policies that would encourage partnering management.▪▪ Flue gas or other industrial source CO2 supply ▪▪ Investigate the safety of ground-level flue gas logistics. costs. Resources and Siting   89 . proteins: carbohydrates and C:N:P) ▪▪ Power plant cooling with treated wastewater in ▪▪ Methods of nutrient and water recycling within conjunction with algae production production facilities. and processing and algal cultivation/technology companies prior to fuel extraction. pathogen safety • Develop and train the future algae production/algae ▪▪ Beneficial management of residuals for soil carbon biomass processing workforce at the national test-bed development. and refiners/distributors. etc. and other sites. storage. ▪▪ Development of algal strains and their cultivation techniques 9. etc. and absorption/biofixation efficiency emissions from ponds including plume modeling and algal biomass productivity given seasonal and and regulatory analysis diel variations in photosynthesis and various ▪▪ Effects of various flue gases on algae production water chemistries and co-product quality ▪▪ Control of algal biomass quality (ratios of lipids: ▪▪ Scrubbing of flue gas for NOx. SOx. between public utilities/other industrial CO2 sources ▪▪ Algal biomass handling.

Foust. Easterly. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). O.S. and annual pan evaporation for the United States. Department of Energy (DOE). Sheehan. Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: The prospect of offshore co-management and legal constraints.com/news/state/aph2orush02-11-09. J. Turhollow. H. J... Hatti-Kaul.. S. (DOE/ EIA-0573). S.C. US Department of Energy. In Water Desalination and Reuse Strategies for New Mexico. J. Tam (Eds.. Department of Energy.L.. 95-122. G. DC.. Ecological Engineering. 86(3). R.L.com/clientservice/ccsi Clark. October. Evaporation rate as a function of water salinity.K. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998).. Jessup..F. Dennehy. and Thompson. (USGS Fact Sheet 075-03). Denver. Hess. Department of Energy. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Desalination of groundwater: Earth Science Perspective. seasonal. 149-169. Available online at: www..eia.F. Ocean Coastal Management.K. Energy Information Administration (EIA).X. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress. Available online at at: www. Krause. Wastewater Treatment with Algae (37-54).S. H.J.sandia. B. F. B.E. 117–125. Sokhansanj. L. Mean monthly. Naucler.N. Available online at: http://www.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/ Energy Information Administration (EIA). Albuquerque Journal. 45(1).mckinsey.gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions. Available online at: http://www. Borde. Campbell. A.eia.References Aksu. H.C. 47. A. K. W.S. A. J. Breaking the biological barriers to cellulosic ethanol: A joint research agenda. Ku. Desalination. US Department of energy Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Enery.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Water rush: Deep aquifers sought for metro growth.. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. R.J..gov/algae2008/breakouts/dennehy2004. Synergistic relationships in algal- bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. and Wright. Lundquist. (2002). (2007). Bioresource Technology. Tagore.gov/energy-water/docs/121- RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL. Washington. E.S. Erbach.gov/climatechange/emissions/CO2_human. DC.energy. D.C.J. (2008). Munoz.J. Available online at: http://www. and Mattiasson.. Washington.. 90 9. (2002). Available online at: http://www.. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems.C... (1982). Hettenhaus.. Geological Survey. (2004). Berlin. Alley. Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States. Buck. Al-Shammiri.epa. (2008). Washington.J. Hoskinson. CO: U.E. 1136-1144. 189-203. Washington. DC. J..Y. (2009). Available online at: http://www. Brune. H. (DOE/EIA-0484). B.gov/biofuels/2005workshop/b2blowres63006. and Rosenthal. (DOE/SC-0095). Adey. T.R. H. Farnsworth. E. B. Washington..doe. T. Microalgal biomass for greenhouse gas reductions: Potential for replacement of fossil-fuels and animal feeds. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2007.. Thompson. (2003). R. Water Science and Technology. Environmental Protection Agency. Zubieta. Guieysse.. X. 293-300.. J. (2006a). 6..H. J. Weissman.. Massingill. April 15). The controlled eutrophication process: Using microalgae for CO2 utilization and agricultural fertilizer recycling.. DC. September). Japan.R. M. and Oswald. Lundquist. W.. 8). GHGT-6.pdf Downing. I.abqjournal. M. (2009.. D. (2008).R. and Brune. J.B.. Cushman... D..html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).htm Craggs. D. Bracco. W. Washginton. T. Kyoto. International energy outlook 2009 (chap. 150. Resources and Siting   . Human-related sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Available online at: http://genomicsgtl. Springer-Verlag. J. W.B.Y.J. U. Delgado. (2002).orau.. (February 11. DC. DC. R.L. Patin. Carbon capture & storage: Assessing the Economics. Washington. Van Olst... (2009). (NOAA Technical Report NWS 34).). Green. and Benemann. and Ruijs.pdf Department of Energy (DOE). J. J.. A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage. D.. (2004. McKinesey Climate Change Initiative. Department of Energy. R. and Oswald. Washington. Environmental Protection Agency. Emissions of greenhouse gases report. (2006b). (1996).pdf. National perspective on saline aquifers. (2002). Benemann. In Y-S Won & N. 2002. Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis. 2009)..doe. Inventory of U. 135(11). (2003).R. J.. Energy demands on water resources: Report to congress on the interdependency of energy and water. DC.R.J. W.

Rubin.R. L. D. Feinberg. S. OK. S. T.. B. UK. K... D.. K. ORNL/TM-2005/66). CO2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production. 9. E. In Borowitzka and Borowitzka (Eds.org/Atlas/data_files.. Grandbois. Lumia. Thompson..T.. M and Pierce. Resources and Siting   91 . N. B. (1982). Microalgal Biotechnology (chap.. S. Bioresource Technology. (2009). Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Wright.. Graham. Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. (2007). J. U. M. Available online at: http://pubs. W. Department of Energy. C. Huang. and Meyer. R.. B. L. C. M. Pate. R.K. (1965). 41(13).K. CO2 Source Map of US .G. (2005). E. 22.L. 285-286. (SAND 2007-1349C). Lynn L. Robert D. Rolvering. J. Guieysse.. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status.A. Nature. Lundquist. University of Illinois. and Maupin... de Connick. CO.W. N. United States Geological Survey. (2004). Hutson. Hightower.J. (1990). Stokes. and de Coninck. Water implications of biofuels production in the United States. H. R. Sandia National Laboratories. (2007).. Kenny. (1978). National Academy of Sciences. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1. (2006).232-3820). Environmental Science & Technology.P.. and Kebede-Westhead.L... McIntosh.html Neehan. E..S. and Maupin M. (2007). T. Barber. Robin L. Pizarro. Development of Drainage Treatment for the San Joaquin River Water Quality Improvement Project. CO. Washington. Turhollow. 99. Impact of chemistry on sustainable water with its nexus to the economy.C. K.E. R. Muñoz. and Peck.B. California.. W. Oroud. energy. Feinberg. Hsieh. In Metz. M. (2005). W. S. and Hogg. Oswald. J. M. S. Folger. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. and the environment. Barber. Bryce J. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. (2008).C.. and Nelson.S. Cameron. Linsey. Linsey. M. (Eds). C. and Einfeld. D. Modelling the water and salt balance in a shallow lake. 231-240. S..K. Solar Energy Research Institute.. (1985). I.. R. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. Perlack. and Oswald. O. Cambridge University Press..J.. U. Fresno.. K. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. D. Technical summary. (SERI/TP. Denver. Washington. Overview of energy-water interrdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems. 52. CO. (1986). Ecological Modelling..natcarb. A. Quinn. Water Science Technology. Mulbry. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.F. Meyer.). Ahmadzadeh B. (OPEN-FILE REPORT 6-2003). E. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). F.G. NATCARB (2008a). M. Association with natural organic matter enhances the sunlight-mediated inactivation of MS2 coliphage by singlet oxygen. 211-235.F. (2008).. C. (2004). DC. E. (SERI/TR- 215-2484). Department of Agriculture. Golden.L. J. Loos. Borglin. 452.. Maxwell.A.A. (DOE/GO-102005-2135. (SERI/SP-231-2550).Y.CO2 sources were compiled by NATCARB http://www. 12). D.J. (NOAA Technical Report NWS 33) Washington.Farnsworth. 51(12).M. 4. (USGS Circular 1268). The National Academies Press.000 parts per million dissolved solids.. and Mattiasson. R. K. Solar Energy Research Institute. Lovelace. Davidson. Los Alamos.. Feth. Produced water and associated issues. Hightower.S. California Department of Water Resources. Golden. McNeill.natcarb. (1988). Solar Energy Research Institute. 8137-8142. A. Hutson. The energy challenge: Commentary. (2003).S... Erbach (2005).. and research requirements. I. and Kokya. D. CO. and Midgley.S. and Donald C.gov/circ/1344/ Kohn. Saline aquifer data http://www. (2008). Hill. H. T. and Terry...L. Kondrad.org/Atlas/data_files. potential. 261-265. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations.H. Oklahoma Geological Survey. Norman.E. Reynolds... Kokya.. Shannon.. Hydrological Processes. NM. W. 2005-2012. Anthony F..S. Photosynthetically oxygenated acetonitrile biodegradation by an algal- bacterial microcosm: A pilot-scale study. (USGS Circular 1334).S.usgs. Golden. and Karpuk. (Atlas HA-199). Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: Algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Proposing a formula for evaporation measurement from salt water resources. Effects of salinity upon evaporation from pans and shallow lakes near the dead sea. Kenny. Green. Hutchison. (1995). N.html NATCARB (2008b). Evaporation atlas for the contiguous 48 United States.C. B... 4626-4632. Cambridge University Press.L.

and Perlman.htm U.ers. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995. (2002). Wang. Available online at: http://water. and Roessler.). Mapping average daily pan evaporation. 68(3).. D. Pierce. W. Woolhiser. 1–10. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.H.usgs. D. U. Bush. (2009).. Weyer. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (1984). B. Woertz.A. Evaporation. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Dunahay.S. T. Sinton. P. 1115-1122.. (USGS Circular 1331). C. R. Solley. (2009).S... USDA Economic Research Service On-Line Briefing Room Available online at: http://www.gov/Briefing/LandUse/majorlandusechapter. (1998). (2002). Geological Survey. L. (1998).A. S. Produced Water Quality Map of US http://energy. (Economic Information Bulletin Number 14). R. Handbook of Hydrology (chap..C.G. P. (NREL/TP-580-24190). Major uses of land in the United States. In Maidment. (2009). Resources and Siting   . 2002. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program--biodiesel from algae. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production.S. Benemann.. T.. & Willson.R.J.J. J.S.htm U... K. Land use. M. Applied Environmental Microbiology. Darzins. D.usda. and management: Major uses of land. Lundquist.S. Lipid productivity of algae grown during treatment of dairy and municipal wastewaters. Geological Survey Circular 1200). M. 4).. D.. Mintz. Shuttleworth. 110(2). Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. McGraw-Hill.J. value.S. D. A. BioEnergy Research. I.E.cr.1122-1131. 135(11).. 246-250. Lynch. (2006). and Nelson.. Wu.W.gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/ U. 1993. Y. (ANL/ ESD/09-1). (2009. 92 9. and Arora.A. (2009).usgs. Department of Agriculture (USDA). M. CO.R. and Davies-Colley. A. Hall. Feffer... (1993). Department of Agriculture (USDA). Argonne National Laboratory. H. Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective. Geological Survey.Sheehan. M. and Wallace. Golden. R. US Geological Survey. (Ed). W.M. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline..S. (U. J.B. USDA Economic Research Service. A look back at the U.gov/prov/prodwat/dictionary.

g.1 Objectives of investments. Enabling successful advancement and or national resource and supply chain assessment. coupled applied across this space and done at different levels of with economic feasibility in the practical implementation precision and granularity. as illustrated in Exhibit 10.1 High level illustration of various approaches and pathways to developing algae-derived biofuelsand co-products ALGAE Species Unicellular Multicellular Selection & Cyanobacteria Microalgae Macroalgae Biology Open Terrestrial Closed Terrestrial Open Offshore Cultivation Systems Systems Systems System: Hybrid . significant investment is expected to be required to overcome the various technical and economic Exhibit 10. and deployment engagement of key public and private stakeholders so approaches. and environmental) critical technical risks and overcome challenges to developing to meeting performance objectives and reaching goals for an algal biofuels industry.. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  93 . e. and market conditions and constraints.2. economic.1). comparative cost per Techno-Economic Analysis gallon of biofuel for different pathways Given the numerous potential approaches and pathways available for algae biofuels and co-products (as illustrated in Exhibit 10. and processes. objective successful commercialization.g. environmental. processes. political. as discussed co-products industry requires the optimum combination of throughout the Roadmap. Toward this end.Fractionation Phototrophic Mixotrophic Phototrophic Heterotrophic Phototrophic . ranging from individual unit and integrated scale-up for commercial production operations to an integrated enterprise.Harvesting Systems . It can also help track performance and they can make necessary investments over time to reduce progress (technical. tradeoffs among different technologies. systems. Such serve a range of purposes and goals that include: analyses can provide improved understanding and insight to help guide successful industry development within the • Assess technical performance and cost/benefit real-world context of technical. Systems modeling and analyses technical innovations in systems and processes. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis Successful development of an algae-based biofuels and challenges along each of these pathways.Separation Hydrocarbons Consolidated Intermediate Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins & Alcohols* Biomass Constituents * Biologically produced in-situ by the organism Biochemical Thermochemical Direct Anaerobic Conversion Conversion Conversion Synthesis Digestion Processes Renewable End Use Fuels Biodiesel Alcohols Biogas Co-Products & Products Hydrocarbons 10. systems..10. techno-economic modeling and analysis can across the overall algae-to-biofuels supply chain. e. can commercialization of the still relatively immature provide informed guidance for targeting investments in field of algal biofuels also requires the confidence and select technologies. comparative yield and energy balance for different pathways • Assess economic impact of R&D strategies and 10.Dewatering . infrastructural. to an overall regional and marketing. and quantitative modeling and analyses of systems and processes are needed that span different enterprise levels In short.

• Assess environmental impact of R&D strategies 10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
and investments, e.g., comparative net greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per gallon of biofuel for Exhibit 10.3 illustrates at a high level the essential
different pathways elements of techno-economic modeling and analysis.
• Assess consequences and constraints of alternative These intersecting elements present a broad systems
pathways for algal feedstock, biofuels, and co- perspective that integrates the interdependent science
products industry build-up, e.g., land, water, CO2, and engineering aspects specific to developing algae
other nutrients, energy, and infrastructure. biofuels, keeping environmental, economic, and
policy aspects in view to provide critical insight
• Inform R&D and business development investment
and information needed for decision-support.
decisions
• Inform policy decisions and explore “what if” Techno-economic assessment for algae biofuels is
scenarios highly interdisciplinary and will range from GIS-based
• Provide insight and actionable information needed resource and siting assessment, to engineering modeling
to successfully guide technical advancement, of systems and processes at the unit operations level, to
integrated system scale-up, and commercialization interdependency analyses of the entire supply chain. Exhibit
10.4 illustrates a broad systems perspective of issues and
DOE’s Biomass Program employs a wide range of approaches for the overall algae biofuels supply chain from
analytical tools, data, and methodologies to support siting and resources to product end-use. The categories
decision-making, guide research, and demonstrate shown follow the process steps in the algal biofuel supply
progress toward goals. In conjunction with the Algae chain sequence. Such summarization of key areas to be
Roadmap, Biomass Program’s strategic and portfolio addressed to enable algal biofuel production provides
analysis efforts are expanding to include algae with guidance for the scope of content that should be integrated
techno-economic modeling and analysis (TEA), life cycle into systems techno-economic modeling and analysis.
assessment (LCA), and geographic information system
(GIS) based resource assessments.

Exhibit 10.2 Systems and Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis as a decision-support tool
It can track and assess performance, and evaluate investment cost/benefit/risk tradeoffs to inform both technical and programmatic decisions

S&T, Systems & Processes Areas
Biofuel Conversion
Cost, Performance, and Risk Metrics

Extraction & Fractionation
Harvesting & Dewatering
Algae Science & Biomass Production
Stage-I Advances Systems Infrastructure & Integration
Uncertainty Range

Cost & Risk
Reductions Stage-II Advances
Perfomance
Improvements Commercialization Threshold

Cost & Risk
Reductions
Perfomance
Improvements

T0 (current status) T1 T2 (e.g., 5-15 years)

Roadmap Timeframe Multi-Stage R&D,
Demonstration, Commercializtion, Deployment

94 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Energy & Fuel Economics; Algal Biomass & Biofuel
Energy-Water-Environment Production Systems,
Interdepencies; Process Engineering
Carbon Emissions & & Other Sciences
Capture

Policy Analysis

Exhibit 10.3 Techno-Economic Modeling and
Analysis addresses interdependent issues

The scope of TEA will ideally include the capability to level, which in turn must function within climate and
apply and integrate detailed process engineering and weather conditions that vary with geographical location,
physics-based modeling at the unit operations level the approach needs to be both multi-level and multi-scale.
with multi-scale and multi-path systems modeling and
comparative tradeoff assessment. This can include An algae biofuels and co-products supply chain will be a
geospatial (GIS-based) data collection, analysis and complex interdependent system with numerous alternative
visualization, systems and processes optimization, pathways and functional elements and feedbacks at various
and dynamic interdependency analyses of the overall spatial and temporal scales and resolutions, as suggested
supply chain at a local, regional, national, or global in Exhibit 10.5. System and process simulation and
scale. A major environmental impact element will optimization under a system engineering framework can
be life cycle analysis (LCA) to assess GHG impacts prove very beneficial for system design and operation. For
and other resource use footprint (e.g., water). example, optimizing conditions that produce the highest
neutral lipid content of the algal biomass under a range
The overall goal is to capitalize on the power and insight of design conditions, when bio-oil feedstock production
available through application of well developed computer is the primary pathway and objective, may not lead to the
modeling and analysis tools combined with disparate highest overall biomass or lipid productivity. Similarly,
database information that exists or can be developed. achieving the most affordable and sustainable production
For example, a process-based algae growth model that of algal feedstock, in terms of resource use intensity
accurately reflects and integrates the dynamic behavior of and cost per unit of end-use biofuel produced under a
the key biological processes with the engineered growth specific set of scenario conditions, may not result from the
system and its time-dependent physical and chemical pursuit of the algal oil production pathway altogether.
conditions (including local time-varying climate and Sensitivity analyses and global system optimization
weather) can not only provide more detailed input to and comparative tradeoff assessments across a range of
the techno-economical performance analysis of algae approaches and conditions are among the critical modeling
cultivation, but can also reveal opportunities for improved and analysis needs. Meeting such needs requires a flexible
system and process design and operation. Since the modeling and analysis framework and suite of tools that
characteristics of the biological system at the microscopic can specifically address the broad scope and multiple
algae cell level affect the performance of the engineered pathways spanned by an algae biofuels supply chain
cultivation system and processes at a higher integrated system. Geospatial GIS-based data integration and analysis

10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  95

Exhibit 10.4 Scoping the content for Systems Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis: Key topic areas and issues for the overall algal
biofuels supply chain

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION & INTERDEPENDENCIES

Conversion
Algal Biology Cultivation Harvesting & Extraction & Processes Biofuels Policy &
Sitting & Inputs
S&T Systems Dewatering Fractionation Co-Products, Regulation
& Services

Geolocation/ Species Selection Open Ponds Filtering Extract Processes Conversion Processes Taxes
elevation & Matching to - lined Flocculation/ - Solvent - Biochemical Incentives
Land characteristics Growth Conditions - unlined Settling - Acoustic - Thermochemical
- Electromagnetic - Digestion Permitting
Characterization - raceway
Climate/Weather Airlift Flocculation - Other - Hydrotreat/ Enviromental
- wastewater
Solar Insolation Performance treatment Centriuge Seperation/ Refine Impact
Water Souces/ Strain Improvement Closed PBRs Drying Fractionation Fuels Health & Safety
Issuses - horizontal tube Biological Assist - Membrane - Biodiesel Algae Control
- brackish Biomass Growth
- vertical tube - brine shrimp - Distillation - Green diesel & Regulation
- wastewater & Oil Conditions
- vertical planar - fish - Centrifuge - Aviation
- produced Photoautotrophic Other
- other - Other - Gasoline-like
- desalination organism operation Other
Hybrid System Intermediate - EtOH
concentration Products - Biogas/methane
Heterotrophic Combinations
-marine - TAG Oil - Other
organism operation - covered ponds
- fresh - Other Lipids Co-Products
Algae Pathogens, - pond/PBR mix
- losses, re-use ▪ Polar - Feed
- salt build-up Predators, and Heterotrophic ▪ Neutral - Fertilizer
CO2 Sources Mitigations - Industrial - Carbohydrates - Chemicals
- power plants Bioreactors - Proteins Services
- cement plants - Wastewater - Other - Carbon capture
- fermentation/ Facilities Compounds - Water treatment
other - Water
Operations,
Chemical/Materials Monitoring & Direct secretion
Energy/Power Maintenance of EtOH or
hydrocarbon fuel
Infrastructure
precursors into
growth medium,
avoiding Harvest &
Dewatering steps

is also key to siting and resource assessment and the design, uncertainty in data while still capturing the underlying
analysis and optimization of facilities location and supply dymanics of the overall system. Although quantitative
chain logistics (from algae cultivation through end-use uncertainty will remain, the results can provide qualitative
fuels and products biorefining, transport, and distribution). system behavior and trends still useful in helping
guide technical, economic, and policy decisions. More
Algal biofuels remain an emerging field at a relatively thorough analysis and modeling refinement, informed
immature stage of development. As a result, data for by field data expected to become available as larger-
detailed unit operations and process analyses for different scale pilot and demonstration projects are established
technical approaches for algae cultivation, harvesting, and and operated, will more clearly reveal the most critical
post-processing into fuels and other co-products is currently challenges and guide investments and technical advances
sparse and uncertain. Selected modeling and analysis needed to enable successful commercialization of
approaches can be used to effectively accommodate such economical, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

96 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis 

Equipment . or enterprise level rather than broader efforts. One approach with photoautotrophic microalgae integrated systems modeling and analysis across the is modeling major cultivation system categories 10. be considered in algae biofuels modeling and analysis production plant.3 Suggestions for TEA and supply chain. develop.Species . Demand & Price for Co-Products vs. Monitoring. Incentives & Barriers Siting . individualized modeling and analysis efforts and configurations of rapidly evolving systems and by industry and technology development organizations processes. Replacement Market Externalities: Cost of Energy. etc. Maintenance.Characteristics . Included in the Workshop discussions was the question of Due to their more limited and immediate business how best to approach the multiple and disparate paths objectives. different levels within the broad systems scope presented.Autotrophic . geology.7.GMOs Biology . Policy & Regulation.Labor . Cost of Petroleum & Conventional Fuels.Land (cost.6 illustrates various complementary modeling and scales will be defined in the early stages of the systems analysis approaches and techniques that come into play at modeling R&D effort and will evolve as time goes on.Closed systems &/or Drying & Seperation .Hybrid systems Feedbacks Resources Proteins & Conversion . tilt.Materials Energy Feedbacks .Nutrients (NPK) or Treatment & Re-Use .Performance .Heterotrophic . identified the need to clearly define the scope and determine and that the two should be coupled.Climate/Weather Feedbacks Conversion Carbohydrates Biofuels Algae Cultivation . Also identified critical part of a national algae biofuels research program was the need to adapt. soil) Broader . location.Water Water Capture . Workshop participants the role that systems TEA and LCA can and should play generally agreed that modeling and analysis should be a in support of algal biofuels development. as exemplified by Exhibit 10.5 The dynamic coupling and interdependencies across the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain 10. unit operation. their alternatives.Temperatures Design & Economy Feedbacks Nutrient . and utilize a range of and industry development effort. Details of systems’ and processes’ technical and economic performance achieved by industry and LCA Approach (Workshop other technology developers are also usually considered Results and Discussion) proprietary.Open systems .Primary Energy Electric Power and Process Heat Generation Capital Construction.Capital Co-Gen . It is also expected available and emerging information and data. similar to the modeling approaches. and levels of detail best suited to and analysis efforts underway by DOE in support of the perform the necessary modeling and analyses based on other bioenergy and biofuels programs. that should tend to focus on a technology or process. Exhibit that the needs for coupled models of differing fidelity and 10. Exhibit 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  97 . unavailable for broader use and objective assessment and validation. It was noted that there Preparation for the Algae Roadmap Workshop and the is a need and role for both integrated systems modeling as discussion among participants during and after the event well as detailed engineering design and process modeling.Requirements Harvesting Dewatering Extraction Oil / Lipids .CO2 / Flue Gas Conditioning Other Coproducts . and therefore. Operations. scales.Solar Insolation Environment .

. storage • GREET (Argonne National Lab) infrastructure • LEM (UC/ Davis). or a hybrid competing options and the broader scope of interdependent combination.Technical. economic. • Cost (& offsets) of co-products production other) • Carbon footprint cost accounting • Climate/ Weather/ Temperature Conditions • CO2 resources ( point source emitters. processes and integrated systems for commercialization. how better inform technical.. and policy decisions to best conceptualize a model that spans the overall at the state. and national level. enviromental. and essentially represents what exists today with “community of practice” for the algae biofuels industry. regional.Engineering & construction estimates from industry . economic.Vendor/ Supplier cost estimates (ASPEN+) • Engineering and construction cost estimates • Process GHG footprint (LCA) assessment .) • Cost of biofuel production • Water resources (fresh wastewater. closed photobioreactors. and optimization of of possibilities could quickly become unmanageable.. and Life Cycle Analysis of open pond. Etc. The size of the “matrix” engineering design. Flexibility and usefulness Developing numerous detailed models that are each could be increased to the extent that such modeling uniquely customized to a specific combination of systems and analysis can be done using common standards.6 Multiple levels and complementary approaches available for Algal Biofuels Systems and Processes Techno-Economic Modeling.. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies. 98 10. Narrowly “beginning-to-end value chain” for algal biofuels focused and detailed technical and economic modeling production with adequate resolution and detail is very and analysis is valuable and necessary for those doing challenging and still emerging. from resources & sitting through production to end use • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up potential. can link to other models & analyses Process Flow Enginering Modeling Static CAPEX & OPEX Calculations • System and process equipment cost estimates • Mass & energy balance calculations .ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) • Operations & Maintenance cost estimates Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis and Visualization • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock • Land resources (characteristics..g. across an emerging approach.Integration with existing infrastructure .. and processes and performance parameters is another definitions. various groups doing ad-hoc modeling and assessment specifically focused on their chosen approach and Standardized interface requirements and definitions could technologies (e.. Beyond this. specific technologies.. platform). Higher-Level Dynamic Meta-Systems Modeling (Integrated Analysis Framework) • Broad value-chain scope. with time delays. and interface approaches. with learning curves & improvement projections . resource use.. constraints & impacts .Required build-up of new infrastructure. GIS Analysis. and activating only those portions of the issues and tradeoffs that need to be addressed together to hybrid configuration model desired. pipelines) Other LCA Modeling • Fuel processing.. transport. • Other infrastructure and enviromental features Exhibit 10. The disadvantage of such a be established for system and process functional blocks that distributed and narrowly focused approach is that it is often would enable the development of an open-source modeling done in isolation with limited or no consideration of other and assessment platform with “plug & play” flexibility. production availability. etc. development.

Transport fish excrement.2 Land Cultivation 3.4 Systems Analysis Flexibility in being able to link custom subsystem or process models into an overall meta-system Overview modeling and analysis framework would provide a System analysis is foundational to designing a strategy capability that could be of significant value and benefit for algal biofuel deployment. Aviation 6. 5. and other technical Defense.1 Microalgae Conservation F.2 Electromagnetic 5. Materials 2.2 Thermochemical & Separation D. Fertilizer Inputs 1.Distribution . USDA. and a high-level illustration of the interdependent character tracking of program investments of the overall algae biofuels value chain that involves a • Other federal and state agencies (Department of broad range of systems. computational fluid dynamics and analysis platform that can be productively used modeling of open raceway ponds or closed photobioreactor and leveraged for algae biofuels development.3 CO2 2. a process flow diagram was economic/policy R&D and assessment developed and presented at every breakout track discussion to illustrate the intricate interdependencies of algal • Industry developing and commercializing technologies. biofuel production.2 Fuel .5 Biological assist Harvesting (shrimp. To facilitate system-level • Universities doing a wide range of technical/ thinking during the Workshop.1 Flocculation 2. Triglycerides N.0 Drying . and represents utilizing different techniques such as high performance an example of a GIS-based information gathering physics-based modeling (e. A system is an aggregation to different stakeholder communities such as: of subsystems interacting such that the system is able to deliver an over-arching functionality. and national labs.0 J. Energy Source derivative biomass & Markets 3.) 4. Gasoline-like 6.1. Exhibit 10.1 Solar .7 High-level multi-pathway algae biofuel process flow diagram for the algal biofuels and co-products supply chain Much more detailed or custom models of individual Work currently underway on the Knowledge Discovery subsystem or process blocks could then be developed by Framework (KDF) by DOE’s Biomass Program is various others in industry.End Use Exhibit 10.1 Physical (Thermo/Mechanical) 5.3 Biochemical E. 10. cultivation systems) or process engineering models using widely accepted and applied commercial process modeling tools like AspenPlusTM or customized spreadsheets.2 Co-products 1. Hydrogen K. 2009).1.Field .1 Closed system 1.1 Chemical C. Biogas / Methane Metabolites I. Feed 1.3 Macroalgae R.4 Off-shore systems 3. etc. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  99 . 4.) and non-technical issues.4 BY PASS A.7 is a revised adaptation systems. assessment. processes of the flow diagram that shows a representative number • Private investment / funding sources 10.5 provides • DOE & national labs doing R&D.1.3 Hybrid systems & settling 1.1. etc.3 Chemical G. processes.5 Biological Assist 2. Chemicals 2.1.0 1. Fatty Acids M.1.1 Fuel 5. EPA.5 Light or Alt.2 Open system 2. Dried Algal 1. Lipids H.. Green diesel 6.4 BY PASS 6.1 Algae species 3.3 Centrifuging biomass 3. Ethanol 1.3 Water 3. universities.0 Harvesting L. Exhibit 10.Storage 4.0 Extraction Conservation 6. Carbohydrates O. moving in this direction (Getman.2 Filtering 8.2 Cyanobacteria R. Proteins P. Wet algal or biological assist Infrastructure 1. Other Q.g. Biodiesel 5.

of multiple path process options available for every step technical information and data about the systems and in the algal biofuel production chain. (N. evaluate costs. wind electrolysis. and chemical kinetics of the systems and of these resource can have on algae biofuel production processes used. etc. GIS Assessments sustainable production of microalgae biomass. Example engineering analysis tools scale-up was touched on earlier in chapter 9. hydrodynamic. and comparing trade. Established in 2003 in response to the Hydrogen what steps in the process are most energy intensive. risk. The pathways toward a hydrogen economy. etc. This may also require coupling processes that made up different thematic topic discussion with appropriate external data and driving functions sessions in the Workshop are all inter-related. unit operations level require the systematic calculation efficiency of water use. The impact that availability and cost biological. among others. there is precedence for this value of this kind of systems mass and energy balance sort of undertaking in DOE’s Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) assessment is that it can help assess the overall viability Project within the overall Hydrogen Program (DOE. temperature. Simpler and process becomes the primary task of the systems analysis. K) supplies.8 represents a mass and energy on the product or co-product chosen.) interdependencies and feedbacks. H2A was designed to consider various highlighting areas for research and development. solar insolation. availability of suitable land.) uncertainties. This program could serve as a guide for moving Geographic Information System (GIS) Visualization forward with analysis of algal biofuel production. A substantial number of barriers are (characteristics. Sub-level accurate analyses. availability. and Analysis tools (referenced also in chapter 9) are indispensible for algae production and supply Other chapters of this Roadmap point out the lack chain systems analysis due to their ability to perform of availability of detailed information about the mapping and resource analysis spanning local. development of mass and energy based systems models energy and environmental tradeoffs and set research can help evaluate different proposed processes for priorities and inform policy by sound analysis. and others beyond balance systems level view of an algal biomass and algal those selected for inclusion in the figures also exist or lipid cultivation and extraction system. more approximate preliminary spreadsheet analyses are more appropriate as a first step. regional. identifying and appropriately modeling • Water evaporation loss (function of climate. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . • Other infrastructure and environmental features Engineering Analyses and Several critical resource factors will impact large-scale. These Engineering analyses (technical and economic) at the include climate and the adequate availability of water. especially where Both Exhibit 10. transport.5 and Exhibit 10. pipelines) offs from various scenarios with regard to cost. and benefit tradeoffs of CO2 capture through biofixation which require sufficient understanding and detailed using photoautotrophic microalgae cultivation enhanced 100 10. The overall viability and examine the sensitivity of different options for hydrogen production include goal gasification. and environmental impacts. Collecting such as time-dependent solar insolation. nuclear energy. of a given algal biomass production system and show 2009). etc. Many of the process steps will differ depending Exhibit 10. producing algal biofuels and co-products by quantifying precipitation. most of which are still immature and An example of this type of analysis is presented in emerging. • CO2 resources (point source emitters. storage infrastructure technical performance. Inputs to each will likely emerge. Though it may seem daunting to system component are shown. characteristics of algae themselves and the characteristics and national scales.8. • Fuel processing. and understanding key information from each node in the and other local environmental conditions. The cost include AspenPlusTM and FLUENTTM.) enumerated and designated as goals to be achieved.8. P. Critical climatic and natural (energy requirements and costs) of the systems and resource data can be readily accessed.8 represent a large detailed process engineering data may be lacking. number of permutations of potential pathways to algal biofuel production. and organic molecule reforming. and tracking of mass and energy balances that include and availability of supplemental CO2 and other nutrient evaluation of the thermodynamic. The many process permutations. and each numbered node attempt to develop a comparative analysis based on so represents a mass or energy balance calculation. Systems analysis can help manage the complexity of • Climatic characteristics (temperature. thus Fuel Initiative. Exhibit 10. assumptions in individual processes to the overall system. such as: processes that are shown in the process flow diagram • Land and water resources of Exhibit 10. from algae growth processes involved to appropriately formulate and conduct to fuel and co-product processing and end-use.

with the existing hydrocarbon fuel handling. Midstream will be the includes an algae growth model driven by environmental logistics of transport.g. The possibility fuel and co-product markets at the end of the suppy chain.g.. Hexane System Chemical Dissolved Air Recovery & Centrifuge Drying Solvent Nutrients Flocculation Flotation (N. the data available to implement this type of analysis are thought to be preliminary and refinement Producing biofuels that are highly compatible. etc. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  101 .by the addition of CO2 from industrial sources will affect on the size and the optimum site locations of biorefinery the economics of algal biofuel production.) forcing functions and boundary transport. e. with physics-based modeling of will depend in large measure on the degree to which algae cultivation systems and algae growth. tools and capabilities to an open raceway pond system that supplemental CO2. At the the technical design of systems and their operations for front end of the supply chain. geographic location attributes and time dependent climate The economics of algae-based biofuels and co-products and weather data. and transport of water.g. and data are also integral to system analysis as they reveal financial sets developed and leveraged to provide the necessary investment or market incentives needed for algae biofuel assessment capabilities to guide research. for • Discounted cash flow analysis example. from the operation and monitoring of larger scale algae distribution. supply chain. sourcing. e. analysis and LCA (CAPEX ) and operational expense (OPEX) calculations for algae. with the appropriate models. Land.) Water Energy Residues: TAGs & Other Facilities. • POLYSYS At the downstream end.. P. and end-use infrastructure would result in production systems under a range of site and climate easier and more widespread market acceptance... same would apply to co-products and their potential markets.8 Notional baseline algae feedstock production system Sunlight H2O Energy & Solvent & Water & O2 Other Inputs Energy Energy H2O Recycle Microalgae Photo.. and Capture & Neutral Lipid Systems Infrastructure. Exhibit 10. the economics can be expected to improve. e. re-use Potrential Protein Biofuel Feedstock Materials. Operation & Maintenance cost estimates transport. These and related issues should be an integral Economic analysis tools for static capital expense part of techno-economic modeling. and distribution infrastructure could benefit from GIS analysis. etc. can help determine the practical upper limit • Cost (& offsets) of co-product feedstock production • Cost of biofuel production • Carbon footprint cost accounting Exhibit 10. Co-products Polar Lipid Site Preparation Carbohydrate 10. solar insolation. of combining these types of spatial and physical data to To the extent that operations can be effectively co-located project possible algal production scenarios as a function of or established within reasonable distances across the geography and climate is an interesting avenue of inquiry. Currently. the relative location and • ICARUS cost estimate software (or equivalent) logistical costs associated with fuel processing..g. can provide powerful feedstock production and downstream processing can be capabilities for estimating performance and for improving integrated with existing infrastructure and markets. and policy decisions. storage. or totally based on model improvement and validation with data fungible.9 is an example of the and costs of supplying inputs needed for algae production application of high-performance computational modeling (suitable siting. Utilities. K.g. including example calculations presented later in this chapter. • Equipment. and distribution into the various end-use conditions (James and Varun. this will include the logistics different site conditions. Structures.g. tools. and biorefining into fuels and (e. nutrient other co-products. Biomass e. storage. is discussed in more detail through a few selected The combination of GIS resource assessment. and energy).. followed downstream by the necessary concentrations. Hexane microfiltration e. storage. Potential facilities relative to upstream algae biomass production CO2 capture and utilization in algae biomass production and downstream fuel and co-product markets. nutrients. resource management.g. Some examples are: development. Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Neutral Lipid Bioreactor Harvesting Harvesting Dewatering Solvent Air & CO2 Dewatering Extraction &/ or Pond e. This information. Equipment. in press). The conditions with multiple species of algae could be useful. business deployment. ambient temperature.

but will variation of resource availability will have major impacts be dependent on the geographical location. availability. it will affect the amount of CO2 the order of ~38. are amount of water required nationally could begin to not unique to the development of algal biofuel technology. availability. though important for overall TE analysis. P. etc.) (Weyer et al. like cost of subject to more limited water supplies. cost. Such analysis can enable both performance prediction and pond system design optimization after appropriate refinement and validation with monitored field system data (Adapted from James and Varun. and offshore sites. can potentially help fill this need. but these commercial algae industry build-up scenarios. and fertilizer. seasonal. O2…) to model growth rates. approach the same order of magnitude as large scale There are.5. and sustainability of suitable water Impact of Geographic Variability of supplies for algae production will be a key input factor Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs for inland cultivation.000 gal/ac-yr and perhaps a practical that can be captured. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Algal Raceway Pond Using Modified EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers Codes • The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) solves 3D Navier-Stokes equations of open channel flow to model speed. Si. in press) area of cultivation systems needed to achieve a set Recent analysis suggests an upper theoretical limit on amount of product.700 gal/ac-yr. and this factor varies widely across the Sugar from commodity crops and other organic country among inland. 2009). and mixotrophic) for which geographical in particular. evaporative loss. and nutrient gradients • Solar insolation and other environmental. Capture and re-use of non-fresh water. temperature. and meteorological forcing functions • Includes algal biomass growth model • CE-QUAL couples nutrient kinetics and 22 independent variables (N. Areas The various inputs necessary for algal biofuel production of the country with the highest solar resource best have been described earlier in this chaper and in other suited for algae growth also tend to be more arid and chapters of the Roadmap. vary over the U. wind. Under large power.. and will be heavily dependent on geographical location and local conditions.) will also affect both conditions. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . and cost of organic carbon the following: feedstock needed as input for heterotrophic microalgae production will play a major role in the commercial • The average annual insolation is generally the viability and extent to which national production dominant and rate-limiting factor for autotrophic algal capacity can expand using the heterotrophic approach. heterotrophic. etc. aspects of large scale agriculture. carbon materials from industrial or municipal waste This variation will determine the spatial surface streams can provide bridge feedstock in the near- 102 10.350 . productivity. Certain elements. coastal. and it will affect the amount limit on the order of ~4. climate. • Availability.9. The daily. and basis. based of culture that will need to be processed on a daily on the expected losses. particularly with open systems subject to macroalgae and microalgae cultivation (autotrophic. the variations. but it is appropriate here to briefly note • The supply. 50% oil content.S. and affordable accessibility of such water sources. photosynthetic efficiency. precipitation. These aspects were discussed in some detail in Chapter 9. and annual variation in other assumptions made in the analysis (which include solar insolation. water. on cost of production and scale for commercial viability. Exhibit 10. Open raceway pond example of physics-based algae cultivation system modeling and anlaysis. as well as other climate-related the availability of high solar insolation consistent with factors such as temperature and weather (cloud lower latitudes and/or high percentage of clear weather cover. on the other hand. the productivity and reliability of production.

carbon credits materials in the form of woody and herbaceous must also enter into this analysis. and co-products like animal feed. availability. It is reasonably (i. and and costs as transporting and distributing CO2. carbohydrates. and cost of other nutrients sites will all be location-dependent. and forest industries. Even in active thermal management for growth during periods the case of co-location. Malcolm et al.. but applying facility will require extensive pipeline infrastructure for this heat or energy to extensive algal cultivation CO2 distribution. algae can require as smaller parcels of land or offshore sites. it may be co-located industries or the CO2 source may allow necessary to transport CO2 over some distance. As noted here and in chapter closed systems operating inland can overheat. lipids. 2009.. adding to the cost. and costs of offshore cost of lignocellulosic material deconstruction into marine operations will have a major impact on simple sugars and other organic carbon compounds costs of production. coastal. but this will be systems operating at inland sites in the summer. and inland • The supply. and petroleum). In necessary to distribute the facility over a number of the absence of nitrogen fixation. Conversely. derived originally from lignocellulosic biomass. (Huang. temperature control.. N. the temperature during from various agricultural and municipal waste streams the growing season will restrict the ability to cultivate (Woertz et al. some sources are likely to require more cleanup than others (especially if there are plans for animal feed as a co-product and/or if the CO2 source stream includes 10. though it is not yet energy crops. and can be an appreciable factor in proteins. For open nutrients for algae production scale-up. such as are present in some forms of flue gas. dependent on the geographical location. K) required as inputs for algae growth will straightforward to calculate the impact of the cost also play a role in commercial viability and extent of of land. and municipal waste streams will be location-dependent.e. and and processing improvements needed to reduce the the associated logistics. availability. Waste heat and energy from will not be feasible in all instances and thus. The capture and reuse of nutrients • As in traditional agriculture. the amount of nutrients required nationally versus the matching of affordable production scale to could begin to approach the same order of magnitude the sustainable and affordable supply of the required as large scale agriculture. 2009). and is a consideration that appropriately processing lignocellulosic biomass requires further investigation. it will be advantageous to co-locate cultivation requiring active cooling that can add prohibitively to facilities with stationary industrial CO2 sources. but major sustainable scale-up of national contaminants that inhibit algae growth). other) production. but this the cost of operations. This As with cellulosic ethanol. scale. infrastructure facilities for offshore. but for each approach operational costs for algae (Massingale et al. 2005). the size of an autotrophic algae of suboptimal (high or low) temperature. term.. 1998. waste materials from agriculture clear how best to factor this into the calculation. Cost of site preparation and suitable for feeding heterotrophic microalgae. The affordability of • Land prices and availability can also impact the cost generating organic carbon feedstock from such of biofuel production at inland and coastal sites. Algae can be production capacity will demand the use of sugars effective at capturing and concentrating heavy metal and other suitable organic carbon source materials contaminants (Aksu.. nitrogen than conventional biomass be possible to get the most benefit of economies of crops on a mass balance basis (Alexander et al. 2009). 2009) can potentially help supply specific strains for extended durations. materials will also depend on technical advances For offshore sites. on the industrial build-up. but evaporation will also add to • CO2 availability and cost of delivery will play a major operating cost (for water replacement and/or for salt role in autotrophic microalgae cultivation scalability management with brackish or saline water. 2008). transporting. Commercial fertilizer costs are overall cost of total algal biomass and intermediate tied closely to the cost of energy supplies (natural gas feedstock fraction (e. and perhaps also for offshore sites. Finally. risks. If it is agriculture (Huang. P. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  103 . The key tradeoffs will be between the cost Under large commercial algae industry build-up of overall production (capital and operating costs) scenarios. 9. it may not much. and operating expense. water evaporation rates will provide some level of and affordable accessibility of such nutrient sources. the logistics and costs could impact the suitability of residual biomass for associated with producing. where recent cost and supply input resources with the required output product issues have had negative impacts on the industry processing and distribution infrastructure and markets. 2008) it will likely be an optimum minimum and range to the same extent as for large scale commercial of size for a commercial production facility.g. Mehta and Gaur.. The quality of the systems will provide the same engineering problems CO2 source will also play a role for algal growth. the right of access and use. if not more.

modeling. the UC/Davis Lifecycle Emission Model (Delucci. 1993). eliciting discussion. UNEP. and in comparison with fuels citable sources are quite dated.g. variability in approach to final costs (from per gallon LCA is considered to be a key element of the scope of TE of algal oil to per kg of “raw” biomass) and illustrate modeling and analysis within the context of this roadmap. algal oil feedstock Life Cycle Analysis production cost analyses were reviewed based on a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a “cradle-to-grave” range of sources to gauge the status of algal biofuel analysis approach for assessing the resource use and technology. to final disposal. While most algal biofuels production. While these variations Data gathering and validation of technical and economic may be minor relative to the technical uncertainties. co-generation addition to net GHG emissions. 2009). and tools have been developed that include Argonne National • Algae biofuel and co-products industry scale-up Laboratory’s GREET “well-to-wheels” model (ANL. 1996). costs. Tapie and GHG emissions and other resource utilization (e.S. delays. and specifically leverage past and current LCA knowledge base present a challenge in designing scaled work specific to biofuels (ANL 2009. a general lack of demonstrated operating parameters The systems modeling and analysis framework for algae and widely varying basic assumptions on a number of biofuels must include the integration of appropriate parameters from algal productivity to capital depreciation LCA methodology and metrics (Curran. from manufacture. and co-product credits. 1996. and policy issues • Feedbacks and Multiple Sector Interdependencies with links to other models and analyses 104 10. These included technical reports prepared environmental impacts and tradeoffs of industrial systems for the U. white papers / industry analyses. Benemann and and processes. 1997). 1997. and compiling suggested directions for research and development from the participants. life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). 2009. and numerous others (EPA. they also present a wide based on other renewable and non-renewable feedstocks.g. and • Broad value-chain scope: from resources and interpretation as illustrated in Exhibit 10. it is system performance for an industry that has yet to be likely that a technology that will require the production commercially realized is one of the biggest challenges for of immense volumes of biofuel at affordable cost so it techno-economic analysis. siting through production to end use LCA methodologies. LCA is important for assessing relative Oswald. In resource capture and reuse. or service. and other resources. output flows. combination of improved biological productivity and fully integrated production systems can bring the cost The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the down to a point where algal biofuels can be competitive course of the product’s life-span. peer-reviewed literature (e. and maintenance. the calculations for the cost of algal biofuel 10. To facilitate the Workshop’s can play a significant role in the national energy economy objectives of identifying needs. constraints and impacts 2009). nutrients. life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). 1987). LCA for biofuels can also • Integration with existing infrastructure assess impacts and tradeoffs associated with utilization • Required build-up of new infrastructure with time intensity for water. would be subject to narrow operating margins. ISO. potential. 2006. EPA. • Input resources. economic. 2004) up systems. with petroleum at approximately $100 per barrel.12 (ISO. Exhibit 10. LCA is a systematic technique to assess Systems dynamics modeling is a powerful and flexible the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated modeling approach that can foster collaborative analysis with a product. 1997. EPA. however. The process employs a and scenario studies. environmental.. 2001 and 2002). Bernard. energy. that a and including algae (Kadam. energy) impacts among different approaches to personal communications with field experts. including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product 10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . data base resources.11 illustrates the typical life cycle stages considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/ Dynamics Modeling outputs measured. Delucchi. EPA.6 Preliminary System (EPA.g.In summary. and water. use. A dynamics simulation model also phased approach that consists of four major components: provides an integrated analysis framework that can include: goal definition and scoping. Department of Energy (e. shortcomings of the existing literature and modeling 2005). operating costs. process.5 Algae Production production will benefit from detailed inputs that take into consideration the variations in cost and availability of the Costs and Uncertainties essential elements for cultivation. learning curves and improvement projections • Technical... waste stream 2002 and 2004). resource use. There are indications. These 1993.

and resource constraints. fuel portfolio along with the ability to do Monte Carlo simulation.7 Potential Directions The Techno-Economic Analysis can accomplish this by: for R&D Effort • Stressing dynamics over detail initially. data and assumptions from the same information sources discussed earlier in this chapter and in chapter • Determine the current state of technology 9. technical • Identify research areas most in need of support and economic performance for various pathways. Workshop effort and is currently a work in progress. and has • Employing modular modeling. The model approaches1 currently includes only a limited amount of available data. Interactive graphical user interfaces.g. e. The model will eventually include • Identify external factors that will impact cost more detailed systems and processes modules for multiple • Provide plan for entry of algal biofuel into a renewable pathways being pursued for algae biofuels and co-products. continued progress INPUTS OUTPUTS Atmospheric Raw Materials Acquisition Emissions Waterborne Raw Materials Wastes Manufacturing Solid Wastes Use / Reuse / Maintenance Coproducts Energy Recycle / Waste Management Other Releases System Boundary Exhibit 10. • Incorporate appropriate insights and benefit from alliances with industry associations 10. expanding The model described above was initially prepared in detail later as available and needed outline form for the algae roadmap workshop.can facilitate the • Identify critical path elements that offer opportunities use of the model to conduct rapid ‘what if’ analyses and for cost reduction tradeoff studies using different yield scenarios. • Inform and perhaps guide formation and/or varying parameters values within pre-set ranges in order modifications to public policy to describe the uncertainty or robustness of model output. The preliminary participants specifically suggested that the following modeling uses algae production and resource availability areas be addressed in the modeling and analysis.11 Scope of Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from EPA 1993) 10. ISBL and OSBL been developed further since the workshop. • Establishing interface requirements between To adequately inform research and investment decisions sub-systems for algal biofuel deployment. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  105 .The development of a system dynamics model for \in techno-economic analysis and the capture of data conducting scenario analysis of algal biofuels production from fielded systems as they emerge over time can scale-up and operations was initiated as part of the roadmap provided needed additional information.

monitoring. Goal Defination and Scope Interpretatation Inventory Impact Analysis Assessment Exhibit 10. have been identified along various steps in the value chain. Addressing the uncertainties in a systematic more rapid technological advancement leading toward and integrated modeling and analysis framework will help commercialization. etc. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . units. significant algae-to-biofuels production system and fashion. operation. Throughout the roadmap workshop and report development When done in a closely coordinated spiral development process. can facilitate Roadmap. the development.12 Phases of a Life Cycle Analysis (Adapted from ISO. the complementary bi-lateral feedback of process performance uncertainties (technical and economic) information and insight between the modeling and analysis. 1997) • Leveraging university and industry resources algal biofuels industry. and evaluation of larger-scale algae biofuel production systems and processes that can provide data to validate and improve the modeling. guide needed investments and speed the deployment of an 106 10. and the experimental and operational investigations These have been noted in this and earlier chapters of the with larger-scale systems in the field. A critical complementary need is • Maintaining industry standard notation.

491-515. USDA ERS Report Number 86. S.transportation.html Getman.aspentech. Y-S Won and N.38. DE-FG22- 93PC93204).gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190. Mark (2004). “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Lifecycle Analyses of Transportation Fuels“.epa. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Bioenergy conversion factors. “Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape”. and Chisti. Mehta. TP-510-29417. (1997).G.hydrogen. Tam.. including AspenPlus® and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®). James. and Gaur. (Grant No. Kadam.gov/bridge/product. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 113-152. B. “Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U. Marx.. (1998). Kadam.Y..R. Cincinnati: Ohio. B. J.References Aksu.pdf Rittmann.L.energy. (2006). Y. (2003). and Varun. (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: Progress and prospects.gov/h2a_analysis.gov/ord/NRMRL/lcaccess/resources.. and Hankamer. Acien Fernandez. March 2009. W. Stephens.L. Malcolm. C.com/core/ Benneman. (EPA/600/R-06/060). pp. Biotechnology Advances.anl. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems.. (2009).S. Berlin. P. Bioenergy knowledge discovery framework. Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice. 25(3). P. S. A. 905-922. Medina. and energy use in transportation (GREET) model. (1998). Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Office of Research and Development. K.nrel.L. UCD-ITS-RR-04-45. Springer-Verlag. Bioenergy Research. NREL Report No. Available online at: http://www. ISO 14040. U. Sheehan.H.. Geographic Information Science and Technology Group. (2003). Thomas-Hall. http://www. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. http://www.R. 2002.. B. 20. pp.html Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). E.org/pdfs/Document%20Library/Bioenergy%20conversion%20factors. and Roessler.biblio. DOE’s aquatic species program – Biodiesel from algae. “Environmental implications of power generation via coal-microalgae cofiring”. C. J. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  107 . M. Benemann. “Power Plant Flue Gas as a Source of CO2 for Microalgae Cultivation: Economic Impact of Different Process Options”. The greenhouse gas.E. ERS Report AR-33. Belarbi. 1997. D. “Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis”. G. Available online at: http://www.P. US-EPA LCA Resources Web Site (latest update July 2009): Available on line at: http://www. Schenk. Available online at: http://www. A. J.. (2008).energy.C. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms. McGraw-Hill. E. February 2009. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass.K.A. 2002-08”. Energy v. Cincinnati: Ohio. Argonne National Laboratory (2009).. Environmental management . 100(2). (NREL/TP-580-24190). Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: Process options and economics. Mussgnug. (EPA/600/R-92/245). Office of Research and Development. (1997). Wen-yuan (2009).H.Life cycle assessment . Delucchi. 1(1). (1996). v. AspenTech software product portfolio. pp. Second generation biofuels: High-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. (2008)..gov/ and specifically the DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Project: http://www. Molina.hydrogen. and Oswald. http://www.27. USDA.F.pdf 10. J. regulated emissions. Suppl. International Standards Organization. Kadam. Posten.gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/ AspenTech (2010). 2004.localenergy. Energy Convers. and Marca Weinberg (2009). Scott A. T. F. Journal of Computational Biology.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=493389 Curran (1996). (2002). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Kruse. Dunahay. (2009).S. November 2009. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A look back at the U. 20–43. Optimizing algae growth in open-channel raceways. Report prepared for the Pittsburg Energy Technology Center. Fertilizer Prices.. E. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles. (1993). eds.” In: Wastewater Treatment with Algae.. 203-212. (in press). K. Mgmt. (2001).. S505-S510. Curran (ed).Principles and Framework. S.. International Standards Organization. ISBN 0-07-015063-X. Marcel Aillery. O. K... DOE Hydrogen Program.osti. J. DOE (2009). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. Huang. 37-54.

pp.. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis  . Nelson (2009). Woertz. n11.. v135. & Willson. (2009). D. UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. United Nations Environmental Program. P and Bernard. B. 1115-1122. T. Feffer. “Algae Grown on Dairy and Municipal Wastewater for Simultaneous Nutrient Removal and Lipid Production for Biofuel Feedstock”. (1987). Bush.Tapie. K. Darzins. Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. 32. net/sites/lcinit/default. 873-885. United Nations Enivironment Programme (UNEP).. Lundquist. R. D..estis. Life cycle approaches: The road from analysis to practice. American Society of Civil Engineers. 108 10. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. M. A.asp?site=lcinit&page_id=138F5949-6997-4BE6-A553-585E92C22EE4#lcirap Weyer. A. and Y. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Available online at: http://jp1. BioEnergy Research. A. (2005). Microalgae production: Technical and economic evaluations. 1 -10. I.

given the current state of of a sustainable. investment. algal biofuels industry.11. and industry. realizing benefits in both categories. but not necessarily producing transportation envisioned by the Council on Competitiveness (1996): biofuels from cultivated algal biomass at scale. many of which may be investor-backed and of DOE programs on the clean energy sector (Brown. Public-Private Partnerships The Workshop participants emphasized the need The algal biofuels industry is evolving with numerous for DOE and other federal agencies to partner with players. By focsuing these partnerships on pre- competitive research or critical problems shared by all Exhibit 11. Various models for such partnerships employed of a shared R&D objective. industry) and public entities (e.. as well as reduces the risk of private 2001. 2002). many focusing on one to a few elements in national laboratories. More specifically. and government programs aimed at public-private which can support a quickening pace of innovation. This partnerships are documented (Audretsch et al. universities. given benefit could pull together the current expertise and the fact that the algal biofuels industry is still in its facilities. Partnerships based participants.S. also noted the unique partnership on sharing of knowledge and capabilities for mutual environment in algal biofuels development... The the algal biofuels value chain. Indeed. Gallagher et al. Partnerships are defined as cooperative arrangements engaging companies. The type of this industry. pre-revenue. the business strategies of many existing partnership most relevant to the advancement of the algal companies are focused on one or more aspects of biofuels industry is perhaps the research partnership algae. in turn. 2006). academia. leading public-private partnerships not only for large-scale to rapid industry growth and a stable market. 2001. Industry benefits from public-private partnerships from the 1999). in past efforts are discussed in the context of applicability to the algal biofuels challenge. 2002.1 shows the potential benefits of for membership and intellectual property models. analyses of various federal agencies exposure to fundamental science and engineering R&D. academia can be either public or private. Link could. Public-Private Partnerships   109 .1 Benefits of algal biofuels public-private partnerships Public Benefits Shared Benefits Private Benefits Energy Security Innovation Quickens Technolgy Commercialization Long-term Clean Fuel Shared Risk & Industry Growth & Market Stability Capital Efficiency Solution Shared Investment Competitive Edge Climate Change Migration Domestic Energy Supply Breakdown Legal & Jobs Creation Sustainable Industry Regulatory Hurdles Clean Energy & Development Science Leadership Growth Stimulates Labor Pool A In this situation.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels While benefiting both private and public entities from Public-Private Partnerships shared investment toward mutual objectives. the U. This chapter discusses potential models for public-private and government agencies and laboratories in partnerships in general and specifically as related to algal various combinations to pool resources in pursuit biofuels.A 11.. thereby facilitating growth and development infancy. national laboratories and universities) for development of algal biofuels. however. public- private partnerships have the potential to accelerate Since the 1980s.g. including specific studies on the impacts firms. infrastructure projects. collaboration between private entities (e. 11.. Brown et al. including characteristics Exhibit 11. increase the capital efficiency of commercial et al. has increasingly invoked commercialization of algal biofuel technology. but also for research and technology developments of national interest (Stiglitz and Wallsten..g.

110 11. global problems. into a working system to solve a problem. Prize forums can also leverage reward money There are several forums for creating public-private from a variety of different funding sources (state and partnerships: federal government. labor). • The benefits of partnership outweigh the cost Consortia and trade organizations are membership of collaboration. technology scale-up and demonstration. these organizations provide for opportunity to facilitate deeper collaborations. and may compete poorly in this type of award. with the ultimate seminars can be important tools for creating a collaborative solution only as good as existing technology will allow.3 Forums for Public. prizes have been offered by various for the advancement of technology and know-how to organizations to support solving critical. of solicitations are system-oriented.. they are often formed to serve no other purpose. which could both be a benefit have worked together for many years may not generate (new complementary capability) and a challenge (the the new thinking and fresh approaches that could be understanding of how to work together). including the development of biofuels. Through these events. particularly in instances in which the team would not At the highest level. environment. industry would retain its collaborative research to tackle complex problems competitive edge. scientists and engineers can learn of new research. and private investors) into a single competition.2 Components of Successful in a project-level partnership. Government solicitations are also an option to promote regulatory issues. These events are often 11. This may result in the formation of teams of proposers 11. Implicit in the gained through openness toward new partnerships. where no single entity can address the complex research challenge. as common interest. Through their structure. 2008). as well as a platform to share research. Often these types develop and license technology with new partners. However. concept of collaborating on a common basis is the sharing of pre-competitive research results. which could allow In recent years. and demand that the winning team meet or exceed certain success Private Partnerships criteria.4 Partnership Challenges in the point at which new researchers can enter and where the Algal Biofuels Industry new thought or methodology is shared with the peers. By maintaining an active directory. new partnership. and provide publicity • Networking events such as seminars and conferences and marketing toolsets for competitors to attract future • Team-oriented government solicitations investors. while increasing the opportunity to through public-private partnerships. consortia and trade organizations can also be an effective • The partnership should not openly conflict with the vehicle for researchers looking for a new approach or interest of other groups (Micheau.g. or levels beyond the capability of any individual entity. because some awards are based on having solved the problem. conferences. non-profit foundations. successful partnerships have have necessarily come together without a government- been identified to include the following attributes: funded solicitation. these partnerships can • The partners collaborate on the basis of only be expected to last for the life of the project. organizations that may provide an opportunity for • The partners can achieve more through collaboration lasting partnerships.B. Partnerships are facilitated in than they can individually. Public-Private Partnerships   . be proportional to the value of the contribution.players (e.C Prize forums can pull together developed technology 11. Basic research and early stage technology with limited funding Networking events such as workshops. Such solicitations have Public-Private Partnerships the potential to accelerate technology development. such forums may favor mature • Consortia and trade organizations technology in the final stages of development where the • Team-oriented prizes focus can be on assembly into a working system. However. However. Partnerships can bring together parties that have not organizations that promote a closed circle of partners who worked together before. these environments through collaborations among • The benefits received from the partnership should the membership. and potential partners can explore areas of mutual interest. national.

g. events. algal growth and harvesting.org/future-x-prizes/energy-and-environment C http://www. in order to fully realize the potential key technological challenges must be addressed for of the algal biofuels industry. to road-test their technologies. this characteristics.) or an open access repository and collaborate on the end goals (specific intended use. effective way to address technological.5 Modeling Partnerships for • Pre-commercial-scale user facilities that are Technology Development accessible to researchers and developers Of the different forums for public-private partnerships. requirements. Does it seek to grow the industry? laboratory have traditionally not translated well to the • Shared Investment. Is it structured to develop and commercialize new technology? In the biofuels industry.g.org/ 11.xprize. algal oil extraction. These consortia require • Labor force and intellectual talent to draw upon.2. public-private partnerships the algal biofuels to become viable. all of the key attributes for successful partnerships noted earlier. Algal biofuels will likely face similar issues since natural environmental constraints Different consortia models exist and it is possible to could have a significant impact on algal productivity. distributors) across the across the entire algal biofuels value chain.). Public-Private Partnerships   111 . facilities could allow for new technologies to be road- as illustrated in Exhibit 11. This type of partnership would greatly accelerate semiconductors. dewatering pathway. or trade organizations—can be an be the workhorse that generates labor for this new industry. consortia. overcoming the lab-field and information technology. nanotechnology. Does it share investment equitably? field (Willems. and the most difficult to implement. marketing • An open environment to share ideas and technology and public relations specialists. Academia will competitions. How inclusive is the membership and utilization to advance fuel conversion to its industry (or segment thereof)? technologies toward marketable products • Technology Commercialization. and fuel conversion. The exhibit compares tested and scaled before full-scale deployment in the PPP models from five different industry sectors – field.Public-private partnerships—whether they As this industry expands. the established industry sectors represented by most B http://www. develop new algae-based fuels and co-products. Therefore. These PPP models are scaling barrier and the lack of private capital to conduct mentioned only to serve as examples of the four external such applied research. Doing so may help define the boundary problem(s) for focus by a public-private consortium • Share knowledge of algal cultivation and and bring clarity to the composition. biofuels.. it is useful to conceptualize Technology partnerships could be used for following the various models for public-private consortia in terms objectives: of the five attributes of successful partnerships within the context of particular scenarios (e. conversion process. By reducing scaling risks. economic. 11. monitoring of growth operations • Collaborate on the development of technologies Considering the following four external characteristics for biomass harvesting and extraction of can help evaluate consortia models: algal components from the biomass • Share knowledge of fuel requirements • Openness. prize and innovate new cost-cutting measures. These include: are needed to engage field experts (e. real estate developers. it will need labor to run its are formed or sustained through networking operations. etc. several in algal biofuels. A compare some of these existing public-private consortia public-private partnership for pre-commercial-scale user models against these four external characteristics. Because the ecosystem in the algal type of partnership can help incentivize commercial biofuels industry is unique and differs greatly from investment of similar full-scale algal operations. technology development. technologies developed in the • Industry Growth. collaborate on the development of dynamic and expected contributions of the membership. etc.. construction personnel. performance aspects of development of new natural or GMO algal strains the fuel. are needed to ensure that academia develops students capable of addressing the challenges industry faces As discussed in greater detail in this document. • Technology development in algal biology. aviation. collaborative consortia for technology development are • The generation of basic methods and standards.mitcep. value chain to address technical and non-technical needs. government solicitations. lawyers. and academia. Also. Collaborative partnerships. 2009). particularly between industry and public-policy and regulatory challenges. particular algal • Share knowledge of existing algal strains through strain.

it could be helpful to consider these attributes and models. high-risk Agency • Partners with barriers through funding Research industry and • Industry partners to targeted R&D • State funding Centers universities commercialize developed IP • Industry growth • Financial and Biofuels (not a • Public conferences • IP licensed to interested supported through other resources separate legal and workshops parties with an evaluation education from national entity with of commercialization labs • Opportunities for potential • Limited industry employees) collaboration involvement to • Transfer of technology by address issues on publication industry growth 112 11. this industry may find that no specific model will meet all of its needs.models presented. then adopted development • Now funded facilities amongst members • PPP owns created IP and • Develops solely by industry • Public conferences provides non-exclusive. Exhibit 11. Public-Private Partnerships   . However. discuss and debate the merits of each. for an algal biofuels public-private consortium to meet its specific mission successfully. coordinated royalty-free license to industry roadmap to members focus R&D and spur • PPP can also license IP to on economic growth third parties • R&D conducted at Research • Address game. • Government Government Centers or partner facilities changing. and determine how to best adapt / implement these attributes.2 Comparison of Some Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Models TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Collaborate on pre-competitive R&D • Designed selected by membership to increase competitiveness of • Transfer of technology by existing US firms in publication or member- marketplace • Open membership website data transfer • Provides • Cost-shared Non-Profit • Represent • Technology further commercialization by government Corporation industry interests developed to manufacturing network that and industry at Semiconductors (501c6) with • Forums inspiring solutions with external drives economic start-up physical cross collaboration partners.

and transfer focus and of knowledge through commercialization member-only database network • Donor-driven • Research conducted by model • Industry growth university • Industry and supported through University • Software is open source • State funding university partners education of California licensed over 4 years Information • Numerous forums • Limited industry Institute • Other IP is either licensed • University funds Technology Research inspiring cross involvement (not a separate non-exclusively. and members commitment for paid-up license to industry social issues over 3 years members inspire cross collaboration amongst members • Collaborative research amongst consortium • Technology members designed development and to reduce technical. businesses of years employees exclusively to each other • Significant industry royalty-free involvement • Transfer of technology by provides market publication. academic as members agree to cross large established • Industry match separate legal and government license background and firms and small for same number entity with partners newly developed IP non. standardization operational. • Technology • Founding universities physical technical. • No federal amongst committee to with employees royalty basis as needed to funding researchers from address issues on achieve the widest possible universities and industry growth dissemination. academic • Pre-competitive research and national lab • Government selected by all members Non-Profit partners. • Industry gifts collaboration through Advisory legal entity free basis or exclusively. companies 11. and regulatory designed to reduce bottlenecks operational costs Industry • IP licensed exclusively or and increase • Government consortium • Open membership. • Industry growth funding for over 5 • Research conducted by Corporation • Technical through education years national labs and member Nanotechnology (501c6) with workshops. only licensed to member financial • PPP provides non-exclusive. including years Aviation & FAA (not a industry. non-exclusively general aviation funding for over 8 with NASA • Consortium of • Commercialization afforded market. TECHNOLOGY SHARED INDUSTRY FOCUS ENTITY TYPE OPENNESS OF PPP INDUSTRY GROWTH COMMERCIALIZATION INVESTMENT • Open membership • Consortium of industry. royalty. Public-Private Partnerships   113 . facilities business.

Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research. D.A. Endless frontiers.. (2001). Public-private technology partnerships: Promises and pitflass.S. (1996). Scenarios for a clean energy future. Levine. Washington: U. and Wallsten. W. A. Holdren.V. An analysis of public initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships. Energy-technology innovation. 1459-1466. S. Council on Competitiveness. M.References Audretsch. 114 11. Paton. and Koomey J.A. Brown.E. and Sagar. D.A... 193-237. J. Energy Policy. (ed). Short. 31. Willem. R&D Policy for Competitiveness.G. M.. J. 1179-1196.T. Public-Private Partnerships   . Gallagher. In Rosenau.J. D. and Siegel. 31(1). Link. and Scott. M. A. (2001). (2009). Link.S.N.D.. Brown. Energy Policy. The MIT Press. Science.. Research Policy.. J.B. 707-708.S. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies.. (2006). limited resources. Annual Review of Environment and Resources.. Public-private policy partnerships.D. (2000).N. (2002). 29(14). 325(5941). 29(14). The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. K. P. (2002). Research Policy.P. 31. 1197-1207. 145-158. P. Stiglitz. A.

Appendices Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants Walter Adey Smithsonian Institution John Aikens Lybradyn Mark Allen A2be Carbon Capture Gennady Ananyev Princeton Alex Aravanis Sapphire Energy Ed Archuleta El Paso Water Utilities Paul Argyropoulos Environmental Protection Agency Ricardo Arjona Abengoa Bioenergy Virginia Armbrust University of Washington Bob Avant Texas A&M Tom Avedisian U.S. Department of Agriculture Doug Borger Lockheed Martin John Bouterse Envo Smart Sara Boyd BCS.S. Lauder School of Government. Andrew Braff Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jerry Brand University of Texas at Austin Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Michael Briggs University of New Hampshire Jim Bristow Joint Genome Institute Kevin Brown - Malcolm Brown University of Texas at Austin Nathan Brown Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Kent Bryan City of Celina 115 Appendices   . Department of Energy Biomass Program Leslie Bebout NASA Ames Research Center Lucie Bednarova General Motors Amha Belay Earthrise Nutritionals John Benemann Benemann Associates Linda Benjamin Food and Drug Administration Christoph Benning Michigan State Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Department of Energy David Bayless Ohio University Jacques Beaudry-Losique U. Diplomacy Isaac Berzin And Strategy Catalino Blanche U.S. Inc.

Department of Agriculture Paul Falkowski Rutgers University John Ferrell U. Todd French Mississippi State Christian Fritsen Desert Research Institute Matthew Frome Solozyme Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Appendices   116 .William Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Jay Burns Bionavitas Arthur Butcher CPS Energy Thomas Byrne Byrne & Co Martin Carrera BP Matt Caspari Aurora Biofuels Chris Cassidy U. Department of Energy Biomass Program Michel Delafontaine Hawaii Biocrude Gregg Deluga General Electric Global Research Harrison Dillon Solazyme Dan Drell Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Donn Dresselhuys Old Dominion University Bruce Eldridge University of Texas at Austin Tj Evens U.S.C.S.S. Das University of Georgia John Datko Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chris Davies Independence Bioproducts Brian Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mark Decot U.Lincoln Alice Chen Environmental Protection Agency Parag Chitnis National Science Foundation Daniel Cicero National Energy Technology Laboratory Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Coleman Algenol Jim Cook Univenture Doris Cooksey CPS Energy Keith Cooksey Montana State University Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa David Daggett Boeing Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory K. Department of Energy.S. Biomass Program Daniel Fishman BCS. Department of Agriculture Heriberto Cerutti University of Nebraska . Inc.

S. Department of Energy.S. Department of Agriculture Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institute Masahito Hiratake Mitsubishi International Kent Hoekman Desert Research Institute Neil Hoffman U.Warren Gillette Federal Aviation Administration (Office of Environment And Energy) Jim Gillingham Valero Dan Ginosar Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert Glass Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Steven Gluck Dow Chemical Steve Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alison Goss Eng U.S. Golden Field Office Anders Handlos Grauslund Novozymes Zia Haq U. Biomass Program Michael Graves University of Massachusetts Bailey Green Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Greenbaum Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nathanael Greene Natural Resources Defense Council Michael Gregoire U. Department of Agriculture Tom Gross If. Department of Energy. Department of Agriculture Ed Hogan Natural Resources Canada John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center John Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 117 Appendices   .S.S. LLC Arthur Grossman Stanford Guritno “Guri” Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Molly Hames U. Department of Energy. Department of Energy Biomass Program Laurel Harmon UOP Deanna Hatch Organofuels Incorporated Pat Hatcher Old Dominion University David Hazlebeck General Atomics Bob Hebner University of Texas at Austin Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Erik Helm Environmental Protection Agency William Henley Oklahoma State Doug Henston Solix Biofuels Jurg Heuberger County of Imperial Kevin Hicks U.S.S. Biomass Program Suzanne Goss Jacksonville Electric Authority Paul Grabowski U.

Department of Energy Biomass Program Geetha Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Walt Kozumbo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Heidi Kuehnle Kuehnle Agrosystems Peter Lammers New Mexico State University Cynthia Lane American Water Works Association Todd Lane Sandia National Laboratories Mario Larach Kai Bioenergy Corp. Rachel Lattimore Arent Fox LLP Edward Laws University of Hawaii at Monoa Gordon Leblanc Petrosun Joo-Youp Lee University of Cincinnati Paul Lefebvre University of Minnesota James Lester Stratus Consulting Jack Lewnard Gas Technology Institute Casey Lippmeier Martek Kent Lohman Midwest Research Institute Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Appendices   118 . Inc Qiang Hu Arizona State University Neil Huber Army Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Peter Hug Recombinant Innovation. LLC J. Hunter-Cevera University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Mark Huntley University of Hawaii Stephen J. Miller Chevron Chevron Gil Jackson United States Agency for International Development Jacob Jacobson Idaho National Laboratory Robert Jagusch Minnesota Muncipal Utilitees Association Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jeff Jeter Honda Libby Jewett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James “Jim” Sears A2be Carbon Capture Michael Johnson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Glen Kertz Valcent Alex Kinnier Khosla Ventures Douglas Kirkpatrick Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Melissa Klembara U.C.Andy Horne Natural Resources Development Jeff Houff Hydrogeologic.S.

Mayfield Scripps Research Institute Mike Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Paul Panesgrau National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frank Parker Organofuels Incorporated Helen Parker Algaelink.S. N. Department of Energy Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones Livefuels Jerry Morris Innovation/Biodomain .Shell Global Solutions Inc.John Magnuson Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Len Malczynski Sandia National Laboratories Mike Manella ADM Russell Martin Blue Source Anthony Martino Sandia National Laboratories Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Patrick McGinn National Research Council John McGowen Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University Diane McKnight University of Colorado-Boulder Steve Meller Procter & Gamble Omar Mendoza United States Air Force Walter Messier Evolutionary Genomics Blaine Metting Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Greg Mitchell Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Mizroch U. Roberta Parry Environmental Protection Agency 119 Appendices   .V.S. Kenneth Moss Environmental Protection Agency Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Jeff Muhs Utah State University Walter Mulbry U. Department of Agriculture Alyson Myers Kegotank Biofuels Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Nobles University of Texas at Austin Charley O’kelly Blue Marble Energy Lou Ogaard CEHMM Kelly Ogilvie Blue Marble Energy John Ohlrogge Michigan State University Jose Olivares Los Alamos National Laboratory Phil Ovitt Senator Brownback Office George Oyler Johns Hopkins University Stephen P.

Department of Energy. LLC Gerson Santos-Leon Abengoa Bioenergy Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Philippe Schild European Commission Gerald Seeley Old Dominion University/Company Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Appendices   120 . Biomass Program Ron Reinsfelder Shell Global Solutions Bruce Resnick Cargill Curt Rich Van Ness Feldman Mark Riedy Andrews Kurth Kathy Roach MurphyTate.Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratories Leslie Pezzullo U. Biomass Program Schild Philippe European Commission Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maria Piera Abengoa Bioenergy John Pierce Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Daniel Pike AF Research Lab Jennifer Pinkerton LA Department of Water & Power Bradley Plantz University of Nebraska-Lincoln John Plaza John Plaza Robert Polak Phycal Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matt Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Steve Potts EPA Office of Water Peter Pryfogle Idaho National Laboratory Steve Przesmitski National Renewable Energy Laboratory Theras Pugh American Public Power Association Ron Putt Auburn University Nigel Quinn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Kenneth Reardon Colorado State University Hal Reed American Water Valerie Reed U.S. LLC John Robbins Exxonmobil Paul Roessler Synthetic Genomics Roger Ruan University of Minnesota Jim Ryan MOR Supercritical.S. Department of Energy.

Department of Energy. Jean Vandergheynst UC Davis Tom Verry National Biodiesel Board Sanjay Wagle Vantagepoint Venture Kevin Wanttaja Salt River Project Michael Webber The University of Texas at Austin Alan Weber Marc-IV Consulting Donald Weeks University of Nebraska .Lincoln Alan Weimer University of Colorado at Boulder Zhiyou Wen Virginia Tech Norman Whitton Sunrise Ridge Algae 121 Appendices   . Inc. Cai Steger Natural Resources Defense Council Dan Stepan Energy & Environmental Research Center Jake Stewart Organic Fuels Mark Stone Desert Research Institute Belinda Sturm Kansas University Transportation Research Institute Sidhu Sukh University of Dayton Xiaolei Sun Arizona Public Service Sam Tagore U. Biomass Program John Spear Colorado School of Mines Karl Stahlkopf Hawaiian Electric Company. Biomass Program Evonne Tang National Academy of Sciences Jeff Tester Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Thomas South Australia R&D Institute Jonathan Trent NASA Ames Research Center Pat Unkefer Los Alamos James Van Etten University of Nebraska Peter Van Den Dorpel Algaelink.S. Inc. Department of Energy.Pamela Serino Defense Energy Support Center Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Alex Shearer SRI International John Sheehan Sheehanboyce. Evan Smith The Verno Group Seth Snyder Argonne National Laboratory Milton Sommerfeld Arizona State University Glenn Sonntag U.S.V. N. LLC Tanja Shonkwiler Jamestown Ny (Outside Counsel) Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Knut Simonsen DTE Energy Resources.

Department of Energy Biomass Program Chris Yeager Savannah River National Laboratory Ross Youngs Univenture Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Zhenqi Zhu Stevens Institute of Technology Yonathan Zohar University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Appendix 2: Contributors Jim Brainard National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Brennan Arch Ventures Bill Buchan NASA Ames Research Center Mike Cleary National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Cooney University of Hawaii – Manoa Al Darzins National Renewable Energy Laboratory Daniel Fishman BCS. Molly Hames U. Appendices   122 . Department of Energy Golden Field Office Grant Heffelfinger Sandia National Laboratories Mark Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Hogan NASA Ames Research Center Qiang Hu Arizona State University Michael Huesemann Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eric Jarvis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Geoff Klise Sandia National Laboratories Alina Kulikowski-Tan Carbon Capture Corp Pete Lammers New Mexico State University Jared Largen BCS.S. Inc.Elizabeth Willet Mars Symbioscience Bryan Willson Colorado State University Byard Wood Utah State University Christopher Wood Platt River Power Authority David Woodbury Biofuel Producers of America (Bpa Paul Woods Algenol Ben Wu Livefuels Don Wyma National Intelligence Officer For Science And Technology Joyce Yang U. Inc. Maria Ghirardi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stephen Gorin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Gross IF.S. LLC.

Biomass Program Chuck Mueller Sandia National Laboratories Nick Nagle National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Pacheco National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ron Pate Sandia National Laboratory Leslie Pezzullo U. Biomass Program Philip Pienkos National Renewable Energy Laboratory Juergen Polle Brooklyn College Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Ron Putt Auburn University Kathy Roach MurphyTate. Biomass Program 123 Appendices   . Department of Energy.S.S. Department of Energy. Len Malcynski Sandia National Laboratories Tony Martino National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Mayfield Scripps Institution of Oceanography Anelia Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joanne Morello U.Yantao Li Arizona State University Tryg Lundquist California Polytechnic State University Rajita Majumdar BCS.S. Department of Energy. LLC. Guri Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mike Seibert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Joel Serface Kleiner Perkins Chris Shaddix Sandia National Laboratories Blake Simmons Sandia National Laboratories Amy Sun Sandia National Laboratories Joyce Yang U. Inc.

Robert S Weber Sunrise Ridge Algae. Inc. Inc. Mark Segal Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Alexander D. Biodesign Institute. Stanford University Arthur Grossman (Adjunct Professor). Inc Matt Peak Prize Capital María Piera Alberola Abengoa Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines Bruce Resnick Cargill Center for Environmental Biotechnology. School of Life Sciences Marc von Keitz and Steve Heilmann University of Minnesota. Gale PetroAlgae. Dr. Biotechnology Institute David L. Dr. Kostka Florida State University David Lewis The University of Adelaide Margaret McCormick Targeted Growth Lissa Morgenthaler-Jones LiveFuels. Wenbert The Eden Tube Project Norman M. Bruce E. Bob Avant et al Texas AM Halil Berberoglu University of Texas Shulin Chen et al Washington University Barry Cohen National Algae Association Anju Dahiya 1) The University of Vermont . LLC Carnegie Institution for Science (Staff member). Whitton. Rittmann Arizona State University G. Solazyme (Chief of Genetics) Douglas Haughey not listed Joel E. 2) General Systems Research LLC Matthew Frome Solazyme Michael R. Valentin Soloiu Georgia Southern University Lance Stokes ECI Environmental Compliance Jefferson Tester Cornell University Willem Vermaas Arizona State University. Algal Farms Inc. Shenderov BioLogical Technologies. Paul Woods Algenol Xiaohan Yang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tim Zenk Sapphire Energy Appendices   124 .Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap Daniel Angell TPA Inc. Roesijadi Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mary Rosenthal Algal Biomass Organization Richard Sayre and Ursula Goodenough Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Washington University Gerard Seeley Jr.

.

energy.eere.gov . DOE/EE-0332 www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful